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1

Lifetime-based photoacoustic oxygen sensing in vivo  

PubMed Central

Abstract. The determination of oxygen levels in blood and other tissues in vivo is critical for ensuring proper body functioning, for monitoring the status of many diseases, such as cancer, and for predicting the efficacy of therapy. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, a lifetime-based photoacoustic technique for the measurement of oxygen in vivo, using an oxygen sensitive dye, enabling real time quantification of blood oxygenation. The results from the main artery in the rat tail indicated that the lifetime of the dye, quantified by the photoacoustic technique, showed a linear relationship with the blood oxygenation levels in the targeted artery.

Ray, Aniruddha; Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Lee, Yong-Eun Koo; Wang, Xueding; Kopelman, Raoul

2012-01-01

2

Oxygen Sensing Mesenchymal Progenitors Promote Neo-Vasculogenesis in a Humanized Mouse Model In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Despite insights into the molecular pathways regulating hypoxia-induced gene expression, it is not known which cell types accomplish oxygen sensing during neo-vasculogenesis. We have developed a humanized mouse model of endothelial and mesenchymal progenitor co-transplantation to delineate the cellular compartments responsible for hypoxia response during vasculogenesis. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSPCs) accumulated nuclear hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1? earlier and more sensitively than endothelial colony forming progenitor cells (ECFCs) in vitro and in vivo. Hypoxic ECFCs showed reduced function in vitro and underwent apoptosis within 24h in vivo when used without MSPCs. Surprisingly, only in MSPCs did pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of HIF-1? abrogate neo-vasculogenesis. HIF deletion in ECFCs caused no effect. ECFCs could be rescued from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by HIF-competent MSPCs resulting in the formation of patent perfused human vessels. Several angiogenic factors need to act in concert to partially substitute mesenchymal HIF-deficiency. Results demonstrate that ECFCs require HIF-competent vessel wall progenitors to initiate vasculogenesis in vivo and to bypass hypoxia-induced apoptosis. We describe a novel mechanistic role of MSPCs as oxygen sensors promoting vasculogenesis thus underscoring their importance for the development of advanced cellular therapies.

Hofmann, Nicole A.; Ortner, Anna; Jacamo, Rodrigo O.; Reinisch, Andreas; Schallmoser, Katharina; Rohban, Rokhsareh; Etchart, Nathalie; Fruehwirth, Margareta; Beham-Schmid, Christine; Andreeff, Michael; Strunk, Dirk

2012-01-01

3

Solid MRI contrast agents for long-term, quantitative in vivo oxygen sensing.  

PubMed

Targeted MRI contrast agents have proven useful in research and clinical studies for highlighting specific metabolites and biomarkers [Davies GL, et al. (2013) Chem Commun (Camb) 49(84):9704-9721] but their applicability in serial imaging is limited owing to a changing concentration postinjection. Solid enclosures have previously been used to keep the local concentration of contrast agent constant, but the need to surgically implant these devices limits their use [Daniel K, et al. (2009) Biosens Bioelectron 24(11):3252-3257]. This paper describes a novel class of contrast agent that comprises a responsive material for contrast generation and an injectable polymeric matrix for structural support. Using this principle, we have designed a contrast agent sensitive to oxygen, which is composed of dodecamethylpentasiloxane as the responsive material and polydimethylsiloxane as the matrix material. A rodent inspired-gas model demonstrated that these materials are functionally stable in vivo for at least 1 mo, which represents an order of magnitude improvement over an injection of liquid siloxane [Kodibagkar VD, et al. (2006) Magn Reson Med 55(4):743-748]. We also observed minimal adverse tissue reactions or migration of contrast agents from the initial injection site. This class of contrast agents, thus, represented a new and complementary method to monitor chronic diseases by MRI. PMID:24753603

Liu, Vincent H; Vassiliou, Christophoros C; Imaad, Syed M; Cima, Michael J

2014-05-01

4

Reactive Oxygen Species and Cellular Oxygen Sensing  

PubMed Central

Many organisms activate adaptive transcriptional programs to help them cope with decreased oxygen levels, or hypoxia, in their environment. These responses are triggered by various oxygen sensing systems in bacteria, yeast and metazoans. In metazoans, the hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) mediate the adaptive transcriptional response to hypoxia by upregulating genes involved in maintaining bioenergetic homeostasis. The HIFs in turn are regulated by HIF-specific prolyl hydroxlase activity, which is sensitive to cellular oxygen levels and other factors such as tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Establishing a role for ROS in cellular oxygen sensing has been challenging since ROS are intrinsically unstable and difficult to measure. However, recent advances in fluorescence energy transfer resonance (FRET)-based methods for measuring ROS are alleviating some of the previous difficulties associated with dyes and luminescent chemicals. In addition, new genetic models have demonstrated that functional mitochondrial electron transport and associated ROS production during hypoxia are required for HIF stabilization in mammalian cells. Current efforts are directed at how ROS mediate prolyl hydroxylase activity and hypoxic HIF stabilization. Progress in understanding this process has been enhanced by the development of the FRET-based ROS probe, an vivo prolyl hydroxylase reporter and various genetic models harboring mutations in components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

Cash, Timothy P; Pan, Yi; Simon, M. Celeste

2008-01-01

5

Influence of Matrices on Oxygen Sensing of Three Sensing Films with Chemically Conjugated Platinum Porphyrin Probes and Preliminary Application for Monitoring of Oxygen Consumption of Escherichia coli (E. coli)  

PubMed Central

Oxygen sensing films were synthesized by a chemical conjugation of functional platinum porphyrin probes in silica gel, polystyrene (PS), and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) matrices. Responses of the sensing films to gaseous oxygen and dissolved oxygen were studied and the influence of the matrices on the sensing behaviors was investigated. Silica gel films had the highest fluorescence intensity ratio from deoxygenated to oxygenated environments and the fastest response time to oxygen. PHEMA films had no response to gaseous oxygen, but had greater sensitivity and a faster response time for dissolved oxygen than those of PS films. The influence of matrices on oxygen response, sensitivity and response time was discussed. The influence is most likely attributed to the oxygen diffusion abilities of the matrices. Since the probes were chemically immobilized in the matrices, no leaching of the probes was observed from the sensing films when applied in aqueous environment. One sensing film made from the PHEMA matrix was used to preliminarily monitor the oxygen consumption of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. E. coli cell density and antibiotics ampicillin concentration dependent oxygen consumption was observed, indicating the potential application of the oxygen sensing film for biological application.

Tian, Yanqing; Shumway, Bradley R.; Gao, Weimin; Youngbull, Cody; Holl, Mark R.; Johnson, Roger H.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

2010-01-01

6

A miniature inexpensive, oxygen sensing element  

SciTech Connect

An exhaustive study was conducted to determine the feasibility of Nernst-type oxygen sensors based on ceramics containing Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The basic sensor design consisted of a ceramic sensing module sealed into a metal tube. The module accommodated an internal heater and thermocouple. Thermal-expansion-matched metals, adhesives, and seals were researched and developed, consistent with sequential firings during sensor assembly. Significant effort was devoted to heater design/testing and to materials' compatibility with Pt electrodes. A systematic approach was taken to develop all sensor components which led to several design modifications. Prototype sensors were constructed and exhaustively tested. It is concluded that development of Nerst-type oxygen sensors based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} will require much further effort and application of specialized technologies. However, during the course of this 3-year program much progress was reported in the literature on amperometric-type oxygen sensors, and a minor effort was devoted here to this type of sensor based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These studies were made on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ceramic samples in a multilayer-capacitor-type geometry and amperometric-type oxygen sensing was demonstrated at very low temperatures ({approximately} 160{degree}C). A central advantage here is that these types of sensors can be mass-produced very inexpensively ({approximately} 20--50 cents per unit). Research is needed, however, to develop an optimum diffusion-limiting barrier coating. In summary, the original goals of this program were not achieved due to unforeseen problems with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based Nernst sensors. However, a miniature amperometric sensor base on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was demonstrated in this program, and it is now seen that this latter sensor is far superior to the originally proposed Nernst sensor. 6 refs., 24 figs.

Arenz, R.W.

1991-10-07

7

Dissolved oxygen sensing using organometallic dyes deposited within a microfluidic environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work primarily aims to integrate dissolved oxygen sensing capability with a microfluidic platform containing arrays of micro bio-reactors or bio-activity indicators. The measurement of oxygen concentration is of significance for a variety of bio-related applications such as cell culture and gene expression. Optical oxygen sensors based on luminescence quenching are gaining much interest in light of their low power consumption, quick response and high analyte sensitivity in comparison to similar oxygen sensing devices. In our microfluidic oxygen sensor device, a thin layer of oxygen-sensitive luminescent organometallic dye is covalently bonded to a glass slide. Micro flow channels are formed on the glass slide using patterned PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane). Dissolved oxygen sensing is then performed by directing an optical excitation probe beam to the area of interest within the microfluidic channel. The covalent bonding approach for sensor layer formation offers many distinct advantages over the physical entrapment method including minimizing dye leaching, ensuring good stability and fabrication simplicity. Experimental results confirm the feasibility of the device.

Chen, Q. L.; Ho, H. P.; Jin, L.; Chu, B. W.-K.; Li, M. J.; Yam, V. W.-W.

2008-03-01

8

Oxygen Sensing, Cardiac Ischemia, HIF-1? and Some Emerging Concepts  

PubMed Central

Oxygen plays a critical role in the perpetuation and propagation of almost all forms of life. The primary site of cellular oxygen consumption is the mitochondrial electron transport chain and in addition, oxygen is also used as a substrate for various enzymes involved in cellular homeostasis. Although our knowledge of the biochemistry and physiology of oxygen transport is century old, recent development of sophisticated tools of biophysical chemistry revealed that tissue oxygenation and oxygen sensing is a highly evolved process, especially in mammals. Perturbation of normal oxygen supply is associated with diseases like tumorigenesis, myocardial infarction and stroke. Available information suggests that when tissue oxygen supply is limited, mitochondria emanate signals involving reactive oxygen species generation which in turn stabilizes oxygen sensing transcription factor HIF-1. Upon stabilization, HIF-1 elicits necessary genetic response to cope with the diminished oxygen level. In view of such critical role of HIF-1 in cellular oxygen sensing, recently there has been a heightened interest in understanding the biology of HIF-1 in the context of cardiovascular system. The following review describes some of the recent advances in this regard.

Goswami, Shyamal K; Das, Dipak K

2010-01-01

9

Multifunctional mesoporous nanocomposites with magnetic, optical, and sensing features: synthesis, characterization, and their oxygen-sensing performance.  

PubMed

In this paper, the fabrication, characterization, and application in oxygen sensing are reported for a novel multifunctional nanomaterial of [Ru(bpy)(2)phen-MMS] (bpy, 2,2'-bipyridyl; phen, phenathrolin) which was simply prepared by covalently grafting the ruthenium(II) polypyridyl compounds into the channels of magnetic mesoporous silica nanocomposites (MMS). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N(2) adsorption-desorption, a superconducting quantum interference device, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectra were used to characterize the samples. The well-designed multifunctional nanocomposites show superparamagnetic behavior and ordered mesoporous characteristics and exhibit a strong red-orange metal-to-ligand charge transfer emission. In addition, the obtained nanocomposites give high performance in oxygen sensing with high sensitivity (I(0)/I(100) = 5.2), good Stern-Volmer characteristics (R(2) = 0.9995), and short response/recovery times (t? = 6 s and t? = 12 s). The magnetic, mesoporous, luminescent, and oxygen-sensing properties of this multifunctional nanostructure make it hold great promise as a novel multifunctional oxygen-sensing system for chemical/biosensor. PMID:23286606

Wang, Yanyan; Li, Bin; Zhang, Liming; Song, Hang

2013-01-29

10

Ceramide Mediates Acute Oxygen Sensing in Vascular Tissues  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: A variety of vessels, such as resistance pulmonary arteries (PA) and fetoplacental arteries and the ductus arteriosus (DA) are specialized in sensing and responding to changes in oxygen tension. Despite opposite stimuli, normoxic DA contraction and hypoxic fetoplacental and PA vasoconstriction share some mechanistic features. Activation of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) and subsequent ceramide production has been involved in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Herein we aimed to study the possible role of nSMase-derived ceramide as a common factor in the acute oxygen-sensing function of specialized vascular tissues. Results: The nSMase inhibitor GW4869 and an anticeramide antibody reduced the hypoxic vasoconstriction in chicken PA and chorioallantoic arteries (CA) and the normoxic contraction of chicken DA. Incubation with interference RNA targeted to SMPD3 also inhibited HPV. Moreover, ceramide and reactive oxygen species production were increased by hypoxia in PA and by normoxia in DA. Either bacterial sphingomyelinase or ceramide mimicked the contractile responses of hypoxia in PA and CA and those of normoxia in the DA. Furthermore, ceramide inhibited voltage-gated potassium currents present in smooth muscle cells from PA and DA. Finally, the role of nSMase in acute oxygen sensing was also observed in human PA and DA. Innovation: These data provide evidence for the proposal that nSMase-derived ceramide is a critical player in acute oxygen-sensing in specialized vascular tissues. Conclusion: Our results indicate that an increase in ceramide generation is involved in the vasoconstrictor responses induced by two opposite stimuli, such as hypoxia (in PA and CA) and normoxia (in DA). Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1–14.

Moreno, Laura; Moral-Sanz, Javier; Morales-Cano, Daniel; Barreira, Bianca; Moreno, Enrique; Ferrarini, Alessia; Pandolfi, Rachele; Ruperez, Francisco J.; Cortijo, Julio; Sanchez-Luna, Manuel; Villamor, Eduardo; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco

2014-01-01

11

Strongly coupled bio-plasmonic system: Application to oxygen sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate theoretically the strong coupling between surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) and absorption bands of hemoglobin. When the surface plasmon resonance spectrally overlaps the absorption bands of hemoglobin, the system is strongly coupled and its dispersion diagram exhibits an anti-crossing. Working in the conditions of strong coupling enhances the sensitivity of a SPR sensor up to a factor of 10. A model for the permittivity of hemoglobin, both in oxygenated and deoxygenated states, is presented and the study is carried out for both angle and wavelength modulated SPR sensors. Finally, a differential measurement is shown to increase the sensitivity further.

Dutta-Gupta, Shourya; Martin, Olivier J. F.

2011-08-01

12

Oxygen Sensing Neurons and Neuropeptides Regulate Survival after Anoxia in Developing C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Hypoxic brain injury remains a major source of neurodevelopmental impairment for both term and preterm infants. The perinatal period is a time of rapid transition in oxygen environments and developmental resetting of oxygen sensing. The relationship between neural oxygen sensing ability and hypoxic injury has not been studied. The oxygen sensing circuitry in the model organism C. elegans is well understood. We leveraged this information to investigate the effects of impairments in oxygen sensing on survival after anoxia. There was a significant survival advantage in developing worms specifically unable to sense oxygen shifts below their preferred physiologic range via genetic ablation of BAG neurons, which appear important for conferring sensitivity to anoxia. Oxygen sensing that is mediated through guanylate cyclases (gcy-31, 33, 35) is unlikely to be involved in conferring this sensitivity. Additionally, animals unable to process or elaborate neuropeptides displayed a survival advantage after anoxia. Based on these data, we hypothesized that elaboration of neuropeptides by BAG neurons sensitized animals to anoxia, but further experiments indicate that this is unlikely to be true. Instead, it seems that neuropeptides and signaling from oxygen sensing neurons operate through independent mechanisms, each conferring sensitivity to anoxia in wild type animals.

Flibotte, John J.; Jablonski, Angela M.; Kalb, Robert G.

2014-01-01

13

In Vivo Applications of Fiberoptic Chemical Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As stated at the beginning of this volume, the term “biosensor” refers to sensors that use biomolecules in the molecular recognition\\u000a or transduction processes. Although there have been many proposals to use fiberoptic biosensors in vivo, almost all the work\\u000a to date has been in vitro. In the more general class of fiberoptic chemical sensors, in vivo applications have progressed

Amos Gottlieb; Skip Divers; Henry K. Hui

14

Pharmaceutical applications of in vivo EPR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to discuss the applications of in vivo EPR in the field of pharmacy. In addition to direct detection of free radical metabolites and measurement of oxygen, EPR can be used to characterize the mechanisms of drug release from biodegradable polymers. Unique information about drug concentration, the microenvironment (viscosity, polarity, pH) and biodistribution (by localized measurement or EPR Imaging) can be obtained.

Mäder, Karsten

1998-07-01

15

Spatially monitoring oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems using optical oxygen sensing beads  

PubMed Central

Capability of measuring and monitoring local oxygen concentration at the single cell level (tens of microns scale) is often desirable but difficult to achieve in cell culture. In this study, biocompatible oxygen sensing beads were prepared and tested for their potential for real-time monitoring and mapping of local oxygen concentration in 3D micro-patterned cell culture systems. Each oxygen sensing bead is composed of a silica core loaded with both an oxygen sensitive Ru(Ph2phen3)Cl2 dye and oxygen insensitive Nile blue reference dye, and a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shell rendering biocompatibility. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were cultivated on a series of PDMS and type I collagen based substrates patterned with micro-well arrays for 3 or 7 days, and then brought into contact with oxygen sensing beads. Using an image analysis algorithm to convert florescence intensity of beads to partial oxygen pressure in the culture system, tens of microns-size oxygen sensing beads enabled the spatial measurement of local oxygen concentration in the microfabricated system. Results generally indicated lower oxygen level inside wells than on top of wells, and local oxygen level dependence on structural features of cell culture surfaces. Interestingly, chemical composition of cell culture substrates also appeared to affect oxygen level, with type-I collagen based cell culture systems having lower oxygen concentration compared to PDMS based cell culture systems. In general, results suggest that oxygen sensing beads can be utilized to achieve real-time and local monitoring of micro-environment oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems.

Wang, Lin; Acosta, Miguel A.; Leach, Jennie B.; Carrier, Rebecca L.

2013-01-01

16

Spatially monitoring oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems using optical oxygen sensing beads.  

PubMed

Capability of measuring and monitoring local oxygen concentration at the single cell level (tens of microns scale) is often desirable but difficult to achieve in cell culture. In this study, biocompatible oxygen sensing beads were prepared and tested for their potential for real-time monitoring and mapping of local oxygen concentration in 3D micro-patterned cell culture systems. Each oxygen sensing bead is composed of a silica core loaded with both an oxygen sensitive Ru(Ph2phen3)Cl2 dye and oxygen insensitive Nile blue reference dye, and a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shell rendering biocompatibility. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were cultivated on a series of PDMS and type I collagen based substrates patterned with micro-well arrays for 3 or 7 days, and then brought into contact with oxygen sensing beads. Using an image analysis algorithm to convert florescence intensity of beads to partial oxygen pressure in the culture system, tens of microns-size oxygen sensing beads enabled the spatial measurement of local oxygen concentration in the microfabricated system. Results generally indicated lower oxygen level inside wells than on top of wells, and local oxygen level dependence on structural features of cell culture surfaces. Interestingly, chemical composition of cell culture substrates also appeared to affect oxygen level, with type-I collagen based cell culture systems having lower oxygen concentration compared to PDMS based cell culture systems. In general, results suggest that oxygen sensing beads can be utilized to achieve real-time and local monitoring of micro-environment oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems. PMID:23443975

Wang, Lin; Acosta, Miguel A; Leach, Jennie B; Carrier, Rebecca L

2013-04-21

17

Oxygen Sensing for Industrial Safety -- Evolution and New Approaches  

PubMed Central

The requirement for the detection of oxygen in industrial safety applications has historically been met by electrochemical technologies based on the consumption of metal anodes. Products using this approach have been technically and commercially successful for more than three decades. However, a combination of new requirements is driving the development of alternative approaches offering fresh opportunities and challenges. This paper reviews some key aspects in the evolution of consumable anode products and highlights recent developments in alternative technologies aimed at meeting current and anticipated future needs in this important application.

Willett, Martin

2014-01-01

18

Investigation of genetic disturbances in oxygen sensing and erythropoietin signaling pathways in cases of idiopathic erythrocytosis.  

PubMed

Background. Idiopathic erythrocytosis is the term reserved for cases with unexplained origins of abnormally increased hemoglobin after initial investigation. Extensive molecular investigation of genes associated with oxygen sensing and erythropoietin signaling pathways, in those cases, usually involves sequencing all of their exons and it may be time consuming. Aim. To perform a strategy for molecular investigation of patients with idiopathic erythrocytosis regarding oxygen sensing and erythropoietin signaling pathways. Methods. Samples of patients with idiopathic erythrocytosis were evaluated for the EPOR, VHL, PHD2, and HIF-2 ? genes using bidirectional sequencing of their hotspots. Results. One case was associated with HIF-2 ? mutation. Sequencing did not identify any pathogenic mutation in 4 of 5 cases studied in any of the studied genes. Three known nonpathogenic polymorphisms were found (VHL p.P25L, rs35460768; HIF-2 ? p.N636N, rs35606117; HIF-2 ? p.P579P, rs184760160). Conclusion. Extensive molecular investigation of cases considered as idiopathic erythrocytosis does not frequently change the treatment of the patient. However, we propose a complementary molecular investigation of those cases comprising genes associated with erythrocytosis phenotype to meet both academic and genetic counseling purposes. PMID:24363938

Dinardo, Carla Luana; Santos, Paulo Caleb Junior Lima; Schettert, Isolmar Tadeu; Soares, Renata Alonso Gadi; Krieger, Jose Eduardo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa

2013-01-01

19

Oxygen-sensing mechanisms and the regulation of redox-responsive transcription factors in development and pathophysiology  

PubMed Central

How do organisms sense the amount of oxygen in the environment and respond appropriately when the level of oxygen decreases? Oxygen sensing and the molecular stratagems underlying the process have been the focus of an endless number of investigations trying to find an answer to the question: "What is the identity of the oxygen sensor?" Dynamic changes in pO2 constitute a potential signaling mechanism for the regulation of the expression and activation of reduction-oxidation (redox)-sensitive and oxygen-responsive transcription factors, apoptosis-signaling molecules and inflammatory cytokines. The transition from placental to lung-based respiration causes a relatively hyperoxic shift or oxidative stress, which the perinatal, developing lung experiences during birth. This variation in ?pO2, in particular, differentially regulates the compartmentalization and functioning of the transcription factors hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). In addition, oxygen-evoked regulation of HIF-1? and NF-?B is closely coupled with the intracellular redox state, such that modulating redox equilibrium affects their responsiveness at the molecular level (expression/transactivation). The differential regulation of HIF-1? and NF-?B in vitro is paralleled by oxygen-sensitive and redox-dependent pathways governing the regulation of these factors during the transition from placental to lung-based respiration ex utero. The birth transition period in vivo and ex utero also regulates apoptosis signaling pathways in a redox-dependent manner, consistent with NF-?B being transcriptionally regulated in order to play an anti-apoptotic function. An association is established between oxidative stress conditions and the augmentation of an inflammatory state in pathophysiology, regulated by the oxygen- and redox-sensitive pleiotropic cytokines.

Haddad, John J

2002-01-01

20

Cellular oxygen sensing need in CNS function: physiological and pathological implications.  

PubMed

Structural and functional integrity of brain function profoundly depends on a regular oxygen and glucose supply. Any disturbance of this supply becomes life threatening and may result in severe loss of brain function. In particular, reductions in oxygen availability (hypoxia) caused by systemic or local blood circulation irregularities cannot be tolerated for longer periods due to an insufficient energy supply to the brain by anaerobic glycolysis. Hypoxia has been implicated in central nervous system pathology in a number of disorders including stroke, head trauma, neoplasia and neurodegenerative disease. Complex cellular oxygen sensing systems have evolved for tight regulation of oxygen homeostasis in the brain. In response to variations in oxygen partial pressure (P(O(2))) these induce adaptive mechanisms to avoid or at least minimize brain damage. A significant advance in our understanding of the hypoxia response stems from the discovery of the hypoxia inducible factors (HIF), which act as key regulators of hypoxia-induced gene expression. Depending on the duration and severity of the oxygen deprivation, cellular oxygen-sensor responses activate a variety of short- and long-term energy saving and cellular protection mechanisms. Hypoxic adaptation encompasses an immediate depolarization block by changing potassium, sodium and chloride ion fluxes across the cellular membrane, a general inhibition of protein synthesis, and HIF-mediated upregulation of gene expression of enzymes or growth factors inducing angiogenesis, anaerobic glycolysis, cell survival or neural stem cell growth. However, sustained and prolonged activation of the HIF pathway may lead to a transition from neuroprotective to cell death responses. This is reflected by the dual features of the HIF system that include both anti- and proapoptotic components. These various responses might be based on a range of oxygen-sensing signal cascades, including an isoform of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase, different electron carrier units of the mitochondrial chain such as a specialized mitochondrial, low P(O(2)) affinity cytochrome c oxidase (aa(3)) and a subfamily of 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases termed HIF prolyl-hydroxylase (PHD) and HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase, known as factor-inhibiting HIF (FIH-1). Thus specific oxygen-sensing cascades, by means of their different oxygen sensitivities, cell-specific and subcellular localization, may help to tailor various adaptive responses according to differences in tissue oxygen availability. PMID:15299039

Acker, Till; Acker, Helmut

2004-08-01

21

Oxygen sensing and the activation of the hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1)--invited article.  

PubMed

For mammals, oxygen sensing is fundamental to survive. An adequate response to reduced oxygen tension, herein termed hypoxia, requires an instantaneous adaptation of the respiratory and the circulatory systems. While the glomus caroticum as well as the pulmonary and systemic vasculature and potentially also the airway chemoreceptors enable a corresponding response within seconds, changes in gene expression require minutes to hours. Hypoxia-induced gene expression depends on the activation of several transcription factors. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has been identified as the key transcription factor complex that coordinates gene expression during hypoxia. To understand how abundance and activation of HIF-1 is regulated is of fundamental importance as it may open new therapeutic avenues to treat ischemic diseases or cancer where HIF-1 appears to be a key component of the pathophysiology. PMID:19536482

Fandrey, Joachim; Gassmann, Max

2009-01-01

22

Photocharacterization of novel ruthenium dyes and their utilities as oxygen sensing materials in presence of perfluorochemicals.  

PubMed

Photophysical constants of three novel ruthenium dyes derived from tridentate pyridinediimine (pydim) ligands has been declared and their photoluminescent properties were investigated in solvents of dichloromethane (DCM), tetrahydrofuran (THF) and ethanol (EtOH) by UV-Visible absorption, emission and excitation spectra. The quantum yield, fluorescence decay time, molar extinction coefficient and Stoke's shift values of the novel ruthenium complexes were determined. The perfluoro compound (PFC) nonadecafluorodecanoic acid which is also known as medical gas carrier has been used for the first time together with newly synthesized Ruthenium complexes in ethyl alcohol. The utilities of oxygen sensing materials were investigated in EtOH in presence of chemically and biochemically inert PFC. PMID:17932732

Oter, Ozlem; Ertekin, Kadriye; Dayan, Osman; Cetinkaya, Bekir

2008-03-01

23

Oxygen sensing and hypoxia signalling pathways in animals: the implications of physiology for cancer  

PubMed Central

Studies of regulation of the haematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin led to the unexpected discovery of a widespread system of direct oxygen sensing that regulates gene expression in animals. The oxygen-sensitive signal is generated by a series of non-haem Fe(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases that catalyse the post-translational hydroxylation of specific residues in the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). These hydroxylations promote both oxygen-dependent degradation and oxygen-dependent inactivation of HIF, but are suppressed in hypoxia, leading to the accumulation of HIF and assembly of an active transcriptional complex in hypoxic cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor activates an extensive transcriptional cascade that interfaces with other cell signalling pathways, microRNA networks and RNA–protein translational control systems. The relationship of these cellular signalling pathways to the integrated physiology of oxygen homeostasis and the implication of dysregulating these massive physiological pathways in diseases such as cancer are discussed.

Ratcliffe, Peter J

2013-01-01

24

Thiosulfate: a readily accessible source of hydrogen sulfide in oxygen sensing.  

PubMed

H2S derived from organic thiol metabolism has been proposed serve as an oxygen sensor in a variety of systems because of its susceptibility to oxidation and its ability to mimic hypoxic responses in numerous oxygen-sensing tissues. Thiosulfate, an intermediate in oxidative H2S metabolism can alternatively be reduced and regenerate H2S. We propose that this contributes to the H2S-mediated oxygen-sensing mechanism. H2S formation from thiosulfate in buffers and in a variety of mammalian tissues and in lamprey dorsal aorta was examined in real time using a polarographic H2S sensor. Inferences of intracellular H2S production were made by examining hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in bovine pulmonary arteries under conditions in which increased H2S production would be expected and in mouse and rat aortas, where reducing conditions should mediate vasorelaxation. In Krebs-Henseleit (mammalian) and Cortland (lamprey) buffers, H2S was generated from thiosulfate in the presence of the exogenous reducing agent, DTT, or the endogenous reductant dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA). Both the magnitude and rate of H2S production were greatly increased by these reductants in the presence of tissue, with the most notable effects occurring in the liver. H2S production was only observed when tissues were hypoxic; exposure to room air, or injecting oxygen inhibited H2S production and resulted in net H2S consumption. Both DTT and DHLA augmented HPV, and DHLA dose-dependently relaxed precontracted mouse and rat aortas. These results indicate that thiosulfate can contribute to H2S signaling under hypoxic conditions and that this is not only a ready source of H2S production but also serves as a means of recycling sulfur and thereby conserving biologically relevant thiols. PMID:23804280

Olson, Kenneth R; Deleon, Eric R; Gao, Yan; Hurley, Kevin; Sadauskas, Victor; Batz, Catherine; Stoy, Gilbrian F

2013-09-15

25

Handheld multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for in vivo applications  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing interest in the application of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for medical diagnosis. Central to the clinical translation of FLIM technology is the development of compact and high-speed clinically compatible systems. We present a handheld probe design consisting of a small maneuverable box fitted with a rigid endoscope, capable of continuous lifetime imaging at multiple emission bands simultaneously. The system was characterized using standard fluorescent dyes. The performance was then further demonstrated by imaging a hamster cheek pouch in vivo, and oral mucosa tissue both ex vivo and in vivo, all using safe and permissible exposure levels. Such a design can greatly facilitate the evaluation of FLIM for oral cancer imaging in vivo.

Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo M.; Liu, Boang; Malik, Bilal H.; Jabbour, Joey M.; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wright, John; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Jo, Javier A.

2014-01-01

26

Handheld multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for in vivo applications.  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest in the application of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for medical diagnosis. Central to the clinical translation of FLIM technology is the development of compact and high-speed clinically compatible systems. We present a handheld probe design consisting of a small maneuverable box fitted with a rigid endoscope, capable of continuous lifetime imaging at multiple emission bands simultaneously. The system was characterized using standard fluorescent dyes. The performance was then further demonstrated by imaging a hamster cheek pouch in vivo, and oral mucosa tissue both ex vivo and in vivo, all using safe and permissible exposure levels. Such a design can greatly facilitate the evaluation of FLIM for oral cancer imaging in vivo. PMID:24688824

Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo M; Liu, Boang; Malik, Bilal H; Jabbour, Joey M; Maitland, Kristen C; Wright, John; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Jo, Javier A

2014-03-01

27

Cellular Oxygen Sensing: Crystal Structure of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase (PHD2)  

SciTech Connect

Cellular and physiological responses to changes in dioxygen levels in metazoans are mediated via the posttranslational oxidation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Hydroxylation of conserved prolyl residues in the HIF-{alpha} subunit, catalyzed by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), signals for its proteasomal degradation. The requirement of the PHDs for dioxygen links changes in dioxygen levels with the transcriptional regulation of the gene array that enables the cellular response to chronic hypoxia; the PHDs thus act as an oxygen-sensing component of the HIF system, and their inhibition mimics the hypoxic response. We describe crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human PHD2, an important prolyl-4-hydroxylase in the human hypoxic response in normal cells, in complex with Fe(II) and an inhibitor to 1.7 Angstroms resolution. PHD2 crystallizes as a homotrimer and contains a double-stranded {beta}-helix core fold common to the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependant dioxygenase family, the residues of which are well conserved in the three human PHD enzymes (PHD 1-3). The structure provides insights into the hypoxic response, helps to rationalize a clinically observed mutation leading to familial erythrocytosis, and will aid in the design of PHD selective inhibitors for the treatment of anemia and ischemic disease.

McDonough,M.; Li, V.; Flashman, E.; Chowdhury, R.; Mohr, C.; Lienard, B.; Zondlo, J.; Oldham, N.; Clifton, I.; et al.

2006-01-01

28

Cellular oxygen sensing: Crystal structure of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2)  

PubMed Central

Cellular and physiological responses to changes in dioxygen levels in metazoans are mediated via the posttranslational oxidation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Hydroxylation of conserved prolyl residues in the HIF-? subunit, catalyzed by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), signals for its proteasomal degradation. The requirement of the PHDs for dioxygen links changes in dioxygen levels with the transcriptional regulation of the gene array that enables the cellular response to chronic hypoxia; the PHDs thus act as an oxygen-sensing component of the HIF system, and their inhibition mimics the hypoxic response. We describe crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human PHD2, an important prolyl-4-hydroxylase in the human hypoxic response in normal cells, in complex with Fe(II) and an inhibitor to 1.7 Å resolution. PHD2 crystallizes as a homotrimer and contains a double-stranded ?-helix core fold common to the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependant dioxygenase family, the residues of which are well conserved in the three human PHD enzymes (PHD 1–3). The structure provides insights into the hypoxic response, helps to rationalize a clinically observed mutation leading to familial erythrocytosis, and will aid in the design of PHD selective inhibitors for the treatment of anemia and ischemic disease.

McDonough, Michael A.; Li, Vivian; Flashman, Emily; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Mohr, Christopher; Lienard, Benoit M. R.; Zondlo, James; Oldham, Neil J.; Clifton, Ian J.; Lewis, Jeffrey; McNeill, Luke A.; Kurzeja, Robert J. M.; Hewitson, Kirsty S.; Yang, Evelyn; Jordan, Steven; Syed, Rashid S.; Schofield, Christopher J.

2006-01-01

29

Diversity of magneto-aerotactic behaviors and oxygen sensing mechanisms in cultured magnetotactic bacteria.  

PubMed

Microorganisms living in gradient environments affect large-scale processes, including the cycling of elements such as carbon, nitrogen or sulfur, the rates and fate of primary production, and the generation of climatically active gases. Aerotaxis is a common adaptation in organisms living in the oxygen gradients of stratified environments. Magnetotactic bacteria are such gradient-inhabiting organisms that have a specific type of aerotaxis that allows them to compete at the oxic-anoxic interface. They biomineralize magnetosomes, intracellular membrane-coated magnetic nanoparticles, that comprise a permanent magnetic dipole that causes the cells to align along magnetic field lines. The magnetic alignment enables them to efficiently migrate toward an optimal oxygen concentration in microaerobic niches. This phenomenon is known as magneto-aerotaxis. Magneto-aerotaxis has only been characterized in a limited number of available cultured strains. In this work, we characterize the magneto-aerotactic behavior of 12 magnetotactic bacteria with various morphologies, phylogenies, physiologies, and flagellar apparatus. We report six different magneto-aerotactic behaviors that can be described as a combination of three distinct mechanisms, including the reported (di-)polar, axial, and a previously undescribed mechanism we named unipolar. We implement a model suggesting that the three magneto-aerotactic mechanisms are related to distinct oxygen sensing mechanisms that regulate the direction of cells' motility in an oxygen gradient. PMID:25028894

Lefèvre, Christopher T; Bennet, Mathieu; Landau, Livnat; Vach, Peter; Pignol, David; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Frankel, Richard B; Klumpp, Stefan; Faivre, Damien

2014-07-15

30

Molecular targets from VHL studies into the oxygen-sensing pathway.  

PubMed

Inheritance of a faulty von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene is the cause of VHL disease, a rare multisystemic autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of hypervascular tumors in a number of organs, including the retina, brain, spine, pancreas, adrenal gland, and the kidney. Recent discoveries have demonstrated that the VHL gene product pVHL serves as a substrate-recognition component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that targets hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor for polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Accordingly, tumor cells devoid of functional pVHL show an inappropriate accumulation of HIF, as well as downstream HIF-target genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic factor. Furthermore, HIF has been found to be elevated in many human cancers further underscoring its common significance in oncogenesis. These and other related recent findings have shed significant insight into the mechanisms governing mammalian cellular oxygen homeostasis and how disruptions in this oxygen-sensing pathway can lead to tumorigenesis. Next generation anti-cancer drugs will undoubtedly emerge from our understanding of the molecular pathways governing normal cellular metabolism, growth and differentiation that have gone awry during neoplastic transformation, and studies in VHL disease will serve as one of the proving grounds for the efficacy of 'designer' anti-cancer drugs tailored against the VHL-HIF pathway. PMID:16101382

Maynard, M A; Ohh, M

2005-08-01

31

An optical biopsy system with miniaturized Raman and spectral imaging probes; in vivo animal and ex vivo clinical application studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical biopsy system which equips miniaturized Raman probes, a miniaturized endoscope and a fluorescent image probe has been developed for in vivo studies of live experimental animals. The present report describes basic optical properties of the system and its application studies for in vivo cancer model animals and ex vivo human cancer tissues. It was developed two types of

Hidetoshi Sato; Toshiaki Suzuki; Bibin B. Andriana; Shin'ichi Morita; Atsushi Maruyama; Hideyuki Shinzawa; Yuichi Komachi; Gen'ichi Kanai; Nobuo Ura; Koji Masutani; Yuji Matsuura; Masakazu Toi; Toru Shimosegawa; Yukihiro Ozaki

2009-01-01

32

From spin-labeled proteins to in vivo EPR applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a historical overview of the advent of applications of spin labeling to biological systems and the subsequent developments\\u000a from the perspective of a scientist who was working as a Ph.D. student when the technique was conceived and was fortunate\\u000a enough to participate in its development. In addition, the historical development of in vivo applications of EPR on animals

Lawrence J. Berliner

2010-01-01

33

Application of in vivo laser scanning microscope in dermatology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The state of the art of in-vivo and in-vitro penetration measurements of topically applied substances is described. Only optical techniques represent online measuring methods based on the absorption or scattering properties of the topically applied substances. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) has become a promising method for investigations in dermatology and skin physiology, after it was possible to analyze the skin surface on any body side in-vivo. In the present paper the application of a dermatological laser scanning microscope for penetration and distribution measurements of topically applied substances is described. The intercellular and follicular penetration pathways were studied.

Lademann, Juergen; Richter, H.; Otberg, N.; Lawrenz, F.; Blume-Peytavi, U.; Sterry, W.

2003-10-01

34

A series of phosphorescent Cu(I) complexes and their oxygen sensing performance in SBA-15 silica matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of [Cu(N-N)(PPh3)2]BF4 complexes were synthesized and characterized in this paper, where N-N and PPh3 suggest a diamine ligand and triphenylphosphane, respectively. Their structures were revealed by single crystal analysis and density functional theory calculation. The photophysical feature comparison between those Cu(I) complexes revealed the correlation between emission performance and diamine ligand structure. In addition, it was found that the emissive states were vulnerable to O2 attack, making them potential oxygen sensing probes. They were thus doped into a silica molecular sieve SBA-15 to systematically explore their oxygen sensing performance. High sensitivity and good photostability were observed from the composite sensing systems.

Xu, Xiao-yong; Xiao, Han-ning; Deng, Ai-ping

2014-07-01

35

Cobalt and desferrioxamine reveal crucial members of the oxygen sensing pathway in HepG2 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobalt and desferrioxamine reveal crucial members of the oxygen sensing pathway in HepG2 cells. Cobalt and desferrioxamine, like hypoxia, stimulate the production of erythropoietin in HepG2 cells. It is believed that cobalt as well as desferrioxamine interact with the central iron atom of heme proteins by changing their redox state similar to hypoxia. A subsequent decrease of the intracellular H2O2

Wilhelm Ehleben; Torsten Porwol; Joachim Fandrey; Wolfgang Kummer; Helmut Acker

1997-01-01

36

Fluorescence-lifetime-based sensors: oxygen sensing and other biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Murine hybridomas were cultivated in tissue culture flasks. Dissolved oxygen tensions in the gas and liquid phases during cell growth were measured non-invasively by an optical oxygen sensor. Readings were made with caps both cracked open and completely closed. During cell growth, gas phase oxygen concentrations remained near atmospheric levels, while the oxygen tension at the bottom of the flasks eventually reached zero. These results suggest that the widespread practice of cracking open tissue culture flask caps during cell growth with a view to supplying adequate oxygen to cells is ineffective and unnecessary. The mass transfer characteristics of the tissue culture flask indicate the dominant resistance to oxygen mass transfer to the cells was the liquid media. The mass transfer rates through the liquid layer under standard laboratory conditions were found to be greater than those predicted by diffusion alone, suggesting microscale mixing. Volumetric and specific oxygen consumption rates were calculated from the sensor data, and were comparable to published values. A recently developed single fiber optic oxygen sensor is described. This new sensor will provide oxygen concentrations at various levels in the tissue culture flasks, allowing more accurate modeling of oxygen diffusion.

Randers-Eichhorn, Lisa; Bartlett, Roscoe A.; Sipior, Jeffrey; Frey, Douglas D.; Carter, Gary M.; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Rao, Govind

1996-05-01

37

Synthesis, processing and characterization of calcia-stabilized zirconia solid electrolytes for oxygen sensing applications  

SciTech Connect

Precursor powders of calcia-stabilized zirconia (CSZ) solid electrolytes have been synthesized by a sol-gel method. The phase evolution of the precursor powders after thermal treatments at different temperatures were analysized by X-ray diffraction technique. Disc-shaped sensor elements were fabricated via uniaxial pressing of the calcined powders and subsequently sintered at 1650 deg. C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the microstructure of the sintered pellets. Platinum electrodes were applied to the sintered elements to produce potentiometric/electrochemical gas sensors. The electrical response of the gas sensors to oxygen and the complex impedance of the sensors in air were measured at various temperatures. Impedance analyses indicate that the sensor cell with 15 mol% CaO has much lower resistance (the sum of bulk and grain-boundary resistance) than the sensor cell with 22 mol% CaO. This is also reflected by the EMF responses of both sensor cells to various oxygen concentrations in the testing gas. The EMF deviation from the theoretical value of the CSZ sensor cell with 22 mol% CaO was larger than that of the CSZ sensor cell with 15 mol% CaO. The corrrelations between material compositions, microstructures of the sintered pellets and the electrical properties of the sensors are discussed.

