Sample records for vivo oxygen-sensing applications

  1. Polymer coating of paramagnetic particulates for in vivo oxygen-sensing applications

    PubMed Central

    Eteshola, Edward; Pandian, Ramasamy P.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2009-01-01

    Crystalline lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) can be used to sense oxygen. To enhance biocompatibility/stability of LiPc, we encapsulated LiPc in Teflon AF (TAF), cellulose acetate (CA), and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) (TAF, previously used to encapsulate LiPc, was a comparator). We identified water-miscible solvents that don’t dissolve LiPc crystals, but are solvents for the polymers, and encapsulated crystals by solvent evaporation. Oxygen sensitivity of films was characterized in vitro and in vivo. Encapsulation did not change LiPc oximetry properties in vitro at anoxic conditions or varying partial pressures of oxygen (pO2). EPR linewidth of encapsulated particles was linear with pO2, responding to pO2 changes quickly and reproducibly for dynamic measurements. Encapsulated LiPc was unaffected by biological oxidoreductants, stable in vivo for four weeks. Oximetry, stability and biocompatibility properties of LiPc films were comparable, but both CA and PVAc films are cheaper, and easier to fabricate and handle than TAF films, making them superior. PMID:19083100

  2. Oxygen Sensing Mesenchymal Progenitors Promote Neo-Vasculogenesis in a Humanized Mouse Model In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Nicole A.; Ortner, Anna; Jacamo, Rodrigo O.; Reinisch, Andreas; Schallmoser, Katharina; Rohban, Rokhsareh; Etchart, Nathalie; Fruehwirth, Margareta; Beham-Schmid, Christine; Andreeff, Michael; Strunk, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Despite insights into the molecular pathways regulating hypoxia-induced gene expression, it is not known which cell types accomplish oxygen sensing during neo-vasculogenesis. We have developed a humanized mouse model of endothelial and mesenchymal progenitor co-transplantation to delineate the cellular compartments responsible for hypoxia response during vasculogenesis. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) accumulated nuclear hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1? earlier and more sensitively than endothelial colony forming progenitor cells (ECFCs) in vitro and in vivo. Hypoxic ECFCs showed reduced function in vitro and underwent apoptosis within 24h in vivo when used without MSPCs. Surprisingly, only in MSPCs did pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of HIF-1? abrogate neo-vasculogenesis. HIF deletion in ECFCs caused no effect. ECFCs could be rescued from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by HIF-competent MSPCs resulting in the formation of patent perfused human vessels. Several angiogenic factors need to act in concert to partially substitute mesenchymal HIF-deficiency. Results demonstrate that ECFCs require HIF-competent vessel wall progenitors to initiate vasculogenesis in vivo and to bypass hypoxia-induced apoptosis. We describe a novel mechanistic role of MSPCs as oxygen sensors promoting vasculogenesis thus underscoring their importance for the development of advanced cellular therapies. PMID:22970226

  3. Solid MRI contrast agents for long-term, quantitative in vivo oxygen sensing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Vincent H.; Vassiliou, Christophoros C.; Imaad, Syed M.; Cima, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Targeted MRI contrast agents have proven useful in research and clinical studies for highlighting specific metabolites and biomarkers [Davies GL, et al. (2013) Chem Commun (Camb) 49(84):9704–9721] but their applicability in serial imaging is limited owing to a changing concentration postinjection. Solid enclosures have previously been used to keep the local concentration of contrast agent constant, but the need to surgically implant these devices limits their use [Daniel K, et al. (2009) Biosens Bioelectron 24(11):3252–3257]. This paper describes a novel class of contrast agent that comprises a responsive material for contrast generation and an injectable polymeric matrix for structural support. Using this principle, we have designed a contrast agent sensitive to oxygen, which is composed of dodecamethylpentasiloxane as the responsive material and polydimethylsiloxane as the matrix material. A rodent inspired-gas model demonstrated that these materials are functionally stable in vivo for at least 1 mo, which represents an order of magnitude improvement over an injection of liquid siloxane [Kodibagkar VD, et al. (2006) Magn Reson Med 55(4):743–748]. We also observed minimal adverse tissue reactions or migration of contrast agents from the initial injection site. This class of contrast agents, thus, represented a new and complementary method to monitor chronic diseases by MRI. PMID:24753603

  4. Solid MRI contrast agents for long-term, quantitative in vivo oxygen sensing

    E-print Network

    Liu, Vincent Hok

    Targeted MRI contrast agents have proven useful in research and clinical studies for highlighting specific metabolites and biomarkers [Davies GL, et al. (2013) Chem Commun (Camb) 49(84):9704–9721] but their applicability ...

  5. Significance of KATP channels, L-type Ca2+ channels and CYP450-4A enzymes in oxygen sensing in mouse cremaster muscle arterioles In vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels), NO, prostaglandins, 20-HETE and L-type Ca2+ channels have all been suggested to be involved in oxygen sensing in skeletal muscle arterioles, but the role of the individual mechanisms remain controversial. We aimed to establish the importance of these mechanisms for oxygen sensing in arterioles in an in vivo model of metabolically active skeletal muscle. For this purpose we utilized the exteriorized cremaster muscle of anesthetized mice, in which the cremaster muscle was exposed to controlled perturbation of tissue PO2. Results Change from “high” oxygen tension (PO2?=?153.4?±?3.4?mmHg) to “low” oxygen tension (PO2?=?13.8?±?1.3?mmHg) dilated cremaster muscle arterioles from 11.0?±?0.4??m to 32.9?±?0.9??m (n?=?28, P?oxygen sensing, 2) KATP channels are permissive for the arteriolar response to oxygen, but are not directly involved in the oxygen sensing mechanism and 3) CYP450-4A mediated 20-HETE production is involved in vasoconstriction to high PO2. PMID:23663730

  6. Intracellular and in vivo oxygen sensing using phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes with a modified acetylacetonato ligand.

    PubMed

    Yoshihara, Toshitada; Hosaka, Masahiro; Terata, Motoki; Ichikawa, Kazuki; Murayama, Saori; Tanaka, Asami; Mori, Masanobu; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Toshiyuki; Tobita, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    Small luminescent molecular probes based on the iridium(III) complex BTP, (btp)2Ir(acac) (btp = benzothienylpyridine, acac = acetylacetone) have been developed for sensing intracellular and in vivo O2. These compounds are BTPSA (containing an anionic carboxyl group), BTPNH2 (containing a cationic amino group), and BTPDM1 (containing a cationic dimethylamino group); all substituents are incorporated into the ancillary acetylacetonato ligand of BTP. Introduction of the cationic dimethylamino group resulted in an almost 20-fold increase in cellular uptake efficiency of BTPDM1 by HeLa cells compared with BTP. The phosphorescence intensity of BTPDM1 internalized in living cells provided a visual representation of the O2 gradient produced by placing a coverslip over cultured monolayer cells. The intracellular O2 levels (pO2) inside and outside the edge of the coverslip could be evaluated by measuring the phosphorescence lifetime of BTPDM1. Furthermore, intravenous administration of 25 nmol BTPDM1 to tumor-bearing mice allowed the tumor region to be visualized by BTPDM1 phosphorescence. The lifetime of BTPDM1 phosphorescence from tumor regions was much longer than that from extratumor regions, thereby demonstrating tumor hypoxia (pO2 = 6.1 mmHg for tumor and 50 mmHg for extratumor epidermal tissue). Tissue distribution studies showed that 2 h after injection of BTPDM1 into a mouse, the highest distribution was in liver and kidney, while after 24 h, BTPDM1 was excreted in the feces. These results demonstrate that BTPDM1 can be used as a small molecular probe for measuring intracellular O2 levels in both cultured cells and specific tissues and organs. PMID:25634116

  7. Oxygen sensing and signaling.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Joost T; Licausi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is an indispensable substrate for many biochemical reactions in plants, including energy metabolism (respiration). Despite its importance, plants lack an active transport mechanism to distribute oxygen to all cells. Therefore, steep oxygen gradients occur within most plant tissues, which can be exacerbated by environmental perturbations that further reduce oxygen availability. Plants possess various responses to cope with spatial and temporal variations in oxygen availability, many of which involve metabolic adaptations to deal with energy crises induced by low oxygen. Responses are induced gradually when oxygen concentrations decrease and are rapidly reversed upon reoxygenation. A direct effect of the oxygen level can be observed in the stability, and thus activity, of various transcription factors that control the expression of hypoxia-induced genes. Additional signaling pathways are activated by the impact of oxygen deficiency on mitochondrial and chloroplast functioning. Here, we describe the molecular components of the oxygen-sensing pathway. PMID:25580837

  8. Oxygen sensing by the carotid body chemoreceptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NANDURI R. PRABHAKAR

    2000-01-01

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R. Oxygen sensing by the carotid body chemore- ceptors. J Appl Physiol 88: 2287-2295, 2000.—Carotid bodies are sensory organs that detect changes in arterial blood oxygen, and the ensuing reflexes are critical for maintaining homeostasis during hypoxemia. During the past decade, tremendous progress has been made toward understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying oxygen sensing at the carotid body.

  9. Recent Progress In Optical Oxygen Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfbeis, Otto S.; Leiner, Marc J. P.

    1988-06-01

    Following a brief review on the history of optical oxygen sensing (which shows that a variety of ideas exists in the literature that awaits the extension to fiber optic sensing schemes), the present state of probing oxygen by optical methods is discussed in terms of new methods and materials for sensor construction. Promising sensing schemes include simultaneous measurement of parameters such as oxygen and carbon dioxide with one fiber, measurement of fluorescence lifetimes and radiative energy transfer efficiency as well as phosphorescence quenching. New longwave-excitable fluorophores have been introduced recently, two-band emit-ting indicators can help to eliminate drift problems, and new methods have been found by which both indicators and enzymes may be entrapped in silicone rubber, which opens the way for the design of new biosensors. In a final chapter, the application of fiber optic oxygen sensors for blood gas measurement and as transducers in biosensors are presented.

  10. A miniature inexpensive, oxygen sensing element

    SciTech Connect

    Arenz, R.W.

    1991-10-07

    An exhaustive study was conducted to determine the feasibility of Nernst-type oxygen sensors based on ceramics containing Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The basic sensor design consisted of a ceramic sensing module sealed into a metal tube. The module accommodated an internal heater and thermocouple. Thermal-expansion-matched metals, adhesives, and seals were researched and developed, consistent with sequential firings during sensor assembly. Significant effort was devoted to heater design/testing and to materials' compatibility with Pt electrodes. A systematic approach was taken to develop all sensor components which led to several design modifications. Prototype sensors were constructed and exhaustively tested. It is concluded that development of Nerst-type oxygen sensors based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} will require much further effort and application of specialized technologies. However, during the course of this 3-year program much progress was reported in the literature on amperometric-type oxygen sensors, and a minor effort was devoted here to this type of sensor based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These studies were made on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ceramic samples in a multilayer-capacitor-type geometry and amperometric-type oxygen sensing was demonstrated at very low temperatures ({approximately} 160{degree}C). A central advantage here is that these types of sensors can be mass-produced very inexpensively ({approximately} 20--50 cents per unit). Research is needed, however, to develop an optimum diffusion-limiting barrier coating. In summary, the original goals of this program were not achieved due to unforeseen problems with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based Nernst sensors. However, a miniature amperometric sensor base on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was demonstrated in this program, and it is now seen that this latter sensor is far superior to the originally proposed Nernst sensor. 6 refs., 24 figs.

  11. Erythropoietin gene regulation depends on heme-dependent oxygen sensing and assembly of interacting transcription factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Eric Huang; Vincent Ho; Zoltan Arany; Dimitri Krainc; Deborah Galson; Drory Tendler; David M Livingston; H Franklin Bunn

    1997-01-01

    Erythropoietin gene regulation depends on heme-dependent oxygen sensing and assembly of interacting transcription factors. Studies on erythropoietin (Epo) gene expression have been useful in investigating the mechanism by which cells and tissues sense hypoxia. Both in vivo and in Hep3B cells, Epo production is induced not only by hypoxia but also by certain transition metals (cobalt and nickel) and by

  12. Biological detection by optical oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Dmitriev, Ruslan I

    2013-11-21

    Recent developments in the area of biological detection by optical sensing of molecular oxygen (O2) are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the quenched-phosphorescence O2 sensing technique. Following a brief introduction to the main principles, materials and formats of sensor technology, the main groups of applications targeted to biological detection using an O2 transducer are described. These groups include: enzymatic assays; analysis of respiration of mammalian and microbial cells, small organisms and plants; food and microbial safety; monitoring of oxygenation in cell cultures, 3D models of live tissue, bioreactors and fluidic chips; ex vivo and in vivo O2 measurements; trace O2 analysis. For these systems, which enable a range of new bioanalytical tasks with different samples and models in a minimally invasive, contact-less manner, with high sensitivity, flexibility and imaging capabilities in 2D and 3D, relevant practical examples are presented and their merits and limitations discussed. An outlook of future scientific and technological developments in the field is also provided. PMID:23775387

  13. Evolution and physiology of neural oxygen sensing

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Kauę M.; Accorsi-Mendonça, Daniela; Moraes, Davi J. A.; Machado, Benedito H.

    2014-01-01

    Major evolutionary trends in animal physiology have been heavily influenced by atmospheric O2 levels. Amongst other important factors, the increase in atmospheric O2 which occurred in the Pre-Cambrian and the development of aerobic respiration beckoned the evolution of animal organ systems that were dedicated to the absorption and transportation of O2, e.g., the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of vertebrates. Global variations of O2 levels in post-Cambrian periods have also been correlated with evolutionary changes in animal physiology, especially cardiorespiratory function. Oxygen transportation systems are, in our view, ultimately controlled by the brain related mechanisms, which senses changes in O2 availability and regulates autonomic and respiratory responses that ensure the survival of the organism in the face of hypoxic challenges. In vertebrates, the major sensorial system for oxygen sensing and responding to hypoxia is the peripheral chemoreflex neuronal pathways, which includes the oxygen chemosensitive glomus cells and several brainstem regions involved in the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system and respiratory control. In this review we discuss the concept that regulating O2 homeostasis was one of the primordial roles of the nervous system. We also review the physiology of the peripheral chemoreflex, focusing on the integrative repercussions of chemoreflex activation and the evolutionary importance of this system, which is essential for the survival of complex organisms such as vertebrates. The contribution of hypoxia and peripheral chemoreflex for the development of diseases associated to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is also discussed in an evolutionary context. PMID:25161625

  14. Dissolved oxygen sensing using organometallic dyes deposited within a microfluidic environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. L. Chen; H. P. Ho; L. Jin; B. W.-K. Chu; M. J. Li; V. W.-W. Yam

    2008-01-01

    This work primarily aims to integrate dissolved oxygen sensing capability with a microfluidic platform containing arrays of micro bio-reactors or bio-activity indicators. The measurement of oxygen concentration is of significance for a variety of bio-related applications such as cell culture and gene expression. Optical oxygen sensors based on luminescence quenching are gaining much interest in light of their low power

  15. Quality assessment of packaged foods by optical oxygen sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; O'Mahony, Fiach C.; Kerry, Joe P.; Ogurtsov, Vladimir I.

    2005-11-01

    A phase-fluorometric oxygen sensor system has been developed, which allows non-destructive measurement of residual oxygen levels in sealed containers such as packaged foods. It operates with disposable solid-state sensors incorporated in each pack, and a portable detector which interrogates with the sensors through a (semi)transparent packaging material. The system has been optimized for packaging applications and validated in small and medium scale trials with different types of food, including MAP hams, cheese, convenience foods, smoked fish, bakery. It has demonstrated high efficiency in monitoring package integrity, oxygen profiles in packs, performance of packaging process and many other research and quality control tasks, allowing control of 100% of packs. The low-cost batch-calibrated sensors have demonstrated reliability, safety, stability including direct contact with food, high efficiency in the low oxygen range. Another system, which also employs the fluorescence-based oxygen sensing approach, provides rapid assessment of microbial contamination (total viable counts) in complex samples such as food homogenates, industrial waste, environmental samples, etc. It uses soluble oxygen-sensitive probes, standard microtitter plates and fluorescence measurements on conventional plate reader to monitor growth of aerobic bacteria in small test samples (e.g. food homogenates) via their oxygen respiration. The assay provides high sample through put, miniaturization, speed, and can serve as alternative to the established methods such as agar plate colony counts and turbidimetry.

  16. Morphology impact on oxygen sensing ability of Ru(dpp)3Cl2 containing biocompatible polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Susan Y; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2015-08-01

    Especially for tissue engineering applications, the diffusion of oxygen is a critical factor affecting spatial distribution and migration of cells. The cellular oxygen demand also fluctuates depending on tissue type and growth phase. Sensors that determine dissolved oxygen levels under biological conditions provide critical metabolic information about the growing cells as well as the state of the tissue culture within the tissue scaffold. This work focused on the effect of the scaffold morphology on the oxygen sensing response time. It was found that electrospun scaffolds had a faster oxygen-sensing response time than their bulk film counterparts. Tris-(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium (II) dichloride doped electrospun fiber mats of polycaprolactone (PCL) were found to be the most responsive to the presence of oxygen, followed by polyethylene (PEO) glycol mats. Systems containing poly vinyl alcohol were found to be the least responsive. This would suggest that, out of all the polymers tested, PCL and PEO are the most suitable biomaterials for oxygen-sensing applications. PMID:26042716

  17. In Vivo Applications of Fiberoptic Chemical Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amos Gottlieb; Skip Divers; Henry K. Hui

    \\u000a As stated at the beginning of this volume, the term “biosensor” refers to sensors that use biomolecules in the molecular recognition\\u000a or transduction processes. Although there have been many proposals to use fiberoptic biosensors in vivo, almost all the work\\u000a to date has been in vitro. In the more general class of fiberoptic chemical sensors, in vivo applications have progressed

  18. Interaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen Sensing under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bo; Teng, Huajian; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Li, Jing; Wang, Lina; Li, Hongzhu

    2015-01-01

    Based on the discovery of endogenous H2S production, many in depth studies show this gasotransmitter with a variety of physiological and pathological functions. Three enzymes, cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS), cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MST), are involved in enzymatic production of H2S. Emerging evidence has elucidated an important protective role of H2S in hypoxic conditions in many mammalian systems. However, the mechanisms by which H2S senses and responses to hypoxia are largely elusive. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) function as key regulators of oxygen sensing, activating target genes expression under hypoxia. Recent studies have shown that exogenous H2S regulates HIF action in different patterns. The activation of carotid bodies is a sensitive and prompt response to hypoxia, rapidly enhancing general O2 supply. H2S has been identified as an excitatory mediator of hypoxic sensing in the carotid bodies. This paper presents a brief review of the roles of these two pathways which contribute to hypoxic sensing of H2S.

  19. Spatiotemporal oxygen sensing using dual emissive boron dye-polylactide nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Daniel T; Tanes, Michael L; Das, Anusuya; Lin, Yong; Keane, Nicole A; Neal, Rebekah A; Ogle, Molly E; Brayman, Kenneth L; Fraser, Cassandra L; Botchwey, Edward A

    2014-12-23

    Oxygenation in tissue scaffolds continues to be a limiting factor in regenerative medicine despite efforts to induce neovascularization or to use oxygen-generating materials. Unfortunately, many established methods to measure oxygen concentration, such as using electrodes, require mechanical disturbance of the tissue structure. To address the need for scaffold-based oxygen concentration monitoring, a single-component, self-referenced oxygen sensor was made into nanofibers. Electrospinning process parameters were tuned to produce a biomaterial scaffold with specific morphological features. The ratio of an oxygen sensitive phosphorescence signal to an oxygen insensitive fluorescence signal was calculated at each image pixel to determine an oxygenation value. A single component boron dye-polymer conjugate was chosen for additional investigation due to improved resistance to degradation in aqueous media compared to a boron dye polymer blend. Standardization curves show that in fully supplemented media, the fibers are responsive to dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 15 ppm. Spatial (millimeters) and temporal (minutes) ratiometric gradients were observed in vitro radiating outward from the center of a dense adherent cell grouping on scaffolds. Sensor activation in ischemia and cell transplant models in vivo show oxygenation decreases on the scale of minutes. The nanofiber construct offers a robust approach to biomaterial scaffold oxygen sensing. PMID:25426706

  20. Oxygen Sensing Coordinates Photomorphogenesis to Facilitate Seedling Survival

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Mohamad; Berckhan, Sophie; Rooney, Daniel J.; Gibbs, Daniel J.; Vicente Conde, Jorge; Sousa Correia, Cristina; Bassel, George W.; Marín-de la Rosa, Nora; León, José; Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A.; Holdsworth, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Successful emergence from the soil is essential for plant establishment in natural and farmed systems. It has been assumed that the absence of light in the soil is the preeminent signal perceived during early seedling development, leading to a distinct morphogenic plan (skotomorphogenesis) [1], characterized by traits providing an adaptive advantage until emergence and photomorphogenesis. These traits include suppressed chlorophyll synthesis, promotion of hypocotyl elongation, and formation of a closed apical hook that protects the stem cell niche from damage [2, 3]. However, absence of light by itself is not a sufficient environmental signal for early seedling development [4, 5]. Reduced oxygen levels (hypoxia) can occur in water-logged soils [6–8]. We therefore hypothesized that below-ground hypoxia may be an important, but thus far undiscovered, ecological component regulating seedling development. Here, we show that survival and establishment of seedlings following darkness depend on their ability to sense hypoxia, through enhanced stability of group VII Ethylene Response Factor (ERFVII) transcription factors. Hypoxia is perceived as a positive environmental component in diverse taxa of flowering plants, promoting maintenance of skotomorphogenic traits. Hypoxia greatly enhances survival once light is perceived, while oxygen is necessary for the subsequent effective completion of photomorphogenesis. Together with light perception, oxygen sensing therefore allows an integrated response to the complex and changing physical microenvironment encountered during early seedling growth. We propose that plants monitor the soil’s gaseous environment after germination, using hypoxia as a key external cue to protect the stem cell niche, thus ensuring successful rapid establishment upon emergence above ground. PMID:25981794

  1. Oxygen sensing coordinates photomorphogenesis to facilitate seedling survival.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Mohamad; Berckhan, Sophie; Rooney, Daniel J; Gibbs, Daniel J; Vicente Conde, Jorge; Sousa Correia, Cristina; Bassel, George W; Marín-de la Rosa, Nora; León, José; Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A; Holdsworth, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Successful emergence from the soil is essential for plant establishment in natural and farmed systems. It has been assumed that the absence of light in the soil is the preeminent signal perceived during early seedling development, leading to a distinct morphogenic plan (skotomorphogenesis) [1], characterized by traits providing an adaptive advantage until emergence and photomorphogenesis. These traits include suppressed chlorophyll synthesis, promotion of hypocotyl elongation, and formation of a closed apical hook that protects the stem cell niche from damage [2, 3]. However, absence of light by itself is not a sufficient environmental signal for early seedling development [4, 5]. Reduced oxygen levels (hypoxia) can occur in water-logged soils [6-8]. We therefore hypothesized that below-ground hypoxia may be an important, but thus far undiscovered, ecological component regulating seedling development. Here, we show that survival and establishment of seedlings following darkness depend on their ability to sense hypoxia, through enhanced stability of group VII Ethylene Response Factor (ERFVII) transcription factors. Hypoxia is perceived as a positive environmental component in diverse taxa of flowering plants, promoting maintenance of skotomorphogenic traits. Hypoxia greatly enhances survival once light is perceived, while oxygen is necessary for the subsequent effective completion of photomorphogenesis. Together with light perception, oxygen sensing therefore allows an integrated response to the complex and changing physical microenvironment encountered during early seedling growth. We propose that plants monitor the soil's gaseous environment after germination, using hypoxia as a key external cue to protect the stem cell niche, thus ensuring successful rapid establishment upon emergence above ground. PMID:25981794

  2. Spatially monitoring oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems using optical oxygen sensing beads

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Acosta, Miguel A.; Leach, Jennie B.; Carrier, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    Capability of measuring and monitoring local oxygen concentration at the single cell level (tens of microns scale) is often desirable but difficult to achieve in cell culture. In this study, biocompatible oxygen sensing beads were prepared and tested for their potential for real-time monitoring and mapping of local oxygen concentration in 3D micro-patterned cell culture systems. Each oxygen sensing bead is composed of a silica core loaded with both an oxygen sensitive Ru(Ph2phen3)Cl2 dye and oxygen insensitive Nile blue reference dye, and a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shell rendering biocompatibility. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were cultivated on a series of PDMS and type I collagen based substrates patterned with micro-well arrays for 3 or 7 days, and then brought into contact with oxygen sensing beads. Using an image analysis algorithm to convert florescence intensity of beads to partial oxygen pressure in the culture system, tens of microns-size oxygen sensing beads enabled the spatial measurement of local oxygen concentration in the microfabricated system. Results generally indicated lower oxygen level inside wells than on top of wells, and local oxygen level dependence on structural features of cell culture surfaces. Interestingly, chemical composition of cell culture substrates also appeared to affect oxygen level, with type-I collagen based cell culture systems having lower oxygen concentration compared to PDMS based cell culture systems. In general, results suggest that oxygen sensing beads can be utilized to achieve real-time and local monitoring of micro-environment oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems. PMID:23443975

  3. Oxygen Sensing for Industrial Safety — Evolution and New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The requirement for the detection of oxygen in industrial safety applications has historically been met by electrochemical technologies based on the consumption of metal anodes. Products using this approach have been technically and commercially successful for more than three decades. However, a combination of new requirements is driving the development of alternative approaches offering fresh opportunities and challenges. This paper reviews some key aspects in the evolution of consumable anode products and highlights recent developments in alternative technologies aimed at meeting current and anticipated future needs in this important application. PMID:24681673

  4. Hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF), HIF hydroxylases and oxygen sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Webb; Mathew L. Coleman; Christopher W. Pugh

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines the need for a homeostatic response to alterations in cellular oxygenation. It describes work on erythropoietin\\u000a control that led to the discovery of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF-1) and the parallel recognition that\\u000a this system was responsive to a widespread oxygen-sensing mechanism. Subsequently, multiple HIF isoforms have been shown to\\u000a have overlapping but non-redundant functions, controlling expression

  5. SPCE-based sensors: Ultrafast oxygen sensing using surface plasmon-coupled emission from ruthenium probes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek S. Smith; Yordan Kostov; Govind Rao

    2007-01-01

    The first surface plasmon-coupled emission (SPCE) based oxygen sensor using two ruthenium complexes is presented. SPCE is a highly localized phenomenon occurring when excited fluorophores are within 200nm of thin, continuous metallic films. The high sensitivity of SPCE allowed for oxygen sensing to be performed from an ultra-thin layer of ruthenium dye. The fluorophore was electrostatically attached to a protective

  6. Ancient Atmospheres and the Evolution of Oxygen Sensing Via the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor in Metazoans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cormac Taylor (UCD Conway Institute)

    2010-10-01

    Metazoan diversification occurred during a time when atmospheric oxygen levels fluctuated between 15 and 30%. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a primary regulator of the adaptive transcriptional response to hypoxia. Although the HIF pathway is highly conserved, its complexity increased during periods when atmospheric oxygen concentrations were increasing. Thus atmospheric oxygen levels may have provided a selection force on the development of cellular oxygen-sensing pathways.

  7. Tryptophan-to-dye fluorescence energy transfer applied to oxygen sensing by using type-3 copper proteins.

    PubMed

    Zauner, Gerhild; Lonardi, Emanuela; Bubacco, Luigi; Aartsma, Thijs J; Canters, Gerard W; Tepper, Armand W J W

    2007-01-01

    A fluorescence-based system to sense oxygen in solution is described. The method exploits the sensitivity of the endogenous fluorescence of type-3 copper proteins towards the presence of oxygen by translating the near-UV emission of the protein to label fluorescence in the visible range through a FRET mechanism. The main protein in this study, a recombinant tyrosinase from the soil bacterium Streptomyces antibioticus, has been covalently labeled with a variety of fluorescent dye molecules with emission maxima spanning the whole visible wavelength range. In all cases, the emission of the label varied considerably between O2-bound and O2-free protein with a contrast exceeding that of the Trp emission for some labels. It is shown that different constructs may be simultaneously observed using a single excitation wavelength. Next to the described application in oxygen sensing, the method may be applicable to any protein showing variations in tryptophan fluorescence, for example as a function of ligand binding or catalysis. PMID:17577913

  8. Handheld multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for in vivo applications.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo M; Liu, Boang; Malik, Bilal H; Jabbour, Joey M; Maitland, Kristen C; Wright, John; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Jo, Javier A

    2014-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in the application of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for medical diagnosis. Central to the clinical translation of FLIM technology is the development of compact and high-speed clinically compatible systems. We present a handheld probe design consisting of a small maneuverable box fitted with a rigid endoscope, capable of continuous lifetime imaging at multiple emission bands simultaneously. The system was characterized using standard fluorescent dyes. The performance was then further demonstrated by imaging a hamster cheek pouch in vivo, and oral mucosa tissue both ex vivo and in vivo, all using safe and permissible exposure levels. Such a design can greatly facilitate the evaluation of FLIM for oral cancer imaging in vivo. PMID:24688824

  9. Handheld multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for in vivo applications

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo M.; Liu, Boang; Malik, Bilal H.; Jabbour, Joey M.; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wright, John; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Jo, Javier A.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the application of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for medical diagnosis. Central to the clinical translation of FLIM technology is the development of compact and high-speed clinically compatible systems. We present a handheld probe design consisting of a small maneuverable box fitted with a rigid endoscope, capable of continuous lifetime imaging at multiple emission bands simultaneously. The system was characterized using standard fluorescent dyes. The performance was then further demonstrated by imaging a hamster cheek pouch in vivo, and oral mucosa tissue both ex vivo and in vivo, all using safe and permissible exposure levels. Such a design can greatly facilitate the evaluation of FLIM for oral cancer imaging in vivo. PMID:24688824

  10. The human carotid body transcriptome with focus on oxygen sensing and inflammation – a comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mkrtchian, Souren; Kĺhlin, Jessica; Ebberyd, Anette; Gonzalez, Constancio; Sanchez, Diego; Balbir, Alexander; Kostuk, Eric W; Shirahata, Machiko; Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson; Eriksson, Lars I

    2012-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. While the expression of CB specific genes is relatively well studied in animals, corresponding data for the human CB are missing. In this study we used five surgically removed human CBs to characterize the CB transcriptome with microarray and PCR analyses, and compared the results with mice data. In silico approaches demonstrated a unique gene expression profile of the human and mouse CB transcriptomes and an unexpected upregulation of both human and mouse CB genes involved in the inflammatory response compared to brain and adrenal gland data. Human CBs express most of the genes previously proposed to be involved in oxygen sensing and signalling based on animal studies, including NOX2, AMPK, CSE and oxygen sensitive K+ channels. In the TASK subfamily of K+ channels, TASK-1 is expressed in human CBs, while TASK-3 and TASK-5 are absent, although we demonstrated both TASK-1 and TASK-3 in one of the mouse reference strains. Maxi-K was expressed exclusively as the spliced variant ZERO in the human CB. In summary, the human CB transcriptome shares important features with the mouse CB, but also differs significantly in the expression of a number of CB chemosensory genes. This study provides key information for future functional investigations on the human carotid body. PMID:22615433

  11. From spin-labeled proteins to in vivo EPR applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence J. Berliner

    2010-01-01

    This is a historical overview of the advent of applications of spin labeling to biological systems and the subsequent developments\\u000a from the perspective of a scientist who was working as a Ph.D. student when the technique was conceived and was fortunate\\u000a enough to participate in its development. In addition, the historical development of in vivo applications of EPR on animals

  12. Application of in vivo laser scanning microscope in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, Juergen; Richter, H.; Otberg, N.; Lawrenz, F.; Blume-Peytavi, U.; Sterry, W.

    2003-10-01

    The state of the art of in-vivo and in-vitro penetration measurements of topically applied substances is described. Only optical techniques represent online measuring methods based on the absorption or scattering properties of the topically applied substances. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) has become a promising method for investigations in dermatology and skin physiology, after it was possible to analyze the skin surface on any body side in-vivo. In the present paper the application of a dermatological laser scanning microscope for penetration and distribution measurements of topically applied substances is described. The intercellular and follicular penetration pathways were studied.

  13. Nuclear-cytoplasmatic shuttling of proteins in control of cellular oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Depping, Reinhard; Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Kosyna, Friederike Katharina

    2015-06-01

    In order to pass through the nuclear pore complex, proteins larger than ?40 kDa require specific nuclear transport receptors. Defects in nuclear-cytoplasmatic transport affect fundamental processes such as development, inflammation and oxygen sensing. The transcriptional response to O2 deficiency is controlled by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). These are heterodimeric transcription factors of each ?100-120 kDa proteins, consisting of one out of three different O2-labile ? subunits (primarily HIF-1?) and a more constitutive 1? subunit. In the presence of O2, the ? subunits are hydroxylated by specific prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain proteins (PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3) and an asparaginyl hydroxylase (factor inhibiting HIF-1, FIH-1). The prolyl hydroxylation causes recognition by von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL), ubiquitination, and proteasomal degradation. The activity of the oxygen sensing machinery depends on dynamic intracellular trafficking. Nuclear import of HIF-1? and HIF-1? is mainly mediated by importins ? and ? (?/?). HIF-1? can shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm, while HIF-1? is permanently inside the nucleus. pVHL is localized to both compartments. Nuclear import of PHD1 relies on a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and uses the classical import pathway involving importin ?/? receptors. PHD2 shows an atypical NLS, and its nuclear import does not occur via the classical pathway. PHD2-mediated hydroxylation of HIF-1? occurs predominantly in the cell nucleus. Nuclear export of PHD2 involves a nuclear export signal (NES) in the N-terminus and depends on the export receptor chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1). Nuclear import of PHD3 is mediated by importin ?/? receptors and depends on a non-classical NLS. Specific modification of the nuclear translocation of the three PHD isoforms could provide a promising strategy for the development of new therapeutic substances to tackle major diseases. PMID:25809665

  14. Applications of nuclear technologies for in-vivo elemental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Wielopolski, L.

    1982-01-01

    Measurement facilities developed, to date, include a unique whole-body-counter, (WBC); a total-body neutron-activation facility (TBNAA); and a partial-body activation facility (PBNAA). A variation of the prompt-gamma neutron-activation technique for measuring total-body nitrogen was developed to study body composition of cancer patients and the effect of nutritional regimens on the composition. These new techniques provide data in numerous clinical studies not previously amenable to investigation. The development and perfection of these techniques provide unique applications of radiation and radioisotopes to the early diagnosis of certain diseases and the evaluation of therapeutic programs. The PBNAA technique has been developed and calibrated for in-vivo measurement of metals. Development has gone forward on prompt-gamma neutron activation for the measurement of cadmium, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for measurement of iron. Other techniques are being investigated for in-vivo measurement of metals such as silicon and beryllium.

  15. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José L; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Efficient production of appropriate oxygen carriers for transfusions (blood substitutes or artificial blood) has been pursued for many decades, and to date several strategies have been used, from synthetic polymers to cell-free hemoglobin carriers. The recent advances in the field of metabolic engineering also allowed the generation of different genetically modified organisms for the production of recombinant human hemoglobin. Several studies have showed very promising results using the bacterium Escherichia coli as a production platform, reporting hemoglobin titers above 5% of the total cell protein content. However, there are still certain limitations regarding the protein stability and functionality of the recombinant hemoglobin produced in bacterial systems. In order to overcome these limitations, yeast systems have been proposed as the eukaryal alternative. We recently reported the generation of a set of plasmids to produce functional human hemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with final titers of active hemoglobin exceeding 4% of the total cell protein. In this study, we propose a strategy for further engineering S. cerevisiae by altering the oxygen sensing pathway by deleting the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein. PMID:25082441

  16. Cellular Oxygen Sensing: Crystal Structure of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase (PHD2)

    SciTech Connect

    McDonough,M.; Li, V.; Flashman, E.; Chowdhury, R.; Mohr, C.; Lienard, B.; Zondlo, J.; Oldham, N.; Clifton, I.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Cellular and physiological responses to changes in dioxygen levels in metazoans are mediated via the posttranslational oxidation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Hydroxylation of conserved prolyl residues in the HIF-{alpha} subunit, catalyzed by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), signals for its proteasomal degradation. The requirement of the PHDs for dioxygen links changes in dioxygen levels with the transcriptional regulation of the gene array that enables the cellular response to chronic hypoxia; the PHDs thus act as an oxygen-sensing component of the HIF system, and their inhibition mimics the hypoxic response. We describe crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human PHD2, an important prolyl-4-hydroxylase in the human hypoxic response in normal cells, in complex with Fe(II) and an inhibitor to 1.7 Angstroms resolution. PHD2 crystallizes as a homotrimer and contains a double-stranded {beta}-helix core fold common to the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependant dioxygenase family, the residues of which are well conserved in the three human PHD enzymes (PHD 1-3). The structure provides insights into the hypoxic response, helps to rationalize a clinically observed mutation leading to familial erythrocytosis, and will aid in the design of PHD selective inhibitors for the treatment of anemia and ischemic disease.

  17. Reversed oxygen sensing using colloidal quantum wells towards highly emissive photoresponsive varnishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzon, Monica; Christodoulou, Sotirios; Vaccaro, Gianfranco; Pedrini, Jacopo; Meinardi, Francesco; Moreels, Iwan; Brovelli, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    Colloidal quantum wells combine the advantages of size-tunable electronic properties with vast reactive surfaces that could allow one to realize highly emissive luminescent-sensing varnishes capable of detecting chemical agents through their reversible emission response, with great potential impact on life sciences, environmental monitoring, defence and aerospace engineering. Here we combine spectroelectrochemical measurements and spectroscopic studies in a controlled atmosphere to demonstrate the ‘reversed oxygen-sensing’ capability of CdSe colloidal quantum wells, that is, the exposure to oxygen reversibly increases their luminescence efficiency. Spectroelectrochemical experiments allow us to directly relate the sensing response to the occupancy of surface states. Magneto-optical measurements demonstrate that, under vacuum, heterostructured CdSe/CdS colloidal quantum wells stabilize in their negative trion state. The high starting emission efficiency provides a possible means to enhance the oxygen sensitivity by partially de-passivating the particle surfaces, thereby enhancing the density of unsaturated sites with a minimal cost in term of luminescence losses.

  18. Cellular oxygen sensing: Crystal structure of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2)

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Michael A.; Li, Vivian; Flashman, Emily; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Mohr, Christopher; Liénard, Benoît M. R.; Zondlo, James; Oldham, Neil J.; Clifton, Ian J.; Lewis, Jeffrey; McNeill, Luke A.; Kurzeja, Robert J. M.; Hewitson, Kirsty S.; Yang, Evelyn; Jordan, Steven; Syed, Rashid S.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    Cellular and physiological responses to changes in dioxygen levels in metazoans are mediated via the posttranslational oxidation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Hydroxylation of conserved prolyl residues in the HIF-? subunit, catalyzed by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), signals for its proteasomal degradation. The requirement of the PHDs for dioxygen links changes in dioxygen levels with the transcriptional regulation of the gene array that enables the cellular response to chronic hypoxia; the PHDs thus act as an oxygen-sensing component of the HIF system, and their inhibition mimics the hypoxic response. We describe crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human PHD2, an important prolyl-4-hydroxylase in the human hypoxic response in normal cells, in complex with Fe(II) and an inhibitor to 1.7 Ĺ resolution. PHD2 crystallizes as a homotrimer and contains a double-stranded ?-helix core fold common to the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependant dioxygenase family, the residues of which are well conserved in the three human PHD enzymes (PHD 1–3). The structure provides insights into the hypoxic response, helps to rationalize a clinically observed mutation leading to familial erythrocytosis, and will aid in the design of PHD selective inhibitors for the treatment of anemia and ischemic disease. PMID:16782814

  19. Reversed oxygen sensing using colloidal quantum wells towards highly emissive photoresponsive varnishes

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzon, Monica; Christodoulou, Sotirios; Vaccaro, Gianfranco; Pedrini, Jacopo; Meinardi, Francesco; Moreels, Iwan; Brovelli, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal quantum wells combine the advantages of size-tunable electronic properties with vast reactive surfaces that could allow one to realize highly emissive luminescent-sensing varnishes capable of detecting chemical agents through their reversible emission response, with great potential impact on life sciences, environmental monitoring, defence and aerospace engineering. Here we combine spectroelectrochemical measurements and spectroscopic studies in a controlled atmosphere to demonstrate the ‘reversed oxygen-sensing’ capability of CdSe colloidal quantum wells, that is, the exposure to oxygen reversibly increases their luminescence efficiency. Spectroelectrochemical experiments allow us to directly relate the sensing response to the occupancy of surface states. Magneto-optical measurements demonstrate that, under vacuum, heterostructured CdSe/CdS colloidal quantum wells stabilize in their negative trion state. The high starting emission efficiency provides a possible means to enhance the oxygen sensitivity by partially de-passivating the particle surfaces, thereby enhancing the density of unsaturated sites with a minimal cost in term of luminescence losses. PMID:25910499

  20. In vivo EPR spectroscopy: biomedical and potential diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Simon K; Thomas, Matthew P; Smith, Sam; Madhani, Melanie; Rogers, Stephen C; James, Philip E

    2004-01-01

    EPR spectroscopic techniques have been developed for the measurement of oxygen and nitric oxide in vivo. Specifically, the methods for in vivo measurement of these molecules has been applied to the study of septic shock, utilising an experimental murine model developed in our laboratory. Oxygen was measured as pO2 by the particlulate probes Gloxy and LiPc, which were surgically implanted at specific sites in tissues, and the soluble probe Trityl, which was administered intravenously. Nitric oxide was measured as the NO-Fe-(DETC)2 complex after administration of Fe2+ and DETC. LPS was seen to significantly decrease liver oxygen measured across the lobule and at the sinusoids by the Gloxy probe; there was a corresponding increase in nitric oxide both in the liver and systemically. The nitric oxide most likely originated from increased iNOS enzyme in the liver as demonstrated by Western blotting and the localisation of nitric oxide to the liver was confirmed with EPR imaging. LPS also caused a decrease in cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation, the rate of which was found to be dependent on the blood oxygenation. The development and applications of these in vivo EPR techniques for biomedical research and diagnostics is discussed. PMID:14992402

  1. Microwave applicator for hyperthermia treatment on in vivo melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Togni, Paolo; Vrba, Jan; Vannucci, Luca

    2010-03-01

    In this article, we evaluated a planar microwave applicator for in vivo superficial hyperthermia treatments on small tumors in the mouse mimicking treatments for human neoplasms. The design of the applicator, was challenged by the small dimensions of the tumors and unwanted diffusion of heating in the tumor-bearing animals. The required solution was to limit the penetration of microwaves in the depth of the tissue maintaining the full efficacy of hyperthermia. The study was firstly performed by computer simulations of SAR distribution inside a flat homogeneous phantom, considering various thicknesses of the integrated water bolus. Simulations, validated by the measurements, were also used to evaluate the impedance matching. Further tests were performed on homogeneous agar phantom to simulate the temperature distribution in the biological tissue and to preliminary assess the possible modality and schedule of microwave hyperthermia delivery. The in vivo experiments showed the evidence of direct microwave-induced heating and damage of the melanoma tissue in a range of penetration coherent both with computer simulations and phantom studies. The described approach appears perspective for designing limited-microwave-delivery applicators tailored for treatments of human superficial tumors and pre-tumoral lesions. PMID:20033789

  2. A series of phosphorescent Cu(I) complexes and their oxygen sensing performance in SBA-15 silica matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-yong; Xiao, Han-ning; Deng, Ai-ping

    2014-07-01

    A series of [Cu(N-N)(PPh3)2]BF4 complexes were synthesized and characterized in this paper, where N-N and PPh3 suggest a diamine ligand and triphenylphosphane, respectively. Their structures were revealed by single crystal analysis and density functional theory calculation. The photophysical feature comparison between those Cu(I) complexes revealed the correlation between emission performance and diamine ligand structure. In addition, it was found that the emissive states were vulnerable to O2 attack, making them potential oxygen sensing probes. They were thus doped into a silica molecular sieve SBA-15 to systematically explore their oxygen sensing performance. High sensitivity and good photostability were observed from the composite sensing systems.

  3. In vivo Coherent Raman Imaging for Neuroscience Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cote, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    The use of coherent Raman imaging is described for applications in neuroscience. Myelin imaging of the spinal cord can be performed with Raman imaging through the use of the vibration in carbon-hydrogen bonds, dominant in lipids. First, we demonstrate in vivo histomorphometry in live animal for characterization of myelin-related nervous system pathologies. This is used to characterize spinal cord health during multiple sclerosis. Second, Raman spectroscopy of tissue is discussed. We discuss the challenges that live animal imaging brings, together with important aspects of coherent Raman imaging in tissue.

  4. Oxygen sensing characteristics of limiting current-type sensors with microstructural and structural variations in diffusion barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Heun Lee; Hoin Kim; Byung Ki Kim

    1996-01-01

    Several compositional mixtures of Al2O3 (mean diameter = 1.0 ?m)-YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia, mean diameter = 0.05 ?m) porous layers were used to study the oxygen sensing characteristics and mechanisms of the limiting current-type sensors with various microstructures of the diffusion barriers. The pore size, the porosity, the limiting current, and the degree of the normal diffusion increased with Al2O3

  5. Quantum Dots in an Amphiphilic Polyethyleneimine Derivative Platform for Cellular Labeling, Targeting, Gene Delivery, and Ratiometric Oxygen Sensing.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhyuck; Lee, Junhwa; Kwag, Jungheon; Baek, Yeonggyeong; Kim, Bumju; Yoon, Calvin Jinse; Bok, Seoyeon; Cho, So-Hye; Kim, Ki Hean; Ahn, G-One; Kim, Sungjee

    2015-06-23

    Amphiphilic polyethyleneimine derivatives (amPEIs) were synthesized and used to encapsulate dozens of quantum dots (QDs). The QD-amPEI composite was ?100 nm in hydrodynamic diameter and had the slightly positive outer surface that suited well for cellular internalization. The QD-amPEI showed very efficient QD cellular labeling with the labeled cell fluorescence intensity more than 10 times higher than conventional techniques such as Lipofectamine-assisted QD delivery. QD-amPEI was optimal for maximal intracellular QD delivery by the large QD payload and the rapid endocytosis kinetics. QD-amPEI platform technology was demonstrated for gene delivery, cell-specific labeling, and ratiometric oxygen sensing. Our QD-amPEI platform has two partitions: positive outer surface and hydrophobic inside pocket. The outer positive surface was further exploited for gene delivery and targeting. Co-delivery of QDs and GFP silencing RNAs was successfully demonstrated by assembling siRNAs to the outer surfaces, which showed the transfection efficiency an order of magnitude higher than conventional gene transfections. Hyaluronic acids were tethered onto the QD-amPEI for cell-specific targeted labeling which showed the specific-to-nonspecific signal ratio over 100. The inside hydrophobic compartment was further applied for cohosting oxygen sensing phosphorescence Ru dyes along with QDs. The QD-Ru-amPEI oxygen probe showed accurate and reversible oxygen sensing capability by the ratiometric photoluminescence signals, which was successfully applied to cellular and spheroid models. PMID:26057729

  6. Influence of Intrinsic Hole Concentration on Oxygen Sensing Properties of Hot-Spot Based Eu{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Yaacob, S. A.; Yahya, A. K.; Hassan, M.; Hasham, R. [School of Physics and Materials Sciences, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-07-07

    We report oxygen sensing behavior of (Eu{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x})Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}(x = 0.0,0.1) ceramics rods with formation of oxygen sensitive hot-spot upon application of external voltage. Oxygen response behavior of the x = 0.1 rod showed constant current plateau with increasing voltage and displayed better stability and reproducibility compared to x = 0 rod probably due to increased intrinsic hole concentration and reduction in activation energy as a result of Ca{sup 2+} substitution..

  7. An oxygen-sensing diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase couple for c-di-GMP control.

    PubMed

    Tuckerman, Jason R; Gonzalez, Gonzalo; Sousa, Eduardo H S; Wan, Xuehua; Saito, Jennifer A; Alam, Maqsudul; Gilles-Gonzalez, Marie-Alda

    2009-10-20

    A commonly observed coupling of sensory domains to GGDEF-class diguanylate cyclases and EAL-class phosphodiesterases has long suggested that c-di-GMP synthesizing and degrading enzymes sense environmental signals. Nevertheless, relatively few signal ligands have been identified for these sensors, and even fewer instances of in vitro switching by ligand have been demonstrated. Here we describe an Escherichia coli two-gene operon, dosCP, for control of c-di-GMP by oxygen. In this operon, the gene encoding the oxygen-sensing c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase Ec Dos (here renamed Ec DosP) follows and is translationally coupled to a gene encoding a diguanylate cyclase, here designated DosC. We present the first characterizations of DosC and a detailed study of the ligand-dose response of DosP. Our results show that DosC is a globin-coupled sensor with an apolar but accessible heme pocket that binds oxygen with a K(d) of 20 microM. The response of DosP activation to increasing oxygen concentration is a complex function of its ligand saturation such that over 80% of the activation occurs in solutions that exceed 30% of air saturation (oxygen >75 microM). Finally, we find that DosP and DosC associate into a functional complex. We conclude that the dosCP operon encodes two oxygen sensors that cooperate in the controlled production and removal of c-di-GMP. PMID:19764732

  8. Clinical applicability of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, M; Lange-Asschenfeldt, S; Gonzalez, S

    2012-04-01

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that offers the evaluation of the skin at real time with cellular resolution. In the past decade, multiple studies have been performed showing the clinical applicability of RCM for the diagnosis of melanoma and non melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). In this regard, RCM has moved from a research tool to a valuable diagnostic technique being applied in daily clinical practice. In this regard, RCM aids in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of various skin diseases and may also be used for selection of the biopsy site. Furthermore, RCM allows monitoring of a skin lesion over time without tissue alteration and thus represents a valuable method for treatment monitoring. PMID:22481580

  9. Click-assembled, oxygen sensing nanoconjugates for depth-resolved, near-infrared imaging in a 3D cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Alexander J.; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Klein, Oliver J.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is an important factor that contributes to the development of drug-resistant cancer, yet few non-perturbative tools exist for studying oxygen in tissue. While progress has been made in the development of chemical probes for optical oxygen mapping, penetration into poorly perfused or avascular tumor regions remains problematic. Here we report a Click-Assembled Oxygen Sensing (CAOS) nanoconjugate and demonstrate its properties in an in vitro 3D spheroid cancer model. Our synthesis relies on sequential click-based ligation of poly(amidoamine)-like subunits for rapid assembly. Using near-infrared confocal phosphorescence microscopy, we demonstrate the ability of CAOS nanoconjugates to penetrate hundreds of microns into spheroids within hours and show their sensitivity to oxygen changes throughout the nodule. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates a modular approach that is readily extensible to a wide variety of oxygen and cellular sensors for depth-resolved imaging in tissue and tissue models. PMID:24590700

  10. Flexible, micron-scaled superoxide sensor for in vivo applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebekah C. K. Wilson; Dao Thanh Phuong; Edward Chainani; Alexander Scheeline

    2011-01-01

    Superoxide radical plays an important role in cell signaling. However, certain events can result in a large increase in superoxide concentration which has been linked to, among other conditions, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Consequently, in vivo detection of superoxide is of great interest. Previously, due to brittleness, instability, or size, superoxide sensors have been limited in their ability for

  11. Application of in vivo laser scanning microscope in dermatology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juergen Lademann; H. Richter; N. Otberg; F. Lawrenz; U. Blume-Peytavi; W. Sterry

    2003-01-01

    The state of the art of in-vivo and in-vitro penetration measurements of topically applied substances is described. Only optical techniques represent online measuring methods based on the absorption or scattering properties of the topically applied substances. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) has become a promising method for investigations in dermatology and skin physiology, after it was possible to analyze the skin

  12. Transesophageal ultrasound applicator for sector-based thermal ablation: First in vivo experiments

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Transesophageal ultrasound applicator for sector-based thermal ablation: First in vivo experiments@lyon.inserm.fr Running title: Transesophageal plane transducer 1 #12;Transesophageal ultrasound applicator for sector that High Intensity Ultrasound (HIU) can induce rapid, complete and well-defined coagulation necrosis

  13. Full-field OCT: ex vivo and in vivo biological imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieve, Katharine; Dubois, Arnaud; Moneron, Gael; Guyot, Elvire; Boccara, Albert C.

    2005-04-01

    We present results of studies in embryology and ophthalmology performed using our ultrahigh-resolution full-field OCT system. We also discuss recent developments to our ultrashort acquisition time full-field optical coherence tomography system designed to allow in vivo biological imaging. Preliminary results of high-speed imaging in biological samples are presented. The core of the experimental setup is the Linnik interferometer, illuminated by a white light source. En face tomographic images are obtained in real-time without scanning by computing the difference of two phase-opposed interferometric images recorded by high-resolution CCD cameras. An isotropic spatial resolution of ~1 ?m is achieved thanks to the short source coherence length and the use of high numerical aperture microscope objectives. A detection sensitivity of ~90 dB is obtained by means of image averaging and pixel binning. In ophthalmology, reconstructed xz images from rat ocular tissue are presented, where cellular-level structures in the retina are revealed, demonstrating the unprecedented resolution of our instrument. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the mouse embryo allowing the study of the establishment of the anterior-posterior axis are shown. Finally we present the first results of embryonic imaging using the new rapid acquisition full-field OCT system, which offers an acquisition time of 10 ?s per frame.

  14. Algal photoreceptors: in vivo functions and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Kianianmomeni, Arash; Hallmann, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Many algae, particularly microalgae, possess a sophisticated light-sensing system including photoreceptors and light-modulated signaling pathways to sense environmental information and secure the survival in a rapidly changing environment. Over the last couple of years, the multifaceted world of algal photobiology has enriched our understanding of the light absorption mechanisms and in vivo function of photoreceptors. Moreover, specific light-sensitive modules have already paved the way for the development of optogenetic tools to generate light switches for precise and spatial control of signaling pathways in individual cells and even in complex biological systems. PMID:24081482

  15. A Telemedicine Application to Schedule Temperature in an In Vivo Sensor Network for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Rossi; Lee, Seok-Geun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Wireless communication has played a significant role in modern healthcare systems. However, the death toll from chronic diseases, such as cancer, continues to increase. Hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy is a promising strategy for cancer treatment, and temperature control is critical for the success of this intervention. In vivo sensors are an emerging technology in healthcare. Thermal awareness has also received attention in in vivo sensor research. In this context, we have been motivated to use in vivo sensors to regulate the temperature changes in cancer cells during combined treatment. Limitations in existing in vivo thermal-aware routing algorithms motivated us to use the in vivo “lightweight rendezvous routing” approach. However, smartphone-driven telemedicine applications are proliferating to provide remote healthcare and collaborative consultation, required in combined therapies. In this context, we have proposed a telemedicine application where a smartphone not only regulates temperature scheduling in in vivo sensors, but also communicates with local or remote clinicians to maintain collaborative efforts for combined therapies against cancer. PMID:23234425

  16. Biocompatible PEGylated gold nanorods as colored contrast agents for targeted in vivo cancer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopwitthaya, Atcha; Yong, Ken-Tye; Hu, Rui; Roy, Indrajit; Ding, Hong; Vathy, Lisa A.; Bergey, Earl J.; Prasad, Paras N.

    2010-08-01

    In this contribution, we report the use of a PEGylated gold nanorods formulation as a colored dye for tumor labeling in vivo. We have demonstrated that the nanorod-targeted tumor site can be easily differentiated from the background tissues by the 'naked eye' without the need of sophisticated imaging instruments. In addition to tumor labeling, we have also performed in vivo toxicity and biodistribution studies of PEGylated gold nanorods in vivo by using BALB/c mice as the model. In vivo toxicity studies indicated no mortality or adverse effects or weight changes in BALB/c mice treated with PEGylated gold nanorods. This finding will provide useful guidelines in the future development of diagnostic probes for cancer diagnosis, optically guided tumor surgery, and lymph node mapping applications.

  17. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III

    2004-07-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Alkali salts of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} were synthesized and heated to 280 C for one hour in air. Optical measurements of the thermally treated material confirm the potential of the salts as lumophores in high temperature fiber optic sensors. In addition sol-gel films containing Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} were dip coated on quartz substrates and heated at 200 C for one hour. Conditions were developed for successfully immobilizing monomeric complexes that are compatible with sol-gel processing.

  18. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D. J. Osborn; Po Zhang

    2006-09-30

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Our approach towards immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the far end of an optical fiber is to embed the cluster in a thermally cured sol-gel matrix particle. Due to the improved mechanical properties of this approach high temperature sensor measurements were performed up to 100 C. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  19. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn; Po Zhang

    2006-06-30

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Our approach towards immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the far end of an optical fiber is to embed the cluster in a thermally cured sol-gel matrix particle. This particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties, as compared to previous approaches. The sensor was characterized in 2-21% gas phase oxygen at 40, 70 and 100 C. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  20. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D. J. Osborn; Po Zhang

    2006-09-30

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications has been developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. We report on a fiber optic technique for detection of gas phase oxygen up to 100 C based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the luminescence from molybdenum chloride clusters, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}. The inorganic sensing film is a composite of sol-gel particles embedded in a thin, oxygen permeable sol-gel binder. The particles are comprised of thermally stable, luminescent K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} clusters dispersed in a fully equilibrated sol-gel matrix. From 40 to 100 C, the fiber sensor switches {approx}6x in intensity in response to alternating pulses of <0.001% O2 and 21% O{sub 2} between two well defined levels with a response time of 10 s. The sensor signal is a few nW for an input pump power of 250 {micro}W. The normalized sensor signal is linear with molar oxygen concentration and fits the theoretical Stern-Volmer relationship. Although the sensitivity decreases with temperature, sensitivity at 100 C is 160 [O{sub 2}]{sup -1}. These parameters are well suited for in-situ, real-time monitoring of oxygen for industrial process control applications.

  1. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2005-04-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. One of the critical materials issues is to demonstrate that the luminescent cluster immobilized in the sol-gel porous support can withstand high temperature. At the same time the sol-gel matrix must have a high permeability to oxygen. Using a potassium salt of the molybdenum clusters, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, we have established the conditions necessary for deposition of optical quality sol-gel films. From spectroscopic measurements of the film we have shown that the cluster luminescence is stable following heat cycling of 54 hours at 200 C. Quenching of a factor of 1.5X between pure nitrogen and 21% oxygen was observed from in-situ measurements of films heated directly at 200 C. An automated system for characterizing fiber optic oxygen sensors up to 220 C with a temporal resolution better than 10 s is under construction. We estimate a signal of 6 x 10{sup 8} photons/s after complete quenching in 21% oxygen. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  2. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2006-05-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we described a particle-in-binder approach to immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the tips of optical fibers. Compared to previous methods, the particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties. The response of the sensor to oxygen at 40, 70 and 100 C was measured in 2-21% gas phase oxygen. The normalized sensor signal is linear with molar oxygen concentration and fits the theoretical Stern-Volmer relationship. Although the sensitivity decreases with temperature, at 100 C the sensitivity is 160 [O{sub 2}]{sup -1}. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  3. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2005-07-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor is being developed that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Two critical materials issues are the cluster's ability to withstand high temperatures when immobilized in a porous the sol-gel support, and whether after heating to high temperatures, the sol-gel matrix maintains a high and constant permeability to oxygen to support rapid quenching of luminescence. We used a composite materials approach to prepare stable sensing layers on optical fibers. We dispersed 60 w/w% of a pre-cured sol-gel composite containing the potassium salt of molybdenum clusters (K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}) into a sol-gel binder solution, and established the conditions necessary for deposition of sol-gel films on optical fibers and planar substrates. The fiber sensor has an output signal of 5 nW when pumped with an inexpensive commercial 365 nm ultraviolet light emitting diode (LED). Quenching of the sensor signal by oxygen was observed up to a gas temperature of 175 C with no degradation of the oxygen permeability of the composite after high temperature cycling. On planar substrates the cluster containing composite responds within <1 second to a gas exchange from nitrogen to oxygen, indicating the feasibility of real-time oxygen detection.

  4. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III

    2004-04-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. The luminescence of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} immobilized in a sol-gel matrix was measured as a function of heater temperature up to 200 C, in an inert environment. While the luminescence decreased with temperature, the integrated intensity at 200 C should be sufficient to enable detection of the luminescence in a fiber geometry. Previously we found that aging Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} at temperatures above 250 C converts the canary yellow Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} to a non-luminescent gray solid. Optical and thermal aging experiments show that the alkali metal salts of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} have higher thermal stabilities and remain luminescent after aging at 280 C.

  5. Endothelialized biomaterials for tissue engineering applications in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Omar F.; Sefton, Michael V.

    2011-01-01

    Rebuilding tissues involves the creation of a vasculature to supply nutrients and this in turn means that the endothelial cells (EC) of the resulting endothelium must be a quiescent, non- thrombogenic blood contacting surface. Such EC are deployed on biomaterials that are composed of natural materials such as extracellular matrix proteins or of synthetic polymers in the form of vascular grafts or tissue-engineered constructs. Because EC function is influenced by their origin, biomaterial surface chemistry and hemodynamics, these issues must be considered to optimize implant performance. This article reviews the recent in vivo use of endothelialized biomaterials and discusses the fundamental issues that must be considered when engineering functional vasculature. PMID:21549438

  6. Clinical applications of in vivo neutron-activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress.

  7. In-vivo neutron activation analysis: principles and clinical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress. It seems likely that by the end of this century there will have been significant progress with this research tool, and exciting insights obtained into the nature and dynamics of human body composition.

  8. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, M. E.; Richter, H.; Zhu, Y. J.; Meinke, M. C.; Knorr, F.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Koenig, K.; Lademann, J.

    2014-07-01

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted.

  9. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2005-10-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we immobilized the potassium salt of a molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}M{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, in a sol-gel matrix and showed that the luminescence is stable after 54 hours at 200 C, but the quenching ratios were low and the films delaminated after thermal cycling due to densification of the matrix. Three new approaches to solve decreased quenching over time and delamination of films off fiber tips were investigated. In the first approach K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} embedded in cured sol-gel particles were incorporated into a TEOS based sol-gel. These gave enhanced quenching (6x), but delaminated. Our second approach was to use a commercial cyanoacrylate glue to immobilize the particles onto the tip of an optical fiber. This gave better adhesion and good quenching initially, but eventually the glue degraded upon heating. Our third approach was to use a 55% OtMOS/ TEOS sol-gel binder. Films based on this new sol-gel binder show high quenching ({approx}6x) and superior mechanical stability even after thermal cycling. Sensor measurements on an optical fiber containing K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} embedded in cured sol-gel particles were obtained from 100 to 25 C. The signal intensity in nitrogen was stable at 2.8 {+-} 0.2 nW, and the quenching ratio (ratio of signal in N{sub 2} vs. 21 % O{sub 2}) varied from 4.4 to 6.9X. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  10. Stimuli-responsive photoacoustic nanoswitch for in vivo sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kenneth K; Shakiba, Mojdeh; Huynh, Elizabeth; Weersink, Robert A; Roxin, Áron; Wilson, Brian C; Zheng, Gang

    2014-08-26

    Photoacoustic imaging provides high-resolution images at depths beyond the optical diffusion limit. To broaden its utility, there is need for molecular sensors capable of detecting environmental stimuli through alterations in photoacoustic signal. Photosynthetic organisms have evolved ingenious strategies to optimize light absorption through nanoscale ordered dye aggregation. Here, we use this concept to synthesize a stimuli-responsive nanoswitch with a large optical absorbance and sensing capabilities. Ordered dye aggregation between light-harvesting porphyrins was achieved through intercalation within thermoresponsive nanovesicles. This causes an absorbance red-shift of 74 nm and a 2.7-fold increase in absorptivity of the Qy-band, with concomitant changes in its photoacoustic spectrum. This spectral feature can be reversibly switched by exceeding a temperature threshold. Using this thermochromic property, we noninvasively determined a localized temperature change in vivo, relevant for monitoring thermal therapies of solid tumors. Similar strategies may be applied alongside photoacoustic imaging, to detect other stimuli such as pH and enzymatic activity. PMID:25046406

  11. Optogenetic tools for in vivo applications in neonatal mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Qin, Nan; Diao, Yupu; Guan, Yangtai; Fan, Lu; Crair, Michael C.; Zhang, Jiayi

    2012-10-01

    Spontaneous neural activities exist early in development and their spatiotemporal patterns play important roles in the development of sensory maps such as maps of retinotopy in the visual system. We summarized different optogenetic tools, including transgenic mouse lines, viral-mediated transfection and electroporation methods to enable the expression of light-gated channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) before the onset of vision. Patch-clamp and extracellular recording experiments verified that activities of ChR2-expressing cells were precisely manipulated by the patterns of optical stimuli. In chronic stimulation experiments, light-emitting diodes controlled the activity patterns of ChR2-expressing RGCs in vivo. Changes in the retinotopic map in Superior Colliculus (SC) were examined by quantifying the relative sizes of fluorescently labeled target zones. Our results revealed that various optogenetic and optical tools can manipulate retinal activities with precise temporal patterns. These techniques can be readily used in studying the development of the central nervous system of neonatal rodents.

  12. Histotripsy for Pediatric Cardiac Applications: In Vivo Neonatal Pig Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ryan M.; Owens, Gabe; Ensing, Gregory; Ludomirsky, Achiau; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the in vivo feasibility of using histotripsy to non-invasively create a flow channel between the ventricles by generating a perforation of the ventricular septum, clinically referred to as a ventricular septum defect (VSD). The overall goal is to develop a non-invasive procedure to aid in the treatment of neonatal patients with complex congenital heart diseases such as Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS). Histotripsy is a therapeutic ultrasound technique that produces mechanical fractionation of soft tissue through controlled cavitation. The study was conducted in a live and intact neonatal pig model. The ventricular septum in the neonatal pig heart was treated with histotripsy delivered by a spherically focused 1 MHz transducer positioned outside the chest wall. Histotripsy treatment was applied using 5-cycle ultrasound pulses at 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency with 12-18 MPa peak negative pressure. The treatment was guided and monitored with ultrasound imaging. In all nine subjects treated, a bubble cloud was generated on the ventricular septum using histotripsy, and visualized with ultrasound imaging. Within 20 seconds to 4 minutes following the initiation of a bubble cloud, a VSD was created in all nine pigs and confirmed by the detection of blood flow through the ventricular septum with color Doppler ultrasound. Gross morphology and histology on all hearts showed a demarcated perforation in the ventricular septum. This study shows that a VSD can be created in an intact neonatal animal using extracorporeal histotripsy under real-time ultrasound guidance.