Zhou Minghua [Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada, 3484 Limebank Road, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0E4 (Canada)]. E-mail: mzhou@nrcan.gc.ca; Ahmad, Aftab [Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada, 3484 Limebank Road, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0E4 (Canada)

2006-04-13

38

In vivo distribution and ex vivo permeation of cyclosporine A prodrug aqueous formulations for ocular application.  

PubMed

Cyclosporine A is a poorly water-soluble, immunosuppressive drug used to treat a variety of ocular diseases. Its limited solubility makes challenging the development of a cyclosporine A-based eye drop for ocular topical application. Based on the prodrug strategy, the practically insoluble cyclosporine A was converted into a freely soluble prodrug. Such a water-soluble prodrug made it possible to develop water-based concentrated eye drops. The prodrug formulations were tested for their ex vivo permeation and in vivo distribution at three concentrations (equivalent to 0.05%, 0.50% and 2.00% w/v cyclosporine A). The ex vivo permeation experiments were performed on corneal and conjunctival epithelia. The in vivo distribution evaluated the total cyclosporine A present in the ocular structures as well as in serum, spleen and cervical lymphatic ganglions. Each prodrug formulation was compared to conventionally used cyclosporine A eye drops at an equivalent concentration. The experimental results showed that the tested eye drops behaved differently. The prodrug formulation was characterized by the following: i) preferential conjunctival penetration, ii) an interesting capacity to create large tissue deposits and iii) a lower risk of systemic complications and immunosuppression. The prodrug aqueous eye drop was demonstrated to be a patient-friendly option for the treatment of ocular diseases requiring high ocular levels of cyclosporine A, pushing the boundaries of the current therapeutic arsenal. PMID:23648835

Rodriguez-Aller, Marta; Guillarme, Davy; El Sanharawi, Mohamed; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Gurny, Robert

2013-08-28

39

Influence of Intrinsic Hole Concentration on Oxygen Sensing Properties of Hot-Spot Based Eu{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}Ceramics  

SciTech Connect

We report oxygen sensing behavior of (Eu{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x})Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}(x = 0.0,0.1) ceramics rods with formation of oxygen sensitive hot-spot upon application of external voltage. Oxygen response behavior of the x = 0.1 rod showed constant current plateau with increasing voltage and displayed better stability and reproducibility compared to x = 0 rod probably due to increased intrinsic hole concentration and reduction in activation energy as a result of Ca{sup 2+} substitution..

Yaacob, S. A.; Yahya, A. K.; Hassan, M.; Hasham, R. [School of Physics and Materials Sciences, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

2010-07-07

40

Unexpected Reactions by In Vivo Applications of PEGylated Liposomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a PEGylated liposome, a liposome coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), is understood to be biologically inert and, therefore,\\u000a a suitable vehicle for in vivo applications. The most successful example is the doxorubicin-containing PEGylated liposome,\\u000a known under the commercial name Doxil\\/Caelyx for cancer therapy. However, several researchers have found evidence that unexpected\\u000a immune responses occur even to such polymer-coated liposomes after intravenous

Tatsuhiro Ishida; Hiroshi Kiwada

41

Biodegradable luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles for in vivo applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanomaterials that can circulate in the body hold great potential to diagnose and treat disease. For such applications, it is important that the nanomaterials be harmlessly eliminated from the body in a reasonable period of time after they carry out their diagnostic or therapeutic function. Despite efforts to improve their targeting efficiency, significant quantities of systemically administered nanomaterials are cleared by the mononuclear phagocytic system before finding their targets, increasing the likelihood of unintended acute or chronic toxicity. However, there has been little effort to engineer the self-destruction of errant nanoparticles into non-toxic, systemically eliminated products. Here, we present luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles (LPSiNPs) that can carry a drug payload and of which the intrinsic near-infrared photoluminescence enables monitoring of both accumulation and degradation in vivo. Furthermore, in contrast to most optically active nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles and quantum dots), LPSiNPs self-destruct in a mouse model into renally cleared components in a relatively short period of time with no evidence of toxicity. As a preliminary in vivo application, we demonstrate tumour imaging using dextran-coated LPSiNPs (D-LPSiNPs). These results demonstrate a new type of multifunctional nanostructure with a low-toxicity degradation pathway for in vivo applications.

Park, Ji-Ho; Gu, Luo; von Maltzahn, Geoffrey; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Sailor, Michael J.

2009-04-01

42

Clinical applications of in vivo fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living skin for basic and clinical research can be evaluated by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) non-invasively. CLSM imaging system can achieve skin image its native state either "in vivo" or "fresh biopsy (ex vivo)" without fixation, sectioning and staining that is necessary for routine histology. This study examines the potential fluorescent CLSM with a various exogenous fluorescent contrast agent, to provide with more resolution images in skin. In addition, in vivo fluorescent CLSM researchers will be extended a range of potential clinical application. The prototype of our CLSM system has been developed by Prof. Gweon's group. The operating parameters are composed of some units, such as illuminated wavelength 488 nm, argon illumination power up to 20mW on the skin, objective lens, 0.9NA oil immersion, axial resolution 1.0?m, field of view 200?m x 100?m (lateral resolution , 0.3?m). In human volunteer, fluorescein sodium was administrated topically and intradermally. Animal studies were done in GFP transgenic mouse, IRC mouse and pig skin. For imaging of animal skin, fluorescein sodium, acridine orange, and curcumine were used for fluorescein contrast agent. We also used the GFP transgenic mouse for fluorescein CLSM imaging. In intact skin, absorption of fluorescein sodium by individual corneocyte and hair. Intradermal administrated the fluorescein sodium, distinct outline of keratinocyte cell border could be seen. Curcumin is a yellow food dye that has similar fluorescent properties to fluorescein sodium. Acridin Orange can be highlight nuclei in viable keratinocyte. In vivo CLSM of transgenic GFP mouse enable on in vivo, high resolution view of GFP expressing skin tissue. GFP signals are brightest in corneocyte, kertinocyte, hair and eccrine gland. In intact skin, absorption of fluorescein sodium by individual corneocyte and hair. Intradermal administrated the fluorescein sodium, distinct outline of keratinocyte cell border could be seen. In papillary dermis, fluorescein distribution is more homogeneous. Curcumin is a yellow food dye that has similar fluorescent properties to fluorescein sodium. In vivo CLSM of transgenic GFP mouse enable on in vivo, high resolution view of GFP expressing skin tissue. GFP signals are brightest in corneocyte, kertinocyte, skin appendage and blood vessels. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the usefulness of CLSM as technique for imaging skin in vivo. In addition, CLSM is non-invasive, the same tissue site may be imaged over a period of time to monitor the various change such as wound healing, severity of skin diseases and effect of therapeutic management.

Oh, Chilhwan; Park, Sangyong; Kim, Junhyung; Ha, Seunghan; Park, Gyuman; Lee, Gunwoo; Lee, Onseok; Chun, Byungseon; Gweon, Daegab

2008-03-01

43

GAVA: Spectral Simulation for In Vivo MRS Applications  

PubMed Central

An application that provides a flexible and easy to use interface to the GAMMA spectral simulation package is described that is targeted at investigations using in vivo MR spectroscopic methods. The program makes available a number of widely used spatially-localized MRS pulse sequences and NMR parameters for commonly-observed tissue metabolites, enabling spectra to be simulated for any pulse sequence parameter and viewed in an integrated display. The application is interfaced with a database for storage of all simulation parameters and results of the simulations. This application provides a convenient method for generating a priori spectral information used in parametric spectral analyses and for visual examination of the effects of difference pulse sequences and parameter settings.

Soher, Brian J.; Young, Karl; Bernstein, Aaron; Aygula, Zakaria; Maudsley, Andrew A.

2007-01-01

44

Sol-gel-Derived highly sensitive optical oxygen sensing materials using Ru(II) complex via covalent grafting strategy.  

PubMed

The preparation and oxygen sensing properties of Ru(ll) covalently-grafted and physically-incorporated silica based hybrid materials by sol-gel technique are described in this article. The Ru(II) complexes are successfully grafted onto the backbone of the silica via the condensation reaction of the tetraethoxysilane and the functionalized Ru(II) complex 2-[4'-{3-(Triethoxysilyl)propyl}phenyl]imidazo [4,5-f]-1,10-phenanthroline that contains the hydrolysable tri-alkoxylsilyl group. The luminescence quenching of Ru(II) complex by oxygen within the silica matrix is efficient. The oxygen quenching sensitivity of the covalently-grafted sample is higher than that of the physically-incorporated one due to the strong Si-CH2 bond that is useful to prolong the excited state lifetimes and enhance the photobleaching of the luminophore. The downward oxygen sensing Stern-Volmer plots can be well fitted using the Demas two-site model and the Lehrer model due to the heterogeneous distribution of the Ru(ll) complex within the sol-gel derived silica. PMID:24738438

Zhang, Haoran; Lei, Bingfu; Liu, Yingliang; Liu, Xiaotang; Zheng, Mingtao; Dong, Hanwu; Xiao, Yong; Zhang, Jianying

2014-06-01

45

DNMT3a epigenetic program regulates the HIF-2? oxygen-sensing pathway and the cellular response to hypoxia.  

PubMed

Epigenetic regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation plays a central role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Here we present evidence implicating the DNA methylation program in the regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) oxygen-sensing machinery and hypoxic cell metabolism. We show that DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) methylates and silences the HIF-2? gene (EPAS1) in differentiated cells. Epigenetic silencing of EPAS1 prevents activation of the HIF-2? gene program associated with hypoxic cell growth, thereby limiting the proliferative capacity of adult cells under low oxygen tension. Naturally occurring defects in DNMT3a, observed in primary tumors and malignant cells, cause the unscheduled activation of EPAS1 in early dysplastic foci. This enables incipient cancer cells to exploit the HIF-2? pathway in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment necessary for the formation of cellular masses larger than the oxygen diffusion limit. Reintroduction of DNMT3a in DNMT3a-defective cells restores EPAS1 epigenetic silencing, prevents hypoxic cell growth, and suppresses tumorigenesis. These data support a tumor-suppressive role for DNMT3a as an epigenetic regulator of the HIF-2? oxygen-sensing pathway and the cellular response to hypoxia. PMID:24817692

Lachance, Gabriel; Uniacke, James; Audas, Timothy E; Holterman, Chet E; Franovic, Aleksandra; Payette, Josianne; Lee, Stephen

2014-05-27

46

Mutual antagonism between hypoxia-inducible factors 1? and 2? regulates oxygen sensing and cardio-respiratory homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Breathing and blood pressure are under constant homeostatic regulation to maintain optimal oxygen delivery to the tissues. Chemosensory reflexes initiated by the carotid body and catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medulla are the principal mechanisms for maintaining respiratory and cardiovascular homeostasis; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known. Here, we report that balanced activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and HIF-2 is critical for oxygen sensing by the carotid body and adrenal medulla, and for their control of cardio-respiratory function. In Hif2?+/? mice, partial HIF-2? deficiency increased levels of HIF-1? and NADPH oxidase 2, leading to an oxidized intracellular redox state, exaggerated hypoxic sensitivity, and cardio-respiratory abnormalities, which were reversed by treatment with a HIF-1? inhibitor or a superoxide anion scavenger. Conversely, in Hif1?+/? mice, partial HIF-1? deficiency increased levels of HIF-2? and superoxide dismutase 2, leading to a reduced intracellular redox state, blunted oxygen sensing, and impaired carotid body and ventilatory responses to chronic hypoxia, which were corrected by treatment with a HIF-2? inhibitor. None of the abnormalities observed in Hif1?+/? mice or Hif2?+/? mice were observed in Hif1?+/?;Hif2?+/? mice. These observations demonstrate that redox balance, which is determined by mutual antagonism between HIF-? isoforms, establishes the set point for hypoxic sensing by the carotid body and adrenal medulla, and is required for maintenance of cardio-respiratory homeostasis.

Yuan, Guoxiang; Peng, Ying-Jie; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Makarenko, Vladislav V.; Nanduri, Jayasri; Khan, Shakil A.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Kumar, Ganesh K.; Semenza, Gregg L.; Prabhakar, Nanduri R.

2013-01-01

47

Platelet aggregation after naftidrofuryl application in vitro and ex vivo.  

PubMed

Naftidrofuryl has been shown to inhibit the interaction between platelets and damaged endothelium, which may lead to thrombosis and is mediated by the 5-hydroxytryptamine. (5-HT2) receptor. This study was designed to investigate the effects of naftidrofuryl on 5-HT induced platelet aggregation. In vitro experiments were carried out on platelets from healthy laboratory personnel. Naftidrofuryl (0.0625-100 microM) caused a continual increase in in vitro inhibition, whereby the inhibition at 0.0625 microM was already significant when compared to control (p < 0.05). The IC50 was approximately 10 microM induced aggregation. Subsequently, ex vivo effects of naftidrofuryl on 5-HT induced platelet aggregation of healthy volunteers together with naftidrofuryl plasma levels were measured. Twelve healthy volunteers received either 400 mg naftidrofuryl or placebo in this double-blind, crossover study. Blood samples for determination of aggregation and naftidrofuryl plasma levels were taken before, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.5 and 9 h after medication application. One hour after application of 400 mg naftidrofuryl a maximal plasma level of approximately 380 ng/ml was measured. Under control conditions the aggregation (Vmax) increased from an arbitrary 100% at 8:00 am to about 150% by 10:00 am, remaining at this level until 5:00 pm. Application of 400 mg naftidrofuryl p.o. resulted in a 50% decrease in Vmax 2 h after drug application. Thereafter, the aggregation rose to the initial 100% value 4 h after drug application and remained at this level during the observation period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7757315

Kirsten, R; Erdeg, B; Moxter, D; Hesse, K; Breidert, M; Nelson, K

1995-02-01

48

In vitro - In vivo Correlation: From Theory to Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key goal in pharmaceutical development of dosage forms is a good understanding of the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dosage forms. One of the challenges of biopharmaceutics research is correlating in vitro drug release information of various drug formulations to the in vivo drug profiles (IVIVC). Thus the need for a tool to reliably correlate in

Jaber Emami

49

FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. High temperature measurements of the emission of clusters in sol gel films show that the luminescence intensity from the films follow a 1/T relationship from room temperature to 150 C, and then declines at a slower rate at higher temperatures. The large number of photons available at 230 C is consistent with simple low cost optics for fiber optic probes based on the emission from clusters in sol gel films.

Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III

2004-10-01

50

Study on a phosphorescent copper(I) complex and its oxygen-sensing performances upon polystyrene and MCM-41 matrixes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we synthesize a new ligand of 1-ethyl-2-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (Phen-Np-Et) and its corresponding Cu(I) complex of [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4, where POP is bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl) ether. The single-crystal structure, electronic nature and photophysical property of [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4 are discussed in detail. It is found that the yellow emission from [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4 owns a long excited state lifetime of 287 ?s under pure N2 atmosphere. Theoretical calculation on [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]+ suggests that the emission comes from a triplet metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer excited state. Then, [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4 are doped into two matrixes of polystyrene and MCM-41 to investigate the oxygen-sensing performance. Finally, sensitivity maxima of 9.6 and 3.6 are achieved by the composite nanofibers of [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4/polystyrene and the [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4/MCM-41, respectively. Both samples are highly sensitive toward molecular oxygen, owing to the large surface-area-to-volume ratios of nanofibrous membranes and MCM-41 matrix.

Xu, Xiao-yong; Xiao, Han-ning; Xu, Yi-ming; Zhang, Ming-jun

51

Linear oxygen-sensing response from a rhenium complex induced by heavy atom: Synthesis, characterization, photophysical study and sensing performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we synthesized a Br-containing ligand of 2-(4-bromophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole and its corresponding Re(I) complex. Their synthesis, characterization, single crystal structure, electronic transitions and photophysical property were presented and discussed in detail. This Re(I) complex was found to be a yellow emitter with slim ? ? ?* radiative decay contribution, and its emission was also found to be sensitive towards O2. By doping this Re(I) complex into a polymer matrix, the oxygen-sensing performance of the resulted composite nanofibers was also investigated. Owing to the porous structure of the supporting matrix, the optimal sample gave the highest sensitivity of 3.91 with short response time of only 9 s. In addition, the linearity of the Stern-Volmer plots was greatly improved due to the highly pure emissive center triggered by heavy-atom turbulence effect from Br atom, as indicted by theoretical calculation result.

Pu, Wan; Lun, Zhao; Lisha, Wang; Guangyang, Xu

2013-08-01

52

Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Our approach towards immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the far end of an optical fiber is to embed the cluster in a thermally cured sol-gel matrix particle. Due to the improved mechanical properties of this approach high temperature sensor measurements were performed up to 100 C. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D. J. Osborn; Po Zhang

2006-09-30

53

FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Alkali salts of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} were synthesized and heated to 280 C for one hour in air. Optical measurements of the thermally treated material confirm the potential of the salts as lumophores in high temperature fiber optic sensors. In addition sol-gel films containing Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} were dip coated on quartz substrates and heated at 200 C for one hour. Conditions were developed for successfully immobilizing monomeric complexes that are compatible with sol-gel processing.

Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III

2004-07-01

54

Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Our approach towards immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the far end of an optical fiber is to embed the cluster in a thermally cured sol-gel matrix particle. This particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties, as compared to previous approaches. The sensor was characterized in 2-21% gas phase oxygen at 40, 70 and 100 C. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn; Po Zhang

2006-06-30

55

Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications has been developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. We report on a fiber optic technique for detection of gas phase oxygen up to 100 C based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the luminescence from molybdenum chloride clusters, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}. The inorganic sensing film is a composite of sol-gel particles embedded in a thin, oxygen permeable sol-gel binder. The particles are comprised of thermally stable, luminescent K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} clusters dispersed in a fully equilibrated sol-gel matrix. From 40 to 100 C, the fiber sensor switches {approx}6x in intensity in response to alternating pulses of <0.001% O2 and 21% O{sub 2} between two well defined levels with a response time of 10 s. The sensor signal is a few nW for an input pump power of 250 {micro}W. The normalized sensor signal is linear with molar oxygen concentration and fits the theoretical Stern-Volmer relationship. Although the sensitivity decreases with temperature, sensitivity at 100 C is 160 [O{sub 2}]{sup -1}. These parameters are well suited for in-situ, real-time monitoring of oxygen for industrial process control applications.

Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D. J. Osborn; Po Zhang

2006-09-30

56

FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12}, a cluster compound whose luminescence depends on the ambient concentration of oxygen, is the basis for a real-time oxygen sensor for combustion applications. Previously, the properties of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} have largely been studied at room temperature; these studies have now been extended to 200 C. Optical microscopy shows that Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} undergoes a steady change in color as it is heated from room temperature to 200 C, changing from canary yellow to crimson and then back to canary yellow. Concurrent thermal gravimetric analyses show a small weight loss for Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} that is consistent with loss of water or HCl from the clusters. These changes are reversible. Absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopy of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} heated to 200 C for two hours shows no change in the photophysical parameters compared to the control sample that was not heat cycled.

Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III

2003-07-01

57

FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. The luminescence of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} immobilized in a sol-gel matrix was measured as a function of heater temperature up to 200 C, in an inert environment. While the luminescence decreased with temperature, the integrated intensity at 200 C should be sufficient to enable detection of the luminescence in a fiber geometry. Previously we found that aging Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} at temperatures above 250 C converts the canary yellow Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} to a non-luminescent gray solid. Optical and thermal aging experiments show that the alkali metal salts of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} have higher thermal stabilities and remain luminescent after aging at 280 C.

Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III

2004-04-01

58

Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we described a particle-in-binder approach to immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the tips of optical fibers. Compared to previous methods, the particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties. The response of the sensor to oxygen at 40, 70 and 100 C was measured in 2-21% gas phase oxygen. The normalized sensor signal is linear with molar oxygen concentration and fits the theoretical Stern-Volmer relationship. Although the sensitivity decreases with temperature, at 100 C the sensitivity is 160 [O{sub 2}]{sup -1}. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

2006-05-01

59

FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. One of the critical materials issues is to demonstrate that the luminescent cluster immobilized in the sol-gel porous support can withstand high temperature. At the same time the sol-gel matrix must have a high permeability to oxygen. Using a potassium salt of the molybdenum clusters, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, we have established the conditions necessary for deposition of optical quality sol-gel films. From spectroscopic measurements of the film we have shown that the cluster luminescence is stable following heat cycling of 54 hours at 200 C. Quenching of a factor of 1.5X between pure nitrogen and 21% oxygen was observed from in-situ measurements of films heated directly at 200 C. An automated system for characterizing fiber optic oxygen sensors up to 220 C with a temporal resolution better than 10 s is under construction. We estimate a signal of 6 x 10{sup 8} photons/s after complete quenching in 21% oxygen. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

2005-04-01

60

FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor is being developed that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Two critical materials issues are the cluster's ability to withstand high temperatures when immobilized in a porous the sol-gel support, and whether after heating to high temperatures, the sol-gel matrix maintains a high and constant permeability to oxygen to support rapid quenching of luminescence. We used a composite materials approach to prepare stable sensing layers on optical fibers. We dispersed 60 w/w% of a pre-cured sol-gel composite containing the potassium salt of molybdenum clusters (K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}) into a sol-gel binder solution, and established the conditions necessary for deposition of sol-gel films on optical fibers and planar substrates. The fiber sensor has an output signal of 5 nW when pumped with an inexpensive commercial 365 nm ultraviolet light emitting diode (LED). Quenching of the sensor signal by oxygen was observed up to a gas temperature of 175 C with no degradation of the oxygen permeability of the composite after high temperature cycling. On planar substrates the cluster containing composite responds within <1 second to a gas exchange from nitrogen to oxygen, indicating the feasibility of real-time oxygen detection.

Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

2005-07-01

61

Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we described a particle-in-binder approach to immobilizing the potassium salt of a molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the tips of optical fibers. Compared to previous methods, the particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties. We have extensively characterized two fiber sensors at high temperature. We obtain quenching ratios between pure nitrogen and 21% oxygen as high as 3.9 x at 70 C. For the first sensor at 60 C we obtained a {+-} 1% variation in the quenching ratio over 6 cycles of measurement, and monitored the device performance over 23 days. We were able to operate the second sensor continuously for 14 hours at 70 C, and the sensor quenching ratio was stable to 5% over that time period. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

2006-01-01

62

FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. One of the critical materials issues is to demonstrate that the luminescent cluster immobilized in the sol-gel porous support can withstand high temperature. At the same time the sol-gel matrix must have a high permeability to oxygen. Using a potassium salt of the molybdenum clusters, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, we have established the conditions necessary for deposition of optical quality sol-gel films. From spectroscopic measurements of the film we have shown that the cluster luminescence is stable following heat cycling of 1 hour at 250 C. Quenching of a factor of 4X between pure nitrogen and 21% oxygen was observed for films cured directly at 200 C. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

2005-01-01

63

Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we immobilized the potassium salt of a molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}M{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, in a sol-gel matrix and showed that the luminescence is stable after 54 hours at 200 C, but the quenching ratios were low and the films delaminated after thermal cycling due to densification of the matrix. Three new approaches to solve decreased quenching over time and delamination of films off fiber tips were investigated. In the first approach K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} embedded in cured sol-gel particles were incorporated into a TEOS based sol-gel. These gave enhanced quenching (6x), but delaminated. Our second approach was to use a commercial cyanoacrylate glue to immobilize the particles onto the tip of an optical fiber. This gave better adhesion and good quenching initially, but eventually the glue degraded upon heating. Our third approach was to use a 55% OtMOS/ TEOS sol-gel binder. Films based on this new sol-gel binder show high quenching ({approx}6x) and superior mechanical stability even after thermal cycling. Sensor measurements on an optical fiber containing K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} embedded in cured sol-gel particles were obtained from 100 to 25 C. The signal intensity in nitrogen was stable at 2.8 {+-} 0.2 nW, and the quenching ratio (ratio of signal in N{sub 2} vs. 21 % O{sub 2}) varied from 4.4 to 6.9X. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

2005-10-01

64

In vivo and ex vivo applications of gold nanoparticles for biomedical SERS imagingi  

PubMed Central

Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a signal-increasing phenomenon that occurs whenever Raman scattering on a metal surface is enhanced many orders of magnitude. Recently SERS has received considerable attention due to its ultrasensitive multiplex imaging capability with strong photostability. It provides rich molecular information on any Raman molecule adsorbed to rough metal surfaces. The signal enhancement is so remarkable that identification of a single molecule is possible. SERS has become a genuine molecular imaging technique. Gold nanoparticles, encoded with Raman reporters, provide a SERS signal and have been used as imaging probes, often referred to as SERS nanoparticles. They have been used for molecular imaging in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro. Detection of picomolar concentrations of target molecules has been achieved by functionalizing the nanoparticles with target recognition ligands. This review focuses on recent achievements in utilizing SERS nanoparticles for in vivo molecular imaging. In the near future, SERS technology may allow detection of disease markers at the single cell level.

Yigit, Mehmet V; Medarova, Zdravka

2012-01-01

65

An optical biopsy system with miniaturized Raman and spectral imaging probes; in vivo animal and ex vivo clinical application studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical biopsy system which equips miniaturized Raman probes, a miniaturized endoscope and a fluorescent image probe has been developed for in vivo studies of live experimental animals. The present report describes basic optical properties of the system and its application studies for in vivo cancer model animals and ex vivo human cancer tissues. It was developed two types of miniaturized Raman probes, micro Raman probe (MRP) made of optical fibers and ball lens hollow optical fiber Raman probe (BHRP) made of single hollow optical fiber (HOF) with a ball lens. The former has rather large working distance (WD), up to one millimeter. The latter has small WD (~300?m) which depends on the focal length of the ball lens. Use of multiple probes with different WD allows one to obtain detailed information of subsurface tissues in the totally noninvasive manner. The probe is enough narrow to be inserted into a biopsy needle (~19G), for observations of the lesion at deeper inside bodies. The miniaturized endoscope has been applied to observe progression of a stomach cancer in the same rat lesion. It was succeeded to visualize structure of non-stained cancer tissue in live model animals by the fluorescent image technique. The system was also applied to ex vivo studies of human breast and stomach cancers.

Sato, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Andriana, Bibin B.; Morita, Shin'ichi; Maruyama, Atsushi; Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Komachi, Yuichi; Kanai, Gen'ichi; Ura, Nobuo; Masutani, Koji; Matsuura, Yuji; Toi, Masakazu; Shimosegawa, Toru; Ozaki, Yukihiro

2009-02-01

66

Ex vivo culture of the intestinal epithelium: strategies and applications.  

PubMed

Limited pools of resident adult stem cells are critical effectors of epithelial renewal in the intestine throughout life. Recently, significant progress has been made regarding the isolation and in vitro propagation of fetal and adult intestinal stem cells in mammals. It is now possible to generate ever-expanding, three-dimensional epithelial structures in culture that closely parallel the in vivo epithelium of the intestine. Growing such organotypic epithelium ex vivo facilitates a detailed description of endogenous niche factors or stem-cell characteristics, as they can be monitored in real time. Accordingly, this technology has already greatly contributed to our understanding of intestinal adult stem-cell renewal and differentiation. Transplanted organoids have also been proven to readily integrate into, and effect the long-term repair of, mouse colonic epithelia in vivo, establishing the organoid culture as a promising tool for adult stem cell/gene therapy. In another exciting development, novel genome-editing techniques have been successfully employed to functionally repair disease loci in cultured intestinal stem cells from human patients with a hereditary defect. It is anticipated that this technology will be instrumental in exploiting the regenerative medicine potential of human intestinal stem cells for treating human disorders in the intestinal tract and for creating near-physiological ex vivo models of human gastrointestinal disease. PMID:24841573

Leushacke, Marc; Barker, Nick

2014-08-01

67

Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Transcriptional Regulation, Ex Vivo Expansion and Clinical Application  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of ex vivo hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) pool and its differentiated progeny is regulated by complex network of transcriptional factors, cell cycle proteins, extracellular matrix, and their microenvironment through an orchestrated fashion. Strides have been made to understand the mechanisms regulating in vivo quiescence and proliferation of HSCs to develop strategies for ex vivo expansion. Ex vivo expansion of HSCs is important to procure sufficient number of stem cells and as easily available source for HSC transplants for patients suffering from hematological disorders and malignancies. Our lab has established a nanofiber-based ex vivo expansion strategy for HSCs, while preserving their stem cell characteristics. Ex vivo expanded cells were also found biologically functional in various disease models. However, the therapeutic potential of expanded stem cells at clinical level still needs to be verified. This review outlines transcriptional factors that regulate development of HSCs and their commitment, genes that regulate cell cycle status, studies that attempt to develop an effective and efficient protocol for ex vivo expansion of HSCs and application of HSC in various non-malignant and malignant disorders. Overall the goal of the current review is to deliver an understanding of factors that are critical in resolving the challenges that limit the expansion of HSCs in vivo and ex vivo.

Aggarwal, R.; Lu, J.; Pompili, V.J.; Das, H.

2012-01-01

68

Endothelialized biomaterials for tissue engineering applications in vivo  

PubMed Central

Rebuilding tissues involves the creation of a vasculature to supply nutrients and this in turn means that the endothelial cells (EC) of the resulting endothelium must be a quiescent, non- thrombogenic blood contacting surface. Such EC are deployed on biomaterials that are composed of natural materials such as extracellular matrix proteins or of synthetic polymers in the form of vascular grafts or tissue-engineered constructs. Because EC function is influenced by their origin, biomaterial surface chemistry and hemodynamics, these issues must be considered to optimize implant performance. This article reviews the recent in vivo use of endothelialized biomaterials and discusses the fundamental issues that must be considered when engineering functional vasculature.

Khan, Omar F.; Sefton, Michael V.

2011-01-01

69

In Vivo Application of Optogenetics for Neural Circuit Analysis  

PubMed Central

Optogenetics combines optical and genetic methods to rapidly and reversibly control neural activities or other cellular functions. Using genetic methods, specific cells or anatomical pathways can be sensitized to light through exogenous expression of microbial light activated opsin proteins. Using optical methods, opsin expressing cells can be rapidly and reversibly controlled by pulses of light of specific wavelength. With the high spatial temporal precision, optogenetic tools have enabled new ways to probe the causal role of specific cells in neural computation and behavior. Here, we overview the current state of the technology, and provide a brief introduction to the practical considerations in applying optogenetics in vivo to analyze neural circuit functions.

2012-01-01

70

Application of In Vivo EPR for Tissue pO2 and Redox Measurements  

PubMed Central

Summary The technique of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is more than 50 years old, but only recently it has been used for in vivo studies. Its limited application in the past was due to the problem of high nonresonant dielectric loss of the exciting frequency because of high water content in biological samples. However, with the development of spectrometers working at lower frequencies (1,200 MHz and below) during the last 15 years, it is now possible to conduct in vivo measurements on a variety of animals and isolated organs. This is further facilitated by the development of new resonators with high sensitivity and appropriate stability for in vivo applications. It now has become feasible to obtain new insights into the complex aspects of physiology and pathophysiology using in vivo EPR. Among several important applications of this technique, the in vivo tissue pO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) and redox measurements seem to be the most extensive use of this technique. In this chapter, we describe the procedure for in vivo pO2 and redox measurements in animal models.

Khan, Nadeem; Das, Dipak K.

2010-01-01

71

Clinical applications of in vivo neutron-activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress.

Cohn, S.H.

1982-01-01

72

A Telemedicine Application to Schedule Temperature in an In Vivo Sensor Network for Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Abstract Wireless communication has played a significant role in modern healthcare systems. However, the death toll from chronic diseases, such as cancer, continues to increase. Hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy is a promising strategy for cancer treatment, and temperature control is critical for the success of this intervention. In vivo sensors are an emerging technology in healthcare. Thermal awareness has also received attention in in vivo sensor research. In this context, we have been motivated to use in vivo sensors to regulate the temperature changes in cancer cells during combined treatment. Limitations in existing in vivo thermal-aware routing algorithms motivated us to use the in vivo “lightweight rendezvous routing” approach. However, smartphone-driven telemedicine applications are proliferating to provide remote healthcare and collaborative consultation, required in combined therapies. In this context, we have proposed a telemedicine application where a smartphone not only regulates temperature scheduling in in vivo sensors, but also communicates with local or remote clinicians to maintain collaborative efforts for combined therapies against cancer.

Kamal, Rossi; Lee, Seok-Geun

2012-01-01

73

A telemedicine application to schedule temperature in an in vivo sensor network for cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Wireless communication has played a significant role in modern healthcare systems. However, the death toll from chronic diseases, such as cancer, continues to increase. Hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy is a promising strategy for cancer treatment, and temperature control is critical for the success of this intervention. In vivo sensors are an emerging technology in healthcare. Thermal awareness has also received attention in in vivo sensor research. In this context, we have been motivated to use in vivo sensors to regulate the temperature changes in cancer cells during combined treatment. Limitations in existing in vivo thermal-aware routing algorithms motivated us to use the in vivo "lightweight rendezvous routing" approach. However, smartphone-driven telemedicine applications are proliferating to provide remote healthcare and collaborative consultation, required in combined therapies. In this context, we have proposed a telemedicine application where a smartphone not only regulates temperature scheduling in in vivo sensors, but also communicates with local or remote clinicians to maintain collaborative efforts for combined therapies against cancer. PMID:23234425

Kamal, Rossi; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Seok-Geun

2012-12-01

74

Biocompatible PEGylated gold nanorods as colored contrast agents for targeted in vivo cancer applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution, we report the use of a PEGylated gold nanorods formulation as a colored dye for tumor labeling in vivo. We have demonstrated that the nanorod-targeted tumor site can be easily differentiated from the background tissues by the 'naked eye' without the need of sophisticated imaging instruments. In addition to tumor labeling, we have also performed in vivo toxicity and biodistribution studies of PEGylated gold nanorods in vivo by using BALB/c mice as the model. In vivo toxicity studies indicated no mortality or adverse effects or weight changes in BALB/c mice treated with PEGylated gold nanorods. This finding will provide useful guidelines in the future development of diagnostic probes for cancer diagnosis, optically guided tumor surgery, and lymph node mapping applications.

Kopwitthaya, Atcha; Yong, Ken-Tye; Hu, Rui; Roy, Indrajit; Ding, Hong; Vathy, Lisa A.; Bergey, Earl J.; Prasad, Paras N.

2010-08-01

75

Histotripsy for Pediatric Cardiac Applications: In Vivo Neonatal Pig Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the in vivo feasibility of using histotripsy to non-invasively create a flow channel between the ventricles by generating a perforation of the ventricular septum, clinically referred to as a ventricular septum defect (VSD). The overall goal is to develop a non-invasive procedure to aid in the treatment of neonatal patients with complex congenital heart diseases such as Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS). Histotripsy is a therapeutic ultrasound technique that produces mechanical fractionation of soft tissue through controlled cavitation. The study was conducted in a live and intact neonatal pig model. The ventricular septum in the neonatal pig heart was treated with histotripsy delivered by a spherically focused 1 MHz transducer positioned outside the chest wall. Histotripsy treatment was applied using 5-cycle ultrasound pulses at 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency with 12-18 MPa peak negative pressure. The treatment was guided and monitored with ultrasound imaging. In all nine subjects treated, a bubble cloud was generated on the ventricular septum using histotripsy, and visualized with ultrasound imaging. Within 20 seconds to 4 minutes following the initiation of a bubble cloud, a VSD was created in all nine pigs and confirmed by the detection of blood flow through the ventricular septum with color Doppler ultrasound. Gross morphology and histology on all hearts showed a demarcated perforation in the ventricular septum. This study shows that a VSD can be created in an intact neonatal animal using extracorporeal histotripsy under real-time ultrasound guidance.

Miller, Ryan M.; Owens, Gabe; Ensing, Gregory; Ludomirsky, Achiau; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

2010-03-01

76

Deep tissue fluorescence imaging and in vivo biological applications  

PubMed Central

Abstract. We describe a novel technical approach with enhanced fluorescence detection capabilities in two-photon microscopy that achieves deep tissue imaging, while maintaining micron resolution. Compared to conventional two-photon microscopy, greater imaging depth is achieved by more efficient harvesting of fluorescence photons propagating in multiple-scattering media. The system maintains the conventional two-photon microscopy scheme for excitation. However, for fluorescence collection the detection system harvests fluorescence photons directly from a wide area of the turbid sample. The detection scheme relies on a wide area detector, minimal optical components and an emission path bathed in a refractive-index-matching fluid that minimizes emission photon losses. This detection scheme proved to be very efficient, allowing us to obtain high resolution images at depths up to 3 mm. This technique was applied to in vivo imaging of the murine small intestine (SI) and colon. The challenge is to image normal and diseased tissue in the whole live animal, while maintaining high resolution imaging at millimeter depth. In Lgr5-GFP mice, we have been successful in imaging Lgr5-eGFP positive stem cells, present in SI and colon crypt bases.

Crosignani, Viera; Dvornikov, Alexander; Aguilar, Jose S; Stringari, Chiara; Edwards, Robert; Mantulin, William W.; Gratton, Enrico

2012-01-01

77

Deep tissue fluorescence imaging and in vivo biological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a novel technical approach with enhanced fluorescence detection capabilities in two-photon microscopy that achieves deep tissue imaging, while maintaining micron resolution. Compared to conventional two-photon microscopy, greater imaging depth is achieved by more efficient harvesting of fluorescence photons propagating in multiple-scattering media. The system maintains the conventional two-photon microscopy scheme for excitation. However, for fluorescence collection the detection system harvests fluorescence photons directly from a wide area of the turbid sample. The detection scheme relies on a wide area detector, minimal optical components and an emission path bathed in a refractive-index-matching fluid that minimizes emission photon losses. This detection scheme proved to be very efficient, allowing us to obtain high resolution images at depths up to 3 mm. This technique was applied to in vivo imaging of the murine small intestine (SI) and colon. The challenge is to image normal and diseased tissue in the whole live animal, while maintaining high resolution imaging at millimeter depth. In Lgr5-GFP mice, we have been successful in imaging Lgr5-eGFP positive stem cells, present in SI and colon crypt bases.

Crosignani, Viera; Dvornikov, Alexander; Aguilar, Jose S.; Stringari, Chiara; Edwards, Robert; Mantulin, William W.; Gratton, Enrico

2012-11-01

78

Optogenetic tools for in vivo applications in neonatal mice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous neural activities exist early in development and their spatiotemporal patterns play important roles in the development of sensory maps such as maps of retinotopy in the visual system. We summarized different optogenetic tools, including transgenic mouse lines, viral-mediated transfection and electroporation methods to enable the expression of light-gated channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) before the onset of vision. Patch-clamp and extracellular recording experiments verified that activities of ChR2-expressing cells were precisely manipulated by the patterns of optical stimuli. In chronic stimulation experiments, light-emitting diodes controlled the activity patterns of ChR2-expressing RGCs in vivo. Changes in the retinotopic map in Superior Colliculus (SC) were examined by quantifying the relative sizes of fluorescently labeled target zones. Our results revealed that various optogenetic and optical tools can manipulate retinal activities with precise temporal patterns. These techniques can be readily used in studying the development of the central nervous system of neonatal rodents.

Zhang, Yue; Qin, Nan; Diao, Yupu; Guan, Yangtai; Fan, Lu; Crair, Michael C.; Zhang, Jiayi

2012-10-01

79

Application of POLARIC™ fluorophores in an in vivo tumor model.  

PubMed

Fluorescent and luminescent tools are commonly used to study the dynamics of cancer progression and metastases in real-time. Fluorophores have become essential tools to study biological events. However, few can sustain fluorescence long enough during long-term studies. In the present study, we focused on a series of new amphiphilic fluorophores known as POLARIC™, which emit strong fluorescence in lipid bilayers and can be readily modified using the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. Appropriate chemical modifications of substituent groups can improve target-site specificity, reduce cytotoxicity and prolong emission. Therefore, in contrast to conventional fluorescent probes, these fluorophores show promise for long-term monitoring of biological processes. In the present study, we conducted long-term observations of tumor growth and metastasis using a POLARIC derivative as a novel fluorescent probe. For this purpose, we studied the metastatic melanoma cell line A375-SM, which proliferates at a high rate. We compared the characteristics of the POLARIC probe with the commercially available fluorescent dye PKH26 and fluorescent protein mRFP1. A375-SM cells were labeled with these fluorescent probes and orthotopically implanted into nude mice. The fluorescence emitted by POLARIC was detected more than five weeks after implantation without causing detectable harmful effects on tumor growth. By contrast, fluorescence of cells labeled with PKH26 could not be detected at this same time. Furthermore, POLARIC-, but not PKH26-labeled cells, were also detected in lung metastases. These results indicate that labeling cells with POLARIC fluorophores can significantly extend the time course of in vivo studies on tumor cell growth. PMID:23877868

Maishi, Nako; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Yamada, Koji; Akiyama, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Osawa, Takahiro; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

2013-10-01

80

In vitro and in vivo measurement for biological applications using micromachined probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a small-sized micromachined probe for the measurement of biological properties using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. We also experimentally showed the suitability of the micromachined probe for biological applications through in vivo, as well as in vitro measurements of various types of tissue. We measured the permittivities of 0.9% saline and the muscle and fat of pork using the

Jung-Mu Kim; Donghoon Oh; Jeonghoon Yoon; Sungjoon Cho; Namgon Kim; Jeiwon Cho; Youngwoo Kwon; Changyul Cheon; Yong-Kweon Kim

2005-01-01

81

In vivo confocal microscopy in dermatology: from research to clinical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) represents an emerging technique for the noninvasive histomorphological analysis of skin in vivo and has shown its applicability for dermatological research as well as its value as an adjunct tool in the clinical management of skin cancer patients. Herein, we aim to give an overview on the current clinical indications for CLSM in dermatology and also highlight the diverse applications of CLSM in dermatological research.

Ulrich, Martina; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Susanne

2013-06-01

82

Application of in vivo measurements for the management of cyanobacteria breakthrough into drinking water treatment plants.  

PubMed

The increasing presence of potentially toxic cyanobacterial blooms in drinking water sources and within drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) has been reported worldwide. The objectives of this study are to validate the application of in vivo probes for the detection and management of cyanobacteria breakthrough inside DWTPs, and to verify the possibility of treatment adjustment based on intensive real-time monitoring. In vivo phycocyanin YSI probes were used to monitor the fate of cyanobacteria in raw water, clarified water, filtered water, and chlorinated water in a full scale DWTP. Simultaneous samples were also taken for microscopic enumeration. The in vivo probe was successfully used to detect the incoming densities of high cyanobacterial cell number into the clarification process and their breakthrough into the filtered water. In vivo probes were used to trace the increase in floating cells over the clarifier, a robust sign of malfunction of the coagulation–sedimentation process. Pre-emptive treatment adjustments, based on in vivo probe monitoring, resulted in successful removal of cyanobacterial cells. The field results on validation of the probes with cyanobacterial bloom samples showed that the probe responses are highly linear and can be used to trigger alerts to take action. PMID:24592419

Zamyadi, Arash; Dorner, Sarah; Ndong, Mouhamed; Ellis, Donald; Bolduc, Anouka; Bastien, Christian; Prévost, Michèle

2013-02-01

83

Application of in vivo measurements for the management of cyanobacteria breakthrough into drinking water treatment plants.  

PubMed

The increasing presence of potentially toxic cyanobacterial blooms in drinking water sources and within drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) has been reported worldwide. The objectives of this study are to validate the application of in vivo probes for the detection and management of cyanobacteria breakthrough inside DWTPs, and to verify the possibility of treatment adjustment based on intensive real-time monitoring. In vivo phycocyanin YSI probes were used to monitor the fate of cyanobacteria in raw water, clarified water, filtered water, and chlorinated water in a full scale DWTP. Simultaneous samples were also taken for microscopic enumeration. The in vivo probe was successfully used to detect the incoming densities of high cyanobacterial cell number into the clarification process and their breakthrough into the filtered water. In vivo probes were used to trace the increase in floating cells over the clarifier, a robust sign of malfunction of the coagulation-sedimentation process. Pre-emptive treatment adjustments, based on in vivo probe monitoring, resulted in successful removal of cyanobacterial cells. The field results on validation of the probes with cyanobacterial bloom samples showed that the probe responses are highly linear and can be used to trigger alerts to take action. PMID:24429778

Zamyadi, Arash; Dorner, Sarah; Ndong, Mouhamed; Ellis, Donald; Bolduc, Anouka; Bastien, Christian; Prévost, Michèle

2014-02-01

84

Application of ex vivo gene therapy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Ex vivo gene therapy approaches hold great promise for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases where there is currently no cure or adequate treatment for affected individuals. In this review we have focused on the use of ex vivo gene transfer techniques in Parkinson's disease models; however, the issues and approaches outlined are applicable to other neurodegenerative disorders. In utilizing the ex vivo strategy two considerations are critical for delivery of therapeutic levels of transgene product to the target: (i) the vector system and (ii) the cell type for grafting. We describe herein different vector systems that are currently available and briefly review the various cell types that have been transduced and grafted into the striatum of animals with experimental Parkinson's disease. The strategies for application of gene therapy techniques to a treatment for Parkinson's disease have expanded beyond the classical dopamine replacement toward the use of neurotrophic factors in enhancing cell function or preventing cell death. In addition, we explore the utility of CNS-derived neural progenitors as alternative cell types for ex vivo gene therapy in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. PMID:9126156

Raymon, H K; Thode, S; Gage, F H

1997-03-01

85

Hepatic ablation with multiple interstitial ultrasound applicators: initial ex vivo and computational studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has emerged as an effective method for treating liver tumors under 3 cm in diameter. Multiple applicator devices and techniques - using RF, microwave and other modalities - are under development for thermal ablation of large and irregularly-shaped liver tumors. Interstitial ultrasound (IUS) applicators, comprised of linear arrays of independently powered tubular transducers, enable 3D control of the spatial power deposition profile and simultaneous ablation with multiple applicators. We evaluated IUS applicator configurations (parallel, converging and diverging implants) suitable for percutaneous and laparascopic placement with experiments in ex vivo bovine tissue and computational models. Ex vivo ablation zones measured 4.6+/-0.5 x 4.2+/-0.5 × 3.3+/-0.5 cm3 and 5.6+/-0.5 × 4.9+/-0.5 x 2.8+/-0.3 cm3 using three parallel applicators spaced 2 and 3 cm apart, respectively, and 4.0+/-0.3 × 3.2+/-0.4 × 2.9+/-0.2 cm3 using two parallel applicators spaced 2 cm apart. Computational models indicate in vivo ablation zones up to 4.5 × 4.4 × 5.5 cm3 and 5.7 × 4.8 × 5.2 cm3, using three applicators spaced 2 and 3 cm apart, respectively. Converging and diverging implant patterns can also be employed for conformal ablation of irregularly-shaped tumor margins by tailoring power levels along each device. Simultaneously powered interstitial ultrasound devices can create tailored ablation zones comparable to currently available RF devices and similarly sized microwave antennas.

Prakash, Punit; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Burdette, E. Clif; Diederich, Chris J.

2011-02-01

86

Applications of the direct photon absorption technique for measuring bone mineral content in vivo. Determination of body composition in vivo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bone mineral content, BMC, determined by monoenergetic photon absorption technique, of 29 different locations on the long bones and vertebral columns of 24 skeletons was measured. Compressive tests were made on bone from these locations in which the maximum load and maximum stress were measured. Also the ultimate strain, modulus of elasticity and energy absorbed to failure were determined for compact bone from the femoral diaphysis and cancellous bone from the eighth through eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Correlations and predictive relationships between these parameters were examined to investigate the applicability of using the BMC at sites normally measured in vivo, i.e. radius and ulna in estimating the BMC and/or strength of the spine or femoral neck. It was found that the BMC at sites on the same bone were highly correlated r = 0.95 or better; the BMC at sites on different bones were also highly interrelated, r = 0.85. The BMC at various sites on the long bones could be estimated to between 10 and 15 per cent from the BMC of sites on the radius or ulna.

Cameron, J. R.

1972-01-01

87

In vivo toxicity of enoxaparin encapsulated in mucoadhesive nanoparticles: Topical application in a wound healing model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wound healing comprises four distinct phases and involves many cell events and biologic markers. The use of nanoparticles for topical application has gaining attention due to its deeper penetration in the skin and the retention capacity of the drug in the site of application. In this study the effect and toxicity of mucoadhesive polymeric nanoparticles loaded with enoxaparin was evaluated in in vivo model of skin ulcer. Our results showed an interesting formulation based on mucoadhesive nanoparticles with enoxaparin that improved wound healing without cytotoxicity in vitro in all endpoint evaluated. Then, this semi-solid formulation is a promising option for skin ulcer treatment.

Huber, S. C.; Marcato, P. D.; Barbosa, R. M.; Duran, N.; Annichino-Bizzacchi, J. M.

2013-04-01

88

Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man  

PubMed Central

Optical brain imaging has seen 30 years of intense development, and has grown into a rich and diverse field. In-vivo imaging using light provides unprecedented sensitivity to functional changes through intrinsic contrast, and is rapidly exploiting the growing availability of exogenous optical contrast agents. Light can be used to image microscopic structure and function in vivo in exposed animal brain, while also allowing noninvasive imaging of hemodynamics and metabolism in a clinical setting. This work presents an overview of the wide range of approaches currently being applied to in-vivo optical brain imaging, from animal to man. Techniques include multispectral optical imaging, voltage sensitive dye imaging and speckle-flow imaging of exposed cortex, in-vivo two-photon microscopy of the living brain, and the broad range of noninvasive topography and tomography approaches to near-infrared imaging of the human brain. The basic principles of each technique are described, followed by examples of current applications to cutting-edge neuroscience research. In summary, it is shown that optical brain imaging continues to grow and evolve, embracing new technologies and advancing to address ever more complex and important neuroscience questions.

Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.

2008-01-01

89

The in vivo transport of elastic vesicles into human skin: effects of occlusion, volume and duration of application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, several aspects of elastic vesicle transport into human skin were investigated in vivo. Surfactant-based elastic vesicles were applied onto human skin in vivo and subsequently a series of tape-strippings were performed, which were visualised by freeze fracture electron microscopy. Factors of investigation for non-occlusive treatment were the duration of application and the volume of application. In

P. Loan Honeywell-Nguyen; H. W. Wouter Groenink; Anko M. de Graaff; Joke A. Bouwstra

2003-01-01

90

Engineered nanocrystal technology: in-vivo fate, targeting and applications in drug delivery.  

PubMed

Formulation of nanocrystals is a robust approach which can improve delivery of poorly water soluble drugs, a challenge pharmaceutical industry has been facing since long. Large scale production of nanocrystals is done by techniques like precipitation, media milling and, high pressure homogenization. Application of appropriate stabilizers along with drying accords long term stability and commercial viability to nanocrystals. These can be administered through oral, parenteral, pulmonary, dermal and ocular routes showing their high therapeutic applicability. They serve to target drug molecules in specific regions through size manipulation and surface modification. This review dwells upon the in-vivo fate and varying applications in addition to the facets of drug nanocrystals stated above. PMID:24667572

Pawar, Vivek K; Singh, Yuvraj; Meher, Jaya Gopal; Gupta, Siddharth; Chourasia, Manish K

2014-06-10

91

Phosphorescent nanoparticles for quantitative measurements of oxygen profiles in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

We present the development and characterization of nanoparticles loaded with a custom phosphor; we exploit these nanoparticles to perform quantitative measurements of the concentration of oxygen within three-dimensional (3-D) tissue cultures in vitro and blood vessels in vivo. We synthesized a customized ruthenium (Ru)-phosphor and incorporated it into polymeric nanoparticles via self-assembly. We demonstrate that the encapsulated phosphor is non-toxic with and without illumination. We evaluated two distinct modes of employing the phosphorescent nanoparticles for the measurement of concentrations of oxygen: 1) in vitro, in a 3-D microfluidic tumor model via ratiometric measurements of intensity with an oxygen-insensitive fluorophore as a reference, and 2) in vivo, in mouse vasculature using measurements of phosphorescence lifetime. With both methods, we demonstrated micrometer-scale resolution and absolute calibration to the dissolved oxygen concentration. Based on the ease and customizability of the synthesis of the nanoparticles and the flexibility of their application, these oxygen-sensing polymeric nanoparticles will find a natural home in a range of biological applications, benefiting studies of physiological as well as pathological processes in which oxygen availability and concentration play a critical role.

Choi, Nak Won; Verbridge, Scott S.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Chen, Jin; Kim, Ju-Young; Schmehl, Russel; Farnum, Cornelia E.; Zipfel, Warren R.; Fischbach, Claudia; Stroock, Abraham D.

2012-01-01

92

Fabricated micro-nano devices for in vivo and in vitro biomedical applications.  

PubMed

In recent years, the innovative use of microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMSs) in biomedical applications has opened wide opportunities for precise and accurate human diagnostics and therapeutics. The introduction of nanotechnology in biomedical applications has facilitated the exact control and regulation of biological environments. This ability is derived from the small size of the devices and their multifunctional capabilities to operate at specific sites for selected durations of time. Researchers have developed wide varieties of unique and multifunctional MEMS/NEMS devices with micro and nano features for biomedical applications (BioMEMS/NEMS) using the state of the art microfabrication techniques and biocompatible materials. However, the integration of devices with the biological milieu is still a fundamental issue to be addressed. Devices often fail to operate due to loss of functionality, or generate adverse toxic effects inside the body. The in vitro and in vivo performance of implantable BioMEMS such as biosensors, smart stents, drug delivery systems, and actuation systems are researched extensively to understand the interaction of the BioMEMS devices with physiological environments. BioMEMS developed for drug delivery applications include microneedles, microreservoirs, and micropumps to achieve targeted drug delivery. The biocompatibility of BioMEMS is further enhanced through the application of tissue and smart surface engineering. This involves the application of nanotechnology, which includes the modification of surfaces with polymers or the self-assembly of monolayers of molecules. Thereby, the adverse effects of biofouling can be reduced and the performance of devices can be improved in in vivo and in vitro conditions. PMID:23894041

Barkam, Swetha; Saraf, Shashank; Seal, Sudipta

2013-01-01

93

Fluoride retention in clean and plaque-covered demineralized enamel in vivo after application of monofluorophosphate.  

PubMed

The retention of fluoride in clean and plaque-covered demineralized enamel in vivo was measured 1 wk after a single application of a MFP solution with low or high content of free fluoride. Demineralization of the enamel was induced in vivo during a 4-wk period prior to application of fluoride by applying orthodontic bands on a pair of premolars scheduled for extraction of orthodontic reasons. The band from one tooth of each pair was then removed and the tooth cleaned (clean enamel lesion). The band on the contralateral tooth (plaque-covered enamel lesion) was left in place. The MFP solutions were applied and the teeth extracted after one more week. The chemical form of fluorine in the lesions was analyzed by conventional acid etching of the enamel combined with KOH dissolution and by a nondestructive surface analysis using ESCA to detect intact monofluorophosphate ions. The ESCA measurements showed that MFP was only present in the clean enamel lesions, indicating complete hydrolysis by dental plaque. Alkali soluble fluoride could be extracted from both plaque-covered and clean enamel lesions. Conflicting results regarding the amount of fluoride uptake in the lesions were obtained with the acid etching and the ESCA technique. It was thus not clearly established whether plaque enhanced fluoride uptake in carious lesions after MFP application. PMID:3868012

Ogaard, B; Gaffar, A; Bahl, M K; Rölla, G; Helgeland, K

1985-12-01

94

In vitro and in vivo application of anti-cotinine antibody and cotinine-conjugated compounds.  

PubMed

The combination of a high-affinity antibody to a hapten, and hapten-conjugated compounds, can provide an alternative to the direct chemical cross-linking of the antibody and compounds. An optimal hapten for in vitro use is one that is absent in biological systems. For in vivo applications, additional characteristics such as pharmacological safety and physiological inertness would be beneficial. Additionally, methods for cross-linking the hapten to various chemical compounds should be available. Cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, is considered advantageous in these aspects. A high-affinity anti-cotinine recombinant antibody has recently become available, and can be converted into various formats, including a bispecific antibody. The bispecific anti-cotinine antibody was successfully applied to immunoblot, enzyme immunoassay, immunoaffinity purification, and pre-targeted in vivo radioimmunoimaging. The anti-cotinine IgG molecule could be complexed with aptamers to form a novel affinity unit, and extended the in vivo half-life of aptamers, opening up the possibility of applying the same strategy to therapeutic peptides and chemical compounds. PMID:24499668

Kim, Hyori; Yoon, Soomin; Chung, Junho

2014-03-01

95

Oxygen sensing in yeast: Evidence for the involvement of the respiratory chain in regulating the transcription of a subset of hypoxic genes  

PubMed Central

Oxygen availability affects the transcription of a number of genes in nearly all organisms. Although the molecular mechanisms for sensing oxygen are not precisely known, heme is thought to play a pivotal role. Here, we address the possibility that oxygen sensing in yeast, as in mammals, involves a redox-sensitive hemoprotein. We have found that carbon monoxide (CO) completely blocks the anoxia-induced expression of two hypoxic genes, OLE1 and CYC7, partially blocks the induction of a third gene, COX5b, and has no effect on the expression of other hypoxic or aerobic genes. In addition, transition metals (Co and Ni) induce the expression of OLE1 and CYC7 in a concentration-dependent manner under aerobic conditions. These findings suggest that the redox state of an oxygen-binding hemoprotein is involved in controlling the expression of at least two hypoxic yeast genes. By using mutants deficient in each of the two major yeast CO-binding hemoproteins (cytochrome c oxidase and flavohemoglobin), respiratory inhibitors, and cob1 and ?0 mutants, we have found that the respiratory chain is involved in the anoxic induction of these two genes and that cytochrome c oxidase is likely the hemoprotein “sensor.” Our findings also indicate that there are at least two classes of hypoxic genes in yeast (CO sensitive and CO insensitive) and imply that multiple pathways/mechanisms are involved in modulating the expression of hypoxic yeast genes.

Kwast, Kurt E.; Burke, Patricia V.; Staahl, Brett T.; Poyton, Robert O.

1999-01-01

96

Polymer-based, flexible glutamate and lactate microsensors for in vivo applications.  

PubMed

We present a flexible microsensor, based on a polymer substrate, for multiparametric, electrochemical in vivo monitoring. The sensor strip with a microelectrode array at the tip was designed for insertion into tissue, for fast and localized online monitoring of physiological parameters. The microsystem fabrication on a wafer-level is based on a polyimide substrate and includes the patterning of platinum microelectrodes as well as epoxy and dry-film-resist insulation in a cost-effective thin-film and laminate process. A stable, electrodeposited silver/silver chloride reference electrode on-chip and a perm-selective membrane as an efficient interference rejection scheme are integrated on a wafer-level. Amperometric, electrochemical, enzyme-based biosensors for the neurotransmitter L-glutamate and the energy metabolite L-lactate have been developed. Hydrogel membranes or direct cross-linking as stable concepts for the enzyme immobilization are shown. Sensor performance including high selectivity, tailoring of sensitivity and long-term stability is discussed. For glutamate, a high sensitivity of 2.16nAmm(-2)µM(-1) was found. For lactate, a variation in sensitivity between 2.6 and 32nAmm(-2)mM(-1) was achieved by different membrane compositions. The in vivo application in an animal model is demonstrated by glutamate measurements in the brain of rats. Local glutamate alterations in the micromolar range and in nanoliter-range volumes can be detected and quantified with high reproducibility and temporal resolution. A novel, versatile platform for the integration of various electrochemical sensors on a small, flexible sensor strip for a variety of in vivo applications is presented. PMID:24880657

Weltin, Andreas; Kieninger, Jochen; Enderle, Barbara; Gellner, Anne-Kathrin; Fritsch, Brita; Urban, Gerald A

2014-11-15

97

Dermal application of nitric oxide in vivo: kinetics, biological responses, and therapeutic potential in humans.  

PubMed

Many local hemodynamic and vascular disorders may be the result of impaired bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). Previous findings point to a therapeutic potential of dermal NO application in the treatment of hemodynamic disorders, but no reliable data are available on the mechanisms, kinetics, or biological responses relating to cutaneous exposure to NO in humans in vivo. Here we show that, owing to its excellent diffusion capacity, cutaneously applied NO rapidly penetrates the epidermal barrier in significant amounts, strongly enriching skin tissue and blood plasma with its vasoactive derivates. In parallel, it significantly increased vasodilatation and blood flow and reduced thrombocyte aggregation capacity. Data presented here for the first time show that, in humans, dermal application of NO has strong potential for use in the therapy of local hemodynamic disorders arising from insufficient availability of NO or its bioactive derivates. PMID:22549282

Opländer, C; Römer, A; Paunel-Görgülü, A; Fritsch, T; van Faassen, E E; Mürtz, M; Bozkurt, A; Grieb, G; Fuchs, Paul; Pallua, Norbert; Suschek, C V

2012-06-01

98

An Ex Vivo Toe Model Used to Assess Applicators for the Iontophoretic Ungual Delivery of Terbinafine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  An ex vivo intact toe model was developed to assess two different applicator designs for iontophoretic delivery of terbinafine into\\u000a the nail only or the nail and surrounding skin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Iontophoretic permeation studies were carried out on intact cadaver toes using nail-only and nail\\/skin applicators with a\\u000a current dose of 10 mA*min (0.5 mA for 20 min).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Iontophoresis enhanced drug permeation and tissue loading

Anroop B. Nair; Hyun D. Kim; Shawn P. Davis; Robert Etheredge; Michael Barsness; Phillip M. Friden; S. Narasimha Murthy

2009-01-01

99

Dendrimer-Based Fluorescent Indicators: In Vitro and In Vivo Applications  

PubMed Central

Background The development of fluorescent proteins and synthetic molecules whose fluorescence properties are controlled by the environment makes it possible to monitor physiological and pathological events in living systems with minimal perturbation. A large number of small organic dyes are available and routinely used to measure biologically relevant parameters. Unfortunately their application is hindered by a number of limitations stemming from the use of these small molecules in the biological environment. Principal Findings We present a novel dendrimer-based architecture leading to multifunctional sensing elements that can overcome many of these problems. Applications in vitro, in living cells and in vivo are reported. In particular, we image for the first time extracellular pH in the brain in a mouse epilepsy model. Conclusion We believe that the proposed architecture can represent a useful and novel tool in fluorescence imaging that can be widely applied in conjunction with a broad range of sensing dyes and experimental setups.

Albertazzi, Lorenzo; Brondi, Marco; Pavan, Giovanni M.; Sato, Sebastian Sulis; Signore, Giovanni; Storti, Barbara; Ratto, Gian Michele; Beltram, Fabio

2011-01-01

100

A modular wireless in vivo surgical robot with multiple surgical applications.  

PubMed

The use of miniature in vivo robots that fit entirely inside the peritoneal cavity represents a novel approach to laparoscopic surgery. Previous work demonstrates that both mobile and fixed-based robots can successfully operate inside the abdominal cavity. A modular wireless mobile platform has also been developed to provide surgical vision and task assistance. This paper presents an overview of recent test results of several possible surgical applications that can be accommodated by this modular platform. Applications such as a biopsy grasper, stapler and clamp, video camera, and physiological sensors have been integrated into the wireless platform and tested in vivo in a porcine model. The modular platform facilitates rapid development and conversion from one type of surgical task assistance to another. These self-contained surgical devices are much more transportable and much lower in cost than current robotic surgical assistants. These devices could ultimately be carried and deployed by non-medical personnel at the site of an injury. A remotely located surgeon could use these robots to provide critical first response medical intervention. PMID:19377127

Hawks, Jeff A; Rentschler, Mark E; Farritor, Shane; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Platt, Stephen R

2009-01-01

101

In vivo 783-channel diffuse reflectance imaging system and its application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fiber-based reflectance imaging system was constructed to produce in vivo absorption spectroscopic images of biological tissues with diffuse light in the cw domain. The principal part of this system is the 783-channel fiber probe, composed of 253 illumination fibers and 530 detection fibers distributed in a 20×20 mm square region. During illumination with the 253 illumination fibers, diffuse reflected lights are collected by the 530 detection fibers and recorded simultaneously as an image with an electron multiplying CCD camera for fast data acquisition. After signal acquisition, a diffuse reflectance image was reconstructed by applying the spectral normalization method we devised. To test the applicability of the spectral normalization, we conducted two phantom experiments with chicken breast tissue and white Delrin resin by using animal blood as an optical inhomogeneity. In the Delrin phantom experiment, we present images produced by two methods, spectral normalization and reference signal normalization, along with a comparison of the two. To show the feasibility of our system for biomedical applications, we took images of a human vein in vivo with the spectral normalization method.

Yang, Joon-Mo; Han, Yong-Hui; Yoon, Gilwon; Ahn, Byung Soo; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Soh, Kwang-Sup

2007-08-01

102

Non invasive in vivo investigation of hepatobiliary structure and function in STII medaka (Oryzias latipes): methodology and applications  

PubMed Central

Background A novel transparent stock of medaka (Oryzias latipes; STII), recessive for all pigments found in chromatophores, permits transcutaneous imaging of internal organs and tissues in living individuals. Findings presented describe the development of methodologies for non invasive in vivo investigation in STII medaka, and the successful application of these methodologies to in vivo study of hepatobiliary structure, function, and xenobiotic response, in both 2 and 3 dimensions. Results Using brightfield, and widefield and confocal fluorescence microscopy, coupled with the in vivo application of fluorescent probes, structural and functional features of the hepatobiliary system, and xenobiotic induced toxicity, were imaged at the cellular level, with high resolution (< 1 ?m), in living individuals. The findings presented demonstrate; (1) phenotypic response to xenobiotic exposure can be investigated/imaged in vivo with high resolution (< 1 ?m), (2) hepatobiliary transport of solutes from blood to bile can be qualitatively and quantitatively studied/imaged in vivo, (3) hepatobiliary architecture in this lower vertebrate liver can be studied in 3 dimensions, and (4) non invasive in vivo imaging/description of hepatobiliary development in this model can be investigated. Conclusion The non-invasive in vivo methodologies described are a unique means by which to investigate biological structure, function and xenobiotic response with high resolution in STII medaka. In vivo methodologies also provide the future opportunity to integrate molecular mechanisms (e.g., genomic, proteomic) of disease and toxicity with phenotypic changes at the cellular and system levels of biological organization. While our focus has been the hepatobiliary system, other organ systems are equally amenable to in vivo study, and we consider the potential for discovery, within the context of in vivo investigation in STII medaka, as significant.

Hardman, Ron C; Kullman, Seth W; Hinton, David E

2008-01-01

103

Qualichem in vivo: a tool for assessing the quality of in vivo studies and its application for bisphenol a.  

PubMed

In regulatory toxicology, quality assessment of in vivo studies is a critical step for assessing chemical risks. It is crucial for preserving public health studies that are considered suitable for regulating chemicals are robust. Current procedures for conducting quality assessments in safety agencies are not structured, clear or consistent. This leaves room for criticism about lack of transparency, subjective influence and the potential for insufficient protection provided by resulting safety standards. We propose a tool called "Qualichem in vivo" that is designed to systematically and transparently assess the quality of in vivo studies used in chemical health risk assessment. We demonstrate its use here with 12 experts, using two controversial studies on Bisphenol A (BPA) that played an important role in BPA regulation in Europe. The results obtained with Qualichem contradict the quality assessments conducted by expert committees in safety agencies for both of these studies. Furthermore, they show that reliance on standardized guidelines to ensure scientific quality is only partially justified. Qualichem allows experts with different disciplinary backgrounds and professional experiences to express their individual and sometimes divergent views-an improvement over the current way of dealing with minority opinions. It provides a transparent framework for expressing an aggregated, multi-expert level of confidence in a study, and allows a simple graphical representation of how well the study integrates the best available scientific knowledge. Qualichem can be used to compare assessments of the same study by different health agencies, increasing transparency and trust in the work of expert committees. In addition, it may be used in systematic evaluation of in vivo studies submitted by industry in the dossiers that are required for compliance with the REACH Regulation. Qualichem provides a balanced, common framework for assessing the quality of studies that may or may not be following standardized guidelines. PMID:24489958

Maxim, Laura; van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

2014-01-01

104

Qualichem In Vivo: A Tool for Assessing the Quality of In Vivo Studies and Its Application for Bisphenol A  

PubMed Central

In regulatory toxicology, quality assessment of in vivo studies is a critical step for assessing chemical risks. It is crucial for preserving public health studies that are considered suitable for regulating chemicals are robust. Current procedures for conducting quality assessments in safety agencies are not structured, clear or consistent. This leaves room for criticism about lack of transparency, subjective influence and the potential for insufficient protection provided by resulting safety standards. We propose a tool called “Qualichem in vivo” that is designed to systematically and transparently assess the quality of in vivo studies used in chemical health risk assessment. We demonstrate its use here with 12 experts, using two controversial studies on Bisphenol A (BPA) that played an important role in BPA regulation in Europe. The results obtained with Qualichem contradict the quality assessments conducted by expert committees in safety agencies for both of these studies. Furthermore, they show that reliance on standardized guidelines to ensure scientific quality is only partially justified. Qualichem allows experts with different disciplinary backgrounds and professional experiences to express their individual and sometimes divergent views—an improvement over the current way of dealing with minority opinions. It provides a transparent framework for expressing an aggregated, multi-expert level of confidence in a study, and allows a simple graphical representation of how well the study integrates the best available scientific knowledge. Qualichem can be used to compare assessments of the same study by different health agencies, increasing transparency and trust in the work of expert committees. In addition, it may be used in systematic evaluation of in vivo studies submitted by industry in the dossiers that are required for compliance with the REACH Regulation. Qualichem provides a balanced, common framework for assessing the quality of studies that may or may not be following standardized guidelines.

Maxim, Laura; van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

2014-01-01

105

Development and Applications of Laminar Optical Tomography for In Vivo Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laminar optical tomography (LOT) is an optical imaging technique capable of making depth-resolved measurements of absorption and fluorescence contrast in scattering tissue. LOT was first demonstrated in 2004 by Hillman et al [1]. The technique combines a non-contact laser scanning geometry, similar to a low magnification confocal microscope, with the imaging principles of diffuse optical tomography (DOT). This thesis describes the development and application of a second generation LOT system, which acquires both fluorescence and multi-wavelength measurements simultaneously and is better suited for in vivo measurements. Chapter 1 begins by reviewing the interactions of light with tissue that form the foundation of optical imaging. A range of related optical imaging techniques and the basic principles of LOT imaging are then described. In Chapter 2, the development of the new LOT imaging system is described including the implementation of a series of interfaces to allow clinical imaging. System performance is then evaluated on a range of imaging phantoms. Chapter 3 describes two in vivo imaging applications explored using the second generation LOT system, first in a clinical setting where skin lesions were imaged, and then in a laboratory setting where LOT imaging was performed on exposed rat cortex. The final chapter provides a brief summary and describes future directions for LOT. LOT has the potential to find applications in medical diagnostics, surgical guidance, and in-situ monitoring owing to its sensitivity to absorption and fluorescence contrast as well as its ability to provide depth sensitive measures. Optical techniques can characterize blood volume and oxygenation, two important biological parameters, through measurements at different wavelengths. Fluorescence measurements, either from autofluorescence or fluorescent dyes, have shown promise for identifying and analyzing lesions in various epithelial tissues including skin [2, 3], colon [4], esophagus [5, 6], oral mucosa [7, 8], and cervix [9]. The desire to capture these types of measurements with LOT motivated much of the work presented here.

Burgess, Sean A.

106

Highly purified mussel adhesive protein to secure biosafety for in vivo applications  

PubMed Central

Background Unique adhesive and biocompatibility properties of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs) are known for their great potential in many tissue engineering and biomedical applications. Previously, it was successfully demonstrated that redesigned hybrid type MAP, fp-151, mass-produced in Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, could be utilized as a promising adhesive biomaterial. However, purification of recombinant fp-151 has been unsatisfactory due to its adhesive nature and polarity which make separation of contaminants (especially, lipopolysaccharide, a toxic Gram-negative cell membrane component) very difficult. Results In the present work, we devised a high resolution purification approach to secure safety standards of recombinant fp-151 for the successful use in in vivo applications. Undesirable impurities were remarkably eliminated as going through sequential steps including treatment with multivalent ion and chelating agent for cell membrane washing, mechanical cell disruption, non-ionic surfactant treatment for isolated inclusion body washing, acid extraction of washed inclusion body, and ion exchange chromatography purification of acid extracted sample. Through various analyses, such as high performance liquid chromatographic purity assay, limulus amoebocyte lysate endotoxin assay, and in vitro mouse macrophage cell tests on inflammation, viability, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis, we confirmed the biological safety of bacterial-derived purified recombinant fp-151. Conclusions Through this purification design, recombinant fp-151 achieved 99.90% protein purity and 99.91% endotoxin reduction that nearly no inflammation response was observed in in vitro experiments. Thus, the highly purified recombinant MAP would be successfully used as a safety-secured in vivo bioadhesive for tissue engineering and biomedical applications.

2014-01-01

107

Applicator and electrode design for in vivo DNA delivery by electroporation.  

PubMed

As in vivo electroporation advances from the preclinical phase to clinical studies and eventually to routine medical practice, the design of electroporation devices becomes increasingly important. Achieving safety and efficacy levels that meet regulatory requirements, as well as user and patient friendliness, are major design considerations. In addition, the devices will have to be economical to manufacture. This chapter will focus on the design of applicators and electrodes, the pieces of hardware in direct contact with the user and the patient, and thus key elements responsible for the safety and efficacy of the procedure. The two major foreseeable applications of the technology in the DNA field are for gene therapy and DNA vaccination. Design requirements differ considerably for these applications and for the diseases to be treated or prevented. In addition to the trend of device differentiation, there is also a trend to build devices capable of performing both the step of delivering the DNA to the target tissue and the subsequent step of electroporation. This chapter presents the electrical and biological principles underlying applicator and electrode design, gives an overview of existing devices, and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. The chapter also outlines major design considerations, including regulatory pathways, and points out potential future developments. PMID:18370189

Rabussay, Dietmar

2008-01-01

108

Biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates: an overview of animal testing and in vivo responses.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have been established as biodegradable polymers since the second half of the twentieth century. Altering monomer composition of PHAs allows the development of polymers with favorable mechanical properties, biocompatibility and desirable degradation rates, under specific physiological conditions. Hence, the medical applications of PHAs have been explored extensively in recent years. PHAs have been used to develop devices, including sutures, nerve repair devices, repair patches, slings, cardiovascular patches, orthopedic pins, adhesion barriers, stents, guided tissue repair/regeneration devices, articular cartilage repair devices, nerve guides, tendon repair devices, bone-marrow scaffolds, tissue engineered cardiovascular devices and wound dressings. So far, various tests on animal models have shown polymers, from the PHA family, to be compatible with a range of tissues. Often, pyrogenic contaminants copurified with PHAs limit their pharmacological application rather than the monomeric composition of the PHAs and thus the purity of the PHA material is critical. This review summarizes the animal testing, tissue response, in vivo molecular stability and challenges of using PHAs for medical applications. In future, PHAs may become the materials of choice for various medical applications. PMID:17280548

Valappil, Sabeel P; Misra, Superb K; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Roy, Ipsita

2006-11-01

109

Recent Advances in Intracellular and In Vivo ROS Sensing: Focus on Nanoparticle and Nanotube Applications  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increasingly being implicated in the regulation of cellular signaling cascades. Intracellular ROS fluxes are associated with cellular function ranging from proliferation to cell death. Moreover, the importance of subtle, spatio-temporal shifts in ROS during localized cellular signaling events is being realized. Understanding the biochemical nature of the ROS involved will enhance our knowledge of redox-signaling. An ideal intracellular sensor should therefore resolve real-time, localized ROS changes, be highly sensitive to physiologically relevant shifts in ROS and provide specificity towards a particular molecule. For in vivo applications issues such as bioavailability of the probe, tissue penetrance of the signal and signal-to-noise ratio also need to be considered. In the past researchers have heavily relied on the use of ROS-sensitive fluorescent probes and, more recently, genetically engineered ROS sensors. However, there is a great need to improve on current methods to address the above issues. Recently, the field of molecular sensing and imaging has begun to take advantage of the unique physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles and nanotubes. Here we discuss the recent advances in the use of these nanostructures as alternative platforms for ROS sensing, with particular emphasis on intracellular and in vivo ROS detection and quantification.

Uusitalo, Larissa M.; Hempel, Nadine

2012-01-01

110

Adapting MRI Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging For In Vivo Human Brain Focused Ultrasound Applications  

PubMed Central

A variety of MRI acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) pulse sequences as the means for image guidance of focused ultrasound therapy have been recently developed and tested ex vivo and in animal models. To successfully translate MR-ARFI guidance into human applications, ensuring that MR-ARFI provides satisfactory image quality in the presence of patient motion and deposits safe amount of ultrasound energy during image acquisition is necessary. The first aim of this work was to study the effect of motion on in vivo displacement images of the brain obtained with 2DFT spin-echo MR-ARFI. Repeated bipolar displacement encoding configuration was shown less sensitive to organ motion. The optimal signal-to-noise ratio of displacement images was found for the duration of encoding gradients of 12 ms. The second aim was to further optimize the displacement SNR for a particular tissue type by setting the time offset between the ultrasound emission and encoding based on the tissue response to acoustic radiation force. A method for measuring tissue response non-invasively was demonstrated. Finally, a new method for simultaneous monitoring of tissue heating during MR-ARFI acquisition was presented to enable timely adjustment of the ultrasound energy aimed at ensuring the safety of the MR-ARFI acquisition.

Kaye, Elena A.; Pauly, Kim Butts

2014-01-01

111

Quantification of transport and binding parameters using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Potential for in vivo applications.  

PubMed Central

Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) has been used extensively in the study of transport and binding in biological media in vitro. The present study adapts and further develops FRAP so that it may be utilized for the in vivo quantification of binding parameters. The technique is validated in vitro by measuring mass transport and binding parameters for the Concanavalin A/Mannose binding system (a diffusion-limited system). The pseudo-equilibrium constant (the product of the equilibrium constant and the total concentration of binding sites) for this system was determined to be 26 +/- 15 which compares favorably with literature values ranging between 16 and 32. The applicability of this technique to measure parameters for monoclonal antibody/antigen interactions in a thin tissue preparation such as the rabbit ear chamber tissue preparation is also examined. Unlike other methods for measuring binding parameters, this is the only technique which has the potential to measure parameters relevant to antibody delivery in vivo. The proposed technique is noninvasive and does not require a priori knowledge of, independent measurement of, or variation in the concentration of binding sites or total concentration of binding species.

Kaufman, E N; Jain, R K

1990-01-01

112

Optimization of ultrathin carbon film coated silver nanoshell for biomedical applications in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extinction spectroscopy and near-field enhancement of dielectric-silver nanoshell coated by tetrahedral amorphous carbon [ta-C] layer (DSC) have been calculated by using Mie theory. With decreasing the Ag layer thickness, the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of DSC nanoshell moves from the visible region into the near-infrared region and the corresponding local field factor (LFF) increases first and then decreases. In addition, the increase of ta-C shell thickness leads to red-shift of LSPR and the decrease of LFF in DSC nanoshell. We further find that the increase of the dielectric constant for the outer shell can induce a significant enhancement of near-field. Based on the simulation analysis, we show that the DSC nanoshell can provide strong near-field in near-infrared region and may be suitable for the biomedical applications in vivo.

Wu, Dajian; Liu, Xiaojun

2011-11-01

113

Optical fiber-based photomechanical gene transfer system for in vivo application.  

PubMed

We developed an optical-fiber-based photomechanical gene transfer system for endoscopic or catheter-based application. A fiber tip with a laser-absorbing film covered with a transparent plastic disk for plasma confinement was attached to a quartz fiber; the film was irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses transmitted through the fiber to generate photomechanical waves (PMWs). Characteristics of PMWs emitted from the fiber tip were examined to confirm the necessary conditions for gene transfer. We then attempted to transfer reporter genes to the rat skin as a test tissue in vivo with the fiber system, and the results showed significantly high protein levels and spatially selective pinpoint gene expressions in the tissue. PMID:22139237

Sato, Shunichi; Ando, Takahiro; Obara, Minoru

2011-12-01

114

Applications of in vivo and in vitro solid-phase microextraction techniques in plant analysis: A review.  

PubMed

As a very popular sample preparation technique, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with various analytical instrumentation, has been widely used for the determination of trace levels of different plant compounds, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the different plant organs, and environmental contaminants in plants. In this review, recent applications of in vitro and in vivo SPME in plant analysis are discussed and summarized according to the different organs of plants, including fruits, flowers, leaves, stems, roots and seeds, and the whole plant as well. Future developments and applications of SPME in plant analysis, especially in vivo sampling approaches, are also prospected. PMID:23972969

Zhu, Fang; Xu, Jianqiao; Ke, Yuanyuan; Huang, Siming; Zeng, Feng; Luan, Tiangang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

2013-09-10

115

Mitochondrial regulation of oxygen sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maintenance of oxygen homoeostasis is required for the survival of higher organisms. The transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) has a crucial role in oxygen homoeostasis by integrating the decrease in oxygen levels to increase hypoxic gene expression. How cells sense decrease in oxygen levels to elicit an increase in HIF dependent gene expression is not fully understood. In this

Eric L. Bell; Brooke M. Emerling; Navdeep S. Chandel

2005-01-01

116

In vivo determination of homogenised mechanical characteristics of human tibia: application to the study of tibial torsion in vivo.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The study presents a method allowing the in vivo homogenised characteristics of the tibiae of children to be assessed. DESIGN: Studies have been performed on two groups of children: six normal children, aged from 5 to 16 yr, and on four children, aged from 8 to 11 yr with tibial deformities. We analysed the tibial transverse sections from CT scans performed on the left tibia of each child. BACKGROUND: Most tibial torsion studies have only been based on geometrical parameters. Our study integrated mechanical and geometrical considerations. METHODS: The finite element models and integration of mechanical properties were performed from CT scans. Then homogenised mechanical characteristics (tensile stiffness, flexural stiffness and torsional stiffness) were calculated. RESULTS: The homogenised mechanical characteristics decrease between 20 to 80% of the tibial length. The values increased with age for both groups of children. Children with abnormalities seem to have values of tibial rigidities comparable with those of normal tibiae. CONCLUSIONS: By considering the mechanical and geometrical properties of the tibia in our study, we showed that the bone stiffness of children is not altered with torsional deformities. RELEVANCE: Torsional tibial abnormalities of children are a frequent phenomenon which may have important consequences on gait and joints. The method developed could be used as an objective assessment of bone rigidities for analysing tibial disorders such as torsional abnormalities of varying severity. PMID:11415823

Limbert, G.; Estivalèzes, E.; Hobatho, M.C.; Baunin, C.; Cahuzac, J.P.

1998-10-01

117

Synthesis and surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles for in vivo biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) possess unique magnetic properties and the ability to function at the cellular and molecular level of biological interactions making them an attractive platform to serve as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and as carriers for drug delivery. Recent advances in nanotechnology have improved the ability to engineer the features and properties of MNPs allowing them to be tailored specifically for these biomedical applications. MNPs composed of metallic, oxide, and nanoalloy cores and a variety of protective coatings are being investigated for applications in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of malignant tumors, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disease. To better address specific clinical needs, MNPs with higher magnetic moments, non-fouling surfaces, and increased functionalities are now being developed. The goal of this interdisciplinary research is to develop novel superparamagnetic nanoprobes for non-invasive cancer diagnosis and treatment. This strategy utilizes iron oxide nanoparticles coated with various biocompatible polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and chitosan, to serve as both a contrast agent for MRI and a carrier for drug delivery. In this project, we have conjugated various targeting agents, such as folic acid (FA) and chlorotoxin (CTX), to these iron oxide nanoparticles to improve their tumor specific accumulation. The folate receptor is known to be overexpressed on the surfaces of many human tumor cells, including ovarian, lung, breast, endometrial, renal, and colon cancers, while CTX binds with high affinity to gliomas, medulloblastomas, and other tumors of the neuroectodermal origin. To evaluate its effectiveness as a targeted drug carrier, methotrexate (MTX), a convention chemotherapeutic agent, was conjugated to iron oxide nanoparticles in combination with CTX. Specific tumor cell targeting of our nanoparticle system has been demonstrated through increased contrast enhancement both in vitro and in vivo in MRI experiments. The successful application of such smart molecular imaging probes will have a significant clinical impact on improved diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors.