  13. Deep tissue fluorescence imaging and in vivo biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosignani, Viera; Dvornikov, Alexander; Aguilar, Jose S.; Stringari, Chiara; Edwards, Robert; Mantulin, William W.; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-11-01

    We describe a novel technical approach with enhanced fluorescence detection capabilities in two-photon microscopy that achieves deep tissue imaging, while maintaining micron resolution. Compared to conventional two-photon microscopy, greater imaging depth is achieved by more efficient harvesting of fluorescence photons propagating in multiple-scattering media. The system maintains the conventional two-photon microscopy scheme for excitation. However, for fluorescence collection the detection system harvests fluorescence photons directly from a wide area of the turbid sample. The detection scheme relies on a wide area detector, minimal optical components and an emission path bathed in a refractive-index-matching fluid that minimizes emission photon losses. This detection scheme proved to be very efficient, allowing us to obtain high resolution images at depths up to 3 mm. This technique was applied to in vivo imaging of the murine small intestine (SI) and colon. The challenge is to image normal and diseased tissue in the whole live animal, while maintaining high resolution imaging at millimeter depth. In Lgr5-GFP mice, we have been successful in imaging Lgr5-eGFP positive stem cells, present in SI and colon crypt bases.

  14. In vivo confocal microscopy in dermatology: from research to clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Martina; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Susanne

    2013-06-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) represents an emerging technique for the noninvasive histomorphological analysis of skin in vivo and has shown its applicability for dermatological research as well as its value as an adjunct tool in the clinical management of skin cancer patients. Herein, we aim to give an overview on the current clinical indications for CLSM in dermatology and also highlight the diverse applications of CLSM in dermatological research.

  15. Application of Optical Traps In Vivo Steven P. Gross

    E-print Network

    Gross, Steven

    , University of California, Irvine, Irvine CA 92706 email: sgross@uci.edu Table of Contents: Application of a number of parameters: the size and shape of the object, the difference between the index of refraction properties of single molecules such as Titin7 , or molecular motors like Kinesin8,9 . Most

  16. Applications of the direct photon absorption technique for measuring bone mineral content in vivo. Determination of body composition in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The bone mineral content, BMC, determined by monoenergetic photon absorption technique, of 29 different locations on the long bones and vertebral columns of 24 skeletons was measured. Compressive tests were made on bone from these locations in which the maximum load and maximum stress were measured. Also the ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity and energy absorbed to failure were determined for compact bone from the femoral diaphysis and cancellous bone from the eighth through eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Correlations and predictive relationships between these parameters were examined to investigate the applicability of using the BMC at sites normally measured in vivo, i.e. radius and ulna in estimating the BMC and/or strength of the spine or femoral neck. It was found that the BMC at sites on the same bone were highly correlated r = 0.95 or better; the BMC at sites on different bones were also highly interrelated, r = 0.85. The BMC at various sites on the long bones could be estimated to between 10 and 15 per cent from the BMC of sites on the radius or ulna.

  17. Time-Resolved Microdialysis for In Vivo Neurochemical Measurements and Other Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Kristin N.; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2008-07-01

    Monitoring changes in chemical concentrations over time in complex environments is typically performed using sensors and spectroscopic techniques. Another approach is to couple sampling methods, such as microdialysis, with chromatographic, electrophoretic, or enzymatic assays. Recent advances of such coupling have enabled improvements in temporal resolution, multianalyte capability, and automation. In a sampling and analysis method, the temporal resolution is set by the mass sensitivity of the analytical method, analysis time, and zone dispersion during sampling. Coupling methods with high speed and mass sensitivity to microdialysis sampling help to reduce some of these contributions to yield methods with temporal resolution of seconds. These advances have been primarily used in monitoring neurotransmitters in vivo. This review covers the problems associated with chemical monitoring in the brain, recent advances in using microdialysis for time-resolved in vivo measurements, sample applications, and other potential applications of the technology such as determining reaction kinetics and process monitoring.

  18. A New Crosslinkable Oxygen Sensor Covalently Bonded into Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-CO-Polyacrylamide Thin Film for Dissolved Oxygen Sensing.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yanqing; Shumway, Bradley R; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-03-23

    A new oxygen sensor, compound 2, was synthesized through a chemical modification of a popularly used oxygen sensor of platinum(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin (PtTFPP). The new sensor compound 2 possesses four crosslinkable methacrylate functional moieties, enabling it to be polymerized and crosslinked with other monomers for polymer sensing film (also called membrane) preparation. Using this characteristic, compound 2 was covalently bonded to hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-polyacrylamide (referred to as PHEMA to simplify) and hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) films. To better understand the advantages and disadvantages of chemical crosslinking approaches and the influence of polymer matrices on sensing performance, PtTFPP was physically incorporated into the same PHEMA and PS matrices to compare. Response to dissolved oxygen (DO), leaching of the sensor molecules from their matrices, photostability of the sensors, and response time to DO changes were studied. It was concluded that the chemical crosslinking of the sensor compound 2 in polymer matrices: (i) alleviated the leaching problem of sensor molecules which usually occurred in the physically doped sensing systems and (ii) significantly improved sensors' photostability. The PHEMA matrix was demonstrated to be more suitable for oxygen sensing than PS, because for the same sensor molecule, the oxygen sensitivity in PHEMA film was higher than that in PS and response time to DO change in the PHEMA film was faster than that in PS. It was the first time oxygen sensing films were successfully prepared using biocompatible hydrophilic PHEMA as a matrix, which does not allow leaching of the sensor molecules from the polymer matrix, has a faster response to DO changes than that of PS, and does not present cytotoxicity to human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549). It is expected that the new sensor compound 2 and its similar compounds with chemically crosslinking characteristics can be widely applied to generate many interesting oxygen sensing materials for studying biological phenomena. PMID:20352057

  19. A New Crosslinkable Oxygen Sensor Covalently Bonded into Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-CO-Polyacrylamide Thin Film for Dissolved Oxygen Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yanqing; Shumway, Bradley R.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2010-01-01

    A new oxygen sensor, compound 2, was synthesized through a chemical modification of a popularly used oxygen sensor of platinum(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin (PtTFPP). The new sensor compound 2 possesses four crosslinkable methacrylate functional moieties, enabling it to be polymerized and crosslinked with other monomers for polymer sensing film (also called membrane) preparation. Using this characteristic, compound 2 was covalently bonded to hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-polyacrylamide (referred to as PHEMA to simplify) and hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) films. To better understand the advantages and disadvantages of chemical crosslinking approaches and the influence of polymer matrices on sensing performance, PtTFPP was physically incorporated into the same PHEMA and PS matrices to compare. Response to dissolved oxygen (DO), leaching of the sensor molecules from their matrices, photostability of the sensors, and response time to DO changes were studied. It was concluded that the chemical crosslinking of the sensor compound 2 in polymer matrices: (i) alleviated the leaching problem of sensor molecules which usually occurred in the physically doped sensing systems and (ii) significantly improved sensors’ photostability. The PHEMA matrix was demonstrated to be more suitable for oxygen sensing than PS, because for the same sensor molecule, the oxygen sensitivity in PHEMA film was higher than that in PS and response time to DO change in the PHEMA film was faster than that in PS. It was the first time oxygen sensing films were successfully prepared using biocompatible hydrophilic PHEMA as a matrix, which does not allow leaching of the sensor molecules from the polymer matrix, has a faster response to DO changes than that of PS, and does not present cytotoxicity to human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549). It is expected that the new sensor compound 2 and its similar compounds with chemically crosslinking characteristics can be widely applied to generate many interesting oxygen sensing materials for studying biological phenomena. PMID:20352057

  20. Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Optical brain imaging has seen 30 years of intense development, and has grown into a rich and diverse field. In-vivo imaging using light provides unprecedented sensitivity to functional changes through intrinsic contrast, and is rapidly exploiting the growing availability of exogenous optical contrast agents. Light can be used to image microscopic structure and function in vivo in exposed animal brain, while also allowing noninvasive imaging of hemodynamics and metabolism in a clinical setting. This work presents an overview of the wide range of approaches currently being applied to in-vivo optical brain imaging, from animal to man. Techniques include multispectral optical imaging, voltage sensitive dye imaging and speckle-flow imaging of exposed cortex, in-vivo two-photon microscopy of the living brain, and the broad range of noninvasive topography and tomography approaches to near-infrared imaging of the human brain. The basic principles of each technique are described, followed by examples of current applications to cutting-edge neuroscience research. In summary, it is shown that optical brain imaging continues to grow and evolve, embracing new technologies and advancing to address ever more complex and important neuroscience questions. PMID:17994863

  1. Techniques and applications of in vivo diffusion imaging of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Raya, José G

    2015-06-01

    Early in the process of osteoarthritis (OA) the composition (water, proteoglycan [PG], and collagen) and structure of articular cartilage is altered leading to changes in its mechanical properties. A technique that can assess the composition and structure of the cartilage in vivo can provide insight in the mechanical integrity of articular cartilage and become a powerful tool for the early diagnosis of OA. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been proposed as a biomarker for cartilage composition and structure. DTI is sensitive to the PG content through the mean diffusivity and to the collagen architecture through the fractional anisotropy. However, the acquisition of DTI of articular cartilage in vivo is challenging due to the short T2 of articular cartilage (?40 ms at 3 Tesla) and the high resolution needed (0.5-0.7 mm in plane) to depict the cartilage anatomy. We describe the pulse sequences used for in vivo DTI of articular cartilage and discus general strategies for protocol optimization. We provide a comprehensive review of measurements of DTI of articular cartilage from ex vivo validation experiments to its recent clinical applications. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015;41:1487-1504. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25865215

  2. Techniques and applications of in vivo diffusion imaging of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Raya, José G

    2015-06-01

    Early in the process of osteoarthritis (OA) the composition (water, proteoglycan [PG], and collagen) and structure of articular cartilage is altered leading to changes in its mechanical properties. A technique that can assess the composition and structure of the cartilage in vivo can provide insight in the mechanical integrity of articular cartilage and become a powerful tool for the early diagnosis of OA. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been proposed as a biomarker for cartilage composition and structure. DTI is sensitive to the PG content through the mean diffusivity and to the collagen architecture through the fractional anisotropy. However, the acquisition of DTI of articular cartilage in vivo is challenging due to the short T2 of articular cartilage (?40 ms at 3 Tesla) and the high resolution needed (0.5-0.7 mm in plane) to depict the cartilage anatomy. We describe the pulse sequences used for in vivo DTI of articular cartilage and discus general strategies for protocol optimization. We provide a comprehensive review of measurements of DTI of articular cartilage from ex vivo validation experiments to its recent clinical applications. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015;41:1487-1504. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25989137

  3. Application of in vivo ESR spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences: Evaluation of in vivo inhibitory mechanism of antigastric lesion drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kasazaki; K. Yasukawa; H. Sano; K. Yamada; H. Utsumi

    2003-01-01

    In order to analyze free radical reactions in living stomach, we developed a noninvasive measurement by an in vivo electron\\u000a spin resonance (ESR) and spin probe technique and applied it to mucosal injury. NH4OH-induced gastric lesions were prepared in rats. A nitroxyl probe was administered intragastrically or intravenously, and\\u000a then in vivo ESR spectra of the gastric region were obtained

  4. Phosphorescent nanoparticles for quantitative measurements of oxygen profiles in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Nak Won; Verbridge, Scott S.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Chen, Jin; Kim, Ju-Young; Schmehl, Russel; Farnum, Cornelia E.; Zipfel, Warren R.; Fischbach, Claudia; Stroock, Abraham D.

    2012-01-01

    We present the development and characterization of nanoparticles loaded with a custom phosphor; we exploit these nanoparticles to perform quantitative measurements of the concentration of oxygen within three-dimensional (3-D) tissue cultures in vitro and blood vessels in vivo. We synthesized a customized ruthenium (Ru)-phosphor and incorporated it into polymeric nanoparticles via self-assembly. We demonstrate that the encapsulated phosphor is non-toxic with and without illumination. We evaluated two distinct modes of employing the phosphorescent nanoparticles for the measurement of concentrations of oxygen: 1) in vitro, in a 3-D microfluidic tumor model via ratiometric measurements of intensity with an oxygen-insensitive fluorophore as a reference, and 2) in vivo, in mouse vasculature using measurements of phosphorescence lifetime. With both methods, we demonstrated micrometer-scale resolution and absolute calibration to the dissolved oxygen concentration. Based on the ease and customizability of the synthesis of the nanoparticles and the flexibility of their application, these oxygen-sensing polymeric nanoparticles will find a natural home in a range of biological applications, benefiting studies of physiological as well as pathological processes in which oxygen availability and concentration play a critical role. PMID:22240511

  5. Development and Application of Optical Spectroscopies for In Vivo Cancer Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian C.

    2000-06-01

    Several complementary optical spectroscopies are under development for non-invasive tissue diagnostics, based on diffuse reflectance, fluorescence or Raman scattering. These techniques yield information on the surface or subsurface tissue microstructure and/or biochemical composition. For many clinical applications, minimally-invasive measurements can be obtained using fiberoptic-based instrumentation. This will be illustrated for the particular case of endoscopic detection of early cancer. In addition, for fluorescence, real-time imaging is possible and can be used either for cancer detection or to guide surgery. Significant progress has been made, using detailed microscopy of tissue samples ex vivo, in understanding the biological changes in tissue which can be exploited by non-invasive methods in vivo. However, significant challenges remain, both in further developing these biophysical techniques and in the design and construction of realistic clinical devices and systems.

  6. In vivo evaluation of drug delivery after ultrasound application: A new use for the photoacoustic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barja, P. R.; Acosta-Avalos, D.; Rompe, P. C. B.; Dos Anjos, F. H.; Marciano, F. R.; da Silva, M. D.

    2005-06-01

    Ultrasound application is a therapeutical resource widely employed in physiotherapy. One of its applications is the phonophoresis, a technique in which the ultrasound radiation is utilized to deliver drugs through the skin to soft tissues. The proposal of our study was to employ the Photoacoustic Technique to evaluate the efficacy of such treatment, analyzing if phonophoresis could enhance drug delivery through skin when compared to the more traditional method of manual massage. The configuration of the system employed was such that it was possible to perform in vivo measurements, which is a pre-requisite for this kind of study. The changes observed in the photoacoustic signal amplitude after each form of drug application were attributed to changes in the thermal effusivity of the system, due to penetration of the drug. The technique was able to detect differences in drug delivery between the specified physiotherapy treatments, indicating that phonophoresis enhances drug absorption by tissue.

  7. Fabricated micro-nano devices for in vivo and in vitro biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Barkam, Swetha; Saraf, Shashank; Seal, Sudipta

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the innovative use of microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMSs) in biomedical applications has opened wide opportunities for precise and accurate human diagnostics and therapeutics. The introduction of nanotechnology in biomedical applications has facilitated the exact control and regulation of biological environments. This ability is derived from the small size of the devices and their multifunctional capabilities to operate at specific sites for selected durations of time. Researchers have developed wide varieties of unique and multifunctional MEMS/NEMS devices with micro and nano features for biomedical applications (BioMEMS/NEMS) using the state of the art microfabrication techniques and biocompatible materials. However, the integration of devices with the biological milieu is still a fundamental issue to be addressed. Devices often fail to operate due to loss of functionality, or generate adverse toxic effects inside the body. The in vitro and in vivo performance of implantable BioMEMS such as biosensors, smart stents, drug delivery systems, and actuation systems are researched extensively to understand the interaction of the BioMEMS devices with physiological environments. BioMEMS developed for drug delivery applications include microneedles, microreservoirs, and micropumps to achieve targeted drug delivery. The biocompatibility of BioMEMS is further enhanced through the application of tissue and smart surface engineering. This involves the application of nanotechnology, which includes the modification of surfaces with polymers or the self-assembly of monolayers of molecules. Thereby, the adverse effects of biofouling can be reduced and the performance of devices can be improved in in vivo and in vitro conditions. PMID:23894041

  8. Applications of In Vitro-In Vivo Correlations in Generic Drug Development: Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Paramjeet; Jiang, Xiaojian; Duan, John; Stier, Ethan

    2015-07-01

    In vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) is a predictive mathematical model describing the relationship between an in vitro property and a relevant in vivo response. The main objective of an IVIVC is to serve as a surrogate for human bioequivalence (BE) studies, which may reduce the number of BE studies performed during the initial approval process as well as with certain scale-up and postapproval changes. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a regulatory guidance related to development, evaluation, and applications of IVIVC for extended-release (ER) oral dosage forms in September 1997. Despite the publication of this guidance, the deficiencies related to IVIVC are still identified by the Division of Bioequivalence in the process of Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) review. Thus, the main objective of this article is to present the most commonly occurring deficiencies associated with IVIVCs via selected case studies from the ANDAs for oral ER drug products only. We searched internal FDA databases from January 1996 to December 2014 to identify the ANDAs for proposed generic oral ER drug products containing IVIVC. Only 14 ANDA submissions had IVIVC data, and most were not acceptable. Only one ANDA submission included adequate information related to IVIVC data enabling the completion of BE review within first review cycle. It is hoped that awareness of the deficiencies presented in our article would help the generic drug applicants to submit complete and appropriate information related to IVIVC data, ultimately, resulting in a more timely approval of ANDAs. PMID:25896303

  9. Robustness of surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate with a mercaptosilane adhesive layer for in vivo sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Yasuaki; Jans, Hilde; van Dorpe, Pol; Li, Jiaqi; Minamiguchi, Masaru; Shioi, Masahiko; Vlaminck, Lieven; Lagae, Liesbet; Kawamura, Tatsuro

    2015-06-01

    A highly robust surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for in vivo sensing applications is reported. In vivo sensing demands structurally robust substrates with good optical performance. SERS substrates containing gold nanostructures on SiO2 supports often suffer from a low adhesion strength of gold on SiO2. The proposed SERS substrate contains a mercaptosilane adhesive layer, which provides a high robustness without deteriorating the plasmon performance, in contrast to traditional titanium adhesive layers. The mercaptosilane-modified SERS substrate is sufficiently robust for in vivo sensing, as evidenced by its implantation in the animal skin for 2 months.

  10. Transoesophageal ultrasound applicator for sector-based thermal ablation: first in vivo experiments

    PubMed Central

    Melodelima, David; Lafon, Cyril; Prat, Frédéric; Theillčre, Yves; Arefiev, Alexei; Cathignol, Dominique

    2003-01-01

    New curative and palliative treatments must be proposed in order to respond to the bad long-term prognosis of esophageal cancers. It has been demonstrated that High Intensity Ultrasound (HIU) can induce rapid, complete and well-defined coagulation necrosis. For the treatment of this cancer, we designed an applicator that uses an intraductal approach. The active part is an air-backed plane transducer. It has an external water-cooling system and operates at 10 MHz. Ex vivo experiments conducted on pig liver demonstrated the ability of this applicator to generate, by rotating the transducer, circular or sector-based coagulation necroses at predetermined depths up to 13 mm with an excellent angular precision. The treatment of sector-based esophageal tumour may be critical where both malignant and healthy tissues are covered by the ultrasound beam. Thus, in vivo trials were conducted on five healthy pig esophaguses in order to determine the maximal thermal dose that will not induce a perforation of the esophagus or surrounding tissues. From the results of previous studies, this dose is high enough in order to treat pathological tissues. These promising results indicate that this ultrasound system represents a safe and effective tool for the clinical treatment of esophageal tumours. PMID:12659916

  11. In vivo 783-channel diffuse reflectance imaging system and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Han, Yong-Hui; Yoon, Gilwon; Ahn, Byung Soo; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2007-08-01

    A fiber-based reflectance imaging system was constructed to produce in vivo absorption spectroscopic images of biological tissues with diffuse light in the cw domain. The principal part of this system is the 783-channel fiber probe, composed of 253 illumination fibers and 530 detection fibers distributed in a 20×20 mm square region. During illumination with the 253 illumination fibers, diffuse reflected lights are collected by the 530 detection fibers and recorded simultaneously as an image with an electron multiplying CCD camera for fast data acquisition. After signal acquisition, a diffuse reflectance image was reconstructed by applying the spectral normalization method we devised. To test the applicability of the spectral normalization, we conducted two phantom experiments with chicken breast tissue and white Delrin resin by using animal blood as an optical inhomogeneity. In the Delrin phantom experiment, we present images produced by two methods, spectral normalization and reference signal normalization, along with a comparison of the two. To show the feasibility of our system for biomedical applications, we took images of a human vein in vivo with the spectral normalization method.

  12. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of biochemical changes in human skin by cosmetic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosato, Maira Gaspar; dos Santos, Edson Pereira; Alves, Rani de Souza; Raniero, Leandro; Menezes, Priscila Fernanda C.; Kruger, Odivânia; Praes, Carlos Eduardo O.; Martin, Airton Abrahăo

    2010-02-01

    The skin aging process is mainly accelerated by external agents such as sunlight, air humidity and surfactants action. Changes in protein structures and hydration during the aging process are responsible for skin morphological variations. In this work the human skin was investigated by in vivo Raman spectroscopy before and after the topical applications of a cosmetic on 17 healthy volunteers (age 60 to 75). In vivo Raman spectra of the skin were obtained with a Spectrometer SpectraPro- 2500i (Pi-Acton), CCD detector and a 785 nm laser excitation source, collected at the beginning of experiment without cream (T0), after 30 (T30) and 60 (T60) days using the product. The primary changes occurred in the following spectral regions: 935 cm-1 (?CC), 1060 cm-1 (lipids), 1174 to 1201 cm-1 (tryptofan, phenylalanine and tyrosine), 1302 cm-1 (phospholipids), 1520 to 1580 cm-1 (C=C) and 1650 cm-1 (amide I). These findings indicate that skin positive effects were enhanced by a continuous cream application.

  13. Qualichem In Vivo: A Tool for Assessing the Quality of In Vivo Studies and Its Application for Bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Maxim, Laura; van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2014-01-01

    In regulatory toxicology, quality assessment of in vivo studies is a critical step for assessing chemical risks. It is crucial for preserving public health studies that are considered suitable for regulating chemicals are robust. Current procedures for conducting quality assessments in safety agencies are not structured, clear or consistent. This leaves room for criticism about lack of transparency, subjective influence and the potential for insufficient protection provided by resulting safety standards. We propose a tool called “Qualichem in vivo” that is designed to systematically and transparently assess the quality of in vivo studies used in chemical health risk assessment. We demonstrate its use here with 12 experts, using two controversial studies on Bisphenol A (BPA) that played an important role in BPA regulation in Europe. The results obtained with Qualichem contradict the quality assessments conducted by expert committees in safety agencies for both of these studies. Furthermore, they show that reliance on standardized guidelines to ensure scientific quality is only partially justified. Qualichem allows experts with different disciplinary backgrounds and professional experiences to express their individual and sometimes divergent views—an improvement over the current way of dealing with minority opinions. It provides a transparent framework for expressing an aggregated, multi-expert level of confidence in a study, and allows a simple graphical representation of how well the study integrates the best available scientific knowledge. Qualichem can be used to compare assessments of the same study by different health agencies, increasing transparency and trust in the work of expert committees. In addition, it may be used in systematic evaluation of in vivo studies submitted by industry in the dossiers that are required for compliance with the REACH Regulation. Qualichem provides a balanced, common framework for assessing the quality of studies that may or may not be following standardized guidelines. PMID:24489958

  14. In vivo human skin barrier modulation by topical application of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tanojo, H; Boelsma, E; Junginger, H E; Ponec, M; Boddé, H E

    1998-01-01

    The in vivo effects of fatty acids on skin barrier function were assessed by measuring: (i) transepidermal water loss (TEWL), (ii) diffusion lag times for hexyl nicotinate (HN), and (iii) irritant skin response using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) in combination with visual scoring. Two classes of fatty acids have been investigated: straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA), having 6-12 carbon atoms, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA): oleic, linoleic, alpha-linolenic and arachidonic acids. It has been reported that these acids can enhance the permeation of various compounds across the skin. After topical and occlusive application as a solution in propylene glycol (PG) for 3 h on the volar arm of human subjects, SFA only caused a slight irritation and increase in TEWL. The diffusion lag times of HN were reduced by the application SFA to the same extent as and not more than by the application of the pure solvent PG. In contrast, the application of UFA caused a significant increase in TEWL and LDV (irritation) responses. The TEWL values after oleic acid application were higher than those observed for the other three acids, while the irritation potential of arachidonic acid was the highest among UFA. As with SFA, sites treated with UFA did not show significantly different lag times of HN diffusion from PC-treated sites. The data suggest that the degree of irritation and the degree of barrier modulation for fatty acids are not necessarily correlated. PMID:9603659

  15. A feasibility study of in vivo applications of single beam acoustic tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying, E-mail: yli582@usc.edu; Lee, Changyang; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk [NIH Transducer Resource Center and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1111 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Tools that are capable of manipulating micro-sized objects have been widely used in such fields as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Several devices, including optical tweezers, atomic force microscope, micro-pipette aspirator, and standing surface wave type acoustic tweezers have been studied to satisfy this need. However, none of them has been demonstrated to be suitable for in vivo and clinical studies. Single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) is a technology that uses highly focused acoustic beam to trap particles toward the beam focus. Its feasibility was first theoretically and experimentally demonstrated by Lee and Shung several years ago. Since then, much effort has been devoted to improving this technology. At present, the tool is capable of trapping a microparticle as small as 1 ?m, as well as a single red blood cell. Although in comparing to other microparticles manipulating technologies, SBAT has advantages of providing stronger trapping force and deeper penetration depth in tissues, and producing less tissue damage, its potential for in vivo applications has yet been explored. It is worth noting that ultrasound has been used as a diagnostic tool for over 50 years and no known major adverse effects have been observed at the diagnostic energy level. This paper reports the results of an initial attempt to assess the feasibility of single beam acoustic tweezers to trap microparticles in vivo inside of a blood vessel. The acoustic intensity of SBAT under the trapping conditions that were utilized was measured. The mechanical index and thermal index at the focus of acoustic beam were found to be 0.48 and 0.044, respectively, which meet the standard of commercial diagnostic ultrasound system.

  16. Development and Applications of Laminar Optical Tomography for In Vivo Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Sean A.

    Laminar optical tomography (LOT) is an optical imaging technique capable of making depth-resolved measurements of absorption and fluorescence contrast in scattering tissue. LOT was first demonstrated in 2004 by Hillman et al [1]. The technique combines a non-contact laser scanning geometry, similar to a low magnification confocal microscope, with the imaging principles of diffuse optical tomography (DOT). This thesis describes the development and application of a second generation LOT system, which acquires both fluorescence and multi-wavelength measurements simultaneously and is better suited for in vivo measurements. Chapter 1 begins by reviewing the interactions of light with tissue that form the foundation of optical imaging. A range of related optical imaging techniques and the basic principles of LOT imaging are then described. In Chapter 2, the development of the new LOT imaging system is described including the implementation of a series of interfaces to allow clinical imaging. System performance is then evaluated on a range of imaging phantoms. Chapter 3 describes two in vivo imaging applications explored using the second generation LOT system, first in a clinical setting where skin lesions were imaged, and then in a laboratory setting where LOT imaging was performed on exposed rat cortex. The final chapter provides a brief summary and describes future directions for LOT. LOT has the potential to find applications in medical diagnostics, surgical guidance, and in-situ monitoring owing to its sensitivity to absorption and fluorescence contrast as well as its ability to provide depth sensitive measures. Optical techniques can characterize blood volume and oxygenation, two important biological parameters, through measurements at different wavelengths. Fluorescence measurements, either from autofluorescence or fluorescent dyes, have shown promise for identifying and analyzing lesions in various epithelial tissues including skin [2, 3], colon [4], esophagus [5, 6], oral mucosa [7, 8], and cervix [9]. The desire to capture these types of measurements with LOT motivated much of the work presented here.

  17. 3D in vivo imaging of rat hearts by high frequency ultrasound and its application in myofiber orientation wrapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Wang, Silun; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lerakis, Stamatios; Wagner, Mary B.; Fei, Baowei

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac ultrasound plays an important role in the imaging of hearts in basic cardiovascular research and clinical examinations. 3D ultrasound imaging can provide the geometry or motion information of the heart. Especially, the wrapping of cardiac fiber orientations to the ultrasound volume could supply useful information on the stress distributions and electric action spreading. However, how to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the heart of small animals in vivo for cardiac fiber wrapping is still a challenging problem. In this study, we provide an approach to acquire 3D ultrasound volumes of the rat hearts in vivo. The comparison between both in vivo and ex vivo geometries indicated 90.1% Dice similarity. In this preliminary study, the evaluations of the cardiac fiber orientation wrapping errors were 24.7° for the acute angle error and were 22.4° for the inclination angle error. This 3D ultrasound imaging and fiber orientation estimation technique have potential applications in cardiac imaging.

  18. An alumina toughened zirconia composite for dental implant application: in vivo animal results.

    PubMed

    Schierano, Gianmario; Mussano, Federico; Faga, Maria Giulia; Menicucci, Giulio; Manzella, Carlo; Sabione, Cristian; Genova, Tullio; von Degerfeld, Mitzy Mauthe; Peirone, Bruno; Cassenti, Adele; Cassoni, Paola; Carossa, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic materials are widely used for biomedical applications because of their remarkable biological and mechanical properties. Composites made of alumina and zirconia are particularly interesting owing to their higher toughness with respect to the monolithic materials. On this basis, the present study is focused on the in vivo behavior of alumina toughened zirconia (ATZ) dental implants treated with a hydrothermal process. A minipig model was implemented to assess the bone healing through histology and mRNA expression at different time points (8, 14, 28, and 56 days). The novel ATZ implant was compared to a titanium clinical standard. The implants were analyzed in terms of microstructure and surface roughness before in vivo tests. The most interesting result deals with a statistically significant higher digital histology index for ATZ implants with respect to titanium standard at 56 days, which is an unprecedented finding, to the authors' knowledge. Even if further investigations are needed before proposing the clinical use in humans, the tested material proved to be a promising candidate among the possible ceramic dental implants. PMID:25945324

  19. Highly efficient square wave distant dipolar field and its application for in vivo MRI.

    PubMed

    Cai, Congbo; Gao, Fenglian; Cai, Shuhui; Zhong, Jianhui; Chen, Zhong

    2010-10-01

    Intermolecular multiple quantum coherences generated by distant dipolar field (DDF) have some attractive properties, but the intrinsic weak signal intensity prevents their widespread applications. Recently, Branca et al. (J Chem Phys 2008;129:054502) suggested that square wave DDF was more efficient than conventional sinusoidal DDF because it could simultaneously produce intermolecular multiple quantum coherences signal with various major orders. In this article, instead of a series of adiabatic inversion pulses proposed previously, a more efficient composite adiabatic inversion pulse was applied to create square wave DDF. The square wave DDF was applied to in vivo MRI for the first time, and the corresponding simulations were performed. Both experimental and simulated results show that square wave DDF with composite adiabatic inversion pulse improves over the original Z-modulation enhanced to binary for self-refocused acquisition implementation and can enhance the signal intensity to about 2-fold of that from conventional correlation spectroscopy (COSY) revamped with asymmetric Z-gradient echo detection sequence for in vivo MRI, close to the theoretical prediction. PMID:20872763

  20. An Alumina Toughened Zirconia Composite for Dental Implant Application: In Vivo Animal Results

    PubMed Central

    Schierano, Gianmario; Faga, Maria Giulia; Menicucci, Giulio; Sabione, Cristian; Genova, Tullio; von Degerfeld, Mitzy Mauthe; Peirone, Bruno; Cassenti, Adele; Cassoni, Paola; Carossa, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic materials are widely used for biomedical applications because of their remarkable biological and mechanical properties. Composites made of alumina and zirconia are particularly interesting owing to their higher toughness with respect to the monolithic materials. On this basis, the present study is focused on the in vivo behavior of alumina toughened zirconia (ATZ) dental implants treated with a hydrothermal process. A minipig model was implemented to assess the bone healing through histology and mRNA expression at different time points (8, 14, 28, and 56 days). The novel ATZ implant was compared to a titanium clinical standard. The implants were analyzed in terms of microstructure and surface roughness before in vivo tests. The most interesting result deals with a statistically significant higher digital histology index for ATZ implants with respect to titanium standard at 56 days, which is an unprecedented finding, to the authors' knowledge. Even if further investigations are needed before proposing the clinical use in humans, the tested material proved to be a promising candidate among the possible ceramic dental implants. PMID:25945324

  1. A computational atlas of the hippocampal formation using ex vivo, ultra-high resolution MRI: Application to adaptive segmentation of in vivo MRI.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Augustinack, Jean C; Nguyen, Khoa; Player, Christopher M; Player, Allison; Wright, Michelle; Roy, Nicole; Frosch, Matthew P; McKee, Ann C; Wald, Lawrence L; Fischl, Bruce; Van Leemput, Koen

    2015-07-15

    Automated analysis of MRI data of the subregions of the hippocampus requires computational atlases built at a higher resolution than those that are typically used in current neuroimaging studies. Here we describe the construction of a statistical atlas of the hippocampal formation at the subregion level using ultra-high resolution, ex vivo MRI. Fifteen autopsy samples were scanned at 0.13mm isotropic resolution (on average) using customized hardware. The images were manually segmented into 13 different hippocampal substructures using a protocol specifically designed for this study; precise delineations were made possible by the extraordinary resolution of the scans. In addition to the subregions, manual annotations for neighboring structures (e.g., amygdala, cortex) were obtained from a separate dataset of in vivo, T1-weighted MRI scans of the whole brain (1mm resolution). The manual labels from the in vivo and ex vivo data were combined into a single computational atlas of the hippocampal formation with a novel atlas building algorithm based on Bayesian inference. The resulting atlas can be used to automatically segment the hippocampal subregions in structural MRI images, using an algorithm that can analyze multimodal data and adapt to variations in MRI contrast due to differences in acquisition hardware or pulse sequences. The applicability of the atlas, which we are releasing as part of FreeSurfer (version 6.0), is demonstrated with experiments on three different publicly available datasets with different types of MRI contrast. The results show that the atlas and companion segmentation method: 1) can segment T1 and T2 images, as well as their combination, 2) replicate findings on mild cognitive impairment based on high-resolution T2 data, and 3) can discriminate between Alzheimer's disease subjects and elderly controls with 88% accuracy in standard resolution (1mm) T1 data, significantly outperforming the atlas in FreeSurfer version 5.3 (86% accuracy) and classification based on whole hippocampal volume (82% accuracy). PMID:25936807

  2. In vivo application of a small molecular weight antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Palicz, Zoltán; Jenes, Ágnes; Gáll, Tamás [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Miszti-Blasius, Kornél [Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Kollár, Sándor; Kovács, Ilona [Department of Pathology, Kenézy Hospital LTD, Debrecen (Hungary); Emri, Miklós; Márián, Teréz [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Leiter, Éva; Pócsi, István [Department of Microbial Biotechnology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre of Arts, Humanities and Sciences, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Cs?sz, Éva; Kalló, Gerg? [Proteomics Core Facility, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Heged?s, Csaba; Virág, László [Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Csernoch, László [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Szentesi, Péter, E-mail: szentesi.peter@med.unideb.hu [Department of Physiology, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2013-05-15

    The antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum (PAF) inhibits the growth of important pathogenic filamentous fungi, including members of the Aspergillus family and some dermatophytes. Furthermore, PAF was proven to have no toxic effects on mammalian cells in vitro. To prove that PAF could be safely used in therapy, experiments were carried out to investigate its in vivo effects. Adult mice were inoculated with PAF intranasally in different concentrations, up to 2700 ?g·kg{sup ?1} daily, for 2 weeks. Even at the highest concentration – a concentration highly toxic in vitro for all affected molds – used, animals neither died due to the treatment nor were any side effects observed. Histological examinations did not find pathological reactions in the liver, in the kidney, and in the lungs. Mass spectrometry confirmed that a measurable amount of PAF was accumulated in the lungs after the treatment. Lung tissue extracts from PAF treated mice exerted significant antifungal activity. Small-animal positron emission tomography revealed that neither the application of physiological saline nor that of PAF induced any inflammation while the positive control lipopolysaccharide did. The effect of the drug on the skin was examined in an irritative dermatitis model where the change in the thickness of the ears following PAF application was found to be the same as in control and significantly less than when treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate used as positive control. Since no toxic effects of PAF were found in intranasal application, our result is the first step for introducing PAF as potential antifungal drug in therapy. - Highlights: • PAF, the antifungal protein of Penicillium chrysogenum, was not toxic in mice. • Its intranasal application didn't induce pathological reactions in the lung. • PAF retained its antifungal activity in lung extracts. • Its application on the skin did not cause inflammation.

  3. Application of FRET Technology to the In Vivo Evaluation of Therapeutic Nucleic Acids (ANTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez-Hess, María Luisa; Alvarez-Salas, Luis Marat

    2007-02-01

    Developing applications for therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) (i.e. ribozymes, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs), siRNA and aptamers) requires a reporter system designed to rapidly evaluate their in vivo effect. To this end we designed a reporter system based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) engineered to release the FRET effect produced by two green fluorescent protein (GFP) variants linked by a TNA target site. Because the FRET effect occurs instantaneously when two fluorophores are very close to each other (>100nm) stimulating emission of the acceptor fluorophore by the excitation of the donor fluorophore it has been widely use to reveal interactions between molecules. The present system (FRET2) correlates the FRET effect with the in vivo activity of distinct types of TNAs based on a model consisting of RNA from human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) previously shown accessible to TNAs. HPV-16 is the most common papillomavirus associated with cervical cancer, the leading cause of death by cancer in México. The FRET2 system was first tested in vitro and then used in bacteria in which transcription is linked to translation allowing controlled expression and rapid evaluation of the FRET2 protein. To assure accessibility of the target mRNA to TNAs, the FRET2 mRNA was probed by RNaseH assays prior FRET testing. The fluorescence features of the FRET2 system was tested with different FRET-producing GFP donor-acceptor pairs leading to selection of green (donor) and yellow (acceptor) variants of GFP as the most efficient. Modifications in aminoacid composition and linker length of the target sequence did not affect FRET efficiency. In vivo AS-ODN-mediated destruction of the chimerical FRET2 reporter mRNA resulted in the recovery of GFP fluorescent spectrum in a concentration and time dependent manner. Reported anti-HPV ribozymes were also tested with similar results. Therefore, we conclude that the FRET effect can be a useful tool in the development of TNAs.

  4. Laccase?catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols: from in vivo biosynthetic pathways to green synthetic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jong?Rok; Baldrian, Petr; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Chang, Yoon?Seok

    2012-01-01

    Summary Laccases are oxidases that contain several copper atoms, and catalyse single?electron oxidations of phenolic compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The enzymes are particularly widespread in ligninolytic basidiomycetes, but also occur in certain prokaryotes, insects and plants. Depending on the species, laccases are involved in various biosynthetic processes contributing to carbon recycling in land ecosystems and the morphogenesis of biomatrices, wherein low?molecular?weight naturally occurring phenols serve as key enzyme substrates. Studies of these in vivo synthetic pathways have afforded new insights into fungal laccase applicability in green synthetic chemistry. Thus, we here review fungal laccase?catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols that are particularly relevant to the synthesis of fine organic chemicals, and we discuss how the discovered synthetic strategies mimic laccase?involved in vivo pathways, thus enhancing the green nature of such reactions. Laccase?catalysed in vivo processes yield several types of biopolymers, including those of cuticles, lignin, polyflavonoids, humus and the melanin pigments, using natural mono? or poly?phenols as building blocks. The in vivo synthetic pathways involve either phenoxyl radical?mediated coupling or cross?linking reactions, and can be adapted to the design of in vitro oxidative processes involving fungal laccases in organic synthesis; the laccase substrates and the synthetic mechanisms reflect in vivo processes. Notably, such in vitro synthetic pathways can also reproduce physicochemical properties (e.g. those of chromophores, and radical?scavenging, hydration and antimicrobial activities) found in natural biomaterials. Careful study of laccase?associated in vivo metabolic pathways has been rewarded by the discovery of novel green applications for fungal laccases. This review comprehensively summarizes the available data on laccase?catalysed biosynthetic pathways and associated applications in fine chemical syntheses. PMID:21791030

  5. Direct optic nerve sheath (DONS) application of Schwann cells prolongs retinal ganglion cell survival in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Guo, L; Davis, B; Nizari, S; Normando, E M; Shi, H; Galvao, J; Turner, L; Shi, J; Clements, M; Parrinello, S; Cordeiro, M F

    2014-01-01

    Cell-based therapies are increasingly recognized as a potential strategy to treat retinal neurodegenerative disease. Their administration, however, is normally indirect and complex, often with an inability to assess in real time their effects on cell death and their migration/integration into the host retina. In the present study, using a partial optic nerve transection (pONT) rat model, we describe a new method of Schwann cell (SC) delivery (direct application to injured optic nerve sheath, SC/DONS), which was compared with intravitreal SC delivery (SC/IVT). Both SC/DONS and SC/IVT were able to be assessed in vivo using imaging to visualize retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis and SC retinal integration. RGC death in the pONT model was best fitted to the one-phase exponential decay model. Although both SC/DONS and SC/IVT altered the temporal course of RGC degeneration in pONT, SC/DONS resulted in delayed but long-lasting effects on RGC protection, compared with SC/IVT treatment. In addition, their effects on primary and secondary degeneration, and axonal regeneration, were also investigated, by histology, whole retinal counting, and modelling of RGC loss. SC/DONS was found to significantly reduce RGC apoptosis in vivo and significantly increase RGC survival by targeting secondary rather than primary degeneration. Both SC/DONS and SC/IVT were found to promote RGC axonal regrowth after optic nerve injury, with evidence of GAP-43 expression in RGC somas and axons. SC/DONS may have the potential in the treatment of optic neuropathies, such as glaucoma. We show that SC transplantation can be monitored in real time and that the protective effects of SCs are associated with targeting secondary degeneration, with implications for translating cell-based therapies to the clinic. PMID:25321467

  6. Novel biomaterial for transdermal application: in vitro and in vivo characterization.

    PubMed

    Mundada, A S; Avari, J G

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate a novel film forming biomaterial for its potential application in the preparation of unilaminate transdermal adhesive matrix systems. The biomaterial, Damar Batu (DB), was tried alone and in combination with Eudragit RL100 as a matrixing agent in the preparation of transdermal patches. Developed transdermal patches of Diltiazem hydrochloride (DH) were evaluated for thickness uniformity, weight uniformity, folding endurance and drug content. USP dissolution apparatus V was used for in vitro drug release studies. Modified Franz diffusion cell used for permeation study using excised human cadaver skin. Total 6 formulations were developed and on the basis of in vitro drug release and in vitro skin permeation profile F5 composed of DB: Eudragit RL100 (60:40) and carrying 20 %w/w DH was selected as an optimized formulation for in vivo study. The in vivo study results showed that F5 achieved the Cmax of about 269.76 ± 1.52 ng/mL in 6 h and sustained the release of the drug till 24 h. The skin irritation study results proved that the novel biomaterial is non-sensitizing and non-irritating. Drug-polymer interaction study carried out to check the compatibility of drug and polymer showed the intactness of the drug in the formulation proving the compatibility of the polymer. It can be proposed from the outcome of the present study that by applying suitable adhesive layer and backing membrane, DB: Eudragit RL100 (60:40) transdermal patches can be of potential therapeutic use. PMID:21554152

  7. In vivo optical investigation of short term skin water contact and moisturizer application using NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Qassem, M; Kyriacou, P A

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, a number of noninvasive methods and instruments are available to inspect the biophysical properties and effects of various applicants on human skin, providing quantitative measurements and more details regarding the interactions between skin and various products. Such methods include Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), a technique which over the years, has gained quite a reputation in being able to accurately determine moisture levels and water contents due to its sensitivity to hydrogen bonding. This paper reports preliminary results of an in vivo study carried out on the skin of a small number of human participants, investigating the optical response of human skin after direct short-term contact with water followed by application of a moisturizer, using a highly advanced spectrophotometer in the region of 900-2100 nm, and equipped with a reflectance fibre optic probe. Results obtained here certainly raise some questions regarding the optical characteristics of different skin types and the influence of frequent moisturizer use, as well as the varying response between different water bands in the NIR region. Future work will focus on gaining more knowledge about these, in order to further improve optical skin measurements, and hopefully support the design and development of a portable and/or miniaturized optical device that could provide reliable, accurate and fast skin hydration readings in real time. PMID:24110207

  8. Synthesis and surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles for in vivo biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Conroy Ghin Chee

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) possess unique magnetic properties and the ability to function at the cellular and molecular level of biological interactions making them an attractive platform to serve as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and as carriers for drug delivery. Recent advances in nanotechnology have improved the ability to engineer the features and properties of MNPs allowing them to be tailored specifically for these biomedical applications. MNPs composed of metallic, oxide, and nanoalloy cores and a variety of protective coatings are being investigated for applications in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of malignant tumors, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disease. To better address specific clinical needs, MNPs with higher magnetic moments, non-fouling surfaces, and increased functionalities are now being developed. The goal of this interdisciplinary research is to develop novel superparamagnetic nanoprobes for non-invasive cancer diagnosis and treatment. This strategy utilizes iron oxide nanoparticles coated with various biocompatible polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and chitosan, to serve as both a contrast agent for MRI and a carrier for drug delivery. In this project, we have conjugated various targeting agents, such as folic acid (FA) and chlorotoxin (CTX), to these iron oxide nanoparticles to improve their tumor specific accumulation. The folate receptor is known to be overexpressed on the surfaces of many human tumor cells, including ovarian, lung, breast, endometrial, renal, and colon cancers, while CTX binds with high affinity to gliomas, medulloblastomas, and other tumors of the neuroectodermal origin. To evaluate its effectiveness as a targeted drug carrier, methotrexate (MTX), a convention chemotherapeutic agent, was conjugated to iron oxide nanoparticles in combination with CTX. Specific tumor cell targeting of our nanoparticle system has been demonstrated through increased contrast enhancement both in vitro and in vivo in MRI experiments. The successful application of such smart molecular imaging probes will have a significant clinical impact on improved diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors.

  9. In vivo pH monitoring using boron doped diamond microelectrode and silver needles: Application to stomach disorder diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierro, Stéphane; Seishima, Ryo; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2013-11-01

    This study presents the in vivo electrochemical monitoring of pH using boron doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode and silver needles for potential application in medical diagnosis. Accurate calibration curve for pH determination were obtained through in vitro electrochemical measurements. The increase induced in stomach pH by treatment with pantoprazole was used to demonstrate that it is possible to monitor the pH in vivo using the simple and noninvasive system proposed herein. Using the results of the in vivo and in vitro experiments, a quantitative analysis of the increase in stomach pH is also presented. It is proposed that the catheter-free pH monitoring system presented in this study could be potentially employed in any biological environment.

  10. Three-photon luminescence of gold nanorods and its applications for high contrast tissue and deep in vivo brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaowei; Xi, Wang; Cai, Fuhong; Zhao, Xinyuan; Xu, Zhengping; Qian, Jun; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles can be used as contrast agents for bio-imaging applications. Here we studied multi-photon luminescence (MPL) of gold nanorods (GNRs), under the excitation of femtosecond (fs) lasers. GNRs functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules have high chemical and optical stability, and can be used as multi-photon luminescent nanoprobes for deep in vivo imaging of live animals. We have found that the depth of in vivo imaging is dependent upon the transmission and focal capability of the excitation light interacting with the GNRs. Our study focused on the comparison of MPL from GNRs with two different aspect ratios, as well as their ex vivo and in vivo imaging effects under 760 nm and 1000 nm excitation, respectively. Both of these wavelengths were located at an optically transparent window of biological tissue (700-1000 nm). PEGylated GNRs, which were intravenously injected into mice via the tail vein and accumulated in major organs and tumor tissue, showed high image contrast due to distinct three-photon luminescence (3PL) signals upon irradiation of a 1000 nm fs laser. Concerning in vivo mouse brain imaging, the 3PL imaging depth of GNRs under 1000 nm fs excitation could reach 600 ?m, which was approximately 170 ?m deeper than the two-photon luminescence (2PL) imaging depth of GNRs with a fs excitation of 760 nm. PMID:25553113

  11. Ultrafast micro-CT for in vivo small animal imaging and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasov, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    A new, ultra-fast microCT instrument with scanning+reconstruction cycle under 50 seconds for full 3D-volume has been created. The scanner based on the scanning geometry with static object and rotation of source-camera pair(s), which allows using it for industrial applications as well as for low-dose in-vivo imaging of small laboratory animals where rotation of the object is not acceptable. Acquisition part contains two pairs of x-ray sources and cameras for data collection from complementary directions simultaneously. Reconstruction engine (cone-beam reconstruction by modified Feldkamp algotithm) includes 1, 2 or 4 dual Intel-Xeon computers working in parallel under control of the host PC through local network. The instrument specifications are following: voxel size is 48 or 96 um for corresponding 1024x1024x1024 or 512x512x512 reconstruction array; scanning time with parallel reconstruction is 50 seconds for 96um resolution. X-ray sources peak energy can be adjusted in the range of 20-65kV. Typical scanning dose is 0.4Gy. The scanner itself is a compact desktop instrument, which contains all x-ray parts and necessary shielding for safe operations in the normal laboratory environments.

  12. A Freehand Ultrasound Elastography System with Tracking for In-vivo Applications

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi, Pezhman; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Carnegie, Daniel A.; van Vledder, Mark G.; Choti, Michael A.; Hager, Gregory D.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound transducers are commonly tracked in modern ultrasound navigation/guidance systems. In this paper, we demonstrate the advantages of incorporating tracking information into ultrasound elastography for clinical applications. First, we address a common limitation of freehand palpation: speckle decorrelation due to out-of-plane probe motion. We show that by automatically selecting pairs of radio frequency (RF) frames with minimal lateral and out-of-plane motions combined with a fast and robust displacement estimation technique greatly improves in-vivo elastography results. We also use tracking information and image quality measure to fuse multiple images with similar strain that are taken roughly from the same location to obtain a high quality elastography image. Finally, we show that tracking information can be used to give the user partial control over the rate of compression. Our methods are tested on tissue mimicking phantom and experiments have been conducted on intra-operative data acquired during animal and human experiments involving liver ablation. Our results suggest that in challenging clinical conditions, our proposed method produces reliable strain images and eliminates the need for a manual search through the ultrasound data in order to find RF pairs suitable for elastography. PMID:23257351

  13. In-vivo measurement of the human soft tissues constitutive laws. Applications to Computer Aided Surgery

    E-print Network

    Schiavone, Patrick; Ohayon, J; Payan, Y

    2007-01-01

    In the 80's, biomechanicians were asked to work on Computer Aided Surgery applications since orthopaedic surgeons were looking for numerical tools able to predict risks of fractures. More recently, biomechanicians started to address soft tissues arguing that most of the human body is made of such tissues that can move as well as deform during surgical gestures [1]. An intra-operative use of a continuous Finite Element (FE) Model of a given tissue mainly faces two problems: (1) the numerical simulations have to be "interactive", i.e. sufficiently fast to provide results during surgery (which can be a strong issue in the context of hyperelastic models for example) and (2) during the intervention, the surgeon needs a device that can be used to provide to the model an estimation of the patient-specific constitutive behaviour of the soft tissues. This work proposes an answer to the second point, with the design of a new aspiration device aiming at characterizing the in vivo constitutive laws of human soft tissues....

  14. Segmented surface coil resonator for in vivo EPR applications at 1.1 GHz

    PubMed Central

    Petryakov, Sergey; Samouilov, Alexandre; Chzhan-Roytenberg, Michael; Kesselring, Eric; Sun, Ziqi; Zweier, Jay L.

    2010-01-01

    A four-loop segmented surface coil resonator (SSCR) with electronic frequency and coupling adjustments was constructed with 18 mm aperture and loading capability suitable for in vivo Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and imaging applications at L-band. Increased sample volume and loading capability were achieved by employing a multi-loop three-dimensional surface coil structure. Symmetrical design of the resonator with coupling to each loop resulted in high homogeneity of RF magnetic field. Parallel loops were coupled to the feeder cable via balancing circuitry containing varactor diodes for electronic coupling and tuning over a wide range of loading conditions. Manually adjusted high Q trimmer capacitors were used for initial tuning with subsequent tuning electronically controlled using varactor diodes. This design provides transparency and homogeneity of magnetic field modulation in the sample volume, while matching components are shielded to minimize interference with modulation and ambient RF fields. It can accommodate lossy samples up to 90% of its aperture with high homogeneity of RF and modulation magnetic fields and can function as a surface loop or a slice volume resonator. Along with an outer coaxial NMR surface coil, the SSCR enabled EPR/NMR co-imaging of paramagnetic probes in living rats to a depth of 20 mm. PMID:19268615

  15. Application of spectral decomposition analysis to in vivo quantification of aluminum by neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Comsa, D C; Prestwich, W V; McNeill, F E; Byun, S H

    2004-12-01

    The toxic effects of aluminum are cumulative and result in painful forms of renal osteodystrophy, most notably adynamic bone disease and osteomalacia, but also other forms of disease. The Trace Element Group at McMaster University has developed an accelerator-based in vivo procedure for detecting aluminum body burden by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Further refining of the method was necessary for increasing its sensitivity. In this context, the present study proposes an improved algorithm for data analysis, based on spectral decomposition. A new minimum detectable limit (MDL) of (0.7+/-0.1)mg Al was reached for a local dose of (20+/-1)mSv. The study also addresses the feasibility of a new data acquisition technique, the electronic rejection of the coincident events detected by a NaI(Tl) system. It is expected that the application of this technique, together with spectral decomposition analysis, would provide an acceptable MDL for the method to be valuable in a clinical setting. PMID:15388133

  16. Combining whispering gallery mode lasers and microstructured optical fibers for in-vivo biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, A.; Rowland, K. J.; Reynolds, T.; Nicholls, S. J.; Monro, T. M.

    2013-10-01

    Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) have been widely studied for the past 20 years for various applications, including biological sensing. While the different WGM-based sensing approaches reported in the literature enable useful sensor characteristics, at present this technology is not yet mature, mainly for practical reasons. Our work has been focused on developing a simple, yet efficient, WGM-based sensing platform capable of being used as a dip sensor for in-vivo biosensing applications. We recently demonstrated that a dye-doped polymer microresonator, supporting WGMs, positioned onto the tip of a suspended core Microstructured Optical Fiber can be used as a dip sensor. In this architecture, the resonator is located on an air hole next to the fiber core at the fiber's tip, enabling a significant portion of the sphere to overlap with the guided light emerging from the fiber tip. This architecture offers significant benefits that have never been reported in the literature in terms of radiation efficiency, compared to the standard freestanding resonators, which arise from breaking the symmetry of the resonator. In addition to providing the remote excitation and collection of the WGMs' signal, the fiber also allows easy manipulation of the microresonator and the use this sensor in a dip sensing architecture, alleviating the need for a complex microfluidic interface. Here, we present our recent results on the microstructured fiber tip WGM-based sensor, including its lasing behavior and enhancement of the radiation efficiency as a function of the position of the resonator on the fiber tip. We also show that this platform can be used for clinical diagnostics and applying this technology to the detection of Troponin T, an acute myocardial infarction biomarker, down to a concentration of 7.4 pg/mL.

  17. Skin imaged by femtosecond laser irradiation: a risk assessment for in vivo applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, F.; Volkmer, B.; Puschmann, S.; Greinert, R.; Breitbart, W.; Kiefer, J.; Wepf, R.

    2006-04-01

    During the last couple of years new imaging techniques using femtosecond lasers (fs-lasers) in the near infrared spectral range evolved for a variety of in vitro applications. We wanted to know, whether fs-lasers have a non-invasive imaging potential for in vivo applications for human skin. So far, little is known about possible risks of this irradiation type. To estimate the risk of irradiation damage in human skin we used a "biological dosimeter" in this investigation. We irradiated fresh human skin samples with both an fs-laser and a solar simulator (UV-source) for comparison. DNA damage introduced in the epidermis was evaluated using fluorescent antibodies against cyclobutane-pyrimidin-dimers (CPDs) in combination with immuno-fluorescence image analysis. Various fs-irradiation regimes were evaluated differing in laser power and step width of horizontal irradiation scans. When using 15 mW or 30 mW fs-laser power combined with horizontal irradiation scans applied every 5 mm in depth around the epidermal-dermal junction no induction of CPDs was found. However, induction of CPDs could be seen using 60 mW laser power and 5 ?m step width. Narrowing the step width to 1 mm and using increasing laser power (up to 35 mW) from the surface of the skin to the epidermis led to CPD formation, too. Quantitative comparison of CPD production at various laser regimes with CPD production using a solar simulator was done. We could show that the number of CPDs formed by the 60 mW laser irradiation regime is comparable to an UV-irradiation giving 0.6 MED (minimal erythemal dose). The smaller step width laser irradiation regime (1 ?m step width and up to 35 mW) was comparable to a UV-irradiation regime resulting in 0.45 MED.

  18. Target-cancer-cell-specific activatable fluorescence imaging probes: rational design and in vivo applications.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Choyke, Peter L

    2011-02-15

    Conventional imaging methods, such as angiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and radionuclide imaging, rely on contrast agents (iodine, gadolinium, and radioisotopes, for example) that are "always on." Although these indicators have proven clinically useful, their sensitivity is lacking because of inadequate target-to-background signal ratio. A unique aspect of optical imaging is that fluorescence probes can be designed to be activatable, that is, only "turned on" under certain conditions. These probes are engineered to emit signal only after binding a target tissue; this design greatly increases sensitivity and specificity in the detection of disease. Current research focuses on two basic types of activatable fluorescence probes. The first developed were conventional enzymatically activatable probes. These fluorescent molecules exist in the quenched state until activated by enzymatic cleavage, which occurs mostly outside of the cells. However, more recently, researchers have begun designing target-cell-specific activatable probes. These fluorophores exist in the quenched state until activated within targeted cells by endolysosomal processing, which results when the probe binds specific receptors on the cell surface and is subsequently internalized. In this Account, we present a review of the rational design and in vivo applications of target-cell-specific activatable probes. In engineering these probes, researchers have asserted control over a variety of factors, including photochemistry, pharmacological profile, and biological properties. Their progress has recently allowed the rational design and synthesis of target-cell-specific activatable fluorescence imaging probes, which can be conjugated to a wide variety of targeting molecules. Several different photochemical mechanisms have been utilized, each of which offers a unique capability for probe design. These include self-quenching, homo- and hetero-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), H-dimer formation, and photon-induced electron transfer (PeT). In addition, the repertoire is further expanded by the option for reversibility or irreversibility of the signal emitted through these mechanisms. Given the wide range of photochemical mechanisms and properties, target-cell-specific activatable probes have considerable flexibility and can be adapted to specific diagnostic needs. A multitude of cell surface molecules, such as overexpressed growth factor receptors, are directly related to carcinogenesis and thus provide numerous targets highly specific for cancer. This discussion of the chemical, pharmacological, and biological basis of target-cell-specific activatable imaging probes, and methods for successfully designing them, underscores the systematic, rational basis for further developing in vivo cancer imaging. PMID:21062101

  19. Development of HiLo Microscope and its use in In-Vivo Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Shreyas J.

    The functionality of achieving optical sectioning in biomedical research is invaluable as it allows for visualization of a biological sample at different depths while being free of background scattering. Most current microscopy techniques that offer optical sectioning, unfortunately, require complex instrumentation and thus are generally costly. HiLo microscopy, on the other hand, offers the same functionality and advantage at a relatively low cost. Hence, the work described in this thesis involves the design, build, and application of a HiLo microscope. More specifically, a standalone HiLo microscope was built in addition to implementing HiLo microscopy on a standard fluorescence microscope. In HiLo microscopy, optical sectioning is achieved by acquiring two different types of images per focal plane. One image is acquired under uniform illumination and the other is acquired under speckle illumination. These images are processed using an algorithm that extracts in-focus information and removes features and glare that occur as a result of background fluorescence. To show the benefits of the HiLo microscopy, several imaging experiments on various samples were performed under a HiLo microscope and compared against a traditional fluorescence microscope and a confocal microscope, which is considered the gold standard in optical imaging. In-vitro and ex-vivo imaging was performed on a set of pollen grains, and optically cleared mouse brain and heart slices. Each of these experiments showed great reduction in background scattering at different depths under HiLo microscopy. More importantly, HiLo imaging of optically cleared heart slice demonstrated emergence of different vasculature at different depths. Reduction of out-of-focus light increased the spatial resolution and allowed better visualization of capillary vessels. Furthermore, HiLo imaging was tested in an in-vivo model of a rodent dorsal window chamber model. When imaging the same sample under confocal microscope, the results were comparable between the two modalities. Additionally, a method of achieving blood flow maps at different depth using a combination of HiLo and LSI imaging is also discussed. The significance of this combined technique could help categorize blood flow to particular depths; this can help improve outcomes of medical treatments such pulse dye laser and photodynamic therapy treatments.

  20. Application of synthetic photostable retinoids induces novel limb and facial phenotypes during chick embryogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Real, R E; Budge, J J R; Marder, T B; Whiting, A; Hunt, P N; Przyborski, S A

    2014-04-01

    We have recently developed a range of synthetic retinoid analogues which include the compounds EC23 and EC19. They are stable on exposure to light and are predicted to be resistant to the normal metabolic processes involved in the inactivation of retinoids in vivo. Based on the position of the terminal carboxylic acid groups in the compounds we suggest that EC23 is a structural analogue of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and EC19 is an analogue of 13-cis retinoic acid. Their effects on the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells has been previously described in vitro and are consistent with this hypothesis. We present herein the first description of the effects of these molecules in vivo. Retinoids were applied to the anterior limb buds of chicken embryos in ovo via ion-exchange beads. We found that retinoid EC23 produces effects on the wing digits similar to ATRA, but does so at two orders of magnitude lower concentration. When larger quantities of EC23 are applied, a novel phenotype is obtained involving production of multiple digit 1s on the anterior limb. This corresponds to differential effects of ATRA and EC23 on sonic hedgehog (shh) expression in the developing limb bud. With EC23 application we also find digit 1 phenotypes similar to thumb duplications described in the clinical literature. EC23 and ATRA are shown to have effects on the entire proximal-distal axis of the limb, including hitherto undescribed effects on the scapula. This includes suppression of expression of the scapula marker Pax1. EC23 also produces effects similar to those of ATRA on the developing face, producing reductions of the upper beak at concentrations two orders of magnitude lower than ATRA. In contrast, EC19, which is structurally very similar to EC23, has novel, less severe effects on the face and rarely alters limb development. EC19 and ATRA are effective at similar concentrations. These results further demonstrate the ability of retinoids to influence embryonic development. Moreover, EC23 represents a useful new tool to investigate developmental processes and probe the mechanisms underlying congenital abnormalities in vertebrates including man. PMID:24303996

  1. RNAi-mediated gene-targeting through systemic application of polyethylenimine (PEI)-complexed siRNA in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Urban-Klein; S Werth; S Abuharbeid; F Czubayko; A Aigner

    2005-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) represents a powerful, naturally occurring biological strategy for inhibition of gene expression. It is mediated through small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which trigger specific mRNA degradation. In mammalian systems, however, the application of siRNAs is severely limited by the instability and poor delivery of unmodified siRNA molecules into the cells in vivo. In this study, we show that

  2. Sustained Growth of the Ex Vivo Ablation Zones' Critical Short Axis Using Gas-cooled Radiofrequency Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Rempp, Hansjoerg, E-mail: hansjoerg.rempp@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Scharpf, Marcus [Insitute of Pathology, Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Department of General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy (Germany); Voigtlaender, Matthias [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH (Germany); Schraml, Christina; Schmidt, Diethard [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Fend, Falko [Insitute of Pathology, Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Department of General Pathology and Pathological Anatomy (Germany); Claussen, Claus D. [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Enderle, Markus D. [ERBE Elektromedizin GmbH (Germany); Pereira, Philippe L. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Minimalinvasive Therapien und Nuklearmedizin (Germany); Clasen, Stephan [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the ablation zones created with a gas-cooled bipolar radiofrequency applicator performed on ex vivo bovine liver tissue. Materials and Methods: A total of 320 ablations with an internally gas-cooled bipolar radiofrequency applicator were performed on fresh ex vivo bovine liver tissue, varying the ablation time (5, 10, 15, and 20 min), power (20, 30, 40, and 50 W), and gas pressure of the CO{sub 2} used for cooling (585, 600, 615, 630, 645 psi), leading to a total of 80 different parameter combinations. Size and shape of the white coagulation zone were assessed. Results: The largest complete ablation zone was achieved after 20 min of implementing 50 W and 645 psi, resulting in a short axis of mean 46 {+-} 1 mm and a long axis of 56 {+-} 2 mm (mean {+-} standard deviation). Short-axis diameters increased between 5 and 20 min of ablation time at 585 psi (increase of the short axis was 45% at 30 W, 29% at 40 W, and 39% at 50 W). This increase was larger at 645 psi (113% at 30 W, 67% at 40 W, and 70% at 50 W). Macroscopic assessment and NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) staining revealed incompletely ablated tissue along the needle track in 18 parameter combinations including low-power settings (20 and 30 W) and different cooling levels and ablation times. Conclusion: Gas-cooled radiofrequency applicators increase the short-axis diameter of coagulation in an ex vivo setting if appropriate parameters are selected.

  3. Biosensors based on inorganic nanoparticles with biomimetic properties: Biomedical applications and in vivo cytotoxicity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ispas, Cristina R.