Sun, Conroy Ghin Chee

118

Laccase-catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols: from in vivo biosynthetic pathways to green synthetic applications  

PubMed Central

Summary Laccases are oxidases that contain several copper atoms, and catalyse single?electron oxidations of phenolic compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The enzymes are particularly widespread in ligninolytic basidiomycetes, but also occur in certain prokaryotes, insects and plants. Depending on the species, laccases are involved in various biosynthetic processes contributing to carbon recycling in land ecosystems and the morphogenesis of biomatrices, wherein low?molecular?weight naturally occurring phenols serve as key enzyme substrates. Studies of these in vivo synthetic pathways have afforded new insights into fungal laccase applicability in green synthetic chemistry. Thus, we here review fungal laccase?catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols that are particularly relevant to the synthesis of fine organic chemicals, and we discuss how the discovered synthetic strategies mimic laccase?involved in vivo pathways, thus enhancing the green nature of such reactions. Laccase?catalysed in vivo processes yield several types of biopolymers, including those of cuticles, lignin, polyflavonoids, humus and the melanin pigments, using natural mono? or poly?phenols as building blocks. The in vivo synthetic pathways involve either phenoxyl radical?mediated coupling or cross?linking reactions, and can be adapted to the design of in vitro oxidative processes involving fungal laccases in organic synthesis; the laccase substrates and the synthetic mechanisms reflect in vivo processes. Notably, such in vitro synthetic pathways can also reproduce physicochemical properties (e.g. those of chromophores, and radical?scavenging, hydration and antimicrobial activities) found in natural biomaterials. Careful study of laccase?associated in vivo metabolic pathways has been rewarded by the discovery of novel green applications for fungal laccases. This review comprehensively summarizes the available data on laccase?catalysed biosynthetic pathways and associated applications in fine chemical syntheses.

Jeon, Jong-Rok; Baldrian, Petr; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2012-01-01

119

Studies on dental erosion: An in vivo-in vitro model of endogenous dental erosion-its application to testing protection b flouride gel application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The objective in this study was to develop an in vivo-in vitro model of endogenous erosion, with a view to exploring the potential for some degree of its control by the use of topical fluoride gel application to teeth. Methods: Six volunteers each wore a small clasp retained palatal acrylic appliance to which six sterilized enamel tiles were bonded.

L. Jones; D. Lekkas; D. Hunt; J. McIntyre; W. Rafir

2002-01-01

120

Multiphoton fluorescence recovery after photobleaching: Advancements for novel in vivo applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (MP-FRAP) is a laser microscopy technique used to probe the transport properties of macromolecules in biological systems. MP-FRAP utilizes two-photon fluorescence and photobleaching to produce a three-dimensionally resolved diffusion coefficient for an ensemble of molecules in the region of the two-photon focal volume. This thesis describes two fundamental improvements to the MP-FRAP technique, which are vital steps to enable MP-FRAP to be applied to the complex in vivo environment. In Chapter 1, we lay the groundwork for our discussion of these advancements by introducing the MP-FRAP technique and the physics upon which it is based. We begin with a description of fluorescence and diffusion and discuss their importance in biomedical research. Next, we describe how two-photon fluorescence and photobleaching are applied to a diffusing system to measure the diffusion coefficient via fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Then, we take the reader through the evolution of FRAP, which leads to the application of two- photon fluorescence and photobleaching to produce MP-FRAP. Along the way, we highlight applications and advancements of the FRAP techniques, and introduce fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, a popular complement to FRAP. In Chapter 2, we collect the experimental methods for the studies presented in Chapters 3 and 4. We begin with an in-depth discussion of our work to build and troubleshoot our MP-FRAP apparatus, followed by a detailed description of our data analysis protocol. Next, we delve into the specific methods for producing computer generated data and fits, as well as in vitro and in vivo experimental data, for our work in Chap. 3 on improving MP-FRAP to measure diffusion in the presence of convective flow. We end with a description of the Monte Carlo algorithm we developed for our work in Chap. 4 to model diffusion and multiphoton fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in the presence of reflective boundaries of various geometries. In Chapter 3, we develop an improved analytical model of multiphoton fluorescence recovery after photobleaching that includes the effects of convective flows within a system. We use computer generated data and fits to explore the effect of convective flow on the shape and speed of fluorescence recovery, and to estimate the range of diffusion coefficients and flow speeds over which this new "diffusion-convection" model yields accurate diffusion coefficients (as compared to the diffusion-only model). We then demonstrate the validity of the diffusion-convection model through in vitro experimentation in systems with known diffusion coefficients and known flow speeds, and show that the diffusion-convection model enables accurate determination of the diffusion coefficient via MP-FRAP, even when significant flows are present. We conclude by demonstrating the effectiveness of the diffusion-convection model in vivo by measuring the diffusion coefficient and flow speed within tumor vessels of 4T1 murine mammary adenocarcinomas implanted in the dorsal skinfold chamber. In Chapter 4, we present our work that allows MP-FRAP to be performed accurately near reflective boundaries of various geometries. Using Monte Carlo techniques, we first generate an initial distribution of bleached molecules, then simulate their diffusion away from the initial distribution, thereby producing fluorescence vs. time recovery curves in the region of the initial bleached distribution. These curves are then fit to the standard analytical MP-FRAP model to produce a diffusion coefficient. By introducing solid barriers into the model in the region of the initial bleached distribution, we learn how the presence of harriers of different geometries affects the measurement of diffusion via MP-FRAP. Finally, we supply ranges of barrier positions for each geometry within which MP-FR AP can confidently be employed to measure accurate diffusion coefficients.

Sullivan, Kelley Diane

121

Segmented surface coil resonator for in vivo EPR applications at 1.1 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A four-loop segmented surface coil resonator (SSCR) with electronic frequency and coupling adjustments was constructed with 18 mm aperture and loading capability suitable for in vivo Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and imaging applications at L-band. Increased sample volume and loading capability were achieved by employing a multi-loop three-dimensional surface coil structure. Symmetrical design of the resonator with coupling to each loop resulted in high homogeneity of RF magnetic field. Parallel loops were coupled to the feeder cable via balancing circuitry containing varactor diodes for electronic coupling and tuning over a wide range of loading conditions. Manually adjusted high Q trimmer capacitors were used for initial tuning with subsequent tuning electronically controlled using varactor diodes. This design provides transparency and homogeneity of magnetic field modulation in the sample volume, while matching components are shielded to minimize interference with modulation and ambient RF fields. It can accommodate lossy samples up to 90% of its aperture with high homogeneity of RF and modulation magnetic fields and can function as a surface loop or a slice volume resonator. Along with an outer coaxial NMR surface coil, the SSCR enabled EPR/NMR co-imaging of paramagnetic probes in living rats to a depth of 20 mm.

Petryakov, Sergey; Samouilov, Alexandre; Chzhan-Roytenberg, Michael; Kesselring, Eric; Sun, Ziqi; Zweier, Jay L.

2009-05-01

122

Application of tetra-isopalmitoyl ascorbic acid in cosmetic formulations: stability studies and in vivo efficacy.  

PubMed

Liposoluble vitamin C derivatives, such as tetra-isopalmitoyl ascorbic acid (IPAA), are often used in dermocosmetic products due to their higher stability than vitamin C free form as well as its proposed effects in skin; however, there are no studies analyzing IPAA stability or its in vivo effects when present in dermocosmetic formulations. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate chemical stability and pre-clinical and clinical efficacy of dermocosmetic formulations containing IPAA in skin hydration and microrelief. Chemical stability of the formulations added with 1% IPAA was evaluated by heat stress during 35 days by HPLC. For pre-clinical evaluation, experimental formulations were topically applied on hairless skin mice during 5 days and animal skins were analyzed by non-invasive biophysic techniques (water content of stratum corneum, TEWL, viscoelasticity, and microrelief) and by histopathological studies. For clinical efficacy tests, the formulations were topically applied to the forearm and face of human volunteers, and 3h and 15 days after applications, the skins were evaluated by the same non-invasive techniques mentioned before. Results showed that formulations containing IPAA had medium stability and had pronounced moisturizing effects on stratum corneum and on viable epidermis. These formulations also improved skin microrelief especially in relation to skin smoothness and roughness. PMID:22974986

Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G; Gianeti, Mirela D; Camargo, Flávio B; Gaspar, Lorena R

2012-11-01

123

In vivo pH monitoring using boron doped diamond microelectrode and silver needles: application to stomach disorder diagnosis.  

PubMed

This study presents the in vivo electrochemical monitoring of pH using boron doped diamond (BDD) microelectrode and silver needles for potential application in medical diagnosis. Accurate calibration curve for pH determination were obtained through in vitro electrochemical measurements. The increase induced in stomach pH by treatment with pantoprazole was used to demonstrate that it is possible to monitor the pH in vivo using the simple and noninvasive system proposed herein. Using the results of the in vivo and in vitro experiments, a quantitative analysis of the increase in stomach pH is also presented. It is proposed that the catheter-free pH monitoring system presented in this study could be potentially employed in any biological environment. PMID:24247214

Fierro, Stéphane; Seishima, Ryo; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Einaga, Yasuaki

2013-01-01

124

Combining whispering gallery mode lasers and microstructured optical fibers for in-vivo biosensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) have been widely studied for the past 20 years for various applications, including biological sensing. While the different WGM-based sensing approaches reported in the literature enable useful sensor characteristics, at present this technology is not yet mature, mainly for practical reasons. Our work has been focused on developing a simple, yet efficient, WGM-based sensing platform capable of being used as a dip sensor for in-vivo biosensing applications. We recently demonstrated that a dye-doped polymer microresonator, supporting WGMs, positioned onto the tip of a suspended core Microstructured Optical Fiber can be used as a dip sensor. In this architecture, the resonator is located on an air hole next to the fiber core at the fiber's tip, enabling a significant portion of the sphere to overlap with the guided light emerging from the fiber tip. This architecture offers significant benefits that have never been reported in the literature in terms of radiation efficiency, compared to the standard freestanding resonators, which arise from breaking the symmetry of the resonator. In addition to providing the remote excitation and collection of the WGMs' signal, the fiber also allows easy manipulation of the microresonator and the use this sensor in a dip sensing architecture, alleviating the need for a complex microfluidic interface. Here, we present our recent results on the microstructured fiber tip WGM-based sensor, including its lasing behavior and enhancement of the radiation efficiency as a function of the position of the resonator on the fiber tip. We also show that this platform can be used for clinical diagnostics and applying this technology to the detection of Troponin T, an acute myocardial infarction biomarker, down to a concentration of 7.4 pg/mL.

François, A.; Rowland, K. J.; Reynolds, T.; Nicholls, S. J.; Monro, T. M.

2013-10-01

125

Radiolabelling of engineered nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo tracing applications using cyclotron accelerators.  

PubMed

We present in this article an outline of some cyclotron-based irradiation techniques that can be used to directly radiolabel industrially manufactured nanoparticles, as well as two techniques for synthesis of labelled nanoparticles using cyclotron-generated radioactive precursor materials. These radiolabelled nanoparticles are suitable for a range of different in vitro and in vivo tracing studies of relevance to the field of nanotoxicology. A basic overview is given of the relevant physics of nuclear reactions regarding both ion-beam and neutron production of radioisotopes. The various issues that determine the practicality and usefulness of the different methods are discussed, including radioisotope yield, nuclear reaction kinetics, radiation and thermal damage, and radiolabel stability. Experimental details are presented regarding several techniques applied in our laboratories, including direct light-ion activation of dry nanoparticle samples, neutron activation of nanoparticles and suspensions using an ion-beam driven activator, spark-ignition generation of nanoparticle aerosols using activated electrode materials, and radiochemical synthesis of nanoparticles using cyclotron-produced isotopes. The application of these techniques is illustrated through short descriptions of some selected results thus far achieved. It is shown that these cyclotron-based methods offer a very useful range of options for nanoparticle radiolabelling despite some experimental difficulties associated with their application. For direct nanoparticle radiolabelling, if care is taken in choosing the experimental conditions applied, useful activity levels can be achieved in a wide range of nanoparticle types, without causing substantial thermal or radiation damage to the nanoparticle structure. Nanoparticle synthesis using radioactive precursors presents a different set of issues and offers a complementary and equally valid approach when laboratory generation of the nanoparticles is acceptable for the proposed studies, and where an appropriate radiolabel can be incorporated into the nanoparticles during synthesis. PMID:21479952

Gibson, N; Holzwarth, U; Abbas, K; Simonelli, F; Kozempel, J; Cydzik, I; Cotogno, G; Bulgheroni, A; Gilliland, D; Ponti, J; Franchini, F; Marmorato, P; Stamm, H; Kreyling, W; Wenk, A; Semmler-Behnke, M; Buono, S; Maciocco, L; Burgio, N

2011-07-01

126

Development of HiLo Microscope and its use in In-Vivo Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functionality of achieving optical sectioning in biomedical research is invaluable as it allows for visualization of a biological sample at different depths while being free of background scattering. Most current microscopy techniques that offer optical sectioning, unfortunately, require complex instrumentation and thus are generally costly. HiLo microscopy, on the other hand, offers the same functionality and advantage at a relatively low cost. Hence, the work described in this thesis involves the design, build, and application of a HiLo microscope. More specifically, a standalone HiLo microscope was built in addition to implementing HiLo microscopy on a standard fluorescence microscope. In HiLo microscopy, optical sectioning is achieved by acquiring two different types of images per focal plane. One image is acquired under uniform illumination and the other is acquired under speckle illumination. These images are processed using an algorithm that extracts in-focus information and removes features and glare that occur as a result of background fluorescence. To show the benefits of the HiLo microscopy, several imaging experiments on various samples were performed under a HiLo microscope and compared against a traditional fluorescence microscope and a confocal microscope, which is considered the gold standard in optical imaging. In-vitro and ex-vivo imaging was performed on a set of pollen grains, and optically cleared mouse brain and heart slices. Each of these experiments showed great reduction in background scattering at different depths under HiLo microscopy. More importantly, HiLo imaging of optically cleared heart slice demonstrated emergence of different vasculature at different depths. Reduction of out-of-focus light increased the spatial resolution and allowed better visualization of capillary vessels. Furthermore, HiLo imaging was tested in an in-vivo model of a rodent dorsal window chamber model. When imaging the same sample under confocal microscope, the results were comparable between the two modalities. Additionally, a method of achieving blood flow maps at different depth using a combination of HiLo and LSI imaging is also discussed. The significance of this combined technique could help categorize blood flow to particular depths; this can help improve outcomes of medical treatments such pulse dye laser and photodynamic therapy treatments.

Patel, Shreyas J.

127

Application of synthetic photostable retinoids induces novel limb and facial phenotypes during chick embryogenesis in vivo.  

PubMed

We have recently developed a range of synthetic retinoid analogues which include the compounds EC23 and EC19. They are stable on exposure to light and are predicted to be resistant to the normal metabolic processes involved in the inactivation of retinoids in vivo. Based on the position of the terminal carboxylic acid groups in the compounds we suggest that EC23 is a structural analogue of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), and EC19 is an analogue of 13-cis retinoic acid. Their effects on the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells has been previously described in vitro and are consistent with this hypothesis. We present herein the first description of the effects of these molecules in vivo. Retinoids were applied to the anterior limb buds of chicken embryos in ovo via ion-exchange beads. We found that retinoid EC23 produces effects on the wing digits similar to ATRA, but does so at two orders of magnitude lower concentration. When larger quantities of EC23 are applied, a novel phenotype is obtained involving production of multiple digit 1s on the anterior limb. This corresponds to differential effects of ATRA and EC23 on sonic hedgehog (shh) expression in the developing limb bud. With EC23 application we also find digit 1 phenotypes similar to thumb duplications described in the clinical literature. EC23 and ATRA are shown to have effects on the entire proximal-distal axis of the limb, including hitherto undescribed effects on the scapula. This includes suppression of expression of the scapula marker Pax1. EC23 also produces effects similar to those of ATRA on the developing face, producing reductions of the upper beak at concentrations two orders of magnitude lower than ATRA. In contrast, EC19, which is structurally very similar to EC23, has novel, less severe effects on the face and rarely alters limb development. EC19 and ATRA are effective at similar concentrations. These results further demonstrate the ability of retinoids to influence embryonic development. Moreover, EC23 represents a useful new tool to investigate developmental processes and probe the mechanisms underlying congenital abnormalities in vertebrates including man. PMID:24303996

Lopez-Real, R E; Budge, J J R; Marder, T B; Whiting, A; Hunt, P N; Przyborski, S A

2014-04-01

128

Synthesis of Luminescent Near-Infrared AgInS2 Nanocrystals as Optical Probes for In Vivo Applications  

PubMed Central

Near infrared quantum dots have been receiving great attention as fluorescent optical probes for in vivo imaging applications. In this contribution, we report the synthesis and surface functionalization of cadmium free ternary AgInS2 nanocrystals emitting in the near infrared range for successful in vitro and in vivo bioimaging applications. The FDA approved triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 was used to encapsulate the nanocrystals and made them dispersible in aqueous solution. By employing a whole body small animal optical imaging setup, we were able to use the AgInS2 nanocrystals formulation for passive targeted delivery to the tumor site. The ultra-small crystal size, near-infrared emitting luminescence, and high quantum yield make the AgInS2 nanocrystals an attractive candidate as a biological contrast agent for cancer sensing and imaging.

Liu, Liwei; Hu, Rui; Roy, Indrajit; Lin, Guimiao; Ye, Ling; Reynolds, Jessica L.; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Jing; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Zhang, Xihe; Yong, Ken-Tye

2013-01-01

129

Fabrication and characterization of platinum black and mesoporous platinum electrodes for in-vivo and continuously monitoring electrochemical sensor applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most electrochemical biosensors are disposable due to enzymes that are living creatures. Thus, these are limited to use in in-vivo and continuously monitoring biosensor system applications. The mesoporous (pores with a size of 2–50 nm) platinum (Pt) structure formed on a rod-shaped Pt microelectrode was reported for developments glucose sensors without any enzymes. In this paper, plane Pt electrode (non-treated), Pt

Hye-Kyoung Seo; Dae-Joon Park; Jae-Yeong Park

2008-01-01

130

Novel nanocomposite coating for dental implant applications in vitro and in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

This study aimed at preparation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of novel bioactive, biodegradable, and antibacterial nanocomposite coating for the improvement of stem cells attachment and antibacterial activity as a candidate for dental implant applications. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide)/bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite (PBGHA) nanocomposite coating was prepared via solvent casting process. The nanoparticle amounts of 10, 15, and 20 weight percent (wt%) were chosen in order to determine the optimum amount of nanoparticles suitable for preparing an uniform coating. Bioactivity and degradation of the coating with an optimum amount of nanoparticles were evaluated by immersing the prepared samples in simulated body fluid and phosphate buffer saline (PBS), respectively. The effect of nanocomposite coating on the attachment and viability of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) was investigated. Kirschner wires (K-wires) of stainless steel were coated with the PBGHA nanocomposite coating, and mechanical stability of the coating was studied during intramedullary implantation into rabbit tibiae. The results showed that using 10 wt% nanoparticles (5 wt% HA and 5 wt% BG) in the nanocomposite could provide the desired uniform coating. The study of in vitro bioactivity showed rapid formation of bone-like apatite on the PBGHA coating. It was degraded considerably after about 60 days of immersion in PBS. The hASCs showed excellent attachment and viability on the coating. PBGHA coating remained stable on the K-wires with a minimum of 96% of the original coating mass. It was concluded that PBGHA nanocomposite coating provides an ideal surface for the stem cells attachment and viability. In addition, it could induce antibacterial activity, simultaneously. PMID:22127403

Mehdikhani-Nahrkhalaji, M; Fathi, M H; Mortazavi, V; Mousavi, S B; Hashemi-Beni, B; Razavi, S M

2012-02-01

131

Biosensors based on inorganic nanoparticles with biomimetic properties: Biomedical applications and in vivo cytotoxicity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid progress of nanotechnology and advanced nanomaterials production offer significant opportunities for designing powerful biosensing devices with enhanced performances. This thesis introduces ceria (CeO 2) nanoparticles and its congeners as a new class of materials with huge potential in bioanalytical and biosensing applications. Unique redox, catalytic and oxygen storage/release properties of ceria nanoparticles, originating from their dual oxidation state are used to design biomedical sensors with high sensitivity and low oxygen dependency. This thesis describes a new approach for fabrication of implantable microbiosensors designed for monitoring neurological activity in physiological conditions. Understanding the mechanisms involved in neurological signaling and functioning is of great physiological importance. In this respect, the development of effective methods that allow accurate detection and quantification of biological analytes (i.e. L-glutamate and glucose) associated with neurological processes is of paramount importance. The performance of most analytical techniques currently used to monitor L-glutamate and glucose is suboptimal and only a limited number of approaches address the problem of operation in oxygen-restricted conditions, such as ischemic brain injury. Over the past couple of years, enzyme based biosensors have been used to investigate processes related to L-glutamate release/uptake and the glucose cycle within the brain. However, most of these sensors, based on oxidoreductase enzymes, do not work in conditions of limited oxygen availability. This thesis presents the development of a novel sensing technology for the detection of L-glutamate and glucose in conditions of oxygen deprivation. This technology provides real-time assessment of the concentrations of these analytes with high sensitivity, wide linear range, and low oxygen dependence. The fabrication, characterization and optimization of enzyme microbiosensors are discussed. This work introduces a new generic approach of improving the sensitivity of oxidase-based enzymatic assays and indicates that ceria and its mixture with other metal oxide nanoparticles could be used to minimize the problems associated with variations of the oxygen. These materials have great potential in bioanalytical and biotechnological applications and offer great opportunities for development of implantable sensing devices for in vivo and in vitro monitoring of analytes of clinical relevance. Additionally, this thesis evaluates the toxicity of different metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by using zebrafish embryos as a toxicological target. Because of their similarities with other vertebrates, rapid development and low cost, zebrafish embryos are ideal animal models for probing toxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials. Among the nanomaterials tested, nickel nanoparticles were characterized by high toxicity and induced delayed development and morphological malformations, while metal oxides nanoparticles (i.e. ceria nanoparticles) had no toxic effects.

Ispas, Cristina R.

132

Application of a practical method for the isocenter point in vivo dosimetry by a transit signal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports the results of the application of a practical method to determine the in vivo dose at the isocenter point, Diso, of brain thorax and pelvic treatments using a transit signal St. The use of a stable detector for the measurement of the signal St (obtained by the x-ray beam transmitted through the patient) reduces many of the disadvantages associated with the use of solid-state detectors positioned on the patient as their periodic recalibration, and their positioning is time consuming. The method makes use of a set of correlation functions, obtained by the ratio between St and the mid-plane dose value, Dm, in standard water-equivalent phantoms, both determined along the beam central axis. The in vivo measurement of Diso required the determination of the water-equivalent thickness of the patient along the beam central axis by the treatment planning system that uses the electron densities supplied by calibrated Hounsfield numbers of the computed tomography scanner. This way it is, therefore, possible to compare Diso with the stated doses, Diso,TPS, generally used by the treatment planning system for the determination of the monitor units. The method was applied in five Italian centers that used beams of 6 MV, 10 MV, 15 MV x-rays and 60Co ?-rays. In particular, in four centers small ion-chambers were positioned below the patient and used for the St measurement. In only one center, the St signals were obtained directly by the central pixels of an EPID (electronic portal imaging device) equipped with commercial software that enabled its use as a stable detector. In the four centers where an ion-chamber was positioned on the EPID, 60 pelvic treatments were followed for two fields, an anterior-posterior or a posterior-anterior irradiation and a lateral-lateral irradiation. Moreover, ten brain tumors were checked for a lateral-lateral irradiation, and five lung tumors carried out with three irradiations with different gantry angles were followed. One center used the EPID as a detector for the St measurement and five pelvic treatments with six fields (many with oblique incidence) were followed. These last results are reported together with those obtained in the same center during a pilot study on ten pelvic treatments carried out by four orthogonal fields. The tolerance/action levels for every radiotherapy fraction were 4% and 5% for the brain (symmetric inhomogeneities) and thorax/pelvic (asymmetric inhomogeneities) irradiations, respectively. This way the variations between the total measured and prescribed doses at the isocenter point in five fractions were well within 2% for the brain treatment, and 4% for thorax/pelvic treatments. Only 4 out of 90 patients needed new replanning, 2 patients of which needed a new CT scan.

Piermattei, Angelo; Fidanzio, Andrea; Azario, Luigi; Grimaldi, Luca; D'Onofrio, Guido; Cilla, Savino; Stimato, Gerardina; Gaudino, Diego; Ramella, Sara; D'Angelillo, Rolando; Cellini, Francesco; Trodella, Lucio; Russo, Aniello; Iadanza, Luciano; Zucca, Sergio; Fusco, Vincenzo; Di Napoli, Nicola; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Balducci, Mario; Cellini, Numa; Deodato, Francesco; Macchia, Gabriella; Morganti, Alessio G.

2007-08-01

133

Informatics approach using metabolic reactivity classifiers to link in vitro to in vivo data in application to the ToxCast Phase I dataset  

EPA Science Inventory

Strategic combinations and tiered application of alternative testing methods to replace or minimize the use of animal models is attracting much attention. With the advancement of high throughput screening (HTS) assays and legacy databases providing in vivo testing results, suffic...

134

Application of electrical stimulation for functional tissue engineering in vitro and in vivo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention provides new methods for the in vitro preparation of bioartificial tissue equivalents and their enhanced integration after implantation in vivo. These methods include submitting a tissue construct to a biomimetic electrical stimulation during cultivation in vitro to improve its structural and functional properties, and/or in vivo, after implantation of the construct, to enhance its integration with host tissue and increase cell survival and functionality. The inventive methods are particularly useful for the production of bioartificial equivalents and/or the repair and replacement of native tissues that contain electrically excitable cells and are subject to electrical stimulation in vivo, such as, for example, cardiac muscle tissue, striated skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue, bone, vasculature, and nerve tissue.

Radisic, Milica (Inventor); Park, Hyoungshin (Inventor); Langer, Robert (Inventor); Freed, Lisa (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor)

2013-01-01

135

Clinical application of GAFCHROMIC EBT film for in vivo dose measurements of total body irradiation radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The GAFCHROMIC EBT film model is a fairly new film product designed for absorbed dose measurements of high-energy photon beams. In vivo dosimetry for total body irradiation (TBI) remains a challenging task due to the extended source-to-surface distance (SSD), low dose rates, and the use of beam spoilers. EBT film samples were used for dose measurements on an anthropomorphic phantom using a TBI setup. Additionally, in vivo measurements were obtained for two TBI patients. Phantom results verified the suitability of the EBT film for TBI treatment in terms of accuracy, reproducibility, and dose linearity. Doses measured were compared to conventional dosimeter measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), resulting in an agreement of 4.1% and 6.7% for the phantom and patient measurements, respectively. Results obtained from the phantom and patients confirm that GAFCHROMIC EBT films are a suitable alternative to TLDs as an in vivo dosimeter in TBI radiotherapy. PMID:18023587

Su, Fan-Chi; Shi, Chengyu; Papanikolaou, Niko

2008-03-01

136

In Vivo Experiments with Intraluminal Ultrasound Applicator Compatible with ``Real-Time'' MR Temperature Mapping, designed for Oesophagus Tumour Ablation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High intensity ultrasound has shown considerable ability to produce precise and deep thermal coagulation necrosis. Focused, cylindrical, spherical or plane transducers have been used to induce high temperature elevation in tissues, in order to coagulate proteins and kill cells. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been used, with focused transducers and cylindrical interstitial applicators, to monitor temperature distribution and provide temperature feedback control during heating procedures. The active part of intraluminal applicators is positioned very close to the target region. It is therefore essential to provide accurate monitoring of heat deposition in the tissue layer near the transducer, in order to control the extension of coagulation necrosis. The purpose of this study was to develop a 10-mm diameter intraluminal ultrasound applicator, designed to treat oesophageal cancers and compatible with ``real-time'' MR temperature mapping. The ultrasound applicator was tested in vivo under real time, PRF based, fast MR temperature monitoring. Experiments were performed in vivo on pig oesophagus. Respiratory-gated, MR thermometry was performed with segmented EPI gradient echo sequences. Post treatment follow up was performed with MRI in oesophagus and liver. Excellent MR compatibility was demonstrated. Thermal lesions identified on post-treatment follow up showed good correlation with on line MR thermometry data. This study demonstrated the feasibility of oesophageal thermal ablation using intraluminal ultrasound and on line MR temperature monitoring.

Melodelima, D.; Salomir, R.; Mougenot, C.; Theillère, Y.; Moonen, C.; Cathignol, D.

2005-03-01

137

Application of the front detection photopiroelectric configuration to the study of in vivo human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a novel method for measurements in vivo of the penetration of topically applied substances by inverse photopyroelectric configuration. This configuration was used to obtain the thermal effusivity, as a function of time, of in vivo human skin with ointments. This thermal magnitude was employed to characterize the penetration on the anterior-face of the volunteers forearm. This thermal effusivity was fitted with an exponential function in order to obtain a parameter (characteristic time) for the penetration. The substances used were a sunscreen and Vick Vaporub ointment. We found that the sunscreen have a characteristic time bigger that the Vick Vaporub ointment. The feasibility of skin hydration studies are discussed.

Gutierrez-Juarez, G.; Pichardo-Molina, J. L.; Rocha-Osornio, L. N.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Ivanov, R.; Huerta-Franco, B.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Vargas-Luna, M.

2005-06-01

138

Application of multiphoton steady state and lifetime imaging to mapping of tumor vascular architecture in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent interest in vascular targeting and anti-angiogenic drug treatments for cancer has stimulated fundamental research regarding the modes of action of these drugs as well as studies of the development and re-modeling of the vascular network following treatment. Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy is employed for in vivo mapping of three-dimensional blood vessel distribution in tumors grown in rodent dorsal skin-flap window chamber preparations. Accurate visualization of the vasculature in three-dimensions allows us to perform dynamic experiments in thick biological specimens in vivo. Examples of in vivo imaging of tumor vasculature are given and compared to normal tissue vasculature. The dynamic responses of blood vessels to treatment with the vascular targeting drug combretastatin A4-P are presented and discussed. The implementation of time-domain imaging by reversed stop-start time-correlated single photon counting (RSS-TCSPC) is discussed as a method for feature extraction in the presence of exogenous and endogenous fluorophores. In particular, the segmentation of the vascular network is demonstrated. Additional contrast, indicative of probe environmental factors, may also be realized. We present examples of in vivo lifetime imaging as a method to elucidate the physiological processes of the tumor microenvironment.

Ameer-Beg, Simon; Barber, Paul R.; Hodgkiss, R. J.; Locke, R. J.; Newman, Robert G.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Wilson, J.

2002-06-01

139

Mitochondria-targeted colorimetric and fluorescent probes for hypochlorite and their applications for in vivo imaging.  

PubMed

Two mitochondria-targeted real-time probes were presented, which could selectively respond to hypochlorite over other ROS. Meanwhile, the "off-on" probes could be successfully applied in the in vivo imaging of hypochlorite in living mice. PMID:24870251

Hou, Ji-Ting; Wu, Ming-Yu; Li, Kun; Yang, Jin; Yu, Kang-Kang; Xie, Yong-Mei; Yu, Xiao-Qi

2014-08-14

140

Application of mass spectrometry to characterize localization and efficacy of nanoceria in vivo.  

PubMed

In vivo study of nanomaterials is complicated by the physical and chemical changes induced in the nanomaterial by exposure to biological compartments. A diverse array of proteins can bind to the nanomaterial, forming a protein corona which may alter the dispersion, surface charge, distribution, and biological activity of the material. Evidence suggests that unique synthesis and stabilization strategies can greatly affect the composition of the corona, and thus, the in vivo properties of the nanomaterial. Protein and elemental analyses techniques are critical to characterizing the nature of the protein corona in order to best predict the in vivo behavior of the nanomaterial. Further, as described here, inductively coupled mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) can also be used to quantify nanomaterial deposition in tissues harvested from exposed animals. Elemental analysis of ceria content demonstrated deposition of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) in various tissues of healthy mice and in the brains of mice with a model of multiple sclerosis. Thus, ICP-MS analysis of nanomaterial tissue distribution can complement data illustrating the biological, and in this case, therapeutic efficacy of nanoparticles delivered in vivo. PMID:24952203

Heckman, Karin L; Erlichman, Joseph; Reed, Ken; Skeels, Matthew

2014-01-01

141

Semiparametric estimation without searching in function space: Application to in vivo metabolite quantitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is the method of choice for noninvasive in vivo measurement of metabolites in patients. When the model function describing the acquired MRS signal is incomplete, semi-parametric techniques are required for estimation of the wanted metabolite concentrations. In this work, incompleteness means that the model function of the MRS signal decay is unknown. We devised the simplest

E. a Popa; D.A.b Karras; B. G. c Mertzios; D. M. d Sima; R. e De Beer; D. e Van Ormondt; D. a Graveron-Demilly

2011-01-01

142

Preparation of 2 nm gold nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo applications  

PubMed Central

Summary Gold nanoparticles have been a versatile tool in recent years for the exploration of biological systems. However, challenges with purification and adequate surface coverage limit the biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles. Here, we describe a detailed procedure for the synthesis, purification, and functionalization of biologically compatible gold nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo studies.

Moyano, Daniel F.; Duncan, Bradley; Rotello, Vincent M.

2014-01-01

143

[Development and application of bioelectric measurement system for vivo bone puncture].  

PubMed

Procedure of a bioelectric signal collection system for vivo critter is introduced in this paper. It is easy to measure the bioimpedance in the tip of appliance, when puncture into the tissue, especially puncture into the bone tissue. We can get a judgment on the position of appliance, thereby achieve assistance on the clinic operation. PMID:20812636

Wang, Zhiyun; Deng, Qingkai; Yin, Qingshui; Guo, Jingsong; Wang, Jianbo; Zhao, Shuofeng

2010-05-01

144

In vivo Human Skin Barrier Modulation by Topical Application of Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vivo effects of fatty acids on skin barrier function were assessed by measuring: (i) transepidermal water loss (TEWL), (ii) diffusion lag times for hexyl nicotinate (HN), and (iii) irritant skin response using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) in combination with visual scoring. Two classes of fatty acids have been investigated: straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA), having 6–12 carbon atoms,

Hanafi Tanojo; Esther Boelsma; Hans E. Junginger; Maria Ponec; Harry E. Boddé

1998-01-01

145

In vivo molecular imaging using nanomaterials: General in vivo characteristics of nano-sized reagents and applications for cancer diagnosis (Review)  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles present a new collection of contrast agents for the field of in vivo molecular imaging. This review focuses on promising molecular imaging probes for optical and magnetic resonance imaging based on four representative nanomaterial(s) platforms: quantum dots, upconversion phosphors, superparamagnetic iron oxides, and dendrimer-based agents. Quantum dots are extremely efficient fluorescent nanoparticles with size-tunable emission properties, enabling high sensitivity and greater depth penetration. Their heavy metal composition and long retention in the body, however, pose concerns for clinical translational applications. Upconversion phosphors generate excellent signal-to-background contrast because they emit light with higher energy than the excitation photons and autofluorescence signals. For MRI, iron oxide particles also generate excellent signal and have been used in liver imaging and for cell tracking studies. As they are metabolized through endogenous iron salvage pathways, they have already been introduced as clinical contrast agents. Lastly, dendrimers, a ‘soft’ nanoparticle, can be used as a structural basis for the attachment of small molecule imaging agents and/or targeting groups. This array of nanoparticles should offer insights into the uses and potentials of nanoparticles for the molecular imaging.

ROSENBLUM, LAUREN T.; KOSAKA, NOBUYUKI; MITSUNAGA, MAKOTO; CHOYKE, PETER L.; KOBAYASHI, HISATAKA

2012-01-01

146

A novel in vivo inducible expression system in Edwardsiella tarda for potential application in bacterial polyvalence vaccine.  

PubMed

Recombinant bacterial vector vaccine is an attractive vaccination strategy to induce the immune response to a carried protective antigen, and the main concern of bacterial vector vaccine is to establish a stable antigen expression system in vector bacteria. Edwardsiella tarda is an important facultative intracellular pathogen of both animals and humans, and its attenuated derivates are excellent bacterial vectors for use in recombinant vaccine design. In this study, we design an in vivo inducible expression system in E. tarda and establish potential recombinant E. tarda vector vaccines. With wild type strain E. tarda EIB202 as a vector, 53 different bacteria-originated promoters were examined for iron-responsive transcription in vitro, and the promoters P(dps) and P(yncE) showed high transcription activity. The transcription profiles in vivo of two promoters were further assayed, and P(dps) revealed an enhanced in vivo inducible transcription in macrophage, larvae and adult zebra fish. The gapA34 gene, encoding the protective antigen GAPDH from the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila LSA34, was introduced into the P(dps)-based protein expression system, and transformed into attenuated E. tarda strains. The resultant recombinant vector vaccine WED/pUTDgap was evaluated in turbot (Scophtalmus maximus). Over 60% of the vaccinated fish survived under the challenge with A. hydrophila LSA34 and E. tarda EIB202, suggesting that the P(dps)-based antigen delivery system had great potential in bacterial vector vaccine application. PMID:21964456

Mu, Wei; Guan, Lingyu; Yan, Yijian; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yuanxing

2011-12-01

147

[In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy of human skin: principles and application to penetration measurements].  

PubMed

The fluorescence properties of untreated human skin and the penetration of topically applied drugs were measured in vivo using a commercially available fluorescence spectrometer which was adapted to in vivo-measurements on skin by means of optical fibres and a remote viewing head. The intensity and characteristics of the intrinsic fluorescences of human skin and their dependences upon several parameters like pigmentation, water content of the skin or depth of the horny layer are shown. The principles of the penetration measurements based on the fluorescence of the skin or the fluorescence of the drug topically applied to the skin are described and measurements of the penetration of some drugs are reported. PMID:7938148

Harendt, N; Giese, K; Kölmel, K

1994-08-01

148

Tracking stem cells for cardiovascular applications in vivo: focus on imaging techniques  

PubMed Central

Despite rapid translation of stem cell therapy into clinical practice, the treatment of cardiovascular disease using embryonic stem cells, adult stem and progenitor cells or induced pluripotent stem cells has not yielded satisfactory results to date. Noninvasive stem cell imaging techniques could provide greater insight into not only the therapeutic benefit, but also the fundamental mechanisms underlying stem cell fate, migration, survival and engraftment in vivo. This information could also assist in the appropriate choice of stem cell type(s), delivery routes and dosing regimes in clinical cardiovascular stem cell trials. Multiple imaging modalities, such as MRI, PET, SPECT and CT, have emerged, offering the ability to localize, monitor and track stem cells in vivo. This article discusses stem cell labeling approaches and highlights the latest cardiac stem cell imaging techniques that may help clinicians, research scientists or other healthcare professionals select the best cellular therapeutics for cardiovascular disease management.

Fu, Yingli; Azene, Nicole; Xu, Yi; Kraitchman, Dara L

2011-01-01

149

Protein kinetics determined in vivo with a multiple-tracer, single-sample protocol: application to lactase synthesis.  

PubMed

Precise analysis of the kinetics of protein/enzyme turnover in vivo has been hampered by the need to obtain multiple tissue samples at different times during the course of a continuous tracer infusion. We hypothesized that the problem could be overcome by using an overlapping (i.e., staggered) infusion of multiple stable amino acid isotopomers, which would take the place of multiple tissue samples. We have measured, in pigs, the in vivo synthesis rates of precursor (rapidly turning over) and mature (slowly turning over) polypeptides of lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH), a model for glycoprotein synthesis, by using an overlapping infusion of [2H3]leucine, [13C1]leucine, [13C1]phenylalanine, [2H5]phenylalanine, [13C6]phenylalanine, and [2H8]phenylalanine. Blood samples were collected at timed intervals, and the small intestine was collected at the end of the infusion. The tracer-to-tracee ratios of each isotopomer were measured in the plasma and jejunal free amino acid pools as well as in purified LPH polypeptides. These values were used to estimate kinetic parameters in vivo using a linear steady-state compartmental model. The fractional synthesis rates of the high-mannose, complex glycosylated and mature brush-border LPH polypeptides, so determined, were 3.3 +/- 1.1%/min, 17.4 +/- 11%/min, and 0.089 +/- 0.02%/min, respectively. We conclude that this multiple-tracer, single-sample protocol is a practicable approach to the in vivo measurement of protein fractional synthesis rates when only a single tissue sample can be obtained. This method has broad application and should be particularly useful for studies in humans. PMID:9530162

Dudley, M A; Burrin, D G; Wykes, L J; Toffolo, G; Cobelli, C; Nichols, B L; Rosenberger, J; Jahoor, F; Reeds, P J

1998-03-01

150

A biocompatible in vivo ligation reaction and its application for noninvasive bioluminescent imaging of protease activity in living mice.  

PubMed

The discovery of biocompatible reactions had a tremendous impact on chemical biology, allowing the study of numerous biological processes directly in complex systems. However, despite the fact that multiple biocompatible reactions have been developed in the past decade, very few work well in living mice. Here we report that D-cysteine and 2-cyanobenzothiazoles can selectively react with each other in vivo to generate a luciferin substrate for firefly luciferase. The success of this "split luciferin" ligation reaction has important implications for both in vivo imaging and biocompatible labeling strategies. First, the production of a luciferin substrate can be visualized in a live mouse by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and furthermore allows interrogation of targeted tissues using a "caged" luciferin approach. We therefore applied this reaction to the real-time noninvasive imaging of apoptosis associated with caspase 3/7. Caspase-dependent release of free D-cysteine from the caspase 3/7 peptide substrate Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-D-Cys (DEVD-(D-Cys)) allowed selective reaction with 6-amino-2-cyanobenzothiazole (NH(2)-CBT) in vivo to form 6-amino-D-luciferin with subsequent light emission from luciferase. Importantly, this strategy was found to be superior to the commercially available DEVD-aminoluciferin substrate for imaging of caspase 3/7 activity. Moreover, the split luciferin approach enables the modular construction of bioluminogenic sensors, where either or both reaction partners could be caged to report on multiple biological events. Lastly, the luciferin ligation reaction is 3 orders of magnitude faster than Staudinger ligation, suggesting further applications for both bioluminescence and specific molecular targeting in vivo. PMID:23463944

Godinat, Aurélien; Park, Hyo Min; Miller, Stephen C; Cheng, Ke; Hanahan, Douglas; Sanman, Laura E; Bogyo, Matthew; Yu, Allen; Nikitin, Gennady F; Stahl, Andreas; Dubikovskaya, Elena A

2013-05-17

151

Applications of RNA interference: current state and prospects for siRNA-based strategies in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the recent years, RNA interference (RNAi) has become an almost-standard method for in vitro knockdown of any target\\u000a gene of interest. Now, one major focus is to further explore its potential in vivo, including the development of novel therapeutic\\u000a strategies. From the mechanism, it becomes clear that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) play a pivotal role in triggering RNAi.\\u000a Thus,

Achim Aigner

2007-01-01

152

Application of XRF to measure strontium in human bone in vivo  

SciTech Connect

As a basis for better understanding the role that Sr fulfills in human body, it is desirable to measure directly the main Sr store in human body. Although strontium is omnipresent in human tissues, 99% is stored inthe mineral portion of the bone. In the present study x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was applied to measure the strontium content of the tibial shaft in vivo. The feasibility studies showed that normal levels of stable strontium in the bone can be measured successfully.