    The rapid progress of nanotechnology and advanced nanomaterials production offer significant opportunities for designing powerful biosensing devices with enhanced performances. This thesis introduces ceria (CeO 2) nanoparticles and its congeners as a new class of materials with huge potential in bioanalytical and biosensing applications. Unique redox, catalytic and oxygen storage/release properties of ceria nanoparticles, originating from their dual oxidation state are used to design biomedical sensors with high sensitivity and low oxygen dependency. This thesis describes a new approach for fabrication of implantable microbiosensors designed for monitoring neurological activity in physiological conditions. Understanding the mechanisms involved in neurological signaling and functioning is of great physiological importance. In this respect, the development of effective methods that allow accurate detection and quantification of biological analytes (i.e. L-glutamate and glucose) associated with neurological processes is of paramount importance. The performance of most analytical techniques currently used to monitor L-glutamate and glucose is suboptimal and only a limited number of approaches address the problem of operation in oxygen-restricted conditions, such as ischemic brain injury. Over the past couple of years, enzyme based biosensors have been used to investigate processes related to L-glutamate release/uptake and the glucose cycle within the brain. However, most of these sensors, based on oxidoreductase enzymes, do not work in conditions of limited oxygen availability. This thesis presents the development of a novel sensing technology for the detection of L-glutamate and glucose in conditions of oxygen deprivation. This technology provides real-time assessment of the concentrations of these analytes with high sensitivity, wide linear range, and low oxygen dependence. The fabrication, characterization and optimization of enzyme microbiosensors are discussed. This work introduces a new generic approach of improving the sensitivity of oxidase-based enzymatic assays and indicates that ceria and its mixture with other metal oxide nanoparticles could be used to minimize the problems associated with variations of the oxygen. These materials have great potential in bioanalytical and biotechnological applications and offer great opportunities for development of implantable sensing devices for in vivo and in vitro monitoring of analytes of clinical relevance. Additionally, this thesis evaluates the toxicity of different metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by using zebrafish embryos as a toxicological target. Because of their similarities with other vertebrates, rapid development and low cost, zebrafish embryos are ideal animal models for probing toxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials. Among the nanomaterials tested, nickel nanoparticles were characterized by high toxicity and induced delayed development and morphological malformations, while metal oxides nanoparticles (i.e. ceria nanoparticles) had no toxic effects.

  4. In vivo Uptake and Retention of Fluoride in Human Surface Enamel after Application of a Fluoride-Containing Lacquer (Fluor Protector®)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bruun; H. Givskov; K. Stoltze

    1980-01-01

    The ability of a newly developed urethane lacquer containing silane fluoride (Fluor Protector®) to deposit fluoride in the enamel was tested in vivo using the enamel biopsy technique. The enamel fluoride concentration was measured before, 1 week after a single application or two applications of the lacquer performed with a 1-week interval, and 6 months after two applications. At the

  5. Application of electrical stimulation for functional tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radisic, Milica (Inventor); Park, Hyoungshin (Inventor); Langer, Robert (Inventor); Freed, Lisa (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides new methods for the in vitro preparation of bioartificial tissue equivalents and their enhanced integration after implantation in vivo. These methods include submitting a tissue construct to a biomimetic electrical stimulation during cultivation in vitro to improve its structural and functional properties, and/or in vivo, after implantation of the construct, to enhance its integration with host tissue and increase cell survival and functionality. The inventive methods are particularly useful for the production of bioartificial equivalents and/or the repair and replacement of native tissues that contain electrically excitable cells and are subject to electrical stimulation in vivo, such as, for example, cardiac muscle tissue, striated skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue, bone, vasculature, and nerve tissue.

  6. Application of the front detection photopiroelectric configuration to the study of in vivo human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Juarez, G.; Pichardo-Molina, J. L.; Rocha-Osornio, L. N.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Ivanov, R.; Huerta-Franco, B.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Vargas-Luna, M.

    2005-06-01

    We report a novel method for measurements in vivo of the penetration of topically applied substances by inverse photopyroelectric configuration. This configuration was used to obtain the thermal effusivity, as a function of time, of in vivo human skin with ointments. This thermal magnitude was employed to characterize the penetration on the anterior-face of the volunteers forearm. This thermal effusivity was fitted with an exponential function in order to obtain a parameter (characteristic time) for the penetration. The substances used were a sunscreen and Vick Vaporub ointment. We found that the sunscreen have a characteristic time bigger that the Vick Vaporub ointment. The feasibility of skin hydration studies are discussed.

  7. In vivo molecular imaging using nanomaterials: General in vivo characteristics of nano-sized reagents and applications for cancer diagnosis (Review)

    PubMed Central

    ROSENBLUM, LAUREN T.; KOSAKA, NOBUYUKI; MITSUNAGA, MAKOTO; CHOYKE, PETER L.; KOBAYASHI, HISATAKA

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles present a new collection of contrast agents for the field of in vivo molecular imaging. This review focuses on promising molecular imaging probes for optical and magnetic resonance imaging based on four representative nanomaterial(s) platforms: quantum dots, upconversion phosphors, superparamagnetic iron oxides, and dendrimer-based agents. Quantum dots are extremely efficient fluorescent nanoparticles with size-tunable emission properties, enabling high sensitivity and greater depth penetration. Their heavy metal composition and long retention in the body, however, pose concerns for clinical translational applications. Upconversion phosphors generate excellent signal-to-background contrast because they emit light with higher energy than the excitation photons and autofluorescence signals. For MRI, iron oxide particles also generate excellent signal and have been used in liver imaging and for cell tracking studies. As they are metabolized through endogenous iron salvage pathways, they have already been introduced as clinical contrast agents. Lastly, dendrimers, a ‘soft’ nanoparticle, can be used as a structural basis for the attachment of small molecule imaging agents and/or targeting groups. This array of nanoparticles should offer insights into the uses and potentials of nanoparticles for the molecular imaging. PMID:20455640

  8. Biodegradable cationic polymers as gene delivery carriers: From synthesis to in vivo application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JORDY LUTEN

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis several new cationic and biodegradable polymers have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated in vitro for their transfection capabilities. Some of the polyplexes were also evaluated in in vivo tumour models. In Chapter 1 an overview about the current literature of degradable polymers for gene delivery is given. In Chapter 2 a new class of biodegradable cationic gene

  9. Application of multiphoton steady state and lifetime imaging to mapping of tumor vascular architecture in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameer-Beg, Simon; Barber, Paul R.; Hodgkiss, R. J.; Locke, R. J.; Newman, Robert G.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Wilson, J.

    2002-06-01

    Recent interest in vascular targeting and anti-angiogenic drug treatments for cancer has stimulated fundamental research regarding the modes of action of these drugs as well as studies of the development and re-modeling of the vascular network following treatment. Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy is employed for in vivo mapping of three-dimensional blood vessel distribution in tumors grown in rodent dorsal skin-flap window chamber preparations. Accurate visualization of the vasculature in three-dimensions allows us to perform dynamic experiments in thick biological specimens in vivo. Examples of in vivo imaging of tumor vasculature are given and compared to normal tissue vasculature. The dynamic responses of blood vessels to treatment with the vascular targeting drug combretastatin A4-P are presented and discussed. The implementation of time-domain imaging by reversed stop-start time-correlated single photon counting (RSS-TCSPC) is discussed as a method for feature extraction in the presence of exogenous and endogenous fluorophores. In particular, the segmentation of the vascular network is demonstrated. Additional contrast, indicative of probe environmental factors, may also be realized. We present examples of in vivo lifetime imaging as a method to elucidate the physiological processes of the tumor microenvironment.

  10. In vivo Human Skin Barrier Modulation by Topical Application of Fatty Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanafi Tanojo; Esther Boelsma; Hans E. Junginger; Maria Ponec; Harry E. Boddé

    1998-01-01

    The in vivo effects of fatty acids on skin barrier function were assessed by measuring: (i) transepidermal water loss (TEWL), (ii) diffusion lag times for hexyl nicotinate (HN), and (iii) irritant skin response using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) in combination with visual scoring. Two classes of fatty acids have been investigated: straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA), having 6–12 carbon atoms,

  11. A new strategy for in vivo spectral editing. Application to GABA editing using selective homonuclear polarization transfer spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Yang, Jehoon; Choi, In-Young; Li, Shizhe Steve; Chen, Zhengguang

    2004-10-01

    A novel single-shot in vivo spectral editing method is proposed in which the signal to be detected, is regenerated anew from the thermal equilibrium magnetization of a source to which it is J-coupled. The thermal equilibrium magnetization of the signal to be detected together with those of overlapping signals are suppressed by single-shot gradient dephasing prior to the signal regeneration process. Application of this new strategy to in vivo GABA editing using selective homonuclear polarization transfer allows complete suppression of overlapping creatine and glutathione while detecting the GABA-4 methylene resonance at 3.02 ppm with an editing yield similar to that of conventional editing methods. The NAA methyl group at 2.02 ppm was simultaneously detected and can be used as an internal navigator echo for correcting the zero order phase and frequency shifts and as an internal reference for concentration. This new method has been demonstrated for robust in vivo GABA editing in the rat brain and for study of GABA synthesis after acute vigabatrin administration.

  12. A biocompatible in vivo ligation reaction and its application for noninvasive bioluminescent imaging of protease activity in living mice.

    PubMed

    Godinat, Aurélien; Park, Hyo Min; Miller, Stephen C; Cheng, Ke; Hanahan, Douglas; Sanman, Laura E; Bogyo, Matthew; Yu, Allen; Nikitin, Gennady F; Stahl, Andreas; Dubikovskaya, Elena A

    2013-05-17

    The discovery of biocompatible reactions had a tremendous impact on chemical biology, allowing the study of numerous biological processes directly in complex systems. However, despite the fact that multiple biocompatible reactions have been developed in the past decade, very few work well in living mice. Here we report that D-cysteine and 2-cyanobenzothiazoles can selectively react with each other in vivo to generate a luciferin substrate for firefly luciferase. The success of this "split luciferin" ligation reaction has important implications for both in vivo imaging and biocompatible labeling strategies. First, the production of a luciferin substrate can be visualized in a live mouse by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and furthermore allows interrogation of targeted tissues using a "caged" luciferin approach. We therefore applied this reaction to the real-time noninvasive imaging of apoptosis associated with caspase 3/7. Caspase-dependent release of free D-cysteine from the caspase 3/7 peptide substrate Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-D-Cys (DEVD-(D-Cys)) allowed selective reaction with 6-amino-2-cyanobenzothiazole (NH(2)-CBT) in vivo to form 6-amino-D-luciferin with subsequent light emission from luciferase. Importantly, this strategy was found to be superior to the commercially available DEVD-aminoluciferin substrate for imaging of caspase 3/7 activity. Moreover, the split luciferin approach enables the modular construction of bioluminogenic sensors, where either or both reaction partners could be caged to report on multiple biological events. Lastly, the luciferin ligation reaction is 3 orders of magnitude faster than Staudinger ligation, suggesting further applications for both bioluminescence and specific molecular targeting in vivo. PMID:23463944

  13. Applications of RNA interference: current state and prospects for siRNA-based strategies in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achim Aigner

    2007-01-01

    Within the recent years, RNA interference (RNAi) has become an almost-standard method for in vitro knockdown of any target\\u000a gene of interest. Now, one major focus is to further explore its potential in vivo, including the development of novel therapeutic\\u000a strategies. From the mechanism, it becomes clear that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) play a pivotal role in triggering RNAi.\\u000a Thus,

  14. Miniature Uncooled Infrared Sensitive Detectors for in Vivo Biomedical Imaging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P. G.; Demos, S. G.; Rajic, S.

    1998-06-01

    Broadband infrared (OR) radiation detectors have been developed using miniature, inexpensive, mass produced microcantilevers capable of detecting temperature differences as small as lea(-6) K. Microcantilevers made out of semiconductor materials can be used either as uncurled photon or thermal detectors. Mounted on a probe mm in diameter a number of microcantilevers can be accommodated in the working channel of existing endoscopes for in vivo proximity focus measurements inside the human body.

  15. Application of XRF to measure strontium in human bone in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    As a basis for better understanding the role that Sr fulfills in human body, it is desirable to measure directly the main Sr store in human body. Although strontium is omnipresent in human tissues, 99% is stored inthe mineral portion of the bone. In the present study x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was applied to measure the strontium content of the tibial shaft in vivo. The feasibility studies showed that normal levels of stable strontium in the bone can be measured successfully.

  16. Use of acousto-optic tuneable filters for imaging fluorescence spectroscopy applications in vivo and in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Whelan, Maurice P.; Aprahamian, Marc

    2005-04-01

    We describe the design and development two prototype spectroscopy imaging instruments based on custom-made acousto-optic tuneable filters (AOTF). These devices can be coupled to many standard imaging systems (e.g. an endoscope or a fluorescence microscope). The instruments developed offer significant advantages over typical fixed-filter imaging systems in terms of flexibility, performance and diagnostic potential. Any filtering wavelength in the visible range can be rapidly selected either by random access or continuous tuning. Since filtering is achieved through a diffractive process, an excellent signal-to-noise ratio is achieved that allows the detection of extremely low fluorescence signals such as autofluorescence. These adapters were designed to allow the simultaneous imaging of both the filtered and unfiltered signals. A first prototype instrument was developed and demonstrated for in-vivo applications. When attached to the eyepiece of a commercial endoscope, it allowed the simultaneous white light endoscopy and fluorescence imaging. Autofluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), an endogenous chromophore that traces early-stage diseased tissue experiencing an inflammatory response, was mapped in vivo on a rat model. The system has also been approved for medical use and human clinical trials are underway. In addition, we are currently testing a second AOTF module for in vitro applications. This new AOTF adapter was designed to be coupled to the viewing port of a commercial fluorescence microscope to realise a fluorescence imaging spectrometer capable of detecting and mapping fluorescent biomolecules.

  17. Windows on the Human Body – in Vivo High-Field Magnetic Resonance Research and Applications in Medicine and Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Ewald; Meyerspeer, Martin; Fischmeister, Florian Ph. S.; Grabner, Günther; Bauer, Herbert; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Analogous to the evolution of biological sensor-systems, the progress in “medical sensor-systems”, i.e., diagnostic procedures, is paradigmatically described. Outstanding highlights of this progress are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), which enable non-invasive, in vivo acquisition of morphological, functional, and metabolic information from the human body with unsurpassed quality. Recent achievements in high and ultra-high field MR (at 3 and 7 Tesla) are described, and representative research applications in Medicine and Psychology in Austria are discussed. Finally, an overview of current and prospective research in multi-modal imaging, potential clinical applications, as well as current limitations and challenges is given. PMID:22219684

  18. In vivo application of poly-3-hydroxyoctanoate as peripheral nerve graft

    PubMed Central

    Hazer, D. Burcu; Bal, Ercan; Nurlu, Gülay; Benli, Kemal; Balci, Serdar; Öztürk, Feral; Hazer, Baki

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the degree of biocompatibility and neuroregeneration of a polymer tube, poly-3-hydroxyoctanoate (PHO) in nerve gap repair. Methods: Forty Wistar Albino male rats were randomized into two groups: autologous nerve gap repair group and PHO tube repair group. In each group, a 10-mm right sciatic nerve defect was created and reconstructed accordingly. Neuroregeneration was studied by sciatic function index (SFI), electromyography, and immunohistochemical studies on Days 7, 21, 45 and 60 of implantation. Biocompatibility was analyzed by the capsule formation around the conduit. Biodegradation was analyzed by the molecular weight loss in vivo. Results: Electrophysiological and histomorphometric assessments demonstrated neuroregeneration in both groups over time. In the experimental group, a straight alignment of the Schwann cells parallel to the axons was detected. However, autologous nerve graft seems to have a superior neuroregeneration compared to PHO grafts. Minor biodegradation was observed in PHO conduit at the end of 60 d. Conclusions: Although neuroregeneration is detected in PHO grafts with minor degradation in 60 d, autologous nerve graft is found to be superior in axonal regeneration compared to PHO nerve tube grafts. PHO conduits were found to create minor inflammatory reaction in vivo, resulting in good soft tissue response. PMID:24190445

  19. In vitro & in vivo studies on lornoxicam loaded nanoemulsion gels for topical application.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Sandipan; Ghosh, Surajit K; Ray, Subhabrata; Kaurav, Surendra Singh; Mazumder, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to increase the solubility, in vitro skin permeability of lornoxicam from semisolid topical formulations and also to investigate the in vivo potential of nanoemulsion formulation. Optimized lornoxicam loaded nanoemulsion was prepared successfully by spontaneous self-emulsification method and the size of the stable formulations was found within the range of 102 to 200 nm. The stable nanoemulsion formulations characterized for viscosity, droplet size, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and refractive index. In vitro permeation rate of nanoemulsion and conventional gel of lornoxicam (LX) were determined. Prmeability parameters like steady-state flux (Jss), permeability coefficient (Kp), and enhancement ratio (Er) were significantly increased in nanoemulsion NE8 and the nanogel NG8 as compared to conventional gel (LG). In vivo studies revealed a significant increase in anti-inflammatory effects as compared with conventional gel of LX. The anti-inflammatory effects of formulation NG8 showed a significant increase in percent inhibition value when compared with control, this difference was found to be highly significant (p<0.001). This work shows for the first time that lornoxicam can be formulated into nanoemulsions and may show promise in enhancing solubility and permeation. PMID:24266509

  20. Monoclonal antibodies reactive with human breast or ovarian carcinoma: In vivo applications

    SciTech Connect

    Thor, A.D.; Edgerton, S.M. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) are unique and useful bioprobes that allow in vivo targeting of membrane-associated or circulating antigens. Most of the clinical trials to date have used low dosages of radiolabeled MoAb given in a single dose. Newer studies have included antibody fragments, repeated injections, intraperitoneal (IP) administration, and other labels such as 90Y. Clinical MoAb trials are often arduous, expensive, and time-consuming to perform. Before human use, animal studies and extensive MoAb characterization are required. The production of pharmaceutical grade, radiolabeled MoAb is technically difficult and costly. Clinical trials require administrative and patient consent as well as extensive written protocols. These studies necessitate interdepartmental and intradepartmental cooperation and coordination. Furthermore, the use of in vivo radiolabeled probes impacts many levels of health care providers from janitorial, nursing, and technical staff to laboratories and physicians. Simple blood tests or disposal of body excretions may concern nursing or technical staff with the possibility of radiation exposure. The responsibility for study design, personnel involvement, and prospective use in patients without a definitive cancer diagnosis ultimately rests with the physician. While many issues have been addressed, additional clinical trials, consideration of safety issues, and standardization between institutions will be necessary before the use of radiolabeled MoAb for diagnosis, management, or therapy of human tumors becomes routine. Continued cooperation and funding should ensure its achievement. 136 references.

  1. Medical applications of in vivo neutron inelastic scattering and neutron activation analysis: Technical similarities to detection of explosives and contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehayias, J. J.

    2001-07-01

    Nutritional status of patients can be evaluated by monitoring changes in elemental body composition. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used in vivo to assess elements characteristic of specific body compartments. There are similarities between the body composition techniques and the detection of hidden explosives and narcotics. All samples have to be examined in depth and the ratio of elements provides a "signature" of the chemical of interest. The N/H and C/O ratios measure protein and fat content in the body. Similarly, a high C/O ratio is characteristic of narcotics and a low C/O together with a strong presence of N is a signature of some explosives. The available time for medical applications is about 20 min—compared to a few seconds for the detection of explosives—but the permitted radiation exposure is limited. In vivo neutron analysis is used to measure H, O, C, N, P, Na, Cl, and Ca for the study of the mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging and wasting diseases, and to investigate methods of preserving function and quality of life in the elderly.

  2. New labeled derivatives of the neuroprotective peptide colivelin: synthesis, characterization, and first in vitro and in vivo applications.

    PubMed

    Kostomoiri, Myrta; Zikos, Christos; Benaki, Dimitra; Triantis, Charalampos; Sagnou, Marina; Paravatou-Petsotas, Maria; Papadaki, Amalia; Boleti, Haralabia; Papadopoulos, Minas; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Pelecanou, Maria; Livaniou, Evangelia

    2015-02-01

    Colivelin (CL), first reported in 2005, is the most potent member of the humanin family of neuroprotective peptides with in vitro and in vivo rescuing action against insults associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of the present work is the design, synthesis and characterization of specific CL derivatives that can be used as molecular probes in the investigation of the unknown mechanism of CL action. Within this framework, three CL derivatives bearing suitable tags, i.e., the fluorescent moiety FITC, the streptavidin-counterpart biotinyl-group, and the (99m)Tc-radiometal chelating unit dimethylGly-Ser-Cys, were developed and subsequently applied in biological evaluation experiments. Specifically, the FITC-labeled derivative of CL was used in confocal microscopy, where specific binding at the periphery of F11 cells was observed; the biotin-labeled derivative of CL was used in an in-house developed ELISA-type assay, where specific and concentration-dependent binding with the ?-amyloid peptide of AD was shown; finally, the (99m)Tc-radiolabeled derivative of CL was used in in vivo biodistribution studies in healthy Swiss Albino mice, where 0.58% of the radioactivity administered was measured in the mouse brain 2min after injection. The above first successful applications of the CL probes demonstrate their potential to contribute in the field of neuroprotective peptides. PMID:25575783

  3. Application of a new high-speed magnetic deformable mirror for in-vivo retinal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-Mata, Sandra E.; Jones, Steven M.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Werner, John S.

    2011-08-01

    Nowadays in ophthalmologic practice several commercial instruments are available to image patient retinas in vivo. Many modern fundus cameras and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes allow acquisition of two dimensional en face images of the retina with both back reflected as well as fluorescent light. Additionally, optical coherence tomography systems allow non-invasive probing of three-dimensional retinal morphology. For all of these instruments the available lateral resolution is limited by optical quality of the human eye used as the imaging objective. To improve lateral resolution and achieve diffraction-limited imaging, adaptive optics (AO) can be implemented with any of these imaging systems to correct both static and dynamic aberrations inherent in human eyes. Most of the wavefront correctors used previously in AO systems have limited dynamic range and an insufficient number of actuators to achieve diffraction-limited correction of most human eyes. Thus, additional corrections were necessary, either by trial lenses or additional deformable mirrors (DMs). The UC Davis AO flood-illuminated fundus camera system described in this paper has been previously used to acquire in vivo images of the photoreceptor mosaic and for psychophysical studies on normal and diseased retinas. These results were acquired using a DM manufactured by Litton ITEK (DM109), which has 109 actuators arranged in a hexagonal array below a continuous front-surface mirror. It has an approximate surface actuator stroke of +/-2?m. Here we present results with a new hi-speed magnetic DM manufactured by ALPAO (DM97, voice coil technology), which has 97 actuators and similar inter-actuator stroke (>3?m, mirror surface) but much higher low-order aberration correction (defocus stroke of at least +/-30?m) than the previous one. In this paper we report results of testing performance of the ALPAO DM for the correction of human eye aberrations. Additionally changes made to our AO flood illuminated system are presented along with images of the model eye retina and in-vivo human retina acquired with this system.

  4. Spectrophotometry in vivo, a technique for local and direct enzymatic assays: application to brain acetylcholinesterase.

    PubMed Central

    Testylier, G; Gourmelon, P

    1987-01-01

    In vivo enzymology is not widely studied due to the lack of a well-adapted technology. We have developed a system that allows local and long-term spectrophotometric assays in brain tissue of live animals. It utilizes a miniaturized optical probe consisting of a multibarrel micropipette for reagent injections and optical fibers for light absorption measurements. We have applied this system to the colorimetric determination of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in rats. The reproducibility of the assay was demonstrated by repetitive assays over 24 hr, its specificity was established through the use of a highly specific organophosphorus inhibitor, and the activities measured in different brain areas agreed with the known distribution of acetylcholinesterase. No electroencephalographic abnormalities and no change in vigilance level were observed in the experimental animals. This methodology should prove to be useful for the colorimetric measurement of different enzymes or metabolites in various organs. PMID:3479782

  5. Application Of Micro-Highspeed Flow Visualization In Study Of Blood Cells Rheology In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui-shah, Li; Ni, Liang; Yu-ju, Lin; Jian, Zhang; Qiang, Wang

    1990-01-01

    A new experimental method has been developed in study of rheological behaviour of single red blood cell (RBC) in passing through the capillaries in vivo, using the technique of micro-highspeed cinecamera and micro-highspeed video system. It is one of the most important topics in the study of microcirculatory theories that fur-ther understand the deformability of RBC, flow states, velocities and dynamic mechanimi. A micro-highspeed flow visualization system consisted of essential elements: a biological microscope, a highspeed cinecmera with 35 mm film, a highspeed motion analysis system SP2000 (Kodak U.S.A) and a cold-light source etc. We have investigated the rheological parameters of single RBC in vivo in single capillaries which are about 3.3 to 6.9 um in diameters. The RBCs velocities are 0.1 to 0.25 mm/sec, and maximum shear stress on the outside surface of RBC is 13.8 dyn/cml, and maximum extension of RBC is 10.3 um. In aforementioned experiment, the highspeed flow visualization system frequency at 530 frames/sec and 200 frames/sec were used respectively. In addition, the vasomotion of precapillary sphincters have been measured and a complicated coupling phenomena between the RBC and sphincter have also been recorded and analysed. The experiment were performed with intravital hamsters and frogs. The results obtained by this system shown that the method designed by us are an effective tool in the study of rheological behaviour of single RBC in passing through the blood capillaries in vivoz.

  6. Practical Applications of in Vivo and ex Vivo MRI in Toxicologic Pathology Using a Novel High-performance Compact MRI System.

    PubMed

    Tempel-Brami, Catherine; Schiffenbauer, Yael S; Nyska, Abraham; Ezov, Nati; Spector, Itai; Abramovitch, Rinat; Maronpot, Robert R

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used in preclinical research and drug development and is a powerful noninvasive method for assessment of phenotypes and therapeutic efficacy in murine models of disease. In vivo MRI provides an opportunity for longitudinal evaluation of tissue changes and phenotypic expression in experimental animal models. Ex vivo MRI of fixed samples permits a thorough examination of multiple digital slices while leaving the specimen intact for subsequent conventional hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology. With the advent of new compact MRI systems that are designed to operate in most conventional labs without the cost, complexity, and infrastructure needs of conventional MRI systems, the possibility of MRI becoming a practical modality is now viable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the capabilities of a new compact, high-performance MRI platform (M2™; Aspect Imaging, Israel) as it relates to preclinical toxicology studies. This overview will provide examples of major organ system pathologies with an emphasis on how compact MRI can serve as an important adjunct to conventional pathology by nondestructively providing 3-dimensional (3-D) digital data sets, detailed morphological insights, and quantitative information. Comparative data using compact MRI for both in vivo and ex vivo are provided as well as validation using conventional H&E. PMID:25694086

  7. Temperature dependence of the optoacoustic transformation efficiency in ex vivo tissues for application in monitoring thermal therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Sergey M.; Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Pelivanov, Ivan M.

    2012-06-01

    The calibration dependencies of the optoacoustic (OA) transformation efficiency on tissue temperature are obtained for the application in OA temperature monitoring during thermal therapies. Accurate measurement of the OA signal amplitude versus temperature is performed in different ex vivo tissues in the temperature range 25°C to 80°C. The investigated tissues were selected to represent different structural components: chicken breast (skeletal muscle), porcine lard (fatty tissue), and porcine liver (richly perfused tissue). Backward mode of the OA signal detection and a narrow probe laser beam were used in the experiments to avoid the influence of changes in light scattering with tissue coagulation on the OA signal amplitude. Measurements were performed in heating and cooling regimes. Characteristic behavior of the OA signal amplitude temperature dependences in different temperature ranges were described in terms of changes in different structural components of the tissue samples. The accuracy of temperature reconstruction from the obtained calibration dependencies for the investigated tissue types is evaluated.

  8. In vivo determination of the diclofenac skin reservoir: comparison between passive, occlusive, and iontophoretic application

    PubMed Central

    Clijsen, Ron; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Barel, André Odilon; Clarys, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aim There is scarce information concerning the pharmacodynamic behavior of topical substances used in the physiotherapy setting. The aim of the present study was to estimate the formation and emptying of the diclofenac (DF) skin reservoir after passive, semiocclusive, and electrically assisted applications of DF. Subjects and methods Five different groups of healthy volunteers (ntotal=60, 23 male and 37 female), participated in this study. A 1% DF (Voltaren Emulgel) formulation (12 mg) was applied on the volar forearms on randomized defined circular skin areas of 7 cm2. DF was applied for 20 minutes under three different conditions at the same time. The presence of DF in the skin results in a reduction of the methyl nicotinate (MN) response. To estimate the bioavailability of DF in the skin, MN responses at different times following initial DF application (1.5, 6, 24, 32, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours) were analyzed. Results At 1.5 hours after the initial DF application, a significant decrease in MN response was detected for the occluded and iontophoretic delivery. Passive application resulted in a decrease of the MN response from 6 hours post-DF application. The inhibition remained up to 32 hours post-DF application for the iontophoretic delivery, 48 hours for the occluded application, and 72 hours for the passive delivery. At 96 and 120 hours post-DF application none of the MN responses was inhibited. Conclusion The formation and emptying of a DF skin reservoir was found to be dependent on the DF-application mode. Penetration-enhanced delivery resulted in a faster emptying of the reservoir. PMID:25709408

  9. The antioxidant capacity of milk--the application of different methods in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cloetens, L; Panee, J; Ĺkesson, B

    2013-01-01

    Milk contains a wide array of compounds with established or putative pro- or anti-oxidant function. The functions of these compounds have been intensively studied. This review focusses on some important aspects in this wide field namely the methodology for measurement of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the content of TAC and some related compounds in human and animal milks and infant formulas, and the effect of milk intake on antioxidant status in the body and on the activity of dietary flavonoids as studied in vitro and in vivo. Regarding methodology TAC in milk can be measured by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and some of their characteristics are reviewed. Milk, whey, high-molecular-weight and low-molecular-weight (LMW) fractions of whey have all been found to have antioxidant capacity using these techniques. The major antioxidant in the LMW fraction has been identified as urate. An extensive literature survey was made regarding data on the antioxidant capacity and related variables of milk obtained from different sources (human milk, infant formulas and animal milk) and subjected to different treatments. Differences in TAC between milks from different sources have been observed but due to the variety of techniques used no clear pattern is evident at present. Another important aspect is the putative effects of the intake of milk products on the antioxidant status of the consumer. A few studies performed in adults and premature infants are reviewed and it is stated that too little information is available to make any firm conclusions in this regard. Finally, a high interest has been devoted to the possible interference of milk with the antioxidant properties of flavonoid-rich food like tea. Most in vitro studies show an inhibition by milk on tea flavonoid activity whereas the results from the corresponding in vivo studies are equivocal. Our general conclusion is that several compounds in various milk fractions contribute to the antioxidant capacity of milk and that much further work is needed to unravel the complex interactions among the pro- and antioxidants, and their putative health effects on the consumer. PMID:24200020

  10. Aptamer photoregulation in vivo

    E-print Network

    Li, Lele

    The in vivo application of aptamers as therapeutics could be improved by enhancing target-specific accumulation while minimizing off-target uptake. We designed a light-triggered system that permits spatiotemporal regulation ...

  11. Application of an in vivo swine model for the determination of arsenic bioavailability in contaminated vegetables.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Albert L; Smith, Euan; Weber, John; Rees, Matthew; Rofe, Allan; Kuchel, Tim; Sansom, Lloyd; Naidu, Ravi

    2008-05-01

    Considerable information is available in the literature regarding the uptake of arsenic (As) from contaminated soil and irrigation water by vegetables. However, few studies have investigated As speciation in these crops while a dearth of information is available on As bioavailability following their consumption. In this study, the concentration and speciation of As in chard, radish, lettuce and mung beans was determined following hydroponic growth of the vegetables using As-contaminated water. In addition, As bioavailability was assessed using an in vivo swine feeding assay. While As concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 84.2mg As kg(-1) (dry weight), only inorganic As (arsenite and arsenate) was detected in the edible portions of the vegetables. When As bioavailability was assessed through monitoring blood plasma As concentrations following swine consumption of As-contaminated vegetables, between 50% and 100% of the administered As dose was absorbed and entered systemic circulation. Arsenic bioavailability decreased in the order mung beans>radish>lettuce=chard. PMID:18262220

  12. Preliminary experimental investigation of in vivo magnetic manipulation: results and potential application in hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Grady, M S; Howard, M A; Molloy, J A; Ritter, R C; Quate, E G; Gillies, G T

    1989-01-01

    The first in vivo experiments in support of a new technique for delivering stereotaxic hyperthermia have been conducted at the Experimental Surgery Facility of the University of Virginia's Medical Center. We call this technique the "Video Tumor Fighter." In each of twelve trials a single, small permanent magnet or train of small permanent magnets was implanted on the brain surface of adult canine models. In three of the trials, this "seed" (typically 6-mm diameter X 6-mm long) was moved by magnetic manipulation to different locations within the brain. In two other trials, the seed moved along the interface between the brain and the inner vault of the skull. The noncontact magnetic manipulation was accomplished by coupling the permanently magnetized seed to the large dc magnetic field gradient created by a water-cooled coil surrounding the animal's head. The seed's motions were monitored with x-ray fluoroscopy; its rate of movement was found to be approximately 0.8 mm s-1. The forces required to produce these motions were on the order of 0.07 N. We document here the instrumentation used in these trials, describe the experimental procedures employed, and discuss the technical aspects of the results. PMID:2654597

  13. Ketorolac tromethamine floating beads for oral application: Characterization and in vitro/in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Abou El Ela, Amal El Sayeh F; Hassan, Maha A; El-Maraghy, Dalia A

    2014-09-01

    The floating beads have been employed to make a sustained release of the drug in the stomach and to decrease the dose of the drug and hence overcome its side effects. The common benefits of the floating beads were it is easy preparation, without the need of a high temperature, and high percentage of the drug entrapment. In the present work, the Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) floating beads were prepared by extrusion congealing method utilizing calcium carbonate as a gas forming agent. The physical characters of the produced beads were investigated such as KT yield, KT loading, and entrapment efficiency of the drug. In addition, floating behavior, swelling, particle size, morphology and KT stability were also evaluated. In vitro drug release study was carried out, and the kinetics of the release was evaluated using the linear regression method. Furthermore, the in vivo analgesic effect of KT after oral administration of the selected formula of floating beads (F10) was carried out using hot plate and tail flick methods. Oral commercial KT tablets and KT solution were used for the comparison. The prepared beads remained floated for more than 8 h. The optimized formulation (F10) exhibited prolonged drug release (more than 8 h) and the drug release follows the Higuchi kinetic model, with a Fickian diffusion mechanism according to Korsmeyer-Peppas (n = 0.466). Moreover, F10 showed a sustained analgesic effect as compared to the commercial tablet. PMID:25161380

  14. Optical clearing of skin tissue produced by application of glucose solution: in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Korolevich, Alexander N.; Stolnitz, Mikhail M.; Genina, Elina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Sinichkin, Yuri P.; Dubina, Nataly S.; Vecherinski, Sergey I.; Belsley, Michael S.

    2006-08-01

    We present experimental results on optical properties of the human skin controlled by administration ofthe 40%-glucose solution. In vivo reflectance spectra of the human skin were measured. Results of the experimental study of influence of the 40%-glucose solution on reflectance spectra of the human skin are presented. A significant decrease of reflectance of the human skin under action of the osmotic agent is demonstrated. The experiments show that administration of the glucose solution allows for effective control of tissue optical characteristics, that makes skin more transparent, thereby increasing the ability of light penetration through the tissue. Laser Doppler flowmetry has been used for study of skin blood microcirculation under the action of the glucose solution. Results of the experiments demonstrated that at the action of the glucose solution blood perfusion and blood concentration increase, however the mean blood velocity does not change. The presented results can be used in developing functional imaging techniques, including OCT and reflectance spectroscopy. A potential benefit of the optical clearing technique is the improvement of laser therapeutic techniques that rely on sufficient light penetration to a target embedded in tissue.

  15. Ketorolac tromethamine floating beads for oral application: Characterization and in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Abou el Ela, Amal El Sayeh F.; Hassan, Maha A.; El- Maraghy, Dalia A.

    2013-01-01

    The floating beads have been employed to make a sustained release of the drug in the stomach and to decrease the dose of the drug and hence overcome its side effects. The common benefits of the floating beads were it is easy preparation, without the need of a high temperature, and high percentage of the drug entrapment. In the present work, the Ketorolac tromethamine (KT) floating beads were prepared by extrusion congealing method utilizing calcium carbonate as a gas forming agent. The physical characters of the produced beads were investigated such as KT yield, KT loading, and entrapment efficiency of the drug. In addition, floating behavior, swelling, particle size, morphology and KT stability were also evaluated. In vitro drug release study was carried out, and the kinetics of the release was evaluated using the linear regression method. Furthermore, the in vivo analgesic effect of KT after oral administration of the selected formula of floating beads (F10) was carried out using hot plate and tail flick methods. Oral commercial KT tablets and KT solution were used for the comparison. The prepared beads remained floated for more than 8 h. The optimized formulation (F10) exhibited prolonged drug release (more than 8 h) and the drug release follows the Higuchi kinetic model, with a Fickian diffusion mechanism according to Korsmeyer-Peppas (n = 0.466). Moreover, F10 showed a sustained analgesic effect as compared to the commercial tablet. PMID:25161380

  16. In vivo biochemistry: Applications for small molecule biosensors in plant biology

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Alexander; Grossmann, Guido; Danielson, Jonas Ĺ.H.; Sosso, Davide; Chen, Li-Qing; Ho, Cheng Hsun; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Revolutionary new technologies, namely in the areas of DNA sequencing and molecular imaging, continue to impact new discoveries in plant science and beyond. For decades we have been able to determine properties of enzymes, receptors and transporters in vitro or in heterologous systems, and more recently been able to analyze their regulation at the transcriptional level, use GFP reporters to obtain insights into cellular and subcellular localization, and measure ion and metabolite levels with unprecedented precision using mass spectrometry. However, we lack key information on location and dynamics of the substrates of enzymes, receptors and transporters, and on the regulation of these proteins in their cellular environment. Such information can now be obtained by transitioning from in vitro to in vivo biochemistry using biosensors. Genetically encoded fluorescent protein-based sensors for ion and metabolite dynamics provide highly resolved spatial and temporal information, and are complemented by sensors for pH, redox, voltage, and tension. They serve as powerful tools for identifying missing processes (e.g. glucose transport across ER membranes), components (e.g. SWEET sugar transporters for cellular sugar efflux), and signaling networks (e.g. from systematic screening of mutants that affect sugar transport or cytosolic and vacuolar pH). Combined with the knowledge of properties of enzymes and transporters and their interactions with the regulatory machinery, biosensors promise to be key diagnostic tools for systems and synthetic biology. PMID:23587939

  17. Multi-transmit beam forming for fast cardiac imaging--experimental validation and in vivo application.

    PubMed

    Tong, Ling; Ramalli, Alessandro; Jasaityte, Ruta; Tortoli, Piero; D'hooge, Jan

    2014-06-01

    High frame rate (HFR) echocardiography may be of benefit for functional analysis of the heart. In current clinical equipment, HFR is obtained using multi-line acquisition (MLA) which typically requires broadening of transmit beams. As this may result in a significant degradation of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the capacity of MLA to obtain high quality HFR images remains limited. As an alternative, we have demonstrated by computer simulation that simultaneously transmitting multiple focused beams into different directions [multi-line transmit (MLT)], can increase the frame rate without significantly compromising the spatial resolution or SNR. This study aimed to experimentally verify these theoretical predictions both in vitro and in vivo to demonstrate, for the first time, that cardiac MLT imaging is feasible. Hereto, the ultrasound advanced open platform, equipped with a 2.0 MHz phased array, was programmed to interleave MLT and conventional single line transmit (SLT) beam forming. Using these two beam forming methods, images of phantoms and healthy volunteers were acquired and investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results confirmed our simulations that image quality of a 4MLT imaging system with a Tukey apodization scheme is very competitive to that of SLT while providing a 4 times higher frame rate. It is also demonstrated that MLT can be combined with MLA to provide images at 12- to 16-fold frame rate (about 340-450 Hz) without significantly compromising spatial resolution and SNR. This is thus the first study to demonstrate that this new ultrasound imaging paradigm is viable which could have significant impact on future cardiac ultrasound systems. PMID:24893253

  18. PEG-modified gold nanorods with a stealth character for in vivo applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuro Niidome; Masato Yamagata; Yuri Okamoto; Yasuyuki Akiyama; Hironobu Takahashi; Takahito Kawano; Yoshiki Katayama; Yasuro Niidome

    2006-01-01

    Gold nanorods prepared in hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) solution are expected to provide novel materials for photothermal therapy and photo-controlled drug delivery systems. Since gold nanorods stabilized with CTAB show strong cytotoxicity, we developed a technique to modify these with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) for medical applications. PEG-modification was achieved by adding mPEG-SH in the CTAB solution, then, excess CTAB was removed by

  19. Modulating Gold Nanoparticle in vivo Delivery for Photothermal Therapy Applications Using a T Cell Delivery System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Laura Carpin

    This thesis reports new gold nanoparticle-based methods to treat chemotherapy-resistant and metastatic tumors that frequently evade conventional cancer therapies. Gold nanoparticles represent an innovative generation of diagnostic and treatment agents due to the ease with which they can be tuned to scatter or absorb a chosen wavelength of light. One area of intensive investigation in recent years is gold nanoparticle photothermal therapy (PTT), in which gold nanoparticles are used to heat and destroy cancer. This work demonstrates the utility of gold nanoparticle PTT against two categories of cancer that are currently a clinical challenge: trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer and metastatic cancer. In addition, this thesis presents a new method of gold nanoparticle delivery using T cells that increases gold nanoparticle tumor accumulation efficiency, a current challenge in the field of PTT. I ablated trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer in vitro for the first time using anti-HER2 labeled silica-gold nanoshells, demonstrating the potential utility of PTT against chemotherapy-resistant cancers. I next established for the first time the use of T cells as gold nanoparticle vehicles in vivo. When incubated with gold nanoparticles in culture, T cells can internalize up to 15000 nanoparticles per cell with no detrimental effects to T cell viability or function (e.g. migration and cytokine secretion). These AuNP-T cells can be systemically administered to tumor-bearing mice and deliver gold nanoparticles four times more efficiently than by injecting free nanoparticles. In addition, the biodistribution of AuNP-T cells correlates with the normal biodistribution of T cell carrier, suggesting the gold nanoparticle biodistribution can be modulated through the choice of nanoparticle vehicle. Finally, I apply gold nanoparticle PTT as an adjuvant treatment for T cell adoptive transfer immunotherapy (Hyperthermia-Enhanced Immunotherapy or HIT) of distant tumors in a melanoma mouse model. The results presented in this thesis expand the potential of gold nanoparticle PTT from only chemotherapy-sensitive or localized cancers to chemotherapy-resistant non-localized cancers that currently defy conventional therapies.

  20. Transurethral ultrasound applicators with dynamic multi-sector control for prostate thermal therapy: In vivo evaluation under MR guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsey, Adam M.; Diederich, Chris J.; Rieke, Viola; Nau, William H.; Pauly, Kim Butts; Bouley, Donna; Sommer, Graham [Thermal Therapy Research Group, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States) and Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco, California 94158 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Thermal Therapy Research Group, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and performance of a multi-sectored tubular array transurethral ultrasound applicator for prostate thermal therapy, with potential to provide dynamic angular and length control of heating under MR guidance without mechanical movement of the applicator. Test configurations were fabricated, incorporating a linear array of two multi-sectored tubular transducers (7.8-8.4 MHz, 3 mm OD, 6 mm length), with three 120 deg. independent active sectors per tube. A flexible delivery catheter facilitated water cooling (100 ml min{sup -1}) within an expandable urethral balloon (35 mm longx10 mm diameter). An integrated positioning hub allows for rotating and translating the transducer assembly within the urethral balloon for final targeting prior to therapy delivery. Rotational beam plots indicate {approx}90 deg. - 100 deg. acoustic output patterns from each 120 deg. transducer sector, negligible coupling between sectors, and acoustic efficiencies between 41% and 53%. Experiments were performed within in vivo canine prostate (n=3), with real-time MR temperature monitoring in either the axial or coronal planes to facilitate control of the heating profiles and provide thermal dosimetry for performance assessment. Gross inspection of serial sections of treated prostate, exposed to TTC (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) tissue viability stain, allowed for direct assessment of the extent of thermal coagulation. These devices created large contiguous thermal lesions (defined by 52 deg. C maximum temperature, t{sub 43}=240 min thermal dose contours, and TTC tissue sections) that extended radially from the applicator toward the border of the prostate ({approx}15 mm) during a short power application ({approx}8-16 W per active sector, 8-15 min), with {approx}200 deg. or 360 deg. sector coagulation demonstrated depending upon the activation scheme. Analysis of transient temperature profiles indicated progression of lethal temperature and thermal dose contours initially centered on each sector that coalesced within {approx}5 min to produce uniform and contiguous zones of thermal destruction between sectors, with smooth outer boundaries and continued radial propagation in time. The dimension of the coagulation zone along the applicator was well-defined by positioning and active array length. Although not as precise as rotating planar and curvilinear devices currently under development for MR-guided procedures, advantages of these multi-sectored transurethral applicators include a flexible delivery catheter and that mechanical manipulation of the device using rotational motors is not required during therapy. This multi-sectored tubular array transurethral ultrasound technology has demonstrated potential for relatively fast and reasonably conformal targeting of prostate volumes suitable for the minimally invasive treatment of BPH and cancer under MR guidance, with further development warranted.

  1. Elimination of surface signals by a surface-spoiling magnetic field gradient. Theoretical optimization and application to human in vivo NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehenson, P.; Bloch, G.

    W. Chen and J. J. H. Ackerman ( J. Magn. Reson.82, 655, 1989; NMR Biomed.2, 267, 1989) used a superficial magnetic field gradient to eliminate surface signals when observing rat liver in vivo. We have developed a method for computing the optimal gradient coil for a given in vivo application. An analytical solution for the magnetic field created by a planar array of antiparallel current elements was derived for the calculations. The surface-signal suppression obtained by gradient coils of various sizes is presented in a synthetic plot which directly provides the electrical and geometrical parameters of the optimal coil as well as the residual signal in the deep-lying region of interest. This approach was applied to in vivo31P and 31C spectroscopy of the human liver. Hepatic glycogen was detected by natural-abundance 13C NMR without contamination from muscle glycogen, and physiological variation during starvation could be observed.

  2. Recent advances in in vivo applications of intein-mediated protein splicing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intein-mediated protein splicing has become an essential tool in modern biotechnology. Fundamental progress in the structure and catalytic strategies of cis- and trans-splicing inteins has led to the development of modified inteins that promote efficient protein purification, ligation, modification and cyclization. Recent work has extended these in vitro applications to the cell or to whole organisms. We review recent advances in intein-mediated protein expression and modification, post-translational processing and labeling, protein regulation by conditional protein splicing, biosensors, and expression of trans-genes. PMID:24490831

  3. Applications of in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy: measurements of pO2 and NO in endotoxin shock.

    PubMed

    Jackson, S K; Madhani, M; Thomas, M; Timmins, G S; James, P E

    2001-03-31

    Recent developments of EPR instrumentation that allow the use of large tissue samples or whole animals and the ability to image spatially resolved EPR signals has led to novel applications of EPR spectroscopy in vivo. Utilising a 1 GHz EPR spectrometer with a 3.4-cm birdcage resonator, it was possible to detect and measure nitric oxide and oxygen in the livers of mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock. Nitric oxide was detected as the nitric oxide (NO) complex of Fe-diethyldithiocarbamic acid (Fe-DETC) while pO2 was measured from the EPR linewidth of the oxygen-sensitive coal material 'gloxy'. LPS treatment stimulated the production of nitric oxide in the liver and the general circulation and the oxygenation of liver tissue was decreased. Selective placement of the EPR probes allowed images of nitric oxide and oxygen to be obtained in the liver. The spectral and spatial information obtained with this technique will allow improved understanding of the pathophysiology of such diseases. PMID:11323183

  4. First in vivo application and evaluation of a novel method for non-invasive estimation of cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Theodore G; Soulis, Dimitrios; Vardoulis, Orestis; Protogerou, Athanase; Sfikakis, Petros P; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2014-10-01

    Surgical or critically ill patients often require continuous assessment of cardiac output (CO) for diagnostic purposes or for guiding therapeutic interventions. A new method of non-invasive CO estimation has been recently developed, which is based on pressure wave analysis. However, its validity has been examined only in silico. Aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the reproducibility and accuracy of the "systolic volume balance" method (SVB). Twenty two subjects underwent 2-D transthoracic echocardiography for CO measurement (reference value of CO). The application of SVB method required aortic pressure wave analysis and estimation of total arterial compliance. Aortic pulses were derived by mathematical transformation of radial pressure waves recorded by applanation tonometry. Total compliance was estimated by the "pulse pressure" method. The agreement, association, variability, bias and precision between Doppler and SVB measures of CO were evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), mean difference, SD of differences, percentage error (PR) and Bland-Altman analysis. SVB yielded very reproducible CO estimates (ICC=0.84, mean difference 0.27 ± 0.73 L/min, PR = 16.7%). SVB-derived CO was comparable with Doppler measurements, indicating a good agreement and accuracy (ICC = 0.74, mean difference = -0.22 ± 0.364 L/min, PR ? 15). The basic mathematical and physical principles of the SVB method provide highly reproducible and accurate estimates of CO compared with echocardiography. PMID:25108554

  5. In vivo self-assembly of TMV-like particles in yeast and bacteria for nanotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Anan; Wege, Christina; Jeske, Holger

    2013-05-01

    Heterologous expression of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein and in vivo assembly of rod-shaped TMV-like particles encapsidating viral or host RNA were compared between Escherichia coli and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. TMV-like particles were produced in both hosts, irrespective of whether the TMV origin of assembly was present. The additional plasmid providing an OAS-containing RNA was able to alter the length distribution of the TMV-like particles. Plant and yeast-expressed CP behaved similarly upon isoelectric focusing, whereas CP expressed in bacteria migrated differently. After purification by buoyant density centrifugation, the encapsidated nucleic acids were determined to be of host origin as well as of viral origin. OAS-containing mRNA was packaged preferentially in yeast to some extent (8%). In consequence, the majority of TMV-like particles showed the same length distribution similar to those in the absence of OAS-containing mRNA, likely due to host RNA being primarily encapsidated. Notwithstanding this limitation for tailoring particle sizes, the heterologous expression system provides a new avenue to deliver versatile nucleoprotein scaffolds for a diversity of nanotechnological applications, without the need for an infectious virus. The results are discussed with reference to the competition of translation and packaging as well as to the selective decay of TMV RNA. PMID:23499261

  6. Oxygen sensing by the prolyl-4-hydroxylase PHD2 within the nuclear compartment and the influence of compartmentalisation on HIF-1 signalling.

    PubMed

    Pientka, Friederike Katharina; Hu, Jun; Schindler, Susann Gaby; Brix, Britta; Thiel, Anika; Jöhren, Olaf; Fandrey, Joachim; Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Utta; Depping, Reinhard

    2012-11-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) regulate more than 200 genes involved in cellular adaptation to reduced oxygen availability. HIFs are heterodimeric transcription factors that consist of one of three HIF-? subunits and a HIF-? subunit. Under normoxic conditions the HIF-? subunit is hydroxylated by members of a family of prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins, PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3, resulting in recognition by von-Hippel-Lindau protein, ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. It has been suggested that PHD2 is the key regulator of HIF-1? stability in vivo. Previous studies on the intracellular distribution of PHD2 have provided evidence for a predominant cytoplasmic localisation but also nuclear activity of PHD2. Here, we investigated functional nuclear transport signals in PHD2 and identified amino acids 196-205 as having a crucial role in nuclear import, whereas amino acids 6-20 are important for nuclear export. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) showed that an interaction between PHD2 and HIF-1? occurs in both the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. However, a PHD2 mutant that is restricted to the cytoplasm does not interact with HIF-1? and shows less prolyl hydroxylase activity for its target HIF-1? than wild-type PHD2 located in the nucleus. Here, we present a new model by which PHD2-mediated hydroxylation of HIF-1? predominantly occurs in the cell nucleus and is dependent on very dynamic subcellular trafficking of PHD2. PMID:22946054

  7. Design and application of an in vivo reporter assay for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyuan; Zhang, Shuwei; Zhou, Tong; Zeng, Jia; Zhan, Jixun

    2013-09-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is an important enzyme that links primary metabolism to secondary metabolism. Its efficiency is often a critical factor that affects the overall flux of a related metabolic pathway, the titer of the final products, and the efficacy of PAL-based therapies. Thus, PAL is a common target for metabolic engineering, and it is of significant interest to screen efficient PALs for industrial and medical applications. In this study, a novel and efficient visible reporter assay for screening of PAL efficiency in Escherichia coli was established based on a plant type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway. The candidate PALs were co-expressed with a 4-coumarate:CoA ligase 4CL1 from Arabidopsis thaliana and curcuminoid synthase (CUS) from Oryza sativa in E. coli BL21(DE3) to form a dicinnamoylmethane biosynthetic pathway. Taking advantage of the yellow color of the product, a microplate-based assay was designed to measure the titer of dicinnamoylmethane, which was validated by HPLC analysis. The different titers of the product reflect the overall performance (expression level and enzymatic activity) of the individual PALs in E. coli. Using this system, we have screened three PALs (PAL1, PAL3, and PAL4) from Trifolium pratense, among which PAL1 showed the best performance in E. coli. The engineered E. coli strain containing PAL1, 4CL1, and CUS led to the production of dicinnamoylmethane at a high level of 0.36 g/l. Supplement of 2-fluoro-phenylalanine yielded two fluorinated dicinnamoylmethane derivatives, 6,6'-difluoro-dicinnamoylmethane and 6-fluoro-dicinnamoylmethane, of which the latter is a new curcuminoid. PMID:23907258

  8. Probe depth matters in dermal microdialysis sampling of benzoic acid after topical application: an ex vivo study in human skin.

    PubMed

    Holmgaard, R; Benfeldt, E; Bangsgaard, N; Sorensen, J A; Brosen, K; Nielsen, F; Nielsen, J B

    2012-01-01

    Microdialysis (MD) in the skin - dermal microdialysis (DMD) - is a unique technique for sampling of topically as well as systemically administered drugs at the site of action, e.g. sampling of dermatological drug concentrations in the dermis. Debate has concerned the existence of a correlation between the depth of the sampling device - the probe - in the dermis and the amount of drug sampled following topical drug administration. This study evaluates the relation between probe depth and drug sampling using dermal DMD sampling ex vivo in human skin. We used superficial (<1 mm), intermediate (1-2 mm) and deep (>2 mm) positioning of the linear MD probe in the dermis of human abdominal skin, followed by topical application of 4 mg/ml of benzoic acid (BA) in skin chambers overlying the probes. Dialysate was sampled every hour for 12 h and analysed for BA content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Probe depth was measured by 20-MHz ultrasound scanning. The area under the time-versus-concentration curve (AUC) describes the drug exposure in the tissue during the experiment and is a relevant parameter to compare for the 3 dermal probe depths investigated. The AUC(0-12) were: superficial probes: 3,335 ± 1,094 ?g·h/ml (mean ± SD); intermediate probes: 2,178 ± 1,068 ?g·h/ml, and deep probes: 1,159 ± 306 ?g·h/ml. AUC(0-12) sampled by the superficial probes was significantly higher than that of samples from the intermediate and deeply positioned probes (p value <0.05). There was a significant inverse correlation between probe depth and AUC(0-12) sampled by the same probe (p value <0.001, r(2) value = 0.5). The mean extrapolated lag-times (±SD) for the superficial probes were 0.8 ± 0.1 h, for the intermediate probes 1.7 ± 0.5 h, and for the deep probes 2.7 ± 0.5 h, which were all significantly different from each other (p value <0.05). In conclusion, this paper demonstrates that there is an inverse relationship between the depth of the probe in the dermis and the amount of drug sampled following topical penetration ex vivo. The result is of relevance to the in vivo situation, and it can be predicted that the differences in sampling at different probe depths will have a more significant impact in the beginning of a study or in studies of short duration. Based on this study it can be recommended that studies of topical drug penetration using DMD sampling should include measurements of probe depth and that efforts should be made to minimize probe depth variability. PMID:21849814

  9. Laguerre-based method for analysis of time-resolved fluorescence data: application to in-vivo characterization and diagnosis of atherosclerotic lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Javier A.; Fang, Qiyin; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Baker, J. Dennis; Dorafshar, Amir; Reil, Todd; Qiao, Jianhua; Fishbein, Michael C.; Freischlag, Julie A.; Marcu, Laura

    2006-03-01

    We report the application of the Laguerre deconvolution technique (LDT) to the analysis of in-vivo time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) data and the diagnosis of atherosclerotic plaques. TR-LIFS measurements were obtained in vivo from normal and atherosclerotic aortas (eight rabbits, 73 areas), and subsequently analyzed using LDT. Spectral and time-resolved features were used to develop four classification algorithms: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), stepwise LDA (SLDA), principal component analysis (PCA), and artificial neural network (ANN). Accurate deconvolution of TR-LIFS in-vivo measurements from normal and atherosclerotic arteries was provided by LDT. The derived Laguerre expansion coefficients reflected changes in the arterial biochemical composition, and provided a means to discriminate lesions rich in macrophages with high sensitivity (>85%) and specificity (>95%). Classification algorithms (SLDA and PCA) using a selected number of features with maximum discriminating power provided the best performance. This study demonstrates the potential of the LDT for in-vivo tissue diagnosis, and specifically for the detection of macrophages infiltration in atherosclerotic lesions, a key marker of plaque vulnerability.

  10. Preparation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of cyclosporin A-loaded nanodecorated ocular implants for subconjunctival application.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Sibel Bozda?; Yavuz, Burçin; Çalamak, Semih; Ulubayram, Kezban; Kaffashi, Abbas; Vural, ?mran; Çakmak, Hasan Basri; Durgun, Meltem Ezgi; Denkba?, Emir Baki; Ünlü, Nur?en

    2015-05-01

    In terms of ocular drug delivery, biodegradable implant systems have several advantages including the ability to provide constant drug concentration at the target site, no necessity for surgical removal, and minimum systemic side effects. Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a neutral, hydrophobic, cyclic peptide of amino acids that frequently used for dry eye disease treatment. The aim of this study was to develop a nanoparticle-loaded implant system for sustained-release CsA delivery following subconjunctival implantation. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (85:15) or poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) were used to prepare two different nanoparticle formulations. These nanoparticles loaded into PCL or poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) implant formulations were prepared by two different methods, which were molding and electrospinning. Size and zeta potential of nanoparticles were determined and the morphology of the formulations were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. CsA-loading efficiencies were calculated and the in vitro degradation and in vitro release studies were performed. MTT test was also performed using L929 fibroblast cells to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the formulations. PCL-PCL-NP-I formulation was implanted to Swiss Albino mice with induced dry eye syndrome to evaluate the efficacy. In vitro release studies showed that the release from the formulations continues between 30 and 60 days, and the cell viability was found to be 77.4%-99.0%. In vivo studies showed that healing is significantly faster in the presence of the selected implant formulation. Results indicated that nanodecorated implants are promising ocular carriers for controlled-release CsA application. PMID:25716582

  11. Comparative in vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigation of platinum(IV) complexes as novel anticancer drug candidates for oral application.

    PubMed

    Theiner, Sarah; Varbanov, Hristo P; Galanski, Markus; Egger, Alexander E; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2015-01-01

    Platinum(IV) complexes are promising candidates as prodrugs for oral application in anticancer chemotherapy. However, only a few Pt(IV) compounds entered (pre)clinical trials, e.g. satraplatin, while most of the others were only tested in vitro. Aim of the study was investigation of the in vivo pharmacological behavior as well as the anticancer activity of two novel platinum(IV) complexes vs. satraplatin. The drugs were selected due to significantly different in vitro cytotoxicity while sharing some physicochemical properties (e.g. lipophilicity). Initial experiments indicated that the highly in vitro cytotoxic compound 1 ((OC-6-33)-dichloridobis((4-ethoxy)-4-oxobutanoato)-bis(ethylamine)platinum(IV)) was also characterized by high drug absorption and tissue platinum levels after oral application. Interestingly, analysis of serum samples using SEC-ICP-MS revealed that the administered drugs have completely been metabolized and/or bound to proteins in serum within 2 h after treatment. With regard to the activity in vivo, the outcomes were rather unexpected: although potent anticancer effect of 1 was observed in cell culture, the effects in vivo were rather minor. Nevertheless, 1 was superior to 2 ((OC-6-33)-diammine(cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxylato)-bis((4-cyclopentylamino)-4-oxobutanoato)platinum(IV)) after i.p. administration, which was, at least to some extent, in accordance to the cell culture experiments. After oral gavage, both compounds exhibited comparable activity. This is remarkable considering the distinctly lower activity of 2 in cell culture as well as the low platinum levels detected both in serum and tissues after oral application. Consequently, our data indicate that the prediction of in vivo anticancer activity by cell culture experiments is not trivial, especially for orally applied drugs. PMID:25413442

  12. Improved preparation of acellular nerve scaffold and application of PKH26 fluorescent labeling combined with in vivo fluorescent imaging system in nerve tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Xiaolei; Li, Xiulan; Yang, Qiang; Li, Yanjun; Zhang, Yang; Li, Bing; Ma, Xinlong

    2013-11-27

    Acellular nerve scaffold has been widely used for peripheral nerve defect treatment. However, the structure of traditional acellular nerve scaffold is dense; the interval porosity and void diameter are too small to meet the requirement of cell seeding, which limits the application. This study was designed to prepare a novel acellular nerve scaffold by the technique of hypotonic buffer combined with freeze-drying, and use PKH26 fluorescent labeling combined with in vivo fluorescent imaging system to evaluate the biological behavior of tissue-engineered nerve in vitro and in vivo. According to light and electron microscopy, the scaffold, which microarchitecture was similar to the fibrous framework of rabbit sciatic nerves, was cell-free and rich in laminin, collagen I and collagen III. In vitro experiment showed that the novel acellular nerve scaffold could provide a 3-D environment to support the attachment, proliferation and migration of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). ADSCs labeled with fluorescent dye PKH26 were then seeded on scaffolds and implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 4 weeks, nerve-like tissue rounded by vessels formed. Cells in the tissue seemed to confirm that they originated from the labeled ADSCs, as confirmed by in vivo fluorescent imaging. In conclusion, the prepared novel acellular nerve scaffold can be used as a new kind of nerve scaffold material, which is more conducible for seeding cells; And PKH26 fluorescent labeling and in vivo fluorescent imaging can be useful for cell tracking and analyzing cell-scaffold constructs in vivo. PMID:24148304

  13. A volume birdcage coil with an adjustable sliding tuner ring for neuroimaging in high field vertical magnets: ex and in vivo applications at 21.1 T

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chunqi; Masad, Ihssan S.; Rosenberg, Jens T.; Elumalai, Malathy; Brey, William W.; Grant, Samuel C.; Gor’kov, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    A tunable 900 MHz transmit/receive volume coil was constructed for 1H MR imaging of biological samples in a 21.1 T vertical bore magnet. To accommodate a diverse range of specimen and RF loads at such a high frequency, a sliding-ring adaptation of a low-pass birdcage was implemented through simultaneous alteration of distributed capacitance. To make efficient use of the constrained space inside the vertical bore, a modular probe design was implemented with a bottom-adjustable tuning and matching apparatus. The sliding ring coil displays good homogeneity and sufficient tuning range for different samples of various dimensions representing large span of RF loads. High resolution in vivo and ex vivo images of large rats (up to 350 g), mice and human postmortem tissues were obtained to demonstrate coil functionality and to provide examples of potential applications at 21.1 T. PMID:22750638

  14. Reactions of meniscal tissue after arthroscopic laser application: an in vivo study using five different laser systems.

    PubMed

    Bernard, M; Grothues-Spork, M; Hertel, P; Moazami-Goudarzi, Y

    1996-08-01

    In many clinical and in vitro studies, the effect of laser radiation on meniscal tissue was examined. Clinical studies referred to clinical criteria like swelling, effusion, and pain to evaluate laser effects. In vitro studies showed the laser effect in the moment of cutting the tissue. But the effect of laser radiation on biological tissue also depends on the vital reaction of the tissue. So, the real extent of tissue damage caused by laser irradiation can only be examined in long-term in vivo studies. This was the purpose of this study. Seventy-two knees of pigs underwent arthroscopic meniscal cuts in the anterior horn of the medial meniscus. The pigs were divided into 6 groups: The first 5 groups were operated with 5 different laser systems: Neodym: YAG 1,440-nm wavelength; Nd:YAG 1,064-nm wavelength, Excimer, Holmium:YAG, and CO2. The sixth group was operated with mechanical punches. From each group, the menisci of the pigs were examined macroscopically and by light-microscope after survival periods of 0, 2, 6, 12 weeks. Results were as follows. (1) All laser systems caused greater damage to the meniscal tissue than mechanical instruments. (2) This damage was a biological reaction of the tissue, characterized by a necrotic zone surrounding the meniscus cut. (3) This necrotic zone was not visible intraoperatively but only 2, 6 and 12 weeks after operation. The diameter of the necrotic zone ranged between 1.5 nm and 9 mm. (4) Meniscus cuts with mechanical instruments showed no necrotic zone in the surrounding tissue. (5) Laser cuts in the meniscus caused more extensive healing reaction than cuts with mechanical instruments. (6) The quality of this healing reaction varied with the different laser systems: the Nd:YAG 1,064-nm, Ho:YAG, and CO2 laser caused only an incomplete healing because the tissue repair showed by tissue growing from the synovial edge into the defect only. The Nd:YAG 1,440-nm wavelength and Excimer led to tissue growing from the synovial edge and to remodeling of original meniscal tissue, recognizable by reduction of the necrotic zone. Arthroscopic surgeons should be aware that the damage to meniscus tissue caused by a laser is much greater than can be seen intraoperatively and is much greater than the damage caused by mechanical punches. The healing reaction of the tissue is more extensive after laser application than after use of mechanical instruments. Results of in vitro studies on the tissue damage caused by lasers are insufficient to describe the whole extent of laser effects on living tissue. PMID:8864002

  15. Models and Applications of in Vivo Lung Morphometry with Hyperpolarized 3He MRI in a Mild COPD Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirk, James D.; Sukstanskii, Alexander L.; Gierada, David S.; Woods, Jason C.; Conradi, Mark S.; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.

    2008-12-01

    Hyperpolarized 3He diffusion MRI is increasingly used to non-invasively quantify local alveolar structure changes, such as those from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Previously, we described an in vivo lung morphometry technique that decouples the helium apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) into components oriented along the longitudinal (DL) and transverse (DT) axes of the acinar airways. Herein, we discuss our recent expansion of this theory, which relates the anisotropy of the MRI diffusion signal to the geometrical parameters of the acinar airways. We demonstrate the utility of this model in human studies and compare the measured airway radii with prior ex vivo experiments.

  16. Line selection and sensitivity analysis for oxygen sensing in the 1.26-1.27 micron spectral band for the ASCENDS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, N.; Browell, E. V.; Zaccheo, T. S.; Karpowicz, B.

    2010-12-01

    The National Research Council’s (NRC) Decadal Survey (DS) of Earth Science and Applications from Space has identified the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as an important atmospheric science mission. The CO2 mixing ratio needs to be measured to a precision of 0.5 percent of background or better (slightly less than 2 ppm) at 100-km horizontal resolution overland and 200-km resolution over oceans. To meet this goal, the ASCENDS mission requires simultaneous laser remote sensing of CO2 and O2 in order to convert CO2 column number densities to average column CO2 mixing ratios (XCO2). As such, the CO2 column number density and the O2 column number density will be utilized to derive the average XCO2 column. NASA Langley Research Center, working with its partners, is developing O2 lidar technology in the 1.26-1.27-?m band for surface pressure measurements. To obtain XCO2 with LAS technique the simultaneous measurement of the CO2 column number density, the O2 column number density for converting the CO2 column number density to XCO2 and the total path length of the measurement are required. The O2 LAS operating at 1.26 ?m will be used to convert CO2 number density to mixing ratio. The 1.26-?m spectral band was chosen due to architectural advantage from wavelengths being close to 1.57-?m CO2 LAS column measurements and the favorable spectroscopic characteristics of the O2 absorption line parameters. Furthermore, the surface and atmospheric scattering characteristics from aerosols and thin clouds are nearly the same as for 1.26-?m O2 measurements and the 1.57-?m CO2 measurements. One or more "on-line" wavelengths in the 1.26-?m O2 absorption band have to be carefully chosen to eliminate ambient influences on them when used in conjunction with the integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) technique. The O2 model optical depth calculation is very sensitive to knowledge of the transmitted wavelengths and to the choice of Voigt input parameters. Uncertainties in atmospheric profiles of temperature, pressure and relative humidity can cause ~0.5 % errors in model optical depths. Uncertainties at line center and offset wavelengths of the candidate on-line wavelengths have to be precisely known to reduce uncertainties in O2 concentration measurements from airborne and space based platforms. In this paper, we evaluate systematic relative errors related to uncertainties in O2 absorption line pressure shifts and atmospheric temperature for selected O2 absorption lines suitable for making high precision O2 and XCO2 measurements based on HITRAN database and O2 absorption line measurements.

  17. Dependence of blood T2 on oxygenation at 7T: in vitro calibration and in vivo application

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Lisa C.; Liu, Peiying; Xu, Feng; Uh, Jinsoo; Dimitrov, Ivan; Lu, Hanzhang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The calibratable relationship between blood oxygenation (Y) and T2 allows quantification of cerebral venous oxygenation. We aim to establish a calibration plot between blood T2, Y, and hematocrit (Hct) at 7T, and using T2-Relaxation-Under-Spin-Tagging (TRUST) MRI, determine human venous blood oxygenation in vivo. Methods In vitro experiments were performed at 7T on bovine blood samples using a CPMG-T2 sequence, from which we characterized the relationship among T2, Y, and Hct. TRUST MRI was implemented at 7T to measure venous blood T2 in vivo, from which oxygenation was estimated using the in vitro calibration plot. Hyperoxia was performed to test the sensitivity of the method to oxygenation changes, and the 7T results were compared to those at 3T. Results In vitro data showed that arterial and venous T2 at 7T are 68ms and 20ms, respectively, at a typical Hct of 0.42. In vivo measurement showed a cerebral venous oxygenation of 64.7±5.0% and a test-retest coefficient-of-variation of 3.6±2.4%. Hyperoxia increased Yv by 9.0±1.4% (P=0.001) and the 3T and 7T results showed a strong correlation (R=0.95) across individuals. Conclusion We provided an in vitro calibration plot for conversion of blood T2 to oxygenation at 7T and demonstrated its utility in vivo. PMID:23843129

  18. A Biocompatible in Vivo Ligation Reaction and Its Application for Noninvasive Bioluminescent Imaging of Protease Activity in Living

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    -dependent release of free D-cysteine from the caspase 3/7 peptide substrate Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-D-Cys (DEVD-(D-Cys)) allowed selective reaction with 6-amino-2-cyanobenzothiazole (NH2- CBT) in vivo to form 6-amino cells. These biocompatible transformations include copper-free cyclooctyne-type cyclo- addition,2

  19. The application of statistical moment theory to the evaluation of in vivo dissolution time and absorption time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidney Riegelman; Paul Collier

    1980-01-01

    Moments analysis has been applied to the calculation of mean (in vivo)dissolution time (MDT) and mean absorption time (MAT) from plasma level of drug versus time data. Methods for accurately estimating the MDT under varying conditions, limitations of the methods, and interpretation of the data are presented. The importance of accurate estimates of the terminal rate constant (?z) and the

  20. Characteristics and Applications of the ToxRefDB In Vivo Datasets from Chronic, Reproductive and Developmental Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxRefDB was developed to store data from in vivo animal toxicity studies. The initial focus was populating ToxRefDB with pesticide registration toxicity data that has been historically stored as hard-copy and scanned documents by the Office of Pesticide Programs. A significant p...

  1. Rapid response oxygen-sensing nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Ruipeng; Behera, Prajna; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Lannutti, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular oxygen has profound effects on cell and tissue viability. Relevant sensor forms that can rapidly determine dissolved oxygen levels under biologically relevant conditions provide critical metabolic information. Using 0.5 ?m diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber containing an oxygen-sensitive probe, tris (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride, we observed a response time of 0.9±0.12 seconds – 4–10 times faster than previous reports – while the t95 for the corresponding film was more than two orders of magnitude greater. Interestingly, the response and recovery times of slightly larger diameter PCL fibers were 1.79±0.23 s and 2.29±0.13 s, respectively, while the recovery time was not statistically different likely due to the more limited interactions of nitrogen with the polymer matrix. A more than 10-fold increase in PCL fiber diameter reduces oxygen sensitivity while having minor effects on response time; conversely, decreases in fiber diameter to less than 0.5 ?m would likely decrease response times even further. In addition, a 50°C heat treatment of the electrospun fiber resulted in both increased Stern-Volmer slope and linearity likely due to secondary recrystallization that further homogenized the probe microenvironment. At exposure times up to 3600 s in length, photobleaching was observed but was largely eliminated by the use of either polyethersulfone (PES) or a PES-PCL core-shell composition. However, this resulted in 2- and 3-fold slower response times. Finally, even the non-core shell compositions containing the Ru oxygen probe result in no apparent cytotoxicity in representative glioblastoma cell populations. PMID:23706233

  2. TRANSCRIPTION: Oxygen Sensing Gets a Second Wind

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard K. Bruick (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; Department of Biochemistry)

    2002-02-01

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The recent discovery of molecules that mediate the hypoxia response pathway demonstrates that mammalian cells are supremely well adapted to dealing with conditions of low oxygen. In their Perspective, Bruick and McKnight detail new findings (Lando et al.) that describe an additional way in which the transcription factor HIF, a central player in the hypoxia response pathway, can be regulated.

  3. Cellular oxygen sensing in health and disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Mole; Peter J. Ratcliffe

    2008-01-01

    To avoid localised problems resulting from excess or inadequate oxygen, all cells and tissues have the ability to sense and\\u000a respond to changes in oxygen levels. Despite their rich blood supply, the kidneys have unique properties with respect to oxygen\\u000a that enable them to act as specialised organs, sensing oxygen delivery as well as rendering them prone to hypoxic injury.

  4. Oxygen Sensing Strategies in Mammals and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Taabazuing, Cornelius Y.; Hangasky, John A.; Knapp, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and adapt to changes in pO2 is crucial for basic metabolism in most organisms, leading to elaborate pathways for sensing hypoxia (low pO2). This review focuses on the mechanisms utilized by mammals and bacteria to sense hypoxia. While responses to acute hypoxia in mammalian tissues lead to altered vascular tension, the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is not well understood. In contrast, chronic hypoxia evokes cellular responses that lead to transcriptional changes mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is directly controlled by post-translational hydroxylation of HIF by the non-heme Fe(II)/?KG-dependent enzymes FIH and PHD2. Research on PHD2 and FIH is focused on developing inhibitors and understanding the links between HIF binding and the O2 reaction in these enzymes. Sulfur speciation is a putative mechanism for acute O2-sensing, with special focus on the role of H2S. This sulfur-centered model is discussed, as are some of the directions for further refinement of this model. In contrast to mammals, bacterial O2-sensing relies on protein cofactors that either bind O2 or oxidatively decompose. The sensing modality for bacterial O2-sensors is either via altered DNA binding affinity of the sensory protein, or else due to the actions of a two-component signaling cascade. Emerging data suggests that proteins containing a hemerythrin-domain, such as FBXL5, may serve to connect iron sensing to O2-sensing in both bacteria and humans. As specific molecular machinery becomes identified, these hypoxia sensing pathways present therapeutic targets for diseases including ischemia, cancer, or bacterial infection. PMID:24468676

  5. Oxygen sensing strategies in mammals and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Taabazuing, Cornelius Y; Hangasky, John A; Knapp, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The ability to sense and adapt to changes in pO2 is crucial for basic metabolism in most organisms, leading to elaborate pathways for sensing hypoxia (low pO2). This review focuses on the mechanisms utilized by mammals and bacteria to sense hypoxia. While responses to acute hypoxia in mammalian tissues lead to altered vascular tension, the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is not well understood. In contrast, chronic hypoxia evokes cellular responses that lead to transcriptional changes mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is directly controlled by post-translational hydroxylation of HIF by the non-heme Fe(II)/?KG-dependent enzymes FIH and PHD2. Research on PHD2 and FIH is focused on developing inhibitors and understanding the links between HIF binding and the O2 reaction in these enzymes. Sulfur speciation is a putative mechanism for acute O2-sensing, with special focus on the role of H2S. This sulfur-centered model is discussed, as are some of the directions for further refinement of this model. In contrast to mammals, bacterial O2-sensing relies on protein cofactors that either bind O2 or oxidatively decompose. The sensing modality for bacterial O2-sensors is either via altered DNA binding affinity of the sensory protein, or else due to the actions of a two-component signaling cascade. Emerging data suggests that proteins containing a hemerythrin-domain, such as FBXL5, may serve to connect iron sensing to O2-sensing in both bacteria and humans. As specific molecular machinery becomes identified, these hypoxia sensing pathways present therapeutic targets for diseases including ischemia, cancer, or bacterial infection. PMID:24468676

  6. Aptamer photoregulation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Lele; Tong, Rong; Chu, Hunghao; Wang, Weiping; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S

    2014-12-01

    The in vivo application of aptamers as therapeutics could be improved by enhancing target-specific accumulation while minimizing off-target uptake. We designed a light-triggered system that permits spatiotemporal regulation of aptamer activity in vitro and in vivo. Cell binding by the aptamer was prevented by hybridizing the aptamer to a photo-labile complementary oligonucleotide. Upon irradiation at the tumor site, the aptamer was liberated, leading to prolonged intratumoral retention. The relative distribution of the aptamer to the liver and kidney was also significantly decreased, compared to that of the free aptamer. PMID:25404344

  7. Aptamer photoregulation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lele; Tong, Rong; Chu, Hunghao; Wang, Weiping; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    The in vivo application of aptamers as therapeutics could be improved by enhancing target-specific accumulation while minimizing off-target uptake. We designed a light-triggered system that permits spatiotemporal regulation of aptamer activity in vitro and in vivo. Cell binding by the aptamer was prevented by hybridizing the aptamer to a photo-labile complementary oligonucleotide. Upon irradiation at the tumor site, the aptamer was liberated, leading to prolonged intratumoral retention. The relative distribution of the aptamer to the liver and kidney was also significantly decreased, compared to that of the free aptamer. PMID:25404344

  8. In vivo application of biodegradable controlled antibiotic release systems for the treatment of implant-related osteomyelitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?hsan Gürsel; Feza Korkusuz; Füsun Türesin; N. Gürdal Alaeddino?lu; Vas?f Has?rc?

    2000-01-01

    In this study the construction and in vivo testing of antibiotic-loaded polyhydroxyalkanoate rods were planned for use in the treatment of implant-related osteomyelitis. The rods were constructed of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate), carrying 50% (w\\/w) Sulperazone® or Duocid®. They were implanted in rabbit tibia in which implant-related osteomyelitis (IRO) had been induced with Staphylococcus aureus. The effectiveness of the antibiotics in

  9. In Vivo Imaging of Brain Development: Technologies, Models, Applications, and Impact on Understanding the Etiology of Mental Retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicko Gluncic

    \\u000a Development of the mammalian brain proceeds in a precisely controlled sequence of cell divisions, migration, differentiation,\\u000a and synaptogenesis. It is a process of precise dynamic assembly, and time lapse in vivo imaging of these processes is fundamental\\u000a for the multidisciplinary endeavor to merge and understand the morphological, physiological, and regulatory processes of neurogenesis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Modern optical and non-optical imaging technologies enable

  10. In vivo biocompatibility assessment of (PTFE–PVDF–PP) terpolymer-based membrane with potential application for glaucoma treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafa? Leszczynski; Ewa Stodolak; Jaros?aw Wieczorek; Jolanta Orlowska-Heitzman; Teresa Gumula; Stanislaw Blazewicz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the in vivo biological behaviour of polymeric membrane materials for glaucoma implants.\\u000a The base material was biostable synthetic terpolymer (PTFE–PVDF–PP) with proved biocompability (PN-EN ISO 10993). The samples\\u000a manufactured in the form a membrane were subjected to chemical and physical treatment to create an open pore system within\\u000a the polymer matrix. As

  11. Near-infrared luminescent cubic silicon carbide nanocrystals for in vivo biomarker applications: an ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Bálint; Zólyomi, Viktor; Gali, Adam

    2012-12-21

    Molecule-sized fluorescent emitters are much sought-after to probe biomolecules in living cells. We demonstrate here by time-dependent density functional calculations that the experimentally achievable 1-2 nm sized silicon carbide nanocrystals can emit light in the near-infrared region after introducing appropriate color centers in them. These near-infrared luminescent silicon carbide nanocrystals may act as ideal fluorophores for in vivo bioimaging. PMID:23135614

  12. Application of ultrasound on monitoring the evolution of the collagen fiber reinforced nHAC/CS composites in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Yan, Yuting; Li, Xiaoming; Li, He; Tan, Huiting; Li, Huajun; Zhu, Yanwen; Niemeyer, Philipp; Yaega, Matin; Yu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    To date, fiber reinforce scaffolds have been largely applied to repair hard and soft tissues. Meanwhile, monitoring the scaffolds for long periods in vivo is recognized as a crucial issue before its wide use. As a consequence, there is a growing need for noninvasive and convenient methods to analyze the implantation remolding process in situ and in real time. In this paper, diagnostic medical ultrasound was used to monitor the in vivo bone formation and degradation process of the novel mineralized collagen fiber reinforced composite which is synthesized by chitosan (CS), nanohydroxyapatite (nHA), and collagen fiber (Col). To observe the impact of cells on bone remodeling process, the scaffolds were planted into the back of the SD rats with and without rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). Systematic data of scaffolds in vivo was extracted from ultrasound images. Significant consistency between the data from the ultrasound and DXA could be observed (P < 0.05). This indicated that ultrasound may serve as a feasible alternative for noninvasive monitoring the evolution of scaffolds in situ during cell growth. PMID:24822206

  13. In vivo fluence rate measurements during Foscan®-mediated photodynamic therapy of persistent and recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinomas using a dedicated light applicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Veen, R. L. P.; Nyst, H.; Indrasari, S. R.; Yudharto, M. A.; Robinson, D. J.; Tan, I. B.; Meewis, C.; Peters, R.; Spaniol, Stefan B.; Stewart, Fiona A.; Levendag, P. C.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a dedicated light applicator for light delivery and fluence rate monitoring during Foscan®-mediated photodynamic therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a clinical phase I/II study. We have developed a flexible silicone applicator that can be inserted through the mouth and fixed in the nasopharyngeal cavity. Three isotropic fibers, for measuring of the fluence (rate) during therapy, were located within the nasopharyngeal tumor target area and one was manually positioned to monitor structures at risk in the shielded area. A flexible black silicon patch tailored to the patient's anatomy is attached to the applicator to shield the soft palate and oral cavity from the 652-nm laser light. Fourteen patients were included in the study, resulting in 26 fluence rate measurements in the risk volume (two failures). We observed a systematic reduction in fluence rate during therapy in 20 out of 26 illuminations, which may be related to photodynamic therapy-induced increased blood content, decreased oxygenation, or reduced scattering. Our findings demonstrate that the applicator was easily inserted into the nasopharynx. The average light distribution in the target area was reasonably uniform over the length of the applicator, thus giving an acceptably homogeneous illumination throughout the cavity. Shielding of the risk area was adequate. Large interpatient variations in fluence rate stress the need for in vivo dosimetry. This enables corrections to be made for differences in optical properties and geometry resulting in comparable amounts of light available for Foscan® absorption.

  14. In Vivo Imaging of Molecularly Targeted Phage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Kelly; Peter Waterman; Ralph Weissleder

    2006-01-01

    Rapid identification of in vivo affinity ligands would have far-reaching applications for imaging specific molecular targets, in vivo systems imaging, and medical use. We have developed a high-throughput method for identifying and optimizing ligands to map and image biologic targets of interest in vivo .W e directly labeled viable phage clones with far-red fluorochromes and comparatively imaged them in vivo

  15. Carotid artery wall motion analysis from B-mode ultrasound using adaptive block matching: in silico evaluation and in vivo application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastounioti, A.; Golemati, S.; Stoitsis, J. S.; Nikita, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    Valid risk stratification for carotid atherosclerotic plaques represents a crucial public health issue toward preventing fatal cerebrovascular events. Although motion analysis (MA) provides useful information about arterial wall dynamics, the identification of motion-based risk markers remains a significant challenge. Considering that the ability of a motion estimator (ME) to handle changes in the appearance of motion targets has a major effect on accuracy in MA, we investigated the potential of adaptive block matching (ABM) MEs, which consider changes in image intensities over time. To assure the validity in MA, we optimized and evaluated the ABM MEs in the context of a specially designed in silico framework. ABMFIRF2, which takes advantage of the periodicity characterizing the arterial wall motion, was the most effective ABM algorithm, yielding a 47% accuracy increase with respect to the conventional block matching. The in vivo application of ABMFIRF2 revealed five potential risk markers: low movement amplitude of the normal part of the wall adjacent to the plaques in the radial (RMAPWL) and longitudinal (LMAPWL) directions, high radial motion amplitude of the plaque top surface (RMAPTS), and high relative movement, expressed in terms of radial strain (RSIPL) and longitudinal shear strain (LSSIPL), between plaque top and bottom surfaces. The in vivo results were reproduced by OFLK(WLS) and ABMKF-K2, MEs previously proposed by the authors and with remarkable in silico performances, thereby reinforcing the clinical values of the markers and the potential of those MEs. Future in vivo studies will elucidate with confidence the full potential of the markers.

  16. In vitro and in vivo characterization and strain safety of Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30253 for probiotic applications.

    PubMed

    Sulemankhil, Imran; Parent, Mathieu; Jones, Mitchell Lawrence; Feng, Zhenqian; Labbé, Alain; Prakash, Satya

    2012-06-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30253 was shown to have potential as a probiotic by reducing the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8. Moreover, this strain was evaluated, by in vitro and in vivo techniques, for its safety for human consumption. The identity of the strain was investigated by metabolic profiling and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and in vitro safety evaluations were performed by molecular and metabolic techniques. Genetic analysis was confirmed by assessing the minimum inhibitory concentration to a panel of antibiotics, showing that the strain was susceptible to 8 antibiotics tested. The ability of the strain to produce potentially harmful by-products and antimicrobial compounds was evaluated, showing that the strain does not produce biogenic amines and does not show bacteriocin activity or reuterin production. A 28-day repeated oral dose study was conducted in normal Sprague-Dawley rats to support the in vivo strain safety. Oral administration of the strain resulted in no changes in general condition and no clinically significant changes to biochemical and haematological markers of safety relative to vehicle control treated animals. This comprehensive assessment of safety of L. reuteri NCIMB 30253 supports the safety of the strain for use as a probiotic. PMID:22642667

  17. Intraluminal ultrasound applicator compatible with magnetic resonance imaging "real-time" temperature mapping for the treatment of oesophageal tumours: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Melodelima, D; Salomir, R; Mougenot, C; Prat, F; Theillčre, Y; Moonen, C; Cathignol, D

    2004-02-01

    High intensity ultrasound has shown considerable ability to produce precise and deep thermal coagulation necrosis. Focused, cylindrical, spherical or plane transducers have been used to induce high temperatures in tissues to coagulate proteins and kill cells. Recently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used, with extracorporeal or intracavitary focused transducers and cylindrical interstitial applicators, to monitor temperature distribution and provide feedback during heating procedures. If intraluminal applicators are used, the active part is in contact with the region of interest and it is essential to provide an accurate view of heat deposition and the extent of coagulation necrosis close to the transducer. The purpose of this study was to develop a 10 mm diameter intraluminal ultrasound applicator, designed to treat oesophageal cancers and compatible with MRI "real-time" temperature mapping. The active part of the ultrasound applicator, covered by a latex balloon, is a 15 X 8 mm2 plane transducer, which is in contact with the tumours during treatment. Each ultrasound exposure generates coagulation necrosis, in an area with the approximate shape of a rectangular parallelepiped up to 10 mm deep. When the exposures were repeated by rotating the applicator on its axis, sector-based or cylindrical volumes of necrosis could be produced, matching the shape of oesophageal cancers. Ex vivo trials were performed to demonstrate the applicator's compatibility with a clinical MRI scanner (1.5 T). MRI signals were acquired without any magnetic susceptibility distortion, even close to the applicator. Fast (0.72 images per second) 2D temperature mapping was performed during ultrasound exposure, using temperature-related proton resonance frequency shift at a resolution of 0.5 degrees C. Coagulation necrosis viewed with inversion recovery sequences, were in good agreement with the qualitative macroscopic observations made for the few cases tested in this study. PMID:15000609

  18. Biotin reagents for antibody pretargeting. 4. Selection of biotin conjugates for in vivo application based on their dissociation rate from avidin and streptavidin.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, D S; Chyan, M K; Pathare, P M; Hamlin, D K; Frownfelter, M B; Kegley, B B

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the affect of structural variation of biotin conjugates on their dissociation rates from Av and SAv. This information was sought to help identify optimal biotin derivatives for in vivo applications. Fifteen biotin derivatives were conjugated with a cyanocobalamin (CN-Cbl) derivative for evaluation of their "relative" dissociation rates by size exclusion HPLC analysis. Two biotin-CN-Cbl conjugates, one containing unaltered biotin and the other containing iminobiotin, were prepared as reference compounds for comparison purposes. The first structural variations studied involved modification of the biotinamide bond with a N-methyl moiety (i.e., sarcosine conjugate), lengthening the valeric acid side chain by a methylene unit (i.e., homobiotin), and replacing the biotinamide bond with thiourea bonds in two conjugates. The rate of dissociation of the biotin-CN-Cbl derivative from Av and SAv was significantly increased for biotin derivatives containing those structural features. Nine additional biotin conjugates were obtained by coupling amino acids or functional group protected amino acids to the biotin moiety. In the conjugates, the biotin moiety and biotinamide bond were not altered, but substituents of various sizes were introduced alpha to the biotinamide bond. The results obtained from HPLC analyses indicated that the rate of dissociation from Av or SAv was not affected by small substituents alpha to the biotinamide (e.g., methyl, hydroxymethyl, and carboxylate groups), but was significantly increased when larger functional groups were present. On the basis of the results obtained, it appears that biotin conjugates which retain an unmodified biotin moiety and have a linker molecule conjugated to it that has a small functional group (e.g., hydroxymethylene or carboxylate) alpha to the biotinamide bond are excellent candidates for in vivo applications. These structural features are obtained in the biotin amino acid conjugates: biotin-serine, biotin-aspartate, biotin-lysine, and biotin-cysteine. Importantly, these biotin derivatives can be readily conjugated with other molecules for specific in vivo applications. In our studies, these derivatives will be used in the design of new biotin conjugates to carry radionuclides for cancer therapy using the pretargeting approach. PMID:10898580

  19. An In Vivo Validation of the Application of Acoustic Radiation Force to Enhance the Diagnostic Utility of Molecular Imaging Using 3D Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Ryan C.; Streeter, Jason E.; Kothadia, Roshni; Feingold, Steven; Dayton, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    For over a decade, the application of acoustic radiation force (ARF) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase ultrasonic molecular imaging (MI) sensitivity in vivo. Presented herein is the first noninvasive in vivo validation of ARF-enhanced MI with an unmodified clinical system. First, an in vitro optical-acoustical setup was used to optimize system parameters and ensure sufficient microbubble translation when exposed to ARF. 3D ARF-enhanced MI was then performed on 7 rat fibrosarcoma tumors using microbubbles targeted to ?v?3 and non-targeted microbubbles. Low-amplitude (< 25 kPa) 3D ARF pulse sequences were tested and compared to passive targeting studies in the same animal. Our results demonstrate that a 78% increase in image intensity from targeted microbubbles can be achieved when using ARF relative to the passive targeting studies. Furthermore, ARF did not significantly increase image contrast when applied to non-targeted agents, suggesting that ARF did not increase non-specific adhesion. PMID:22341052

  20. Successful application of ex vivo expanded human autologous oral mucosal epithelium for the treatment of total bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kolli, Sai; Ahmad, Sajjad; Mudhar, Hardeep Singh; Meeny, Adam; Lako, Majlinda; Figueiredo, Francisco C

    2014-08-01

    Ocular surface reconstruction with ex vivo expanded limbal stem cells (LSCs) is a widely used clinical treatment for patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). This is not applicable to patients with bilateral LSCD where there are no remaining LSCs. Cultivated oral mucosa epithelium (OME) has been used as an alternative source of autologous epithelial stem cells for ocular reconstruction in few clinical trials. However, successful generation of stratified OME epithelium has only been achieved in the presence of animal feeder cells and/or animal-derived products in the culture media, likely to contribute to increased risk of pathogen transmission and graft rejection. In this study, we report generation of multilayered OME epithelium that shares many of the characteristics of corneal epithelium using a fully compliant good manufacturing practice, feeder- and animal product-free method. Proof of concept was achieved by transplantation of autologous ex vivo expanded OME in two patients with histologically confirmed bilateral total LSCD that resulted in successful reversal of LSCD in the treated eye up to 24 months. PMID:24590515

  1. In vivo application of ( sup 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe sup 1 )-octreotide for detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, W.H.; Krenning, E.P.; Reubi, J.C.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Setyono-Han, B.; de Jong, M.; Kooij, P.P.M.; Bruns, C.; van Hagen, P.M.; Marbach, P.; Visser, T.J.; Pless, J.; Lamberts, S.W.J. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands) Sandoz Research Inst., Berne (Switzerland) Dr. Daniel den Hoed Cancer Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands) Sandoz Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland))

    1991-01-01

    In this study the authors investigated its in vivo application in the visualization of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in rats. The distribution of the radiopharmaceutical was investigated after intravenous injection in normal rats and in rats bearing the somatostatin receptor-positive rat pancreatic carcinoma CA 20948. Ex vivo autoradiographic studies showed that specific accumulation of radioactivity occurred in somatostatin receptor-containing tissue (anterior pituitary gland). However, in contrast to the adrenals and pituitary, the tracer accumulation in the kidneys was not mediated by somatostatin receptors. Increasing radioactivity over the somatostatin receptor-positive tumors was measured rapidly after injection and the tumors were clearly visualized by gamma camera scintigraphy. In rats pretreated with 1 mg octreotide accumulation of ({sup 111}In-DPTA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide in the tumors was prevented. Because of its relatively long effective half-life, ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide is a radionuclide-coupled somatostatin analogue which can be used to visualize somatostatin receptor-bearing tumors efficiently after 24 hr, when interfering background radioactivity is minimized by renal clearance.

  2. Potential application of in vivo imaging of impaired lymphatic duct to evaluate the severity of pressure ulcer in mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Kasuya, Akira; Sakabe, Jun-ichi; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a cause of pressure ulcer. However, a mechanism underlying the IR injury-induced lymphatic vessel damage remains unclear. We investigated the alterations of structure and function of lymphatic ducts in a mouse cutaneous IR model. And we suggested a new method for evaluating the severity of pressure ulcer. Immunohistochemistry showed that lymphatic ducts were totally vanished by IR injury, while blood vessels were relatively preserved. The production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased in injured tissue. In vitro study showed a high vulnerability of lymphatic endothelial cells to ROS. Then we evaluated the impaired lymphatic drainage using an in vivo imaging system for intradermally injected indocyanine green (ICG). The dysfunction of ICG drainage positively correlated with the severity of subsequent cutaneous changes. Quantification of the lymphatic duct dysfunction by this imaging system could be a useful strategy to estimate the severity of pressure ulcer. PMID:24566895

  3. In Vivo Noninvasive Analysis of Human Forearm Muscle Function and Fatigue: Applications to EVA Operations and Training Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fotedar, L. K.; Marshburn, T.; Quast, M. J.; Feeback, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Forearm muscle fatigue is one of the major limiting factors affecting endurance during performance of deep-space extravehicular activity (EVA) by crew members. Magnetic resonance (MR) provides in vivo noninvasive analysis of tissue level metabolism and fluid exchange dynamics in exercised forearm muscles through the monitoring of proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-31-MRS) parameter variations. Using a space glove box and EVA simulation protocols, we conducted a preliminary MRS/MRI study in a small group of human test subjects during submaximal exercise and recovery and following exhaustive exercise. In assessing simulated EVA-related muscle fatigue and function, this pilot study revealed substantial changes in the MR image longitudinal relaxation times (T2) as an indicator of specific muscle activation and proton flux as well as changes in spectral phosphocreatine-to-phosphate (PCr/Pi) levels as a function of tissue bioenergetic potential.

  4. Application of both a physical theory and statistical procedure in the analyses of an in vivo study of aerosol deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K.H.; Swift, D.L. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Yang, Y.H. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Regional deposition of inhaled aerosols in the respiratory tract is a significant factor in assessing the biological effects from exposure to a variety of environmental particles. Understanding the deposition efficiency of inhaled aerosol particles in the nasal and oral airways can help evaluate doses to the extrathoracic region as well as to the lung. Dose extrapolation from laboratory animals to humans has been questioned due to significant physiological and anatomical variations. Although human studies are considered ideal for obtaining in vivo toxicity information important in risk assessment, the number of subjects in the study is often small compared to epidemiological and animal studies. This study measured in vivo the nasal airway dimensions and the extrathoracic deposition of ultrafine aerosols in 10 normal adult males. Variability among individuals was significant. The nasal geometry of each individual was characterized at a resolution of 3 mm using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and acoustic rhinometry (AR). The turbulent diffusion theory was used to describe the nonlinear nature of extrathoracic aerosol deposition. To determine what dimensional features of the nasal airway were responsible for the marked differences in particle deposition, the MIXed-effects NonLINear Regression (MIXNLIN) procedure was used to account for the random effort of repeated measurements on the same subject. Using both turbulent diffusion theory and MIXNLIN, the ultrafine particle deposition is correlated with nasal dimensions measured by the surface area, minimum cross-sectional area, and complexity of the airway shape. The combination of MRI and AR is useful for characterizing both detailed nasal dimensions and temporal changes in nasal patency. We conclude that a suitable statistical procedure incorporated with existing physical theories must be used in data analyses for experimental studies of aerosol deposition that involve a relatively small number of human subjects.

  5. Application of stripping voltammetry and microelectrodes in vitro biocompatibility and in vivo toxicity tests of AISI 316L corrosion products.

    PubMed

    Morais, S; Pereira, M C

    2000-04-01

    Adsorptive stripping voltammetric procedures, using mercury film microelectrodes, were optimised and applied to quantify total iron, chromium and nickel in samples of osteoblast-like cells culture medium and mice organs (liver, kidney and spleen) obtained from, respectively, in vitro and in vivo 316L stainless steel corrosion products biocompatibility and toxicity studies. The methods were based on the pre-concentration of the iron-catechol complex by adsorption at the potential of -1.80 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), of the chromium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complex at -1.00 V or -1.15 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and of the nickel-dimethylglyoxime complex at -0.70 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The detection limits achieved for each metal ion (i) in the culture medium were 1.93x10(-8) mol/L Fe, 2.80x10(-10) mol/L Cr and 7.70x10(-9) mol/L Ni for a collection time of 30 s, 40 s and 10 s, respectively, and (ii) in the mice organ solutions were 1.37x10(-8) mol/L Fe, 1.54x10(-8) mol/L Cr and 1.58x10(-9) mol/L Ni for an adsorption time of 25 s, 25 s and 15 s, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed procedures was verified by comparison of the results obtained by adsorptive stripping voltammetry with those attained by atomic absorption spectrometry for the same set of samples and good agreement was found. The in vitro study showed that stainless steel corrosion products affect the expression of the osteogenic phenotype. The in vivo mice model, used to investigate the systemic effects provoked by the corrosion products per se, indicated that Fe, Cr and Ni are partially accumulated in the organs studied and that Ni induced the more significant morphological alterations. PMID:10836534

  6. Non-contact respiration monitoring for in-vivo murine micro computed tomography: characterization and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burk, Laurel M.; Lee, Yueh Z.; Wait, J. Matthew; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto Z.

    2012-09-01

    A cone beam micro-CT has previously been utilized along with a pressure-tracking respiration sensor to acquire prospectively gated images of both wild-type mice and various adult murine disease models. While the pressure applied to the abdomen of the subject by this sensor is small and is generally without physiological effect, certain disease models of interest, as well as very young animals, are prone to atelectasis with added pressure, or they generate too weak a respiration signal with this method to achieve optimal prospective gating. In this work we present a new fibre-optic displacement sensor which monitors respiratory motion of a subject without requiring physical contact. The sensor outputs an analogue signal which can be used for prospective respiration gating in micro-CT imaging. The device was characterized and compared against a pneumatic air chamber pressure sensor for the imaging of adult wild-type mice. The resulting images were found to be of similar quality with respect to physiological motion blur; the quality of the respiration signal trace obtained using the non-contact sensor was comparable to that of the pressure sensor and was superior for gating purposes due to its better signal-to-noise ratio. The non-contact sensor was then used to acquire in-vivo micro-CT images of a murine model for congenital diaphragmatic hernia and of 11-day-old mouse pups. In both cases, quality CT images were successfully acquired using this new respiration sensor. Despite the presence of beam hardening artefacts arising from the presence of a fibre-optic cable in the imaging field, we believe this new technique for respiration monitoring and gating presents an opportunity for in-vivo imaging of disease models which were previously considered too delicate for established animal handling methods.

  7. Comparison of a novel adaptive lens with deformable mirrors and its application in high-resolution in-vivo OCT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzotto, Luca; Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Pugh, Edward N.; Mammano, F.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2015-03-01

    We present a novel adaptive lens that can correct high order aberrations, and which has the potential to increase the diffusion of adaptive optics to many new applications by simplifying the integration of a wavefront corrector inside existing systems. The adaptive lens design that we present can correct for Zernike wavefront aberrations up to the 4th order. The adaptive lens performance are compared with the one of a membrane and bimorph deformable mirrors used together in a wide field microscope setup, using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for closed loop control. The adaptive lens was also integrated with Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for in-vivo imaging of mouse retinal structures using an image based wavefront sensorless control.

  8. In-vivo tissue characterization by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puppels, Gerwin J.; van Aken, Matthijs; Wolthuis, Rolf; Caspers, Peter J.; Bakker Schut, Tom C.; Bruining, Hajo A.; Roemer, Tjeerd J.; Buschman, Hendrik P. J.; Wach, Michael L.; Robinson, J. S., Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Vibrational spectroscopies hold great promise for applications in medical diagnosis, especially if they can be applied in vivo. Recent advances in flexible fiber probe design, enable good quality Raman spectra of tissue to be obtained in vivo. Here we illustrate this with Raman spectra of rat tissues, obtained ex vivo and in vivo.

  9. Folic acid-functionalized up-conversion nanoparticles: toxicity studies in vivo and in vitro and targeted imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lining; Wei, Zuwu; Chen, Haige; Liu, Jinliang; Guo, Jianjian; Cao, Ming; Wen, Tieqiao; Shi, Liyi

    2014-07-01

    Folate receptors (FRs) are overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells and tissues, including cancers of the breast, ovaries, endometrium, and brain. This over-expression of FRs can be used to target folate-linked imaging specifically to FR-expressing tumors. Fluorescence is emerging as a powerful new modality for molecular imaging in both the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Combining innovative molecular biology and chemistry, we prepared three kinds of folate-targeted up-conversion nanoparticles as imaging agents (UCNC-FA: UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm-FA, and UCNC-Er,Tm-FA). In vivo and in vitro toxicity studies showed that these nanoparticles have both good biocompatibility and low toxicity. Moreover, the up-conversion luminescence imaging indicated that they have good targeting to HeLa cells and can therefore serve as potential fluorescent contrast agents.Folate receptors (FRs) are overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells and tissues, including cancers of the breast, ovaries, endometrium, and brain. This over-expression of FRs can be used to target folate-linked imaging specifically to FR-expressing tumors. Fluorescence is emerging as a powerful new modality for molecular imaging in both the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Combining innovative molecular biology and chemistry, we prepared three kinds of folate-targeted up-conversion nanoparticles as imaging agents (UCNC-FA: UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm-FA, and UCNC-Er,Tm-FA). In vivo and in vitro toxicity studies showed that these nanoparticles have both good biocompatibility and low toxicity. Moreover, the up-conversion luminescence imaging indicated that they have good targeting to HeLa cells and can therefore serve as potential fluorescent contrast agents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Up-conversion luminescence spectra of UCNC-Er and UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm and UCNC-Tm-FA. Confocal luminescence imaging data collected as a series along the Z optical axis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02312a

  10. Automated Segmentation and Object Classification of CT Images: Application to In Vivo Molecular Imaging of Avian Embryos.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, Alexander; Schmidt, Jana; Zimmermann, Johannes; Saluz, Hans Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although chick embryogenesis has been studied extensively, there has been growing interest in the investigation of skeletogenesis. In addition to improved poultry health and minimized economic loss, a greater understanding of skeletal abnormalities can also have implications for human medicine. True in vivo studies require noninvasive imaging techniques such as high-resolution microCT. However, the manual analysis of acquired images is both time consuming and subjective. Methods. We have developed a system for automated image segmentation that entails object-based image analysis followed by the classification of the extracted image objects. For image segmentation, a rule set was developed using Definiens image analysis software. The classification engine was implemented using the WEKA machine learning tool. Results. Our system reduces analysis time and observer bias while maintaining high accuracy. Applying the system to the quantification of long bone growth has allowed us to present the first true in ovo data for bone length growth recorded in the same chick embryos. Conclusions. The procedures developed represent an innovative approach for the automated segmentation, classification, quantification, and visualization of microCT images. MicroCT offers the possibility of performing longitudinal studies and thereby provides unique insights into the morpho- and embryogenesis of live chick embryos. PMID:23997760

  11. In Vivo Application of Tissue-Engineered Veins Using Autologous Peripheral Whole Blood: A Proof of Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Olausson, Michael; Kuna, Vijay Kumar; Travnikova, Galyna; Bäckdahl, Henrik; Patil, Pradeep B.; Saalman, Robert; Borg, Helena; Jeppsson, Anders; Sumitran-Holgersson, Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Vascular diseases are increasing health problems affecting > 25 million individuals in westernized societies. Such patients could benefit from transplantation of tissue-engineered vascular grafts using autologous cells. One challenge that has limited this development is the need for cell isolation, and risks associated with ex vivo expanded stem cells. Here we demonstrate a novel approach to generate transplantable vascular grafts using decellularized allogeneic vascular scaffolds, repopulated with peripheral whole blood (PWB) in vitro in a bioreactor. Circulating, VEGFR-2 +/CD45 + and a smaller fraction of VEGFR-2 +/CD14 + cells contributed to repopulation of the graft. SEM micrographs showed flat cells on the luminal surface of the grafts consistent with endothelial cells. For clinical validation, two autologous PWB tissue-engineered vein conduits were prepared and successfully used for by-pass procedures in two pediatric patients. These results provide a proof of principle for the generation of transplantable vascular grafts using a simple autologous blood sample, making it clinically feasible globally.

  12. In vitro and in vivo investigations into the biocompatibility of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Allen, M; Myer, B; Rushton, N

    2001-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) shows great promise as a durable, wear- and corrosion-resistant coating for biomedical implants. The effects of DLC coatings on the musculoskeletal system have not been investigated in detail. In this study, DLC coatings were deposited on polystyrene 24-well tissue culture plates by fast-atom bombardment from a hexane precursor. Two osteoblast-like cell lines were cultured on uncoated and DLC-coated plates for periods of up to 72 h. The effects of DLC coatings on cellular metabolism were investigated by measuring the production of three osteoblast-specific marker proteins: alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and type I collagen. There was no evidence that the presence of the DLC coating had any adverse effect on any of the parameters measured in this study. In a second series of experiments, DLC-coated cobalt-chromium cylinders were implanted in intramuscular locations in rats and in transcortical sites in sheep. Histologic analysis of specimens retrieved 90 days after surgery showed that the DLC-coated specimens were well tolerated in both sites. These data indicate that DLC coatings are biocompatible in vitro and in vivo, and further investigations into their long-term biological and tribological performance are now warranted. PMID:11319748

  13. High-resolution quantitative whole-breast ultrasound: in vivo application using frequency-domain waveform tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Gursharan Y. S.; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steven; Duric, Neb

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound tomography is a promising modality for breast imaging. Many current ultrasound tomography imaging algorithms are based on ray theory and assume a homogeneous background which is inaccurate for complex heterogeneous regions. They fail when the size of lesions approaches the wavelength of ultrasound used. Therefore, to accurately image small lesions, wave theory must be used in ultrasound imaging algorithms to properly handle the heterogeneous nature of breast tissue and the diffraction effects that it induces. Using frequency-domain ultrasound waveform tomography, we present sound speed reconstructions of both a tissue-mimicking breast phantom and in vivo data sets. Significant improvements in contrast and resolution are made upon the previous ray based methods. Where it might have been difficult to differentiate a high sound speed tumor from bulk breast parenchyma using ray based methods, waveform tomography improves the shape and margins of a tumor to help more accurately differentiate it from the bulk breast tissue. Waveform tomography sound speed imaging might improve the ability of finding lesions in very dense tissues, a difficult environment for mammography. By comparing the sound speed images produced by waveform tomography to MRI, we see that the complex structures in waveform tomography are consistent with those in MRI. The robustness of the method is established by reconstructing data acquired by two different ultrasound tomography prototypes.

  14. In vitro and in vivo application of pH-sensitive colon-targeting polysaccharide hydrogel used for ulcerative colitis therapy.

    PubMed

    You, Yu Cui; Dong, Ling Ya; Dong, Kai; Xu, Wei; Yan, Yan; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Ke; Xing, Feng Jian

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare, characterize novel types of pH-sensitive konjac gum-xanthan gum-glycerol-sodium alginate hydrogel (KGM-XG-GLY-SA hydrogel) allowing for the site-specific delivering of drugs to the colon and evaluate its colon-targeting characteristic. In this study, hydrophilic drug of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (HSS) was chosen as a model drug and successfully loaded in hydrogel without any organic solvent. In vitro investigations were carried out to evaluate its release process. The drug-loaded hydrogel shown good sustained release property that drugs release from test hydrogel was minimal at pH 1.2 (2h, 23.40%), pH 6.8 (4h, 25.88%), and significantly higher (4h, 70.20%) at pH 7.4. It is clear that adding glycerol in hydrogel as hysteresis preparation prevented the rapid dissolution of material in the higher pH of the intestine. Thus ensuring a controlled release of the entrapped drug. We studied the colonic-targeting behavior, in vivo toxicity test, pharmacokinetic study, features to reduce drug toxicity, and therapeutic effect of experimental UC of this preparation. All the results in vitro were shown that the K (KGM-XG-GLY-SA) hydrogels with glycerol had a good colon-targeting characteristic. In addition, results in vivo were indicated that K (KGM-XG-GLY-SA) hydrogel were nontoxic, reduced the spleen and thymus index, and had an obvious effect on the treatment of UC. Therefore, all results suggested that the developed HSS/KGM-XG-GLY-SA hydrogel (HSS-GEL) with glycerol as a colon-targeting vector might have greatly potential application in the UC healing. PMID:26076623

  15. Clinical Application of In-Room Positron Emission Tomography for In Vivo Treatment Monitoring in Proton Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Chul Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zhu, Xuping [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Winey, Brian A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Grogg, Kira [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Testa, Mauro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); El Fakhri, Georges [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bortfeld, Thomas R.; Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential of using in-room positron emission tomography (PET) for treatment verification in proton therapy and for deriving suitable PET scan times. Methods and Materials: Nine patients undergoing passive scattering proton therapy underwent scanning immediately after treatment with an in-room PET scanner. The scanner was positioned next to the treatment head after treatment. The Monte Carlo (MC) method was used to reproduce PET activities for each patient. To assess the proton beam range uncertainty, we designed a novel concept in which the measured PET activity surface distal to the target at the end of range was compared with MC predictions. The repositioning of patients for the PET scan took, on average, approximately 2 minutes. The PET images were reconstructed considering varying scan times to test the scan time dependency of the method. Results: The measured PET images show overall good spatial correlations with MC predictions. Some discrepancies could be attributed to uncertainties in the local elemental composition and biological washout. For 8 patients treated with a single field, the average range differences between PET measurements and computed tomography (CT) image-based MC results were <5 mm (<3 mm for 6 of 8 patients) and root-mean-square deviations were 4 to 11 mm with PET-CT image co-registration errors of approximately 2 mm. Our results also show that a short-length PET scan of 5 minutes can yield results similar to those of a 20-minute PET scan. Conclusions: Our first clinical trials in 9 patients using an in-room PET system demonstrated its potential for in vivo treatment monitoring in proton therapy. For a quantitative range prediction with arbitrary shape of target volume, we suggest using the distal PET activity surface.

  16. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro testing of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and dextran magnetic microspheres for in vivo applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Leamy

    2003-01-01

    Many research groups are investigating degradable magnetic particles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and as carriers for magnetic drug guidance. These particles are composite materials with a degradable polymer matrix and iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic properties. The degradable polymer matrix acts to provide colloidal stability and, for drug delivery applications, provides a reservoir for the storage and

  17. In vivo assessments of bioabsorbable AZ91 magnesium implants coated with nanostructured fluoridated hydroxyapatite by MAO/EPD technique for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Mehdi; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Savabi, Omid; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-03-01

    Although magnesium (Mg) is a unique biodegradable metal which possesses mechanical property similar to that of the natural bone and can be an attractive material to be used as orthopedic implants, its quick corrosion rate restricts its actual clinical applications. To control its rapid degradation, we have modified the surface of magnesium implant using fluoridated hydroxyapatite (FHA: Ca10(PO4)6OH2-xFx) through the combined micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) techniques, which was presented in our previous paper. In this article, the biocompatibility examinations were conducted on the coated AZ91 magnesium alloy by implanting it into the greater trochanter area of rabbits. The results of the in vivo animal test revealed a significant enhancement in the biocompatibility of FHA/MAO coated implant compared to the uncoated one. By applying the FHA/MAO coating on the AZ91 implant, the amount of weight loss and magnesium ion release in blood plasma decreased. According to the histological results, the formation of the new bone increased and the inflammation decreased around the implant. In addition, the implantation of the uncoated AZ91 alloy accompanied by the release of hydrogen gas around the implant; this release was suppressed by applying the coated implant. Our study exemplifies that the surface coating of magnesium implant using a bioactive ceramic such as fluoridated hydroxyapatite may improve the biocompatibility of the implant to make it suitable as a commercialized biomedical product. PMID:25579892

  18. Two-Photon Absorbing Dyes with Minimal Autofluorescence in Tissue Imaging: Application to in Vivo Imaging of Amyloid-? Plaques with a Negligible Background Signal.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dokyoung; Moon, Hyunsoo; Baik, Sung Hoon; Singha, Subhankar; Jun, Yong Woong; Wang, Taejun; Kim, Ki Hean; Park, Byung Sun; Jung, Junyang; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Ahn, Kyo Han

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescence imaging of tissues offer an essential means for studying biological systems. Autofluorescence becomes a serious issue in tissue imaging under excitation at UV-vis wavelengths where biological molecules compete with the fluorophore. To address this critical issue, a novel class of fluorophores that can be excited at ?900 nm under two-photon excitation conditions and emits in the red wavelength region (?600 nm) has been disclosed. The new ?-extended dipolar dye system shows several advantageous features including minimal autofluorescence in tissue imaging and pronounced solvent-sensitive emission behavior, compared with a widely used two-photon absorbing dye, acedan. As an important application of the new dye system, one of the dyes was developed into a fluorescent probe for amyloid-? plaques, a key biomarker of Alzheimer's disease. The probe enabled in vivo imaging of amyloid-? plaques in a disease-model mouse, with negligible background signal. The new dye system has great potential for the development of other types of two-photon fluorescent probes and tags for imaging of tissues with minimal autofluorescence. PMID:25951499

  19. Resistance after Chronic Application of the HDAC-Inhibitor Valproic Acid Is Associated with Elevated Akt Activation in Renal Cell Carcinoma In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Juengel, Eva; Makarevi?, Jasmina; Tsaur, Igor; Bartsch, Georg; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted drugs have significantly improved the therapeutic options for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, resistance often develops, negating the benefit of these agents. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance towards the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) in a RCC in vivo model were investigated. NMRI:nu/nu mice were transplanted with Caki-1 RCC cells and then treated with VPA (200 mg/kg/day). Controls remained untreated. Based on tumor growth dynamics, the mice were divided into “responders” and “non-responders” to VPA. Histone H3 and H4 acetylation and expression of cell signaling and cell cycle regulating proteins in the RCC mouse tumors were evaluated by Western blotting. Tumor growth of VPA responders was significantly diminished, whereas that of VPA non-responders even exceeded control values. Cdk1, 2 and 4 proteins were strongly enhanced in the non-responders. Importantly, Akt expression and activity were massively up-regulated in the tumors of the VPA non-responders. Chronic application (12 weeks) of VPA to Caki-1 cells in vitro evoked a distinct elevation of Akt activity and cancer cells no longer responded with cell growth reduction, compared to the short 2 week treatment. We assume that chronic use of an HDAC-inhibitor is associated with (re)-activation of Akt, which may be involved in resistance development. Consequently, combined blockade of both HDAC and Akt may delay or prevent drug resistance in RCC. PMID:23372654

  20. In vitro and in vivo application of active compounds with anti-yeast activity to improve the shelf life of ready-to-eat table grape.

    PubMed

    Cristina, Costa; Annalisa, Lucera; Amalia, Conte; Francesco, Contň; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    The anti-yeast effects of several compounds at different concentrations were screened in vitro against main table grape spoilage yeasts. The compounds showing the most significant anti-yeast activity were applied by dipping to table grape, to evaluate the sensory perception. In a subsequent final step, dipping treatments with potassium sorbate, eugenol, citrus extract and ethanol, were applied to ready-to-eat seedless table grape, packaged in air or under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). The in vitro test highlights good effects of cinnamon bark oil and citrus extract, even at the lowest concentrations used in this work. From a sensory point of view, the preliminary panel test selected potassium sorbate, citrus extract, eugenol and ethanol as most suitable substances. The in vivo application of active compounds showed that dipping in eugenol solution and ethanol (20 and 50 %) in combination with MAP increased shelf life of fruit if compared to the control sample (24.08, 28.47, 35.79 and 14.26 days, respectively). PMID:23512208

  1. Application of adaptive optics: optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging of microscopic structures in the retina and optic nerve head

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Zawadzki; Yan Zhang II; Steven M. Jones; Stacey S. Choi; Barry Cense; Diana Chen; Alfred R. Fuller; Donald T. Miller; Scot S. Olivier; John S. Werner

    2007-01-01

    Two deformable mirrors (2DM) were used in an adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) system to image in vivo microscopic retinal structures of healthy and diseased retinas. As a result, multiple morphological structures not previously seen in vivo have been visualized. Among those presented are three-dimensional representations of the fovea and optic nerve head (ONH), revealing cellular structures and

  2. LC analysis of benzophenone-3: II application to determination of ‘in vitro’ and ‘in vivo’ skin penetration from solvents, coarse and submicron emulsions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Fernandez; G. Marti-Mestres; J. Ramos; H. Maillols

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the skin penetration of benzophenone-3 in vitro and in vivo in order to investigate a possible influence of formulation. Six different vehicles, three solvents and three different emulsion types were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Each vehicle was applied to the skin model at 2 mg cm?2. First, histological studies on

  3. Optical imaging in vivo with a focus on paediatric disease: technical progress, current preclinical and clinical applications and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Napp, Joanna; Mathejczyk, Julia E.

    2011-01-01

    To obtain information on the occurrence and location of molecular events as well as to track target-specific probes such as antibodies or peptides, drugs or even cells non-invasively over time, optical imaging (OI) technologies are increasingly applied. Although OI strongly contributes to the advances made in preclinical research, it is so far, with the exception of optical coherence tomography (OCT), only very sparingly applied in clinical settings. Nevertheless, as OI technologies evolve and improve continuously and represent relatively inexpensive and harmful methods, their implementation as clinical tools for the assessment of children disease is increasing. This review focuses on the current preclinical and clinical applications as well as on the future potential of OI in the clinical routine. Herein, we summarize the development of different fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging techniques for microscopic and macroscopic visualization of microstructures and biological processes. In addition, we discuss advantages and limitations of optical probes with distinct mechanisms of target-detection as well as of different bioluminescent reporter systems. Particular attention has been given to the use of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes enabling observation of molecular events in deeper tissue. PMID:21221568

  4. Theory and application of optimal linear resolution to MRI truncation artifacts, multiexponential decays and in vivo multiple sclerosis pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cover, Keith S.

    It is widely believed that one of the best way to proceed when analysing data is to generate estimates which fit the data. However, when the relationship between the unknown model and data is linear for highly underdetermined systems, is it common practice to find estimates with good linear resolution with no regard for fitting the data. For example, windowed Fourier transforms produces estimates that have good linear resolution but do not fit the data. Surprisingly, many researchers do not seem to be explicitly aware of this fact. This thesis presents a theoretical basis for the linear resolution which demonstrates that, for a wide range of problems, algorithms which produce estimates with good linear resolution can be a more powerful and convenient way of presenting the information in the data, than models that fit the data. Linear resolution was also applied to two outstanding problems in linear inverse theory. The first was the problem of truncation artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Truncation artifacts were heavily suppressed or eliminated by the choice of one of two novel Fourier transform windows. Complete elimination of truncation artifacts generally led to unexpectedly blurry images. Heavy suppression seemed to be the best compromise between truncation artifacts and blurriness. The second problem was estimating the relaxation distribution of a multiexponential system from its decay curve. This is an example where hundreds of papers have been written on the subject, yet almost no one has made a substantial effort to apply linear resolution. I found the application to be very successful. As an example, the algorithm was applied to the decay of MRI data from multiple sclerosis patients in an attempt to differentiate between various pathologies.

  5. In vivo application of short-lag spatial coherence and harmonic spatial coherence imaging in fetal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kakkad, Vaibhav; Dahl, Jeremy; Ellestad, Sarah; Trahey, Gregg

    2015-04-01

    Fetal scanning is one of the most common applications of ultrasound imaging and serves as a source of vital information about maternal and fetal health. Visualization of clinically relevant structures, however, can be severely compromised in difficult-to-image patients due to poor resolution and the presence of high levels of acoustical noise or clutter. We have developed novel coherence-based beamforming methods called Short-Lag Spatial Coherence (SLSC) imaging and Harmonic Spatial Coherence imaging (HSCI), and applied them to suppress the effects of clutter in fetal imaging. This method is used to create images of the spatial coherence of the backscattered ultrasound as opposed to images of echo magnitude. We present the results of a patient study to assess the benefits of coherence-based beamforming in the context of first trimester fetal exams. Matched fundamental B-mode, SLSC, harmonic B-mode, and HSCI images were generated using raw radio frequency data collected on 11 volunteers in the first trimester of pregnancy. The images were compared for qualitative differences in image texture and target conspicuity as well as using quantitative imaging metrics such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and contrast. SLSC and HSCI showed statistically significant improvements across all imaging metrics compared with B-mode and harmonic B-mode, respectively. These improvements were greatest for poor quality B-mode images where contrast of anechoic targets was improved from 15 dB in fundamental B-mode to 27 dB in SLSC and 17 dB in harmonic B-mode to 30 dB in HSCI. CNR improved from 1.4 to 2.5 in the fundamental images and 1.4 to 3.1 in the harmonic case. These results exhibit the potential of coherence-based beamforming to improve image quality and target detectability, especially in high noise environments. PMID:25116292

  6. In vivo methods for drug absorption - comparative physiologies, model selection, correlations with in vitro methods (IVIVC), and applications for formulation/API/excipient characterization including food effects.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, Erik; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Augustijns, Patrick; Becker, Dieter; Bolger, Michael B; Brewster, Marcus; Brouwers, Joachim; Flanagan, Talia; Harwood, Matthew; Heinen, Christian; Holm, René; Juretschke, Hans-Paul; Kubbinga, Marlies; Lindahl, Anders; Lukacova, Viera; Münster, Uwe; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Nguyen, Mai Anh; Peer, Achiel van; Reppas, Christos; Hodjegan, Amin Rostami; Tannergren, Christer; Weitschies, Werner; Wilson, Clive; Zane, Patricia; Lennernäs, Hans; Langguth, Peter

    2014-06-16

    This review summarizes the current knowledge on anatomy and physiology of the human gastrointestinal tract in comparison with that of common laboratory animals (dog, pig, rat and mouse) with emphasis on in vivo methods for testing and prediction of oral dosage form performance. A wide range of factors and methods are considered in addition, such as imaging methods, perfusion models, models for predicting segmental/regional absorption, in vitro in vivo correlations as well as models to investigate the effects of excipients and the role of food on drug absorption. One goal of the authors was to clearly identify the gaps in today's knowledge in order to stimulate further work on refining the existing in vivo models and demonstrate their usefulness in drug formulation and product performance testing. PMID:24637348

  7. Application of basic and composite thrombelastography parameters in monitoring of the antithrombotic effect of the low molecular weight heparin dalteparin: an in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Artang, Ramin; Frandsen, Niels J; Nielsen, Jřrn Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Background Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is in vast usage for treatment of thromboembolic diseases such as deep venous thrombosis and acute coronary syndromes. There are certain clinical situations where a quick point of care testing of the effect of LMWH would be useful. At this point there are no point of care devices available in the market for monitoring the effect of LMWH. Thrombelastography (TEG) evaluates the viscoelastic properties of blood during coagulation. The clinical application of TEG in monitoring LMWH treatment is not yet well defined. The purpose of this in vivo study was to systematically evaluate the most suitable TEG parameters for evaluation of the antithrombotic effect of LMWH. We furthermore evaluated for the first time the usefulness of the composite TEG parameter the Thrombodynamic Ratio (TDR) in monitoring LMWH treatment. Methods Healthy male volunteers (n = 7) were injected subcutaneously with the LMWH dalteparin 120 IU/kg. TEG parameters and antifactor Xa levels were measures at baseline, 2, 4, 5 and 24 hours after the injection. Correlation between TEG parameters and antiXa were calculated. The sensitivity and specificity of the TEG parameters for plasma levels of antiXa in the therapeutic range of 0.5 - 1.0 U/ml were calculated. Results All basic TEG parameters correlated significantly with antiXa levels. Among the basic parameters, the TEG reaction time R had the best correlation with antiXa levels with the most favorable combination of sensitivity and specificity for the therapeutic range of antiXa levels (r = 0.82, p < 0.0001, sensitivity 68%, specificity 100%). The composite TEG parameter TDR demonstrated the best correlation with antiXa levels, and an even more favorable combination of sensitivity and specificity compared to any of the basic parameters (r = - 0.87, p < 0.0001, sensitivity 95%, specificity 79%). Conclusion The TEG reaction time R and TDR are the most suitable TEG parameters for evaluation of the antithrombotic effect of dalteparin with a highly significant correlation with antiXa levels in healthy male volunteers. Measures for uniform clinical use of these parameters are proposed. Larger clinical trials are needed to correlate R and TDR with clinical outcomes. PMID:19903343

  8. Behavior of Tip-Steerable Needles in ex vivo and in vivo Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Majewicz, Ann; Marra, Steven P.; van Vledder, Mark G.; Lin, MingDe; Choti, Michael A.; Song, Danny Y.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    Robotic needle steering is a promising technique to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures, such as biopsies and ablation, by computer-controlled, curved insertions of needles within solid organs. In this paper, we explore the capabilities, challenges, and clinical relevance of asymmetric-tip needle steering though experiments in ex vivo and in vivo tissue. We evaluate the repeatability of needle insertion in inhomogeneous biological tissue and compare ex vivo and in vivo needle curvature and insertion forces. Steerable needles curved more in kidney than in liver and prostate, likely due to differences in tissue properties. Pre-bent needles produced higher insertion forces in liver and more curvature in vivo than ex vivo. When compared to straight stainless steel needles, steerable needles did not cause a measurable increase in tissue damage and did not exert more force during insertion. The minimum radius of curvature achieved by pre-bent needles was 5.23 cm in ex vivo tissue, and 10.4 cm in in vivo tissue. The curvatures achieved by bevel tip needles were negligible for in vivo tissue. The minimum radius of curvature for bevel tip needles in ex vivo tissue was 16.4 cm; however, about half of the bevel tip needles had negligible curvatures. We also demonstrate a potential clinical application of needle steering by targeting and ablating overlapping regions of cadaveric canine liver. PMID:22711767

  9. Establishment of an allo-transplantable hamster cholangiocarcinoma cell line and its application for in vivo screening of anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Puthdee, Nattapong; Vaeteewoottacharn, Kulthida; Seubwai, Wunchana; Wonkchalee, Orasa; Kaewkong, Worasak; Juasook, Amornrat; Pinlaor, Somchai; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Okada, Seiji; Boonmars, Thidarut; Wongkham, Sopit

    2013-12-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) is a well-known causative agent of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in humans. CCA is very resistant to chemotherapy and is frequently fatal. To understand the pathogenesis of CCA in humans, a rodent model was developed. However, the development of CCA in rodents is time-consuming and the xenograft-transplantation model of human CCA in immunodeficient mice is costly. Therefore, the establishment of an in vivo screening model for O. viverrini-associated CCA treatment was of interest. We developed a hamster CCA cell line, Ham-1, derived from the CCA tissue of O. viverrini-infected and N-nitrosodimethylamine-treated Syrian golden hamsters. Ham-1 has been maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Essential Medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum for more than 30 subcultures. These cells are mostly diploid (2n=44) with some being polyploid. Tumorigenic properties of Ham-1 were demonstrated by allograft transplantation in hamsters. The transplanted tissues were highly proliferative and exhibited a glandular-like structure retaining a bile duct marker, cytokeratin 19. The usefulness of this for in vivo model was demonstrated by berberine treatment, a traditional medicine that is active against various cancers. Growth inhibitory effects of berberine, mainly by an induction of G1 cell cycle arrest, were observed in vitro and in vivo. In summary, we developed the allo-transplantable hamster CCA cell line, which can be used for chemotherapeutic drug testing in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24516278

  10. In vivo imaging of engrafted neural stem cells: its application in evaluating the optimal timing of transplantation for spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiji Okada; Ken Ishii; Junichi Yamane; Akio Iwanami; Takeshi Ikegami; Hiroyuki Katoh; Yukihide Iwamoto; Masaya Nakamura; Hiroyuki Miyoshi; Hirotaka James Okano; Christopher H. Contag; Yoshiaki Toyama; Hideyuki Okano

    2005-01-01

    Neural stem\\/progenitor cells (NSPCs) hold promise in neural tissue replacement therapy after spinal cord injury. However, understanding the survival time of grafted NSPCs and determining the extent of migration away from transplantation sites are essential for optimizing treatment regimens. Here, we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging to noninvasively assess the survival and residence time of transplanted NSPCs at the injury

  11. Application of an in vitro DDASS to evaluate oral absorption of two chemicals simultaneously: establishment of a level A in vitro-in vivo correlation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jipeng; He, Xin; Xu, Xuefang; Shi, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yanyan; Liu, Changxiao

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral absorption of two chemicals simultaneously using a drug dissolution/absorption simulating system (DDASS), and to establish a correlation between DDASS and in vivo absorption to clarify the prediction of this in vitro model. Ferulic acid (FA) and tetrahydropalmatine (THP), the components of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Corydalis Yanhusuo Rhizoma, respectively, were chosen as model compounds. Three groups including FA, THP, and FA and THP together (FA + THP) were studied in DDASS. The corresponding in vivo pharmacokinetics study was performed in rats. Then the correlation was analysed between DDASS permeation in vitro and rat absorption data in vivo. A strong level A correlation (r > 0.84) was obtained after a correlation coefficient test (p < 0.05 or 0.01). Moreover, when FA and THP were used together in DDASS, the cumulative permeation of FA increased by 38.5%, while THP permeation decreased by 25.8%. In rats, the area under the concentration-time curve from time to infinity for FA increased 2.6-fold, while THP decreased 19.6%. The changes in rat intestinal permeation modeled by the DDASS were consistent with the absorption changes in rats. We conclude that DDASS is a valid in vitro model to evaluate oral absorption of two drug components simultaneously and reflect the in vivo characteristics of drug absorption accurately. PMID:22296178

  12. Motion-artifact-robust, polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy based on rapid polarization switching with electro-optic Pockells cell and its application to in vivo visualization of collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuji; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shuichiro; Ogura, Yuki; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Hirao, Tetsuji; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-04-01

    Polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation (PR-SHG) microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating collagen fiber orientation quantitatively with low invasiveness. However, the waiting time for the mechanical polarization rotation makes it too sensitive to motion artifacts and hence has hampered its use in various applications in vivo. In the work described in this article, we constructed a motion-artifact-robust, PR-SHG microscope based on rapid polarization switching at every pixel with an electro-optic Pockells cell (PC) in synchronization with step-wise raster scanning of the focus spot and alternate data acquisition of a vertical-polarization-resolved SHG signal and a horizontal-polarization-resolved one. The constructed PC-based PR-SHG microscope enabled us to visualize orientation mapping of dermal collagen fiber in human facial skin in vivo without the influence of motion artifacts. Furthermore, it implied the location and/or age dependence of the collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin. The robustness to motion artifacts in the collagen orientation measurement will expand the application scope of SHG microscopy in dermatology and collagen-related fields. PMID:24761292

  13. Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

    2011-03-01

    Terahertz (1012 Hz) pulsed imaging is a totally non-destructive and non-ionising imaging modality and thus potential applications in medicine are being investigated. In this paper we present results using our hand-held terahertz probe that has been designed for in vivo use. In particular, we use the terahertz probe to perform reflection geometry in vivo measurements of human skin. The hand-held terahertz probe gives more flexibility than a typical flat-bed imaging system, but it also results in noisier data and requires existing processing methods to be improved. We describe the requirements and limitations of system geometry, data acquisition rate, image resolution and penetration depth and explain how various factors are dependent on each other. We show how some of the physical limitations can be overcome using novel data processing methods.