Wielopolski, L.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Cohn, S.H.

1982-01-01

153

Miniature Uncooled Infrared Sensitive Detectors for in Vivo Biomedical Imaging Applications  

SciTech Connect

Broadband infrared (OR) radiation detectors have been developed using miniature, inexpensive, mass produced microcantilevers capable of detecting temperature differences as small as lea(-6) K. Microcantilevers made out of semiconductor materials can be used either as uncurled photon or thermal detectors. Mounted on a probe mm in diameter a number of microcantilevers can be accommodated in the working channel of existing endoscopes for in vivo proximity focus measurements inside the human body.

Datskos, P. G.; Demos, S. G.; Rajic, S.

1998-06-01

154

In vivo 783-channel diffuse reflectance imaging system and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fiber-based reflectance imaging system was constructed to produce in vivo absorption spectroscopic images of biological tissues with diffuse light in the cw domain. The principal part of this system is the 783-channel fiber probe, composed of 253 illumination fibers and 530 detection fibers distributed in a 20×20 mm square region. During illumination with the 253 illumination fibers, diffuse reflected

Joon-Mo Yang; Yong-Hui Han; Gilwon Yoon; Byung Soo Ahn; Byung-Cheon Lee; Kwang-Sup Soh

2007-01-01

155

Elastography: elasticity imaging using ultrasound with application to muscle and breast in vivo.  

PubMed

Changes in tissue elasticity are generally correlated with its pathological state. In many cases, despite the difference in elasticity, the small size of a lesion or its location deep in the body preclude its detection by palpation. In general, such a lesion may or may not possess echogenic properties that would make it ultrasonically detectable. Elastography is an ultrasonic method for imaging the elasticity of compliant tissues. The method estimates the local longitudinal strain of tissue elements by ultrasonically assessing the one dimensional local displacements. This information can be combined with first order theoretical estimates of the local stress to yield a quantitative measure of the local elastic properties of tissue. The elasticity information is displayed in the form of a gray scale image called an elastogram. An experimental system for elastography in phantoms based on a single element transducer has been described previously [1]. Here we introduce a new elastography system based on a linear array transducer that is suitable for in vivo scanning. We describe tissue mimicking phantom experiments and preliminary in vivo breast and muscle elastograms confirming the feasibility of performing elastography in vivo. An elastogram of a breast containing an 8 mm palpable cancer nodule clearly shows the lesion. Elastograms and their corresponding sonograms show some similarities and differences in the depiction of tissue structures. PMID:8346612

Céspedes, I; Ophir, J; Ponnekanti, H; Maklad, N

1993-04-01

156

Windows on the human body--in vivo high-field magnetic resonance research and applications in medicine and psychology.  

PubMed

Analogous to the evolution of biological sensor-systems, the progress in "medical sensor-systems", i.e., diagnostic procedures, is paradigmatically described. Outstanding highlights of this progress are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), which enable non-invasive, in vivo acquisition of morphological, functional, and metabolic information from the human body with unsurpassed quality. Recent achievements in high and ultra-high field MR (at 3 and 7 Tesla) are described, and representative research applications in Medicine and Psychology in Austria are discussed. Finally, an overview of current and prospective research in multi-modal imaging, potential clinical applications, as well as current limitations and challenges is given. PMID:22219684

Moser, Ewald; Meyerspeer, Martin; Fischmeister, Florian Ph S; Grabner, Günther; Bauer, Herbert; Trattnig, Siegfried

2010-01-01

157

Pharmacokinetic analysis verifies P450 function during in vitro and in vivo application of a bioartificial liver.  

PubMed

Lidocaine is a sensitive substrate for evaluating liver P450 function. In this study, metabolism of lidocaine by xenogeneic hepatocytes in a hollow fiber, bioartificial liver was measured under in vitro conditions (n = 6) and in an anhepatic rabbit model. Animals in the treatment group (n = 6) received hemoperfusion by a bioartificial liver that contained 100 million rat hepatocytes. Other anhepatic rabbits received no hemoperfusion (n = 3) or a bioartificial liver with no cells (n = 3). Lidocaine clearance was 7.0 +/- 0.6 ml/min, and the half-life of lidocaine was 5.6 +/- 0.8 hr under in vitro conditions. Conversion of lidocaine to 3-hydroxy-lidocaine was confirmed in vitro and accounted for 46% of lidocaine elimination in the hepatocyte bioartificial liver. During in vivo application of the bioartificial liver, pharmacokinetic parameters of lidocaine metabolism, including drug half-life and metabolite formation, were significantly improved in anhepatic rabbits. 3-Hydroxy-lidocaine profiles verified the activity of a P450 isozyme expressed preferentially by rat hepatocytes in the bioartificial liver. We conclude that hepatic P450 activity was provided by xenogeneic hepatocytes during in vitro and in vivo applications of a bioartificial liver. PMID:8268538

Nyberg, S L; Mann, H J; Remmel, R P; Hu, W S; Cerra, F B

1993-01-01

158

Hematoporphyrin-mediated fluorescence reflectance imaging: application to early tumor detection in vivo in small animals.  

PubMed

The in vivo early detection of subcutaneous human tumors implanted in small animals was studied by laser-induced fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI), with a hematoporphyrin (HP) compound as an exogenous optical contrast agent. Tumor detection was shown to be possible just 3 days after the inoculation of tumor cells, when tumors were neither visible nor palpable. However, this detection capability is limited to a temporal window of approximately 100 h from HP administration and to a low optical contrast of the tumor (<2). PMID:18324434

Autiero, Maddalena; Cozzolino, Rosanna; Laccetti, Paolo; Marotta, Marcello; Quarto, Maria; Riccio, Patrizia; Roberti, Giuseppe

2009-03-01

159

In vivo application of poly-3-hydroxyoctanoate as peripheral nerve graft  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aims to investigate the degree of biocompatibility and neuroregeneration of a polymer tube, poly-3-hydroxyoctanoate (PHO) in nerve gap repair. Methods: Forty Wistar Albino male rats were randomized into two groups: autologous nerve gap repair group and PHO tube repair group. In each group, a 10-mm right sciatic nerve defect was created and reconstructed accordingly. Neuroregeneration was studied by sciatic function index (SFI), electromyography, and immunohistochemical studies on Days 7, 21, 45 and 60 of implantation. Biocompatibility was analyzed by the capsule formation around the conduit. Biodegradation was analyzed by the molecular weight loss in vivo. Results: Electrophysiological and histomorphometric assessments demonstrated neuroregeneration in both groups over time. In the experimental group, a straight alignment of the Schwann cells parallel to the axons was detected. However, autologous nerve graft seems to have a superior neuroregeneration compared to PHO grafts. Minor biodegradation was observed in PHO conduit at the end of 60 d. Conclusions: Although neuroregeneration is detected in PHO grafts with minor degradation in 60 d, autologous nerve graft is found to be superior in axonal regeneration compared to PHO nerve tube grafts. PHO conduits were found to create minor inflammatory reaction in vivo, resulting in good soft tissue response.

Hazer, D. Burcu; Bal, Ercan; Nurlu, Gulay; Benli, Kemal; Balci, Serdar; Ozturk, Feral; Hazer, Baki

2013-01-01

160

Monoclonal antibodies reactive with human breast or ovarian carcinoma: In vivo applications  

SciTech Connect

Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) are unique and useful bioprobes that allow in vivo targeting of membrane-associated or circulating antigens. Most of the clinical trials to date have used low dosages of radiolabeled MoAb given in a single dose. Newer studies have included antibody fragments, repeated injections, intraperitoneal (IP) administration, and other labels such as 90Y. Clinical MoAb trials are often arduous, expensive, and time-consuming to perform. Before human use, animal studies and extensive MoAb characterization are required. The production of pharmaceutical grade, radiolabeled MoAb is technically difficult and costly. Clinical trials require administrative and patient consent as well as extensive written protocols. These studies necessitate interdepartmental and intradepartmental cooperation and coordination. Furthermore, the use of in vivo radiolabeled probes impacts many levels of health care providers from janitorial, nursing, and technical staff to laboratories and physicians. Simple blood tests or disposal of body excretions may concern nursing or technical staff with the possibility of radiation exposure. The responsibility for study design, personnel involvement, and prospective use in patients without a definitive cancer diagnosis ultimately rests with the physician. While many issues have been addressed, additional clinical trials, consideration of safety issues, and standardization between institutions will be necessary before the use of radiolabeled MoAb for diagnosis, management, or therapy of human tumors becomes routine. Continued cooperation and funding should ensure its achievement. 136 references.

Thor, A.D.; Edgerton, S.M. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

1989-10-01

161

Anti-Bladder-Tumor Effect of Baicalein from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Its Application In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Some phytochemicals with the characteristics of cytotoxicity and/or antimetastasis have generated intense interest among the anticancer studies. In this study, a natural flavonoid baicalein was evaluated in bladder cancer in vitro and in vivo. Baicalein inhibits 5637 cell proliferation. It arrests cells in G1 phase at 100??M and in S phase below 75??M. The protein expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin D1 is reduced by baicalein. Baicalein-induced p-ERK plays a minor role in cyclin B1 reduction. Baicalein-inhibited p65NF-?B results in reduction of cell growth. Baicalein-induced pGSK(ser9) has a little effect in increasing cyclin B1/D1 expression instead. The translation inhibitor cycloheximide blocks baicalein-reduced cyclin B1, suggesting that the reduction is caused by protein synthesis inhibition. On the other hand, neither cycloheximide nor proteasome inhibitor MG132 completely blocks baicalein-reduced cyclin D1, suggesting that baicalein reduces cyclin D1 through protein synthesis inhibition and proteasomal degradation activation. In addition, baicalein also inhibits cell invasion by inhibiting MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expression and activity. In mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, baicalein slightly reduces tumor size but with some hepatic toxicity. In summary, these results demonstrate the anti-bladder-tumor properties of the natural compound baicalein which shows a slight anti-bladder-tumor effect in vivo.

Wu, Jin-Yi; Li, Yi-Zhen; Chang, Yi-Sheng; Lai, Yi-Chien; Laio, Yu-Han; Wu, Jiann-Der; Liu, Yi-Wen

2013-01-01

162

In vitro & in vivo studies on lornoxicam loaded nanoemulsion gels for topical application.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to increase the solubility, in vitro skin permeability of lornoxicam from semisolid topical formulations and also to investigate the in vivo potential of nanoemulsion formulation. Optimized lornoxicam loaded nanoemulsion was prepared successfully by spontaneous self-emulsification method and the size of the stable formulations was found within the range of 102 to 200 nm. The stable nanoemulsion formulations characterized for viscosity, droplet size, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and refractive index. In vitro permeation rate of nanoemulsion and conventional gel of lornoxicam (LX) were determined. Prmeability parameters like steady-state flux (Jss), permeability coefficient (Kp), and enhancement ratio (Er) were significantly increased in nanoemulsion NE8 and the nanogel NG8 as compared to conventional gel (LG). In vivo studies revealed a significant increase in anti-inflammatory effects as compared with conventional gel of LX. The anti-inflammatory effects of formulation NG8 showed a significant increase in percent inhibition value when compared with control, this difference was found to be highly significant (p<0.001). This work shows for the first time that lornoxicam can be formulated into nanoemulsions and may show promise in enhancing solubility and permeation. PMID:24266509

Dasgupta, Sandipan; Ghosh, Surajit K; Ray, Subhabrata; Kaurav, Surendra Singh; Mazumder, Bhaskar

2014-02-01

163

Application of a new high-speed magnetic deformable mirror for in-vivo retinal imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays in ophthalmologic practice several commercial instruments are available to image patient retinas in vivo. Many modern fundus cameras and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopes allow acquisition of two dimensional en face images of the retina with both back reflected as well as fluorescent light. Additionally, optical coherence tomography systems allow non-invasive probing of three-dimensional retinal morphology. For all of these instruments the available lateral resolution is limited by optical quality of the human eye used as the imaging objective. To improve lateral resolution and achieve diffraction-limited imaging, adaptive optics (AO) can be implemented with any of these imaging systems to correct both static and dynamic aberrations inherent in human eyes. Most of the wavefront correctors used previously in AO systems have limited dynamic range and an insufficient number of actuators to achieve diffraction-limited correction of most human eyes. Thus, additional corrections were necessary, either by trial lenses or additional deformable mirrors (DMs). The UC Davis AO flood-illuminated fundus camera system described in this paper has been previously used to acquire in vivo images of the photoreceptor mosaic and for psychophysical studies on normal and diseased retinas. These results were acquired using a DM manufactured by Litton ITEK (DM109), which has 109 actuators arranged in a hexagonal array below a continuous front-surface mirror. It has an approximate surface actuator stroke of +/-2?m. Here we present results with a new hi-speed magnetic DM manufactured by ALPAO (DM97, voice coil technology), which has 97 actuators and similar inter-actuator stroke (>3?m, mirror surface) but much higher low-order aberration correction (defocus stroke of at least +/-30?m) than the previous one. In this paper we report results of testing performance of the ALPAO DM for the correction of human eye aberrations. Additionally changes made to our AO flood illuminated system are presented along with images of the model eye retina and in-vivo human retina acquired with this system.

Balderas-Mata, Sandra E.; Jones, Steven M.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Werner, John S.

2011-08-01

164

Spectrophotometry in vivo, a technique for local and direct enzymatic assays: application to brain acetylcholinesterase.  

PubMed Central

In vivo enzymology is not widely studied due to the lack of a well-adapted technology. We have developed a system that allows local and long-term spectrophotometric assays in brain tissue of live animals. It utilizes a miniaturized optical probe consisting of a multibarrel micropipette for reagent injections and optical fibers for light absorption measurements. We have applied this system to the colorimetric determination of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in rats. The reproducibility of the assay was demonstrated by repetitive assays over 24 hr, its specificity was established through the use of a highly specific organophosphorus inhibitor, and the activities measured in different brain areas agreed with the known distribution of acetylcholinesterase. No electroencephalographic abnormalities and no change in vigilance level were observed in the experimental animals. This methodology should prove to be useful for the colorimetric measurement of different enzymes or metabolites in various organs.

Testylier, G; Gourmelon, P

1987-01-01

165

Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy: in vivo application to diagnosis of oral carcinoma.  

PubMed

A compact clinically compatible fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) system was designed and built for intraoperative disease diagnosis and validated in vivo in a hamster oral carcinogenesis model. This apparatus allows for the remote image collection via a flexible imaging probe consisting of a gradient index objective lens and a fiber bundle. Tissue autofluorescence (337 nm excitation) was imaged using an intensified CCD with a gate width down to 0.2 ns. We demonstrate a significant contrast in fluorescence lifetime between tumor (1.77+/-0.26 ns) and normal (2.50+/-0.36 ns) tissues at 450 nm and an over 80% intensity decrease at 390 nm emission in tumor versus normal areas. The time-resolved images were minimally affected by tissue morphology, endogenous absorbers, and illumination. These results demonstrate the potential of FLIM as an intraoperative diagnostic technique. PMID:19572006

Sun, Yinghua; Phipps, Jennifer; Elson, Daniel S; Stoy, Heather; Tinling, Steven; Meier, Jeremy; Poirier, Brian; Chuang, Frank S; Farwell, D Gregory; Marcu, Laura

2009-07-01

166

A polymer-based neural microimplant for optogenetic applications: design and first in vivo study.  

PubMed

In optogenetics, neurons are genetically modified to become sensitive to light and thus, they can be stimulated or inhibited by light of certain wavelengths. In this work, we describe the fabrication of a polymer-based shaft electrode as a tool for optogenetics. This device can conduct light as well as fluids to a target brain region and record electrical neural signals from the same part of the tissue simultaneously. It is intended to facilitate optogenetic in vivo experiments with those novel multimodal neural probes or polymer optrodes. We used microsystems technology to integrate an SU-8 based waveguide and fluidic channel into a polyimide-based electrode shaft to allow simultaneous optical stimulation, fluid delivery, and electrophysiological recording in awake behaving animals. In a first acute proof-of-concept experiment in genetically modified mice, our device recorded single unit activity that was modulated by laser light transmitted into the tissue via the integrated waveguide. PMID:23306183

Rubehn, Birthe; Wolff, Steffen B E; Tovote, Philip; Lüthi, Andreas; Stieglitz, Thomas

2013-02-21

167

Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy: In vivo application to diagnosis of oral carcinoma  

PubMed Central

A compact clinically compatible fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) system was designed and built for intraoperative disease diagnosis and validated in vivo in a hamster oral carcinogenesis model. This apparatus allows for the remote image collection via a flexible imaging probe consisting of a gradient index objective lens and a fiber bundle. Tissue autofluorescence (337 nm excitation) was imaged using an intensified CCD with a gate width down to 0.2 ns. We demonstrate a significant contrast in fluorescence lifetime between tumor (1.77±0.26 ns) and normal (2.50±0.36 ns) tissues at 450 nm and an over 80% intensity decrease at 390 nm emission in tumor versus normal areas. The time-resolved images were minimally affected by tissue morphology, endogenous absorbers, and illumination. These results demonstrate the potential of FLIM as an intraoperative diagnostic technique.

Sun, Yinghua; Phipps, Jennifer; Elson, Daniel S.; Stoy, Heather; Tinling, Steven; Meier, Jeremy; Poirier, Brian; Chuang, Frank S.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Marcu, Laura

2014-01-01

168

A simplified approach for exit dose in vivo measurements in radiotherapy and its clinical application.  

PubMed

This is a study using LiF:Mg;Ti thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) rods in phantoms to investigate the effect of lack of backscatter on exit dose. Comparing the measured dose with anticipated dose calculated using tissue maximum ratio (TMR) or percentage depth dose (PDD) gives rise to a correction factor. This correction factor may be applied to in-vivo dosimetry results to derive true dose to a point within the patient. Measurements in a specially designed humanoid breast phantom as well as patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment were also been done. TLDs with reproducibility of within +/- 3% (1 SD) are irradiated in a series of measurements for 6 and 10 MV photon beams from a medical linear accelerator. The measured exit doses for the different phantom thickness for 6 MV beams are found to be lowered by 10.9 to 14.0% compared to the dose derived from theoretical estimation (normalized dose at dmax). The same measurements for 10 MV beams are lowered by 9.0 to 13.5%. The variations of measured exit dose for different field sizes are found to be within 2.5%. The exit doses with added backscatter material from 2 mm up to 15 cm, shows gradual increase and the saturated values agreed within 1.5% with the expected results for both beams. The measured exit doses in humanoid breast phantom as well as in the clinical trial on patients undergoing radiotherapy also agreed with the predicted results based on phantom measurements. The authors' viewpoint is that this technique provides sufficient information to design exit surface bolus to restore build down effect in cases where part of the exit surface is being considered as a target volume. It indicates that the technique could be translated for in vivo dose measurements, which may be a conspicuous step of quality assurance in clinical practice. PMID:12416587

Banjade, D P; Shrestha, S L; Shukri, A; Tajuddin, A A; Bhat, M

2002-09-01

169

Delivery Systems for the Direct Application of siRNAs to Induce RNA Interference (RNAi) In Vivo  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful method for specific gene silencing which may also lead to promising novel therapeutic strategies. It is mediated through small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) which sequence-specifically trigger the cleavage and subsequent degradation of their target mRNA. One critical factor is the ability to deliver intact siRNAs into target cells/organs in vivo. This review highlights the mechanism of RNAi and the guidelines for the design of optimal siRNAs. It gives an overview of studies based on the systemic or local application of naked siRNAs or the use of various nonviral siRNA delivery systems. One promising avenue is the the complexation of siRNAs with the polyethylenimine (PEI), which efficiently stabilizes siRNAs and, upon systemic administration, leads to the delivery of the intact siRNAs into different organs. The antitumorigenic effects of PEI/siRNA-mediated in vivo gene-targeting of tumor-relevant proteins like in mouse tumor xenograft models are described.

Aigner, Achim

2006-01-01

170

Application of different methods to formulate PEG-liposomes of oxaliplatin: evaluation in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

In this work, the Film Method (FM), Reverse-Phase Evaporation (REV), and the Heating Method (HM) were applied to prepare PEG-coated liposomes of oxaliplatin with natural neutral and cationic lipids, respectively. The formulations developed with the three methods, showed similar physicochemical characteristics, except in the loading of oxaliplatin, which was statistically lower (P<0.05) using the HM. The incorporation of a semi-synthetic lipid in the formulation developed by FM, provided liposomes with a particle size of 115 nm associated with the lowest polydispersity index and the highest drug loading, 35%, compared with the other two lipids, suggesting an increase in the membrane stability. That stability was also evaluated according to the presence of cholesterol, the impact of the temperature, and the application of different cryoprotectants during the lyophilization. The results indicated long-term stability of the developed formulation, because after its intravenous in vivo administration to HT-29 tumor bearing mice was able to induce an inhibition of tumor growth statistically higher (P<0.05) than the inhibition caused by the free drug. In conclusion, the FM was the simplest method in comparison with REV and HM to develop in vivo stable and efficient PEG-coated liposomes of oxaliplatin with a loading higher than those reported for REV. PMID:22369879

Zalba, Sara; Navarro, Iñigo; Trocóniz, Iñaki F; Tros de Ilarduya, Conchita; Garrido, María J

2012-06-01

171

Thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis and application as a dual imaging probe for cancer in vivo.  

PubMed

We report the fabrication and characterization of thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (TCL-SPION) and their application to the dual imaging of cancer in vivo. Unlike dextran-coated cross-linked iron oxide nanoparticles, which are prepared by a chemical cross-linking method, TCL-SPION are prepared by a simple, thermal cross-linking method using a Si-OH-containing copolymer. The copolymer, poly(3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate-r-PEG methyl ether methacrylate-r-N-acryloxysuccinimide), was synthesized by radical polymerization and used as a coating material for as-synthesized magnetite (Fe3O4) SPION. The polymer-coated SPION was further heated at 80 degrees C to induce cross-linking between the -Si(OH)3 groups in the polymer chains, which finally generated TCL-SPION bearing a carboxyl group as a surface functional group. The particle size, surface charge, presence of polymer-coating layers, and the extent of thermal cross-linking were characterized and confirmed by various measurements, including dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The carboxyl TCL-SPION was converted to amine-modified TCL-SPION and then finally to Cy5.5 dye-conjugated TCL-SPION for use in dual (magnetic resonance/optical) in vivo cancer imaging. When the Cy5.5 TCL-SPION was administered to Lewis lung carcinoma tumor allograft mice by intravenous injection, the tumor was unambiguously detected in T2-weighted magnetic resonance images as a 68% signal drop as well as in optical fluorescence images within 4 h, indicating a high level of accumulation of the nanomagnets within the tumor site. In addition, ex vivo fluorescence images of the harvested tumor and other major organs further confirmed the highest accumulation of the Cy5.5 TCL-SPION within the tumor. It is noteworthy that, despite the fact that TCL-SPION does not bear any targeting ligands on its surface, it was highly effective for tumor detection in vivo by dual imaging. PMID:17892287

Lee, Haerim; Yu, Mi Kyung; Park, Sangjin; Moon, Sungmin; Min, Jung Jun; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Hae-Won; Jon, Sangyong

2007-10-24

172

Temperature dependence of the optoacoustic transformation efficiency in ex vivo tissues for application in monitoring thermal therapies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calibration dependencies of the optoacoustic (OA) transformation efficiency on tissue temperature are obtained for the application in OA temperature monitoring during thermal therapies. Accurate measurement of the OA signal amplitude versus temperature is performed in different ex vivo tissues in the temperature range 25°C to 80°C. The investigated tissues were selected to represent different structural components: chicken breast (skeletal muscle), porcine lard (fatty tissue), and porcine liver (richly perfused tissue). Backward mode of the OA signal detection and a narrow probe laser beam were used in the experiments to avoid the influence of changes in light scattering with tissue coagulation on the OA signal amplitude. Measurements were performed in heating and cooling regimes. Characteristic behavior of the OA signal amplitude temperature dependences in different temperature ranges were described in terms of changes in different structural components of the tissue samples. The accuracy of temperature reconstruction from the obtained calibration dependencies for the investigated tissue types is evaluated.

Nikitin, Sergey M.; Khokhlova, Tatiana D.; Pelivanov, Ivan M.

2012-06-01

173

In Vivo Imaging of Changes in Tumor Oxygenation During Growth and After Treatment  

PubMed Central

A novel procedure for in vivo imaging of the oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in implanted tumors is reported. The procedure uses electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) of oxygen-sensing nanoprobes embedded in the tumor cells. Unlike existing methods of pO2 quantification, wherein the probes are physically inserted at the time of measurement, the new approach uses cells that are preinternalized (labeled) with the oxygen-sensing probes, which become permanently embedded in the developed tumor. Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) cells, internalized with nanoprobes of lithium octa-n-butoxy-naphthalocyanine (LiNc-BuO), were allowed to grow as a solid tumor. In vivo imaging of the growing tumor showed a heterogeneous distribution of the spin probe, as well as oxygenation in the tumor volume. The pO2 images obtained after the tumors were exposed to a single dose of 30-Gy X-radiation showed marked redistribution as well as an overall increase in tissue oxygenation, with a maximum increase 6 hr after irradiation. However, larger tumors with a poorly perfused core showed no significant changes in oxygenation. In summary, the use of in vivo EPR technology with embedded oxygen-sensitive nanoprobes enabled noninvasive visualization of dynamic changes in the intracellular pO2 of growing and irradiated tumors.

Bratasz, Anna; Pandian, Ramasamy P.; Deng, Yuanmu; Petryakov, Sergey; Grecula, John C.; Gupta, Nilendu; Kuppusamy, Periannan

2008-01-01

174

Formulation of meloxicam gel for topical application: In vitro and in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

Skin delivery of NSAIDs offers several advantages over the oral route associated with potential side effects. In the present investigation, topical gel of meloxicam (MLX) was formulated using N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solubilizer and Carbopol Ultrez 10® as a gelling polymer. MLX gel was evaluated with respect to different physicochemical parameters such as pH, viscosity and spreadability. Irritation potential of MLX gel was studied on rabbits. Permeation of MLX gel was studied using freshly excised rat skin as a membrane. Anti-inflammatory activity of MLX gel was studied in rats and compared with the commercial formulation of piroxicam (Pirox® gel, 0.5% m/m). Accelerated stability studies were carried out for MLX gel for 6 months according to ICH guidelines. MLX gel was devoid of any skin irritation in rabbits. After 12 h, cumulative permeation of MLX through excised rat skin was 3.0 ± 1.2 mg cm-2 with the corresponding flux value of 0.24 ± 0.09 mg cm-2 h-1. MLX gel exhibited significantly higher anti-inflammatory activity in rats compared to Pirox® gel. Physicochemically stable and non-irritant MLX gel was formulated which could deliver significant amounts of active substance across the skin in vitro and in vivo to elicit the anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:21134852

Bachhav, Yogeshwar G; Patravale, Vandana B

2010-06-01

175

In vivo biochemistry: Applications for small molecule biosensors in plant biology  

PubMed Central

Summary Revolutionary new technologies, namely in the areas of DNA sequencing and molecular imaging, continue to impact new discoveries in plant science and beyond. For decades we have been able to determine properties of enzymes, receptors and transporters in vitro or in heterologous systems, and more recently been able to analyze their regulation at the transcriptional level, use GFP reporters to obtain insights into cellular and subcellular localization, and measure ion and metabolite levels with unprecedented precision using mass spectrometry. However, we lack key information on location and dynamics of the substrates of enzymes, receptors and transporters, and on the regulation of these proteins in their cellular environment. Such information can now be obtained by transitioning from in vitro to in vivo biochemistry using biosensors. Genetically encoded fluorescent protein-based sensors for ion and metabolite dynamics provide highly resolved spatial and temporal information, and are complemented by sensors for pH, redox, voltage, and tension. They serve as powerful tools for identifying missing processes (e.g. glucose transport across ER membranes), components (e.g. SWEET sugar transporters for cellular sugar efflux), and signaling networks (e.g. from systematic screening of mutants that affect sugar transport or cytosolic and vacuolar pH). Combined with the knowledge of properties of enzymes and transporters and their interactions with the regulatory machinery, biosensors promise to be key diagnostic tools for systems and synthetic biology.

Jones, Alexander; Grossmann, Guido; Danielson, Jonas A.H.; Sosso, Davide; Chen, Li-Qing; Ho, Cheng Hsun; Frommer, Wolf B.

2013-01-01

176

Application of an in vivo swine model for the determination of arsenic bioavailability in contaminated vegetables.  

PubMed

Considerable information is available in the literature regarding the uptake of arsenic (As) from contaminated soil and irrigation water by vegetables. However, few studies have investigated As speciation in these crops while a dearth of information is available on As bioavailability following their consumption. In this study, the concentration and speciation of As in chard, radish, lettuce and mung beans was determined following hydroponic growth of the vegetables using As-contaminated water. In addition, As bioavailability was assessed using an in vivo swine feeding assay. While As concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 84.2mg As kg(-1) (dry weight), only inorganic As (arsenite and arsenate) was detected in the edible portions of the vegetables. When As bioavailability was assessed through monitoring blood plasma As concentrations following swine consumption of As-contaminated vegetables, between 50% and 100% of the administered As dose was absorbed and entered systemic circulation. Arsenic bioavailability decreased in the order mung beans>radish>lettuce=chard. PMID:18262220

Juhasz, Albert L; Smith, Euan; Weber, John; Rees, Matthew; Rofe, Allan; Kuchel, Tim; Sansom, Lloyd; Naidu, Ravi

2008-05-01

177

Imaging the Function of P-Glycoprotein With Radiotracers: Pharmacokinetics and In Vivo Applications  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter, controls the pharmacokinetics of various compounds under physiological conditions. P-gp-mediated drug efflux has been suggested as playing a role in various disorders, including multidrug-resistant cancer and medication-refractory epilepsy. However, P-gp inhibition has had, to date, little or no clinically significant effect in multidrug-resistant cancer. To enhance our understanding of its in vivo function under pathophysiological conditions, substrates of P-gp have been radiolabeled and imaged using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). To accurately quantify P-gp function, a radiolabeled P-gp substrate should be selective for P-gp, produce a large signal after P-gp blockade, and generate few radiometabolites that enter the target tissue. Furthermore, quantification of P-gp function via imaging requires pharmacological inhibition of P-gp, which requires knowledge of P-gp density at the target site. By meeting these criteria, imaging can elucidate the function of P-gp in various disorders and improve the efficacy of treatments.

Kannan, P; John, C; Zoghbi, SS; Halldin, C; Gottesman, MM; Innis, RB; Hall, MD

2009-01-01

178

Current concepts and new developments for autologous in vivo endothelialisation of biomaterials for intravascular applications.  

PubMed

Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the peripheral blood of adults represent an auspicious cell source for tissue engineering of an autologous endothelium on blood-contacting implants. Novel materials biofunctionalised with EPC-specific capture molecules represent an intriguing strategy for induction of selective homing of progenitor cells. The trapped EPCs can differentiate into endothelial cells and generate a non-thrombogenic surface on artificial materials. However, the success of this process mainly depends on the use of optimised capture molecules with a high selectivity and affinity. In recent years, various biomedical engineering strategies have emerged for in situ immobilisation of patient's own stem cells on blood contacting materials. The realisation of this in vivo tissue engineering concept and generation of an endothelium on artificial surfaces could exceedingly enhance the performance of not only small calibre vascular grafts and stents, but also, in general all blood-contacting medical devices, such as heart valves, artificial lungs, hearts, kidneys, and ventricular assist devices. PMID:21312162

Avci-Adali, M; Perle, N; Ziemer, G; Wendel, H P

2011-01-01

179

Line selection and sensitivity analysis for oxygen sensing in the 1.26-1.27 micron spectral band for the ASCENDS mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Research Council's (NRC) Decadal Survey (DS) of Earth Science and Applications from Space has identified the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as an important atmospheric science mission. The CO2 mixing ratio needs to be measured to a precision of 0.5 percent of background or better (slightly less than 2 ppm) at 100-km

N. Prasad; E. V. Browell; T. S. Zaccheo; B. Karpowicz

2010-01-01

180

Clinical Application of in-room PET for in vivo Treatment Monitoring in Proton Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objective(s) The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential of using an in-room PET for treatment verification in proton therapy and to derive suitable PET scan times. Materials/Methods Nine patients undergoing passive scattering proton therapy were scanned immediately after treatment with an in-room PET scanner. The scanner was positioned next to the treatment head after treatment. The Monte Carlo (MC) method was employed to reproduce PET activities for each patient. To assess the proton beam range uncertainty we designed a novel concept where the measured PET activity surface distal to the target at the end of range was compared with MC predictions. The repositioning of patients for the PET scan took on average about 2 minutes. The PET images were reconstructed considering varying scan times to test the scan time dependency of the method. Results The measured PET images show overall good spatial correlations with MC predictions. Some discrepancies could be attributed to uncertainties in the local elemental composition and biological washout. For 8 patients treated with a single field, the average range differences between PET measurements and CT-image-based MC results were less than 5 mm (< 3 mm for 6 of 8 patients) and root-mean-square deviations (RMSD) were 4-11 mm with PET-CT image co-registration errors of about 2 mm. Our results also show that a short-length PET scan of 5 minutes can yield similar results compared to a 20 minutes PET scan. Conclusions Our first clinical trials of 9 patients using an in-room PET system demonstrated its potential for in vivo treatment monitoring in proton therapy. For a quantitative range prediction with arbitrary shape of target volume, we suggest employing the distal PET activity surface.

Min, Chul Hee; Zhu, Xuping; Winey, Brian A.; Grogg, Kira; Testa, Mauro; Fakhri, Georges El; Bortfeld, Thomas R.; Paganetti, Harald; Shih, Helen A.

2013-01-01

181

Multi-transmit beam forming for fast cardiac imaging-experimental validation and in vivo application.  

PubMed

High frame rate (HFR) echocardiography may be of benefit for functional analysis of the heart. In current clinical equipment, HFR is obtained using multi-line acquisition (MLA) which typically requires broadening of transmit beams. As this may result in a significant degradation of spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the capacity of MLA to obtain high quality HFR images remains limited. As an alternative, we have demonstrated by computer simulation that simultaneously transmitting multiple focused beams into different directions [multi-line transmit (MLT)], can increase the frame rate without significantly compromising the spatial resolution or SNR. This study aimed to experimentally verify these theoretical predictions both in vitro and in vivo to demonstrate, for the first time, that cardiac MLT imaging is feasible. Hereto, the ultrasound advanced open platform, equipped with a 2.0 MHz phased array, was programmed to interleave MLT and conventional single line transmit (SLT) beam forming. Using these two beam forming methods, images of phantoms and healthy volunteers were acquired and investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results confirmed our simulations that image quality of a 4MLT imaging system with a Tukey apodization scheme is very competitive to that of SLT while providing a 4 times higher frame rate. It is also demonstrated that MLT can be combined with MLA to provide images at 12- to 16-fold frame rate (about 340-450 Hz) without significantly compromising spatial resolution and SNR. This is thus the first study to demonstrate that this new ultrasound imaging paradigm is viable which could have significant impact on future cardiac ultrasound systems. PMID:24893253

Tong, Ling; Ramalli, Alessandro; Jasaityte, Ruta; Tortoli, Piero; D'hooge, Jan

2014-06-01

182

Surface coatings shape the protein corona of SPIONs with relevance to their application in vivo.  

PubMed

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have proved their use in many biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, hyperthermia, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrast agents. Due to their instability in fluids, several surface coatings have been used to both stabilize and tune the properties of these nanoparticles (NPs) according to their applications. These coatings will strongly modify their surface properties and influence their interaction with the environment proteins in a relevant biological medium with a clear impact on their function. It is well-accepted that a protein corona is immediately formed when nanoparticles come in contact with a biological milieu, and the emergent bionano interface represents the biological identity of the particles. Here, we investigate how a different coating on the same magnetic core can influence the protein corona composition and structure with clear relevance to application of these NPs in medicine. In particular, we have studied the structure and composition of the protein corona-SPION complexes of magnetite nanoparticles stabilized with citric acid, poly(acrylic acid), or double layer oleic acid by a range of approaches, including dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking analysis, differential centrifugal sedimentation, infrared spectroscopy, 1-D SDS gel electrophoresis, and mass spectroscopy. PMID:23002920

Jedlovszky-Hajdú, Angéla; Bombelli, Francesca Baldelli; Monopoli, Marco P; Tombácz, Etelka; Dawson, Kenneth A

2012-10-23

183

Transurethral ultrasound applicators with dynamic multi-sector control for prostate thermal therapy: in vivo evaluation under MR guidance.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and performance of a multi-sectored tubular array transurethral ultrasound applicator for prostate thermal therapy, with potential to provide dynamic angular and length control of heating under MR guidance without mechanical movement of the applicator. Test configurations were fabricated, incorporating a linear array of two multi-sectored tubular transducers (7.8-8.4 MHz, 3 mm OD, 6 mm length), with three 120 degrees independent active sectors per tube. A flexible delivery catheter facilitated water cooling (100 ml min(-1)) within an expandable urethral balloon (35 mm long x 10 mm diameter). An integrated positioning hub allows for rotating and translating the transducer assembly within the urethral balloon for final targeting prior to therapy delivery. Rotational beam plots indicate approximately 90 degrees-100 degrees acoustic output patterns from each 120 degrees transducer sector, negligible coupling between sectors, and acoustic efficiencies between 41% and 53%. Experiments were performed within in vivo canine prostate (n = 3), with real-time MR temperature monitoring in either the axial or coronal planes to facilitate control of the heating profiles and provide thermal dosimetry for performance assessment. Gross inspection of serial sections of treated prostate, exposed to TTC (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) tissue viability stain, allowed for direct assessment of the extent of thermal coagulation. These devices created large contiguous thermal lesions (defined by 52 degrees C maximum temperature, t43 = 240 min thermal dose contours, and TTC tissue sections) that extended radially from the applicator toward the border of the prostate (approximately15 mm) during a short power application (approximately 8-16 W per active sector, 8-15 min), with approximately 200 degrees or 360 degrees sector coagulation demonstrated depending upon the activation scheme. Analysis of transient temperature profiles indicated progression of lethal temperature and thermal dose contours initially centered on each sector that coalesced within approximately 5 min to produce uniform and contiguous zones of thermal destruction between sectors, with smooth outer boundaries and continued radial propagation in time. The dimension of the coagulation zone along the applicator was well-defined by positioning and active array length. Although not as precise as rotating planar and curvilinear devices currently under development for MR-guided procedures, advantages of these multi-sectored transurethral applicators include a flexible delivery catheter and that mechanical manipulation of the device using rotational motors is not required during therapy. This multi-sectored tubular array transurethral ultrasound technology has demonstrated potential for relatively fast and reasonably conformal targeting of prostate volumes suitable for the minimally invasive treatment of BPH and cancer under MR guidance, with further development warranted. PMID:18561684

Kinsey, Adam M; Diederich, Chris J; Rieke, Viola; Nau, William H; Pauly, Kim Butts; Bouley, Donna; Sommer, Graham

2008-05-01

184

Transurethral ultrasound applicators with dynamic multi-sector control for prostate thermal therapy: In vivo evaluation under MR guidance  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and performance of a multi-sectored tubular array transurethral ultrasound applicator for prostate thermal therapy, with potential to provide dynamic angular and length control of heating under MR guidance without mechanical movement of the applicator. Test configurations were fabricated, incorporating a linear array of two multi-sectored tubular transducers (7.8–8.4 MHz, 3 mm OD, 6 mm length), with three 120° independent active sectors per tube. A flexible delivery catheter facilitated water cooling (100 ml min?1) within an expandable urethral balloon (35 mm long×10 mm diameter). An integrated positioning hub allows for rotating and translating the transducer assembly within the urethral balloon for final targeting prior to therapy delivery. Rotational beam plots indicate ?90°?100° acoustic output patterns from each 120° transducer sector, negligible coupling between sectors, and acoustic efficiencies between 41% and 53%. Experiments were performed within in vivo canine prostate (n=3), with real-time MR temperature monitoring in either the axial or coronal planes to facilitate control of the heating profiles and provide thermal dosimetry for performance assessment. Gross inspection of serial sections of treated prostate, exposed to TTC (triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) tissue viability stain, allowed for direct assessment of the extent of thermal coagulation. These devices created large contiguous thermal lesions (defined by 52 °C maximum temperature, t43=240 min thermal dose contours, and TTC tissue sections) that extended radially from the applicator toward the border of the prostate (?15 mm) during a short power application (?8?16 W per active sector, 8–15 min), with ?200° or 360° sector coagulation demonstrated depending upon the activation scheme. Analysis of transient temperature profiles indicated progression of lethal temperature and thermal dose contours initially centered on each sector that coalesced within ?5 min to produce uniform and contiguous zones of thermal destruction between sectors, with smooth outer boundaries and continued radial propagation in time. The dimension of the coagulation zone along the applicator was well-defined by positioning and active array length. Although not as precise as rotating planar and curvilinear devices currently under development for MR-guided procedures, advantages of these multi-sectored transurethral applicators include a flexible delivery catheter and that mechanical manipulation of the device using rotational motors is not required during therapy. This multi-sectored tubular array transurethral ultrasound technology has demonstrated potential for relatively fast and reasonably conformal targeting of prostate volumes suitable for the minimally invasive treatment of BPH and cancer under MR guidance, with further development warranted.

Kinsey, Adam M.; Diederich, Chris J.; Rieke, Viola; Nau, William H.; Pauly, Kim Butts; Bouley, Donna; Sommer, Graham

2008-01-01

185

Stabilization of collagen-model, triple-helical peptides for in vitro and in vivo applications.  

PubMed

The triple-helical structure of collagen has been accurately reproduced in numerous chemical and recombinant model systems. Triple-helical peptides and proteins have found application for dissecting collagen-stabilizing forces, isolating receptor- and protein-binding sites in collagen, mechanistic examination of collagenolytic proteases, and development of novel biomaterials. Introduction of native-like sequences into triple-helical constructs can reduce the thermal stability of the triple-helix to below that of the physiological environment. In turn, incorporation of nonnative amino acids and/or templates can enhance triple-helix stability. We presently describe approaches by which triple-helical structure can be modulated for use under physiological or near-physiological conditions. PMID:24014440

Bhowmick, Manishabrata; Fields, Gregg B

2013-01-01

186

Development of a time-domain optical mammograph and first in vivo applications.  

PubMed

We have developed a laser-pulse mammograph capable of recording optical mammograms within approximately 3 min by measuring time-resolved transmittance at each of typically 1500 scan positions, 2.5 mm apart. As a first application two patients who have tumors were investigated successfully. From measured distributions of times of flight of photons corrected for edge effects we derived (1) characteristic quantities, such as photon counts in selected time windows, to generate optical mammograms; (2) effective transport scattering and absorption coefficients of breast tissue at each scan position, assuming the breast to be homogeneous; and (3) optical properties of a selected tumor by applying the theory of diffraction of photon density waves by spherical inhomogeneity. Mammograms recorded at different lateral offsets between source and detector fiber were used to estimate the depth of inhomogeneities. PMID:18319875

Grosenick, D; Wabnitz, H; Rinneberg, H H; Moesta, K T; Schlag, P M

1999-05-01

187

A new cortical thickness mapping method with application to an in vivo finite element model.  

PubMed

Finite element modelling of musculoskeletal systems, with geometrical structures constructed from computed tomography (CT) scans, is a useful and powerful tool for biomechanical studies. The use of CT scans from living human subjects, however, is still limited. Accurate reconstruction of thin cortical bone structures from CT scans of living human subjects is especially problematic, due to low CT resolution that results from mandatory low radiation doses and/or involuntary movements of the subject. In this study, a new method for mapping cortical thickness is described. Using the method, cortical thickness measurements of a coxal (pelvis) bone obtained from CT scans of a cadaver were mapped to the coxal geometry as obtained through CT scans of a live human subject, resulting in accurate cortical thickness while maintaining geometric fidelity of the live subject. The mapping procedure includes shape-preserving parameterisation, mesh movement and interpolation of thickness using a search algorithm. The methodology is applicable to modelling of other bones where accurate cortical thickness is needed and for which such data exist. PMID:23113651

Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Jong-Eun; Eberhardt, Alan W

2014-07-01

188

A USPL functional system with articulated mirror arm for in-vivo applications in dentistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-short pulsed laser (USPL) systems for dental application have overcome many of their initial disadvantages. However, a problem that has not yet been addressed and solved is the beam delivery into the oral cavity. The functional system that is introduced in this study includes an articulated mirror arm, a scanning system as well as a handpiece, allowing for freehand preparations with ultra-short laser pulses. As laser source an Nd:YVO4 laser is employed, emitting pulses with a duration of tp < 10 ps at a repetition rate of up to 500 kHz. The centre wavelength is at 1064 nm and the average output power can be tuned up to 9 W. The delivery system consists of an articulated mirror arm, to which a scanning system and a custom made handpiece are connected, including a 75 mm focussing lens. The whole functional system is compact in size and moveable. General characteristics like optical losses and ablation rate are determined and compared to results employing a fixed setup on an optical table. Furthermore classical treatment procedures like cavity preparation are being demonstrated on mammoth ivory. This study indicates that freehand preparation employing an USPL system is possible but challenging, and accompanied by a variety of side-effects. The ablation rate with fixed handpiece is about 10 mm3/min. Factors like defocussing and blinding affect treatment efficiency. Laser sources with higher average output powers might be needed in order to reach sufficient preparation speeds.

Schelle, Florian; Meister, Jörg; Dehn, Claudia; Oehme, Bernd; Bourauel, Christoph; Frentzen, Mathias

189

Receptor scintigraphy with a radioiodinated somatostatin analogue: Radiolabeling, purification, biologic activity, and in vivo application in animals  

SciTech Connect

Radioiodinated Tyr-3-octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, is a useful ligand for the in vitro detection of somatostatin receptors. In this study, we have investigated the possible in vivo application of this radioligand in the detection of somatostatin receptor-bearing tumors by scintigraphy. The specific somatostatin-like biologic activity of radioiodinated Tyr-3-octreotide was confirmed in vitro: (a) radioiodinated Tyr-3-octreotide competes in the nanomolar range with specific receptor binding of somatostatin to suspended human meningioma membranes and (b) the secretion of growth hormone by cultured rat pituitary cells was similarly inhibited by iodinated Tyr-3-octreotide and somatostatin. In rats, intravenously injected {sup 123}I-Tyr-3-octreotide is rapidly cleared from the circulation mainly by the liver. Although this rapid clearance limits the amount of tracer available for somatostatin receptor-bearing tumors, the advantage of this rapid clearance is that the background level is rapidly reduced in favor of scintigraphic imaging of these tumors. Pancreatic tumors in rats were localized by scintigraphy after intravenous injection of {sup 123}I-Tyr-3-octreotide.

Bakker, W.H.; Krenning, E.P.; Breeman, W.A.; Koper, J.W.; Kooij, P.P.; Reubi, J.C.; Klijn, J.G.; Visser, T.J.; Docter, R.; Lamberts, S.W. (University Hospital Dijkzigt, Rotterdam (Netherland))

1990-09-01

190

Antioxidative peptides: enzymatic production, in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity and potential applications of milk-derived antioxidative peptides.  

PubMed

The beneficial effects of food-derived antioxidants in health promotion and disease prevention are being increasingly recognized. Recently, there has been a particular focus on milk-derived peptides; as a source of antioxidants, these peptides are inactive within the sequence of the parent protein but can be released during enzyme hydrolysis. Once released, the peptides have been shown to possess radical scavenging, metal ion chelation properties and the ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation. A variety of methods have been used to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activity, however, there is no standardised methodology, which hinders comparison of data. This review provides an overview on the generation of antioxidative peptides from milk proteins, the proposed mechanisms of protein/peptide induced antioxidant activity, in vitro measurement of antioxidant activity, in vivo evaluation of plasma antioxidant capacity and the bioavailability of antioxidative peptides. The understanding gained from other food proteins is referred to where specific data on milk-derived peptides are limited. The potential applications and health benefits of antioxidant peptides are discussed with a particular focus on the aging population. The regulatory requirements for peptide-based antioxidant functional foods are also considered. PMID:22968663

Power, O; Jakeman, P; FitzGerald, R J

2013-03-01

191

Preparation, characterization, and in vitro testing of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and dextran magnetic microspheres for in vivo applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many research groups are investigating degradable magnetic particles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and as carriers for magnetic drug guidance. These particles are composite materials with a degradable polymer matrix and iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic properties. The degradable polymer matrix acts to provide colloidal stability and, for drug delivery applications, provides a reservoir for the storage and release of drugs. Natural polymers, like albumin and dextran, which degrade by the action of enzymes; have been used for the polymer matrix. Iron oxide nanoparticles are used for magnetic properties since they can be digested in vivo and have low toxicities. Polylactic acid (PLA) and its copolymers with polyglycolic acid (PLGA) are versatile polymers that degrade by simple hydrolysis without the aid of enzymes. Microspheres are easily formed using the solvent extraction/evaporation method and a wide range of drugs can be encapsulated in them. Magnetic PLGA microspheres suitable for applications were synthesized for the first time in this dissertation. This was accomplished by coating iron oxide nanoparticles with oleic acid to make them dispersible in the organic solvents used in the extraction/evaporation microsphere preparation method. In addition to the magnetic PLGA microspheres, a novel all-aqueous method for preparing crosslinked dextran magnetic microspheres was developed in this dissertation. This method uses free radical polymerization for crosslinking and does not require the use of flammable and harmful solvents. For efficient MRI contrast and magnetic drug guidance, maximized iron oxide content of microspheres is desirable. The two different microsphere preparation methods were optimized for iron oxide content. The effect of iron oxide content on microsphere size and morphology was studied. In addition, an in vitro circulation model was used to evaluate the ability of magnetic microspheres to be guided at physiologic blood flow velocities. The MRI contrast effect was studied as a function of microsphere concentration.

Leamy, Patrick J.

192

Rapid response oxygen-sensing nanofibers  

PubMed Central

Molecular oxygen has profound effects on cell and tissue viability. Relevant sensor forms that can rapidly determine dissolved oxygen levels under biologically relevant conditions provide critical metabolic information. Using 0.5 ?m diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber containing an oxygen-sensitive probe, tris (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) dichloride, we observed a response time of 0.9±0.12 seconds – 4–10 times faster than previous reports – while the t95 for the corresponding film was more than two orders of magnitude greater. Interestingly, the response and recovery times of slightly larger diameter PCL fibers were 1.79±0.23 s and 2.29±0.13 s, respectively, while the recovery time was not statistically different likely due to the more limited interactions of nitrogen with the polymer matrix. A more than 10-fold increase in PCL fiber diameter reduces oxygen sensitivity while having minor effects on response time; conversely, decreases in fiber diameter to less than 0.5 ?m would likely decrease response times even further. In addition, a 50°C heat treatment of the electrospun fiber resulted in both increased Stern-Volmer slope and linearity likely due to secondary recrystallization that further homogenized the probe microenvironment. At exposure times up to 3600 s in length, photobleaching was observed but was largely eliminated by the use of either polyethersulfone (PES) or a PES-PCL core-shell composition. However, this resulted in 2- and 3-fold slower response times. Finally, even the non-core shell compositions containing the Ru oxygen probe result in no apparent cytotoxicity in representative glioblastoma cell populations.

Xue, Ruipeng; Behera, Prajna; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Lannutti, John J.

2014-01-01

193

In vitro oxygen sensing using intraocular microrobots.  

PubMed

We present a luminescence oxygen sensor integrated with a wireless intraocular microrobot for minimally-invasive diagnosis. This microrobot can be accurately controlled in the intraocular cavity by applying magnetic fields. The microrobot consists of a magnetic body susceptible to magnetic fields and a sensor coating. This coating embodies Pt(II) octaethylporphine (PtOEP) dyes as the luminescence material and polystyrene as a supporting matrix, and it can be wirelessly excited and read out by optical means. The sensor works based on quenching of luminescence in the presence of oxygen. The excitation and emission spectrum, response time, and oxygen sensitivity of the sensor were characterized using a spectrometer. A custom device was designed and built to use this sensor for intraocular measurements with the microrobot. Due to the intrinsic nature of luminescence lifetimes, a frequency-domain lifetime measurement approach was used. An alternative sensor design with increased performance was demonstrated by using poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (PS-MA) and PtOEP nanospheres. PMID:22955866

Ergeneman, Olgaç; Chatzipirpiridis, George; Pokki, Juho; Marín-Suárez, Marta; Sotiriou, Georgios A; Medina-Rodríguez, Santiago; Sánchez, Jorge F Fernández; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J

2012-11-01

194

4D dosimetry and its applications to pre-treatment quality control and real-time in vivo dosimetry of VMAT treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a 4D dosimetry concept was developed. This concept included a method for calculation of 3D reference absorbed dose matrices at every control point of the delivery using a clinical treatment planning system (TPS). Further, the gamma evaluation method was extended to incorporate the 4th dimension of the TPS calculated dose distributions. The applications of the 4D dosimetry concept on pre-treatment quality control and real-time in vivo dosimetry were investigated.

Nordström, F.; Wetterstedt, S. af; Bäck, S. Å. J.

2013-06-01

195

Influence of formulation type on the deposition of glycolic acid and glycerol in hairless mouse skin following topical in vivo application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The kinetics and extent of uptake of glycolic acid and glycerol in various strata of hairless mouse skin following topical in vivo application of several glycolic acid and glycerol formulations were determined. The formulations tested included an aqueous solution, a 30% propylene glycol (PG) aqueous solution, an oil-in-water (O\\/W) emulsion, a water-in-oil (W\\/O) emulsion, and two nonionic liposomal systems.

M. OHTA; C. RAMACHANDRAN; N. D. WEINER

196

LC analysis of benzophenone-3: II application to determination of 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' skin penetration from solvents, coarse and submicron emulsions.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the skin penetration of benzophenone-3 in vitro and in vivo in order to investigate a possible influence of formulation. Six different vehicles, three solvents and three different emulsion types were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Each vehicle was applied to the skin model at 2 mg cm(-2). First, histological studies on ear pigskin and human skin were evaluated. In vitro measurements were performed with static diffusion cells using pigskin at 1, 2, 4, and 8-h. In vivo, benzophenone-3 concentration in stratum corneum was evaluated by the stripping method after 30-min application on forearm of volunteers. It was shown that ear pigskin and human skin appear similar and in both experiments significant differences between vehicles were noticed. The six vehicles could be ranked in the same order of benzophenone-3 skin concentration. At 8-h, the highest concentration of benzophenone-3 in skin was obtained with propylene glycol, and O/W submicron emulsion. On the contrary. the two oily solvents. W/O emulsion and O/W coarse emulsion restrain the concentration of this UV-filter in the skin. At each time, permeability in vitro and in vivo were well correlated. Low concentrations were measured in the receptor fluid suggesting that percutaneous absorption of this UV-filter across the skin would be minimal. The in vitro and in vivo skin penetration capacity of benzophenone-3 from six vehicles was confirmed and quantified. A satisfactory relationship between binary in vitro and in vivo was established. PMID:11108549

Fernandez, C; Marti-Mestres, G; Ramos, J; Maillols, H

2000-12-01

197

Manufacture of IRDye800CW-coupled Fe3O4 nanoparticles and their applications in cell labeling and in vivo imaging  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF)-labeled iron nanoparticles have been synthesized and applied in a number of applications, including the labeling of human cells for monitoring the engraftment process, imaging tumors, sensoring the in vivo molecular environment surrounding nanoparticles and tracing their in vivo biodistribution. These studies demonstrate that NIRF-labeled iron nanoparticles provide an efficient probe for cell labeling. Furthermore, the in vivo imaging studies show excellent performance of the NIR fluorophores. However, there is a limited selection of NIRF-labeled iron nanoparticles with an optimal wavelength for imaging around 800 nm, where tissue autofluorescence is minimal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop additional alternative NIRF-labeled iron nanoparticles for application in this area. Results This study manufactured 12-nm DMSA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore, IRDye800CW (excitation/emission, 774/789 nm), to investigate their applicability in cell labeling and in vivo imaging. The mouse macrophage RAW264.7 was labeled with IRDye800CW-labeled Fe3O4 nanoparticles at concentrations of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 ?g/ml for 24 h. The results revealed that the cells were efficiently labeled by the nanoparticles, without any significant effect on cell viability. The nanoparticles were injected into the mouse via the tail vein, at dosages of 2 or 5 mg/kg body weight, and the mouse was discontinuously imaged for 24 h. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticles gradually accumulated in liver and kidney regions following injection, reaching maximum concentrations at 6 h post-injection, following which they were gradually removed from these regions. After tracing the nanoparticles throughout the body it was revealed that they mainly distributed in three organs, the liver, spleen and kidney. Real-time live-body imaging effectively reported the dynamic process of the biodistribution and clearance of the nanoparticles in vivo. Conclusion IRDye800CW-labeled Fe3O4 nanoparticles provide an effective probe for cell-labeling and in vivo imaging.

2010-01-01

198

Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of the biodistribution of a 18F-labeled conjugate gold-nanoparticle-peptide with potential biomedical application.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively used in biological applications because of their biocompatibility, size, and ease of characterization, as well as an extensive knowledge of their surface chemistry. These features make AuNPs readily exploitable for biomedical applications, including drug delivery and novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In a previous work, we studied ex vivo distribution of the conjugate C(AuNP)-LPFFD for its potential uses in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we covalently labeled the conjugate with [(18)F]-fluorobenzoate to study the in vivo distribution of the AuNP by positron emission tomography (PET). After intravenous administration in rat, the highest concentration of the radiolabeled conjugate was found in the bladder and urine with a lower proportion in the intestine, demonstrating progressive accumulation compatible with biliary excretion of the conjugate. The conjugate also accumulated in the liver and spleen. PET imaging allowed us to study the in vivo biodistribution of the AuNPs in a noninvasive and sensitive way using a reduced number of animals. Our results show that AuNPs can be covalently and radioactively labeled for PET biodistribution studies. PMID:22284226

Guerrero, Simon; Herance, José Raul; Rojas, Santiago; Mena, Juan F; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Acosta, Gerardo A; Albericio, Fernando; Kogan, Marcelo J

2012-03-21

199

A Novel Micro-Linear Vector for In Vitro and In Vivo Gene Delivery and Its Application for EBV Positive Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background The gene delivery vector for DNA-based therapy should ensure its transfection efficiency and safety for clinical application. The Micro-Linear vector (MiLV) was developed to improve the limitations of traditional vectors such as viral vectors and plasmids. Methods The MiLV which contained only the gene expression cassette was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Its cytotoxicity, transfection efficiency in vitro and in vivo, duration of expression, pro-inflammatory responses and potential application for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive tumors were evaluated. Results Transfection efficiency for exogenous genes transferred by MiLV was at least comparable with or even greater than their corresponding plasmids in eukaryotic cell lines. MiLV elevated the expression and prolonged the duration of genes in vitro and in vivo when compared with that of the plasmid. The in vivo pro-inflammatory response of MiLV group was lower than that of the plasmid group. The MEKK1 gene transferred by MiLV significantly elevated the sensitivity of B95-8 cells and transplanted tumor to the treatment of Ganciclovir (GCV) and sodium butyrate (NaB). Conclusions The present study provides a safer, more efficient and stable MiLV gene delivery vector than plasmid. These advantages encourage further development and the preferential use of this novel vector type for clinical gene therapy studies.

Zhang, Ge; Ou, Xue-Ling; Yang, Xiang-Ling; Wong, Chris K. C.; Giesy, John P.; Du, Jun; Chen, Shou-Yi

2012-01-01

200

Improved preparation of acellular nerve scaffold and application of PKH26 fluorescent labeling combined with in vivo fluorescent imaging system in nerve tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Acellular nerve scaffold has been widely used for peripheral nerve defect treatment. However, the structure of traditional acellular nerve scaffold is dense; the interval porosity and void diameter are too small to meet the requirement of cell seeding, which limits the application. This study was designed to prepare a novel acellular nerve scaffold by the technique of hypotonic buffer combined with freeze-drying, and use PKH26 fluorescent labeling combined with in vivo fluorescent imaging system to evaluate the biological behavior of tissue-engineered nerve in vitro and in vivo. According to light and electron microscopy, the scaffold, which microarchitecture was similar to the fibrous framework of rabbit sciatic nerves, was cell-free and rich in laminin, collagen I and collagen III. In vitro experiment showed that the novel acellular nerve scaffold could provide a 3-D environment to support the attachment, proliferation and migration of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). ADSCs labeled with fluorescent dye PKH26 were then seeded on scaffolds and implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 4 weeks, nerve-like tissue rounded by vessels formed. Cells in the tissue seemed to confirm that they originated from the labeled ADSCs, as confirmed by in vivo fluorescent imaging. In conclusion, the prepared novel acellular nerve scaffold can be used as a new kind of nerve scaffold material, which is more conducible for seeding cells; And PKH26 fluorescent labeling and in vivo fluorescent imaging can be useful for cell tracking and analyzing cell-scaffold constructs in vivo. PMID:24148304

Zhao, Bin; Sun, Xiaolei; Li, Xiulan; Yang, Qiang; Li, Yanjun; Zhang, Yang; Li, Bing; Ma, Xinlong

2013-11-27

201

An in vivo validation of the application of acoustic radiation force to enhance the diagnostic utility of molecular imaging using 3-d ultrasound.  

PubMed

For more than a decade, the application of acoustic radiation force (ARF) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase ultrasonic molecular imaging (MI) sensitivity in vivo. Presented herein is the first noninvasive in vivo validation of ARF-enhanced MI with an unmodified clinical system. First, an in vitro optical-acoustical setup was used to optimize system parameters and ensure sufficient microbubble translation when exposed to ARF. 3-D ARF-enhanced MI was then performed on 7 rat fibrosarcoma tumors using microbubbles targeted to ?(v)?? and nontargeted microbubbles. Low-amplitude (<25 kPa) 3-D ARF pulse sequences were tested and compared with passive targeting studies in the same animal. Our results demonstrate that a 78% increase in image intensity from targeted microbubbles can be achieved when using ARF relative to the passive targeting studies. Furthermore, ARF did not significantly increase image contrast when applied to nontargeted agents, suggesting that ARF did not increase nonspecific adhesion. PMID:22341052

Gessner, Ryan C; Streeter, Jason E; Kothadia, Roshni; Feingold, Steven; Dayton, Paul A

2012-04-01

202

Development and Application of a Quantitative Method of Monitoring Macroscopic Cavitation in Smooth Surface Carious Lesions in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replica techniques have been widely used in dental research, but not previously applied to the in vivo study of carious cavities on free smooth surfaces. A replica method was developed using an epimine resin as the impression material, and a silicone elastomer as the casting material. Cavity areas were measured on the replicas using the Reflex microscope. The sources of

A. Neilson; N. B. Pitts

1993-01-01

203

The application of statistical moment theory to the evaluation of in vivo dissolution time and absorption time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moments analysis has been applied to the calculation of mean (in vivo)dissolution time (MDT) and mean absorption time (MAT) from plasma level of drug versus time data. Methods for accurately estimating the MDT under varying conditions, limitations of the methods, and interpretation of the data are presented. The importance of accurate estimates of the terminal rate constant (?z) and the

Sidney Riegelman; Paul Collier

1980-01-01

204

Characteristics and Applications of the ToxRefDB In Vivo Datasets from Chronic, Reproductive and Developmental Assays  

EPA Science Inventory

ToxRefDB was developed to store data from in vivo animal toxicity studies. The initial focus was populating ToxRefDB with pesticide registration toxicity data that has been historically stored as hard-copy and scanned documents by the Office of Pesticide Programs. A significant p...

205

Application of a partial-thickness human ex vivo skin culture model in cutaneous wound healing study.  

PubMed

A number of in vivo and ex vivo skin models have been applied to human wound healing studies. A reliable skin model, which recapitulates the features of human wound repair, is essential for the clinical and mechanical investigation of human cutaneous wound healing. Full-skin ex vivo culture systems have been used in wound healing studies. However, important structures of the skin, such as the differentiation of keratinocytes and epidermis-dermis junction, are poorly characterized in this model. This study aims to develop an optimized partial-thickness human ex vivo skin culture (HESC) model to maintain human skin characteristics in vitro. During our culture, the basal layer, suprabasal layer, and stratum granulosum layer of epidermis were preserved until day 8. Analyses of hemidesmosome proteins, bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BP180) and 2 (BP230), showed that the integrity of the basement membrane of the epidermis was well preserved in the HESC model. In contrast, an organotypic culture with human keratinocytes and fibroblasts failed to show an integrated basement membrane. Maintenance of skin structure by histological analysis and proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes by Ki67 staining were observed in our model for 12 days. Complete re-epithelialization of the wounding area was observed at day 6 post wounding when a superficial incisional wound was created. The expression of Ki-67 and keratin 6, indicators of activated keratinocytes in epidermis, was significantly upregulated and new collagen synthesis was found in the dermis during the wound healing process. As control, we also used organotypic culture in studying the differentiation of the keratinocyte layers and incisional wound repair. It turned out that our model has advantage in these study fields. The results suggest that our HESC model retains important elements of in vivo skin and has significant advantages for the wound healing studies in vitro. PMID:22231737

Xu, Wei; Jong Hong, Seok; Jia, Shengxian; Zhao, Yanan; Galiano, Robert D; Mustoe, Thomas A

2012-04-01

206

Four-and-one-half years' experience in monitoring of reproducibility of an MR spectroscopy system--application of in vitro results to interpretation of in vivo data.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this work was to assess long-term in vitro reproducibility of metabolite levels measured using 1H MRS (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy). The secondary purpose was to use the in vitro results for interpretation of 1H MRS in vivo spectra acquired from patients diagnosed with Canavan disease. 1H MRS measurements were performed in the period from April 2006 to September 2010. 118 short and 116 long echo spectra were acquired from a stable phantom during this period. Change-point analysis of the in vitro N-acetylaspartate levels was exploited in the computation of fT factor (ratio of the actual to the reference N-acetylaspartate level normalized by the reciprocity principle). This coefficient was utilized in the interpretation of in vivo spectra analyzed using absolute reference technique. The monitored time period was divided into six time intervals based on short echo in vitro data (seven time intervals based on long echo in vitro data) characterized by fT coefficient ranging from 0.97 to 1.09 (based on short echo data) and from 1.0 to 1.11 (based on long echo data). Application of this coefficient to interpretation of in vivo spectra confirmed increased N-acetylaspartate level in Canavan disease. Long-term monitoring of an MRS system reproducibility, allowing for absolute referencing of metabolite levels, facilitates interpretation of metabolic changes in white matter disorders. PMID:24892353

Skorupa, Agnieszka; Wicher, Magdalena; Banasik, Tomasz; Jamroz, Ewa; Paprocka, Justyna; Kie?tyka, Aleksandra; Sokó?, Maria; Konopka, Marek

2014-01-01

207

A Biocompatible In Vivo Ligation Reaction and its Application for Non-Invasive Bioluminescent Imaging of Protease Activity in Living Mice  

PubMed Central

The discovery of biocompatible reactions has had a tremendous impact on chemical biology, allowing the study of numerous biological processes directly in complex systems. However, despite the fact that multiple biocompatible reactions have been developed in the past decade, very few work well in living mice. Here we report that D-cysteine and 2-cyanobenzothiazoles can selectively react with each other in vivo to generate a luciferin substrate for firefly luciferase. The success of this “split luciferin” ligation reaction has important implications for both in vivo imaging and biocompatible labeling strategies. First, the production of a luciferin substrate can be visualized in a live mouse by bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and furthermore allows interrogation of targeted tissues using a “caged” luciferin approach. We therefore applied this reaction to the real-time non-invasive imaging of apoptosis associated with caspase 3/7. Caspase-dependent release of free D-cysteine from the caspase 3/7 peptide substrate Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-D-Cys (DEVD-(D-Cys)) allowed selective reaction with 6-amino-2-cyanobenzothiazole (NH2-CBT) in vivo to form 6-amino-D-luciferin with subsequent light emission from luciferase. Importantly, this strategy was found to be superior to the commercially-available DEVD-aminoluciferin substrate for imaging of caspase 3/7 activity. Moreover, the split luciferin approach enables the modular construction of bioluminogenic sensors, where either or both reaction partners could be caged to report on multiple biological events. Lastly, the luciferin ligation reaction is three orders of magnitude faster than Staudinger ligation suggesting further applications for both bioluminescence and specific molecular targeting in vivo.

Godinat, Aurelien; Park, Hyo Min; Miller, Stephen C.; Cheng, Ke; Hanahan, Douglas; Sanman, Laura E.; Bogyo, Matthew; Yu, Allen; Nikitin, Gennady F.; Stahl, Andreas; Dubikovskaya, Elena A.

2013-01-01

208

Near-infrared luminescent cubic silicon carbide nanocrystals for in vivo biomarker applications: an ab initio study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecule-sized fluorescent emitters are much sought-after to probe biomolecules in living cells. We demonstrate here by time-dependent density functional calculations that the experimentally achievable 1-2 nm sized silicon carbide nanocrystals can emit light in the near-infrared region after introducing appropriate color centers in them. These near-infrared luminescent silicon carbide nanocrystals may act as ideal fluorophores for in vivo bioimaging.

Somogyi, Bálint; Zólyomi, Viktor; Gali, Adam

2012-11-01

209

A Clinically Applicable Method for the ex vivo Generation of Antigen–Presenting Cells from CD34+ Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent of antigen–presenting cells, can be generated in vitro from bone marrow or blood progenitor cells. We have developed a method for producing such cells from mobilised peripheral blood CD34+ cells in the absence of bovine products. Methods: The culture system developed used X–Vivo 10 culture medium with 10% autologous serum, rhGM–CSF,

K. M. Ardeshna; C. P. Corney; S. J. Ings; M. J. Watts; D. C. Linch; S. Devereux

2000-01-01

210

Application of Ultrasound on Monitoring the Evolution of the Collagen Fiber Reinforced nHAC/CS Composites In Vivo  

PubMed Central

To date, fiber reinforce scaffolds have been largely applied to repair hard and soft tissues. Meanwhile, monitoring the scaffolds for long periods in vivo is recognized as a crucial issue before its wide use. As a consequence, there is a growing need for noninvasive and convenient methods to analyze the implantation remolding process in situ and in real time. In this paper, diagnostic medical ultrasound was used to monitor the in vivo bone formation and degradation process of the novel mineralized collagen fiber reinforced composite which is synthesized by chitosan (CS), nanohydroxyapatite (nHA), and collagen fiber (Col). To observe the impact of cells on bone remodeling process, the scaffolds were planted into the back of the SD rats with and without rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). Systematic data of scaffolds in vivo was extracted from ultrasound images. Significant consistency between the data from the ultrasound and DXA could be observed (P < 0.05). This indicated that ultrasound may serve as a feasible alternative for noninvasive monitoring the evolution of scaffolds in situ during cell growth.

Chen, Yan; Yan, Yuting; Li, Xiaoming; Tan, Huiting; Li, Huajun; Zhu, Yanwen; Niemeyer, Philipp; Yaega, Matin; Yu, Bo

2014-01-01

211

In vivo fluence rate measurements during Foscan-mediated photodynamic therapy of persistent and recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinomas using a dedicated light applicator.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a dedicated light applicator for light delivery and fluence rate monitoring during Foscan-mediated photodynamic therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a clinical phase I/II study. We have developed a flexible silicone applicator that can be inserted through the mouth and fixed in the nasopharyngeal cavity. Three isotropic fibers, for measuring of the fluence (rate) during therapy, were located within the nasopharyngeal tumor target area and one was manually positioned to monitor structures at risk in the shielded area. A flexible black silicon patch tailored to the patient's anatomy is attached to the applicator to shield the soft palate and oral cavity from the 652-nm laser light. Fourteen patients were included in the study, resulting in 26 fluence rate measurements in the risk volume (two failures). We observed a systematic reduction in fluence rate during therapy in 20 out of 26 illuminations, which may be related to photodynamic therapy-induced increased blood content, decreased oxygenation, or reduced scattering. Our findings demonstrate that the applicator was easily inserted into the nasopharynx. The average light distribution in the target area was reasonably uniform over the length of the applicator, thus giving an acceptably homogeneous illumination throughout the cavity. Shielding of the risk area was adequate. Large interpatient variations in fluence rate stress the need for in vivo dosimetry. This enables corrections to be made for differences in optical properties and geometry resulting in comparable amounts of light available for Foscan absorption. PMID:16965135

van Veen, R L P; Nyst, H; Rai Indrasari, S; Adham Yudharto, M; Robinson, D J; Tan, I B; Meewis, C; Peters, R; Spaniol, S; Stewart, F A; Levendag, P C; Sterenborg, H J C M

2006-01-01

212

Feasibility Study of Glass Dosimeter for In Vivo Measurement: Dosimetric Characterization and Clinical Application in Proton Beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the suitability of the GD-301 glass dosimeter for in vivo dose verification in proton therapy. Methods and Materials: The glass dosimeter was analyzed for its dosimetrics characteristic in proton beam. Dosimeters were calibrated in a water phantom using a stairlike holder specially designed for this study. To determine the accuracy of the glass dosimeter in proton dose measurements, we compared the glass dosimeter and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) dose measurements using a cylindrical phantom. We investigated the feasibility of the glass dosimeter for the measurement of dose distributions near the superficial region for proton therapy plans with a varying separation between the target volume and the surface of 6 patients. Results and Discussion: Uniformity was within 1.5%. The dose-response has good linearity. Dose-rate, fading, and energy dependence were found to be within 3%. The beam profile measured using the glass dosimeter was in good agreement with the profile obtained from the ionization chamber. Depth-dose distributions in nonmodulated and modulated proton beams obtained with the glass dosimeter were estimated to be within 3%, which was lower than those with the ionization chamber. In the phantom study, the difference of isocenter dose between the delivery dose calculated by the treatment planning system and that measured by the glass dosimeter was within 5%. With in vivo dosimetry, the calculated surface doses overestimated measurements by 4%-16% using glass dosimeter and TLD. Conclusion: It is recommended that bolus be added for these clinical cases. We also believe that the glass dosimeter has considerable potential for use with in vivo patient proton dosimetry.

Rah, Jeong-Eun; Oh, Do Hoon; Kim, Jong Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Hyun; Suh, Tae-Suk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Young Hoon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Kim, Dae Yong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Yong, E-mail: Sung.Park@mclaren.org [Proton Therapy Center, McLaren Cancer Institute, Flint, Michigan (United States)

2012-10-01

213

Near-infrared emission Ba3(PO4)2:Mn5+ phosphor and potential application in vivo fluorescence imaging.  

PubMed

Fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1350 nm) is attracting attention due to negligible tissue scattering and lower tissue autofluorescence, etc. Here, Ba3(PO4)2:Mn(5+) phosphor is prepared via solid state reaction method in air, and NIR emission band peaking at ?1191 nm in the NIR-II region is observed. According to experiment results, Ba3(PO4)2:Mn(5+) phosphor has a great potential for the study of the NIR-II fluorescence imaging in vivo. PMID:24691378

Cao, Renping; Yu, Xiaoguang; Sun, Xinyuan; Cao, Chunyan; Qiu, Jianrong

2014-07-15

214

Application of wide-field optical coherence tomography to monitoring of viability of rat brain in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the feasibility of OCT in monitoring the viability of the brain. It was confirmed that after an overdose of pentobarbital sodium salt for an euthanasia, the OCT signal intensity increased before cardiac arrest and finally became 2.7 times, and by periodically changing the tissue temperature from 20 to 32 °C in vivo, average correlation coefficients between the ratio of signal intensity (RSI) and temperature were determined to be -0:42 to -0:50. RSI reversibly changed with subsequent variations of temperatures and finally increased rapidly just before cardiac arrest. These results indicate that RSI could correspond to decreases in viability.

Sato, Manabu; Nishidate, Izumi

2014-05-01

215

Near-infrared emission Ba3(PO4)2:Mn5+ phosphor and potential application in vivo fluorescence imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1350 nm) is attracting attention due to negligible tissue scattering and lower tissue autofluorescence, etc. Here, Ba3(PO4)2:Mn5+ phosphor is prepared via solid state reaction method in air, and NIR emission band peaking at ?1191 nm in the NIR-II region is observed. According to experiment results, Ba3(PO4)2:Mn5+ phosphor has a great potential for the study of the NIR-II fluorescence imaging in vivo.

Cao, RenPing; Yu, Xiaoguang; Sun, Xinyuan; Cao, Chunyan; Qiu, JianRong

2014-07-01

216

Application of perfusion culture system improves in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis of bone marrow-derived osteoblastic cells in porous ceramic materials.  

PubMed

Composites of bone marrow-derived osteoblasts (BMOs) and porous ceramics have been widely used as a bone graft model for bone tissue engineering. Perfusion culture has potential utility for many cell types in three-dimensional (3D) culture. Our hypothesis was that perfusion of medium would increase the cell viability and biosynthetic activity of BMOs in porous ceramic materials, which would be revealed by increased levels of alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OCN) and enhanced bone formation in vivo. For testing in vitro, BMO/beta-tricalcium phosphate composites were cultured in a perfusion container (Minucells and Minutissue, Bad Abbach, Germany) with fresh medium delivered at a rate of 2 mL/h by a peristaltic pump. The ALP activity and OCN content of composites were measured at the end of 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of subculture. For testing in vivo, after subculturing for 2 weeks, the composites were subcutaneously implanted into syngeneic rats. These implants were harvested 4 or 8 weeks later. The samples then underwent a biochemical analysis of ALP activity and OCN content and were observed by light microscopy. The levels of ALP activity and OCN in the composites were significantly higher in the perfusion group than in the control group (p < 0.01), both in vitro and in vivo. Histomorphometric analysis of the hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections revealed a higher average ratio of bone to pore in BMO/beta-TCP composites of the perfusion group after implantation: 47.64 +/- 6.16 for the perfusion group and 26.22 +/- 4.84 for control at 4 weeks (n = 6, p < 0.01); 67.97 +/- 3.58 for the perfusion group and 47.39 +/- 4.10 for control at 8 weeks (n = 6, p < 0.05). These results show that the application of a perfusion culture system during the subculture of BMOs in a porous ceramic scaffold is beneficial to their osteogenesis. After differentiation culture in vitro with the perfusion culture system, the activity of the osteoblastic cells and the consequent bone formation in vivo were significantly enhanced. These results suggest that the perfusion culture system is a valuable and convenient tool for applications in tissue engineering, especially in the generation of artificial bone tissue. PMID:14670108

Wang, Yichao; Uemura, Toshimasa; Dong, Jian; Kojima, Hiroko; Tanaka, Junzo; Tateishi, Tetsuya

2003-12-01

217

Continuous interleukin-6 application in vivo via macroencapsulation of interleukin-6-expressing COS-7 cells induces massive gliosis.  

PubMed

The inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) was found in senile plaques of Alzheimer's patients and might be involved in the pathology of Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. Interestingly, an astocytosis is also found in these neurodegenerative disorders. To evaluate the direct effects of IL-6 in vivo on glial cells, we created a new in vivo model. IL-6 and mock-transfected (control group) COS-7 cells were encapsulated in a poly-acryl-nitril membrane for implantation into the rat striatum. Afterward, the host immune reaction to the membrane without encapsulated cells and the biological action of IL-6-producing capsules was evaluated. Animals with an implanted membrane without cells showed a moderate astrocytosis 5 days after the operation. Furthermore, microglia and T-cells could be detected and after 30 days the astrocytosis decreased to a small layer around the membrane. In comparison to the control group, which received a sham operation, our results demonstrate that the response of glial cells is caused by the mechanical damage of the surgical procedure itself rather than due to the introduced membrane material. In contrast, we found a massive proliferation and activation of astrocytes and microglia after 10 days by IL-6-secreting capsules, indicating that IL-6 is involved in the induction of gliosis. Control animals that received encapsulated mock-transfected COS-7 cells showed only a weak response. These data point to an involvement of IL-6 in the proliferation and activation of glial cells as seen in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:11494414

Tilgner, J; Volk, B; Kaltschmidt, C

2001-09-01

218

Application of the critical angle method to refractive index measurement of human skin in vivo under partial contact.  

PubMed

We adapted the critical angle method for measuring rough surfaces under partial contact to acquire an in vivo skin refractive index (RI). Assuming that the total reflection is the simple sum of reflection from areas that are in contact and reflection from those that are not in contact, the RI can be estimated even for partial contact with a rough surface. We found that cheek skin is sufficiently soft that a sufficiently large area can be in contact and that the critical angle was detectable. The RIs of the cheeks of adult females were measured. The RI range was about 1.51 to 1.53, at a wavelength of 550 nm, without considering systematic errors. The RIs of cheeks are significantly correlated with their conductance, which corresponds to their water content. We determined the relationship between the RI and conductance within the variation of skin under normal conditions; this relationship was theoretically obtained in previous studies. In the present study, a direct in vivo measurement method was developed that enabled us to measure the RI in daily life, although this method contains errors for several reasons, including disregarding absorption. PMID:23455964

Yoshida, Kenichiro; Ohkubo, Kohji; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Iwata, Kayoko

2013-03-01

219

Photophysics and ex vivo biodistribution of ?-cyclodextrin-meso-tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin conjugate for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Low aqueous solubility of porphyrin-based photosensitizers hampers their clinical use in photodynamic therapy because of complex delivery. In this study, we explore meso-tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)-21,23H-porphyrin (mTHPP), a potent photosensitizer, covalently attached to ?-cyclodextrin (CD-mTHPP) with a focus on topical delivery and cellular uptake. The photophysical properties of CD-mTHPP were examined using steady-state fluorescence and lifetime measurements verifying increased aqueous solubility. Confocal and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy on human squamous carcinoma cells (A431) evidenced a cytoplasmic uptake of CD-mTHPP in predominantly monomeric form. CD-mTHPP was also delivered to human skin ex vivo and the skin penetration was assessed using two-photon fluorescence microscopy. The results indicated that CD-mTHPP exhibits improved skin distribution compared to mTHPP alone using aqueous vehicles. Thus the CD-mTHPP conjugate demonstrates improved biodistribution ex vivo compared to mTHPP and is a promising multimodal system for photodynamic therapy. PMID:24943653

Kirejev, V; Gonçalves, A R; Aggelidou, C; Manet, I; Mårtensson, J; Yannakopoulou, K; Ericson, M B

2014-07-16

220

Application of the critical angle method to refractive index measurement of human skin in vivo under partial contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We adapted the critical angle method for measuring rough surfaces under partial contact to acquire an in vivo skin refractive index (RI). Assuming that the total reflection is the simple sum of reflection from areas that are in contact and reflection from those that are not in contact, the RI can be estimated even for partial contact with a rough surface. We found that cheek skin is sufficiently soft that a sufficiently large area can be in contact and that the critical angle was detectable. The RIs of the cheeks of adult females were measured. The RI range was about 1.51 to 1.53, at a wavelength of 550 nm, without considering systematic errors. The RIs of cheeks are significantly correlated with their conductance, which corresponds to their water content. We determined the relationship between the RI and conductance within the variation of skin under normal conditions; this relationship was theoretically obtained in previous studies. In the present study, a direct in vivo measurement method was developed that enabled us to measure the RI in daily life, although this method contains errors for several reasons, including disregarding absorption.

Yoshida, Kenichiro; Ohkubo, Kohji; Ojima, Nobutoshi; Iwata, Kayoko

2013-03-01

221

A hybrid method of application of independent component analysis to in vivo 1H MR spectra of childhood brain tumours.  