  14. Effects of imidacloprid on adult and larval stages of the flea Ctenocephalides felis after in vivo and in vitro application: a light- and electron-microscopy study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz Mehlhorn; Norbert Mencke; Olaf Hansen

    1999-01-01

    The effects of imidacloprid (Advantage®) on the larval and adult stages of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) were studied in?vivo and in?vitro by means of light and electron microscopy. It was found that:\\u000a \\u000a 1. The compound acted rapidly on both larval and adult fleas, killing both stages within 20?min of contact.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. When applied as a spot-on to the skin of

  15. /sup 31/P in-vivo spectroscopic study by high-field whole-body MR system--an application to a case with arteriosclerosis obliterans

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, T.; Imakita, S.; Naito, H.; Takamiya, M.; Matsuo, H.; Nakayama, R.

    1987-08-01

    /sup 31/P in-vivo spectroscopy was performed by a 1.5-tesla whole-body MR system. The /sup 31/P spectrum for the calf muscle in a patient with arteriosclerosis obliterans having intermittent claudication was obtained every two minutes. When the spectrum after the workload was compared with that at rest, an increase in inorganic phosphate (Pi) and a decrease in phosphocreatine (PCr) were observed, resulting in a strong decrease in the PCr/Pi ratio. This method can measure the ischemic and recovery stages of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle noninvasively and continuously in addition to magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Application of time-resolved autofluorescence to label-free in vivo optical mapping of changes in tissue matrix and metabolism associated with myocardial infarction and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Lagarto, Joăo; Dyer, Benjamin T.; Talbot, Clifford; Sikkel, Markus B.; Peters, Nicholas S.; French, Paul M. W.; Lyon, Alexander R.; Dunsby, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the potential of an instrument combining time-resolved spectrofluorometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to measure structural and metabolic changes in cardiac tissue in vivo in a 16 week post-myocardial infarction heart failure model in rats. In the scar region, we observed changes in the fluorescence signal that can be explained by increased collagen content, which is in good agreement with histology. In areas remote from the scar tissue, we measured changes in the fluorescence signal (p < 0.001) that cannot be explained by differences in collagen content and we attribute this to altered metabolism within the myocardium. A linear discriminant analysis algorithm was applied to the measurements to predict the tissue disease state. When we combine all measurements, our results reveal high diagnostic accuracy in the infarcted area (100%) and border zone (94.44%) as well as in remote regions from the scar (> 77%). Overall, our results demonstrate the potential of our instrument to characterize structural and metabolic changes in a failing heart in vivo without using exogenous labels. PMID:25780727

  17. Implanted, inductively-coupled, radiofrequency coils fabricated on flexible polymeric material: application to in vivo rat brain MRI at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Ginefri, J-C; Rubin, A; Tatoulian, M; Woytasik, M; Boumezbeur, F; Djemaď, B; Poirier-Quinot, M; Lethimonnier, F; Darrasse, L; Dufour-Gergam, E

    2012-11-01

    Combined with high-field MRI scanners, small implanted coils allow for high resolution imaging with locally improved SNR, as compared to external coils. Small flexible implantable coils dedicated to in vivo MRI of the rat brain at 7 T were developed. Based on the Multi-turn Transmission Line Resonator design, they were fabricated with a Teflon substrate using copper micromolding process and a specific metal-polymer adhesion treatment. The implanted coils were made biocompatible by PolyDimethylSiloxane (PDMS) encapsulation. The use of low loss tangent material achieves low dielectric losses within the substrate and the use of the PDMS layer reduces the parasitic coupling with the surrounding media. An implanted coil was implemented in a 7 T MRI system using inductive coupling and a dedicated external pick-up coil for signal transmission. In vivo images of the rat brain acquired with in plane resolution of (150 ?m)(2) thanks to the implanted coil revealed high SNR near the coil, allowing for the visualization of fine cerebral structures. PMID:23041797

  18. Ex vivo optical metabolic measurements from cultured tissue reflect in vivo tissue status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Alex J.; Poole, Kristin M.; Duvall, Craig L.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2012-11-01

    Optical measurements of metabolism are ideally acquired in vivo; however, intravital measurements are often impractical. Accurate ex vivo assessments would greatly broaden the applicability of optical measurements of metabolism. We investigate the use of live tissue culture experiments to serve as a surrogate for in vivo metabolic measurements. To validate this approach, NADH and FAD fluorescence intensity and lifetime images were acquired with a two-photon microscope from hamster cheek pouch epithelia in vivo, from biopsies maintained in live tissue culture up to 48 h, and from flash-frozen and thawed biopsies. We found that the optical redox ratio (fluorescence intensity of NADH/FAD) of the cultured biopsy was statistically identical to the in vivo measurement until 24 h, while the redox ratio of the frozen-thawed samples decreased by 15% (p<0.01). The NADH mean fluorescence lifetime (?m) remained unchanged (p>0.05) during the first 8 h of tissue culture, while the NADH ?m of frozen-thawed samples increased by 13% (p<0.001). Cellular morphology did not significantly change between in vivo, cultured, and frozen-thawed tissues (p>0.05). All results were consistent across multiple depth layers in this stratified squamous epithelial tissue. Histological markers for proliferation and apoptosis also confirm the viability of tissues maintained in culture. This study suggests that short-term ex vivo tissue culture may be more appropriate than frozen-thawed tissue for optical metabolic and morphologic measurements that approximate in vivo status.

  19. Clinical application of in vivo treatment delivery verification based on PET/CT imaging of positron activity induced at high energy photon therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janek Strĺĺt, Sara; Andreassen, Björn; Jonsson, Cathrine; Noz, Marilyn E.; Maguire, Gerald Q., Jr.; Näfstadius, Peder; Näslund, Ingemar; Schoenahl, Frederic; Brahme, Anders

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo verification of radiation treatment with high energy photon beams using PET/CT to image the induced positron activity. The measurements of the positron activation induced in a preoperative rectal cancer patient and a prostate cancer patient following 50 MV photon treatments are presented. A total dose of 5 and 8 Gy, respectively, were delivered to the tumors. Imaging was performed with a 64-slice PET/CT scanner for 30 min, starting 7 min after the end of the treatment. The CT volume from the PET/CT and the treatment planning CT were coregistered by matching anatomical reference points in the patient. The treatment delivery was imaged in vivo based on the distribution of the induced positron emitters produced by photonuclear reactions in tissue mapped on to the associated dose distribution of the treatment plan. The results showed that spatial distribution of induced activity in both patients agreed well with the delivered beam portals of the treatment plans in the entrance subcutaneous fat regions but less so in blood and oxygen rich soft tissues. For the preoperative rectal cancer patient however, a 2 ± (0.5) cm misalignment was observed in the cranial-caudal direction of the patient between the induced activity distribution and treatment plan, indicating a beam patient setup error. No misalignment of this kind was seen in the prostate cancer patient. However, due to a fast patient setup error in the PET/CT scanner a slight mis-position of the patient in the PET/CT was observed in all three planes, resulting in a deformed activity distribution compared to the treatment plan. The present study indicates that the induced positron emitters by high energy photon beams can be measured quite accurately using PET imaging of subcutaneous fat to allow portal verification of the delivered treatment beams. Measurement of the induced activity in the patient 7 min after receiving 5 Gy involved count rates which were about 20 times lower than that of a patient undergoing standard 18F-FDG treatment. When using a combination of short lived nuclides such as 15O (half-life: 2 min) and 11C (half-life: 20 min) with low activity it is not optimal to use clinical reconstruction protocols. Thus, it might be desirable to further optimize reconstruction parameters as well as to address hardware improvements in realizing in vivo treatment verification with PET/CT in the future. A significant improvement with regard to 15O imaging could also be expected by having the PET/CT unit located close to the radiation treatment room.

  20. Patient-derived Models of Human Breast Cancer: Protocols for In vitro and In vivo Applications in Tumor Biology and Translational Medicine

    PubMed Central

    DeRose, Yoko S.; Gligorich, Keith M.; Wang, Guoying; Georgelas, Ann; Bowman, Paulette; Courdy, Samir J.; Welm, Alana L.; Welm, Bryan E.

    2013-01-01

    Research models that replicate the diverse genetic and molecular landscape of breast cancer are critical for developing the next generation therapeutic entities that can target specific cancer subtypes. Patient-derived tumorgrafts, generated by transplanting primary human tumor samples into immune-compromised mice, are a valuable method to model the clinical diversity of breast cancer in mice, and are a potential resource in personalized medicine. Primary tumorgrafts also enable in vivo testing of therapeutics and make possible the use of patient cancer tissue for in vitro screens. Described in this unit are a variety of protocols including tissue collection, biospecimen tracking, tissue processing, transplantation, and 3-dimensional culturing of xenografted tissue, that enable use of bona fide uncultured human tissue in designing and validating cancer therapies. PMID:23456611

  1. Design, synthesis and binding properties of a fluorescent ????/???? integrin antagonist and its application as an in vivo probe for bone marrow haemopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Benjamin; Hutt, Oliver E; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Songhui; Heazlewood, Shen Y; Williams, Brenda; Smith, Jessica A; Haylock, David N; Savage, G Paul; Nilsson, Susan K

    2014-02-14

    The ?9?1 and ?4?1 integrin subtypes are expressed on bone marrow haemopoietic stem cells and have important roles in stem cell regulation and trafficking. Although the roles of ?4?1 integrin have been thoroughly investigated with respect to HSC function, the role of ?9?1 integrin remains poorly characterised. Small molecule fluorescent probes are useful tools for monitoring biological processes in vivo, to determine cell-associated protein localisation and activation, and to elucidate the mechanism of small molecule mediated protein interactions. Herein, we report the design, synthesis and integrin-dependent cell binding properties of a new fluorescent ?9?1 integrin antagonist (R-BC154), which was based on a series of N-phenylsulfonyl proline dipeptides and assembled using the Cu(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Using transfected human glioblastoma LN18 cells, we show that R-BC154 exhibits high nanomolar binding affinities to ?9?1 integrin with potent cross-reactivity against ?4?1 integrin under physiological mimicking conditions. On-rate and off-rate measurements revealed distinct differences in the binding kinetics between ?9?1 and ?4?1 integrins, which showed faster binding to ?4?1 integrin relative to ?9?1, but more prolonged binding to the latter. Finally, we show that R-BC154 was capable of binding rare populations of bone marrow haemopoietic stem and progenitor cells when administered to mice. Thus, R-BC154 represents a useful multi-purpose fluorescent integrin probe that can be used for (1) screening small molecule inhibitors of ?9?1 and ?4?1 integrins; (2) investigating the biochemical properties of ?9?1 and ?4?1 integrin binding and (3) investigating integrin expression and activation on defined cell phenotypes in vivo. PMID:24363056

  2. Effects of In Vitro Low Oxygen Tension Preconditioning of Adipose Stromal Cells on Their In Vivo Chondrogenic Potential: Application in Cartilage Tissue Repair

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Olivier; Lesoeur, Julie; Sourice, Sophie; Masson, Martial; Fellah, Borhane Hakim; Geffroy, Olivier; Lallemand, Elodie; Weiss, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Multipotent stromal cell (MSC)-based regenerative strategy has shown promise for the repair of cartilage, an avascular tissue in which cells experience hypoxia. Hypoxia is known to promote the early chondrogenic differentiation of MSC. The aim of our study was therefore to determine whether low oxygen tension could be used to enhance the regenerative potential of MSC for cartilage repair. Methods MSC from rabbit or human adipose stromal cells (ASC) were preconditioned in vitro in control or chondrogenic (ITS and TGF-?) medium and in 21 or 5% O2. Chondrogenic commitment was monitored by measuring COL2A1 and ACAN expression (real-time PCR). Preconditioned rabbit and human ASC were then incorporated into an Si-HPMC hydrogel and injected (i) into rabbit articular cartilage defects for 18 weeks or (ii) subcutaneously into nude mice for five weeks. The newly formed tissue was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated by cartilage-specific immunohistological staining and scoring. The phenotype of ASC cultured in a monolayer or within Si-HPMC in control or chondrogenic medium and in 21 or 5% O2 was finally evaluated using real-time PCR. Results/Conclusions 5% O2 increased the in vitro expression of chondrogenic markers in ASC cultured in induction medium. Cells implanted within Si-HPMC hydrogel and preconditioned in chondrogenic medium formed a cartilaginous tissue, regardless of the level of oxygen. In addition, the 3D in vitro culture of ASC within Si-HPMC hydrogel was found to reinforce the pro-chondrogenic effects of the induction medium and 5% O2. These data together indicate that although 5% O2 enhances the in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of ASC, it does not enhance their in vivo chondrogenesis. These results also highlight the in vivo chondrogenic potential of ASC and their potential value in cartilage repair. PMID:23638053

  3. Fluorescent Multiblock ?-Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for In Vivo Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Eilaf; Morton, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Highly fluorescent multiblock conjugated polymer nanoparticles with folic acid surface ligands are highly effective for bioimaging and in vivo tumor targeting. The targeted nanoparticles were preferentially localized in tumor cells in vivo, thereby illustrating their potential for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:23794490

  4. New applications boost VCSEL quantities: recent developments at Philips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Besides the mature and steadily growing datacom market for which VCSELs are key components in Transceivers, Active Optical Cables (AOC), Mid Board Optical Modules (MBOM) or Embedded Optical Modules (EOM), VCSELs have proven to be key components also for other volume applications. Laser mice emerged 2004, just after the burst of the dotcom bubble and the related downturn in the Datacom industry, and dominated the shipped quantities for some years, accompanied by various smaller applications like atomic clock, oxygen sensing, encoders, and many more. Over the past years, two other major applications came into focus: optical interconnects in high performance computers or datacenters and smart sensors for mobile devices. In addition, VCSELs are penetrating into more and more power applications, primarily for illumination or IR heating. We present recent developments in technology, products, and addressed market segments that will have a major impact on the VCSEL industry.

  5. Bio-inspired enol-degradation for multipurpose oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Mo; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Wen; Zhang, Weiran; Li, Minjie; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

    2014-11-14

    Inspired by the enol-degradation of luciferin, a new oxygen sensor with oppositely changed color and fluorescence has been designed. This new reaction-based dual mode sensor can not only be used as a highly selective instant "fluorescence on" oxygen probe, but also as a freshness indicator of food or food materials by using its property of time-adjustable color fading. PMID:25234330

  6. Hydroxylation of HIF-1: Oxygen Sensing at the Molecular Level

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MD/PhD Gregg L. Semenza (Institute of Genetic Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine, Oncology, and Radiation Oncology)

    2004-08-01

    The ability to sense and respond to changes in oxygenation represents a fundamental property of all metazoan cells. The discovery of the transcription factor HIF-1 has led to the identification of protein hydroxylation as a mechanism by which changes in PO2 are transduced to effect changes in gene expression.

  7. FRET excited ratiometric oxygen sensing in living tissue.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Justin M; Zhang, Chunfeng; Xu, Jian; Schiff, Steven J

    2013-03-30

    Dynamic analysis of oxygen (O?) has been limited by the lack of a real-time, quantitative, and biocompatible sensor. To address these demands, we designed a ratiometric optode matrix consisting of the phosphorescence quenching dye platinum (II) octaethylporphine ketone (PtOEPK) and nanocystal quantum dots (NQDs), which when embedded within an inert polymer matrix allows long-term pre-designed excitation through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Depositing this matrix on various glass substrates allowed the development of a series of optical sensors able to measure interstitial oxygen concentration [O?] with several hundred millisecond temporal resolution in varying biological microdomains of active brain tissue. PMID:23333398

  8. THz Medical Imaging: in vivo Hydration Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Singh, Rahul S.; Bennett, David B.; Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin P.; Bajwa, Neha; Culjat, Martin O.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Lee, Hua; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Brown, Elliott R.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2015-01-01

    The application of THz to medical imaging is experiencing a surge in both interest and federal funding. A brief overview of the field is provided along with promising and emerging applications and ongoing research. THz imaging phenomenology is discussed and tradeoffs are identified. A THz medical imaging system, operating at ~525 GHz center frequency with ~125 GHz of response normalized bandwidth is introduced and details regarding principles of operation are provided. Two promising medical applications of THz imaging are presented: skin burns and cornea. For burns, images of second degree, partial thickness burns were obtained in rat models in vivo over an 8 hour period. These images clearly show the formation and progression of edema in and around the burn wound area. For cornea, experimental data measuring the hydration of ex vivo porcine cornea under drying is presented demonstrating utility in ophthalmologic applications.

  9. Multimodal Mn-doped I-III-VI quantum dots for near infrared fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging: from synthesis to in vivo application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitbon, Gary; Bouccara, Sophie; Tasso, Mariana; Francois, Aurélie; Bezdetnaya, Lina; Marchal, Frédéric; Beaumont, Marine; Pons, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The development of sensitive multimodal contrast agents is a key issue to provide better global, multi-scale images for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Here we present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se)/Zn1-xMnxS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) that can be used as markers for both near-infrared fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We first present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se) cores coated with a thick ZnS shell doped with various proportions of Mn. Their emission wavelengths can be tuned over the NIR optical window suitable for deep tissue imaging. The incorporation of manganese ions (up to a few thousand ions per QD) confers them a paramagnetic character, as demonstrated by structural analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These QDs maintain their optical properties after transfer to water using ligand exchange. They exhibit T1-relaxivities up to 1400 mM-1 [QD] s-1 at 7 T and 300 K. We finally show that these QDs are suitable multimodal in vivo probes and demonstrate MRI and NIR fluorescence detection of regional lymph nodes in mice.The development of sensitive multimodal contrast agents is a key issue to provide better global, multi-scale images for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Here we present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se)/Zn1-xMnxS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) that can be used as markers for both near-infrared fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We first present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se) cores coated with a thick ZnS shell doped with various proportions of Mn. Their emission wavelengths can be tuned over the NIR optical window suitable for deep tissue imaging. The incorporation of manganese ions (up to a few thousand ions per QD) confers them a paramagnetic character, as demonstrated by structural analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These QDs maintain their optical properties after transfer to water using ligand exchange. They exhibit T1-relaxivities up to 1400 mM-1 [QD] s-1 at 7 T and 300 K. We finally show that these QDs are suitable multimodal in vivo probes and demonstrate MRI and NIR fluorescence detection of regional lymph nodes in mice. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Determination of Mn content; magnetization measurements; additional TEM and spectroscopic data; additional NIR fluorescence image; MTT assay results. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02239d

  10. LC-ESI-MS/MS determination of in vivo metabolites of almotriptan in rat plasma, urine and feces: application to pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Nageswara Rao, R; Guruprasad, K; Gangu Naidu, Ch; Raju, B; Srinivas, R

    2012-04-01

    A highly sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for investigating the in vivo metabolites of almotriptan in rat plasma, feces and urine was developed. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Lichrospher RP-18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m), using 20mM ammonium acetate (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile (60:40, v/v) as a mobile phase at 25°C. MS/MS detection was performed by positive ion electrospray ionization using target ions at m/z 336 [M+H]?, m/z 368 and m/z 282 [M+H]? for almotriptan and its two metabolites, respectively. Two metabolites viz., ?-aminobutyric acid and sulfonamide were detected in plasma as well as feces after 24 h of oral administration of almotriptan, while only ?-aminobutyric acid was found in urine. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantification of 1.43 ng/mL and linear over the range of 1.43-5000 ng/mL in plasma. The method was validated and successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of almotriptan in rat plasma using sumatriptan as an internal standard. The peak plasma concentration (C(max)) after 0.3h of 5mg/kg oral dose of almotriptan was determined to be 69.85 ng/mL. PMID:22406349

  11. Very small embryonic-like stem-cell optimization of isolation protocols: an update of molecular signatures and a review of current in vivo applications

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong-Myung; Suszynska, Malwina; Mierzejewska, Kasia; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2013-01-01

    As the theory of stem cell plasticity was first proposed, we have explored an alternative hypothesis for this phenomenon: namely that adult bone marrow (BM) and umbilical cord blood (UCB) contain more developmentally primitive cells than hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In support of this notion, using multiparameter sorting we were able to isolate small Sca1+Lin?CD45? cells and CD133+Lin?CD45? cells from murine BM and human UCB, respectively, which were further enriched for the detection of various early developmental markers such as the SSEA antigen on the surface and the Oct4 and Nanog transcription factors in the nucleus. Similar populations of cells have been found in various organs by our team and others, including the heart, brain and gonads. Owing to their primitive cellular features, such as the high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and the presence of euchromatin, they are called very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs). In the appropriate in vivo models, VSELs differentiate into long-term repopulating HSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), lung epithelial cells, cardiomyocytes and gametes. In this review, we discuss the most recent data from our laboratory and other groups regarding the optimal isolation procedures and describe the updated molecular characteristics of VSELs. PMID:24232255

  12. In vivo imaging of engrafted neural stem cells: its application in evaluating the optimal timing of transplantation for spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Okada, Seiji; Ishii, Ken; Yamane, Junichi; Iwanami, Akio; Ikegami, Takeshi; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Nakamura, Masaya; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Okano, Hirotaka James; Contag, Christopher H; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki

    2005-11-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) hold promise in neural tissue replacement therapy after spinal cord injury. However, understanding the survival time of grafted NSPCs and determining the extent of migration away from transplantation sites are essential for optimizing treatment regimens. Here, we used in vivo bioluminescence imaging to noninvasively assess the survival and residence time of transplanted NSPCs at the injury sites in living animals, and we used histologic analyses to assess cell integration and morphology. Third-generation lentiviral vectors enabled efficient transduction and stable expression of both luciferase and a variant of green fluorescent protein in primary cultured NSPCs. Signals from these cells were detectable for up to 10 months or more after transplantation into the injured spinal cords of C57BL/6J mice. Histological and functional data supported the imaging data and suggest that the timing of NSPC transplantation may be a key determinant of the fates and function of integrated cells since cell survival and migration depended on the time of transplantation relative to injury. Optimization of cell therapies can be greatly accelerated and refined by imaging, and the methods in the present study can be widely applied to various research fields of regeneration medicine, including transplantation study. PMID:16141363

  13. The application of hyaluronic acid-derivatized carbon nanotubes in hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether-based photodynamic therapy for in vivo and in vitro cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinjin; Ma, Rourou; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ruiyuan; Li, Lulu; Liu, Yan; Hou, Lin; Yu, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great potential in both photothermal therapy and drug delivery. In this study, a CNT derivative, hyaluronic acid-derivatized CNTs (HA-CNTs) with high aqueous solubility, neutral pH, and tumor-targeting activity, were synthesized and characterized, and then a new photodynamic therapy agent, hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), was adsorbed onto the functionalized CNTs to develop HMME-HA-CNTs. Tumor growth inhibition was investigated both in vivo and in vitro by a combination of photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy using HMME-HA-CNTs. The ability of HMME-HA-CNT nanoparticles to combine local specific photodynamic therapy with external near-infrared photothermal therapy significantly improved the therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatment. Compared with photodynamic therapy or photothermal therapy alone, the combined treatment demonstrated a synergistic effect, resulting in higher therapeutic efficacy without obvious toxic effects to normal organs. Overall, it was demonstrated that HMME-HA-CNTs could be successfully applied to photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy simultaneously in future tumor therapy. PMID:23843694

  14. The application of hyaluronic acid-derivatized carbon nanotubes in hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether-based photodynamic therapy for in vivo and in vitro cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jinjin; Ma, Rourou; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ruiyuan; Li, Lulu; Liu, Yan; Hou, Lin; Yu, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great potential in both photothermal therapy and drug delivery. In this study, a CNT derivative, hyaluronic acid-derivatized CNTs (HA-CNTs) with high aqueous solubility, neutral pH, and tumor-targeting activity, were synthesized and characterized, and then a new photodynamic therapy agent, hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), was adsorbed onto the functionalized CNTs to develop HMME-HA-CNTs. Tumor growth inhibition was investigated both in vivo and in vitro by a combination of photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy using HMME-HA-CNTs. The ability of HMME-HA-CNT nanoparticles to combine local specific photodynamic therapy with external near-infrared photothermal therapy significantly improved the therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatment. Compared with photodynamic therapy or photothermal therapy alone, the combined treatment demonstrated a synergistic effect, resulting in higher therapeutic efficacy without obvious toxic effects to normal organs. Overall, it was demonstrated that HMME-HA-CNTs could be successfully applied to photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy simultaneously in future tumor therapy. PMID:23843694

  15. Cultivation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in a three-dimensional bovine collagen-elastin matrix (Matriderm®) and application for full thickness wound coverage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Killat, Jasper; Reimers, Kerstin; Choi, Claudia Y; Jahn, Sabrina; Vogt, Peter M; Radtke, Christine

    2013-01-01

    New skin substitutes for burn medicine or reconstructive surgery pose an important issue in plastic surgery. Matriderm® is a clinically approved three-dimensional bovine collagen-elastin matrix which is already used as a dermal substitute of full thickness burn wounds. The drawback of an avital matrix is the limited integration in full thickness skin defects, depending on the defect size. To further optimize this process, Matriderm® has also been studied as a matrix for tissue engineering of skin albeit long-term cultivation of the matrix with cells has been difficult. Cells have generally been seeded onto the matrix with high cell loss and minimal time-consuming migration. Here we developed a cell seeded skin equivalent after microtransfer of cells directly into the matrix. First, cells were cultured, and microinjected into Matriderm®. Then, cell viability in the matrix was determined by histology in vitro. As a next step, the skin substitute was applied in vivo into a full thickness rodent wound model. The wound coverage and healing was observed over a period of two weeks followed by histological examination assessing cell viability, proliferation and integration into the host. Viable and proliferating cells could be found throughout the entire matrix. The presented skin substitute resembles healthy skin in morphology and integrity. Based on this study, future investigations are planned to examine behaviour of epidermal stem cells injected into a collagen-elastin matrix under the aspects of establishment of stem cell niches and differentiation. PMID:23852021

  16. In vivo effects of fluoride on enamel permeability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Chersoni; Angelica Bertacci; David H. Pashley; Franklin R. Tay; Lucio Montebugnoli; Carlo Prati

    2011-01-01

    This in vivo study evaluated the effects of topical fluoride application on enamel by repeated scanning electron microscopy\\u000a analysis of replicas. Baseline fluid droplets were employed as qualitative indication of enamel permeability. CaF2-like globules were detected in vivo after fluoride application and were not found after professional brushing, ultrasound\\u000a action, or chemical extraction. Absence of water permeability of enamel was

  17. Elastography Using Multi-Stream GPU: An Application to Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography, In-Vivo and the da Vinci Surgical System

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Nishikant P.; Kang, Hyun Jae; Billings, Seth D.; Taylor, Russell H.; Hager, Gregory D.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    A system for real-time ultrasound (US) elastography will advance interventions for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer by advancing methods such as thermal monitoring of tissue ablation. A multi-stream graphics processing unit (GPU) based accelerated normalized cross-correlation (NCC) elastography, with a maximum frame rate of 78 frames per second, is presented in this paper. A study of NCC window size is undertaken to determine the effect on frame rate and the quality of output elastography images. This paper also presents a novel system for Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography (O-TRuE), which extends prior work on an offline method. By tracking the US probe with an electromagnetic (EM) tracker, the system selects in-plane radio frequency (RF) data frames for generating high quality elastograms. A novel method for evaluating the quality of an elastography output stream is presented, suggesting that O-TRuE generates more stable elastograms than generated by untracked, free-hand palpation. Since EM tracking cannot be used in all systems, an integration of real-time elastography and the da Vinci Surgical System is presented and evaluated for elastography stream quality based on our metric. The da Vinci surgical robot is outfitted with a laparoscopic US probe, and palpation motions are autonomously generated by customized software. It is found that a stable output stream can be achieved, which is affected by both the frequency and amplitude of palpation. The GPU framework is validated using data from in-vivo pig liver ablation; the generated elastography images identify the ablated region, outlined more clearly than in the corresponding B-mode US images. PMID:25541954

  18. Noninvasive photoacoustic microscopy of methemoglobin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Min; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    Various causes can lead to methemoglobinemia, and it has the potential to be confused with other diseases. In vivo measurements of methemoglobin have significant applications in the clinics. We quantified the average and the distributed percentage of methemoglobin both in vitro and in vivo using photoacoustic microscopy (PAM). Based on the absorption spectra of methemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and deoxyhemoglobin, three wavelengths were chosen to differentiate methemoglobin from the others. We imaged the methemoglobin percentage in microtubes that mimicked blood vessels as a phantom experiment. The methemoglobin concentrations calculated from the photoacoustic signals were in accordance with the preset concentrations. We also demonstrated the ability of PAM to quantitatively image methemoglobin distribution in vivo in a mouse ear.

  19. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of lanthanide ions doped one-dimensional upconversion submicrocrystals and their potential application in vivo CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guo; Zhang, Chunlei; Zhou, Zhijun; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Jiebing; Li, Chao; Jin, Weilin; Cui, Daxiang

    2013-01-01

    Multi-functional rare-earth Yb(3+) and Ln(3+) (Ln = Er, Tm and Ho) ions doped one-dimensional (1-D) upconversion submicrocrystals (NaYF(4) and NaGdF(4)) possessing upconversion luminescence, biocompatibility and magnetic properties have been synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal method. Rare-earth Yb(3+) and Ln(3+) ions doped NaYF(4) microrods (~1 ?m in diameter, 3-5 ?m in length) exhibit porous properties, and the average pore sizes are ~28.2 nm. They show paramagnetism in the magnetic range of -60 to -2 kOe and 2 to 60 kOe at 300 K, and exhibit near superparamagnetic behaviour at the magnetic range of -2 to 2 kOe. Saturation magnetization was ~12.1 emu g(-1) at 2 K. The Yb(3+) and Ln(3+) ions doped NaGdF(4) submicrocrystals (~100 nm in diameter, 200-300 nm in length) show paramagnetism at 300 K, and exhibit superparamagnetic behaviour with a saturation magnetization of 129.2 emu g(-1) at 2 K. The magnetic properties of Yb(3+) and Ln(3+) ions doped 1-D upconversion submicrocrystals indicate they can be used for drug targeting under a magnetic field. Their unique upconversion emission (green for Yb(3+)/Er(3+) and blue for Yb(3+)/Tm(3+)) under 980 nm laser excitation indicate that they could be used for specific luminescent immunolabeling and imaging. MTT assays reveal that 1-D upconversion submicrocrystals have satisfactory bio-affinity, where the viability keeps in good state even at a concentration of 500 ?g mL(-1), which is much higher than the concentration usually used in cell labelling. Luminescent microscopy images show that the morphologies of the cytoskeleton and cell nucleus are well maintained after incubating different concentrations of 1-D upconversion submicrocrystals. After injecting upconversion submicrocrystals into the mice (tumor sites or back normal tissue), a clearly distinguished CT signal was observed, indicating the synthesized 1-D submicrocrystals are effective for CT imaging in vivo. PMID:23168841

  20. In-vivo optical investigation of psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Cicchi, Riccardo; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2011-03-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis, inflammatory cell accumulation and increased dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Cases of psoriasis were investigated in vivo with optical means in order to evaluate the potential of in vivo optical biopsy. A Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope was employed for the macroscopic observation. Features such as the 'dotted' blood vessels pattern was observed with high contrast. The average size of dot vessels in Psoriasis was measured to be 974 ?m2 which is much higher compared to healthy skin. High resolution image sections of the epidermis and the dermis were produced with a custom made Multiphoton Microscope. Imaging extended from the surface of the lesion down to the papillary dermis, at a depth of 200 ?m. In the epidermis, a characteristic morphology of the stratum corneum found only in Psoriasis was revealed. Additionally, the cytoplasmic area of the cells in the stratum spinosum layer was found to be smaller than normal. In the dermis the morphological features were more pronounced, where the elongated dermal papillae dominated the papillary layer. Their length exceeds 100?m, which is a far greater value compared to that of healthy skin. These in vivo observations are consistent with the ex vivo histopathological observations, supporting both the applicability and potentiality of multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy in the field of in vivo optical investigation and biopsy of skin.

  1. In vivo EPR Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin B. Williams; Howard J. Halpern

    Aspects of in vivo EPR imaging are discussed, including low frequency spectrometer design, spin probe development, data acquisition and image reconstruction for spatial and spectral-spatial imaging, and the types of biological measurements that can be made using these techniques.

  2. In vivo radioadaptive response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, B; Vares, G

    2015-01-01

    Radioadaptive response (RAR) describes phenomena where small conditioning doses of ionizing radiation (IR) reduce detrimental effects of subsequent higher IR doses. Current radiation protection regulations do not include RAR because of the large variability in expression among individuals and uncertainties of the mechanism. However, RAR should be regarded as an indispensable factor for estimation and control of individual IR sensitivity. In this article, RAR studies relevant to individual cancer risk are reviewed. Using various stains of mice, carcinogenic RAR has been demonstrated. Consistently much in vivo evidence for RAR with end points of DNA and chromosome damage is reported. Most in vivo RAR studies revealed efficient induction of RAR by chronic or repeated low-dose priming irradiation. Chronic IR-induced RAR was observed also in human individuals after environmental, occupational, and nuclear accident radiation exposure. These observations may be associated with an intrinsically distinct feature of in vivo experimental systems that mainly consist of nonproliferating mature cells. Alternatively, induction of RAR by gap junction-mediated bystander effects suggests that multicellular systems comprising densely communicating cells may be capable of responding to long-lasting low-dose-rate priming irradiation. Regulation by endocrine factors is also a plausible mechanism for RAR at an individual level. Emerging evidence suggests that glucocorticoids, known as stress hormones, participate in in vivo RAR induction following long-term low-dose-rate exposure to IR. PMID:24925363

  3. Towards an in vivo wireless mobile robot for surgical assistance.

    PubMed

    Hawks, Jeff A; Rentschler, Mark E; Redden, Lee; Infanger, Roger; Dumpert, Jason; Farritor, Shane; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Platt, Stephen R

    2008-01-01

    The use of miniature in vivo robots that fit entirely inside the peritoneal cavity represents a novel approach to laparoscopic surgery. Previous work has demonstrated that mobile and fixed-base in vivo robots can be used to improve visualization of the surgical field and perform surgical tasks such as collecting biopsy tissue samples. All of these robots used tethers to provide for power and data transmission. This paper describes recent work focused on developing a modular wireless mobile platform that could be used for in vivo robotic sensing and manipulation applications. One vision for these types of self-contained in vivo robotic devices is that they could be easily carried and deployed by non-medical personnel at the site of an injury. Such wireless in vivo robots are much more transportable and lower cost than current robotic surgical assistants, and could ultimately allow a surgeon to become a remote first responder irrespective of the location of the patient. PMID:18391277

  4. In vivo noninvasive 4D pressure difference mapping in the human aorta: phantom comparison and application in healthy volunteers and patients.

    PubMed

    Bock, Jelena; Frydrychowicz, Alex; Lorenz, Ramona; Hirtler, Daniel; Barker, Alex J; Johnson, Kevin M; Arnold, Raoul; Burkhardt, Hans; Hennig, Juergen; Markl, Michael

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we present a systematic phantom comparison and clinical application of noninvasive pressure difference mapping in the human aorta based on time-resolved 3D phase contrast data. Relative pressure differences were calculated based on integration and iterative refinement of pressure gradients derived from MR-based three-directional velocity vector fields (flow-sensitive 4D MRI with spatial/temporal resolution ? 2.1 mm(3)/40 ms) using the Navier-Stokes equation. After in vitro study using a stenosis phantom, time-resolved 3D pressure gradients were systematically evaluated in the thoracic aorta in a group of 12 healthy subjects and 6 patients after repair for aortic coarctation. Results from the phantom study showed good agreement with expected values and standard methods (Bernoulli). Data of healthy subjects showed good intersubject consistency and good agreement with the literature. In patients, pressure waveforms showed elevated peak values. Pressure gradients across the stenosis were compared with reference measurements from Doppler ultrasound. The MRI findings demonstrated a significant correlation (r = 0.96, P < 0.05) but moderate underestimation (14.7% ± 15.5%) compared with ultrasound when the maximum pressure difference for all possible paths connecting proximal and distal locations of the stenosis were used. This study demonstrates the potential of the applied approach to derive additional quantitative information such as pressure gradients from time-resolved 3D phase contrast MRI. PMID:21437978

  5. Controlled-release system of single-stranded DNA triggered by the photothermal effect of gold nanorods and its in vivo application.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shuji; Fukushima, Hiromitsu; Akiyama, Yasuyuki; Niidome, Yasuro; Mori, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiki; Niidome, Takuro

    2011-04-01

    Gold nanorods have strong absorption bands in the near-infrared region, in which light penetrates deeply into tissues. The absorbed light energy is converted into heat by gold nanorods, the so-called 'photothermal effect'. Hence, gold nanorods are expected to act not only as on-demand thermal converters for photothermal therapy but also as controllers of a drug-release system responding to irradiation by near-infrared light. To achieve a controlled-release system that can be triggered by light irradiation, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was modified on gold nanorods. When the dsDNA-modified gold nanorods were irradiated by near-infrared light, the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was released from gold nanorods due to the photothermal effect. The amount of released ssDNA was dependent upon the power and exposure time of light irradiation. Release of ssDNA was also observed in tumors grown on mice after light irradiation. Such a controlled-release system of oligonucleotide triggered by the photothermal effect could expand the applications of gold nanorods that have unique optical characteristics in medicinal fields. PMID:21421321

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, and Nanoencapsulation of Tetrathiatriarylmethyl and Tetrachlorotriarylmethyl (Trityl) Radical Derivatives-A Study To Advance Their Applicability as in Vivo EPR Oxygen Sensors.

    PubMed

    Frank, Juliane; Elewa, Marwa; M Said, Mohamed; El Shihawy, Hosam A; El-Sadek, Mohamed; Müller, Diana; Meister, Annette; Hause, Gerd; Drescher, Simon; Metz, Hendrik; Imming, Peter; Mäder, Karsten

    2015-07-01

    Tissue oxygenation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of various diseases and is often a marker of prognosis and therapeutic response. EPR (ESR) is a suitable noninvasive oximetry technique. However, to reliably deploy soluble EPR probes as oxygen sensors in complex biological systems, there is still a need to investigate and improve their specificity, sensitivity, and stability. We reproducibly synthesized various derivatives of tetrathiatriarylmethyl and tetrachlorotriarylmethyl (trityl) radicals. Hydrophilic radicals were investigated in aqueous solution mimicking physiological conditions by, e.g., variation of viscosity and ionic strength. Their specificity was satisfactory, but the oxygen sensitivity was low. To enhance the capability of trityl radicals as oxygen sensors, encapsulation into oily core nanocapsules was performed. Thus, different lipophilic triesters were prepared and characterized in oily solution employing oils typically used in drug formulations, i.e., middle-chain triglycerides and isopropyl myristate. Our screening identified the deuterated ethyl ester of D-TAM (radical 13) to be suitable. It had an extremely narrow single EPR line under anoxic conditions and excellent oxygen sensitivity. After encapsulation, it retained its oxygen responsiveness and was protected against reduction by ascorbic acid. These biocompatible and highly sensitive nanosensors offer great potential for future EPR oximetry applications in preclinical research. PMID:26020133

  7. A ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on Cu(II) luminescent sensor based on oxidative cyclization mechanism and its application in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunfei; Liu, Zonglun; Yang, Kui; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Wang, Chaoxia; Lu, Aiping; Sun, Shiguo

    2015-01-01

    Copper ions play a vital role in a variety of fundamental physiological processes not only in human beings and plants, but also for extensive insects and microorganisms. In this paper, a novel water-soluble ruthenium(II) complex as a turn-on copper(II) ions luminescent sensor based on o-(phenylazo)aniline was designed and synthesized. The azo group would undergo a specific oxidative cyclization reaction with copper(II) ions and turn into high luminescent benzotriazole, triggering significant luminescent increasements which were linear to the concentrations of copper(II) ions. The sensor distinguished by its high sensitivity (over 80-fold luminescent switch-on response), good selectivity (the changes of the emission intensity in the presence of other metal ions or amino acids were negligible) and low detection limit (4.42?nM) in water. Moreover, the copper(II) luminescent sensor exhibited good photostability under light irradiation. Furthermore, the applicability of the proposed sensor in biological samples assay was also studied and imaged copper(II) ions in living pea aphids successfully. PMID:25640000

  8. In vivo dosimetry for IMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vial, Philip

    2011-05-01

    In vivo dosimetry has a well established role in the quality assurance of 2D radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy. The role of in vivo dosimetry for IMRT is not as well established. IMRT introduces a range of technical issues that complicate in vivo dosimetry. The first decade or so of IMRT implementation has largely relied upon pre-treatment phantom based dose verification. During that time, several new devices and techniques for in vivo dosimetry have emerged with the promise of providing the ultimate form of IMRT dose verification. Solid state dosimeters continue to dominate the field of in vivo dosimetry in the IMRT era. In this report we review the literature on in vivo dosimetry for IMRT, with an emphasis on clinical evidence for different detector types. We describe the pros and cons of different detectors and techniques in the IMRT setting and the roles that they are likely to play in the future.

  9. In vivo dosimetry for IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Vial, Philip [Department of Medical Physics, Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2011-05-05

    In vivo dosimetry has a well established role in the quality assurance of 2D radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy. The role of in vivo dosimetry for IMRT is not as well established. IMRT introduces a range of technical issues that complicate in vivo dosimetry. The first decade or so of IMRT implementation has largely relied upon pre-treatment phantom based dose verification. During that time, several new devices and techniques for in vivo dosimetry have emerged with the promise of providing the ultimate form of IMRT dose verification. Solid state dosimeters continue to dominate the field of in vivo dosimetry in the IMRT era. In this report we review the literature on in vivo dosimetry for IMRT, with an emphasis on clinical evidence for different detector types. We describe the pros and cons of different detectors and techniques in the IMRT setting and the roles that they are likely to play in the future.

  10. Light dosimetry in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Star, Willem M.

    1997-05-01

    This paper starts with definitions of radiance, fluence (rate) and other quantities that are important with regard to in vivo light dosimetry. The light distribution in mammalian tissues can be estimated from model calculations using measured optical properties or from direct measurements of fluence rate using a suitable detector. A historical introduction is therefore followed by a brief discussion of tissue optical properties and of calculations using diffusion theory, the -approximation or Monte Carlo simulations. In particular the form of the scattering function is considered in relation to the fluence rate close to the tissue boundary, where light is incident. Non-invasive measurements of optical properties yield the absorption coefficient and , where is the scattering coefficient and g is the mean cosine of the scattering angle. An important question is whether this combination is sufficient, or whether g itself must be known. It appears that for strongly forward scattering, as in mammalian tissues, rather detailed knowledge of the scattering function is needed to reliably calculate the fluence rate close to the surface. Deeper in the tissue is sufficient. The construction, calibration and use of fibre-optic probes for measurements of fluence rate in tissues or optical phantoms is discussed. At present, minimally invasive absolute fluence (rate) measurements seem to be possible with an accuracy of 10 - 20%. Examples are given of in vivo measurements in animal experiments and in humans during clinical treatments. Measurements in mammalian tissues, plant leaves and marine sediments are compared and similarities and differences pointed out. Most in vivo light fluence rate measurements have been concerned with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Optical properties of the same normal tissue may differ between patients. Tumours of the same histological type may even show different optical properties in a single patient. Treatment-induced changes of optical properties may also occur. Scattered light appears to contribute substantially to the light dose. All these phenomena emphasize the importance of in situ light measurements. Another important dosimetric parameter in PDT is the concentration and distribution of the photosensitizer. Apart from in vivo fluorescence monitoring, the photosensitizer part of in vivo PDT dosimetry is still in its infancy.

  11. In vivo hybridization of technetium-99m-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mardirossian; K. Lei; M. Rusckowski

    1997-01-01

    Hybridization of a radiolabeled single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide with its single-stranded complement in vivo has not yet been convincingly demonstrated. A contributing factor may be unfavorable in vivo properties of the phosphodiester and phosphorothioate DNAs. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers have been reported to possess in vivo properties more suitable for radiopharmaceutical applications. We have radiolabeled an amine-derivatized 15-base PNA oligomer

  12. Endocavitary in vivo Dosimetry for IMRT Treatments of Gynecologic Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cilla, Savino, E-mail: savinocilla@gmail.com [Medical Physics Unit, Radiotherapy Unit, John Paul II Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Catholic University, Campobasso (Italy); Macchia, Gabriella; Digesu, Cinzia; Deodato, Francesco; Sabatino, Domenico; Morganti, Alessio G.; Piermattei, Angelo [Medical Physics Unit, Radiotherapy Unit, John Paul II Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Catholic University, Campobasso (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    The accuracy and reproducibility of endometrial carcinoma treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was assessed by means of in vivo dosimetry. Six patients who had previously undergone radical hysterectomy for endometrial carcinoma were treated with IMRT using a vaginal applicator with radio-opaque fiducial markers. An ion-chamber inserted into the applicator supplied an endocavitary in vivo dosimetry for quality assurance purposes. The ratio R = D/D{sub TPS} between the in vivo measured dose D and the predicted dose by the treatment planning system D{sub TPS} was determined for every fraction of the treatment. Results showed that 90% and 100% of the ratios resulted equal to 1 within 5% and 10%, respectively. The mean value of the ratios distribution for the 6 patients was R = 0.995 and the SD = 0.034. The ratio R* between the measured and predicted total doses for each patient was near to 1, within 2%. The dosimetric results suggest that the use of a vaginal applicator in an image-guided approach could make the interfractions target position stable and reproducible, allowing a safe use of the IMRT technique in the treatment of postoperative vaginal vault. In vivo dosimetry may supply useful information about the discrimination of random vs. systematic errors. The workload is minimum and this in vivo dosimetry can be applied also in the clinical routine.

  13. Ex vivo expansion of cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, SS; Sola, CBS; de Lima, M; Shpall, E

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in the utilization of umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation has been observed in recent years; however, the use of UCB as a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) source is limited primarily by the number of progenitor cells contained in the graft. Graft failure, delayed engraftment and profound delay in immune reconstitution lead to significant morbidity and mortality in adults. The lack of cells available for post transplant therapies, such as donor lymphocyte infusions, has also been considered to be a disadvantage of UCB. To improve outcomes and extend applicability of UCB transplantation, one potential solution is ex vivo expansion of UCB. Investigators have used several methods, including liquid suspension culture with various cytokines and expansion factors, co-culture with stromal elements and continuous perfusion systems. Techniques combining ex vivo expanded and unmanipulated UCB are being explored to optimize the initial engraftment kinetics as well as the long-term durability. The optimal expansion conditions are still not known; however, recent studies suggest that expanded UCB is safe. It is hoped that by ex vivo expansion of UCB, a resulting decrease in the morbidity and mortality of UCB transplantation will be observed, and that the availability of additional cells may allow adoptive immunotherapy or gene transfer therapies in the UCB setting. PMID:19802023

  14. Type I cell ROS kinetics under hypoxia in the intact mouse carotid body ex vivo: a FRET-based study.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, A; Brockmeier, U; Metzen, E; Berchner-Pfannschmidt, U; Harde, E; Acker-Palmer, A; Papkovsky, D; Acker, H; Fandrey, J

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly originating from NADPH oxidases have been shown to be involved in the carotid body (CB) oxygen-sensing cascade. For measuring ROS kinetics, type I cells of the mouse CB in an ex vivo preparation were transfected with the ROS sensor construct FRET-HSP33. After 2 days of tissue culture, type I cells expressed FRET-HSP33 as shown by immunohistochemistry. In one population of CBs, 5 min of hypoxia induced a significant and reversible decrease of type I cell ROS levels (n = 9 CBs; P < 0.015), which could be inhibited by 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzensulfonylfluorid (AEBSF), a highly specific inhibitor of the NADPH oxidase subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox). In another population of CBs, however, 5 min of hypoxia induced a significant and reversible increase of ROS levels in type I cells (n = 8 CBs; P < 0.05), which was slightly enhanced by administration of 3 mM AEBSF. These different ROS kinetics seemed to coincide with different mice breeding conditions. Type I cells of both populations showed a typical hypoxia-induced membrane potential (MP) depolarization, which could be inhibited by 3 mM AEBSF. ROS and MP closely followed the hypoxic decrease in CB tissue oxygen as measured with an O2-sensitive dye. We conclude that attenuated p47(phox) subunit activity of the NADPH oxidase under hypoxia is the physiological trigger for type I cell MP depolarization probably due to ROS decrease, whereas the observed ROS increase has no influence on type I cell MP kinetics under hypoxia. PMID:25318107

  15. In vivo Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Micropuncture in Intact Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshio Ohno; Henrik Birn; Erik I. Christensen

    2005-01-01

    Background: Intravital microscopy theoretically provides the optimal conditions for studying specific organ functions. However, the application of microscopy in intact organs in vivo has been limited so far due to technical difficulties. The purpose of this study was to establish a method of in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for the study of endocytosis in proximal tubules of intact

  16. FULL ARTICLE In vivo multimodal microscopy for detecting

    E-print Network

    Boppart, Stephen

    FULL ARTICLE In vivo multimodal microscopy for detecting bone-marrow-derived cell contribution]. The conditions under which BM-derived stem cells are recruited to the skin and give rise to keratinocytes remain is crucial for translat- ing stem cell therapies to clinical applications. A large proportion of the studies

  17. In-Vivo Storage System Development Noah Watkins1

    E-print Network

    Maltzahn, Carlos

    In-Vivo Storage System Development Noah Watkins1 , Carlos Maltzahn1 , Scott Brandt1 , Ian Pye3. The emergence of high-performance open-source storage sys- tems is allowing application and middleware developers to consider non- standard storage system interfaces. In contrast to the practice of virtually

  18. Recommendations for conducting the in vivo alkaline Comet assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hartmann; E. Agurell; C. Beevers; S. Brendler-Schwaab; B. Burlinson; P. Clay; A. Collins; A. Smith; G. Speit; V. Thybaud; R. R. Tice

    2003-01-01

    The in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay, hereafter the Comet assay, can be used to investigate the genotoxicity of industrial chemicals, biocides, agrochem- icals and pharmaceuticals. The major advantages of this assay include the relative ease of application to any tissue of interest, the detection of multiple classes of DNA damage and the generation of data at the

  19. Ex vivo gene transfer in the years to come

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Pap; Renate E Gay; Ulf Müller-Ladner; Steffen Gay

    2002-01-01

    Synovial fibroblasts (SFs) have become a major target for ex vivo gene transfer in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but efficient transduction of RA-SFs still is a major problem. The low proliferation rate and heterogeneity of RA-SFs, together with their lack of highly specific surface receptors, have hampered a more extensive application of this technique. Improving transduction protocols with conventional viral vectors,

  20. Cell Reports Rapid and Permanent Neuronal Inactivation In Vivo

    E-print Network

    Red is targeted to the plasma membrane. We expect this genetic tool to have wide-ranging applications in studiesCell Reports Resource Rapid and Permanent Neuronal Inactivation In Vivo via Subcellular Generation of reac- tive oxygen species (ROS). Ablation scales from indi- vidual neurons in single animals

  1. Spectral characteristics of two-photon autofluorescence and second harmonic generation from human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Hans G.; König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    We performed multiphoton imaging of human skin and recorded in combination the complete spectral content of the signals in vivo. The spectra represent the integration of multiphoton signals over the investigated regions of the epidermis and dermis. They are used to study depth-resolved in vivo emission characteristics of main endogenous skin fluorophores like keratin, NAD(P)H, collagen and elastin. The identification of the specific fluorophores is supported by analysis of additional in vivo fluorescence lifetime imaging. Furthermore, as a potential application of spectrally selective imaging the possibility to investigate the penetration of nanoparticles from sunscreen lotion into skin in vivo is discussed.

  2. Drug-Induced Secondary Cataract Prevention: Experimental ex vivo and in vivo Results with Disulfiram, Methotrexate and Actinomycin D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrin Sternberg; Thom Terwee; Oliver Stachs; Rudolf Guthoff; Marian Löbler; Klaus-Peter Schmitz

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: A clinical approach to prevent secondary cataract after lens implantation involves the intraocular application of pharmacological agents. The goals of our study were to develop an ex vivo model to test the drug effectiveness for lens epithelial cell ablation from the basal membrane and to verify the data in rabbit intraocular lens implantation experiments. Methods: Human capsular rhexis specimens

  3. In Vivo Treg Suppression Assays

    PubMed Central

    Workman, Creg J.; Collison, Lauren W.; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Vignali, Dario A.A.

    2011-01-01

    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (Treg) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of Tregs upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model includ ing resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described. PMID:21287333

  4. In Vivo Rodent Micronucleus Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Hayashi

    Genotoxicity plays an important role for the safety evaluation of chemicals. Chromosomal aberration is one of two major end\\u000a points of genotoxicity. The rodent haematopoietic cell micronucleus assay is most widely used as an in vivo test to evaluate\\u000a structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations. The historical aspects of the development of the in vivo micronucleus test,\\u000a the mechanism of micronucleus

  5. Development and Application of a dapB-Based In Vivo Expression Technology System To Study Colonization of Rice by the Endophytic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri A15

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Rediers; Victoria Bonnecarrere; Paul B. Rainey; Kelly Hamonts; J. Vanderleyden; R. De Mot

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri A15 is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from paddy rice. Strain A15 is able to colonize and infect rice roots. This strain may provide rice plants with fixed nitrogen and hence promote plant growth. In this article, we describe the use of dapB-based in vivo expression technology to identify P. stutzeri A15 genes that are specifically induced during colonization

  6. Predicting In Vivo Failure of Pseudoelastic NiTi Devices under Low Cycle, High Amplitude Fatigue

    E-print Network

    Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    (200­2000 rpm), high amplitude ( a > 2.5%) application, resulting in in vivo fracture or premature; biomechanical testing INTRODUCTION NiTi is a shape memory alloy (SMA) that can be processed to exhibit both

  7. Photoacoustic Tomography of a Rat Cerebral Cortex in vivo with Au

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lihong

    be better suited for in vivo applications. We sequentially injected Au nanocages into the circulatory system to dysfunctional anatomi- cal conditions such as localized leaky circulatory and lymphatic systems. This feature

  8. Phase Diagrams in Vivo

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity uses three experiments for students to construct a phase diagram; the experiments have been videotaped and can be seen online. The purpose of this laboratory as designed is to gain familiarity with simple phase diagrams, their construction, and their applications to the understanding of geological and environmental problems. Subsidiary objectives include development of strategies for data processing including evaluation of assumptions and sources of errors, as well as honing of computer, spreadsheet, presentation (tabular and graphical), and report writing skills.

  9. Progress Toward In Vivo Use of siRNAs-II

    PubMed Central

    Rettig, Garrett R; Behlke, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been extensively employed for in vivo research since its use was first demonstrated in mammalian cells 10 years ago. Design rules have improved, and it is now routinely possible to obtain reagents that suppress expression of any gene desired. At the same time, increased understanding of the molecular basis of unwanted side effects has led to the development of chemical modification strategies that mitigate these concerns. Delivery remains the single greatest hurdle to widespread adoption of in vivo RNAi methods. However, exciting advances have been made and new delivery systems under development may help to overcome these barriers. This review discusses advances in RNAi biochemistry and biology that impact in vivo use and provides an overview of select publications that demonstrate interesting applications of these principles. Emphasis is placed on work with synthetic, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) published since the first installment of this review which appeared in 2006. PMID:22186795

  10. Tracking immune cells in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Eric T.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing complexity of in vivo imaging technologies, coupled with the development of cell therapies, has fuelled a revolution in immune cell tracking in vivo. Powerful magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods are now being developed that use iron oxide- and 19F-based probes. These MRI technologies can be used for image-guided immune cell delivery and for the visualization of immune cell homing and engraftment, inflammation, cell physiology and gene expression. MRI-based cell tracking is now also being applied to evaluate therapeutics that modulate endogenous immune cell recruitment and to monitor emerging cellular immunotherapies. These recent uses show that MRI has the potential to be developed in many applications to follow the fate of immune cells in vivo. PMID:24013185

  11. In vivo imaging of microscopic structures in the rat retina

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ying; Greenberg, Kenneth P.; Wolfe, Robert; Gray, Daniel C.; Hunter, Jennifer J.; Dubra, Alfredo; Flannery, John G.; Williams, David R.; Porter, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The ability to resolve single retinal cells in rodents in vivo has applications in rodent models of the visual system and retinal disease. We have characterized the performance of a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (fAOSLO) that provides cellular and subcellular imaging of rat retina in vivo. Methods Green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was expressed in retinal ganglion cells of normal Sprague Dawley rats via intravitreal injections of adeno-associated viral vectors. Simultaneous reflectance and fluorescence retinal images were acquired using the fAOSLO. fAOSLO resolution was characterized by comparing in vivo images with subsequent imaging of retinal sections from the same eyes using confocal microscopy. Results Retinal capillaries and eGFP-labeled ganglion cell bodies, dendrites, and axons were clearly resolved in vivo with adaptive optics (AO). AO correction reduced the total root mean square wavefront error, on average, from 0.30 ?m to 0.05 ?m (1.7-mm pupil). The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the average in vivo line-spread function (LSF) was ?1.84 ?m, approximately 82% greater than the FWHM of the diffraction-limited LSF. Conclusions With perfect aberration compensation, the in vivo resolution in the rat eye could be ?2× greater than that in the human eye due to its large numerical aperture (?0.43). While the fAOSLO corrects a substantial fraction of the rat eye's aberrations, direct measurements of retinal image quality reveal some blur beyond that expected from diffraction. Nonetheless, subcellular features can be resolved, offering promise for using AO to investigate the rodent eye in vivo with high resolution. PMID:19578019

  12. Development of a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of bilobalide in rat plasma with special consideration of ex vivo bilobalide stability: application to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Ouyang, Jingping; Liu, Youping; Jia, Xian; You, Song; He, Xin; Di, Xin

    2014-07-01

    The ex vivo instability of bilobalide containing three ?-lactone rings has been paid less attention by researchers who developed bioanalytical methods for bilobalide. In the present study, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of bilobalide in rat plasma was developed with special consideration of ex vivo bilobalide stability. Several important factors affecting the stability of bilobalide in sampling and handling procedures were investigated. To prevent the ex vivo degradation of bilobalide, EDTA instead of heparin was used as an anticoagulant as well as an esterase inhibitor for blood collection and the separation of plasma was performed at 4 °C. 20 ?L of plasma sample was acidified with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, and then extracted with ethyl ether-methylene chloride (2:1, v/v). The extract was chromatographed on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 ?m) column using acetonitrile-10mM ammonium acetate-formic acid (90:10:0.4, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The analyte and the internal standard (ginkgolide B) were detected by selected reaction monitoring mode via negative electrospray ionization. The method was fully validated and proved to be linear over a concentration range of 5.0-5000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 5.2% and the accuracy was within 92.5-101%. The extraction recoveries ranged from 80.7% to 86.7%. The proposed method was successfully applied to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study of bilobalide in rats after intragastric administration of a single dose of bilobalide at 7, 14 and 28 mg/kg. PMID:24704454

  13. Optimizing Protein Stability In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Foit, Linda; Morgan, Gareth J.; Kern, Maximilian J.; Steimer, Lenz R.; von Hacht, Annekathrin A.; Titchmarsh, James; Warriner, Stuart L.; Radford, Sheena E.; Bardwell, James C.A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Identifying mutations that stabilize proteins is challenging because most substitutions are destabilizing. In addition to being of immense practical utility, the ability to evolve protein stability in vivo may indicate how evolution has formed today's protein sequences. Here we describe a genetic selection that directly links the in vivo stability of proteins to antibiotic resistance. It allows the identification of stabilizing mutations within proteins. The large majority of mutants selected for improved antibiotic resistance are stabilized both thermodynamically and kinetically, indicating that similar principles govern stability in vivo and in vitro. The approach requires no prior structural or functional knowledge and allows selection for stability without a need to maintain function. Mutations that enhance thermodynamic stability of the protein Im7 map overwhelmingly to surface residues involved in binding to colicin E7, implying that evolutionary pressures that drive Im7-E7 complex formation may have compromised the stability of the isolated Im7 protein. PMID:20005848

  14. In-vivo morphologic and spectroscopic investigation of Psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Cicchi, Riccardo; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2011-07-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis, inflammatory cell accumulation and increased dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Cases of psoriasis were investigated in vivo with optical means in order to evaluate the potential of in vivo optical biopsy. A Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope was employed for the macroscopic observation. Features such as the 'dotted' blood vessels pattern was observed with high contrast. High resolution image sections of the epidermis and the dermis were produced with a custom made Multiphoton Microscope. Imaging extended from the surface of the lesion down to the papillary dermis, at a depth of 200 ?m. In the epidermis, a characteristic morphology of the stratum corneum found only in Psoriasis was revealed. Additionally, the cytoplasmic area of the cells in the stratum spinosum layer was found to be smaller than normal. In the dermis the morphological features were more pronounced, where the elongated dermal papillae dominated the papillary layer. Their length exceeds 100?m, which is a far greater value compared to that of healthy skin. These in vivo observations are consistent with the ex vivo histopathological observations, supporting both the applicability and potentiality of multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy in the field of in vivo optical investigation and biopsy of skin.

  15. Circumferentially aligned fibers guided functional neoartery regeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meifeng; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Jiamin; Wang, Lina; Yang, Xiaohu; Chen, Jingrui; Fan, Guanwei; Ji, Shenglu; Xing, Cheng; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Qiang; Zhu, Yan; Kong, Deling; Wang, Lianyong

    2015-08-01

    An ideal vascular graft should have the ability to guide the regeneration of neovessels with structure and function similar to those of the native blood vessels. Regeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with circumferential orientation within the grafts is crucial for functional vascular reconstruction in vivo. To date, designing and fabricating a vascular graft with well-defined geometric cues to facilitate simultaneously VSMCs infiltration and their circumferential alignment remains a great challenge and scarcely reported in vivo. Thus, we have designed a bi-layered vascular graft, of which the internal layer is composed of circumferentially aligned microfibers prepared by wet-spinning and an external layer composed of random nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. While the internal circumferentially aligned microfibers provide topographic guidance for in vivo regeneration of circumferentially aligned VSMCs, the external random nanofibers can offer enhanced mechanical property and prevent bleeding during and after graft implantation. VSMCs infiltration and alignment within the scaffold was then evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that the circumferentially oriented VSMCs and longitudinally aligned ECs were successfully regenerated in vivo after the bi-layered vascular grafts were implanted in rat abdominal aorta. No formation of thrombosis or intimal hyperplasia was observed up to 3 month post implantation. Further, the regenerated neoartery exhibited contraction and relaxation property in response to vasoactive agents. This new strategy may bring cell-free small diameter vascular grafts closer to clinical application. PMID:26001073

  16. In Vivo Programmed Gene Expression Based on Artificial Quorum Networks.

    PubMed

    Chu, Teng; Huang, Yajun; Hou, Mingyu; Wang, Qiyao; Xiao, Jingfan; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2015-08-01

    The quorum sensing (QS) system, as a well-functioning population-dependent gene switch, has been widely applied in many gene circuits in synthetic biology. In our work, an efficient cell density-controlled expression system (QS) was established via engineering of the Vibrio fischeri luxI-luxR quorum sensing system. In order to achieve in vivo programmed gene expression, a synthetic binary regulation circuit (araQS) was constructed by assembling multiple genetic components, including the quorum quenching protein AiiA and the arabinose promoter ParaBAD, into the QS system. In vitro expression assays verified that the araQS system was initiated only in the absence of arabinose in the medium at a high cell density. In vivo expression assays confirmed that the araQS system presented an in vivo-triggered and cell density-dependent expression pattern. Furthermore, the araQS system was demonstrated to function well in different bacteria, indicating a wide range of bacterial hosts for use. To explore its potential applications in vivo, the araQS system was used to control the production of a heterologous protective antigen in an attenuated Edwardsiella tarda strain, which successfully evoked efficient immune protection in a fish model. This work suggested that the araQS system could program bacterial expression in vivo and might have potential uses, including, but not limited to, bacterial vector vaccines. PMID:25979894

  17. Tailoring vessel morphology in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Daniel Joseph

    Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing field which seeks to provide alternatives to organ transplantation in order to address the increasing need for transplantable tissues. One huge hurdle in this effort is the provision of thick tissues; this hurdle exists because currently there is no way to provide prevascularized or rapidly vascularizable scaffolds. To design thick, vascularized tissues, scaffolds are needed that can induce vessels which are similar to the microvasculature found in normal tissues. Angiogenic biomaterials are being developed to provide useful scaffolds to address this problem. In this thesis angiogenic and cell signaling and adhesion factors were incorporated into a biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel system. The composition of these hydrogels was precisely tuned to induce the formation of differing vessel morphology. To sensitively measure induced microvascular morphology and to compare it to native microvessels in several tissues, this thesis developed an image-based tool for quantification of scale invariant and classical measures of vessel morphology. The tool displayed great utility in the comparison of native vessels and remodeling vessels in normal tissues. To utilize this tool to tune the vessel response in vivo, Flk1::myr-mCherry fluorescently labeled mice were implanted with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) containing PEG-based hydrogels in a modified mouse corneal angiogenesis assay. Resulting vessels were imaged with confocal microscopy, analyzed with the image based tool created in this thesis to compare morphological differences between treatment groups, and used to create a linear relationship between space filling parameters and dose of growth factor release. Morphological parameters of native mouse tissue vessels were then compared to the linear fit to calculate the dose of growth factors needed to induce vessels similar in morphology to native vessels. Resulting induced vessels did match in morphology to the target vessels. Several other covalently bound signals were then analyzed in the assay and resulting morphology of vessels was compared in several studies which further highlighted the utility of the micropocket assay in conjunction with the image based tool for vessel morphological quantification. Finally, an alternative method to provide rapid vasculature to the constructs, which relied on pre-seeded hydrogels encapsulated endothelial cells was also developed and shown to allow anastamosis between induced host vessels and the implanted construct within 48 hours. These results indicate great promise in the rational design of synthetic, bioactive hydrogels, which can be used as a platform to study microvascular induction for regenerative medicine and angiogenesis research. Future applications of this research may help to develop therapeutic strategies to ameliorate human disease by replacing organs or correcting vessel morphology in the case of ischemic diseases and cancer.

  18. Respiratory Rhythm Generation In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Diethelm W.; Smith, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular and circuit mechanisms generating the rhythm of breathing in mammals have been under intense investigation for decades. Here, we try to integrate the key discoveries into an updated description of the basic neural processes generating respiratory rhythm under in vivo conditions. PMID:24382872

  19. In vivo and ex vivo EPR detection of spin-labelled ovalbumin in mice.

    PubMed

    Abramovi?, Zrinka; Brgles, Marija; Habjanec, Lidija; Tomasi?, Jelka; Sentjurc, Marjeta; Frkanec, Ruza

    2010-10-01

    In this study, spin-labelled ovalbumin (SL-OVA), free or entrapped in liposomes, was administered to mice subcutaneously (s.c.) or intravenously (i.v.) with the aim to determine the conditions for pharmacokinetic studies of spin-labelled proteins by EPR and to measure the time course of SL-OVA distribution in vivo in live mice and ex vivo in isolated organs. Upon s.c. administration, the decay of the EPR signal was followed for 60min at the site of application using an L-band EPR spectrometer. Within this time period, the signal of free SL-OVA was diminished by about 70%. It was estimated with the help of the oxidizing agent K(3)[(FeCN)(6)] that approximately 30% was a consequence of the spin label reduction to EPR non-visible hydroxylamine and about 40% was due to the SL-OVA elimination from the site of measurement. For liposome encapsulated SL-OVA, the intensity diminished only by approx. 40% in the same period, indicating that liposomes successfully protect the protein from reduction. EPR signal could not be detected directly over live mouse organs within 60min after s.c. application of SL-OVA. With the available L-band EPR spectrometer, the measurements at the site of s.c. application are possible if the amount of SL-OVA applied to a mouse is more than 3mg. For the pharmacokinetic studies of the protein distribution in organs after s.c. or i.v. injection the concentration of the spin-labelled protein should be more than 0.5mmol/kg. After i.v. administration, only ex vivo measurements were possible using an X-band EPR spectrometer, since the total amount of SL-OVA was not sufficient for in vivo detection and also because of rapid reduction of nitroxide. After 2min, the protein was preferentially distributed to liver and, to a smaller extent, to spleen. PMID:20619290

  20. Real-time in vivo cancer diagnosis using raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenbo; Zhao, Jianhua; Short, Michael; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-07-01

    Raman spectroscopy has becoming a practical tool for rapid in vivo tissue diagnosis. This paper provides an overview on the latest development of real-time in vivo Raman systems for cancer detection. Instrumentation, data handling, as well as oncology applications of Raman techniques were covered. Optic fiber probes designs for Raman spectroscopy were discussed. Spectral data pre-processing, feature extraction, and classification between normal/benign and malignant tissues were surveyed. Applications of Raman techniques for clinical diagnosis for different types of cancers, including skin cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, oesophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, cervical cancer, and breast cancer, were summarized. Schematic of a real-time Raman spectrometer for skin cancer detection. Without correction, the image captured on CCD camera for a straight entrance slit has a curvature. By arranging the optic fiber array in reverse orientation, the curvature could be effectively corrected. PMID:25220508

  1. Silver Nanoplate Contrast Agents for In Vivo Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Kimberly A.; Souza, Michael; Truby, Ryan; Luke, Geoffrey P.; Green, Christopher; Vreeland, Erika; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoplates are introduced as a new photoacoustic contrast agent that can be easily functionalized for molecular photoacoustic imaging in vivo. Methods are described for synthesis, functionalization, and stabilization of silver nanoplates using biocompatible (“green”) reagents. Directional antibody conjugation to the nanoplate surface is presented along with proof of molecular sensitivity in vitro with pancreatic cancer cells. Cell viability tests show the antibody-conjugated silver nanoplates to be nontoxic at concentrations up to 1 mg/ml. Furthermore, the silver nanoplates' potential for in vivo application as a molecularly sensitive photoacoustic contrast agent is demonstrated using an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Results of these studies suggest that the synthesized silver nanoplates are well suited for a host of biomedical imaging and sensing applications. PMID:22188516

  2. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of osteosarcoma in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jun; Yu, Menglei; Ye, Fei; Xing, Da

    2011-02-01

    Osteosarcoma is one of the most common primary malignant tumors of the bone and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the pediatric age group. Confirmed diagnosis and prompt treatment of osteosarcoma are critical for effective prognosis. In this study, we investigate the application of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) for the detection of osteosarcoma in an animal model. Cross-section images of a normal rat leg and a tumorous rat leg were successfully reconstructed in vivo. Morphological changes and the development of the implanted osteosarcoma were accurately mapped with time-dependent photoacoustic images. Furthermore, we evaluate the use of gold nanorods as contrast agents for imaging osteosarcoma with PAI. This is the first study that uses PAI to detect osteosarcoma in vivo, and the results suggest that PAI has the potential clinical application for detecting osteosarcoma in the early stage.

  3. Near-infrared Molecular Probes for In Vivo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Bloch, Sharon; Akers, Walter; Achilefu, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Cellular and tissue imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths between 700 and 900 nm is advantageous for in vivo because of the low absorption of biological molecules in this region. This Unit presents protocols for small animal imaging using planar and fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques. Included is an overview of NIR fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using NIR organic fluorophores, nanoparticles, and multimodal imaging probes. The development, advantages, and application of NIR fluorescent probes that have been used for in vivo imaging are also summarized. The use of NIR agents in conjunction with visible dyes and considerations in selecting imaging agents are discussed. We conclude with practical considerations for the use of these dyes in cell and small animal imaging applications. PMID:22470154

  4. Ex vivo vs. in vivo antibacterial activity of two antiseptics on oral biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Prada-López, Isabel; Quintas, Víctor; Casares-De-Cal, Maria A.; Suárez-Quintanilla, Juan A.; Suárez-Quintanilla, David; Tomás, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the immediate antibacterial effect of two application methods (passive immersion and active mouthwash) of two antiseptic solutions on the in situ oral biofilm. Material and Methods: A randomized observer-masked crossover study was conducted. Fifteen healthy volunteers wore a specific intraoral device for 48 h to form a biofilm in three glass disks. One of these disks was used as a baseline; another one was immersed in a solution of 0.2% Chlorhexidine (0.2% CHX), remaining the third in the device, placed in the oral cavity, during the 0.2% CHX mouthwash application. After a 2-weeks washout period, the protocol was repeated using a solution of Essential Oils (EO). Samples were analyzed for bacterial viability with the confocal laser scanning microscope after previous staining with LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™. Results: The EO showed a better antibacterial effect compared to the 0.2% CHX after the mouthwash application (% of bacterial viability = 1.16 ± 1.00% vs. 5.08 ± 5.79%, respectively), and was more effective in all layers (p < 0.05). In the immersion, both antiseptics were significantly less effective (% of bacterial viability = 26.93 ± 13.11%, EO vs. 15.17 ± 6.14%, 0.2% CHX); in the case of EO immersion, there were no significant changes in the bacterial viability of the deepest layer in comparison with the baseline. Conclusions: The method of application conditioned the antibacterial activity of the 0.2% CHX and EO solutions on the in situ oral biofilm. The in vivo active mouthwash was more effective than the ex vivo passive immersion in both antiseptic solutions. There was more penetration of the antiseptic inside the biofilm with an active mouthwash, especially with the EO. Trial registered in clinicaltrials.gov with the number NCT02267239. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02267239. PMID:26191050

  5. Intravital FRET: Probing Cellular and Tissue Function in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Radbruch, Helena; Bremer, Daniel; Mothes, Ronja; Günther, Robert; Rinnenthal, Jan Leo; Pohlan, Julian; Ulbricht, Carolin; Hauser, Anja E; Niesner, Raluca

    2015-01-01

    The development of intravital Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is required to probe cellular and tissue function in the natural context: the living organism. Only in this way can biomedicine truly comprehend pathogenesis and develop effective therapeutic strategies. Here we demonstrate and discuss the advantages and pitfalls of two strategies to quantify FRET in vivo-ratiometrically and time-resolved by fluorescence lifetime imaging-and show their concrete application in the context of neuroinflammation in adult mice. PMID:26006244

  6. Positron emitters for {ital in vivo} plant studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fares, Y.; Goeschl, J.D.; Magnuson, C.E.; McKinney, C.J.; Musser, R.L.; Strain, B.R. [Phytotron and Botany Department, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27706 (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The use of short-lived positron emitter isotopes in studying the dynamics of biological systems provides an indepth understanding of the regulating functions of the system, that is otherwise unattainable. When we coupled such studies with tracer kinetics models, and a system approach of data analysis, {ital in vivo} simultaneous processes and their interactions are understood. The techniques applied, results of their applications and system analysis of data are reported. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Intravital FRET: Probing Cellular and Tissue Function in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Radbruch, Helena; Bremer, Daniel; Mothes, Ronja; Günther, Robert; Rinnenthal, Jan Leo; Pohlan, Julian; Ulbricht, Carolin; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2015-01-01

    The development of intravital Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is required to probe cellular and tissue function in the natural context: the living organism. Only in this way can biomedicine truly comprehend pathogenesis and develop effective therapeutic strategies. Here we demonstrate and discuss the advantages and pitfalls of two strategies to quantify FRET in vivo—ratiometrically and time-resolved by fluorescence lifetime imaging—and show their concrete application in the context of neuroinflammation in adult mice. PMID:26006244

  8. Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Rui; Milkie, Daniel E.; Sun, Wenzhi; Tan, Zhongchao; Kerlin, Aaron; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas S.; Ji, Na

    2014-01-01

    We describe a multiplexed aberration measurement method that modulates the intensity or phase of light rays at multiple pupil segments in parallel to determine their phase gradients. Applicable to fluorescent-protein-labeled structures of arbitrary complexity, it allows us to obtain diffraction-limited resolution in various samples in vivo. For the strongly scattering mouse brain, a single aberration correction improves structural and functional imaging of fine neuronal processes over a large imaging volume. PMID:25128976

  9. Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Rui; Milkie, Daniel E; Sun, Wenzhi; Tan, Zhongchao; Kerlin, Aaron; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas S; Ji, Na

    2014-10-01

    We describe an adaptive optics method that modulates the intensity or phase of light rays at multiple pupil segments in parallel to determine the sample-induced aberration. Applicable to fluorescent protein-labeled structures of arbitrary complexity, it allowed us to obtain diffraction-limited resolution in various samples in vivo. For the strongly scattering mouse brain, a single aberration correction improved structural and functional imaging of fine neuronal processes over a large imaging volume. PMID:25128976

  10. Advances in fiber optic sensors for in-vivo monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, Francesco; Mignani, Anna G.

    1995-09-01

    Biomedical fiber-optic sensors are attractive for the measurement of both physical and chemical parameters as well as for spectral measurements directly performed on the patient. An overview of fiber-optic sensors for in vivo monitoring is given, with particular attention to the advantages that these sensors are able to offer in different fields of application such as cardiovascular and intensive care, angiology, gastroenterology, ophthalmology, oncology, neurology, dermatology, and dentistry.

  11. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C Induces Angiogenesis in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yihai Cao; Philip Linden; Jacob Farnebo; Renhai Cao; Anna Eriksson; Vijay Kumar; Jian-Hua Qi; Lena Claesson-Welsh; Kari Alitalo

    1998-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) recently has been described to be a relatively specific growth factor for the lymphatic vascular system. Here we report that ectopic application of recombinant VEGF-C also has potent angiogenic effects in vivo. VEGF-C is sufficiently potent to stimulate neovascularization from limbal vessels in the mouse cornea. Similar to VEGF, the angiogenic response of corneas

  12. Receptor microscopic autoradiography for the study of percutaneous absorption, in vivo skin penetration, and cellular–intercellular deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naohiko Hayakawa; Naoki Kubota; Nobuo Imai; Walter E. Stumpf

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Microscopic autoradiography with cellular resolution and preservation of in vivo conditions is potentially the method of choice to gain detailed information about sites of deposition and retention in the epidermis and of penetration to the dermis after topical application of drugs. We tested this using 3H-Maxacalcitol. Methods: Dorsal skin of adult rats was treated in vivo with ointment containing

  13. Determination of Optimal Rhodamine Flurophore for In Vivo Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Longmire, Michelle; Ogawa, Mikako; Hama, Yukihiro; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Regino, Celeste A.S.; Choyke, Peter L.; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2009-01-01

    Optical imaging has the potential to improve the efficacy of surgical and endoscopic approaches to cancer treatment; however, the optimal type of fluorescent probe has not yet been established. It is well known that rhodamine-core-derived fluorophores offer a combination of desirable properties such as good photostability, high extinction coefficient, and high fluorescence quantum yield. However, despite the ubiquitous use of rhodamine fluorophores for in vivo optical imaging, it remains to be determined, however, if unique chemical properties among individual rhodamine core family members affect fluorophore parameters critical to in vivo optical imaging applications. These parameters include: preserved fluorescence intensity in low pH environments, similar to that of the endolysosome; efficient fluorescence signal despite conformational changes to targeting proteins as may occur in harsh subcellular environments; persistence of fluorescence after cellular internalization; and sufficient signal-to-background ratios to permit the identification of fluorophore-targeted tumors. In the present study, we conjugated 4 common rhodamine-core based fluorescent dyes to a clinically feasible and quickly internalizing D-galactose receptor targeting reagent, galactosamine serum albumin (GmSA), and conducted a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments using a metastatic ovarian cancer mouse model to determine if differences exist among rhodamine fluorophores and if so, which rhodamine core possesses optimal characteristics for in vivo imaging applications. Herein, we demonstrate that the rhodamine-fluorophore, TAMRA, is the most robust of the 4 common rhodamine fluorophores for in vivo optical imaging of ovarian cancer metastases to the peritoneum. PMID:18610943

  14. In vivo dosimetry with silicon diodes in total body irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. F.; Amaral, L. L.; Costa, A. M.; Netto, T. G.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this work is the characterization and application of silicon diode detectors for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation (TBI) treatments. It was evaluated the diode response with temperature, dose rate, gantry angulations and field size. A maximum response variation of 2.2% was obtained for temperature dependence. The response variation for dose rate and angular was within 1.2%. For field size dependence, the detector response increased with field until reach a saturation region, where no more primary radiation beam contributes for dose. The calibration was performed in a TBI setup. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings. Subsequent to calibration, in vivo dosimetry measurements were performed. The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for all treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), which is ±5%. The present work to test the applicability of a silicon diode dosimetry system for performing in vivo dose measurements in TBI techniques presented good results. These measurements demonstrated the value of diode dosimetry as a treatment verification method and its applicability as a part of a quality assurance program in TBI treatments.

  15. In Vivo and Ex Vivo Transcutaneous Glucose Detection Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ke

    Diabetes mellitus is widely acknowledged as a large and growing health concern. The lack of practical methods for continuously monitoring glucose levels causes significant difficulties in successful diabetes management. Extensive validation work has been carried out using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for in vivo glucose sensing. This dissertation details progress made towards a Raman-based glucose sensor for in vivo, transcutaneous glucose detection. The first presented study combines spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) with SERS (SESORS) to explore the possibility of in vivo, transcutaneous glucose sensing. A SERS-based glucose sensor was implanted subcutaneously in Sprague-Dawley rats. SERS spectra were acquired transcutaneously and analyzed using partial least-squares (PLS). Highly accurate and consistent results were obtained, especially in the hypoglycemic range. Additionally, the sensor demonstrated functionality at least17 days after implantation. A subsequent study further extends the application of SESORS to the possibility of in vivo detection of glucose in brain through skull. Specifically, SERS nanoantennas were buried in an ovine tissue behind a bone with 8 mm thickness and detected by using SESORS. In addition, quantitative detection through bones by using SESORS was also demonstrated. A device that could measure glucose continuously as well as noninvasively would be of great use to patients with diabetes. The inherent limitation of the SESORS approach may prevent this technique from becoming a noninvasive method. Therefore, the prospect of using normal Raman spectroscopy for glucose detection was re-examined. Quantitative detection of glucose and lactate in the clinically relevant range was demonstrated by using normal Raman spectroscopy with low power and short acquisition time. Finally, a nonlinear calibration method called least-squares support vector machine regression (LS-SVR) was investigated for analyzing spectroscopic data sets of glucose detection. Comparison studies were demonstrated between LS-SVR and PLS. LS-SVR demonstrated significant improvements in accuracy over PLS for glucose detection, especially when a global calibration model was required. The improvements imparted by LS-SVR open up the possibility of developing an accurate prediction algorithm for Raman-based glucose sensing applicable to a large human population. Overall, these studies show the high promise held by the Raman-based sensor for the challenge of optimal glycemic control.

  16. Imaging apolipoprotein AI in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Renuka; Lagerstedt, Jens O.; Petrlova, Jitka; Samardzic, Haris; Kreutzer, Ulrike; Xie, Hongtao; Kaysen, George A.; Desreux, Jean F.; Thonon, David; Jacques, Vincent; Van Loan, Martha; Rutledge, John C.; Oda, Michael N.; Voss, John C.; Jue, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Coronary disease risk increases inversely with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. The measurement of the biodistribution and clearance of HDL in vivo, however, has posed a technical challenge. This study presents an approach to the development of a lipoprotein MRI agent by linking gadolinium methanethiosulfonate (Gd[MTS-ADO3A]) to a selective cysteine mutation in position 55 of apo AI, the major protein of HDL. The contrast agent targets both liver and kidney, the sites of HDL catabolism, whereas the standard MRI contrast agent, gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-bismethylamide (GdDTPA-BMA, gadodiamide), enhances only the kidney image. Using a modified apolipoprotein AI to create an HDL contrast agent provides a new approach to investigate HDL biodistribution, metabolism and regulation in vivo. PMID:21264979

  17. Experiences with the in vivo and in vitro comet assay in regulatory testing.

    PubMed

    Frötschl, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo comet assay has recently been implemented into regulatory genotoxicity testing of pharmaceuticals with inclusion into the ICH S2R1 guidance. Regulatory genotoxicity testing aims to detect DNA alterations in form of gene mutations, larger scale chromosomal damage and recombination and aneuploidy. The ICH S2R1 guideline offers two options of standard batteries of tests for the detection of these endpoints. Both options start with an AMES assay and option 1 includes an in vitro mammalian cell assay and an in vivo micronucleus assay in rodent, whereas option 2 includes an in vivo micronucleus assay in bone marrow in rodent and a second in vivo assay in a second tissue with a second endpoint. The test recommended as second in vivo test is the comet assay in rat liver. The in vivo comet assay is considered as mature enough to ensure reliable detection of relevant in vivo genotoxicants in combination with the micronucleus test in bone marrow and the AMES assay. Although lots of research papers have been published using the in vitro comet assay, the in vitro version has not been implemented into official regulatory testing guidelines. A survey of the years 1999-2014 revealed 27 in vivo comet assays submitted to BfArM with market authorisation procedures, European and national advice procedures and clinical trial applications. In three procedures, in vitro comet assays had been submitted within the genetic toxicology packages. PMID:25527728

  18. In vivo fluorescence lifetime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nothdurft, Ralph E.; Patwardhan, Sachin V.; Akers, Walter; Ye, Yunpeng; Achilefu, Samuel; Culver, Joseph P.

    2009-03-01

    Local molecular and physiological processes can be imaged in vivo through perturbations in the fluorescence lifetime (FLT) of optical imaging agents. In addition to providing functional information, FLT methods can quantify specific molecular events and multiplex diagnostic and prognostic information. We have developed a fluorescence lifetime diffuse optical tomography (DOT) system for in vivo preclinical imaging. Data is captured using a time-resolved intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) system to measure fluorescence excitation and emission in the time domain. Data is then converted to the frequency domain, and we simultaneously reconstruct images of yield and lifetime using an extension to the normalized Born approach. By using differential phase measurements, we demonstrate DOT imaging of short lifetimes (from 350 ps) with high precision (+/-5 ps). Furthermore, this system retains the efficiency, speed, and flexibility of transmission geometry DOT. We demonstrate feasibility of FLT-DOT through a progressive series of experiments. Lifetime range and repeatability are first measured in phantoms. Imaging of subcutaneous implants then verifies the FLT-DOT approach in vivo in the presence of inhomogeneous optical properties. Use in a common research scenario is ultimately demonstrated by imaging accumulation of a targeted near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent-labeled peptide probe (cypate-RGD) in a mouse with a subcutaneous tumor.

  19. Ex vivo effect of gold nanoparticles on porcine synovial membrane

    PubMed Central

    Labens, Raphael; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.; Charlton, Anna N.; Ferrero, Nicole R.; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; Xia, Xin-Riu; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have great potential as carriers for local drug delivery and as a primary therapeutic for treatment of inflammation. Here we report on the AuNP-synovium interaction in an ex vivo model of intra-articular application for treatment of joint inflammation. Sheets of porcine femoropatellar synovium were obtained post mortem and each side of the tissue samples was maintained in a separate fluid environment. Permeability to AuNPs of different sizes (5?52 nm) and biomarker levels of inflammation were determined to characterize the ex vivo particle interaction with the synovium. Lipopolysaccharide or recombinant human interleukin-1? were added to fluid environments to assess the ex vivo effect of pro-inflammatory factors on permeability and biomarker levels. The synovium showed size selective permeability with only 5 nm AuNPs effectively permeating the entire tissues’ width. This process was further governed by particle stability in the fluid environment. AuNPs reduced matrix metalloproteinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity and hyaluronic acid concentrations but had no effect on prostaglandin E2 levels. Exposure to pro-inflammatory factors did not significantly affect AuNP permeation or biomarker levels in this model. Results with ex vivo tissue modeling of porcine synovium support an anti-inflammatory effect of AuNPs warranting further investigation. PMID:24665389

  20. Gel Encapsulation of Glucose Nanosensors for Prolonged In Vivo Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Balaconis, Mary K.; Clark, Heather A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Fluorescent glucose-sensitive nanosensors have previously been used in vivo to track glucose concentration changes in interstitial fluid. However, this technology was limited because of loss of fluorescence intensity due to particle diffusion from the injection site. In this study, we encapsulated the nanosensors into injectable gels to mitigate nanosensor migration in vivo. Methods Glucose-sensitive nanosensors were encapsulated in two different commercially available gelling agents: gel 1 and gel 2. Multiple formulations of each gel were assessed in vitro for their nanosensor encapsulation efficiency, permeability to glucose, and nanosensor retention over time. The optimal formulation for each gel, as determined from the in vitro assessment, was then tested in mice, and the lifetime of the encapsulated nanosensors was compared with controls of nanosensors without gel. Results Five gel formulations had encapsulation efficiencies of the nanosensors greater than 90%. Additionally, they retained up to 20% and 40% of the nanosensors over 24 h for gel 1 and gel 2, respectively. In vivo, both gels prevented diffusion of glucose nanosensors at least three times greater than the controls. Conclusions Encapsulating glucose nanosensors in two injectable gels prolonged nanosensor lifetime in vivo; however, the lifetime must still be increased further to be applicable for diabetes monitoring. PMID:23439160

  1. On-chip immobilization of planarians for in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dexter, Joseph P.; Tamme, Mary B.; Lind, Christine H.; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Planarians are an important model organism for regeneration and stem cell research. A complete understanding of stem cell and regeneration dynamics in these animals requires time-lapse imaging in vivo, which has been difficult to achieve due to a lack of tissue-specific markers and the strong negative phototaxis of planarians. We have developed the Planarian Immobilization Chip (PIC) for rapid, stable immobilization of planarians for in vivo imaging without injury or biochemical alteration. The chip is easy and inexpensive to fabricate, and worms can be mounted for and removed after imaging within minutes. We show that the PIC enables significantly higher-stability immobilization than can be achieved with standard techniques, allowing for imaging of planarians at sub-cellular resolution in vivo using brightfield and fluorescence microscopy. We validate the performance of the PIC by performing time-lapse imaging of planarian wound closure and sequential imaging over days of head regeneration. We further show that the device can be used to immobilize Hydra, another photophobic regenerative model organism. The simple fabrication, low cost, ease of use, and enhanced specimen stability of the PIC should enable its broad application to in vivo studies of stem cell and regeneration dynamics in planarians and Hydra. PMID:25227263

  2. In Vivo Correction of Murine Tyrosinemia Type I by DNA-Mediated Transposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenio Montini; Patrice K. Held; Meenakshi Noll; Nicolas Morcinek; Muhsen Al-Dhalimy; Milton Finegold; Stephen R. Yant; Mark A. Kay; Markus Grompe

    2002-01-01

    Gene therapy applications of naked DNA constructs for genetic disorders have been limited because of lack of permanent transgene expression. This limitation, however, can be overcome by the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposable element, which can achieve permanent transgene expres- sion through genomic integration from plasmid DNA. To date, only one example of an in vivo gene therapy application of this

  3. Quantitation of deuterated and non-deuterated phenylalanine and tyrosine in human plasma using the selective ion monitoring method with combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Application to the in vivo measurement of phenylalanine-4-monooxygenase activity.

    PubMed

    Zagalak, M J; Curtius, H C; Leimbacher, W; Redweik, U

    1977-11-11

    A specific method is described for the quantitative analysis of deuterated and non-deuterated phenylalanine and tyrosine in human plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selective ion monitoring. From the several derivatives investigated, the N- or N,O-trifluoroacetyl methyl esters were found to be the most suitable for our purposes. DL-Phenylalanine-4-d1 and L-tyrosine-d7 were used as internal standards. The sensitivity of this method permits the measurement of amounts as small as ca. 2.5 ng/ml in plasma for both phenylalanine and tyrosine. The coefficients of variation were found to be ca. 1.6% (n = 12) for phenylalanine and 3.0% (n = 12) for tyrosine. Using this method, an in vivo determination of phenylalanine-4-monooxygenase activity in humans is possible by loading the subjects with deuterated L-phenylalanine-d5 (accepted as substrate by phenylalanine-4-monooxygenase E.C. 1.14.16.1) and the subsequent measuring of deuterated L-tyrosine-d4 formed and residual L-phenylalanine-d5. PMID:914934

  4. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of AZ66, a sigma receptor ligand, in rat plasma and its application to in vivo pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Jamalapuram, Seshulatha; Vuppala, Pradeep Kumar; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H.; McCurdy, Christopher R.; Avery, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse continues as a major problem in the USA owing to its powerful psychological addictive properties. AZ66, 3-[4-(4-cyclohexylpiperazine-1-yl)pentyl]-6-fluorobenzo[d]thiazole-2(3H)-one, an optimized sigma receptor ligand, is a promising therapeutic agent against methamphetamine. To study the in vivo pharmacokinetics of this novel sigma receptor ligand in rats, a sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method was developed in rat plasma and validated. The developed method requires a small volume of plasma (100 ?L) and a simple liquid–liquid extraction. The chromatographic separations were achieved in 3.3 min using an Acquity UPLC BEH Shield RP18 column. The mass spectrophotometric detection was carried out using a Waters Micromass Quattro MicroTM triple-quadrupole system. Multiple reaction monitoring was used for the quantitation with transitions m/z 406?m/z 181 for AZ66 and m/z 448?m/z 285 for aripiprazole. The method was validated over a concentration range of 1–3500 ng/mL and the lower limit of quantitation was determined to be 1 ng/mL. Validation of the assay demonstrated that the developed UPLC/MS/MS method was sensitive, accurate and selective for the determination of AZ66 in rat plasma. The present method has been successfully applied to an i.v. pharmacokinetic study in Sprague–Dawley rats. PMID:23558564

  5. Comparative real-time study of cellular uptake of a formulated conjugated linolenic acid rich nano and conventional macro emulsions and their bioactivity in ex vivo models for parenteral applications.

    PubMed

    Paul, Debjyoti; Mukherjee, Sayani; Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Dhar, Pubali

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to fabricate and monitor real-time, impact of a stable conjugated linolenic acid, ?-eleostearic acid (ESA) rich nanoemulsion (NE) formulation (d < 200 nm) vis-ŕ-vis ESA conventional emulsion (CE) system in ex vivo systems against both endogenous and exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accordingly, stable nanoemulsion formulation of ESA was engineered with the aid of bitter melon seed oil and non-toxic excipients. Morphology and particle size of the emulsion formulations were studied to validate stability. The real-time rapid uptake of the ESA NE and its increased prophylactic efficacy against induced endogenous and exogenous ROS in terms of cell viability and membrane integrity was evaluated flow-cytometrically and with fluorescence microscopic analysis of different primary cells. It was found that the fabricated non-toxic ESA NE had stable parameters (hydrodynamic mean diameter, particle size distribution and zeta potential) for over 12 weeks. Further, ESA NE at a concentration of ? 70 ?M exhibited maximum efficacy in protecting cells from oxidative damage against both endogenous and exogenous ROS in lymphocytes and hepatocytes as compared to its corresponding presence in the CE formulation. This study provides a real-time empirical evidence on the influence of nano formulation in enhancing bioavailability and antioxidative properties of ESA. PMID:25579219

  6. Two-photon in vivo imaging of retinal microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schejter, Adi; Farah, Nairouz; Shoham, Shy

    2014-02-01

    Non-invasive fluorescence retinal imaging in small animals is an important requirement in an array of translational vision applications. Two-photon imaging has the potential for long-term investigation of healthy and diseased retinal function and structure in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that two-photon microscopy through a mouse's pupil can yield high-quality optically sectioned fundus images. By remotely scanning using an electronically tunable lens we acquire highly-resolved 3D fluorescein angiograms. These results provide an important step towards various applications that will benefit from the use of infrared light, including functional imaging of retinal responses to light stimulation.

  7. Novel thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels: in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Patois, Emilie; Osorio-da Cruz, Suzanne; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Walpoth, Beat; Gurny, Robert; Jordan, Olivier

    2009-11-01

    Chitosan is an attractive biopolymer for the preparation of hydrogels. Its unique combination of biocompatibility, biodegradability, bioadhesivity, and tissue-promoting abilities allows pharmaceutical applications. We investigated novel thermosensitive hydrogels based on chitosan homogeneously reacetylated to a deacetylation degree of about 50%, combined with selected polyols or polyoses such as trehalose, a nontoxic polysaccharide. The latter, a gel-inducing and lyoprotective agent enabled the formulation to be lyophilized and rehydrated without affecting the thermosensitive behavior. This made possible long-term storage and promoted its use in a clinical setup. The thermally induced sol-gel transition allowed injectability and in situ setting. Rheological characterization revealed that storage moduli could be increased by one decade by increasing the chitosan concentration from 1.4 to 2.2% (w/w). Evaluation in vivo provided evidence of in situ implant formation in subcutaneous tissue of Sprague-Dawley rats and permanence for up to 3 months. Histopathological analysis demonstrated a mild, chronic, inflammatory reaction that disappeared with the complete absorption of the gel implant over a few months period. Such in situ forming hydrogels could be advantageous for specific applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. PMID:18980189

  8. Optical Oxygen Sensors for Applications in Microfluidic Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Grist, Samantha M.; Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    The presence and concentration of oxygen in biological systems has a large impact on the behavior and viability of many types of cells, including the differentiation of stem cells or the growth of tumor cells. As a result, the integration of oxygen sensors within cell culture environments presents a powerful tool for quantifying the effects of oxygen concentrations on cell behavior, cell viability, and drug effectiveness. Because microfluidic cell culture environments are a promising alternative to traditional cell culture platforms, there is recent interest in integrating oxygen-sensing mechanisms with microfluidics for cell culture applications. Optical, luminescence-based oxygen sensors, in particular, show great promise in their ability to be integrated with microfluidics and cell culture systems. These sensors can be highly sensitive and do not consume oxygen or generate toxic byproducts in their sensing process. This paper presents a review of previously proposed optical oxygen sensor types, materials and formats most applicable to microfluidic cell culture, and analyzes their suitability for this and other in vitro applications. PMID:22163408

  9. In vivo pool-based shRNA screens to identify modulators of disease progression in hematopoietic malignancies

    E-print Network

    Meacham, Corbin Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    shRNA screens have been very effective in identifying novel cancer genes in mammalian cells, but they have primarily been limited to in vitro applications in tumor cell lines. Whereas in vivo retroviral mutagenesis screens ...

  10. Design of meloxicam and lornoxicam transdermal patches: Preparation, physical characterization, ex vivo and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Yener, Gülgün; Üner, Melike; Gönüllü, Ümit; Yildirim, Sinem; Kiliç, P?nar; Aslan, Serap Sa?lik; Barla, Asl?

    2010-11-01

    Transdermal patches of meloxicam (MX) and lornoxicam (LX) were aimed to be prepared in order to overcome their side effects by oral application. The strategy was formulation of optimized films to prepare transdermal patches by determination of physical properties and investigation of drug-excipient compatibility. As the next step, in vitro drug release, assesment of anti-inflammatory effect on Wistar Albino rats, ex vivo skin penetration and investigation of factors on drug release from transdermal patches were studied. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was concluded to be suitable polymer for formulation of MX and LX transdermal films indicating pharmaceutical quality required. MX and LX transdermal patches gave satisfactory results regarding to the edema inhibition in the assessment of anti-inflammatory effect. MX was found out to be more effective compared to LX on relieving of edema and swelling. These results were supported by data obtained from ex vivo penetration experiments of drug through rat skin. Indicative parameters like log P, molecular weight and solubility constraint on penetration rate of drugs also indicated good skin penetration. Transdermal patches of MX and LX can be suggested to be used especially for the immediate treatment of inflammated area since it displays anti-inflammatory effect, soon. PMID:21048338

  11. Investigation of ex vivo stability of fesoterodine in human plasma and its simultaneous determination together with its active metabolite 5-HMT by LC-ESI-MS/MS: Application to a bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Jignesh M; Sanyal, Mallika; Yadav, Manish; Shrivastav, Pranav S

    2013-01-15

    Fesoterodine is a non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist, used in the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome. A highly sensitive, selective and rapid method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of fesoterodine and its active metabolite, 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine (5-HMT) in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Due to rapid conversion of parent drug to 5-HMT, ex vivo stability of fesoterodine in human plasma was extensively studied to optimize the extraction protocol. The analytes and their deuterated analogs were quantitatively extracted from 100?L human plasma by liquid-liquid extraction in methyl tert-butyl ether: n-hexane. The chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved on a Kromasil C18 (100mm×4.6mm, 5?m) column under isocratic conditions. The method was validated over a dynamic concentration range of 0.01-10ng/mL for both the analytes. Ion-suppression effects were investigated by post-column infusion of analytes. The precision (% CV) values for the calculated slopes of calibration curves, which would reflect the relative matrix effect, were less than 1.5% for both the analytes. The intra-batch and inter-batch precision (% CV) across quality control levels varied from 1.82 to 3.73% and the mean extraction recovery was >96% for both the analytes. The method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of 8mg fesoterodine tablet formulation (test and reference) in 12 healthy Indian subjects under fasted and fed condition. The assay reproducibility estimated by reanalysis of incurred samples showed a change of ±12.0%. PMID:23266359

  12. Simultaneous in vivo positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Catana, Ciprian; Procissi, Daniel; Wu, Yibao; Judenhofer, Martin S.; Qi, Jinyi; Pichler, Bernd J.; Jacobs, Russell E.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely used in vivo imaging technologies with both clinical and biomedical research applications. The strengths of MRI include high-resolution, high-contrast morphologic imaging of soft tissues; the ability to image physiologic parameters such as diffusion and changes in oxygenation level resulting from neuronal stimulation; and the measurement of metabolites using chemical shift imaging. PET images the distribution of biologically targeted radiotracers with high sensitivity, but images generally lack anatomic context and are of lower spatial resolution. Integration of these technologies permits the acquisition of temporally correlated data showing the distribution of PET radiotracers and MRI contrast agents or MR-detectable metabolites, with registration to the underlying anatomy. An MRI-compatible PET scanner has been built for biomedical research applications that allows data from both modalities to be acquired simultaneously. Experiments demonstrate no effect of the MRI system on the spatial resolution of the PET system and <10% reduction in the fraction of radioactive decay events detected by the PET scanner inside the MRI. The signal-to-noise ratio and uniformity of the MR images, with the exception of one particular pulse sequence, were little affected by the presence of the PET scanner. In vivo simultaneous PET and MRI studies were performed in mice. Proof-of-principle in vivo MR spectroscopy and functional MRI experiments were also demonstrated with the combined scanner. PMID:18319342

  13. Biophotonics techniques for structural and functional imaging, in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Najafizadeh, Laleh

    2014-01-01

    In vivo optical imaging is being conducted in a variety of medical applications, including optical breast cancer imaging, functional brain imaging, endoscopy, exercise medicine, and monitoring the photodynamic therapy and progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In the past three decades, in vivo diffuse optical breast cancer imaging has shown promising results in cancer detection, and monitoring the progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The use of near infrared spectroscopy for functional brain imaging has been growing rapidly. In fluorescence imaging, the difference between autofluorescence of cancer lesions compared to normal tissues were used in endoscopy to distinguish malignant lesions from normal tissue or inflammation and in determining the boarders of cancer lesions in surgery. Recent advances in drugs targeting specific tumor receptors, such as AntiBodies (MAB), has created a new demand for developing non-invasive in vivo imaging techniques for detection of cancer biomarkers, and for monitoring their down regulations during therapy. Targeted treatments, combined with new imaging techniques, are expected to potentially result in new imaging and treatment paradigms in cancer therapy. Similar approaches can potentially be applied for the characterization of other disease-related biomarkers. In this chapter, we provide a review of diffuse optical and fluorescence imaging techniques with their application in functional brain imaging and cancer diagnosis. PMID:22433452

  14. Biophotonics techniques for structural and functional imaging, in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Gandjbakhche, Amir H; Najafizadeh, Laleh

    2012-01-01

    In vivo optical imaging is being conducted in a variety of medical applications, including optical breast cancer imaging, functional brain imaging, endoscopy, exercise medicine, and monitoring the photodynamic therapy and progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In the past three decades, in vivo diffuse optical breast cancer imaging has shown promising results in cancer detection, and monitoring the progress of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The use of near infrared spectroscopy for functional brain imaging has been growing rapidly. In fluorescence imaging, the difference between autofluorescence of cancer lesions compared to normal tissues were used in endoscopy to distinguish malignant lesions from normal tissue or inflammation and in determining the boarders of cancer lesions in surgery. Recent advances in drugs targeting specific tumor receptors, such as AntiBodies (MAB), has created a new demand for developing non-invasive in vivo imaging techniques for detection of cancer biomarkers, and for monitoring their down regulations during therapy. Targeted treatments, combined with new imaging techniques, are expected to potentially result in new imaging and treatment paradigms in cancer therapy. Similar approaches can potentially be applied for the characterization of other disease-related biomarkers. In this chapter, we provide a review of diffuse optical and fluorescence imaging techniques with their application in functional brain imaging and cancer diagnosis. PMID:22433452

  15. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of SU-8 biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Nemani, Krishnamurthy V.; Moodie, Karen L.; Brennick, Jeoffry B.; Su, Alison; Gimi, Barjor

    2013-01-01

    SU-8 negative photoresist is a high tensile strength polymer that has been used for a number of biomedical applications that include cell encapsulation and neuronal probes. Chemically, SU-8 comprises, among other components, an epoxy based monomer and antimony salts, the latter being a potential source of cytotoxicity. We report on the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of SU-8 biocompatibility based on leachates from various solvents, at varying temperature and pH, and upon subcutaneous implantation of SU-8 substrates in mice. MTT cell viability assay did not exhibit any cytotoxic effects from the leachates. The hemolytic activity of SU-8 is comparable to that of FDA approved implant materials such as silicone elastomer, Buna-S and medical steel. In vivo histocompatibility study in mice indicates a muted immune response to subcutaneous SU-8 implants. PMID:23910365

  16. Blind-deconvolution optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianhua; Lin, Riqiang; Wang, Huina; Meng, Jing; Zheng, Hairong; Song, Liang

    2013-03-25

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is becoming a vital tool for studying the microcirculation system in vivo. By increasing the numerical aperture of optical focusing, the lateral resolution of OR-PAM can be improved; however, the depth of focus and thus the imaging range will be sacrificed correspondingly. In this work, we report our development of blind-deconvolution optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (BD-PAM) that can provide a lateral resolution ~2-fold finer than that of conventional OR-PAM (3.04 vs. 5.78?m), without physically increasing the system's numerical aperture. The improvement achieved with BD-PAM is demonstrated by imaging graphene nanoparticles and the microvasculature of mice ears in vivo. Our results suggest that BD-PAM may become a valuable tool for many biomedical applications that require both fine spatial resolution and extended depth of focus. PMID:23546115

  17. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of osteosarcoma on animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Menglei; Ye, Fei; Hu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the commonest primary malignant tumor of bone, and the second highest cause of cancer-related death in the paediatric age group. Although there are several methods for osteosarcoma detection, e.g. X-ray, CT, MRI and bone scan, they are not satisfied methods because they can hardly detect osteosarcoma in early stage. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging hybrid imaging modality that is noninvasive, nonionizing, with high sensitivity, satisfactory imaging depth and good temporal and spatial resolution. In order to explore this new method to detect osteosarcoma, we established SD rat models with osteosarcoma and utilized PAI to reconstruct the osteosarcoma image in vivo. This is the first time detecting osteosarcoma in vivo using PAI, and the results suggested that PAI has potential clinical application for detecting osteosarcoma in the early stage.

  18. In vivo recordings of brain activity using organic transistors

    PubMed Central

    Khodagholy, Dion; Doublet, Thomas; Quilichini, Pascale; Gurfinkel, Moshe; Leleux, Pierre; Ghestem, Antoine; Ismailova, Esma; Hervé, Thierry; Sanaur, Sébastien; Bernard, Christophe; Malliaras, George G.

    2013-01-01

    In vivo electrophysiological recordings of neuronal circuits are necessary for diagnostic purposes and for brain-machine interfaces. Organic electronic devices constitute a promising candidate because of their mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility. Here we demonstrate the engineering of an organic electrochemical transistor embedded in an ultrathin organic film designed to record electrophysiological signals on the surface of the brain. The device, tested in vivo on epileptiform discharges, displayed superior signal-to-noise ratio due to local amplification compared with surface electrodes. The organic transistor was able to record on the surface low-amplitude brain activities, which were poorly resolved with surface electrodes. This study introduces a new class of biocompatible, highly flexible devices for recording brain activity with superior signal-to-noise ratio that hold great promise for medical applications. PMID:23481383

  19. Hydroxyl radical detection in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chevion, M.; Floyd, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    Hydroxyl radicals have been implicated as the actual species responsible for the deleterious effects of active oxygen in biology. However, in most cases, its presence has only been inferred by circumstantial evidence. Using electrochemical detection coupled to HPLC separation technique the authors can identify and quantitate (at sub-picomole level) the hydroxylated products of 3 aromatic compounds (phenol, salicylate, and 2-deoxy-guanosine) as a direct measure of hydroxyl radical formation. Firstly, the authors showed that mixing ascorbate with copper ions (in the absence of presence of a protein) yields catechols, dihydroxybenzoic acids and 8-OH-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG). This approach has been used to study the formation of OH in vivo. Human granulocytes stimulated with TPA showed that 8-OHdG was formed in the cellular DNA at high levels (one 8-OHdG/800 DNA bases). Unstimulated granulocytes contained 8-OHdG below detection level. Formation of 8-OHdG in the TPA-stimulated granulocytes DNA was decreased by the addition of SOD and catalase. Using salicylate as an in vivo scavenger of hydroxyl radicals the authors showed that the level of trapped-dihydroxybenzoic acids is increased approx.8 and approx.3 fold in the lungs and liver of paraquat-poisoned mice, respectively, as compared to normal animals. Similarly, the detected level of dihydroxybenzoic acids in the hearts of adriamycin-treated rats was increased over 100-fold as compared to the hearts of control animals.

  20. Manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles induce ex vivo, but not in vivo, cardiovascular effects

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Allancer DC; Ramalho, Laylla S; Souza, Álvaro PS; Mendes, Elizabeth P; Colugnati, Diego B; Zufelato, Nícholas; Sousa, Marcelo H; Bakuzis, Andris F; Castro, Carlos H

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been used for various biomedical applications. Importantly, manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles have useful magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and potential for hyperthermia treatment, but their effects in the cardiovascular system are poorly reported. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the cardiovascular effects of three different types of manganese ferrite-based magnetic nanoparticles: citrate-coated (CiMNPs); tripolyphosphate-coated (PhMNPs); and bare magnetic nanoparticles (BaMNPs). The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The direct effects of the MNPs on cardiac contractility were evaluated in isolated perfused rat hearts. The CiMNPs, but not PhMNPs and BaMNPs, induced a transient decrease in the left ventricular end-systolic pressure. The PhMNPs and BaMNPs, but not CiMNPs, induced an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, which resulted in a decrease in a left ventricular end developed pressure. Indeed, PhMNPs and BaMNPs also caused a decrease in the maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rise (+dP/dt) and maximal rate of left ventricular pressure decline (?dP/dt). The three MNPs studied induced an increase in the perfusion pressure of isolated hearts. BaMNPs, but not PhMNPs or CiMNPs, induced a slight vasorelaxant effect in the isolated aortic rings. None of the MNPs were able to change heart rate or arterial blood pressure in conscious rats. In summary, although the MNPs were able to induce effects ex vivo, no significant changes were observed in vivo. Thus, given the proper dosages, these MNPs should be considered for possible therapeutic applications. PMID:25031535

  1. Determination of the in vivo degradation mechanism of PEGDA hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Browning, M B; Cereceres, S N; Luong, P T; Cosgriff-Hernandez, E M

    2014-12-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels are one of the most extensively utilized biomaterials systems due to their established biocompatibility and highly tunable properties. It is widely acknowledged that traditional acrylate-derivatized PEG (PEGDA) hydrogels are susceptible to slow degradation in vivo and are therefore unsuitable for long-term implantable applications. However, there is speculation whether the observed degradation is due to hydrolysis of endgroup acrylate esters or oxidation of the ether backbone, both of which are possible in the foreign body response to implanted devices. PEG diacrylamide (PEGDAA) is a polyether-based hydrogel system with similar properties to PEGDA but with amide linkages in place of the acrylate esters. This provides a hydrolytically-stable control that can be used to isolate the relative contributions of hydrolysis and oxidation to the in vivo degradation of PEGDA. Here we show that PEGDAA hydrogels remained stable over 12 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in a rat model while PEGDA hydrogels underwent significant degradation as indicated by both increased swelling ratio and decreased modulus. As PEGDA and PEGDAA have similar susceptibility to oxidation, these results demonstrate for the first time that the primary in vivo degradation mechanism of PEGDA is hydrolysis of the endgroup acrylate esters. Additionally, the maintenance of PEGDAA hydrogel properties in vivo indicates their suitability for long-term implants. These studies serve to elucidate key information about a widely used biomaterial system to allow for better implantable device design and to provide a biostable replacement option for PEGDA in applications that require long-term stability. PMID:24464985

  2. IN VIVO STAINING OF ASTROCYTES Specific in vivo staining of astrocytes in the whole brain

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    IN VIVO STAINING OF ASTROCYTES 1 Specific in vivo staining of astrocytes in the whole brain after of astrocytes without damaging or interfering with normal brain functions is essential for intravital microscopy in vivo studies of astrocytes in the intact brain [10,11,12] and has opened a new field of dynamic

  3. Nonionizing photoacoustic cystography in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chulhong; Jeon, Mansik; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-09-15

    We demonstrate the feasibility of a novel and nonionizing process for bladder imaging in vivo, called photoacoustic cystography (PAC). Using a photoacoustic imaging system, we have successfully imaged a rat bladder filled with clinically used Methylene Blue (MB) dye. An image contrast of ~8 was achieved. Further, spectroscopic PAC confirmed the accumulation of MB in the bladder. Using a laser pulse energy of less than 1 mJ/cm˛ (1/20 of the ANSI safety limit), a deeply (1.2 cm) positioned bladder in biological tissues was clearly visible in the PA image. Our results suggest that PAC can potentially provide a nonionizing, relatively cheap, and portable tool for bladder mapping. Among our clinical interests, nonionizing PAC with an injection of MB can potentially monitor vesicoureteral reflux in children. PMID:21931403

  4. Exploring in vivo blood flow dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang-Zhong Yang

    1998-01-01

    With the development of improved MR imaging techniques, there has been a resurgence of interest since the early 1980s. Today, MR flow imaging techniques are regarded as important clinical tools for providing detailed in vivo blood flow information. MR phase velocity mapping is a versatile noninvasive flow quantification method that is well suited for analyzing in vivo flow patterns. Since

  5. In Vivo Models of Biofilm Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendra P. Rumbaugh; Nancy L. Carty

    \\u000a The in vivo biofilm models that have been described use a variety of animals ranging from goats to chinchillas, and mimic\\u000a diseases including dental caries, endocarditis, pneumonia, keratitis, and otitis media. Representatives of these in vivo models\\u000a are listed in Table 16.1.

  6. Sentinel lymph node detection ex vivo using

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lihong

    - tinel lymph nodes in breast cancer staging in vivo. © 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation biopsy; breast cancer; axillary lymph node dissection; speckle contrast; acoustic bursts. Paper 07492LRSentinel lymph node detection ex vivo using ultrasound-modulated optical tomography Chulhong Kim

  7. Imaging axonal transport of mitochondria in vivo

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Imaging axonal transport of mitochondria in vivo Thomas Misgeld1,2,5, Martin Kerschensteiner1,3,5, Florence M Bareyre1,3, Robert W Burgess4 & Jeff W Lichtman1 Neuronal mitochondria regulate synaptic and sustained changes in anterograde and retrograde transport. In vivo imaging of mitochondria will be a useful

  8. In Vivo EPR For Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Harold M.; Burke, Greg; Coey, M.; Demidenko, Eugene; Dong, Ruhong; Grinberg, Oleg; Hilton, James; Iwasaki, Akinori; Lesniewski, Piotr; Kmiec, Maciej; Lo, Kai-Ming; Nicolalde, R. Javier; Ruuge, Andres; Sakata, Yasuko; Sucheta, Artur; Walczak, Tadeusz; Williams, Benjamin B.; Mitchell, Chad; Romanyukha, Alex; Schauer, David A.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of terrorism, accident, or war, populations potentially can be exposed to doses of ionizing radiation that could cause direct clinical effects within days or weeks. There is a critical need to determine the magnitude of the exposure to individuals so that those with significant risk have appropriate procedures initiated immediately, while those without a significant probability of acute effects can be reassured and removed from the need for further consideration in the medical/emergency system. In many of the plausible scenarios there is an urgent need to make the determination very soon after the event and while the subject is still present. In vivo EPR measurements of radiation-induced changes in the enamel of teeth is a method, perhaps the only such method, which can differentiate among doses sufficiently for classifying individuals into categories for treatment with sufficient accuracy to facilitate decisions on medical treatment. In its current state, the in vivo EPR dosimeter can provide estimates of absorbed dose with an error approximately ± 50 cGy over the range of interest for acute biological effects of radiation, assuming repeated measurements of the tooth in the mouth of the subject. The time required for acquisition, the lower limit, and the precision are expected to improve, with improvements in the resonator and the algorithm for acquiring and calculating the dose. The magnet system that is currently used, while potentially deployable, is somewhat large and heavy, requiring that it be mounted on a small truck or trailer. Several smaller magnets, including an intraoral magnet are under development, which would extend the ease of use of this technique. PMID:18591988

  9. Absolute calibration in vivo measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.

    1991-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs.

  10. Quantum Dot-Based Nanoprobes for In Vivo Targeted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yian; Hong, Hao; Xu, Zhi Ping; Li, Zhen; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted tremendous attention over the last decade. The superior optical properties of QDs over conventional organic dyes make them attractive labels for a wide variety of biomedical applications, whereas their potential toxicity and instability in biological environment has puzzled scientific researchers. Much research effort has been devoted to surface modification and functionalization of QDs to make them versatile probes for biomedical applications, and significant progress has been made over the last several years. This review article aims to describe the current state-of-the-art of the synthesis, modification, bioconjugation, and applications of QDs for in vivo targeted imaging. In addition, QD-based multifunctional nanoprobes are also summarized. PMID:24206136

  11. Computer simulation of cardiac cryoablation: comparison with in vivo data.

    PubMed

    Handler, Michael; Fischer, Gerald; Seger, Michael; Kienast, Roland; Nowak, Claudia-Nike; Pehböck, Daniel; Hintringer, Florian; Baumgartner, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Simulation of cardiac cryoablation by the finite element method can contribute to optimizing ablation results and understanding the effects of modifications prior to time-consuming and expensive experiments. In this work an intervention scenario using a 9 Fr 8 mm tip applicator applied to ventricular tissue was simulated using the effective heat capacity model based on Pennes' bioheat equation. Using experimentally obtained refrigerant flow rates and temperature profiles recorded by a thermocouple located at the tip of the applicator the cooling performance of the refrigerant was estimated and integrated by time and temperature dependent boundary conditions based on distinct phases of a freeze-thaw cycle. Our simulations exhibited a mean difference of approximately 6°C at the applicator tip compared to temperature profiles obtained during in vivo experiments. The presented model is a useful tool for simulation and validation of new developments in clinical cardiac cryoablation. PMID:23972331

  12. Infrared neural stimulation of human spinal nerve roots in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cayce, Jonathan M; Wells, Jonathon D; Malphrus, Jonathan D; Kao, Chris; Thomsen, Sharon; Tulipan, Noel B; Konrad, Peter E; Jansen, E Duco; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is a neurostimulation modality that uses pulsed infrared light to evoke artifact-free, spatially precise neural activity with a noncontact interface; however, the technique has not been demonstrated in humans. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of INS in humans in vivo. The feasibility of INS in humans was assessed in patients ([Formula: see text]) undergoing selective dorsal root rhizotomy, where hyperactive dorsal roots, identified for transection, were stimulated in vivo with INS on two to three sites per nerve with electromyogram recordings acquired throughout the stimulation. The stimulated dorsal root was removed and histology was performed to determine thermal damage thresholds of INS. Threshold activation of human dorsal rootlets occurred in 63% of nerves for radiant exposures between 0.53 and [Formula: see text]. In all cases, only one or two monitored muscle groups were activated from INS stimulation of a hyperactive spinal root identified by electrical stimulation. Thermal damage was first noted at [Formula: see text] and a [Formula: see text] safety ratio was identified. These findings demonstrate the success of INS as a fresh approach for activating human nerves in vivo and providing the necessary safety data needed to pursue clinically driven therapeutic and diagnostic applications of INS in humans. PMID:26157986

  13. Altering in vivo macrophage responses with modified polymer properties.

    PubMed

    Bygd, Hannah C; Forsmark, Kiva D; Bratlie, Kaitlin M

    2015-07-01

    Macrophage reprogramming has long been the focus of research in disease therapeutics and biomaterial implantation. With different chemical and physical properties of materials playing a role in macrophage polarization, it is important to investigate and categorize the activation effects of material parameters both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we have investigated the effects of material surface chemistry on in vivo polarization of macrophages. The library of materials used here include poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (p(NIPAm-co-AAc)) nanoparticles (?600 nm) modified with various functional groups. This study also focuses on the development of a quantitative structure-activity relationship method (QSAR) as a predictive tool for determining the macrophage polarization in response to particular biomaterial surface chemistries. Here, we successfully use in vivo imaging and histological analysis to identify the macrophage response and activation. We demonstrate the ability to induce a spectrum of macrophage phenotypes with a change in material functionality as well as identify certain material parameters that seem to correlate with each phenotype. This suggests the potential to develop materials for a variety of applications and predict the outcome of macrophage activation in response to new surface chemistries. PMID:25934291

  14. In vivo approaches to assessing the toxicity of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Scoville, David K; Schaupp, Christopher M; Baneyx, François; Kavanagh, Terrance J

    2014-01-01

    The small size and heavy metal composition of quantum dots (QDs) combined with their growing consumer product and biomedical research applications have generated concern over their safety. In an occupational setting where QD-enabled products are being manufactured, inhalation is a likely route of exposure. Since current research indicates that QDs could cause inflammation and toxicity in the respiratory tract, it is important that a variety of methods be available to further characterize this potential respiratory hazard. This chapter focuses primarily on in vivo methods for modeling the inhalation and assessing the pulmonary toxicity of QDs. PMID:25103809

  15. In vivo real-time volumetric synthetic aperture ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten F.; Brandt, Andreas H.; Stuart, Matthias B.; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jřrgen A.

    2015-03-01

    Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological. This paper investigates the in vivo applicability and sensitivity of volumetric SA imaging. Utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual point sources, a frame rate of 25 Hz for a 90° × 90° field-of-view was achieved. data were obtained using a 3.5 MHz 32 × 32 elements 2-D phased array transducer connected to the experimental scanner (SARUS). Proper scaling is applied to the excitation signal such that intensity levels are in compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations for in vivo ultrasound imaging. The measured Mechanical Index and spatial-peak-temporal-average intensity for parallel beam-forming (PB) are 0.83 and 377.5mW/cm2, and for SA are 0.48 and 329.5mW/cm2. A human kidney was volumetrically imaged with SA and PB techniques simultaneously. Two radiologists for evaluation of the volumetric SA were consulted by means of a questionnaire on the level of details perceivable in the beam-formed images. The comparison was against PB based on the in vivo data. The feedback from the domain experts indicates that volumetric SA images internal body structures with a better contrast resolution compared to PB at all positions in the entire imaged volume. Furthermore, the autocovariance of a homogeneous area in the in vivo SA data, had 23.5% smaller width at the half of its maximum value compared to PB.

  16. In vivo brain microdialysis: advances in neuropsychopharmacology and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Darvesh, Altaf S; Carroll, Richard T; Geldenhuys, Werner J; Gudelsky, Gary A; Klein, Jochen; Meshul, Charles K; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J

    2011-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Microdialysis is an important in vivo sampling technique, useful in the assay of extracellular tissue fluid. The technique has both pre-clinical and clinical applications but is most widely used in neuroscience. The in vivo microdialysis technique allows measurement of neurotransmitters such as acetycholine (ACh), the biogenic amines including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT), amino acids such as glutamate (Glu) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), as well as the metabolites of the aforementioned neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides in neuronal extracellular fluid in discrete brain regions of laboratory animals such as rodents and non-human primates. AREAS COVERED: In this review we present a brief overview of the principles and procedures related to in vivo microdialysis and detail the use of this technique in the pre-clinical measurement of drugs designed to be used in the treatment of chemical addiction, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and as well as psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia. This review offers insight into the tremendous utility and versatility of this technique in pursuing neuropharmacological investigations as well its significant potential in rational drug discovery. EXPERT OPINION: In vivo microdialysis is an extremely versatile technique, routinely used in the neuropharmacological investigation of drugs used for the treatment of neurological disorders. This technique has been a boon in the elucidation of the neurochemical profile and mechanism of action of several classes of drugs especially their effects on neurotransmitter systems. The exploitation and development of this technique for drug discovery in the near future will enable investigational new drug candidates to be rapidly moved into the clinical trial stages and to market thus providing new successful therapies for neurological diseases that are currently in demand. PMID:21532928

  17. Mimicry in primary rat hepatocyte cultures of the in vivo perivenous induction by phenobarbital of cytochrome P-450 2B1 mRNA: role of epidermal growth factor and perivenous oxygen tension.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, T; Hirsch-Ernst, K I; Kahl, G F; Jungermann, K

    1999-07-01

    Treatment of male rats with phenobarbital (PB) results in a perivenous and mid-zonal pattern of cytochrome P-450 (CYP)2B1 mRNA expression within the liver acinus. The mechanism of this zonated induction is still poorly understood. In this study sinusoidal gradients of oxygen and epidermal growth factor (EGF) besides those of the pituitary-dependent hormones growth hormone (GH), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) were considered to be possible determinants for the zonated induction of the CYP2B1 gene in liver. Moreover, heme proteins seem to play a key role in oxygen sensing. Therefore, the influence of arterial (16% O2) and venous (8% O2) oxygen tension (pO2), and of the heme synthesis inhibitors CoCl2 and desferrioxamine (DSF) on PB-dependent CYP2B1 mRNA induction as well as the repression by EGF and, for comparison, by GH, T4, and T3, of the induction under arterial and venous pO2 were investigated in primary rat hepatocytes. Within 3 days, phenobarbital induced CYP2B1 mRNA to maximal levels under arterial pO2 and to about 40% of maximal levels under venous pO2. CoCl2 annihilated induction by PB under both oxygen tensions, whereas desferrioxamine and heme abolished the positive modulation by O2, suggesting that heme is a necessary component for O2 sensing. EGF suppressed CYP2B1 mRNA induction by PB only under arterial but not under venous pO2, whereas GH, T4, and T3 inhibited induction under both arterial and venous pO2. Thus, in hepatocyte cultures, an O2 gradient in conjunction with EGF mimicked the perivenous induction by PB of the CYP2B1 gene observed in the liver in vivo. PMID:10385683

  18. Development of an integrated microfluidic platform for oxygen sensing and delivery

    E-print Network

    Vollmer, Adam P

    2005-01-01

    Treatment for end stage lung disease has failed to benefit from advances in medical technology that have produced new treatments for cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and other major illnesses in recent years. As a ...

  19. Defective Tibetan PHD2 Binding to p23 Links High Altitude Adaption to Altered Oxygen Sensing*

    PubMed Central

    Song, Daisheng; Li, Lin-sheng; Arsenault, Patrick R.; Tan, Qiulin; Bigham, Abigail W.; Heaton-Johnson, Katherine J.; Master, Stephen R.; Lee, Frank S.

    2014-01-01

    The Tibetan population has adapted to the chronic hypoxia of high altitude. Tibetans bear a genetic signature in the prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2/EGLN1) gene, which encodes for the central oxygen sensor of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. Recent studies have focused attention on two nonsynonymous coding region substitutions, D4E and C127S, both of which are markedly enriched in the Tibetan population. These amino acids reside in a region of PHD2 that harbors a zinc finger, which we have previously discovered binds to a Pro-Xaa-Leu-Glu (PXLE) motif in the HSP90 cochaperone p23, thereby recruiting PHD2 to the HSP90 pathway to facilitate HIF-? hydroxylation. We herein report that the Tibetan PHD2 haplotype (D4E/C127S) strikingly diminishes the interaction of PHD2 with p23, resulting in impaired PHD2 down-regulation of the HIF pathway. The defective binding to p23 depends on both the D4E and C127S substitutions. We also identify a PXLE motif in HSP90 itself that can mediate binding to PHD2 but find that this interaction is maintained with the D4E/C127S PHD2 haplotype. We propose that the Tibetan PHD2 variant is a loss of function (hypomorphic) allele, leading to augmented HIF activation to facilitate adaptation to high altitude. PMID:24711448

  20. Oxygen sensing by ion channels and chemotransduction in single glomus cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Montoro; J. URENA; R. FERNANDEZ-CHAC; G. ALVAREZ DE TOLEDO

    1996-01-01

    We have monitored cytosolic (Ca 2+) and dopamine release in intact fura- 2-loaded glomus cells with microfluorimetry and a polarized carbon fiber electrode. Exposure to low PO 2 produced a rise of cytosolic (Ca 2+) with two distinguishable phases: an initial period (with PO 2 values between 150 and ~70 mm Hg) during which the in- crease of (Ca 2+)

  1. Dissolved Oxygen Sensing in a Flow Stream using Molybdenum Chloride Optical Indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reza Loloee; Per A. Askeland; Ruby N. Ghosh

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen concentration is considered the most important water quality variable in fish culture. Reliable and continuous (24\\/7) oxygen monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the 1-11 mg\\/L range would be of great benefit to the aquaculture industry. We briefly review selected DO sensors from both the Clark and optical sensor categories as well a comparing their differences, both advantages

  2. ZnO nanowire field-effect transistor and oxygen sensing property

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiyong Fan; Dawei Wang; Pai-Chun Chang; Wei-Yu Tseng; Jia G. Lu

    2004-01-01

    Single-crystal ZnO nanowires are synthesized using a vapor trapping chemical vapor deposition method and configured as field-effect transistors. Electrical transport studies show n-type semiconducting behavior with a carrier concentration of ~107 cm-1 and an electron mobility of ~17 cm2\\/V s. The contact Schottky barrier between the Au\\/Ni electrode and nanowire is determined from the temperature dependence of the conductance. Thermionic

  3. Acute oxygen sensing: diverse but convergent mechanisms in airway and arterial chemoreceptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Peers; Paul J Kemp

    2001-01-01

    Airway neuroepithelial bodies sense changes in inspired O2, whereas arterial O2 levels are monitored primarily by the carotid body. Both respond to hypoxia by initiating corrective cardiorespiratory reflexes,\\u000a thereby optimising gas exchange in the face of a potentially deleterious O2 supply. One unifying theme underpinning chemotransduction in these tissues is K+ channel inhibition. However, the transduction components, from O2 sensor

  4. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Scotti, John S; Leung, Ivanhoe K H; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M; Bowman, Lesley A H; Loik, Nikita D; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J; Tang, Christoph M; Claridge, Timothy D W; Preston, Gail M; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Ĺ movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins. PMID:25197067

  5. Novel HIF2A mutations disrupt oxygen sensing, leading to polycythemia, paragangliomas, and somatostatinomas

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunzhang; Sun, Michael G.; Matro, Joey; Huynh, Thanh T.; Rahimpour, Shervin; Prchal, Josef T.; Lechan, Ronald; Lonser, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) control the cellular response to hypoxia and, when dysregulated, contribute to tumorigenesis. Previously, we identified 2 gain-of-function somatic mutations in patients presenting with multiple paragangliomas or somatostatinomas, and polycythemia. Here, we report 2 additional unique HIF2A mutations, which disrupt the hydroxylation domain recognized by prolyl hydroxylase domain-2 containing protein, leading to stabilization of HIF-2? and increased expression of hypoxia-related genes. PMID:23361906

  6. Novel HIF2A mutations disrupt oxygen sensing, leading to polycythemia, paragangliomas, and somatostatinomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunzhang; Sun, Michael G; Matro, Joey; Huynh, Thanh T; Rahimpour, Shervin; Prchal, Josef T; Lechan, Ronald; Lonser, Russell; Pacak, Karel; Zhuang, Zhengping

    2013-03-28

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) control the cellular response to hypoxia and, when dysregulated, contribute to tumorigenesis. Previously, we identified 2 gain-of-function somatic mutations in patients presenting with multiple paragangliomas or somatostatinomas, and polycythemia. Here, we report 2 additional unique HIF2A mutations, which disrupt the hydroxylation domain recognized by prolyl hydroxylase domain-2 containing protein, leading to stabilization of HIF-2? and increased expression of hypoxia-related genes. PMID:23361906

  7. Oxidant and Redox Signaling in Vascular Oxygen Sensing: Implications for Systemic and Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wolin, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract It has been well known for >100 years that systemic blood vessels dilate in response to decreases in oxygen tension (hypoxia; low Po2), and this response appears to be critical to supply blood to the stressed organ. Conversely, pulmonary vessels constrict to a decrease in alveolar Po2 to maintain a balance in the ventilation-to-perfusion ratio. Currently, although little question exists that the Po2 affects vascular reactivity and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) act as oxygen sensors, the molecular mechanisms involved in modulating the vascular reactivity are still not clearly understood. Many laboratories, including ours, have suggested that the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i), which regulates vasomotor function, is controlled by free radicals and redox signaling, including NAD(P)H and glutathione (GSH) redox. In this review article, therefore, we discuss the implications of redox and oxidant alterations seen in pulmonary and systemic hypertension, and how key targets that control [Ca2+ ]i, such as ion channels, Ca2+ release from internal stores and uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and the Ca2+ sensitivity to the myofilaments, are regulated by changes in intracellular redox and oxidants associated with vascular Po2 sensing in physiologic or pathophysiologic conditions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 10, 1137–1152. PMID:18315496

  8. Copper(i) complexes as alternatives to iridium(iii) complexes for highly efficient oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Medina-Rodríguez, Santiago; Orriach-Fernández, Francisco J; Poole, Christopher; Kumar, Prashant; de la Torre-Vega, Ángel; Fernández-Sánchez, Jorge F; Baranoff, Etienne; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    The complex [Cu(xantphos)(dmp)][PF6] (dmp = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) in a nanostructured metal oxyde matrix shows better sensitivity to oxygen (KSV = 9.74 ± 0.87 kPa(-1) between 0 and 1 kPa pO2 and 5.59 ± 0.15 kPa(-1) between 0 and 10 kPa pO2) than cyclometallated iridium complexes in the same conditions. PMID:26086848

  9. Defective Tibetan PHD2 binding to p23 links high altitude adaption to altered oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Song, Daisheng; Li, Lin-sheng; Arsenault, Patrick R; Tan, Qiulin; Bigham, Abigail W; Heaton-Johnson, Katherine J; Master, Stephen R; Lee, Frank S

    2014-05-23

    The Tibetan population has adapted to the chronic hypoxia of high altitude. Tibetans bear a genetic signature in the prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2/EGLN1) gene, which encodes for the central oxygen sensor of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. Recent studies have focused attention on two nonsynonymous coding region substitutions, D4E and C127S, both of which are markedly enriched in the Tibetan population. These amino acids reside in a region of PHD2 that harbors a zinc finger, which we have previously discovered binds to a Pro-Xaa-Leu-Glu (PXLE) motif in the HSP90 cochaperone p23, thereby recruiting PHD2 to the HSP90 pathway to facilitate HIF-? hydroxylation. We herein report that the Tibetan PHD2 haplotype (D4E/C127S) strikingly diminishes the interaction of PHD2 with p23, resulting in impaired PHD2 down-regulation of the HIF pathway. The defective binding to p23 depends on both the D4E and C127S substitutions. We also identify a PXLE motif in HSP90 itself that can mediate binding to PHD2 but find that this interaction is maintained with the D4E/C127S PHD2 haplotype. We propose that the Tibetan PHD2 variant is a loss of function (hypomorphic) allele, leading to augmented HIF activation to facilitate adaptation to high altitude. PMID:24711448

  10. Cellular oxygen sensing: Crystal structure of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. McDonough; Vivian Li; Emily Flashman; Rasheduzzaman Chowdhury; Christopher Mohr; Benoît M. R. Liénard; James Zondlo; Neil J. Oldham; Ian J. Clifton; Jeffrey Lewis; Luke A. McNeill; Robert J. M. Kurzeja; Kirsty S. Hewitson; Evelyn Yang; Steven Jordan; Rashid S. Syed; Christopher J. Schofield

    2006-01-01

    Cellular and physiological responses to changes in dioxygen levels in metazoans are mediated via the posttranslational oxidation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Hydroxylation of conserved prolyl residues in the HIF- subunit, catalyzed by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), signals for its proteasomal degradation. The requirement of the PHDs for dioxygen links changes in dioxygen levels with the transcriptional regulation of the gene

  11. Oxygen sensing junctions based on yttria stabilized zirconia with platinum nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Dimitre Tz.; Anastasova, Salzitsa Y.; Dushkin, Ceco D.