PubMed

Independent component analysis (ICA) can automatically extract individual metabolite, macromolecular and lipid (MMLip) components from a series of in vivo MR spectra. The traditional feature extraction (FE)-based ICA approach is limited, in that a large sample size is required and a combination of metabolite and MMLip components can appear in the same independent component. The alternative ICA approach, based on blind source separation (BSS), is weak when dealing with overlapping peaks. Combining the advantages of both BSS and FE methods may lead to better results. Thus, we propose an ICA approach involving a hybrid of the BSS and FE techniques for the automated decomposition of a series of MR spectra. Experiments were performed on synthesised and patient in vivo childhood brain tumour MR spectra datasets. The hybrid ICA method showed an improvement in the decomposition ability compared with BSS-ICA or FE-ICA, with an increased correlation between the independent components and simulated metabolite and MMLip signals. Furthermore, we were able to automatically extract metabolites from the patient MR spectra dataset that were not in commonly used basis sets (e.g. guanidinoacetate). PMID:21960131

Hao, Jie; Zou, Xin; Wilson, Martin; Davies, Nigel P; Sun, Yu; Peet, Andrew C; Arvanitis, Theodoros N

2012-04-01

222

In vivo application of an optical segment tracking approach for bone loading regimes recording in humans: A reliability study.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates an optical segment tracking (OST) approach for assessing the in vivo bone loading regimes in humans. The relative movement between retro-reflective marker clusters affixed to the tibia cortex by bone screws was tracked and expressed as tibia loading regimes in terms of segment deformation. Stable in vivo fixation of bone screws was tested by assessing the resonance frequency of the screw-marker structure and the relative marker position changes after hopping and jumping. Tibia deformation was recorded during squatting exercises to demonstrate the reliability of the OST approach. Results indicated that the resonance frequencies remain unchanged prior to and after all exercises. The changes of Cardan angle between marker clusters induced by the exercises were rather minor, maximally 0.06°. The reproducibility of the deformation angles during squatting remained small (0.04°/m-0.65°/m). Most importantly, all surgical and testing procedures were well tolerated. The OST method promises to bring more insights of the mechanical loading acting on bone than in the past. PMID:24907129

Yang, Peng-Fei; Sanno, Maximilian; Ganse, Bergita; Koy, Timmo; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Müller, Lars Peter; Rittweger, Jörn

2014-08-01

223

Application of Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Lactate for the In Vivo Investigation of Cardiac Metabolism  

PubMed Central

In addition to cancer imaging, 13C-MRS of hyperpolarized pyruvate also has demonstrated utility for the investigation of cardiac metabolism and ischemic heart disease. Although no adverse effects have yet been reported for doses commonly used in vivo, high substrate concentrations lead to supraphysiological pyruvate levels that can affect the underlying metabolism and have to be taken into account when interpreting the results. With lactate serving as an important energy source for the heart and with physiological lactate levels one to two orders of magnitude higher than for pyruvate, hyperpolarized lactate could potentially be used as an alternative to pyruvate for probing cardiac metabolism. In this study, hyperpolarized [1-13C]lactate was used to acquire time-resolved spectra from the healthy rat heart in vivo and to measure dichloroacetate (DCA)-modulated changes in flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). Both the primary oxidation of lactate to pyruvate and the subsequent conversion of pyruvate to alanine and bicarbonate could reliably be detected. As DCA stimulates the activity of PDH through inhibition of PDH kinase, a more than 2.5-fold increase in bicarbonate-to-substrate ratio was found after administration of DCA similar to the effect when using [1-13C]pyruvate as the substrate.

Mayer, Dirk; Yen, Yi-Fen; Josan, Sonal; Park, Jae Mo; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Hurd, Ralph E.; Spielman, Daniel M.

2012-01-01

224

Carotid artery wall motion analysis from B-mode ultrasound using adaptive block matching: in silico evaluation and in vivo application.  

PubMed

Valid risk stratification for carotid atherosclerotic plaques represents a crucial public health issue toward preventing fatal cerebrovascular events. Although motion analysis (MA) provides useful information about arterial wall dynamics, the identification of motion-based risk markers remains a significant challenge. Considering that the ability of a motion estimator (ME) to handle changes in the appearance of motion targets has a major effect on accuracy in MA, we investigated the potential of adaptive block matching (ABM) MEs, which consider changes in image intensities over time. To assure the validity in MA, we optimized and evaluated the ABM MEs in the context of a specially designed in silico framework. ABM(FIRF2), which takes advantage of the periodicity characterizing the arterial wall motion, was the most effective ABM algorithm, yielding a 47% accuracy increase with respect to the conventional block matching. The in vivo application of ABM(FIRF2) revealed five potential risk markers: low movement amplitude of the normal part of the wall adjacent to the plaques in the radial (RMA(PWL)) and longitudinal (LMA(PWL)) directions, high radial motion amplitude of the plaque top surface (RMA(PTS)), and high relative movement, expressed in terms of radial strain (RSI(PL)) and longitudinal shear strain (LSSI(PL)), between plaque top and bottom surfaces. The in vivo results were reproduced by OF(LK(WLS)) and ABM(KF-K2), MEs previously proposed by the authors and with remarkable in silico performances, thereby reinforcing the clinical values of the markers and the potential of those MEs. Future in vivo studies will elucidate with confidence the full potential of the markers. PMID:24256708

Gastounioti, A; Golemati, S; Stoitsis, J S; Nikita, K S

2013-12-21

225

Carotid artery wall motion analysis from B-mode ultrasound using adaptive block matching: in silico evaluation and in vivo application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Valid risk stratification for carotid atherosclerotic plaques represents a crucial public health issue toward preventing fatal cerebrovascular events. Although motion analysis (MA) provides useful information about arterial wall dynamics, the identification of motion-based risk markers remains a significant challenge. Considering that the ability of a motion estimator (ME) to handle changes in the appearance of motion targets has a major effect on accuracy in MA, we investigated the potential of adaptive block matching (ABM) MEs, which consider changes in image intensities over time. To assure the validity in MA, we optimized and evaluated the ABM MEs in the context of a specially designed in silico framework. ABMFIRF2, which takes advantage of the periodicity characterizing the arterial wall motion, was the most effective ABM algorithm, yielding a 47% accuracy increase with respect to the conventional block matching. The in vivo application of ABMFIRF2 revealed five potential risk markers: low movement amplitude of the normal part of the wall adjacent to the plaques in the radial (RMAPWL) and longitudinal (LMAPWL) directions, high radial motion amplitude of the plaque top surface (RMAPTS), and high relative movement, expressed in terms of radial strain (RSIPL) and longitudinal shear strain (LSSIPL), between plaque top and bottom surfaces. The in vivo results were reproduced by OFLK(WLS) and ABMKF-K2, MEs previously proposed by the authors and with remarkable in silico performances, thereby reinforcing the clinical values of the markers and the potential of those MEs. Future in vivo studies will elucidate with confidence the full potential of the markers.

Gastounioti, A.; Golemati, S.; Stoitsis, J. S.; Nikita, K. S.

2013-12-01

226

In Vivo Noninvasive Analysis of Human Forearm Muscle Function and Fatigue: Applications to EVA Operations and Training Maneuvers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forearm muscle fatigue is one of the major limiting factors affecting endurance during performance of deep-space extravehicular activity (EVA) by crew members. Magnetic resonance (MR) provides in vivo noninvasive analysis of tissue level metabolism and fluid exchange dynamics in exercised forearm muscles through the monitoring of proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-31-MRS) parameter variations. Using a space glove box and EVA simulation protocols, we conducted a preliminary MRS/MRI study in a small group of human test subjects during submaximal exercise and recovery and following exhaustive exercise. In assessing simulated EVA-related muscle fatigue and function, this pilot study revealed substantial changes in the MR image longitudinal relaxation times (T2) as an indicator of specific muscle activation and proton flux as well as changes in spectral phosphocreatine-to-phosphate (PCr/Pi) levels as a function of tissue bioenergetic potential.

Fotedar, L. K.; Marshburn, T.; Quast, M. J.; Feeback, D. L.

1999-01-01

227

Folic acid-functionalized up-conversion nanoparticles: toxicity studies in vivo and in vitro and targeted imaging applications.  

PubMed

Folate receptors (FRs) are overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells and tissues, including cancers of the breast, ovaries, endometrium, and brain. This over-expression of FRs can be used to target folate-linked imaging specifically to FR-expressing tumors. Fluorescence is emerging as a powerful new modality for molecular imaging in both the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Combining innovative molecular biology and chemistry, we prepared three kinds of folate-targeted up-conversion nanoparticles as imaging agents (UCNC-FA: UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm-FA, and UCNC-Er,Tm-FA). In vivo and in vitro toxicity studies showed that these nanoparticles have both good biocompatibility and low toxicity. Moreover, the up-conversion luminescence imaging indicated that they have good targeting to HeLa cells and can therefore serve as potential fluorescent contrast agents. PMID:24961224

Sun, Lining; Wei, Zuwu; Chen, Haige; Liu, Jinliang; Guo, Jianjian; Cao, Ming; Wen, Tieqiao; Shi, Liyi

2014-07-10

228

Non-contact respiration monitoring for in-vivo murine micro computed tomography: characterization and imaging applications  

PubMed Central

A cone beam micro-CT has previously been utilized along with a pressure-tracking respiration sensor to acquire prospectively gated images of both wild-type mice and various adult murine disease models. While the pressure applied to the abdomen of the subject by this sensor is small and is generally without physiological effect, certain disease models of interest, as well as very young animals, are prone to atelectasis with added pressure, or they generate too weak of a respiration signal with this method to achieve optimal prospective gating. In this work we present a new fiber-optic displacement sensor which monitors respiratory motion of a subject without requiring physical contact. The sensor outputs an analog signal which can be used for prospective respiration gating in micro-CT imaging. The device was characterized and compared against a pneumatic air chamber pressure sensor for the imaging of adult wild-type mice. The resulting images were found to be of similar quality with respect to physiological motion blur; the quality of the respiration signal trace obtained using the non-contact sensor was comparable to that of the pressure sensor and was superior for gating purposes due to its better signal-to-noise ratio. The non-contact sensor was then used to acquire in-vivo micro-CT images of a murine model for congenital diaphragmatic hernia and of 11-day-old mouse pups. In both cases, quality CT images were successfully acquired using this new respiration sensor. Despite the presence of beam hardening artifact arising from the presence of a fiber-optic cable in the imaging field, we believe this new technique for respiration monitoring and gating presents an opportunity for in-vivo imaging of disease models which were previously considered too delicate for established animal handling methods.

Burk, Laurel M; Lee, Yueh Z; Wait, J Matthew; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto Z

2012-01-01

229

Non-contact respiration monitoring for in-vivo murine micro computed tomography: characterization and imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cone beam micro-CT has previously been utilized along with a pressure-tracking respiration sensor to acquire prospectively gated images of both wild-type mice and various adult murine disease models. While the pressure applied to the abdomen of the subject by this sensor is small and is generally without physiological effect, certain disease models of interest, as well as very young animals, are prone to atelectasis with added pressure, or they generate too weak a respiration signal with this method to achieve optimal prospective gating. In this work we present a new fibre-optic displacement sensor which monitors respiratory motion of a subject without requiring physical contact. The sensor outputs an analogue signal which can be used for prospective respiration gating in micro-CT imaging. The device was characterized and compared against a pneumatic air chamber pressure sensor for the imaging of adult wild-type mice. The resulting images were found to be of similar quality with respect to physiological motion blur; the quality of the respiration signal trace obtained using the non-contact sensor was comparable to that of the pressure sensor and was superior for gating purposes due to its better signal-to-noise ratio. The non-contact sensor was then used to acquire in-vivo micro-CT images of a murine model for congenital diaphragmatic hernia and of 11-day-old mouse pups. In both cases, quality CT images were successfully acquired using this new respiration sensor. Despite the presence of beam hardening artefacts arising from the presence of a fibre-optic cable in the imaging field, we believe this new technique for respiration monitoring and gating presents an opportunity for in-vivo imaging of disease models which were previously considered too delicate for established animal handling methods.

Burk, Laurel M.; Lee, Yueh Z.; Wait, J. Matthew; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto Z.

2012-09-01

230

Measured and Modeled Toxicokinetics in Cultured Fish Cells and Application to In Vitro - In Vivo Toxicity Extrapolation  

PubMed Central

Effect concentrations in the toxicity assessment of chemicals with fish and fish cells are generally based on external exposure concentrations. External concentrations as dose metrics, may, however, hamper interpretation and extrapolation of toxicological effects because it is the internal concentration that gives rise to the biological effective dose. Thus, we need to understand the relationship between the external and internal concentrations of chemicals. The objectives of this study were to: (i) elucidate the time-course of the concentration of chemicals with a wide range of physicochemical properties in the compartments of an in vitro test system, (ii) derive a predictive model for toxicokinetics in the in vitro test system, (iii) test the hypothesis that internal effect concentrations in fish (in vivo) and fish cell lines (in vitro) correlate, and (iv) develop a quantitative in vitro to in vivo toxicity extrapolation method for fish acute toxicity. To achieve these goals, time-dependent amounts of organic chemicals were measured in medium, cells (RTgill-W1) and the plastic of exposure wells. Then, the relation between uptake, elimination rate constants, and log KOW was investigated for cells in order to develop a toxicokinetic model. This model was used to predict internal effect concentrations in cells, which were compared with internal effect concentrations in fish gills predicted by a Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic model. Our model could predict concentrations of non-volatile organic chemicals with log KOW between 0.5 and 7 in cells. The correlation of the log ratio of internal effect concentrations in fish gills and the fish gill cell line with the log KOW was significant (r>0.85, p?=?0.0008, F-test). This ratio can be predicted from the log KOW of the chemical (77% of variance explained), comprising a promising model to predict lethal effects on fish based on in vitro data.

Stadnicka-Michalak, Julita; Tanneberger, Katrin; Schirmer, Kristin; Ashauer, Roman

2014-01-01

231

Measured and modeled toxicokinetics in cultured fish cells and application to in vitro-in vivo toxicity extrapolation.  

PubMed

Effect concentrations in the toxicity assessment of chemicals with fish and fish cells are generally based on external exposure concentrations. External concentrations as dose metrics, may, however, hamper interpretation and extrapolation of toxicological effects because it is the internal concentration that gives rise to the biological effective dose. Thus, we need to understand the relationship between the external and internal concentrations of chemicals. The objectives of this study were to: (i) elucidate the time-course of the concentration of chemicals with a wide range of physicochemical properties in the compartments of an in vitro test system, (ii) derive a predictive model for toxicokinetics in the in vitro test system, (iii) test the hypothesis that internal effect concentrations in fish (in vivo) and fish cell lines (in vitro) correlate, and (iv) develop a quantitative in vitro to in vivo toxicity extrapolation method for fish acute toxicity. To achieve these goals, time-dependent amounts of organic chemicals were measured in medium, cells (RTgill-W1) and the plastic of exposure wells. Then, the relation between uptake, elimination rate constants, and log KOW was investigated for cells in order to develop a toxicokinetic model. This model was used to predict internal effect concentrations in cells, which were compared with internal effect concentrations in fish gills predicted by a Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic model. Our model could predict concentrations of non-volatile organic chemicals with log KOW between 0.5 and 7 in cells. The correlation of the log ratio of internal effect concentrations in fish gills and the fish gill cell line with the log KOW was significant (r>0.85, p?=?0.0008, F-test). This ratio can be predicted from the log KOW of the chemical (77% of variance explained), comprising a promising model to predict lethal effects on fish based on in vitro data. PMID:24647349

Stadnicka-Michalak, Julita; Tanneberger, Katrin; Schirmer, Kristin; Ashauer, Roman

2014-01-01

232

Application of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Assess Propofol Hepatic and Renal Glucuronidation in Isolation: Utility of In Vitro and In Vivo Data  

PubMed Central

A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approach was used to assess the prediction accuracy of propofol hepatic and extrahepatic metabolic clearance and to address previously reported underprediction of in vivo clearance based on static in vitro–in vivo extrapolation methods. The predictive capacity of propofol intrinsic clearance data (CLint) obtained in human hepatocytes and liver and kidney microsomes was assessed using the PBPK model developed in MATLAB software. Microsomal data obtained by both substrate depletion and metabolite formation methods and in the presence of 2% bovine serum albumin were considered in the analysis. Incorporation of hepatic and renal in vitro metabolic clearance in the PBPK model resulted in underprediction of propofol clearance regardless of the source of in vitro data; the predicted value did not exceed 35% of the observed clearance. Subsequently, propofol clinical data from three dose levels in intact patients and anhepatic subjects were used for the optimization of hepatic and renal CLint in a simultaneous fitting routine. Optimization process highlighted that renal glucuronidation clearance was underpredicted to a greater extent than liver clearance, requiring empirical scaling factors of 17 and 9, respectively. The use of optimized clearance parameters predicted hepatic and renal extraction ratios within 20% of the observed values, reported in an additional independent clinical study. This study highlights the complexity involved in assessing the contribution of extrahepatic clearance mechanisms and illustrates the application of PBPK modeling, in conjunction with clinical data, to assess prediction of clearance from in vitro data for each tissue individually.

Gill, Katherine L.; Gertz, Michael; Houston, J. Brian

2013-01-01

233

In vivo application of ( sup 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe sup 1 )-octreotide for detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in rats  

SciTech Connect

In this study the authors investigated its in vivo application in the visualization of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in rats. The distribution of the radiopharmaceutical was investigated after intravenous injection in normal rats and in rats bearing the somatostatin receptor-positive rat pancreatic carcinoma CA 20948. Ex vivo autoradiographic studies showed that specific accumulation of radioactivity occurred in somatostatin receptor-containing tissue (anterior pituitary gland). However, in contrast to the adrenals and pituitary, the tracer accumulation in the kidneys was not mediated by somatostatin receptors. Increasing radioactivity over the somatostatin receptor-positive tumors was measured rapidly after injection and the tumors were clearly visualized by gamma camera scintigraphy. In rats pretreated with 1 mg octreotide accumulation of ({sup 111}In-DPTA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide in the tumors was prevented. Because of its relatively long effective half-life, ({sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1})-octreotide is a radionuclide-coupled somatostatin analogue which can be used to visualize somatostatin receptor-bearing tumors efficiently after 24 hr, when interfering background radioactivity is minimized by renal clearance.

Bakker, W.H.; Krenning, E.P.; Reubi, J.C.; Breeman, W.A.P.; Setyono-Han, B.; de Jong, M.; Kooij, P.P.M.; Bruns, C.; van Hagen, P.M.; Marbach, P.; Visser, T.J.; Pless, J.; Lamberts, S.W.J. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands) Sandoz Research Inst., Berne (Switzerland) Dr. Daniel den Hoed Cancer Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands) Sandoz Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland))

1991-01-01

234

Photoacoustic flow cytometry: principle and application for real-time detection of circulating single nanoparticles, pathogens, and contrast dyes in vivo.  

PubMed

The goal of this work is to develop in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) for time-resolved detection of circulating absorbing objects, either without labeling or with nanoparticles as PA labels. This study represents the first attempt, to our knowledge, to demonstrate the capability of PAFC with tunable near-infrared (NIR) pulse lasers for real-time monitoring of gold nanorods, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli labeled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and contrast dye Lymphazurin in the microvessels of mouse and rat ears and mesenteries. PAFC shows the unprecedented threshold sensitivity in vivo as one gold nanoparticle in the irradiated volume and as one bacterium in the background of 10(8) of normal blood cells. The CNTs are demonstrated to serve as excellent new NIR high-PA contrast agents. Fast Lymphazurin diffusion in live tissue is observed with rapid blue coloring of a whole animal body. The enhancement of the thermal and acoustic effects is obtained with clustered, multilayer, and exploded nanoparticles. This novel combination of PA microscopy/spectroscopy and flow cytometry may be considered as a new powerful tool in biological research with the potential of quick translation to humans, providing ultrasensitive diagnostics of pathogens (e.g., bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, parasites, helminthes), metastatic, infected, inflamed, stem, and dendritic cells, and pharmacokinetics of drug, liposomes, and nanoparticles in deep vessels (with focused transducers) among other potential applications. PMID:17994867

Zharov, Vladimir P; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Shashkov, Evgeny V; Kim, Jin-Woo; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G; Tuchin, Valery V

2007-01-01

235

An In Vivo Validation of the Application of Acoustic Radiation Force to Enhance the Diagnostic Utility of Molecular Imaging Using 3D Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

For over a decade, the application of acoustic radiation force (ARF) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase ultrasonic molecular imaging (MI) sensitivity in vivo. Presented herein is the first noninvasive in vivo validation of ARF-enhanced MI with an unmodified clinical system. First, an in vitro optical-acoustical setup was used to optimize system parameters and ensure sufficient microbubble translation when exposed to ARF. 3D ARF-enhanced MI was then performed on 7 rat fibrosarcoma tumors using microbubbles targeted to ?v?3 and non-targeted microbubbles. Low-amplitude (< 25 kPa) 3D ARF pulse sequences were tested and compared to passive targeting studies in the same animal. Our results demonstrate that a 78% increase in image intensity from targeted microbubbles can be achieved when using ARF relative to the passive targeting studies. Furthermore, ARF did not significantly increase image contrast when applied to non-targeted agents, suggesting that ARF did not increase non-specific adhesion.

Gessner, Ryan C.; Streeter, Jason E.; Kothadia, Roshni; Feingold, Steven; Dayton, Paul A.

2012-01-01

236

Special conference of the American Association for Cancer Research on molecular imaging in cancer: linking biology, function, and clinical applications in vivo.  

PubMed

The AACR Special Conference on Molecular Imaging in Cancer: Linking Biology, Function, and Clinical Applications In Vivo, was held January 23-27, 2002, at the Contemporary Hotel, Walt Disney World, Orlando, FL. Co-Chairs David Piwnica-Worms, Patricia Price and Thomas Meade brought together researchers with diverse expertise in molecular biology, gene therapy, chemistry, engineering, pharmacology, and imaging to accelerate progress in developing and applying technologies for imaging specific cellular and molecular signals in living animals and humans. The format of the conference was the presentation of research that focused on basic and translational biology of cancer and current state-of-the-art techniques for molecular imaging in animal models and humans. This report summarizes the special conference on molecular imaging, highlighting the interfaces of molecular biology with animal models, instrumentation, chemistry, and pharmacology that are essential to convert the dreams and promise of molecular imaging into improved understanding, diagnosis, and management of cancer. PMID:11929844

Luker, Gary D

2002-04-01

237

Determination of steady-state protein breakdown rate in vivo by the disappearance of protein-bound tracer-labeled amino acids: a method applicable in humans  

PubMed Central

A method to determine the rate of protein breakdown in individual proteins was developed and tested in rats and confirmed in humans, using administration of deuterium oxide and incorporation of the deuterium into alanine that was subsequently incorporated into body proteins. Measurement of the fractional breakdown rate of proteins was determined from the rate of disappearance of deuterated alanine from the proteins. The rate of disappearance of deuterated alanine from the proteins was calculated using an exponential decay, giving the fractional breakdown rate (FBR) of the proteins. The applicability of this protein-specific FBR approach is suitable for human in vivo experimentation. The labeling period of deuterium oxide administration is dependent on the turnover rate of the protein of interest.

O'Rourke, Bruce; Ebenstein, David; Toth, Michael J.; Bechshoeft, Rasmus; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Kjaer, Michael; Matthews, Dwight E.

2013-01-01

238

In vitro and in vivo studies on laser-activated gold nanorods for applications in photothermal therapies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review our experimental studies on near infrared laser-activated gold nanoparticles in the direct welding of connective tissues. In particular, we discuss the use of gold nanorods excited by diode laser radiation at 810 nm to mediate functional photothermal effects and weld eye's lens capsules and arteries. The preparation of biopolymeric matrices including gold nanorods is described as well, together with preliminary tests for their application in the closure of wounds in vessels and tendons. Finally we mention future perspectives on the use of these nanoparticles for applications in the therapy of cancer.

Pini, Roberto; Ratto, Fulvio; Matteini, Paolo; Centi, Sonia; Rossi, Francesca

2010-04-01

239

Towards an inhalative in vivo application of immunomodulating gelatin nanoparticles in horse-related preformulation studies.  

PubMed

Delivering active ingredients using biocompatible and biodegradable carriers such as gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) to the lung constitutes a promising non-invasive route of administration. However, the pulmonary delivery of nanoparticle-based immunotherapy is still a field that requires more clarification. In this study, GNPs loaded with cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN)-loaded and plain GNPs were aerosolised either by a conventional pressured metered dose inhaler (pMDI) or by active or passive vibrating-mesh (VM) nebulisers. GNP sizes after nebulisation by active and passive VM nebulisers were 248.2?±?7.34 and 222.3?±?1.42?nm, respectively. GNP concentrations after aerosolisation were found consistent and second-stage particle deposition in an impinger was up to 65.68?±?11.2% of the nebulised dose. VM nebulisers produced high fine particle fractions, while pMDIs did not. Nebulised CpG-ODN-loaded GNPs remained capable to stimulate IL-10 release (225.2?±?56.3?pg/ml) in vitro from equine alveolar lymphocytes. Thus, a novel system for pulmonary GNP-mediated immunotherapy in vivo was established. PMID:22432849

Fuchs, Sebastian; Klier, John; May, Anna; Winter, Gerhard; Coester, Conrad; Gehlen, Heidrun

2012-01-01

240

Automated Segmentation and Object Classification of CT Images: Application to In Vivo Molecular Imaging of Avian Embryos.  

PubMed

Background. Although chick embryogenesis has been studied extensively, there has been growing interest in the investigation of skeletogenesis. In addition to improved poultry health and minimized economic loss, a greater understanding of skeletal abnormalities can also have implications for human medicine. True in vivo studies require noninvasive imaging techniques such as high-resolution microCT. However, the manual analysis of acquired images is both time consuming and subjective. Methods. We have developed a system for automated image segmentation that entails object-based image analysis followed by the classification of the extracted image objects. For image segmentation, a rule set was developed using Definiens image analysis software. The classification engine was implemented using the WEKA machine learning tool. Results. Our system reduces analysis time and observer bias while maintaining high accuracy. Applying the system to the quantification of long bone growth has allowed us to present the first true in ovo data for bone length growth recorded in the same chick embryos. Conclusions. The procedures developed represent an innovative approach for the automated segmentation, classification, quantification, and visualization of microCT images. MicroCT offers the possibility of performing longitudinal studies and thereby provides unique insights into the morpho- and embryogenesis of live chick embryos. PMID:23997760

Heidrich, Alexander; Schmidt, Jana; Zimmermann, Johannes; Saluz, Hans Peter

2013-01-01

241

Silver-nanolipid complex for application to atopic dermatitis skin: rheological characterization, in vivo efficiency and theory of action.  

PubMed

A skin care formulation was developed by incorporating microsilver, in combination with nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) into an o/w cream and lotion. To increase skin adhesion of the NLC, and subsequent film formation and occlusion onto the skin, the NLC were produced with a size of about 200 nm. Production of NLC was performed by high-pressure homogenisation. Characterization was performed regarding size and charge (zeta potential), and for the cream and lotion also by rheology. Incorporation of NLC and/or microsilver into the cream or lotion led to pronounced changes in the thixotropic behaviour (shape of rheogram, yield point, viscosity). This was explained by specific interaction of the nanoparticles and/or the microsilver with the two formulations. In vivo studies revealed a high potential to remove not only symptoms of irritated sensitive skin, but also of light to medium atopic dermatitis. Based on zeta potential measurements, a silver ion-nanolipid complex seems to form which leads to a higher activity of the antimicrobial silver, e.g., increasing the silver ion concentration on skin and bacterial membranes. The antimicrobial effect in combination with restoration of normal skin condition (repair of stratum corneum lipid film by NLC) is obviously sufficient to replace in many cases medical therapy with glucocorticoids by a biological, natural skin care cosmetic nano formulation. PMID:20055090

Keck, Cornelia M; Schwabe, Kay

2009-08-01

242

Impact of genetic changes to the CRPV genome and their application to the study of pathogenesis in vivo.  

PubMed

The cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV)/rabbit model has been used to study oncogenicity and immunogenicity of different antigens from the papillomavirus genome and has therefore served as a preclinical model for the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines against papillomavirus infections. One unique property of the CRPV model is that infection can be initiated using viral DNA. This property allows for the functional testing of viral mutants in vivo. We have introduced point mutations, insertions and deletions into all of the different coding and non-coding regions of the CRPV genome and have tested their infectivity in this model. We found that the majority of the mutant genomes retained viability and could induce papillomas in domestic rabbits. These data indicated that the CRPV genome is tolerant of many modifications without compromising its ability to initiate skin papillomas. In combination with our recently established HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit model, this plasticity allows us to extend the utility of the CRPV/rabbit model to the screening of HLA-A2.1 restricted epitopes from other human viral and tumor antigens. PMID:17027057

Hu, Jiafen; Cladel, Nancy M; Balogh, Karla; Budgeon, Lynn; Christensen, Neil D

2007-02-20

243

Preparation, characterization, and in vitro testing of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and dextran magnetic microspheres for in vivo applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many research groups are investigating degradable magnetic particles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents and as carriers for magnetic drug guidance. These particles are composite materials with a degradable polymer matrix and iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic properties. The degradable polymer matrix acts to provide colloidal stability and, for drug delivery applications, provides a reservoir for the storage and

Patrick J. Leamy

2003-01-01

244

Clinical Application of In-Room Positron Emission Tomography for In Vivo Treatment Monitoring in Proton Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential of using in-room positron emission tomography (PET) for treatment verification in proton therapy and for deriving suitable PET scan times. Methods and Materials: Nine patients undergoing passive scattering proton therapy underwent scanning immediately after treatment with an in-room PET scanner. The scanner was positioned next to the treatment head after treatment. The Monte Carlo (MC) method was used to reproduce PET activities for each patient. To assess the proton beam range uncertainty, we designed a novel concept in which the measured PET activity surface distal to the target at the end of range was compared with MC predictions. The repositioning of patients for the PET scan took, on average, approximately 2 minutes. The PET images were reconstructed considering varying scan times to test the scan time dependency of the method. Results: The measured PET images show overall good spatial correlations with MC predictions. Some discrepancies could be attributed to uncertainties in the local elemental composition and biological washout. For 8 patients treated with a single field, the average range differences between PET measurements and computed tomography (CT) image-based MC results were <5 mm (<3 mm for 6 of 8 patients) and root-mean-square deviations were 4 to 11 mm with PET-CT image co-registration errors of approximately 2 mm. Our results also show that a short-length PET scan of 5 minutes can yield results similar to those of a 20-minute PET scan. Conclusions: Our first clinical trials in 9 patients using an in-room PET system demonstrated its potential for in vivo treatment monitoring in proton therapy. For a quantitative range prediction with arbitrary shape of target volume, we suggest using the distal PET activity surface.

Min, Chul Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zhu, Xuping [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Winey, Brian A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Grogg, Kira [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Testa, Mauro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); El Fakhri, Georges [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Center for Advanced Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiology Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bortfeld, Thomas R.; Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

2013-05-01

245

Fabrication of precise cylindrical three-dimensional tissue engineering scaffolds for in vitro and in vivo bone engineering applications.  

PubMed

It is sometimes necessary to form highly porous polymeric tissue engineering scaffolds into various shapes and sizes. Ideally, in these cases, the three-dimensional morphology should be maintained to the outer margins of the scaffold so as to provide optimum function. Many biodegradable polymeric scaffolds are soft and delicate, however, and their poor physical strength presents a challenge when cutting these materials into the required shapes. We describe a simple device that can be used quickly and accurately to cut cylindrical shapes from such delicate polymeric scaffold materials, which maintain their morphological features to the margins of the shapes produced. We demonstrate that the device can be used to create scaffolds with reproducible dimensions having an SD in mass of less then 6%. The in vitro utility of scaffolds cut with the device was established through demonstrating bone marrow-derived cell invasion into fibrin-filled scaffolds that fit precisely into the wells of 24-well plates. We also demonstrate the in vivo utility of precise cylindrically shaped scaffolds by observing rapid bone invasion into 2.4-mm diameter scaffolds that have been placed into drill hole defects in the distal femur of young rats. When scaffolds are filled with fibrin before implantation as part of a bone tissue engineering strategy, less blood fills the defect site and the fibrin is gradually remodeled and replaced by bone. The ability to cut precise cylindrical scaffolds in the millimeter size range has allowed for the creation of a new small animal model that may prove useful for screening tissue engineering scaffolds for further study. PMID:12826802

Karp, Jeffrey M; Rzeszutek, Kathy; Shoichet, Molly S; Davies, John E

2003-05-01

246

Development and Application of a Mouse Intestinal Loop Model To Study the In Vivo Action of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin ?  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible for causing the gastrointestinal symptoms of C. perfringens type A food poisoning, the second most commonly identified bacterial food-borne illness in the United States. CPE is produced by sporulating C. perfringens cells in the small intestinal lumen, where it then causes epithelial cell damage and villous blunting that leads to diarrhea and cramping. Those effects are typically self-limiting; however, severe outbreaks of this food poisoning, particularly two occurring in psychiatric institutions, have involved deaths. Since animal models are currently limited for the study of the CPE action, a mouse ligated intestinal loop model was developed. With this model, significant lethality was observed after 2 h in loops receiving an inoculum of 100 or 200 ?g of CPE but not using a 50-?g toxin inoculum. A correlation was noted between the overall intestinal histological damage and lethality in mice. Serum analysis revealed a dose-dependent increase in serum CPE and potassium levels. CPE binding to the liver and kidney was detected, along with elevated levels of potassium in the serum. These data suggest that CPE can be absorbed from the intestine into the circulation, followed by the binding of the toxin to internal organs to induce potassium leakage, which can cause death. Finally, CPE pore complexes similar to those formed in tissue culture cells were detected in the intestine and liver, suggesting that (i) CPE actions are similar in vivo and in vitro and (ii) CPE-induced potassium release into blood may result from CPE pore formation in internal organs such as the liver.

Caserta, Justin A.; Robertson, Susan L.; Saputo, Juliann; Shrestha, Archana; McClane, Bruce A.; Uzal, Francisco A.

2011-01-01

247

Choice of detectors for in vivo elemental analysis by counting natural and neutron-induced gamma rays for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Body fat is measured by detecting C and O in vivo through fast neutron inelastic scattering. A sealed D?T neutron generator is used for the pulsed (4-10 kHz) production of fast neutrons. Carbon and oxygen are detected by counting the 4.44 and 6.13 MeV gamma rays resulting from the inelastic scattering of the fast neutrons from 12C and 16O. Large Bi 4Ge 3O 12 (BGO) crystal detectors (127 × 76 mm) are used for the gamma ray detection during the 10 ?s neutron burst. BGO detectors improved the signal to background ratio for the carbon detection by a factor of six compared to 152 × 152 mm NaI (Tl) detectors. Exposure to scattered neutrons did not affect the gain stability of the BGOs. Thermal neutrons from a moderated 238Pu?Be source are used for the measurement of total body nitrogen (and thus protein). The resulting high energy prompt gamma rays from nitrogen (10.83 MeV) are detected simultaneously with the irradiation. BGO detectors have superior stability operating in an environment of variable neutron exposure and high counting rates. However, the presence of neutrons creates a 10.2 MeV gamma ray peak from 73Ge in the BGO detector which interferes with the nitrogen peak. Whole body gamma ray counters, consisting of NaI(Tl) crystal detectors in a shielded room, are used to measure the natural radioactivity of the body due to 40K. They are also used to measure body Ca, P, Na and Cl, following total body exposure to thermal neutrons.

Kehayias, Joseph J.; Zhuang, Hong; Dowling, Lisa; Ma, Ruimei; Moore, Robert

1994-12-01

248

Application of an amine functionalized biopolymer in the colonic delivery of glycyrrhizin: a design and in vivo efficacy study.  

PubMed

In our current study, a newer amine functionalized guar gum derivative was studied for its efficacy in colonic drug delivery. Glycyrrhizic acid mono-ammonium salt was used as the model drug. Drug-loaded microparticles were formulated by ionic crosslinking using sodium tripolyphosphate. The Scanning Electron Microscopic study revealed spherical particles of sizes from 4.9 ± 3.8 ?m to 6.9 ± 3.9 ?m. The FT-IR studies presented a possible interaction between the drug and the polymer. The drug was encapsulated in amorphous form as observed from the powder X-Ray Diffraction studies. A cumulative drug release study was carried out in simulated gastric, intestinal, and colonic fluids. The cumulative drug release studies presented a burst release followed by a sustained release of the drug in simulated colonic fluid containing rat cecal contents. The drug-polymer ratio was optimised using a 3(2) factorial design by taking the amounts of glycyrrhizic acid (X1) and guar gum alkyl amine (X2) as the independant variables. The percent cumulative drug release at 240 mins (Q240), 720 mins (Q720), and at 1,440 mins (Q1440) were considered as the dependant variables. The efficacy of the optimized formulation was studied in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rat colitis model. The tissue's nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and myeloperoxidase activities were found to be much lower in the microparticle-treated group compared to free drug-treated group. The histology of the colonic tissue from the treated group of animals revealed almost no infiltration of inflammatory cells in the tissue for the microparticle-treated group of animals. The synthesized amine derivative of guar gum was found to be better in vitro with a better in vivo efficacy in the colonic delivery of glycyrrhizic acid monoammonium salt and can be considered as a newer modified biopolymer for colonic drug delivery. PMID:24482776

Kumar De, Amit; Datta, Sriparna; Mukherjee, Arup

2013-12-01

249

Application of an Amine Functionalized Biopolymer in the Colonic Delivery of Glycyrrhizin: A Design and In Vivo Efficacy Study  

PubMed Central

In our current study, a newer amine functionalized guar gum derivative was studied for its efficacy in colonic drug delivery. Glycyrrhizic acid mono-ammonium salt was used as the model drug. Drug-loaded microparticles were formulated by ionic crosslinking using sodium tripolyphosphate. The Scanning Electron Microscopic study revealed spherical particles of sizes from 4.9 ± 3.8 ?m to 6.9 ± 3.9 ?m. The FT-IR studies presented a possible interaction between the drug and the polymer. The drug was encapsulated in amorphous form as observed from the powder X-Ray Diffraction studies. A cumulative drug release study was carried out in simulated gastric, intestinal, and colonic fluids. The cumulative drug release studies presented a burst release followed by a sustained release of the drug in simulated colonic fluid containing rat cecal contents. The drug-polymer ratio was optimised using a 32 factorial design by taking the amounts of glycyrrhizic acid (X1) and guar gum alkyl amine (X2) as the independant variables. The percent cumulative drug release at 240 mins (Q240), 720 mins (Q720), and at 1,440 mins (Q1440) were considered as the dependant variables. The efficacy of the optimized formulation was studied in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced rat colitis model. The tissue’s nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and myeloperoxidase activities were found to be much lower in the microparticle-treated group compared to free drug-treated group. The histology of the colonic tissue from the treated group of animals revealed almost no infiltration of inflammatory cells in the tissue for the microparticle-treated group of animals. The synthesized amine derivative of guar gum was found to be better in vitro with a better in vivo efficacy in the colonic delivery of glycyrrhizic acid monoammonium salt and can be considered as a newer modified biopolymer for colonic drug delivery.

Kumar De, Amit; Datta, Sriparna; Mukherjee, Arup

2013-01-01

250

Temperature monitoring and lesion volume estimation during double-applicator laser-induced thermotherapy in ex vivo swine pancreas: a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Tissue temperature distribution plays a crucial role in the outcome of laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT), a technique employed for neoplasias removal. Since recent studies proposed LITT for pancreatic tumors treatment, assessment of temperature and of its effects around the laser applicator could be useful to define optimal laser settings. The aims of this work are temperature monitoring and measurement of ablated tissue volume in an ex vivo porcine pancreas undergoing double-applicator LITT. A three-dimensional numerical model is implemented to predict temperature rise and volumes of ablated tissue in treated pancreas. Experiments are performed to validate the model, with two modalities: (1) 12-fiber Bragg grating sensors are adopted to monitor the heating and cooling during LITT at several distances from the applicators tip, and (2) 1.5-T MR imaging is used to estimate the ablated volume. Experimental data agree with theoretical ones: at 2 mm from both applicators tips, the maximum temperature increase is approximately 60 °C downward from the tips, while it increases of about 40 °C and 30 °C, respectively, at the level and upward from the tips. This behavior occurs also at other distances, proving that the tissue downward from the tip is mostly heated. Furthermore, the estimated volume with MRI agrees with theoretical one (i.d., 0.91?±?0.09 vs. 0.95 cm(3)). The encouraging results indicate that the model could be a suitable tool to choose the optimal laser settings, in order to control the volume of ablated tissue. PMID:23780709

Saccomandi, Paola; Schena, Emiliano; Giurazza, Francesco; Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Caponero, Michele A; Mortato, Luca; Panzera, Francesco; Cazzato, Roberto L; Grasso, Francesco R; Di Matteo, Francesco M; Silvestri, Sergio; Zobel, Bruno B

2014-03-01

251

Thermal increase in the oral mucosa and in the jawbone during Nd:YAG laser applications. Ex vivo study  

PubMed Central

Objective: Literature reports bactericidal and biostimulant effects for Nd:YAG laser procedures on bone and oral mucosa but the possible overheating can cause damage to anatomical structures. The aim of the study is the evaluation of thermal increase in different levels of oral tissues: mucosa, periosteum and bone during defocused application of Nd:YAG laser at different parameters. Study Design: Superficial thermal evaluation was performed in pig jaws with a thermal camera device; deep thermal evaluation was realized by 4 thermocouples placed at a subperiosteal level and at 1,2 and 4 mm depth in the jaw bone. Laser applications of 1 minute were performed 5 times (with a pause of 1 minute) on a surface of 4 cm2 with a Nd:YAG laser (VSP mode, 320 micrometer fiber, defocused mode) with different parameters. Temperatures were recorded before and after laser applications and after each pause in order to evaluate also the thermal relaxation of tissues. Results: At submucosal level, mean thermal increase was between 1.1°C and 13.2°C, at 1 mm depth between 1.1°C and 8.5°C, at 2 mm depth between 1.1°C and 6.8°C, at 4 mm depth between 1.0°C and 5.3°C. Temperature decrease during the rest time period was variable between 0°C and 2.5°C. Conclusions: Temperatures reached during clinical procedures with parameters reported in the literature in biostimulation protocols (1.25-2 Watts) for the five minutes of application are not dangerous for biological structures. The decrease in temperature during the rest time period is less considerable in the bone in comparison to oral mucosa. Key words:Nd:YAG laser, thermal increase, thermocouple, thermal camera, low level laser therapy.