    2006-05-01

    We invent new types of ceramic sensor junctions for detection of oxygen. Their electrodes comprise thin films of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) obtained by spray pyrolysis: pure YSZ and YSZ reinforced with platinum nanoparticles. The potential difference of the sensors is measured as a function of temperature and described by empirical equation. In dynamic conditions this difference exhibits a well pronounced cyclic behavior sensitive to the oxygen content. The potential difference logarithmically depends on the oxygen concentration at a fixed temperature, which is proven both experimentally and theoretically. This difference has a minimum at particular concentration of platinum in the ceramics.

  12. Oxygen-sensing scaffolds for 3-dimensional cell and tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, James; Dmitriev, Ruslan I; Morten, Karl; McDermott, Kieran W; Papkovsky, Dmitri B

    2015-04-01

    Porous membrane scaffolds are widely used materials for three-dimensional cell cultures and tissue models. Additional functional modification of such scaffolds can significantly extend their use and operational performance. Here we describe hybrid microporous polystyrene-based scaffolds impregnated with a phosphorescent O2-sensitive dye PtTFPP, optimized for live cell fluorescence microscopy and imaging of O2 distribution in cultured cells. Modified scaffolds possess high brightness, convenient spectral characteristics (534 nm excitation, 650 nm emission), stable and robust response to pO2 in phosphorescence intensity and lifetime imaging modes (>twofold response over 21/0% O2), such as confocal PLIM. They are suitable for prolonged use under standard culturing conditions without affecting cell viability, and for multi-parametric imaging analysis of cultured cells and tissue samples. We tested the O2 scaffolds with cultured cancer cells (HCT116), multicellular aggregates (PC12) and rat brain slices and showed that they can inform on tissue oxygenation at different depths and cell densities, changes in respiration activity, viability and responses to drug treatment. Using this method multiplexed with staining of dead cells (CellTox Green) and active mitochondria (TMRM), we demonstrated that decreased O2 (20-24 ?M) in scaffold corresponds to highest expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells. Such hypoxia is also beneficial for action of hypoxia-specific anti-cancer drug tirapazamine (TPZ). Thus, O2 scaffolds allow for better control of conditions in 3D tissue cultures, and are useful for a broad range of biomaterials and physiological studies. PMID:25653216

  13. Oxygen Sensing and Signal Transduction in Metabolic Defense Against Hypoxia: Lessons from Vertebrate Facultative Anaerobes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Hochachka; S. C. Land; L. T. Buck

    1997-01-01

    Earlier studies identified two main defense strategies against hypoxia in hypoxia tolerant animals: (1) reduction in energy turnover, and (2) improved energetic efficiency of those metabolic processes that remain. We used two model systems from the highly anoxia-tolerant aquatic turtle: (1) tissue slices of brain cortex (to probe cell level electrophysiological responses to oxygen limitation), and (2) isolated liver hepatocytes

  14. The effect of high light intensities on luminescence lifetime based oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Larndorfer, Christoph; Borisov, Sergey M; Lehner, Philipp; Klimant, Ingo

    2014-12-21

    This study highlights possible errors in luminescence lifetime measurements when using bright optical oxygen sensors with high excitation light intensities. An analysis of the sensor with a mathematical model shows that high light intensities will cause a depopulation of the ground state of the luminophore, which results in a non-linear behaviour of the luminescence emission light with respect to the excitation light. The effect of this non-linear behaviour on different lifetime determination methods, including phase-fluorometry, is investigated and in good agreement with the output of the model. Furthermore, the consequences of increasingly high light intensities on phase fluorometric lifetime measurements are illustrated for different oxygen sensors based on benzoporphyrin indicators. For the specific case of PdTPTBPF-based sensors an error as high as 50% is possible under high light conditions (0.25 mol m(-2) s(-1) ? 50 mW mm(-2)). A threshold of applied excitation light intensity is derived, thus enabling the point at which errors become significant to be estimated. Strategies to further avoid such errors are presented. The model also predicts a similar depopulation of the ground state of the quencher; however, the effect of this process was not seen in lab measurements. Possible explanations for this deviation are discussed. PMID:25364788

  15. Use of an optical clearing agent during noninvasive laser coagulation of the canine vas deferens, ex vivo and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Jarow, Jonathan P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-02-01

    Development of a noninvasive vasectomy technique may eliminate male fear of complications and result in a more popular procedure. This study explores application of an optical clearing agent (OCA) to the scrotal skin to reduce both the laser power necessary for successful noninvasive laser vasectomy and the probability of scrotal skin burns. A mixture of DMSO/glycerol was noninvasively delivered into the scrotal skin using a Madajet. Near-infrared laser radiation with a range of average powers (7.0-11.7 W) was delivered in conjunction with a range of cryogen spray cooling rates (0.20-0.33 Hz) to the skin surface in a canine model, ex vivo and in vivo. Burst pressure (BP) measurements were conducted to quantify the strength of vas closure. A 30-min application of the OCA improved skin transparency by 26 +/- 5 %, reducing the average power necessary for successful noninvasive laser vasectomy from 9.2 W without OCA (BP = 291 +/- 31 mmHg) to 7.0 W with OCA (BP = 292 +/- 19 mmHg). Control studies without OCA at 7.0 W failed to coagulate the vas with burst pressures (82 +/- 28 mmHg) significantly below typical ejaculation pressures (136 +/- 29 mmHg). Application of an optical clearing agent reduced the laser power necessary for successful noninvasive thermal coagulation of the vas by approximately 25%. This technique may result in the use of a less expensive laser system and eliminate the formation of scrotal skin burns during the procedure.

  16. Clinical application of BASING and spectral/spatial water and lipid suppression pulses for prostate cancer staging and localization by in vivo 3D 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Males, R G; Vigneron, D B; Star-Lack, J; Falbo, S C; Nelson, S J; Hricak, H; Kurhanewicz, J

    2000-01-01

    In previous in situ point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) three-dimensional (3D) 1H magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging studies, it has been demonstrated that the ratio of prostatic metabolites can noninvasively discriminate prostate cancer from surrounding normal tissue. However, in these studies, conventional chemical shift selective suppression (CHESS) and short-time inversion recovery (STIR) techniques often resulted in inadequate water and lipid suppression. To improve suppression and spatial coverage, the newly developed T1 insensitive dual band selective inversion with gradient dephasing (BASING) Bandstop Filter and dual phase-compensating spectral/spatial spin-echo pulses have been implemented in a clinical setting. In phantom studies, no change in metabolic profiles was observed with application of either BASING or spectral/spatial pulses. In a study of 17 prostate cancer patients, the use of either BASING or spectral/spatial pulses allowed for suppression of water (BASING 99.80 +/- 0.14% and spectral/spatial 99.73 +/- 0.47%) and lipid (BASING 98.56 +/- 1.03% and spectral/spatial 98.44 +/- 1.90%) without a significant difference in the prostatic metabolite ratios. Spectral/spatial suppression has the added advantage of reducing the chemical shift dependence of the PRESS volume, but optimal performance requires high-speed gradients with negligible eddy current effects. BASING suppression is less reliant on accurate pulse and gradient timings and can be implemented easily with no loss in performance on clinical MR scanners with conventional gradients. PMID:10642727

  17. Use of a Single Hybrid Imaging Agent for Integration of Target Validation with In Vivo and Ex Vivo Imaging of Mouse Tumor Lesions Resembling Human DCIS

    PubMed Central

    Buckle, Tessa; Kuil, Joeri; van den Berg, Nynke S.; Bunschoten, Anton; Lamb, Hildo J.; Yuan, Hushan; Josephson, Lee; Jonkers, Jos; Borowsky, Alexander D.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

    2013-01-01

    Screening of biomarker expression levels in tumor biopsy samples not only provides an assessment of prognostic and predictive factors, but may also be used for selection of biomarker-specific imaging strategies. To assess the feasibility of using a biopsy specimen for a personalized selection of an imaging agent, the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) was used as a reference biomarker. Methods A hybrid CXCR4 targeting peptide (MSAP-Ac-TZ14011) containing a fluorescent dye and a chelate for radioactive labeling was used to directly compare initial flow cytometry–based target validation in fresh tumor tissue to in vivo single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. Results Flow cytometric analysis of mouse tumor derived cell suspensions enabled discrimination between 4T1 control tumor lesions (with low levels of CXCR4 expression) and CXCR4 positive early, intermediate and late stage MIN-O lesions based on their CXCR4 expression levels; CXCR4basal, CXCR4+ and CXCR4++ cell populations could be accurately discriminated. Mean fluorescent intensity ratios between expression in MIN-O and 4T1 tissue found with flow cytometry were comparable to ratios obtained with in vivo SPECT/CT and fluorescence imaging, ex vivo fluorescence evaluation and standard immunohistochemistry. Conclusion The hybrid nature of a targeting imaging agent like MSAP-Ac-TZ14011 enables integration of target selection, in vivo imaging and ex vivo validation using a single agent. The use of biopsy tissue for biomarker screening can readily be expanded to other targeting hybrid imaging agents and can possibly help increase the clinical applicability of tumor-specific imaging approaches. PMID:23326303

  18. Gravitational physiology of human immune cells: a review of in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, A.

    1996-01-01

    The study of the function of immune cells in microgravity has been studied for more than 20 years in several laboratories. It is clear today that the immune system is depressed in more than 50% of the astronauts during and after space flight and that the activation of T lymphocytes by mitogens in vitro changes dramatically. This article gives an overview of the gravitational studies conducted by our laboratory in Spacelab, in MIR station, in sounding rockets and on the ground in the clinostat and the centrifuge. Three experimental approaches are followed in our work: (i) Ex vivo studies are performed with blood samples drawn from astronauts; (ii) in vivo studies are based on the application of seven antigens to the skin of the astronauts; (iii) in vitro studies are carried out with immune cells purified from the blood of healthy donors (not astronauts). The data from our in vivo and ex vivo studies are in agreement with those of other laboratories and show that the immunological function is depressed in the majority of astronauts as a consequence of the stress of space flight rather than by a direct influence of gravity on the cell. Immune depression may become a critical hazard on long duration flights on space stations or to other planets. In vitro experiments show that cultures of free-floating lymphocytes and monocytes undergo a dramatic depression of activation by the mitogen concanavalin A, while activation is more than doubled when the cells are attached to microcarrier beads. Such effects may be attributed to both direct and indirect effects of gravitational unloading on basic biological mechanisms of the cell. While the in vitro data are very important to clarify certain aspects of the biological mechanism of T cells activation, they are not descriptive of the changes of the immunological function of the astronauts.

  19. Gravitational physiology of human immune cells: a review of in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Cogoli, A

    1996-04-01

    The study of the function of immune cells in microgravity has been studied for more than 20 years in several laboratories. It is clear today that the immune system is depressed in more than 50% of the astronauts during and after space flight and that the activation of T lymphocytes by mitogens in vitro changes dramatically. This article gives an overview of the gravitational studies conducted by our laboratory in Spacelab, in MIR station, in sounding rockets and on the ground in the clinostat and the centrifuge. Three experimental approaches are followed in our work: (i) Ex vivo studies are performed with blood samples drawn from astronauts; (ii) in vivo studies are based on the application of seven antigens to the skin of the astronauts; (iii) in vitro studies are carried out with immune cells purified from the blood of healthy donors (not astronauts). The data from our in vivo and ex vivo studies are in agreement with those of other laboratories and show that the immunological function is depressed in the majority of astronauts as a consequence of the stress of space flight rather than by a direct influence of gravity on the cell. Immune depression may become a critical hazard on long duration flights on space stations or to other planets. In vitro experiments show that cultures of free-floating lymphocytes and monocytes undergo a dramatic depression of activation by the mitogen concanavalin A, while activation is more than doubled when the cells are attached to microcarrier beads. Such effects may be attributed to both direct and indirect effects of gravitational unloading on basic biological mechanisms of the cell. While the in vitro data are very important to clarify certain aspects of the biological mechanism of T cells activation, they are not descriptive of the changes of the immunological function of the astronauts. PMID:11539302

  20. Novel peptides functionally targeting in vivo human lung cancer discovered by in vivo peptide displayed phage screening.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Jin; Lee, Jae Hee; Chung, Hye Kyung; Choi, Jinhyang; Park, Jaesook; Park, Seok Soon; Ju, Eun Jin; Park, Jin; Shin, Seol Hwa; Park, Hye Ji; Ko, Eun Jung; Suh, Nayoung; Kim, InKi; Hwang, Jung Jin; Song, Si Yeol; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2015-02-01

    Discovery of the cancer-specific peptidic ligands have been emphasized for active targeting drug delivery system and non-invasive imaging. For the discovery of useful and applicable peptidic ligands, in vivo peptide-displayed phage screening has been performed in this study using a xenograft mouse model as a mimic microenvironment to tumor. To seek human lung cancer-specific peptides, M13 phage library displaying 2.9 × 10(9) random peptides was intravenously injected into mouse model bearing A549-derived xenograft tumor through the tail vein. Then the phages emerged from a course of four rounds of biopanning in the xenograft tumor tissue. Novel peptides were categorized into four groups according to a sequence-homology phylogenicity, and in vivo tumor-targeting capacity of these peptides was validated by whole body imaging with Cy5.5-labeled phages in various cancer types. The result revealed that novel peptides accumulated only in adenocarcinoma lung cancer cell-derived xenograft tissue. For further confirmation of the specific targeting ability, in vitro cell-binding assay and immunohistochemistry in vivo tumor tissue were performed with a selected peptide. The peptide was found to bind intensely to lung cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, which was efficiently compromised with unlabeled phages in an in vitro competition assay. In conclusion, the peptides specifically targeting human lung cancer were discovered in this study, which is warranted to provide substantive feasibilities for drug delivery and imaging in terms of a novel targeted therapeutics and diagnostics. PMID:25366491

  1. In vivo generator for radioimmunotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Srivastava, Suresh G. (Setauket, NY); Straub, Rita F. (Brookhaven, NY)

    1988-01-01

    The present invention involves labeling monoclonal antibodies with intermediate half-life radionuclides which decay to much shorter half-life daughters with desirable high energy beta emissions. Since the daughter will be in equilibrium with the parent, it can exert an in-situ tumoricidal effect over a prolonged period in a localized fashion, essentially as an "in-vivo generator". This approach circumvents the inverse relationship between half-life and beta decay energy. Compartmental modeling was used to determine the relative distribution of dose from both parent and daughter nuclei in target and non-target tissues. Actual antibody biodistribution data have been used to fit realistic rate constants for a model containing tumor, blood, and non-tumor compartments. These rate constants were then used in a variety of simulations for two generator systems, Ba-128/Cs-128 (t.sub.1/2 =2.4d/3.6m) and Pd-112/Ag-112 (t.sub.1/2 =0.9d/192m). The results show that higher tumor/background dose ratios may be achievable by virtue of the rapid excretion of a chemically different daughter during the uptake and clearance phases. This modeling also quantitatively demonstrates the favorable impact on activity distribution of a faster monoclonal antibody tumor uptake, especially when the antibody is labeled with a radionuclide with a comparable half-life.

  2. Percutaneous Penetration Enhancement in Vivo Measured by Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivien H. W. Mak; Russell O. Potts; Richard H. Guy

    1990-01-01

    A novel application of attenuated total reflectance IR Spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was used to monitor the outer several microns of the stratum corneum (SC) and, thereby, demonstrate enhanced percutaneous absorption in vivo in man. 4-Cyanophenol (CP) as a model permeant yielded a unique IR signal, distinct from those of the stratum corneum and the vehicle components. CP was administered for 1,

  3. Nuclear-based techniques for the in vivo study of human body composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S H Cohn; R M Parr

    1985-01-01

    A variety of nuclear-based techniques for the in vivo study of human body decomposition is now available for clinical diagnosis and research, and the number of centres where such work is performed is likely to grow substantially in the next few years. Their most important applications at present are in the measurement of bone mineral mass (calcium), body protein (nitrogen)

  4. Instrumentation, Equipment and Methods for the In Vivo Measurement of Radioactive Material in the Body

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy P

    2005-01-01

    The current applications for the in vivo measurement of radioactive material can be divided into three broad categories: (1) occupational exposure monitoring, (2) monitoring of the public, and (3) medical monitoring. The focus of this chapter is on occupational exposure monitoring that is part of an internal dosimetry program for monitoring workers for intakes and assessing the dose consequences of

  5. Controlled in vivo swimming of a swarm of bacteria-like microrobotic flagella.

    PubMed

    Servant, Ania; Qiu, Famin; Mazza, Mariarosa; Kostarelos, Kostas; Nelson, Bradley J

    2015-05-01

    In vivo imaging and actuation of a swarm of magnetic helical microswimmers by external magnetic fields (less than 10 mT) in deep tissue is demonstrated for the first time. This constitutes a major milestone in the field, yielding a generation of micrometer-scale transporters with numerous applications in biomedicine including synthetic biology, assisted fertilization, and drug/gene delivery. PMID:25850420

  6. 21 CFR 320.22 - Criteria for waiver of evidence of in vivo bioavailability or bioequivalence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...be demonstrated by evidence obtained in vitro in lieu of in vivo data. FDA shall waive...Both drug products meet an appropriate in vitro test approved by FDA; and (iii) The...in the application, shown to meet an in vitro test that has been correlated with in...

  7. In vivo antioxidant activity of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina — a green microalga

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Chidambara Murthy; A. Vanitha; J. Rajesha; M. Mahadeva Swamy; P. R. Sowmya; Gokare A. Ravishankar

    2005-01-01

    Dunaliella salina a green marine alga is known for its carotenoid accumulation, having various applications in the health and nutritional products. The purpose of present study was to evaluate the ability of D. salina algal powder extract to protect against oxidative stress In vivo using animal models. Treatment of albino Wistar strain rats with 125 ?g \\/kg and 250 ?g\\/kg

  8. Persistent luminescence in nanophosphors for long term in-vivo bio-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Gourier, D.; Viana, B.; Maldiney, T.; Teston, E.; Scherman, D.; Richard, C.

    2015-03-01

    We presently introduce a novel generation of optical nanoprobes, based on chromium-doped zinc gallate, whose persistent luminescence can be activated in vivo through living tissues using highly penetrating low energy photons from the red region of the visible spectrum. Surface functionalization of this photonic nanoprobe can be adjusted to favor multiple challenging biomedical applications.

  9. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb ® 761 increases endothelial nitric oxide production in vitro and in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Koltermann; A. Hartkorn; E. Koch; R. Fürst; A. M. Vollmar; S. Zahler

    2007-01-01

    .  Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba on peripheral arterial occlusive disease have been repeatedly shown in clinical trials, especially after use of EGb 761, a standardized special extract. Since the underlying mechanisms are widely unknown, we aimed to elucidate the molecular\\u000a basis on which EGb 761 protects against endothelial dysfunction in vitro and in vivo. Application of therapeutically feasible doses of

  10. APPLICATION APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    Jain, Raj

    in the network has three layers: physical layer, datalink layer (DLC) and application layer. Nodes in the network these entities communicate with one another, and will develop a DLC layer entity that performs error correction communicates through Protocol Data Units (PDU). The application layer PDU is called A_PDU, the DLC PDU

  11. APPLICATION APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    Jain, Raj

    that each node in the network has three layers: physical layer, datalink layer (DLC) and application layer will learn how these entities communicate with one another, and will develop a simple DLC layer entity (PDU). The application layer PDU is called A_PDU, the DLC PDU is called D_PDU, and the physical layer

  12. Engineering intracellular active transport systems as in vivo biomolecular tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachand, George David; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2006-11-01

    Active transport systems provide essential functions in terms of cell physiology and metastasis. These systems, however, are also co-opted by invading viruses, enabling directed transport of the virus to and from the cell's nucleus (i.e., the site of virus replication). Based on this concept, fundamentally new approaches for interrogating and manipulating the inner workings of living cells may be achievable by co-opting Nature's active transport systems as an in vivo biomolecular tool. The overall goal of this project was to investigate the ability to engineer kinesin-based transport systems for in vivo applications, specifically the collection of effector proteins (e.g., transcriptional regulators) within single cells. In the first part of this project, a chimeric fusion protein consisting of kinesin and a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody was successfully produced through a recombinant expression system. The kinesin-scFv retained both catalytic and antigenic functionality, enabling selective capture and transport of target antigens. The incorporation of a rabbit IgG-specific scFv into the kinesin established a generalized system for functionalizing kinesin with a wide range of target-selective antibodies raised in rabbits. The second objective was to develop methods of isolating the intact microtubule network from live cells as a platform for evaluating kinesin-based transport within the cytoskeletal architecture of a cell. Successful isolation of intact microtubule networks from two distinct cell types was demonstrated using glutaraldehyde and methanol fixation methods. This work provides a platform for inferring the ability of kinesin-scFv to function in vivo, and may also serve as a three-dimensional scaffold for evaluating and exploiting kinesin-based transport for nanotechnological applications. Overall, the technology developed in this project represents a first-step in engineering active transport system for in vivo applications. Further development could potentially enable selective capture of intracellular antigens, targeted delivery of therapeutic agents, or disruption of the transport systems and consequently the infection and pathogenesis cycle of biothreat agents.

  13. In vitro - in vivo correlation of gene expression alterations induced by liver carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Heise, T; Schug, M; Storm, D; Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, H; Ahr, H J; Hellwig, B; Rahnenfuhrer, J; Ghallab, A; Guenther, G; Sisnaiske, J; Reif, R; Godoy, P; Mielke, H; Gundert-Remy, U; Lampen, A; Oberemm, A; Hengstler, J G

    2012-01-01

    Although cultivated hepatocytes are widely used in the studies of drug metabolism, their application in toxicogenomics is considered as problematic, because previous studies have reported only little overlap between chemically induced gene expression alterations in liver in vivo and in cultivated hepatocytes. Here, we identified 22 genes that were altered in livers of rats after oral administration of the liver carcinogens aflatoxin B1 (AB1), 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), methapyrilene (MP) or piperonyl-butoxide (PBO). The functions of the 22 genes have been classified into two groups. Genes related to stress response, DNA repair or metabolism and genes associated with cell proliferation, respectively. Next, rat hepatocyte sandwich cultures were exposed to AB1, 2-NF, MP or PBO for 24h and expression of the above mentioned genes was determined by RT-qPCR. Significant correlations between the degree of gene expression alterations in vivo and in vitro were obtained for the stress, DNA repair and metabolism associated genes at concentrations covering a range from cytotoxic concentrations to non-toxic/in vivo relevant concentrations. In contrast to the stress associated genes, no significant in vivo/in vitro correlation was obtained for the genes associated with cell proliferation. To understand the reason of this discrepancy, we compared replacement proliferation in vivo and in vitro. While hepatocytes in vivo, killed after administration of hepatotoxic compounds, are rapidly replaced by proliferating surviving cells, in vitro no replacement proliferation as evidenced by BrdU incorporation was observed after washing out hepatotoxic concentrations of MP. In conclusion, there is a good correlation between gene expression alterations induced by liver carcinogens in vivo and in cultivated hepatocytes. However, it should be considered that cultivated primary hepatocytes do not show replacement proliferation explaining the in vivo/in vitro discrepancy concerning proliferation associated genes. PMID:22414088

  14. The potential of photoacoustic microscopy as a tool to characterize the in vivo degradation of surgical sutures

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Juan; Morales-Dalmau, Jordi; Funk, Lutz; Jara, Francesc; Turon, Pau; Durduran, Turgut

    2014-01-01

    The ex vivo and in vivo imaging, and quantitative characterization of the degradation of surgical sutures (?500 ?m diameter) up to ?1cm depth is demonstrated using a custom dark-field photo-acoustic microscope (PAM). A practical algorithm is developed to accurately measure the suture diameter during the degradation process. The results from tissue simulating phantoms and mice are compared to ex vivo measurements with an optical microscope demonstrating that PAM has a great deal of potential to characterize the degradation process of surgical sutures. The implications of this work for industrial applications are discussed. PMID:25136508

  15. Small molecular weight PEGylation of diosgenin in an in vivo animal study for diabetic auditory impairment treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hong, Bin Na; Le, Hoa Thi; Hong, Ha Na; Lim, Choon Woo; Park, Keun Ha; Kim, Tae Woo; Kang, Tong Ho

    2012-07-15

    Diosgenin was modified to control its in vivo bioavailability by conjugating a hydrophilic unit, tetraethylene glycol. The diosgenin-tetraethylene glycol conjugate (TE) was orally administered in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice for this auditory protection study. The bioactivity improvement of TE for in vivo diabetic auditory impairment treatment was clearly observed in three different auditory tests and compared with that of diosgenin. The improvement in in vivo efficacy suggests that the small molecular weight PEGylation of diosgenin is a synthetically robust and systematically applicable strategy to reform the poor pharmacokinetics of a hydrophobic aglycone. PMID:22704886

  16. In vivo detection of cancer cells with immunoconjugated fluorescent probes by macro zoom microscopy and two-photon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Shigehiro; Oshima, Yusuke; Hikita, Atsuhiko; Sato, Koichi; Yoshida, Motohira; Yamamoto, Yuji; Iimura, Tadahiro; Watanabe, Yuji; Imamura, Takeshi

    2015-03-01

    We developed a near infrared fluorophore-conjugated anti-Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody for mice bearing tumor of CEA expressing cells, and demonstrated in vivo optical imaging by macro zoom microscopy. In the result, tumors of CEA-expressing cancer cells were specifically detected in vivo. Furthermore, cancer-specific fluorescence images were acquired at subcellular level in vivo by two-photon microscopy. In preclinical applications, the lymph node micrometastasis was also successfully visualized by two-photon microscopy. These results suggest that two-photon excitation microscopy in combination with an immunoconjugated probe could be widely adapted to cancer detection in clinical settings.

  17. Novel in vivo techniques to visualize kidney anatomy and function.

    PubMed

    Peti-Peterdi, János; Kidokoro, Kengo; Riquier-Brison, Anne

    2015-07-01

    Intravital imaging using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become an increasingly popular and widely used experimental technique in kidney research over the past few years. MPM allows deep optical sectioning of the intact, living kidney tissue with submicron resolution, which is unparalleled among intravital imaging approaches. MPM has solved a long-standing critical technical barrier in renal research to study several complex and inaccessible cell types and anatomical structures in vivo in their native environment. Comprehensive and quantitative kidney structure and function MPM studies helped our better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the healthy and diseased kidney. This review summarizes recent in vivo MPM studies with a focus on the glomerulus and the filtration barrier, although select, glomerulus-related renal vascular and tubular functions are also mentioned. The latest applications of serial MPM of the same glomerulus in vivo, in the intact kidney over several days, during the progression of glomerular disease are discussed. This visual approach, in combination with genetically encoded fluorescent markers of cell lineage, has helped track the fate and function (e.g., cell calcium changes) of single podocytes during the development of glomerular pathologies, and provided visual proof for the highly dynamic, rather than static, nature of the glomerular environment. Future intravital imaging applications have the promise to further push the limits of optical microscopy, and to advance our understanding of the mechanisms of kidney injury. Also, MPM will help to study new mechanisms of tissue repair and regeneration, a cutting-edge area of kidney research. PMID:25738253

  18. Towards In Vivo Imaging of Cancer Sialylation

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Duncker, Ivan; Salinas-Marin, Roberta; Martinez-Duncker, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    In vivo assessment of tumor glucose catabolism by positron emission tomography (PET) has become a highly valued study in the medical management of cancer. Emerging technologies offer the potential to evaluate in vivo another aspect of cancer carbohydrate metabolism related to the increased anabolic use of monosaccharides like sialic acid (Sia). Sia is used for the synthesis of sialylated oligosaccharides in the cell surface that in cancer cells are overexpressed and positively associated to malignancy and worse prognosis because of their role in invasion and metastasis. This paper addresses the key points of the different strategies that have been developed to image Sia expression in vivo and the perspectives to translate it from the bench to the bedside where it would offer the clinician highly valued complementary information on cancer carbohydrate metabolism that is currently unavailable in vivo. PMID:21941647

  19. Development of the in vivo flow cytometer

    E-print Network

    Novak, John P. (John Peter), 1957-

    2004-01-01

    An in vivo flow cytometer has been developed that allows the real-time detection and quantification of circulating cells containing fluorescent proteins or labeled with fluorochrome molecules in live animals, without the ...

  20. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of human butyrylcholinesterase results in persistent high-level transgene expression in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nageswararao Chilukuri; Ellen G. Duysen; Kalpana Parikh; Wei Sun; Bhupendra P; Oksana Lockridge; Ashima Saxena

    2008-01-01

    Human serum butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) is a promising therapeutic against the toxicity of chemical warfare nerve agents, pesticide intoxication, and cocaine overdose. However, its widespread application is hampered by difficulties in large-scale production of the native protein from human plasma and\\/or availability as a recombinant protein suitable for use in vivo. This limitation may be resolved by in vivo delivery

  1. Contrast and depth enhancement in two-photon microscopy of human skin ex vivo by use of optical clearing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Pavone, F. S.; Massi, D.; Sampson, D. D.

    2005-04-01

    We investigate the application of hyperosmotic optical clearing agents to improve the image contrast and penetration depth in two-photon microscopy of human dermis ex vivo. We show that the agents glycerol, propylene glycol, and glucose all convey significant improvements and we provide results on their dynamic behaviour and the reversibility of the effect. At suitable concentrations, such agents have the potential to be compatible with living tissue and may possibly enhance in-vivo deep-tissue imaging.

  2. Technologies of directed protein evolution in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artem Blagodatski; Vladimir L. Katanaev

    2011-01-01

    Directed evolution of proteins for improved or modified functionality is an important branch of modern biotechnology. It has\\u000a traditionally been performed using various in vitro methods, but more recently, methods of in vivo artificial evolution come\\u000a into play. In this review, we discuss and compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic-based systems of directed protein evolution in\\u000a vivo, highlighting their benefits and current

  3. Quantum Dots for Live Cell and In Vivo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Walling, Maureen A; Novak, Jennifer A; Shepard, Jason R. E

    2009-01-01

    In the past few decades, technology has made immeasurable strides to enable visualization, identification, and quantitation in biological systems. Many of these technological advancements are occurring on the nanometer scale, where multiple scientific disciplines are combining to create new materials with enhanced properties. The integration of inorganic synthetic methods with a size reduction to the nano-scale has lead to the creation of a new class of optical reporters, called quantum dots. These semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals have emerged as an alternative to organic dyes and fluorescent proteins, and are brighter and more stable against photobleaching than standard fluorescent indicators. Quantum dots have tunable optical properties that have proved useful in a wide range of applications from multiplexed analysis such as DNA detection and cell sorting and tracking, to most recently demonstrating promise for in vivo imaging and diagnostics. This review provides an in-depth discussion of past, present, and future trends in quantum dot use with an emphasis on in vivo imaging and its related applications. PMID:19333416

  4. In Vivo Fluorescence Correlation and Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mütze, Jörg; Ohrt, Thomas; Petrášek, Zden?k; Schwille, Petra

    In this manuscript, we describe the application of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy (FCCS), and scanning FCS (sFCS) to two in vivo systems. In the first part, we describe the application of two-photon standard and scanning FCS in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. The differentiation of a single fertilized egg into a complex organism in C. elegans is regulated by a number of protein-dependent processes. The oocyte divides asymmetrically into two daughter cells of different developmental fate. Two of the involved proteins, PAR-2 and NMY-2, are studied. The second investigated system is the mechanism of RNA interference in human cells. An EGFP based cell line that allows to study the dynamics and localization of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) with FCS in vivo is created, which has so far been inaccessible with other experimental methods. Furthermore, Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy is employed to highlight the asymmetric incorporation of labeled siRNAs into RISC.

  5. Carboxymethyl chitosan represses tumor angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhiwen; Han, Baoqin; Li, Hui; Yang, Yan; Liu, Wanshun

    2015-09-20

    Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS), with potent water solubility, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity, has emerged as a promising candidate for biomedical applications. In this study, the anti-tumor angiogenesis effects of CMCS were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that CMCS could inhibit the 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. CMCS significantly inhibited the growth of mouse hepatocarcinoma 22 tissues and could promote tumor cell necrosis as suggested by pathological observations. The CD34 expression in H22 tumor tissue, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 in serum was regulated by CMCS treatment. CMCS could significantly improve thymus index, spleen index, tumor necrosis factor ? and interferon ? level. In a conclusion, CMCS possessed potent anti-tumor effects by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, stimulating immune functions. Our date provide more foundation for application of CMCS in biomedicine or biomaterials for targeted anticancer drugs delivery. PMID:26050881

  6. Quantum Dots for Live Cells, in Vivo Imaging, and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Michalet, X.; Pinaud, F. F.; Bentolila, L. A.; Tsay, J. M.; Doose, S.; Li, J. J.; Sundaresan, G.; Wu, A. M.; Gambhir, S. S.; Weiss, S.

    2005-01-01

    Research on fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (also known as quantum dots or qdots) has evolved over the past two decades from electronic materials science to biological applications. We review current approaches to the synthesis, solubilization, and functionalization of qdots and their applications to cell and animal biology. Recent examples of their experimental use include the observation of diffusion of individual glycine receptors in living neurons and the identification of lymph nodes in live animals by near-infrared emission during surgery. The new generations of qdots have far-reaching potential for the study of intracellular processes at the single-molecule level, high-resolution cellular imaging, long-term in vivo observation of cell trafficking, tumor targeting, and diagnostics. PMID:15681376

  7. In Vivo Imaging of Stepwise Vessel Occlusion in Cerebral Photothrombosis of Mice by 19F MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Kampf, Thomas; Jakob, Peter M.; Stoll, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Background 19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was recently introduced as a promising technique for in vivo cell tracking. In the present study we compared 19F MRI with iron-enhanced MRI in mice with photothrombosis (PT) at 7 Tesla. PT represents a model of focal cerebral ischemia exhibiting acute vessel occlusion and delayed neuroinflammation. Methods/Principal Findings Perfluorocarbons (PFC) or superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) were injected intravenously at different time points after photothrombotic infarction. While administration of PFC directly after PT induction led to a strong 19F signal throughout the entire lesion, two hours delayed application resulted in a rim-like 19F signal at the outer edge of the lesion. These findings closely resembled the distribution of signal loss on T2-weighted MRI seen after SPIO injection reflecting intravascular accumulation of iron particles trapped in vessel thrombi as confirmed histologically. By sequential administration of two chemically shifted PFC compounds 0 and 2 hours after illumination the different spatial distribution of the 19F markers (infarct core/rim) could be visualized in the same animal. When PFC were applied at day 6 the fluorine marker was only detected after long acquisition times ex vivo. SPIO-enhanced MRI showed slight signal loss in vivo which was much more prominent ex vivo indicative for neuroinflammation at this late lesion stage. Conclusion Our study shows that vessel occlusion can be followed in vivo by 19F and SPIO-enhanced high-field MRI while in vivo imaging of neuroinflammation remains challenging. The timing of contrast agent application was the major determinant of the underlying processes depicted by both imaging techniques. Importantly, sequential application of different PFC compounds allowed depiction of ongoing vessel occlusion from the core to the margin of the ischemic lesions in a single MRI measurement. PMID:22194810

  8. Fiber optic confocal microscope: In vivo precancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kristen Dawn

    Cancer is a significant public health problem worldwide. Many cancers originate as precancerous lesions in the epithelium which, when removed in sufficient time, can prevent progression to cancer. However, current detection techniques are typically time-consuming and expensive, limiting their acceptance and accessibility. Optical techniques, such as confocal microscopy, have significant potential to provide clinicians with real-time, high-resolution images of cells and tissue without tissue removal. These images of cell morphology and tissue architecture can be used to characterize tissue and determine the presence or extent of precancer and cancer. This dissertation explores the instrumentation and application of fiber optic reflectance confocal microscopy for in vivo precancer detection. The first part of the dissertation presents in vivo imaging of suspicious lesions in the human uterine cervix and oral mucosa using a fiber bundle based confocal microscope with a complex glass miniature objective lens. Images are analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively to determine the potential of this technology in vivo. An analysis of nuclear density from images of 30 cervical epithelium sites shows differentiation between normal and precancerous sites. Similarly, images from 20 oral mucosa sites demonstrate changes in nuclear density and tissue architecture indicative of progression of precancer and cancer. In addition to this multi-fiber confocal microscope used with a glass objective lens for the clinical studies, imaging of tissue samples has been accomplished with the same confocal system using an injection molded plastic miniature objective lens demonstrating comparable optical quality for a significantly less expensive optical component. Finally, a benchtop prototype of a single fiber confocal microscope using a gimbaled two-axis MEMS scanner has been designed and constructed. Imaging of a resolution target and cellular samples demonstrates sufficient resolution and field of view for cellular imaging. The results from the imaging studies presented here indicate that in vivo confocal microscopy has the potential to improve early precancer detection in epithelial tissue. Advances in imaging technology will continue to reduce the cost of imaging systems and improve the imaging capability, leading to an inexpensive, real-time, minimally-invasive tool for in vivo imaging.

  9. A superfluorinated molecular probe for highly sensitive in vivo(19)F-MRI.

    PubMed

    Tirotta, Ilaria; Mastropietro, Alfonso; Cordiglieri, Chiara; Gazzera, Lara; Baggi, Fulvio; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Zucca, Ileana; Cavallo, Gabriella; Terraneo, Giancarlo; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe

    2014-06-18

    (19)F-MRI offers unique opportunities to image diseases and track cells and therapeutic agents in vivo. Herein we report a superfluorinated molecular probe, herein called PERFECTA, possessing excellent cellular compatibility, and whose spectral properties, relaxation times, and sensitivity are promising for in vivo (19)F-MRI applications. The molecule, which bears 36 equivalent (19)F atoms and shows a single intense resonance peak, is easily synthesized via a simple one-step reaction and is formulated in water with high stability using trivial reagents and methods. PMID:24884816

  10. Organotypic slice co-culture systems to study axon regeneration in the dopaminergic system ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Heine, Claudia; Franke, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Organotypic slice co-cultures are suitable tools to study axonal regeneration and development (growth or regrowth) of different projection systems of the CNS under ex vivo conditions.In this chapter, we describe in detail the reconstruction of the mesocortical and nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection system culturing tissue slices from the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) or the striatum (STR). The protocol includes the detailed slice preparation and incubation. Moreover, different application possibilities of the ex vivo model are mentioned; as an example, the substance treatment procedure and biocytin tracing are described to reveal the effect of applied substances on fiber outgrowth. PMID:24838961

  11. In vivo models of angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Norrby, K

    2006-01-01

    The process of building new blood vessels (angiogenesis) and controlling the propagation of blood vessels (anti-angiogenesis) are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in wound healing and tissue growth. More than 500 million people may stand to benefit from anti- or pro-angiogenic treatments in the coming decades [National Cancer Institute (USA), Cancer Bulltetin, volume 3, no. 9, 2006]. The use of animal models to assay angiogenesis is crucial to the search for therapeutic agents that inhibit angiogenesis in the clinical setting. Examples of persons that would benefit from these therapies are cancer patients, as cancer growth and spread is angiogenesis-dependent, and patients with aberrant angiogenesis in the eye, which may lead to blindness or defective sight. Recently, anti-angiogenesis therapies have been introduced successfully in the clinic, representing a turning point in tumor therapy and the treatment of macular degeneration and heralding a new era for the treatment of several commonly occurring angiogenesis-related diseases. On the other hand, pro-angiogenic therapies that promote compensatory angiogenesis in hypoxic tissues, such as those subjected to ischemia in myocardial or cerebral hypoxia due to occluding lesions in the coronary or cerebral arteries, respectively, and in cases of poor wound healing, are also being developed. In this review, the current major and newly introduced preclinical angiogenesis assays are described and discussed in terms of their specific advantages and disadvantages from the biological, technical, economical and ethical perspectives. These assays include the corneal micropocket, chick chorioallantoic membrane, rodent mesentery, subcutaneous (s.c.) sponge/matrix/alginate microbead, s.c. Matrigel plug, s.c. disc, and s.c. directed in vivo angiogenesis assays, as well as, the zebrafish system and several additional assays. A note on quantitative techniques for assessing angiogenesis in patients is also included. The currently utilized preclinical assays are not equivalent in terms of efficacy or relevance to human disease. Some of these assays have significance for screening, while others are used primarily in studies of dosage-effects, molecular structure activities, and the combined effects of two or more agents on angiogenesis. When invited to write this review, I was asked to describe in some detail the rodent mesenteric-window angiogenesis assay, which has not received extensive coverage in previous reviews. PMID:16989723

  12. Extradiscal ultrasound thermal therapy (ExDUSTT): evaluation in ex vivo and in vivo spine models (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Chris J.; Kinsey, Adam; Nau, William H.; Shu, Richard; Lotz, Jeffrey C.

    2005-04-01

    The application of heat to intervertebral discs is being clinically investigated for the treatment of discogenic back pain. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the feasibility of small ultrasound applicators that can be endoscopically placed adjacent to the disc, and deliver heating energy into the disc without puncturing the annular wall. Prototype devices were fabricated using curvilinear transducers (2.5-3.5 mm wide x 10 mm long, 5.4 - 6.5 MHz) that produce a narrow penetrating beam extending along the length of the ultrasound element. The transducer was affixed to either a flexible or rigid delivery catheter, and enclosed within an asymmetric coupling balloon with water-cooling flow. Bench measurements demonstrated 35-60% acoustic efficiencies, high-power output capabilities, and lightly focused beam patterns. The heating characteristics of these devices were evaluated with ex vivo and in vivo experiments within lumbar and cervical spine segments from sheep models and human cadaveric spine. The applicators were positioned adjacent to the annular wall of the surgically exposed discs. Ultrasound energy was focused directly into the disc to avoid heating the vertebral bodies. Multi-point thermocouple probes were placed throughout the disc to characterize the resultant temperature distributions. These studies demonstrated that ultrasound energy from these applicators penetrated the annular wall of the disc, and produced thermal coagulative temperatures of >60-65°C as far as 10 mm into the tissue. This study also showed that lower power levels and temperatures delivered for 10 minutes can generate a cytotoxic thermal dose of t43°C >240 min penetrating 5-10 mm from the annular wall.

  13. Ex vivo- and in vivo-induced dead tumor cells as modulators of antitumor responses.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Eva-Maria; Frey, Benjamin; Rödel, Franz; Herrmann, Martin; Schlücker, Eberhard; Voll, Reinhard E; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S

    2010-10-01

    Joint application of standard tumor therapies like radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy with immune therapy has long been considered not to fit. However, it has become accepted that immune responses may contribute to the elimination of cancer cells. We present how in vivo-induced tumor cell death by irradiation, chemotherapeutic agents, or hyperthermia can be rendered more immunogenic. High hydrostatic pressure is introduced as an innovative inactivation method for tumor cells used as vaccines. Annexin A5, being a natural occurring ligand for phosphatidylserine that is exposed by dying tumor cells, renders apoptotic tumor cells immunogenic and induces tumor regression. Combinations of irradiation with hyperthermia may also foster antitumor responses. For preparation of autologous tumor cell vaccines, high hydrostatic pressure is suitable to induce immunogenic cancer cell death. Future work will be aimed toward evaluating which combination and chronological sequence of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hyperthermia, annexin A5, and/or autologous tumor cell vaccines will induce specific and long-lasting antitumor immunity. PMID:20958323

  14. Simultaneous ex vivo Functional Testing of Two Retinas by in vivo Electroretinogram System

    PubMed Central

    Vinberg, Frans; Kefalov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    An In vivo electroretinogram (ERG) signal is composed of several overlapping components originating from different retinal cell types, as well as noise from extra-retinal sources. Ex vivo ERG provides an efficient method to dissect the function of retinal cells directly from an intact isolated retina of animals or donor eyes. In addition, ex vivo ERG can be used to test the efficacy and safety of potential therapeutic agents on retina tissue from animals or humans. We show here how commercially available in vivo ERG systems can be used to conduct ex vivo ERG recordings from isolated mouse retinas. We combine the light stimulation, electronic and heating units of a standard in vivo system with custom-designed specimen holder, gravity-controlled perfusion system and electromagnetic noise shielding to record low-noise ex vivo ERG signals simultaneously from two retinas with the acquisition software included in commercial in vivo systems. Further, we demonstrate how to use this method in combination with pharmacological treatments that remove specific ERG components in order to dissect the function of certain retinal cell types. PMID:25992809

  15. Deep tissue fluorescence imaging and in vivo biological applications

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    better adapted to image live small animals. The experimentalimage normal and diseased tissue in the whole live animal,animals. Using this system we were able to successfully obtain high resolution fluorescence images

  16. Chitosan-diaphragm based optical-fiber hydrophone for in-vivo ultrasound measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. H.; Chan, C. C.; Ang, X. M.; Leong, K. C.

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this work is the development of a high sensitivity and biocompatibility Fiber-Optic hydrophone for invivo ultrasound measurements. The selected sensing element- chitosan diaphragm allows matched-load condition due to its relatively permeable property. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide which considered as biocompatible and biodegradable material that can be safe in performing the in-vivo measurement. The configuration of the sensor is based on the fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometry which offers good spatial resolution in the tens of MHz range [1] and robust response. Significant applications of the proposed sensor are in vivo micro-imaging [2], in-vivo lithotripsy measurement [3] or event the laboratory characterization of medical ultrasound sources. In this paper, the performance of the sensor is characterized by comparison with a PVDF needle hydrophone in term of sensitivity, frequency response and directivity.

  17. A Multimeric Near IR-MR Contrast Agent for Multimodal In Vivo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Victoria S. R.; Carney, Christiane E.; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Waters, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple imaging modalities are often required for in vivo imaging applications that require both high probe sensitivity and excellent spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, MR and optical imaging are an attractive combination that can be used to determine both molecular and anatomical information. Here in, we describe the synthesis and in vivo testing of two multimeric NIR-MR contrast agents that contain three Gd(III) chelates and an IR-783 dye moiety. One agent contains a PEG linker and the other a short alkyl linker. These agents label cells with extraordinary efficacy and can be detected in vivo using both imaging modalities. Biodistribution of the PEGylated agent shows observable fluorescence in xenograft MCF7 tumors and renal clearance by MR imaging. PMID:26083313

  18. In vivo tracing uptake and elimination of organic pesticides in fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianqiao; Luo, Junpeng; Ruan, Jingwen; Zhu, Fang; Luan, Tiangang; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Ruifen; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2014-07-15

    Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) measured in the laboratory are important for characterizing the bioaccumulative properties of chemicals entering the environment, especially the potential persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which can pose serious adverse effects on ecosystem and human health. Traditional lethal analysis methods are time-consuming and sacrifice too many experimental animals. In the present study, in vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was introduced to trace the uptake and elimination processes of pesticides in living fish. BCFs and elimination kinetic coefficients of the pesticides were recorded therein. Moreover, the metabolism of fenthion was also traced with in vivo SPME. The method was time-efficient and laborsaving. Much fewer experimental animals were sacrificed during the tracing. In general, this study opened up an opportunity to measure BCFs cheaply in laboratories for the registering of emerging POPs and inspecting of suspected POPs, as well as demonstrated the potential application of in vivo SPME in the study of toxicokinetics of pollutants. PMID:24932803

  19. In Vivo Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B: Sustained Partial Correction in Factor IX-Deficient Dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Mark A.; Rothenberg, Steven; Landen, Charles N.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Leland, Frances; Toman, Carol; Finegold, Milton; Thompson, Arthur R.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, Kenneth M.; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1993-10-01

    The liver represents a model organ for gene therapy. A method has been developed for hepatic gene transfer in vivo by the direct infusion of recombinant retroviral vectors into the portal vasculature, which results in the persistent expression of exogenous genes. To determine if these technologies are applicable for the treatment of hemophilia B patients, preclinical efficacy studies were done in a hemophilia B dog model. When the canine factor IX complementary DNA was transduced directly into the hepatocytes of affected dogs in vivo, the animals constitutively expressed low levels of canine factor IX for more than 5 months. Persistent expression of the clotting. factor resulted in reductions of whole blood clotting and partial thromboplastin times of the treated animals. Thus, long-term treatment of hemophilia B patients may be feasible by direct hepatic gene therapy in vivo.

  20. Combining pharmacology and whole-cell patch recording from CNS neurons, in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rose, Gary J; Alluri, Rishi K; Vasquez-Opazo, Gustavo A; Odom, Stephen E; Graham, Jalina A; Leary, Christopher J

    2013-02-15

    Whole-cell patch neurophysiology and pharmacological manipulations have provided unprecedented insight into the functions of central neurons, but their combined use has been largely restricted to in vitro preparations. We describe a method for performing whole-cell patch recording and focal application of pharmacological agents in vivo. A key feature of this technique involves iontophoresis of glutamate to establish proximity of drug and recording pipettes. We show data from iontophoresis of glutamate during extracellular and whole-cell recordings made in vivo from auditory neurons in the midbrain of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, and the effects of blocking GABA(A) receptors while making a whole-cell recording. This methodology should accelerate our understanding of the roles of particular neurotransmitter systems in normal and pathological conditions, and facilitate investigation of the in vivo effects of drugs and the mechanisms underlying computations. PMID:23261772

  1. In vivo studies of opiate receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Duelfer, T.; Burns, H.D.; Ravert, H.T.; Langstroem, B.; Balasubramanian, V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To study opiate receptors noninvasively in vivo using positron emission tomography, techniques for preferentially labeling opiate receptors in vivo can be used. The rate at which receptor-bound ligand clears from the brain in vivo can be predicted by measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) at 37 degrees C in the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride and 100 microM guanyl-5'-imidodiphosphate, the drug distribution coefficient, and the molecular weight. A suitable ligand for labeling opiate receptors in vivo is diprenorphine, which binds to mu, delta, and kappa receptors with approximately equal affinity in vitro. However, in vivo diprenorphine may bind predominantly to one opiate receptor subtype, possibly the mu receptor. To predict the affinity for binding to the opiate receptor, a Hansch correlation was determined between the 50% inhibitory concentration for a series of halogen-substituted fentanyl analogs and electronic, lipophilic, and steric parameters. Radiochemical methods for the synthesis of carbon-11-labeled diprenorphine and lofentanil are presented.

  2. In Vivo Ultrasonic Detection of Polyurea Crosslinked Silica Aerogel Implants

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Firouzeh; Sebelik, Merry E.; Meacham, Ryan; Boughter, John D.; Challis, Mitchell J.; Leventis, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Background Polyurea crosslinked silica aerogels are highly porous, lightweight, and mechanically strong materials with great potential for in vivo applications. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the biocompatibility of this type of aerogel. The highly porous nature of aerogels allows for exceptional thermal, electric, and acoustic insulating capabilities that can be taken advantage of for non-invasive external imaging techniques. Sound-based detection of implants is a low cost, non-invasive, portable, and rapid technique that is routinely used and readily available in major clinics and hospitals. Methodology In this study the first in vivo ultrasound response of polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel implants was investigated by means of a GE Medical Systems LogiQe diagnostic ultrasound machine with a linear array probe. Aerogel samples were inserted subcutaneously and sub-muscularly in a) fresh animal model and b) cadaveric human model for analysis. For comparison, samples of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were also imaged under similar conditions as the aerogel samples. Conclusion/significance Polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel (X-Si aerogel) implants were easily identified when inserted in either of the regions in both fresh animal model and cadaveric model. The implant dimensions inferred from the images matched the actual size of the implants and no apparent damage was sustained by the X-Si aerogel implants as a result of the ultrasonic imaging process. The aerogel implants demonstrated hyperechoic behavior and significant posterior shadowing. Results obtained were compared with images acquired from the PDMS implants inserted at the same location. PMID:23799093

  3. Critical evaluation of laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) performed on in-vitro, in-vivo, and ex-vivo models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, Thomas O.; Niedergethmann, M.; Alken, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Thermal ablation techniques are experiencing application in many different fields of medicine. Recently, experimental studies have been performed by various authors concerned with dosimetry and laser-tissue interaction. In order to study the effects of interstitial laser energy on biological tissue, we examined different tissue models which compared important parameters during laser application. We have performed the following in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo studies by comparing a neodymium: YAG (1064 nm) and diode laser (830 nm) equipped with interstitial laser fibers. In vitro studies which examined the influence of changes in power and time duration of application were performed on potato, muscle, liver and kidney. In vivo studies (porcine model) also examined different power settings at designated time intervals. Ex vivo studies with isolated perfused kidney (IPK) investigated the effects of power, application time, perfusion pressure and different perfusion mediums (saline solution, anticoagulated blood). In vitro studies revealed necrotic lesions in all tissues. Although no power threshold could be obtained for liver tissue (early onset fiber damage), potato, kidney and muscle tissue demonstrated their own respective power threshold. Furthermore, when using the Nd:YAG laser, we observed that higher power settings had permitted a quicker necrosis induction, however within its own treatment power spectrum, the diode laser was capable of inducing larger lesions. In vivo studies demonstrated that early onset diffuser tip damage would prevent exact documentation of laser-tissue interaction at higher power levels. Results obtained with our standardized ex vivo model (IPK) revealed smaller necrotic lesions with saline than with blood perfusion and also demonstrated the important role which perfusion rate plays during laser-tissue interaction. We found that pigmented, well vascularized parenchymal organs with low stromal content (kidney, liver) and a higher absorption coefficient induced larger necrotic volumes than organs without these characteristics. Higher power settings demonstrated side effects, (e.g. popcorn effect or uncontrollable vaporization induced by extreme hyperthermia) in every animal tissue in all three trials. Our experimental interstitial laser studies have shown that many factors influence the size outcome of the necrotic lesion and that treatment parameters (treatment time, power setting) must be optimally combined to obtain a controlled and predictable necrotic lesion in certain tissues.

  4. In vivo biodistribution and biological impact of injected carbon nanotubes using magnetic resonance techniques

    PubMed Central

    Al Faraj, Achraf; Fauvelle, Florence; Luciani, Nathalie; Lacroix, Ghislaine; Levy, Michael; Crémillieux, Yannick; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Background: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) hold promise for applications as contrast agents and target delivery carriers in the field of nanomedicine. When administered in vivo, their biodistribution and pharmacological profile needs to be fully characterized. The tissue distribution of carbon nanotubes and their potential impact on metabolism depend on their shape, coating, and metallic impurities. Because standard radiolabeled or fluorescently-labeled pharmaceuticals are not well suited for long-term in vivo follow-up of carbon nanotubes, alternative methods are required. Methods: In this study, noninvasive in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations combined with high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS), Raman spectroscopy, iron assays, and histological analysis ex vivo were proposed and applied to assess the biodistribution and biological impact of intravenously injected pristine (raw and purified) and functionalized SWCNT in a 2-week longitudinal study. Iron impurities allowed raw detection of SWCNT in vivo by susceptibility-weighted MRI. Results: A transitional accumulation in the spleen and liver was observed by MRI. Raman spectroscopy, iron assays, and histological findings confirmed the MRI readouts. Moreover, no acute toxicological effect on the liver metabolic profile was observed using the HR-MAS technique, as confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Conclusion: This study illustrates the potential of noninvasive MRI protocols for longitudinal assessment of the biodistribution of SWCNT with associated intrinsic metal impurities. The same approach can be used for any other magnetically-labeled nanoparticles. PMID:21499425

  5. Functional dissection of synaptic circuits: in vivo patch-clamp recording in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Can; Zhang, Guangwei; Xiong, Ying; Zhou, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal activity is dominated by synaptic inputs from excitatory or inhibitory neural circuits. With the development of in vivo patch-clamp recording, especially in vivo voltage-clamp recording, researchers can not only directly measure neuronal activity, such as spiking responses or membrane potential dynamics, but also quantify synaptic inputs from excitatory and inhibitory circuits in living animals. This approach enables researchers to directly unravel different synaptic components and to understand their underlying roles in particular brain functions. Combining in vivo patch-clamp recording with other techniques, such as two-photon imaging or optogenetics, can provide even clearer functional dissection of the synaptic contributions of different neurons or nuclei. Here, we summarized current applications and recent research progress using the in vivo patch-clamp recording method and focused on its role in the functional dissection of different synaptic inputs. The key factors of a successful in vivo patch-clamp experiment and possible solutions based on references and our experiences were also discussed.

  6. Characterization and application of temperature micro-optodes for use in aquatic biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, Gerhard A.; Kuehl, Michael; Klimant, Ingo; Liebsch, Gregor; Kohls, Oliver

    1997-05-01

    Benthic aquatic environments like biofilms or sediments are often investigation by measuring profiles of chemical or physical parameters at a high spatial resolution (< 50 micrometers ). This is necessary to understand e.g. transport processes and the biogeochemistry of the sediment water interface. A variety of electrochemical and optical microsensors has been developed and used for this purpose. In most of these applications the temperature of the investigated biofilms or sediments is assumed to be constant. However measurements with thermocouples of an appr. diameter of 300 micrometers have shown that this is not always the case for illuminated shallow water sediments and biofilms. We developed new microoptodes for measuring temperature distributions at a high spatial (< 50 micrometers ) and thermal (< 0.2 degree(s)C) resolution in aquatic systems. The new sensors are based on a fluorophore that is well known for its application in oxygen sensing-Ruthenium(II)- tris-1,10-phenantroline. Demas et al. (1992) discussed the possible use of highly luminescent transition metal complexes as temperature indicators. We have approached this idea from our experiences with ruthenium complexes as oxygen indicators. The first realized sensor consists of a closed microcapillary filled with an indicator solution and in inserted tapered optical fiber. The principle uses the temperature dependence of the fluorescence lifetime in the solution. To keep the solution oxygen free an oxygen scavenger is added to it. The change of the lifetime is detected by a special measuring device that uses a phase modulation technique.

  7. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver tumors and metastases

    PubMed Central

    ter Voert, EGW; Heijmen, L; van Laarhoven, HWM; Heerschap, A

    2011-01-01

    Primary liver cancer is the fifth most common malignancy in men and the eighth in women worldwide. The liver is also the second most common site for metastatic spread of cancer. To assist in the diagnosis of these liver lesions non-invasive advanced imaging techniques are desirable. Magnetic resonance (MR) is commonly used to identify anatomical lesions, but it is a very versatile technique and also can provide specific information on tumor pathophysiology and metabolism, in particular with the application of MR spectroscopy (MRS). This may include data on the type, grade and stage of tumors, and thus assist in further management of the disease. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss the available literature on proton, phosphorus and carbon-13-MRS as performed on primary liver tumors and metastases, with human applications as the main perspective. Upcoming MRS approaches with potential applications to liver tumors are also included. Since knowledge of some technical background is indispensable to understand the results, a basic introduction of MRS and some technical issues of MRS as applied to tumors and metastases in the liver are described as well. In vivo MR spectroscopy of tumors in a metabolically active organ such as the liver has been demonstrated to provide important information on tumor metabolism, but it also is challenging as compared to applications on some other tissues, in particular in humans, mostly because of its abdominal location where movement may be a disturbing factor. PMID:22215937

  8. Why Optogenetics Needs in Vivo Neurochemistry.

    PubMed

    Parrot, Sandrine; Denoroy, Luc; Renaud, Bernard; Benetollo, Claire

    2015-07-15

    In neuroscience, the consequences of optogenetic manipulation are often studied using in vivo electrophysiology and by observing behavioral changes induced by light stimulation in genetically targeted rodents. In contrast, reports on the in vivo neurochemical effects of optogenetic stimulation are scarce despite the improving quality of analytical techniques available to monitor biochemical compounds involved in neurotransmission. This intriguing lack of neurochemical information suggests the existence of unknown or misunderstood factors hampering the expected rise of a novel specialty putatively be termed "neurochemical optogenetics". PMID:25947273

  9. In vivo virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seunghoon; Lee, Changho; Kim, Sehui; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun; Kim, Chulhong

    2013-11-01

    We developed a virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy system by combining with a commercial surgical microscope and photoacoustic microscope (PAM). By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and PAM system, we could acquire the PAM and microscope images simultaneously. Moreover, by employing a beam projector to back-project 2D PAM images onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality, the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are concurrently mapped on the plane via an ocular lens of the microscope in real-time. Further, we guided needle insertion into phantom ex vivo and mice skins in vivo.

  10. In vivo virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seunghoon, E-mail: hsh860504@gmail.com; Kim, Sehui, E-mail: sehui0916@nate.com; Kim, Jeehyun, E-mail: jeehk@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changho, E-mail: ch31037@postech.edu; Jeon, Mansik, E-mail: msjeon@postech.edu [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chulhong, E-mail: jeehk@knu.ac.kr, E-mail: chulhong@postech.edu [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Creative IT Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14221 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    We developed a virtual intraoperative surgical photoacoustic microscopy system by combining with a commercial surgical microscope and photoacoustic microscope (PAM). By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and PAM system, we could acquire the PAM and microscope images simultaneously. Moreover, by employing a beam projector to back-project 2D PAM images onto the microscope view plane as augmented reality, the conventional microscopic and 2D cross-sectional PAM images are concurrently mapped on the plane via an ocular lens of the microscope in real-time. Further, we guided needle insertion into phantom ex vivo and mice skins in vivo.

  11. In vivo reprogramming for tissue repair.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Christophe; Spagnoli, Francesca M; Berninger, Benedikt

    2015-03-01

    Vital organs such as the pancreas and the brain lack the capacity for effective regeneration. To overcome this limitation, an emerging strategy consists of converting resident tissue-specific cells into the cell types that are lost due to disease by a process called in vivo lineage reprogramming. Here we discuss recent breakthroughs in regenerating pancreatic ?-cells and neurons from various cell types, and highlight fundamental challenges that need to be overcome for the translation of in vivo lineage reprogramming into therapy. PMID:25720960

  12. Quantum Dots for In Vivo Small-Animal Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bentolila, Laurent A.; Ebenstein, Yuval; Weiss, Shimon

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is poised to transform research, prevention, and treatment of cancer through the development of novel diagnostic imaging methods and targeted therapies. In particular, the use of nanoparticles for imaging has gained considerable momentum in recent years. This review focuses on the growing contribution of quantum dots (QDs) for in vivo imaging in small-animal models. Fluorescent QDs, which are small nanocrystals (1–10 nm) made of inorganic semiconductor materials, possess several unique optical properties best suited for in vivo imaging. Because of quantum confinement effects, the emission color of QDs can be precisely tuned by size from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared. QDs are extremely bright and photostable. They are also characterized by a wide absorption band and a narrow emission band, which makes them ideal for multiplexing. Finally, the large surface area of QDs permits the assembly of various contrast agents to design multimodality imaging probes. To date, biocompatible QD conjugates have been used successfully for sentinel lymph node mapping, tumor targeting, tumor angiogenesis imaging, and metastatic cell tracking. Here we consider these novel breakthroughs in light of their potential clinical applications and discuss how QDs might offer a suitable platform to unite disparate imaging modalities and provide information along a continuum of length scales. PMID:19289434

  13. SQUID-Detected In Vivo MRI at Microtesla Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Moble, Michael; Myers, Whittier R; Lee, SeungKyun; Kelso, Nathan; Hatridge, Michael; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John

    2005-06-01

    We use a low transition temperature (T{sub c}) Super-conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) to perform in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at magnetic fields around 100 microtesla, corresponding to proton Larmor frequencies of about 5 kHz. In such low fields, broadening of the nuclear magnetic resonance lines due to inhomogeneous magnetic fields and susceptibility variations of the sample are minimized, enabling us to obtain high quality images. To reduce environmental noise the signal is detected by a second-order gradiometer, coupled to the SQUID, and the experiment is surrounded by a 3-mm thick Al shield. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we prepolarize the samples in a field up to 100 mT. Three-dimensional images are acquired in less than 6 minutes with a standard spin-echo phase-encoding sequence. Using encoding gradients of {approx}100 {micro}T/m we obtain three-dimensional images of bell peppers with a resolution of 2 x 2 x 8 mm{sup 3}. Our system is ideally suited to acquiring images of small, peripheral parts of the human body such as hands and arms. In vivo images of an arm, acquired at 132 {micro}T, show 24-mm sections of the forearm with a resolution of 3 x 3 mm{sup 2} and a SNR of 10. We discuss possible applications of MRI at these low magnetic fields.

  14. Assessing the in vivo efficacy of doxorubicin loaded hyaluronan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    El-Dakdouki, Mohammad H; Xia, Jingguang; Zhu, David C; Kavunja, Herbert; Grieshaber, Jessica; O'Reilly, Sandra; McCormick, J Justin; Huang, Xuefei

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are attractive platforms for biomedical applications including diagnosis and treatment of diseases. We have shown previously that hyaluronan-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (HA-SPIONs) enhanced the efficacy of the conjugated anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) in vitro against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant human ovarian cancer cells. In this manuscript, we report our findings on the efficacy of DOX loaded HA-SPIONs in vivo using subcutaneous and intraperitoneal SKOV-3 ovarian tumor models in nude mice. The accumulation of the nanoparticles in subcutaneous tumors following an intravenous nanoparticle administration was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, and its distribution in the tumors was evaluated by confocal microscopy and Prussian blue staining. DOX delivered by nanoparticles accumulated at much higher levels and distributed wider in the tumor tissue than intravenously injected free DOX, leading to significant reduction of tumor growth. The IVIS Spectrum for in vivo bioluminescence imaging was used to aid in therapy assessment of the DOX-loaded nanoparticles on intraperitoneal ovarian tumors formed by firefly luciferase expressing human ovarian SKOV-3 cells. DOX-loaded HA-SPIONs significantly reduced tumor growth, delayed tumor development, and extended the survival of mice. Thus, utilizing HA-SPIONs as drug delivery vehicles constitutes a promising approach to tackle CD44 expressing ovarian cancer. PMID:24308364

  15. Dexpanthenol modulates gene expression in skin wound healing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Heise, R; Skazik, C; Marquardt, Y; Czaja, K; Sebastian, K; Kurschat, P; Gan, L; Denecke, B; Ekanayake-Bohlig, S; Wilhelm, K-P; Merk, H F; Baron, J M

    2012-01-01

    Topical application of dexpanthenol is widely used in clinical practice for the improvement of wound healing. Previous in vitro experiments identified a stimulatory effect of pantothenate on migration, proliferation and gene regulation in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. To correlate these in vitro findings with the more complex in vivo situation of wound healing, a clinical trial was performed in which the dexpanthenol-induced gene expression profile in punch biopsies of previously injured and dexpanthenol-treated skin in comparison to placebo-treated skin was analyzed at the molecular level by Affymetrix® GeneChip analysis. Upregulation of IL-6, IL-1?, CYP1B1, CXCL1, CCL18 and KAP 4-2 gene expression and downregulation of psorasin mRNA and protein expression were identified in samples treated topically with dexpanthenol. This in vivo study might provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the effect of dexpanthenol in wound healing and shows strong correlations to previous in vitro data using cultured dermal fibroblasts. PMID:22759998

  16. In vivo immobilization of D-hydantoinase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan-Yu; Chien, Yi-Wen; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2014-07-01

    D-P-Hydroxyphenylglycine (D-HPG) is a precursor required for the synthesis of semi-synthetic antibiotics. This unnatural amino acid can be produced by a transformation reaction mediated by D-hydantoinase (D-HDT) and d-amidohydrolase. In this study, a method was developed to integrate production and immobilization of recombinant D-HDT in vivo. This was approached by first fusion of the gene encoding D-HDT with phaP (encoding phasin) of Ralstonia eutropha H16. The fusion gene was then expressed in the Escherichia coli strain that carried a heterologous synthetic pathway for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). As a result, d-HDT was found to associate with isolated PHA granules. Further characterization illustrated that D-HDT immobilized on PHA exhibited the maximum activity at pH 9 and 60°C and had a half-life of 95 h at 40°C. Moreover, PHA-bound d-HDT could be reused for 8 times with the conversion yield exceeding 90%. Overall, it illustrates the feasibility of this approach to facilitate in vivo immobilization of enzymes in heterologous E. coli strain, which may open a new avenue of enzyme application in industry. PMID:24508023

  17. A Monte Carlo approach to rolling leukocyte tracking in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jing; Acton, Scott T; Lin, Zongli

    2006-08-01

    Tracking the movement of rolling leukocytes in vivo contributes to the understanding of the mechanism of the inflammatory process and to the development of anti-inflammatory drugs. Several roadblocks exist that hinder successful automated tracking including the moving background, the severe image noise and clutter, the occlusion of the target leukocyte by other leukocytes and structures, the jitter caused by the breathing movement of the living animal, and the weak image contrast. In this paper, a Monte Carlo tracker is developed for automatically tracking a single rolling leukocyte in vivo. Based on the leukocyte movement information and the image intensity features, a specialized sample-weighting criterion is tailored to the application. In comparison with a snake-based tracker, our experiments show that, as the noise intensity level increases, the performance of the snake tracker degrades more than that of the Monte Carlo tracker. In cases, where the leukocyte is observed in contact with the vessel wall, the Monte Carlo tracker is less affected by the image clutter. From tracking within 99 intravital microscopic video sequences, the Monte Carlo tracker exhibits superior performance in the reduced localization error and the increased number of frames tracked when compared with the centroid tracker, the correlation tracker and the GVF snake tracker. PMID:16876461

  18. Photoacoustic tomography of ex vivo mouse hearts with myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holotta, Markus; Grossauer, Harald; Kremser, Christian; Torbica, Pavle; Völkl, Jakob; Degenhart, Gerald; Esterhammer, Regina; Nuster, Robert; Paltauf, Günther; Jaschke, Werner

    2011-03-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the applicability of ex vivo photoacoustic imaging (PAI) on small animal organs. We used photoacoustic tomography (PAT) to visualize infarcted areas within murine hearts and compared these data to other imaging techniques [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), micro-computed tomography] and histological slices. In order to induce ischemia, an in vivo ligation of the left anterior descending artery was performed on nine wild-type mice. After varying survival periods, the hearts were excised and fixed in formaldehyde. Samples were illuminated with nanosecond laser pulses delivered by a Nd:YAG pumped optical parametric oscillator. Ultrasound detection was achieved using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) working as an integrating line detector. The voxel data were computed using a Fourier-domain based reconstruction algorithm, followed by inverse Radon transforms. The results clearly showed the capability of PAI to visualize myocardial infarction and to produce three-dimensional images with a spatial resolution of approximately 120 ?m. Regions of affected muscle tissue in PAI corresponded well with the results of MRI and histology. Photoacoustic tomography utilizing a MZI for ultrasound detection allows for imaging of small tissue samples. Due to its high spatial resolution, good soft tissue contrast and comparatively low cost, PAT offers great potentials for imaging.

  19. Neurovascular coupling: in vivo optical techniques for functional brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Optical imaging techniques reflect different biochemical processes in the brain, which is closely related with neural activity. Scientists and clinicians employ a variety of optical imaging technologies to visualize and study the relationship between neurons, glial cells and blood vessels. In this paper, we present an overview of the current optical approaches used for the in vivo imaging of neurovascular coupling events in small animal models. These techniques include 2-photon microscopy, laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi), functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM), functional near-infrared spectroscopy imaging (fNIRS) and multimodal imaging techniques. The basic principles of each technique are described in detail, followed by examples of current applications from cutting-edge studies of cerebral neurovascular coupling functions and metabolic. Moreover, we provide a glimpse of the possible ways in which these techniques might be translated to human studies for clinical investigations of pathophysiology and disease. In vivo optical imaging techniques continue to expand and evolve, allowing us to discover fundamental basis of neurovascular coupling roles in cerebral physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:23631798

  20. In vivo cell tracking and quantification method in adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Alt, Clemens; Li, Pulin; White, Richard M.; Zon, Leonard I.; Wei, Xunbin; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-03-01

    Zebrafish have become a powerful vertebrate model organism for drug discovery, cancer and stem cell research. A recently developed transparent adult zebrafish using double pigmentation mutant, called casper, provide unparalleled imaging power in in vivo longitudinal analysis of biological processes at an anatomic resolution not readily achievable in murine or other systems. In this paper we introduce an optical method for simultaneous visualization and cell quantification, which combines the laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and the in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC). The system is designed specifically for non-invasive tracking of both stationary and circulating cells in adult zebrafish casper, under physiological conditions in the same fish over time. The confocal imaging part in this system serves the dual purposes of imaging fish tissue microstructure and a 3D navigation tool to locate a suitable vessel for circulating cell counting. The multi-color, multi-channel instrument allows the detection of multiple cell populations or different tissues or organs simultaneously. We demonstrate initial testing of this novel instrument by imaging vasculature and tracking circulating cells in CD41: GFP/Gata1: DsRed transgenic casper fish whose thrombocytes/erythrocytes express the green and red fluorescent proteins. Circulating fluorescent cell incidents were recorded and counted repeatedly over time and in different types of vessels. Great application opportunities in cancer and stem cell researches are discussed.

  1. Metabolic Flux and Compartmentation Analysis in the Brain In vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lanz, Bernard; Gruetter, Rolf; Duarte, Joăo M. N.

    2013-01-01

    Through significant developments and progresses in the last two decades, in vivo localized nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) became a method of choice to probe brain metabolic pathways in a non-invasive way. Beside the measurement of the total concentration of more than 20 metabolites, 1H MRS can be used to quantify the dynamics of substrate transport across the blood-brain barrier by varying the plasma substrate level. On the other hand, 13C MRS with the infusion of 13C-enriched substrates enables the characterization of brain oxidative metabolism and neurotransmission by incorporation of 13C in the different carbon positions of amino acid neurotransmitters. The quantitative determination of the biochemical reactions involved in these processes requires the use of appropriate metabolic models, whose level of details is strongly related to the amount of data accessible with in vivo MRS. In the present work, we present the different steps involved in the elaboration of a mathematical model of a given brain metabolic process and its application to the experimental data in order to extract quantitative brain metabolic rates. We review the recent advances in the localized measurement of brain glucose transport and compartmentalized brain energy metabolism, and how these reveal mechanistic details on glial support to glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. PMID:24194729

  2. Susceptibility Weighted Imaging of Cartilage Canals in Porcine Epiphyseal Growth Cartilage Ex Vivo and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nissi, Mikko J.; Toth, Ferenc; Zhang, Jinjin; Schmitter, Sebastian; Benson, Michael; Carlson, Cathy S.; Ellermann, Jutta M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose High-resolution visualization of cartilage canals has been restricted to histological methods and contrast-enhanced imaging. In this study, the feasibility of non-contrast-enhanced susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) for visualization of the cartilage canals was investigated ex vivo at 9.4 T, further explored at 7 and 3 T and demonstrated in vivo at 7 T, using a porcine animal model. Methods SWI scans of specimens of distal femur and humerus from 1 to 8 week-old piglets were conducted at 9.4 T using 3D-GRE sequence and SWI post-processing. The stifle joints of a 2-week old piglet were scanned ex vivo at 7 and 3 T. Finally, the same sites of a 3-week-old piglet were scanned, in vivo, at 7 T under general anesthesia using the vendor-provided sequences. Results High-contrast visualization of the cartilage canals was obtained ex vivo, especially at higher field strengths; the results were confirmed histologically. In vivo feasibility was demonstrated at 7 T and comparison of ex vivo scans at 3 and 7 T indicated feasibility of using SWI at 3 T. Conclusions High-resolution 3D visualization of cartilage canals was demonstrated using SWI. This demonstration of fully noninvasive visualization opens new avenues to explore skeletal maturation and the role of vascular supply for diseases such as osteochondrosis. PMID:23857631

  3. In vivo and ex vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Cuprizone Induced Demyelination in the Mouse Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiangyang; Jones, Melina V.; McMahon, Michael T.; Mori, Susumu; Calabresi, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used in studying rodent models of white matter diseases. In this study, we examined the differences between in vivo and ex vivo fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity measurements in the mouse cuprizone model. In the control mouse corpus callosum (CC), ex vivo diffusivities were significantly lower than in vivo measurements, but ex vivo FA values were not significantly different from in vivo FA values. With cuprizone induced demyelination and accompanying pathology in the CC, changes in in vivo and ex vivo FA and diffusivity measurements were not always in agreement. Our results suggest that ex vivo ?? was a more reliable indicator of white matter demyelination than in vivo ?? and in vivo ?? was a more reliable indicator of axonal injury than ex vivo ?? in this model. When comparing in vivo and ex vivo DTI results of axon and myelin pathology in the rodent models, potential changes in tissue microstructures associated with perfusion fixation should be considered. PMID:21656567

  4. In vivo dosimetry by an aSi-based EPID

    SciTech Connect

    Piermattei, Angelo; Fidanzio, Andrea; Stimato, Gerardina; Azario, Luigi [Instituto di Fisica, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy)] (and others)

    2006-11-15

    A method for the in vivo determination of the isocenter dose, D{sub iso}, and mid-plane dose, D{sub m}, using the transmitted signal S{sub t} measured by 25 central pixels of an aSi-based EPID is here reported. The method has been applied to check the conformal radiotherapy of pelvic tumors and supplies accurate in vivo dosimetry avoiding many of the disadvantages associated with the use of two diode detectors (at the entrance and exit of the patient) as their periodic recalibration and their positioning. Irradiating water-equivalent phantoms of different thicknesses, a set of correlation functions F(w,l) were obtained by the ratio between S{sub t} and D{sub m} as a function of the phantom thickness, w, for a different field width, l. For the in vivo determination of D{sub iso} and D{sub m} values, the water-equivalent thickness of the patients (along the beam central axis) was evaluated by means of the treatment planning system that uses CT scans calibrated in terms of the electron densities. The D{sub iso} and D{sub m} values experimentally determined were compared with the stated doses D{sub iso,TPS} and D{sub m,TPS}, determined by the treatment planning system for ten pelvic treatments. In particular, for each treatment four fields were checked in six fractions. In these conditions the agreement between the in vivo dosimetry and stated doses at the isocenter point were within 3%. Comparing the 480 dose values obtained in this work with those obtained for 30 patients tested with a similar method, which made use of a small ion-chamber positioned on the EPIDs to obtain the transmitted signal, a similar agreement was observed. The method here proposed is very practical and can be applied in every treatment fraction, supplying useful information about eventual patient dose variations due to the incorrect application of the quality assurance program based on the check of patient setup, machine setting, and calculations.

  5. In vivo study of immunogenicity and kinetic characteristics of a quantum dot-labelled baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Zhenhua; Meng, Jin; Wang, Han; He, Man; Zhang, Fuxian; Liu, Yan; Hu, Bin; He, Zike; Hu, Qinxue; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-09-01

    Nanomaterials conjugated with biomacromolecules, including viruses, have great potential for in vivo applications. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the safety of nanoparticle-conjugated macromolecule biomaterials (Nano-mbio). Although a number of studies have assessed the risks of nanoparticles and macromolecule biomaterials in living bodies, only a few of them investigated Nano-mbios. Here we evaluated the in vivo safety profile of a quantum dot-conjugated baculovirus (Bq), a promising new Nano-mbio, in mice. Each animal was injected twice intraperitoneally with 50 ?g virus protein labelled with around 3*10(-5)nmol conjugated qds. Control animals were injected with PBS, quantum dots, baculovirus, or a mixture of quantum dots and baculovirus. Blood, tissues and body weight were analysed at a series of time points following both the first and the second injections. It turned out that the appearance and behaviour of the mice injected with Bq were similar to those injected with baculovirus alone. However, combination of baculovirus and quantum dot (conjugated or simply mixed) significantly induced stronger adaptive immune responses, and lead to a faster accumulation and longer existence of Cd in the kidneys. Thus, despite the fact that both quantum dot and baculovirus have been claimed to be safe in vivo, applications of Bq in vivo should be cautious. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the interaction between a nanoparticle-conjugated virus and a living body from a safety perspective, providing a basis for in vivo application of other Nano-mbios. PMID:26117660

  6. Assessment of corneal hydration sensing in the terahertz band: in vivo results at 100 GHz

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David; Taylor, Zachary; Tewari, Pria; Sung, Shijun; Maccabi, Ashkan; Singh, Rahul; Culjat, Martin; Grundfest, Warren; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Brown, Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Terahertz corneal hydration sensing has shown promise in ophthalmology applications and was recently shown to be capable of detecting water concentration changes of about two parts in a thousand in ex vivo corneal tissues. This technology may be effective in patient monitoring during refractive surgery and for early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in diseases of the cornea. In this work, Fuchs dystrophy, cornea transplant rejection, and keratoconus are discussed, and a hydration sensitivity of about one part in a hundred is predicted to be needed to successfully distinguish between diseased and healthy tissues in these applications. Stratified models of corneal tissue reflectivity are developed and validated using ex vivo spectroscopy of harvested porcine corneas that are hydrated using polyethylene glycol solutions. Simulation of the cornea’s depth-dependent hydration profile, from 0.01 to 100 THz, identifies a peak in intrinsic reflectivity contrast for sensing at 100 GHz. A 100 GHz hydration sensing system is evaluated alongside the current standard ultrasound pachymetry technique to measure corneal hydration in vivo in four rabbits. A hydration sensitivity, of three parts per thousand or better, was measured in all four rabbits under study. This work presents the first in vivo demonstration of remote corneal hydration sensing. PMID:23085925

  7. In vitro and in vivo toxicological studies of V nerve agents: molecular and stereoselective aspects.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Georg; Müller, Susanne; Hill, Ira; Weatherby, Kendal; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Mikler, John

    2015-01-22

    In vitro inhibition data of cholinesterases (ChEs) and reactivation with HI 6 are presented for separated VX and VR enantiomers with high purity (enantiomer excess >99.999%). Inhibition rate constants for (-)-VR were fourfold higher than for (-)-VX. Marked higher stereoselectivity of ChEs inhibition was observed for VR compared with VX enantiomers. Low/no reactivation was determined for respective (+)-enantiomers. Results were related to orientation of (-)- and (+)-enantiomers in ChEs active sites. In vivo in swine, absorption rate constants were practically identical for VX and VR enantiomers after percutaneous application of 3xLD?? underlining relevance of amine group and postulated equilibria shifts between charged, uncharged, open and cyclic form (skin depot). In vivo toxicokinetics of VX and VR enantiomers differed markedly after 4h. Elimination of VX was much slower compared with VR. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition in vivo differed for VX and VR. In vivo spontaneous reactivation was not observed for VX-inhibited AChE while VR-inhibited AChE was much faster spontaneously reactivated than expected and AChE inhibition by VR was slower than expected. Progredient BChE inhibition was detected after VX application while VR inhibited BChE weakly. Possible explanation may be impact of the agents on hemodynamics and different metabolisms. Thus, due to increase of the V agents' blood concentration after atropine administration (depot release) the present standard therapy should be thoroughly reconsidered. PMID:25448275

  8. Artificial micromotors in the mouse's stomach: a step toward in vivo use of synthetic motors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Dong, Renfeng; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Li, Jinxing; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-01-27

    Artificial micromotors, operating on locally supplied fuels and performing complex tasks, offer great potential for diverse biomedical applications, including autonomous delivery and release of therapeutic payloads and cell manipulation. Various types of synthetic motors, utilizing different propulsion mechanisms, have been fabricated to operate in biological matrices. However, the performance of these man-made motors has been tested exclusively under in vitro conditions (outside the body); their behavior and functionalities in an in vivo environment (inside the body) remain unknown. Herein, we report an in vivo study of artificial micromotors in a living organism using a mouse model. Such in vivo evaluation examines the distribution, retention, cargo delivery, and acute toxicity profile of synthetic motors in mouse stomach via oral administration. Using zinc-based micromotors as a model, we demonstrate that the acid-driven propulsion in the stomach effectively enhances the binding and retention of the motors as well as of cargo payloads on the stomach wall. The body of the motors gradually dissolves in the gastric acid, autonomously releasing their carried payloads, leaving nothing toxic behind. This work is anticipated to significantly advance the emerging field of nano/micromotors and to open the door to in vivo evaluation and clinical applications of these synthetic motors. PMID:25549040

  9. In Vivo Biosensing Via Tissue Localizable Near Infrared Fluorescent Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Nicole M; Barone, Paul W; Shandell, Mia; Trudel, Laura J; Sen, Selda; Sen, Fatih; Ivanov, Vsevolod; Atolia, Esha; Farias, Edgardo; McNicholas, Thomas P; Reuel, Nigel; Parry, Nicola M. A.; Wogan, Gerald N

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are particularly attractive for biomedical applications, because they exhibit a fluorescent signal in a spectral region where there is minimal interference from biological media. Although SWNT have been used as highly-sensitive detectors for various molecules, their use as in vivo biosensors requires the simultaneous optimization of various parameters, including biocompatibility, molecular recognition, high fluorescence quantum efficiency and signal transduction. Here we demonstrate that a polyethylene glycol ligated copolymer stabilizes near infrared fluorescent SWNT sensors in solution, enabling intravenous injection into mice and the selective detection of local nitric oxide (NO) concentration with a detection limit of 1 ?M. The half-life for liver retention is 4 hours, with sensors clearing the lungs within 2 hours after injection, thus avoiding a dominant route of in vivo nanotoxicology. After localization within the liver, it is possible to follow the transient inflammation using NO as a marker and signalling molecule. To this end, we also report a spatial-spectral imaging algorithm to deconvolute fluorescence intensity and spatial information from measurements. Finally, we show that alginate encapsulated SWNT can function as an implantable inflammation sensor for in vivo NO detection, with no intrinsic immune reactivity or other adverse response, for more than 400 days. These results open new avenues for the use of such nanosensors in vivo for biomedical applications. PMID:24185942

  10. Ultrasound and electric pulses for transdermal drug delivery enhancement: Ex vivo assessment of methods with in vivo oriented experimental protocols.

    PubMed

    Zorec, Barbara; Jelenc, Jure; Miklav?i?, Damijan; Pavšelj, Nataša

    2015-07-25

    In our present study we focus on two physical enhancement methods for transdermal drug delivery: ultrasound and electric pulses either alone or in combination. Great emphasis has been given on the design of the experimental system and protocols, so the results and the conclusions drawn from them would have greater relevance for in vivo use and later translation into clinical practice. Our results show a statistically significant enhancement of calcein delivery (after one hour of passive diffusion following treatment) already after 5minutes of ultrasound application, or only 6×100 short high voltage electrical pulses. We also experimented with combinations of the two enhancement methods hoping for synergistic effects, however, the results showed no evident drastic improvement over single method. Looking closer at physics of both methods, this absence of synergy in our in vivo oriented experimental setting is not surprising. The mechanism of action of both methods is the creation of aqueous pathways in the stratum corneum leading to increased skin permeability. However, when used in combination (regardless of the order of methods), the second method was unsuccessful in adding many new aqueous pathways in the stratum corneum, as it acted preferentially near the sites of the existing ones. PMID:25987209

  11. In vivo multiphoton nanosurgery on cortical

    E-print Network

    Sandini, Giulio

    neurons. Multiphoton nanosurgery has been performed in worms to study axon regeneration6 and dissectIn vivo multiphoton nanosurgery on cortical neurons Leonardo Sacconi,a,b,, * Rodney P. O exploit the spatial localization of multiphoton excitation to perform selective lesions on the neuronal

  12. Measurement of bacterial gene expression in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Hautefort, I; Hinton, J C

    2000-01-01

    The complexities of bacterial gene expression during mammalian infection cannot be addressed by in vitro experiments. We know that the infected host represents a complex and dynamic environment, which is modified during the infection process, presenting a variety of stimuli to which the pathogen must respond if it is to be successful. This response involves hundreds of ivi (in vivo-induced) genes which have recently been identified in animal and cell culture models using a variety of technologies including in vivo expression technology, differential fluorescence induction, subtractive hybridization and differential display. Proteomic analysis is beginning to be used to identify IVI proteins, and has benefited from the availability of genome sequences for increasing numbers of bacterial pathogens. The patterns of bacterial gene expression during infection remain to be investigated. Are ivi genes expressed in an organ-specific or cell-type-specific fashion? New approaches are required to answer these questions. The uses of the immunologically based in vivo antigen technology system, in situ PCR and DNA microarray analysis are considered. This review considers existing methods for examining bacterial gene expression in vivo, and describes emerging approaches that should further our understanding in the future. PMID:10874733

  13. Fluorescence of Photoreceptor Cells Observed in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Franceschini; K. Kirschfeld; B. Minke

    1981-01-01

    Most rhabdomeres in the eye of the fly (Musca domestica) are fluorescent. One kind of fluorescent emission emanates from a photoproduct of the visual pigment, other kinds may be ascribed to photostable pigments. These phenomena provide not only a means of spectrally mapping the retina but also a new spectroscopic tool for analyzing the primary visual processes in vivo.

  14. In vivo imaging of Drosophila melanogaster

    E-print Network

    Perrimon, Norbert

    ) yields the reconstructed images7, in analogy to methods used in X-ray computed tomography (CT), singleIn vivo imaging of Drosophila melanogaster pupae with mesoscopic fluorescence tomography Claudio report a technique for fluorescence tomography that operates beyond the penetration limits of tissue

  15. In vivo cell kinetics in breast carcinogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Bai; Niki J Agnantis; Sevasti Kamina; Asimina Demou; Panayiota Zagorianakou; Aphroditi Katsaraki; Panayiotis Kanavaros

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disruption of the balance between apoptosis and proliferation is considered to be an important factor in the development and progression of tumours. In the present study we determined the in vivo cell kinetics along the spectrum of apparently normal epithelium, hyperplasia, preinvasive lesions and invasive carcinoma, in breast tissues affected by fibrocystic changes in which preinvasive and\\/or invasive lesions

  16. In vivo fluorescence imaging with high-

    E-print Network

    Schnitzer, Mark

    Messerschmidt2 & Mark J Schnitzer1,3 Micro-optics are increasingly used for minimally invasive in vivo imaging-photon imaging of dendritic spines on hippocampal neurons and dual-color nonlinear optical imaging with 920 nm laser excitation. The loss of resolution impairs image quality and hinders examination

  17. In vivo trans-rectal ultrasoundcoupled optical

    E-print Network

    Piao, Daqing

    -Optical Instrumenta- tion Engineers. DOI: 10.1117/1.3149852 Keywords: prostate cancer; trans-rectal optical tomography and functionality. NIR optical tomography has contributed to diagnosis and prognosis of cancer,2 understanding. This approach was motivated by the hypothesis that optical properties of prostate cancer in vivo may

  18. Radiation Induced Bystander Effect in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yunfei; Hei, Tom K.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect is defined as the induction of biological effects in cells that are not directly traversed by radiation, but merely in the presence of cells that are. Although radiation induced bystander effects have been well defined in a variety of in vitro models using a range of endpoints including clonogenic survival, mutations, neoplastic transformation, apoptosis, micronucleus, chromosomal aberrations and DNA double strand beaks, the mechanism(s) as well as the presence of such an effect in vivo are not well described. In this review, we summarize the evidence of radiation induced bystander effect in various in vivo systems including rodents, fish and plants. Many biological endpoints such as epigenetic changes, DNA damage, miRNA, apoptosis, cell proliferation, gene expression and tumorgenesis have been demonstrated in the non-targeted regions in vivo. Although the bystander effect is evolutionarily conserved in rodent systems, the bystander response depends on gender, tissue and strain. However, the studies about mechanism of radiation induced bystander effect in vivo are still limited. PMID:20634916

  19. Beyond Drosophila: RNAi In Vivo and Functional

    E-print Network

    Belles, Xavier

    Beyond Drosophila: RNAi In Vivo and Functional Genomics in Insects Xavier Bell´es Institut de of how to discover these functions. The RNA interference (RNAi) technique, which generates loss-of-function phenotypes by depletion of a chosen transcript, can help to overcome this challenge. RNAi can unveil

  20. In vivo labelling of polynucleotide sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Stavrianopoulos, J.; Yang, H.L.; Kelker, N.E.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a process for in vivo labeling of hybridizable polynucleotide sequences with modified nucleic acid bases. It comprises: providing a host; replicating the host under conditions that provide or permit production of such modified base, such that it becomes part of an thereby labels the first polynucleotide sequence, so as to yield a labeled polynucleotide prove; and isolating the labeled polynucleotide probe.

  1. Transplantation of ex vivo expanded cord blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth J Shpall; Ralph Quinones; Roger Giller; Chan Zeng; Anna E Baron; Roy B Jones; Scott I Bearman; Yago Nieto; Brian Freed; Nancy Madinger; Christopher J Hogan; Vicki Slat-Vasquez; Peggy Russell; Betsy Blunk; Deborah Schissel; Elaine Hild; Janet Malcolm; William Ward; Ian K McNiece

    2002-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (CB) from unrelated donors is increasingly used to restore hematopoiesis after myeloablative therapy. CB transplants are associated with higher rates of delayed and failed engraftment than are bone marrow transplants, particularly for adult patients. We studied the ex vivo expansion of CB in an attempt to improve time to engraftment and reduce the graft failure rate in

  2. Human in vivo pharmacology of topical retinoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher E. M. Griffiths; John J. Voorhees

    1994-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid is used topically for treating a variety of dermatologic conditions ranging from acne to photoaged skin. Although the clinical effects of retinoic acid treatment are often considerable, relatively little is known about the basic mechanisms underlying such effects. With the development of an in vivo human assay we have investigated the pleiotypic effects of topical retinoids from

  3. In vivo antioxidant effect of green tea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Sung; J Nah; S Chun; SE Yang; WK Min

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The object of this study was to investigate the in vivo antioxidant effect of green tea and dosage effect of green tea on antioxidant effect.Design: We tested 10 healthy subjects (aged 23–25 y, five women and five men) with overnight fasting. The total antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured at baseline and 60 min and 120 min after ingestion

  4. Radiation Induced Bystander Effect in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yunfei; Hei, Tom K

    2008-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect is defined as the induction of biological effects in cells that are not directly traversed by radiation, but merely in the presence of cells that are. Although radiation induced bystander effects have been well defined in a variety of in vitro models using a range of endpoints including clonogenic survival, mutations, neoplastic transformation, apoptosis, micronucleus, chromosomal aberrations and DNA double strand beaks, the mechanism(s) as well as the presence of such an effect in vivo are not well described. In this review, we summarize the evidence of radiation induced bystander effect in various in vivo systems including rodents, fish and plants. Many biological endpoints such as epigenetic changes, DNA damage, miRNA, apoptosis, cell proliferation, gene expression and tumorgenesis have been demonstrated in the non-targeted regions in vivo. Although the bystander effect is evolutionarily conserved in rodent systems, the bystander response depends on gender, tissue and strain. However, the studies about mechanism of radiation induced bystander effect in vivo are still limited. PMID:20634916

  5. In vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tumor Protease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Haris, Mohammad; Singh, Anup; Mohammed, Imran; Ittyerah, Ranjit; Nath, Kavindra; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Debrosse, Catherine; Kogan, Feliks; Cai, Kejia; Poptani, Harish; Reddy, Damodar; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2014-01-01

    Increased expression of cathepsins has diagnostic as well as prognostic value in several types of cancer. Here, we demonstrate a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, which uses poly-L-glutamate (PLG) as an MRI probe to map cathepsin expression in vivo, in a rat brain tumor model. This noninvasive, high-resolution and non-radioactive method exploits the differences in the CEST signals of PLG in the native form and cathepsin mediated cleaved form. The method was validated in phantoms with known physiological concentrations, in tumor cells and in an animal model of brain tumor along with immunohistochemical analysis. Potential applications in tumor diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic response are outlined. PMID:25124082

  6. DNA-Aptamer Targeting Vimentin for Tumor Therapy In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zamay, Tatyana N.; Kolovskaya, Olga S.; Glazyrin, Yury E.; Zamay, Galina S.; Kuznetsova, Svetlana A.; Spivak, Ekaterina A.; Wehbe, Mohamed; Savitskaya, Anna G.; Zubkova, Olga A.; Kadkina, Anastasia; Wang, Xiaoyan; Muharemagic, Darija; Dubynina, Anna; Sheina, Yuliya; Salmina, Alla B.; Berezovski, Maxim V.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, new prospects for the use of nucleic acids as anticancer drugs have been discovered. Aptamers for intracellular targets can regulate cellular functions and cause cell death or proliferation. However, intracellular aptamers have limited use for therapeutic applications due to their low bioavailability. In this work, we selected DNA aptamers to cell organelles and nucleus of cancer cells, and showed that an aptamer NAS-24 binds to vimentin and causes apoptosis of mouse ascites adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. To deliver the aptamer NAS-24 inside cells, natural polysaccharide arabinogalactan was used as a carrier reagent. The mixture of arabinogalactan and NAS-24 was injected intraperitonealy for 5 days into mice with adenocarcinoma and inhibited adenocarcinoma growth more effectively than free arabinogalactan or the aptamer alone. The use of aptamers to intracellular targets together with arabinogalactan becomes a promising approach for anticancer therapy. PMID:24410722

  7. High-powered microwave ablation with a small-gauge gas cooled antenna: Initial ex vivo and in vivo results

    PubMed Central

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Andreano, Anita; Sampson, Lisa; Lee, Fred T.; Brace, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the performance of a gas-cooled high powered microwave system. Material and Methods 54 ablations were performed in ex vivo bovine livers using three devices: a single 17-gauge cooled radiofrequency(RF) electrode, a cluster RF electrode, and a single 17-gauge gas-cooled microwave (MW)antenna at three time points (n=6 at 4, 12, and 16 min). Radiofrequency power was applied using impedance-based pulsing with maximum 200 W generator output. Microwave power of 135 W at 2.45 GHz was delivered continuously. An approved in vivo study was performed using thirteen domestic pigs. Hepatic ablations were performed using single applicators and the above MW and RF generator systems, at treatment times of 2 (n=7 MW, 6 RF), 5 (n=23 MW, 8 RF), 7 (n=11 MW, 6 RF) and 10 minutes (n=7 MW, 9 RF). Mean transverse diameter and length of the ablation zones were compared using ANOVA with post-hoc t-tests and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Results Single ex vivo MW ablations were larger than single RF ablations at all time points (MW mean diameter range 3.5–4.8 cm 4–16 min; RF 2.6–3.1 cm 4–16 min) (p<0.05). There was no difference in mean diameter between cluster RF and MW ablations (RF: 3.3–4.4 cm 4–16 min; P=0.4–0.9). In vivo lesion diameters in cm for MW (and RF) were as follows: 2.6±0.72 (1.5±0.14), 3.6±0.89 (2.0±0.4), 3.4±0.87 (1.8±0.23), and 3.8±0.74 (2.1±0.3) at 2, 5, 7 and 10 min, respectively (p<0.05 all time points). Conclusions Gas-cooled high powered MW ablation allows the generation of large ablation zones in short times. PMID:22277272

  8. Ex Vivo Resuscitation of Adult Pig Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstrauch, Doreen; Akay, Hakan M.; Bolukoglu, Hakki; Behrens, Lars; Bryant, Laura; Herrera, Peter; Eya, Kazuhiro; Tuzun, Egemen; Clubb, Fred J.; Radovancevic, Branislav; Frazier, O. H.; Kadipasaoglu, Kamuran A.

    2003-01-01

    One possible way to expand the human heart donor pool is to include non-heart-beating human donors. To begin validating this approach, we developed an ex vivo cardiac perfusion circuit to support large mammalian hearts in Langendorff mode and beating-ejecting mode and to assess and improve their ischemic tolerance. In vivo hemodynamic data and heparinized blood (4.0 ± 0.5 L) were collected from 6 anesthetized pigs. Hearts were isolated and connected to a recirculating perfusion circuit primed with autologous buffered blood (pH, 7.40). After retrograde aortic perfusion in Langendorff mode, the left atrium was gravity-filled at 10–20 mmHg, and the left ventricle began to eject against a compliance chamber in series with a systemic reservoir set to a hydraulic afterload of 100–120 mmHg. Left ventricular function was restored and maintained in all 6 hearts for 30 min. Cardiac output, myocardial oxygen consumption, stroke work, aortic pressure, left atrial pressure, and heart rate were measured. The mean myocardial oxygen consumption was 4.8 ± 2.7 mL/min/100 g (95.8% of in vivo value); and mean stroke work, 5.3 ± 1.1 g · m/100 g (58.95% of in vivo value). One resuscitated heart was exposed to 30 min of normothermic ischemic arrest, then flushed with Celsio® and re-resuscitated. The ex vivo perfusion method described herein restored left ventricular ejection function and allowed assessment of ischemic tolerance in large mammalian hearts, potentially a 1st step toward including non-heart-beating human donors in the human donor pool. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:121–7) PMID:12809253

  9. In vivo lipidomics using single-cell Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huawen; Volponi, Joanne V.; Oliver, Ann E.; Parikh, Atul N.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method for direct, quantitative, in vivo lipid profiling of oil-producing microalgae using single-cell laser-trapping Raman spectroscopy. This approach is demonstrated in the quantitative determination of the degree of unsaturation and transition temperatures of constituent lipids within microalgae. These properties are important markers for determining engine compatibility and performance metrics of algal biodiesel. We show that these factors can be directly measured from a single living microalgal cell held in place with an optical trap while simultaneously collecting Raman data. Cellular response to different growth conditions is monitored in real time. Our approach circumvents the need for lipid extraction and analysis that is both slow and invasive. Furthermore, this technique yields real-time chemical information in a label-free manner, thus eliminating the limitations of impermeability, toxicity, and specificity of the fluorescent probes common in currently used protocols. Although the single-cell Raman spectroscopy demonstrated here is focused on the study of the microalgal lipids with biofuel applications, the analytical capability and quantitation algorithms demonstrated are applicable to many different organisms and should prove useful for a diverse range of applications in lipidomics. PMID:21310969

  10. Bioorthogonal Cyclization-Mediated In Situ Self-Assembly of Small Molecule Probes for Imaging Caspase Activity in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Deju; Shuhendler, Adam J.; Cui, Lina; Tong, Ling; Tee, Sui Seng; Tikhomirov, Grigory; Felsher, Dean W.; Rao, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    Directed self-assembly of small molecules in living systems could enable a myriad of applications in biology and medicine, and it has been widely used to synthesize supramolecules and nano/microstructures in solution and in living cells. However, controlling self-assembly of synthetic small molecules in living animals is challenging because of the complex and dynamic in vivo physiological environment. Here we employed an optimized first-order bioorthogonal cyclization reaction to control self-assembly of a fluorescent small molecule, and demonstrated its in vivo applicability by imaging of casapae-3/7 activity in human tumor xenograft mouse models of chemotherapy. The in situ assembled fluorescent nanoparticles have been successfully imaged in both apoptotic cells and tumor tissues using three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy. This strategy combines the advantages offered by small molecules with those of nanomaterials and should find widespread use for non-invasive imaging of enzyme activity in vivo. PMID:24848238

  11. In vivo cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzyme characterization using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanfang; Bachmann, Kenneth A.; Cameron, Brent D.

    2003-07-01

    The development of a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate in vivo phenotyping methodology for characterizing drug-metabolizing phenotypes with reference to the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes would be very beneficial. In terms of application, in the wake of the human genome project, considerable interest is focused on the development of new drugs whose uses will be tailored to specific genetic polymorphisms, and on the individualization of dosing regimens that are also tailored to meet individual patient needs depending upon genotype. In this investigation, chemical probes for CYP450 enzymes were characterized and identified with Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, gold-based metal colloid clusters were utilized to generate surface enhanced Raman spectra for each of the chemical probes. Results will be presented demonstrating the ability of SERS to identify minute quantities of these probes on the order needed for in vivo application.

  12. Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Seonghoon; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Polymer hydrogels are widely used as cell scaffolds for biomedical applications. Although the biochemical and biophysical properties of hydrogels have been investigated extensively, little attention has been paid to their potential photonic functionalities. Here, we report cell-integrated polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels for in vivo optical-sensing and therapy applications. Hydrogel patches containing cells were implanted in awake, freely moving mice for several days and shown to offer long-term transparency, biocompatibility, cell viability and light-guiding properties (loss of <1 dB cm-1). Using optogenetic, glucagon-like peptide-1 secreting cells, we conducted light-controlled therapy using the hydrogel in a mouse model with diabetes and obtained improved glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, real-time optical readout of encapsulated heat-shock-protein-coupled fluorescent reporter cells made it possible to measure the nanotoxicity of cadmium-based bare and shelled quantum dots (CdTe; CdSe/ZnS) in vivo.

  13. Preparation, cytotoxicity and in vivo bioimaging of highly luminescent water-soluble silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jing-Wun; Vankayala, Raviraj; Chang, Chien-Liang; Chang, Chia-Hua; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2015-05-01

    Designing various inorganic nanomaterials that are cost effective, water soluble, optically photostable, highly fluorescent and biocompatible for bioimaging applications is a challenging task. Similar to semiconducting quantum dots (QDs), silicon QDs are another alternative and are highly fluorescent, but non-water soluble. Several surface modification strategies were adopted to make them water soluble. However, the photoluminescence of Si QDs was seriously quenched in the aqueous environment. In this report, highly luminescent, water-dispersible, blue- and green-emitting Si QDs were prepared with good photostability. In vitro studies in monocytes reveal that Si QDs exhibit good biocompatibility and excellent distribution throughout the cytoplasm region, along with the significant fraction translocated into the nucleus. The in vivo zebrafish studies also reveal that Si QDs can be evenly distributed in the yolk-sac region. Overall, our results demonstrate the applicability of water-soluble and highly fluorescent Si QDs as excellent in vitro and in vivo bioimaging probes.

  14. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of breast cancer: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An emerging clinical modality called proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) enables the non-invasive in vivo assessment of tissue metabolism and is demonstrating applications in improving the specificity of MR breast lesion diagnosis and monitoring tumour responsiveness to neoadjuvant chemotherapies. Variations in the concentration of choline-based cellular metabolites, detectable with 1H-MRS, have shown an association with malignant transformation of tissue in in vivo and in vitro studies. 1H-MRS exists as an adjunct to the current routine clinical breast MR examination. This review serves as an introduction to the field of breast 1H-MRS, discusses modern high-field strength and quantitative approaches and technical considerations, and reviews the literature with respect to the application of 1H-MRS for breast cancer. PMID:22515594

  15. Rationally designed fluorogenic protease reporter visualizes spatiotemporal dynamics of apoptosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    To, Tsz-Leung; Piggott, Beverly J; Makhijani, Kalpana; Yu, Dan; Jan, Yuh Nung; Shu, Xiaokun

    2015-03-17

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based reporters have been widely used in imaging cell signaling; however, their in vivo application has been handicapped because of poor signal. Although fluorogenic reporters overcome this problem, no such reporter of proteases has been demonstrated for in vivo imaging. Now we have redesigned an infrared fluorescent protein so that its chromophore incorporation is regulated by protease activity. Upon protease activation, the infrared fluorogenic protease reporter becomes fluorescent with no requirement of exogenous cofactor. To demonstrate biological applications, we have designed an infrared fluorogenic executioner-caspase reporter, which reveals spatiotemporal coordination between cell apoptosis and embryonic morphogenesis, as well as dynamics of apoptosis during tumorigenesis in Drosophila. The designed scaffold may be used to engineer reporters of other proteases with specific cleavage sequence. PMID:25733847

  16. Formaldehyde-mediated DNA-protein crosslinking: a probe for in vivo chromatin structures

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, M.J.; Varshavsky, A.

    1985-10-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) produces DNA-protein crosslinks both in vitro and in vivo. Simian virus 40 (SV40) chromosomes that have been fixed by prolonged incubation with HCHO either in vitro or in vivo (within SV40-infected cells) can be converted to nearly protein-free DNA by limit-digestion with Pronase in the presence of NaDodSO/sub 4/. The remaining Pronase-resistant DNA-peptide adducts retard the DNA upon gel electrophoresis, allowing resolution of free and crosslink-containing DNA. Though efficiently crosslinking histones to DNA within nucleosomes both in vitro and in vivo, HCHO does not crosslink either purified lac repressor to lac operator-containing DNA or an (A + T)-DNA-binding protein (..cap alpha..-protein) to its cognate DNA in vitro. Furthermore, a protein that does not bind to DNA, such as serum albumin, is not crosslinked to DNA by HCHO even at extremely high protein concentrations. These properties of HCHO as a DNA-protein crosslinker are used to probe the distribution of nucleosomes in vivo. It is shown that there are no HCHO-crosslinkable DNA-protein contacts in a subset of SV40 chromosomes in vivo within a 325-base-pair stretch that spans the exposed (nuclease-hypersensitive) region of the SV40 chromosomes. This replication origin-proximal region has been found previously to lack nucleosomes in a subset of isolated SV40 chromosomes. Other applications of the HCHO technique are discussed, including the possibility of obtaining base-resolution in vivo nucleosome footprints.

  17. In vivo stimulation of CD137 broadens primary antiviral CD8+ T cell responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Scott Halstead; Yvonne M. Mueller; John D. Altman; Peter D. Katsikis

    2002-01-01

    Given the key role CD8+ T cells play in controlling viral infection, strategies to enhance these responses may have important clinical applications. We found that in vivo CD137 stimulation with an agonistic monoclonal antibody enhanced the primary CD8+ T cell response to influenza type A viral infection in mice. Stimulation of CD137 increased the absolute number of CD8+ T cells

  18. In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhangyi; Petrig, Benno L; Qi, Xiaofeng; Burns, Stephen A

    2008-08-18

    In vivo measurement of retinal blood flow is obtained by measuring the blood velocity of erythrocytes and lumen diameters of the blood vessels using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Erythrocyte velocity is measured by tracking erythrocytes moving across a horizontal scanning line. This approach provides high temporal bandwidth measurements, allowing the fluctuation of blood flow during cardiac cycles to be measured. The technique is most applicable to medium-sized blood vessels. PMID:18711513

  19. In Vivo Binding and Retention of CD4Specific DARPin 57.2 in Macaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Pugach; Anders Krarup; Agegnehu Gettie; Marcelo Kuroda; James Blanchard; Michael Piatak; Jeffrey D. Lifson; Alexandra Trkola; Melissa Robbiani

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe recently described Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin) technology can produce highly selective ligands to a variety of biological targets at a low production cost.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo investigate the in vivo use of DARPins for future application to novel anti-HIV strategies, we identified potent CD4-specific DARPins that recognize rhesus CD4 and followed the fate of intravenously injected CD4-specific DARPin 57.2 in

  20. Pinhole SPECT: An approach to in vivo high resolution SPECT imaging in small laboratory animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Weber; M. Ivanovic; D. Franceschi

    1994-01-01

    The performance of pinhole SPECT and the application of this technology to investigate the localization properties of radiopharmaceuticals in vivo in small laboratory animals are presented. System sensitivity and spatial resolution measurements of a rotating scintillation camera system are made for a low-energy pinhole collimator equipped with 1.0-, 2.0- and 3.3-mm aperture pinhole inserts. The spatial detail offered by pinhole

  1. In vivo carotid artery closure by laser activation of hyaluronan-embedded gold nanorods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Matteini; Fulvio Ratto; Francesca Rossi; Giacomo Rossi; Giuseppe Esposito; Alfredo Puca; Alessio Albanese; Giulio Maira; Roberto Pini

    2010-01-01

    We prove the first application of near-infrared-absorbing gold nanorods (GNRs) for in vivo laser closure of a rabbit carotid artery. GNRs are first functionalized with a biopolymeric shell and then embedded in hyaluronan, which gives a stabilized and handy laser-activable formulation. Four rabbits undergo closure of a 3-mm longitudinal incision performed on the carotid artery by means of a 810-nm

  2. Tunable Delivery of siRNA from a Biodegradable Scaffold to Promote Angiogenesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christopher E.; Kim, Arnold J.; Adolph, Elizabeth J.; Gupta, Mukesh K.; Yu, Fang; Hocking, Kyle M.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Guelcher, Scott A.; Duvall, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    A system has been engineered for temporally controlled delivery of siRNA from biodegradable tissue regenerative scaffolds. Therapeutic application of this approach to silence prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 promoted expression of pro-angiogenic genes controlled by HIF1? and enhanced scaffold vascularization in vivo. This technology provides a new standard for efficient and controllable gene silencing to modulate host response within regenerative biomaterials. PMID:24338842

  3. Contrast enhancement using curd and contrast agent mixtures for ex vivo vessel imaging in computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Obert, M; Kohl, L M; Graf, N; Krombach, G A; Verhoff, M A

    2014-10-01

    We describe a cheap and efficient method for filling the vascular space of ex vivo tissue samples with a radiopaque material that can be used in computed tomography imaging. The filling material consists of curd, water, and a radiological contrast agent. Viscosity ranges and the degree of attenuation of X-rays of the filling material can be easily adjusted to the requirements of a specific application. The method is non-destructive and without negative effects on subsequent histological examinations. PMID:24648237

  4. Radio-frequency thermal ablation with hypertonic saline solution injection of the lung: ex vivo and in vivo feasibility studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong Min Lee; Ji Hyun Youk; Young Kon Kim; Young Min Han; Gyung Ho Chung; Sang Yong Lee; Chong Soo Kim

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of simultaneous instillation of NaCl solutions during radio-frequency ablation\\u000a (RFA) on the dimension of the ablated lesion in ex vivo bovine lung tissue and in vivo rabbit lung tissue. The RFA was induced\\u000a in ex vivo bovine lung tissue which was inflated with room air and in vivo rabbit lung

  5. Evaluation of indomethacin percutaneous absorption from nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC): in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Maurizio; Puglia, Carmelo; Bonina, Francesco; Di Giovanni, Caterina; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation, in vitro and in vivo, of indomethacin (IND) release through the skin from nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). NLC were prepared by ultrasonication, and were characterized in order to determine drug content, and particle size; finally the NLC were processed to hydrogels (A and B). The IND release pattern from NLC hydrogels was evaluated in vitro, to determine its percutaneous absorption through excised human skin (stratum corneum and epidermis, SCE), and in vivo. To evaluate the in vivo IND release, two methods were employed: (1) the IND topical anti-inflammatory activity was determined at different time-points after its cutaneous application; in this case, the UVB-induced erythema on healthy human volunteers, chosen as inflammatory model, was monitored by reflectance visible spectrophotometry; (2) the extent of IND absorption into human skin was performed by the tape-stripping technique. The in vitro percutaneous absorption studies showed lower fluxes of IND through SCE membranes from NLC hydrogels (A and B) in comparison to an aqueous dispersion (C) and a hydro-alcoholic gel (D) both containing free IND. The findings from the former in vivo method showed that the anti-inflammatory effect, following IND topical application, was more prolonged with IND-loaded NLC gel formulation (A) if compared to formulation C and D. The results from tape stripping technique confirmed the trend obtained by the former in vivo method and indicated that IND topical bioavailability in the stratum corneum varied substantially depending upon the formulations (A-D). PMID:15793804

  6. Noninvasive visualization of in vivo release and intratumoral distribution of surrogate MR contrast agent using the dual MR contrast technique

    PubMed Central

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Jacobs, Igor; Artemov, Dmitri; Kato, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    A direct evaluation of the in vivo release profile of drugs from carriers is a clinical demand in drug delivery systems, because drug release characterized in vitro correlates poorly with in vivo release. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the in vivo applicability of the dual MR contrast technique as a useful tool for noninvasive monitoring of the stability and the release profile of drug carriers, by visualizing in vivo release of the encapsulated surrogate MR contrast agent from carriers and its subsequent intratumoral distribution profile. The important aspect of this technique is that it incorporates both positive and negative contrast agents within a single carrier. GdDTPA, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, and 5-fluorouracil were encapsulated in nano- and microspheres composed of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide), and which was used for a model carrier. In vivo studies were performed with orthotopic xenograft of human breast cancer. The MR-based technique demonstrated here has enabled visualization of the delivery of carriers, and release and intratumoral distribution of the encapsulated positive contrast agent. This study demonstrated proof-of-principle results for the noninvasive monitoring of in vivo release and distribution profiles of MR contrast agents, and thus, this technique will make a great contribution to the field. PMID:20580427

  7. Near-infrared quantum-dot-based non-invasive in vivo imaging of squamous cell carcinoma U14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yu'an; Yang, Kai; Li, Zhigang; Zhao, Cheng; Shi, Chunmeng; Yang, Jia

    2010-11-01

    Near-infrared (near-ir) quantum dots (QDs) are well known for their excellent optical characteristics. They hold great potential for applications in non-invasive long term observation and tracing of cells in vivo. Here, near-ir QDs with an emission wavelength of 800 nm (QD800) were used to label squamous cell carcinoma cell line U14 (U14/QD800). The effect of tissue depth and animal fur on the imaging sensitivity and stability was evaluated following subcutaneous and intramuscular injection into Kunming mice, employing an in vivo imaging system. We have demonstrated that QD800-based visual in vivo imaging increased the sensitivity of cancer early detection by a factor of 100 compared with traditional detection methods. More importantly, this study proved for the first time that animal fur has a serious impact on the detection sensitivity and duration of QD-based in vivo imaging. In general, the duration and sensitivity of QD800 for in vivo imaging were not greatly affected by a depth less than 1.8 ± 0.21 mm (subcutaneous or intramuscular). This study provides critical reference data for further research on near-ir QD-based early detection and in vivo visual observation of cancer.

  8. Quantum dots: bright and versatile in vitro and in vivo fluorescence imaging biosensors.

    PubMed

    Wegner, K David; Hildebrandt, Niko

    2015-07-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have become important fluorescent probes for in vitro and in vivo bioimaging research. Their nanoparticle surfaces for versatile bioconjugation, their adaptable photophysical properties for multiplexed detection, and their superior stability for longer investigation times are the main advantages of QDs compared to other fluorescence imaging agents. Here, we review the recent literature dealing with the design and application of QD-bioconjugates for advanced in vitro and in vivo imaging. After a short summary of QD preparation and their most important properties, different QD-based imaging applications will be discussed from the technological and the biological point of view, ranging from super-resolution microscopy and single-particle tracking over in vitro cell and tissue imaging to in vivo investigations. A substantial part of the review will focus on multifunctional applications, in which the QD fluorescence is combined with drug or gene delivery towards theranostic approaches or with complementary technologies for multimodal imaging. We also briefly discuss QD toxicity issues and give a short outlook on future directions of QD-based bioimaging. PMID:25777768

  9. Quercetin in w/o microemulsion: in vitro and in vivo skin penetration and efficacy against UVB-induced skin damages evaluated in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Simi, Thaís R M; Del Ciampo, José O; Wolga, Nilce O; Pitol, Dimitrius L; Iyomasa, Mamie M; Bentley, M Vitória L B; Fonseca, Maria J V

    2008-08-01

    The present study evaluated the potential of a w/o microemulsion as a topical carrier system for delivery of the antioxidant quercetin. Topical and transdermal delivery of quercetin were evaluated in vitro using porcine ear skin mounted on a Franz diffusion cell and in vivo on hairless-skin mice. Skin irritation by topical application of the microemulsion containing quercetin, and the protective effect of the formulation on UVB-induced decrease of endogenous reduced glutathione levels and increase of cutaneous proteinase secretion/activity were also investigated. The w/o microemulsion increased the penetration of quercetin into the stratum corneum and epidermis plus dermis at 3, 6, 9 and 12h post-application in vitro and in vivo at 6h post-application. No transdermal delivery of quercetin occurred. By evaluating established endpoints of skin irritation (erythema formation, epidermis thickening and infiltration of inflammatory cells), the study demonstrated that the daily application of the w/o microemulsion for up to 2 days did not cause skin irritation. W/o microemulsion containing quercetin significantly prevented the UVB irradiation-induced GSH depletion and secretion/activity of metalloproteinases. PMID:18304790

  10. Invadopodia and basement membrane invasion in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lohmer, Lauren L; Kelley, Laura C; Hagedorn, Elliott J; Sherwood, David R

    2014-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, protrusive, F-actin-based membrane structures, termed invadopodia, were identified in highly metastatic cancer cell lines. Invadopodia penetrate artificial or explanted extracellular matrices in 2D culture conditions and have been hypothesized to facilitate the migration of cancer cells through basement membrane, a thin, dense, barrier-like matrix surrounding most tissues. Despite intensive study, the identification of invadopodia in vivo has remained elusive and until now their possible roles during invasion or even existence have remained unclear. Studies in remarkably different cellular contexts—mouse tumor models, zebrafish intestinal epithelia, and C. elegans organogenesis—have recently identified invadopodia structures associated with basement membrane invasion. These studies are providing the first in vivo insight into the regulation, function, and role of these fascinating subcellular devices with critical importance to both development and human disease. PMID:24717190

  11. In vivo imaging of pancreatic endocrine islets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villiger, Martin; Goulley, Joan; Pache, Christophe; Friedrich, Michael; Grapin-Botton, Anne; Meda, Paolo; Leitgeb, Rainer; Lasser, Theo

    2009-07-01

    Extended focus optical coherence microscope (xfOCM) circumvents the compromise between lateral resolution and depth of field by us of a Bessel-like illumination beam. The high sensitivity and parallel depth profiling of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography are preserved, and combined with high isotropic resolution of 1.5 - 2 ?m. To comply with the requirements for in vivo measurements, beam scanning had to be implemented. We then performed measurements, first of excised pancreas, validated by standard immunohistochemistry, to investigate the structures that can be observed. For a quantitative analysis, a semi-automatic islet detection algorithm evaluated the islet size, position, contrast and homogeneity. The influence of streptozotocin on the signature of the islets was investigated in a next step. Finally, xfOCM was applied to make measurements of the murine pancreas in situ and in vivo, visualizing pancreatic lobules, ducts, blood vessels and individual islets of Langerhans.

  12. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of SLA titanium surfaces with further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment

    E-print Network

    Zheng, Yufeng

    In vitro and in vivo evaluation of SLA titanium surfaces with further alkali or hydrogen peroxide evaluation of SLA titanium surfaces with further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment E W Zhang1) plus further alkali or hydrogen peroxide and heat treatment for dental implant application. Pure

  13. Biophysical characteristics of radiofrequency lesion formation in vivo: Dynamics of catheter tip–tissue contact evaluated by intracardiac echocardiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Kalman; Adam P. Fitzpatrick; Jeffrey E. Olgin; Michael C. Chin; Randall J. Lee; Melvin M. Scheinman; Michael D. Lesh

    1997-01-01

    During clinical radiofrequency catheter ablation a wide range of delivered power may be necessary to achieve success despite an apparently stable catheter position on fluoroscopy. The purpose of this study was to use intracardiac echocardiography to characterize the relation between catheter tip–tissue contact and the efficiency of heating during applications of radiofrequency energy in vivo and to determine whether intracardiac

  14. SMALL AMPLIFED RNA- SERIAL ANALYSIS OF GENE EXPRESSION (SAR-SAGE) FROM PORCINE BLASTOCYSTS PRODUCED IN VIVO OR IN VITRO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of embryos in vitro has enormous potential for research and commercial applications in livestock. Unfortunately, in vitro production (IVP) of porcine embryos is extremely inefficient with these embryos developing inferior to their in vivo-produced (IVO) counterparts. Characterization of...

  15. Contrast and depth enhancement in two-photon microscopy of human skin ex vivo by use of optical clearing agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Cicchi; F. S. Pavone; D. Massi; D. D. Sampson

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the application of hyperosmotic optical clearing agents to improve the image contrast and penetration depth in two-photon microscopy of human dermis ex vivo. We show that the agents glycerol, propylene glycol, and glucose all convey significant improvements and we provide results on their dynamic behaviour and the reversibility of the effect. At suitable concentrations, such agents have the

  16. In vivo frequency domain optoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Kellnberger, Stephan; Deliolanis, Nikolaos C; Queirós, Daniel; Sergiadis, George; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-08-15

    Optoacoustic imaging has been primarily implemented in the time domain, i.e., using ultrashort nanosecond laser pulses for illumination. Alternatively, frequency domain optoacoustic imaging can be performed when employing amplitude modulated light sources. We present herein a tomographic implementation of optoacoustic imaging using a linear frequency modulated laser source. The method developed demonstrated the ability to produce tomographic images of optical absorbing phantoms and in vivo images, by enabling visualization of the mouse tail following ICG injection. PMID:23381278

  17. Noninvasive in vivo monitoring of extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Lai, Charles P; Tannous, Bakhos A; Breakefield, Xandra O

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) including exosomes and microvesicles are nanometer-sized vesicles released by cells to deliver lipids, cellular proteins, mRNAs, and noncoding RNAs, thereby facilitating intercellular communication without direct cell-to-cell contacts. Due to their nanoscale size, EVs have been visualized under microscopy in vitro. We here describe a strategy to label EVs with Gaussia luciferase for noninvasive bioluminescence imaging and monitoring of systemically administered EVs in vivo. PMID:24166382

  18. In Vivo Radiobioassay and Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Timothy P.

    2011-02-01

    Bioassay monitoring for intakes of radioactive material is an essential part of the internal dosimetry program for radiation workers at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site. This monitoring program includes direct measurements of radionuclides in the body by detecting photons that exit the body and analyses of radionuclides in excreta samples. The specialized equipment and instrumentation required to make the direct measurements of these materials in the body are located at the In Vivo Radiobioassay and Research Facility (IVRRF). The IVRRF was originally built in 1960 and was designed expressly for the in vivo measurement of radioactive material in Hanford workers. Most routine in vivo measurements are performed annually and special measurements are performed as needed. The primary source terms at the Hanford Site include fission and activation products (primarily 137Cs and 90Sr), uranium, uranium progeny, and transuranic radionuclides. The facility currently houses five shielded counting systems, men’s and women’s change rooms and an instrument maintenance and repair shop. Four systems include high purity germanium detectors and one system utilizes large sodium iodide detectors. These systems are used to perform an average of 7,000 measurements annually. This includes approximately 5000 whole body measurements analyzed for fission and activation products and 2000 lung measurements analyzed for americium, uranium, and plutonium. Various other types of measurements are performed periodically to estimate activity in wounds, the thyroid, the liver, and the skeleton. The staff maintains the capability to detect and quantify activity in essentially any tissue or organ. The in vivo monitoring program that utilizes the facility is accredited by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program for direct radiobioassay.

  19. Laser nanosurgery of cerebellar axons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Allegra Mascaro, Anna L; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2014-01-01

    Only a few neuronal populations in the central nervous system (CNS) of adult mammals show local regrowth upon dissection of their axon. In order to understand the mechanism that promotes neuronal regeneration, an in-depth analysis of the neuronal types that can remodel after injury is needed. Several studies showed that damaged climbing fibers are capable of regrowing also in adult animals. The investigation of the time-lapse dynamics of degeneration and regeneration of these axons within their complex environment can be performed by time-lapse two-photon fluorescence (TPF) imaging in vivo. This technique is here combined with laser surgery, which proved to be a highly selective tool to disrupt fluorescent structures in the intact mouse cortex. This protocol describes how to perform TPF time-lapse imaging and laser nanosurgery of single axonal branches in the cerebellum in vivo. Olivocerebellar neurons are labeled by anterograde tracing with a dextran-conjugated dye and then monitored by TPF imaging through a cranial window. The terminal portion of their axons are then dissected by irradiation with a Ti:Sapphire laser at high power. The degeneration and potential regrowth of the damaged neuron are monitored by TPF in vivo imaging during the days following the injury. PMID:25146130

  20. Shigella impairs T lymphocyte dynamics in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Celli, Susanna; Arena, Ellen T.; Nothelfer, Katharina; Roux, Pascal; Sellge, Gernot; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Bousso, Philippe; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Phalipon, Armelle

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri is responsible for the endemic form of bacillary dysentery, an acute rectocolitis in humans. S. flexneri uses a type III secretion system to inject effector proteins into host cells, thus diverting cellular functions to its own benefit. Protective immunity to reinfection requires several rounds of infection to be elicited and is short-lasting, suggesting that S. flexneri interferes with the priming of specific immunity. Considering the key role played by T-lymphocyte trafficking in priming of adaptive immunity, we investigated the impact of S. flexneri on T-cell dynamics in vivo. By using two-photon microscopy to visualize bacterium–T-cell cross-talks in the lymph nodes, where the adaptive immunity is initiated, we provide evidence that S. flexneri, via its type III secretion system, impairs the migration pattern of CD4+ T cells independently of cognate recognition of bacterial antigens. We show that bacterial invasion of CD4+ T lymphocytes occurs in vivo, and results in cell migration arrest. In the absence of invasion, CD4+ T-cell migration parameters are also dramatically altered. Signals resulting from S. flexneri interactions with subcapsular sinus macrophages and dendritic cells, and recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells are likely to contribute to this phenomenon. These findings indicate that S. flexneri targets T lymphocytes in vivo and highlight the role of type III effector secretion in modulating host adaptive immune responses. PMID:23417297