Vescovi, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo; Rocca, Jean P.; Nammour, Samir

2012-01-01

252

Application of laser-induced autofluorescence spectra detection system in human colorectal cancer in-vivo screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed at applying Laser induced-autofluorescence (LIAF) diagnostics method as an in-vivo screening of colorectal polyplcancer. The spectrum algorithm based on the ratio of autofluorescence intensity was used to identify the diseased tissues from the normal tissues as it was generally performed better than an algorithm based only simply on the intensity of the spectrum. Histopathological biopsy results were compared with the detected AF spectra characteristics for different kinds of polyps. 73 patients had been examined via the LIAF spectroscopy detection system during their colonoscopy screening in Endoscopy Center, Singapore General Hospital. The autofluorescence from the surface of the colorectal tissues under 405 nm laser light excitation was detected using our detecting system. In the experimental investigation two groups of patients were involved. One group was "abnormal" group. There were 25 patients belonging to this group since polyps or carcinoma was found in their colorectal tract during colonoscopy. The histopathology reports confirm the group classification. Total 36 polyps' AF spectra and 9 carcinoma' AF spectra were detected from 25 patients of the abnormal group during their regular endoscopy examination. The intensity ratios RI-680/I-500 and RI-630/I-500 of polyps/cancerous AF spectra and intensity ratios of corresponding normal colorectal AF spectra were calculated. Two critical intensity ratios for separating the AF intensity ratios RI-680/I-500 and RI-630/I-500 of normal and abnormal colorectal tissues were defined as 0.5 and 0.6 respectively. Using the critical intensity ratio values, 48 "normal" group patients' rectums were checked via the LIAF detection system. There were 20 patients (41.7%) whose AF spectra of colorectal tract mucosa belonging to abnormal spectra. However, these 20 patients had not been found under white light via traditional endoscopy. For small diseased area like small plat polyp disease and carcinoma, it was very difficult to identify under white light by endoscopy. However, the LIAF spectra technique and AF intensity ratio algorithm was able to detect these kinds of abnormal area earlier than traditional endoscopy. Using this algorithm, it is able to identify the onset of abnormal tissue growth during real-time clinical endoscope examination.

Chia, Teck Chee; Fu, Sheng; Chia, Yee Hong; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Tang, Choong Leong

2005-09-01

253

The application of micro-CT in monitoring bone alterations in tail-suspended rats in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Osteopenia is a pathological process that affects human skeletal health not only on earth but also in long-time spaceflight. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a nondestructive method for assessing both bone quantity and bone quality. To investigate the characteristics of micro-CT on evaluating the microgravity-induced osteopenia (e.g. early detection time and the sensitive parameters), the bone loss process of tail-suspended rats was monitored by micro-CT in this study. 8-Week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups: tail suspension (TS) and control (CON). Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and microstructure of the femur and tibia were evaluated in vivo by micro-CT at 0, 7, 14, 22 days. Biomechanical properties of the femur and tibia were determined by three-point bending test. The ash weight of bone was also investigated. The results showed that (1) bone loss in the proximal tibia appeared earlier than in the distal femur. (2) On day 7, the percent bone volume (BV/TV) of the tibia 15.44% decreased significantly, and the trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) 30.29% increased significantly in TS group, both of which were detected earlier than other parameters. (3) Biomechanical properties (e.g. femur, -22.4% maximum load and -23.75% Young’s modulus vs. CON) and ash weight of the femur and tibia decreased significantly in the TS group in comparison to CON group. (4) vBMD of the femur and tibia were clearly related to bone ash and dry weight (r = 0.75-0.87, p < 0.05). (5) BV/TV of both femur and tibia were clearly related to maximum load and Young’s modulus (r = 0.66-0.87, p < 0.05). Similarly, trabecular vBMD and BV/TV of the femur and tibia were clearly related to Young’s modulus (r = 0.73-0.89, p < 0.05). These indicated that BV/TV and Tb.Sp were more sensitive than other parameters for evaluating bone loss induced by tail suspension, moreover, trabecular vBMD and other parameters might be used to evaluate bone strength. Therefore, micro-CT is a reliable and sensitive method for predicting unloading-induced bone loss in small animals.

Luan, Hui-Qin; Sun, Lian-Wen; Huang, Yun-Fei; Wang, Ying; McClean, Colin J.; Fan, Yu-Bo

2014-06-01

254

Transcutaneous Application of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Induces Mitochondrial Apoptosis in Human Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria play an essential role in cellular energy metabolism and apoptosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that decreased mitochondrial biogenesis is associated with cancer progression. In mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1?) regulates the activities of multiple nuclear receptors and transcription factors involved in mitochondrial proliferation. Previously, we showed that overexpression of PGC-1? leads to mitochondrial proliferation and induces apoptosis in human malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) cells in vitro. We also demonstrated that transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide (CO2) to rat skeletal muscle induces PGC-1? expression and causes an increase in mitochondrial proliferation. In this study, we utilized a murine model of human MFH to determine the effect of transcutaneous CO2 exposure on PGC-1? expression, mitochondrial proliferation and cellular apoptosis. PGC-1? expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, while mitochondrial proliferation was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and the relative copy number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was assessed by real-time PCR. Immunofluorescence staining and DNA fragmentation assays were used to examine mitochondrial apoptosis. We also evaluated the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis related proteins, such as caspases, cytochorome c and Bax, by immunoblot analysis. We show that transcutaneous application of CO2 induces PGC-1? expression, and increases mitochondrial proliferation and apoptosis of tumor cells, significantly reducing tumor volume. Proteins involved in the mitochondrial apoptotic cascade, including caspase 3 and caspase 9, were elevated in CO2 treated tumors compared to control. We also observed an enrichment of cytochrome c in the cytoplasmic fraction and Bax protein in the mitochondrial fraction of CO2 treated tumors, highlighting the involvement of mitochondria in apoptosis. These data indicate that transcutaneous application of CO2 may represent a novel therapeutic tool in the treatment of human MFH.

Onishi, Yasuo; Kawamoto, Teruya; Ueha, Takeshi; Kishimoto, Kenta; Hara, Hitomi; Fukase, Naomasa; Toda, Mitsunori; Harada, Risa; Minoda, Masaya; Sakai, Yoshitada; Miwa, Masahiko; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Akisue, Toshihiro

2012-01-01

255

Characterization of In Vivo Reporter Systems for Gene Expression and Biosensor Applications Based on luxAB Luciferase Genes  

PubMed Central

Advances in genetic engineering methods have allowed the development of an increasing number of practical and scientific applications for bioluminescence with lux genes cloned from a variety of organisms. Bioluminescence derived from the shortened lux operon (luxAB genes) is a complex process, and applications seem to be proliferating in advance of an understanding of the underlying biochemical processes. In this report, we describe a two-phase kinetic behavior of the light emission which must be properly taken into account in any quantitative measurements of the bioluminescence signal. By using strains of Escherichia coli and Caulobacter crescentus, this behavior was characterized and interpreted in terms of the biochemistry underlying the bacterial luciferase mechanism. We show that the intensity profile of each of the two phases of the luminescence signal is responsive (and exhibits different sensitivities) to the concentration of added decanal and other components of the assay mix, as well as to the order of mixing and incubation times. This study illustrates the importance of appropriate protocol design, and specific recommendations for using the luxAB system as a molecular reporter are presented, along with versatile assay protocols that yield meaningful and reproducible signals.

Blouin, K.; Walker, S. G.; Smit, J.; Turner, R.

1996-01-01

256

Gold-Based Magneto/Optical Nanostructures: Challenges for In Vivo Applications in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy  

PubMed Central

Nanoparticles with gold shell and iron core have unique optical and magnetic properties which can be utilized for simultaneous detection and treatment strategies. Several nanoparticles have been synthesized and shown to mediate a variety of potential applications in biomedicine, including cancer molecular optical and magnetic resonance imaging, controlled drug delivery, and photothermal ablation therapy. However, to be effective, these nanoparticles must be delivered efficiently into their targets. In this review, we will provide an updated summary of the gold-shelled magnetic nanoparticles that have been synthesized, methods for characterization, and their potential for cancer diagnosis and treatment. We will also discuss the biological barriers that need to be overcome for the effective delivery of these nanoparticles. The desired nanoparticle characteristics needed to evade these biological barriers were also explained. Hopefully, this review will help researchers in designing nanoparticles by carefully choosing the optimum size, shape, surface charge, and surface coating.

Melancon, Marites; Lu, Wei; Li, Chun

2009-01-01

257

Application of an immunoaffinity-based preconcentration method for mass spectrometric analysis of the O-chain polysaccharide of Aeromonas salmonicida from in vitro- and in vivo-grown cells.  

PubMed

In this study, application of magnetic beads (Dynabeads) coated with Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide-specific polyclonal antisera to MS-based characterization of bacterial lipopolysaccharides has been evaluated. The results showed that the affinity-based preconcentration strategy resulted in at least a 100-fold increase in the detection of sensitivity, affording direct capillary electrophoresis (CE)-MS analysis of A. salmonicida lipopolysaccharide O-chain polysaccharide from in vitro-cultured cells. Subsequent CE-MS analysis of in vivo-grown cells of A. salmonicida confirmed significant changes in the structure of the lipopolysaccharide O-chain polysaccharide as a result of in vivo cultivation. PMID:19456871

Wang, Zhan; Liu, Xin; Garduño, Elizabeth; Garduño, Rafael A; Li, Jianjun; Altman, Eleonora

2009-06-01

258

Optical imaging in vivo with a focus on paediatric disease: technical progress, current preclinical and clinical applications and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

To obtain information on the occurrence and location of molecular events as well as to track target-specific probes such as antibodies or peptides, drugs or even cells non-invasively over time, optical imaging (OI) technologies are increasingly applied. Although OI strongly contributes to the advances made in preclinical research, it is so far, with the exception of optical coherence tomography (OCT), only very sparingly applied in clinical settings. Nevertheless, as OI technologies evolve and improve continuously and represent relatively inexpensive and harmful methods, their implementation as clinical tools for the assessment of children disease is increasing. This review focuses on the current preclinical and clinical applications as well as on the future potential of OI in the clinical routine. Herein, we summarize the development of different fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging techniques for microscopic and macroscopic visualization of microstructures and biological processes. In addition, we discuss advantages and limitations of optical probes with distinct mechanisms of target-detection as well as of different bioluminescent reporter systems. Particular attention has been given to the use of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes enabling observation of molecular events in deeper tissue.

Napp, Joanna; Mathejczyk, Julia E.

2011-01-01

259

Expanding the Versatility of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles towards Drug Delivery for In-vitro, In-vivo and Clinical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work covered in this thesis focuses on research developments in the mesoporous silica nanoparticle platform as a drug delivery vehicle for containment and controlled release of therapeutic agents to inhibit disease. Mesoporous silica is a very versatile material with a very robust structure that is easily modified both internally and externally to change its physical properties. Once modified, the silica nanoparticies can be loaded with therapeutic agents that can be isolated from interacting with their surroundings until an on command delivery signal is received. In this dissertation, first, application of a noninvasive externally controlled means of activation such as light activation and magnetically based heating have been investigated and achieved. Next, by altering the structure of rotaxanes based on azobenzene, steps towards a self-sealing light activated full rotaxane system have been developed. Then, through the manipulation of the particle structure as well as the internal pore environment of silica particle, the interaction between guest drug molecules and the particles has been better understood towards optimizing drug loading and release efficiency. Finally, surface modification of silica nanoparticles with biomolcules has been achieved and observed to increase the efficacy of the silica nanoparticle system in the cellular environment. A combination of all these areas of research results in the advancement of the mesoporous silica nanoparticle drug delivery system towards utilization within living organisms.

Ferris, Daniel Patrick

260

Application of in vivo microdialysis for studying the efficacy of protective preparations against sulfur mustard penetrating the skin.  

PubMed

Subcutaneous microdialysis was employed for monitoring thiodiglycol (2,2'-thiodiethanol, TDG) levels with the aim of characterizing the transdermal penetration of topically applied liquid sulfur mustard (2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide, SM) in rats. TDG levels, evaluated in 20 min dialysates collected over a 6 h sampling period, were plotted against time after pooling. Linear correlation was identified between the SM dose and the mean areas under the 0-60 min or the whole curve (AUC(0-60) and AUC, respectively) as well as mean peak concentrations (C(max)) in the range of 1.0-3.0 microl applied volume (7.2-21.7 nmol).A commercially available barrier cream, a perfluoropolyether oil and a vaseline based ointment containing zinc oxide were subsequently tested as topical protectants. Each preparation was layered on the skin surface prior to the application of 2.0 microl SM. The evaluation of the efficacy of the preparations was based on obtained AUC(0-60), AUC and C(max) values. A statistical comparison of these parameters with those obtained when 2.0 microl SM was applied without pretreatment indicated that the barrier cream and the perfluoropolyether oil significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the amount of penetrating SM within the sampling period. In addition, the perfluoropolyether oil almost completely prevented the penetration of SM for 20 min. Pretreatment with the ointment did not prove to be an effective countermeasure as its administration resulted in no significant reduction in AUC(0-60), AUC and C(max) values. PMID:17429799

Karvaly, G; Gachályi, A; Furész, J

2008-01-01

261

Resistance after Chronic Application of the HDAC-Inhibitor Valproic Acid Is Associated with Elevated Akt Activation in Renal Cell Carcinoma In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Targeted drugs have significantly improved the therapeutic options for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, resistance often develops, negating the benefit of these agents. In the present study, the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance towards the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) in a RCC in vivo model were investigated. NMRI:nu/nu mice were transplanted with Caki-1 RCC cells and then treated with VPA (200 mg/kg/day). Controls remained untreated. Based on tumor growth dynamics, the mice were divided into “responders” and “non-responders” to VPA. Histone H3 and H4 acetylation and expression of cell signaling and cell cycle regulating proteins in the RCC mouse tumors were evaluated by Western blotting. Tumor growth of VPA responders was significantly diminished, whereas that of VPA non-responders even exceeded control values. Cdk1, 2 and 4 proteins were strongly enhanced in the non-responders. Importantly, Akt expression and activity were massively up-regulated in the tumors of the VPA non-responders. Chronic application (12 weeks) of VPA to Caki-1 cells in vitro evoked a distinct elevation of Akt activity and cancer cells no longer responded with cell growth reduction, compared to the short 2 week treatment. We assume that chronic use of an HDAC-inhibitor is associated with (re)-activation of Akt, which may be involved in resistance development. Consequently, combined blockade of both HDAC and Akt may delay or prevent drug resistance in RCC.

Juengel, Eva; Makarevic, Jasmina; Tsaur, Igor; Bartsch, Georg; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A.

2013-01-01

262

Time-resolved singlet oxygen luminescence detection under photodynamic therapy relevant conditions: comparison of ex vivo application of two photosensitizer formulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Singlet oxygen plays a crucial role in photo-dermatology and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. Its direct observation by measuring the phosphorescence at 1270 nm, however, is still challenging due to the very low emission probability. It is especially challenging for the time-resolved detection of singlet oxygen kinetics in vivo which is of special interest for biomedical applications. Photosensitized generation of singlet oxygen, in pig ear skin as model for human skin, is investigated here. Two photosensitizers (PS) were topically applied to the pig ear skin and examined in a comparative study, which include the amphiphilic pheophorbide-a and the highly hydrophobic perfluoroalkylated zinc phthalocyanine (F64PcZn). Fluorescence microscopy indicates the exclusive accumulation of pheophorbide-a in the stratum corneum, while F64PcZn can also accumulate in deeper layers of the epidermis of the pig ear skin. The kinetics obtained with phosphorescence measurements show the singlet oxygen interaction with the PS microenvironment. Different generation sites of singlet oxygen correlate with the luminescence kinetics. The results show that singlet oxygen luminescence detection can be used as a diagnostic tool, not only for research, but also during treatment. The detection methodology is suitable for the monitoring of chemical quenchers' oxidation as well as O2 saturation at singlet oxygen concentration levels relevant to PDT treatment protocols.

Schlothauer, Jan C.; Hackbarth, Steffen; Jäger, Lutz; Drobniewski, Kai; Patel, Hemantbhai; Gorun, Sergiu M.; Röder, Beate

2012-11-01

263

Mathematical models to describe iontophoretic transport in vitro and in vivo and the effect of current application on the skin barrier.  

PubMed

The architecture and composition of the stratum corneum make it a particularly effective barrier against the topical and transdermal delivery of hydrophilic molecules and ions. As a result, different strategies have been explored in order to expand the range of therapeutic agents that can be administered by this route. Iontophoresis involves the application of a small electric potential to increase transport into and across the skin. Since current flow is preferentially via transport pathways with at least some aqueous character, it is ideal for hydrosoluble molecules containing ionisable groups. Hence, the physicochemical properties that limit partitioning and passive diffusion through the intercellular lipid matrix are beneficial for electrically-assisted delivery. The presence of fixed ionisable groups in the skin (pI 4-4.5) means that application of the electric field results in a convective solvent flow (i.e., electroosmosis) in the direction of ion motion so as to neutralise membrane charge. Hence, under physiological conditions, cation electrotransport is due to both electromigration and electroosmosis-their relative contribution depends on the formulation conditions and the physicochemical properties of the permeant. Different mathematical models have been developed to provide a theoretical framework in order to explain iontophoretic transport kinetics. They usually involve solutions of the Nernst-Planck equation - using either the constant field (Goldman) or electroneutrality (Nernst) approximations - with or without terms for the convective solvent flow component. Investigations have also attempted to elucidate the nature of ion transport pathways and to explain the effect of current application on the electrical properties of the skin-more specifically, the stratum corneum. These studies have led to the development of different equivalent circuit models. These range from simple parallel arrangements of a resistor and a capacitor to the inclusion of the more esoteric "constant phase element"; the latter provides a better mathematical description of the "non-ideal" behaviour of skin impedance. However, in addition to simply providing a "mathematical" fit of the observed data, it is essential to relate these circuit elements to biological structures present in the skin. More recently, attention has also turned to what happens when the permeant crosses the epidermis and reaches the systemic circulation and pharmacokinetic models have been proposed to interpret data from iontophoretic delivery studies in vivo. Here, we provide an overview of mathematical models that have been proposed to describe (i) the effect of current application on the skin and the implications for potential iontophoretic transport pathways, (ii) electrotransport kinetics and (iii) the fate of iontophoretically delivered drugs once they enter the systemic circulation. PMID:22626977

Gratieri, Taís; Kalia, Yogeshvar N

2013-02-01

264

In vitro dentine permeability evaluation of HEMA-based (desensitizing) products using split-chamber model following in vivo application in the dog.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro dentine permeability evaluation of 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-based desensitizing products using split-chamber model following in vivo application in the dogs for three experimental time periods of 1 week, 1 month and 3 months. Buccal enamel of upper and lower canines of nine young dogs was removed and flat dentinal surface was obtained using a water-cooled diamond bur. The dentinal surface divided into four quarters, three experimental and a control. Health-Dent and Gluma Desensitizing agent and Single bond were applied to respective quarters of one tooth, according to manufacturers' instructions. The last quarters were left as control without any applications. For the each experimental period, 10 dentine samples from each group including control were used to measure the hydraulic conductance values. The dentine discs were placed pulp-side down in a split-chamber device in which the plastic spacers containing the rubber 0 rings have a surface area of 1 mm(2) and permeability was measured by fluid filtration. The data were expressed as hydraulic conductance (Lp). Differences in dentine permeability obtained for the desensitizing agents against the control were tested for statistical significance using Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni-adjusted Mann-Whitney U-tests. Differences in permeability in three time periods for each desensitizing agent were analysed using Friedman's anova and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. All desensitizing applications caused decreased Lp values compared with the control Lp value at the end of 1 week. In the 1-month samples, between the Lp values of Single bond and control, no statistical difference was found (P > 0.05). At the end of the 3-month period, the Gluma Desensitizing agent had the lowest the Lp value (P < 0.05). The result of this study is that the topical application of desensitizing agents led to decrease in dentine permeability in the dog model. The Gluma Desensitizing agent provide the more lasting tubule-occluding effect than the other material tested in this model. PMID:15634299

Duran, I; Sengun, A; Yildirim, T; Ozturk, B

2005-01-01

265

Application of model-based methods to characterize exenatide-loaded double-walled microspheres: in vivo release, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model, and in vitro and in vivo correlation.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to characterize exenatide double-walled microspheres (DWMS) using model-based methods. Exenatide DWMS were prepared using oil-in-oil-in-water method, and physicochemical characterization and in vitro release and degradation of DWMS were evaluated. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) were investigated after subcutaneous injection to diabetic rats. Transit compartment model was used to describe the in vivo release of exenatide from DWMS successfully. On the basis of the insulinotropic effects of exenatide and hypoglycemic effects of insulin, PK/PD model was developed and nicely described the concentration-effect relationship of exenatide. Moreover, on the basis of the transit compartment model, a simulation method was applied to predict in vivo release, and in vitro and in vivo correlation was established. In conclusion, DWMS was a promising vehicle for delivery of exenatide, and the proposed PK/PD model allowed a better understanding of the pharmacological properties of exenatide DWMS. Transit compartment model-based modeling and simulation methods provided more options for the description and prediction of the in vivo exenatide release from DWMS. PMID:22753275

Li, Xingang; Li, Liang; Wang, Xipei; Ren, Yupeng; Zhou, Tianyan; Lu, Wei

2012-10-01

266

Human stratum corneum penetration by copper: in vivo study after occlusive and semi-occlusive application of the metal as powder.  

PubMed

Aim of the study was to shed light on the long-standing controversy whether wearing copper bangles benefits patients suffering from inflammatory conditions such as arthritis. Sequential tape stripping was implemented on healthy volunteers to examine the diffusion of copper through human stratum corneum in vivo following application of the metal as powder on the volar forearm for periods of up to 72 h. Exposure sites were stripped 20 times and the strips analyzed for metal content by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy with a detection limit for copper of 0.5 ppb. Untreated skin was stripped in the same fashion, to determine baseline copper levels for comparison with exposure values resulting from exposure in respective volunteers. Under occlusion with exclusion of air, up to 72 h copper values decreased from the superficial to the deeper layers of the stratum corneum with gradients increasing commensurately with occlusion time, characteristic of passive diffusion processes. From the tenth strip on, however, levels reverted to background values. Under semi-occlusion allowing access of air by covering the skin with "breathable" tape, initial copper values lay significantly above baseline values and concentration gradients increased proportionally with occlusion time. At 72 h, from the tenth to the twentieth strip reaching the glistening epidermal layer, copper values continued at constant levels, significantly above baseline values. The results indicate that, in contact with skin, copper will oxidize and may penetrate the stratum corneum after forming an ion pair with skin exudates. The rate of reaction seems to depend on contact time and availability of oxygen. A marked inter-individual difference was observed in baseline values and amounts copper absorbed. PMID:16753248

Hostýnek, Jurij J; Dreher, Frank; Maibach, Howard I

2006-09-01

267

Novel application of the "doubly labeled" water method: measuring CO2 production and the tissue-specific dynamics of lipid and protein in vivo.  

PubMed

The partitioning of whole body carbon flux between fat and lean compartments affects body composition. We hypothesized that it is possible to simultaneously determine whole body carbon (energy) balance and the dynamics of lipids and proteins in specific tissues in vivo. Growing C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet were injected with a bolus of "doubly labeled" water (i.e., (2)H2O and H2(18)O). The rate of CO2 production was determined from the difference between the elimination rates of 2H and 18O from body water. The rates of synthesis and degradation of triglycerides extracted from epididymal fat pads and of proteins extracted from heart muscle were determined by mathematically modeling the 2H labeling of triglyceride-bound glycerol and protein-bound alanine, respectively. We found that mice were in positive carbon balance (approximately 20% retention per day) and accumulated lipid in epididymal fat pads (approximately 9 micromol triglyceride accumulated per day). This is consistent with the fact that mice were studied during a period of growth. Modeling the 2H labeling of triglycerides revealed a substantial rate of lipid breakdown during this anabolic state (equivalent to approximately 25% of the newly synthesized triglyceride). We found equal rates of protein synthesis and breakdown in heart muscle (approximately 10% of the pool per day), consistent with the fact that the heart muscle mass did not change. In total, these findings demonstrate a novel application of the doubly labeled water method. Utilization of this approach, especially in unique rodent models, should facilitate studies aimed at quantifying the efficacy of interventions that modulate whole body carbon balance and lipid flux while in parallel determining their impact on (cardiac) muscle protein turnover. Last, the simplicity of administering doubly labeled water and collecting samples allows this method to be used in virtually any laboratory setting. PMID:16368786

Bederman, Ilya R; Dufner, Danielle A; Alexander, James C; Previs, Stephen F

2006-05-01

268

ITRAQ MASS SPECTROMETRIC PROTEOMIC APPLICATIONS FOR IN VIVO TOXICOLOGY STUDIES OF AMPHIBIAN SPECIES: DATA HANDLING AND INTERPRETATION USING PEPTIDE-TAGGING SOFTWARE  

EPA Science Inventory

This addresses the USEPA's need for a cost effective, non-mammalian screening assay for thyroid axis disrupting chemicals; a multi-endpoint strategy combining molecular and in vivo protocols in an amphibian model is being applied at MED Duluth....

269

A Sensitive Method for Detecting in Vivo Formation of \\/V-Nitrosomorpholine and Its Application to Rats Given Low Doses of Morpholine and Sodium Nitrite1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed to monitor the in vivo formation of W-nitrosomorpholine. A\\/-Nitroso(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine, a major urinary metabolite of A\\/-nitrosomorpholine, was quantified as its methyl ester-trimethylsilyl ether derivative, using gas chromatog- raphy with nitrosamine-specific detection. When the method was applied to rats, the in vivo formation of, or exposure to, as little as 0.6 ut) of \\/V-nitrosomorpholine could be quantified. The

Stephen S. Hecht; J. Bradley Morrison

270

In vivo methods for drug absorption - comparative physiologies, model selection, correlations with in vitro methods (IVIVC), and applications for formulation/API/excipient characterization including food effects.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the current knowledge on anatomy and physiology of the human gastrointestinal tract in comparison with that of common laboratory animals (dog, pig, rat and mouse) with emphasis on in vivo methods for testing and prediction of oral dosage form performance. A wide range of factors and methods are considered in addition, such as imaging methods, perfusion models, models for predicting segmental/regional absorption, in vitro in vivo correlations as well as models to investigate the effects of excipients and the role of food on drug absorption. One goal of the authors was to clearly identify the gaps in today's knowledge in order to stimulate further work on refining the existing in vivo models and demonstrate their usefulness in drug formulation and product performance testing. PMID:24637348

Sjögren, Erik; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Augustijns, Patrick; Becker, Dieter; Bolger, Michael B; Brewster, Marcus; Brouwers, Joachim; Flanagan, Talia; Harwood, Matthew; Heinen, Christian; Holm, René; Juretschke, Hans-Paul; Kubbinga, Marlies; Lindahl, Anders; Lukacova, Viera; Münster, Uwe; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Nguyen, Mai Anh; Peer, Achiel van; Reppas, Christos; Hodjegan, Amin Rostami; Tannergren, Christer; Weitschies, Werner; Wilson, Clive; Zane, Patricia; Lennernäs, Hans; Langguth, Peter

2014-06-16

271

Application of adaptive optics: optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging of microscopic structures in the retina and optic nerve head  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two deformable mirrors (2DM) were used in an adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) system to image in vivo microscopic retinal structures of healthy and diseased retinas. As a result, multiple morphological structures not previously seen in vivo have been visualized. Among those presented are three-dimensional representations of the fovea and optic nerve head (ONH), revealing cellular structures and micro-vasculature. Drusen in macular degeneration and photoreceptor dystrophies are also presented. Different methods for displaying volumetric AO-OCT data to facilitate visualization of certain morphological details are compared.

Zawadzki, Robert J.; Zhang, Yan, II; Jones, Steven M.; Choi, Stacey S.; Cense, Barry; Chen, Diana; Fuller, Alfred R.; Miller, Donald T.; Olivier, Scot S.; Werner, John S.

2007-02-01

272

EPR Spectroscopy of Function In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPR can be used to study free radicals in vivo, environmental and biophysical parameters in cells and tissues, and to report metabolism, physiology, and biochemistry. The authors have attempted to judge which of these types of measurements will be productive for studies in animals and in humans. It is envisioned that a large number of in vivo applications of EPR

Harold M. Swartz; Nadeem Khan

273

APPLICATION OF THE EPR SPIN-TRAPPING TECHNIQUE TO THE DETECTION OF RADICALS PRODUCED IN VIVO DURING INHALATION EXPOSURE OF RATS TO OZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ozone is known to induce lipid peroxidation of lung tissue, although no direct evidence of free radical formation has been reported. e have use the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping technique to search for free radicals produced in vivo by ozone exposure. he spi...

274

Application of the correlation of in vitro dissolution behavior and in vivo plasma concentration profile (IVIVC) for soft-gel capsules--a pointless pursuit?  

PubMed

Plasma concentration profiles of arundic acid ((R)-(-)-2-propyloctanoic acid), an oil-like medicine, administered as soft-gel capsules in human clinical tests were predicted from the dissolution test data of the soft-gel capsules with different storage terms (short- and long-term stored drugs) by applying the in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC). We established two linear-regression IVIVCs, which were characterized by either the in vitro dissolution behaviors against the pH 8.0 dissolution medium or the pH 6.8 dissolution medium containing 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), in this study. Also, the prediction accuracies for the in vivo plasma profiles in humans for these two IVIVCs were compared. Regarding dissolution from the long-term stored capsule in pH 8.0 dissolution medium without surfactant, the prediction accuracies of the in vivo plasma profiles in humans were not satisfactory for the obtained IVIVC. The use of pH 6.8 dissolution medium containing 2% SDS, according to the Japanese guideline, improved the dissolution of the long-term stored capsule. Furthermore, the prediction accuracies for the in vivo plasma profiles in humans for these two IVIVCs were compared. The IVIVC established by the in vitro dissolution data obtained with the dissolution medium containing surfactant more effectively predicted the plasma drug concentration profiles following oral administrations of the soft-gel capsules under both storage conditions. PMID:17978506

Nishimura, Hidekatsu; Hayashi, Chiaki; Aiba, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Ichiro; Miyamoto, Yuji; Nakade, Susumu; Takeda, Kazuhisa; Kurosaki, Yuji

2007-11-01

275

Establishment of an allo-transplantable hamster cholangiocarcinoma cell line and its application for in vivo screening of anti-cancer drugs.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) is a well-known causative agent of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in humans. CCA is very resistant to chemotherapy and is frequently fatal. To understand the pathogenesis of CCA in humans, a rodent model was developed. However, the development of CCA in rodents is time-consuming and the xenograft-transplantation model of human CCA in immunodeficient mice is costly. Therefore, the establishment of an in vivo screening model for O. viverrini-associated CCA treatment was of interest. We developed a hamster CCA cell line, Ham-1, derived from the CCA tissue of O. viverrini-infected and N-nitrosodimethylamine-treated Syrian golden hamsters. Ham-1 has been maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Essential Medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum for more than 30 subcultures. These cells are mostly diploid (2n=44) with some being polyploid. Tumorigenic properties of Ham-1 were demonstrated by allograft transplantation in hamsters. The transplanted tissues were highly proliferative and exhibited a glandular-like structure retaining a bile duct marker, cytokeratin 19. The usefulness of this for in vivo model was demonstrated by berberine treatment, a traditional medicine that is active against various cancers. Growth inhibitory effects of berberine, mainly by an induction of G1 cell cycle arrest, were observed in vitro and in vivo. In summary, we developed the allo-transplantable hamster CCA cell line, which can be used for chemotherapeutic drug testing in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24516278

Puthdee, Nattapong; Vaeteewoottacharn, Kulthida; Seubwai, Wunchana; Wonkchalee, Orasa; Kaewkong, Worasak; Juasook, Amornrat; Pinlaor, Somchai; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Okada, Seiji; Boonmars, Thidarut; Wongkham, Sopit

2013-12-01

276

HIF1 and oxygen sensing in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all the chemical elements, oxygen is the most vital to the human body. The brain is the most sensitive organ to oxygen deprivation (hypoxia), which, over an extended period, can cause coma, seizures, cognitive impairment and other neurological disabilities, and even brain death. However, during mild hypoxia of short duration, the brain develops adaptative mechanisms that allow it to

Myriam Bernaudin; Frank R. Sharp

2004-01-01

277

Oxygen sensing, hypoxia-inducible factors, and disease pathophysiology.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcriptional activators that function as master regulators of oxygen homeostasis, which is disrupted in disorders affecting the circulatory system and in cancer. The role of HIFs in these diseases has been elucidated by clinical studies and by analyses of mouse models. HIFs play a protective role in the pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia due to coronary artery disease, limb ischemia due to peripheral arterial disease, pressure-overload heart failure, wound healing, and chronic rejection of organ transplants. In contrast, HIFs contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension, systemic hypertension associated with sleep apnea, ocular neovascularization, hereditary erythrocytosis, and cancer. PMID:23937437

Semenza, Gregg L

2014-01-01

278

Hydroxylation of HIF-1: Oxygen Sensing at the Molecular Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ability to sense and respond to changes in oxygenation represents a fundamental property of all metazoan cells. The discovery of the transcription factor HIF-1 has led to the identification of protein hydroxylation as a mechanism by which changes in PO2 are transduced to effect changes in gene expression.

MD/PhD Gregg L. Semenza (Institute of Genetic Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine, Oncology, and Radiation Oncology)

2004-08-01

279

Model for Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction Involving Mitochondrial Oxygen Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether mitochondria function as the O 2 sensor underlying hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). In buffer-perfused rat lungs, rotenone, myxothiazol, and diphenyleneiodonium, which inhibit mitochondria in the proximal region of the electron transport chain (ETC), abolished HPV without attenuating the response to U46619. Cyanide and antimycin A inhibit electron transfer in the distal region of the ETC, but they

Gregory B. Waypa; Navdeep S. Chandel; Paul T. Schumacker

280

FRET excited ratiometric oxygen sensing in living tissue.  

PubMed

Dynamic analysis of oxygen (O?) has been limited by the lack of a real-time, quantitative, and biocompatible sensor. To address these demands, we designed a ratiometric optode matrix consisting of the phosphorescence quenching dye platinum (II) octaethylporphine ketone (PtOEPK) and nanocystal quantum dots (NQDs), which when embedded within an inert polymer matrix allows long-term pre-designed excitation through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Depositing this matrix on various glass substrates allowed the development of a series of optical sensors able to measure interstitial oxygen concentration [O?] with several hundred millisecond temporal resolution in varying biological microdomains of active brain tissue. PMID:23333398

Ingram, Justin M; Zhang, Chunfeng; Xu, Jian; Schiff, Steven J

2013-03-30

281

FRET excited ratiometric oxygen sensing in living tissue  

PubMed Central

Dynamic analysis of oxygen (O2) has been limited by the lack of a real-time, quantitative, and biocompatible sensor. To address these demands, we designed a ratiometric optode matrix consisting of the phosphorescence quenching dye platinum (II) octaethylporphine ketone (PtOEPK) and nanocystal quantum dots (NQDs), which when embedded within an inert polymer matrix allows long-term pre-designed excitation through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Depositing this matrix on various glass substrates allowed the development of a series of optical sensors able to measure interstitial oxygen concentration [O2] with several hundred millisecond temporal resolution in varying biological microdomains of active brain tissue.

Ingram, Justin M.; Zhang, Chunfeng; Xu, Jian; Schiff, Steven J.

2013-01-01

282

Absence of somatostatin SST 2 receptor internalization in vivo after intravenous SOM230 application in the AR42J animal tumor model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among clinically relevant somatostatin functions, agonist-induced somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst2) internalization is a potent mechanism for tumor targeting with sst2 affine radioligands such as octreotide. Since, as opposed to octreotide, the second generation multi-somatostatin analog SOM230 (pasireotide) exhibits strong functional selectivity, it appeared of interest to evaluate its ability to affect sst2 internalization in vivo. Rats bearing AR42J tumors

Beatrice Waser; Renzo Cescato; Maria-Luisa Tamma; Helmut R. Maecke; Jean Claude Reubi

2010-01-01

283

Absence of somatostatin SST(2) receptor internalization in vivo after intravenous SOM230 application in the AR42J animal tumor model.  

PubMed

Among clinically relevant somatostatin functions, agonist-induced somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (sst(2)) internalization is a potent mechanism for tumor targeting with sst(2) affine radioligands such as octreotide. Since, as opposed to octreotide, the second generation multi-somatostatin analog SOM230 (pasireotide) exhibits strong functional selectivity, it appeared of interest to evaluate its ability to affect sst(2) internalization in vivo. Rats bearing AR42J tumors endogenously expressing somatostatin sst(2) receptors were injected intravenously with SOM230 or with the [Tyr(3), Thr(8)]-octreotide (TATE) analog; they were euthanized at various time points; tumors and pancreas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the cellular localization of somatostatin sst(2) receptors. SOM230-induced sst(2) internalization was also evaluated in vitro by immunofluorescence microscopy in AR42J cells. At difference to the efficient in vivo sst(2) internalization triggered by intravenous [Tyr(3), Thr(8)]-octreotide, intravenous SOM230 did not elicit sst(2) internalization: immunohistochemically stained sst(2) in AR42J tumor cells and pancreatic cells were detectable at the cell surface at 2.5min, 10min, 1h, 6h, or 24h after SOM230 injection while sst(2) were found intracellularly after [Tyr(3), Thr(8)]-octreotide injection. The inability of stimulating sst(2) internalization by SOM230 was confirmed in vitro in AR42J cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, SOM230 was unable to antagonize agonist-induced sst(2) internalization, neither in vivo, nor in vitro. Therefore, SOM230 does not induce sst(2) internalization in vivo or in vitro in AR42J cells and pancreas, at difference to octreotide derivatives with comparable sst(2) binding affinities. These characteristics may point towards different tumor targeting but also to different desensitization properties of clinically applied SOM230. PMID:20643121

Waser, Beatrice; Cescato, Renzo; Tamma, Maria-Luisa; Maecke, Helmut R; Reubi, Jean Claude

2010-10-10

284

Application of biorelevant dissolution tests to the prediction of in vivo performance of diclofenac sodium from an oral modified-release pellet dosage form  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro biorelevant dissolution tests enabling the prediction of in vivo performance of an oral modified-release (MR) dosage form were developed in this study. In vitro dissolution of MR diclofenac sodium pellets containing 100mg active ingredient was evaluated under simulated pre- and postprandial conditions using USP Apparatus 3 (reciprocating cylinder, Bio-Dis) and 4 (flow-through cell) and results compared with compendial

Ekarat Jantratid; Vincenzo De Maio; Emanuela Ronda; Valentina Mattavelli; Maria Vertzoni; Jennifer B. Dressman

2009-01-01

285

Efficient in vivo knock-down of estrogen receptor alpha: application of recombinant adenovirus vectors for delivery of short hairpin RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adenovirus (Ad) mediated gene transfer is a well-established tool to transiently express constructs in livers of mice in vivo. In the present study, we determined the specificity and efficiency of Ad vectors expressing short hairpin (sh) RNA constructs to knock-down the estrogen receptor ? (ER?). RESULTS: Two different shRNA constructs derived from the murine ER? coding sequence were designed

Yvonne D Krom; Frits J Fallaux; Ivo Que; Clemens Lowik; Ko Willems van Dijk

2006-01-01

286

Efficient in vivo knock-down of estrogen receptor alpha: application of recombinant adenovirus vectors for delivery of short hairpin RNA  

PubMed Central

Background Adenovirus (Ad) mediated gene transfer is a well-established tool to transiently express constructs in livers of mice in vivo. In the present study, we determined the specificity and efficiency of Ad vectors expressing short hairpin (sh) RNA constructs to knock-down the estrogen receptor ? (ER?). Results Two different shRNA constructs derived from the murine ER? coding sequence were designed (shER?). In vitro, transfection of three mouse cell lines with pSUPER-shER? constructs resulted in up to 80% reduction of endogenous ER? activity. A single mismatch in the target sequence eliminated the reduction of ER? activity, demonstrating the specificity of shER?. The subsequently generated Ad.shER? vectors were equally effective in vitro. In vivo, intravenous administration of Ad.shER? resulted in 70% reduced hepatic mouse ER? mRNA levels. Co-injection of Ad.shER? with an Ad vector containing a luciferase (luc) gene driven by an estrogen responsive element (ERE) containing promoter resulted in a significant (90% on day five) down-regulation of hepatic luciferase activity, as determined by non-invasive optical imaging. Down-regulation was sustained up to day seven post-injection. Conclusion Ad mediated transfer of shER? expression constructs results in efficient and specific knockdown of endogenous ER? transcription both in vitro and in vivo.

Krom, Yvonne D; Fallaux, Frits J; Que, Ivo; Lowik, Clemens; van Dijk, Ko Willems

2006-01-01

287

Medial temporal cortices in ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modeling of medial temporal cortices and associated structures, the entorhinal verrucae and the perforant pathway. Typical in vivo MRI has limited resolution due to constraints on scan times and does not show laminae in the medial temporal lobe. Recent studies using ex vivo MRI have demonstrated lamina in the entorhinal, perirhinal, and hippocampal cortices. These studies have enabled probabilistic brain mapping that is based on the ex vivo MRI contrast, validated to histology, and subsequently mapped onto an in vivo spherically warped surface model. Probabilistic maps are applicable to other in vivo studies. PMID:23881818

Augustinack, Jean C; van der Kouwe, André J W; Fischl, Bruce

2013-12-15

288

Motion-artifact-robust, polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation microscopy based on rapid polarization switching with electro-optic Pockells cell and its application to in vivo visualization of collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin  

PubMed Central

Polarization-resolved second-harmonic-generation (PR-SHG) microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating collagen fiber orientation quantitatively with low invasiveness. However, the waiting time for the mechanical polarization rotation makes it too sensitive to motion artifacts and hence has hampered its use in various applications in vivo. In the work described in this article, we constructed a motion-artifact-robust, PR-SHG microscope based on rapid polarization switching at every pixel with an electro-optic Pockells cell (PC) in synchronization with step-wise raster scanning of the focus spot and alternate data acquisition of a vertical-polarization-resolved SHG signal and a horizontal-polarization-resolved one. The constructed PC-based PR-SHG microscope enabled us to visualize orientation mapping of dermal collagen fiber in human facial skin in vivo without the influence of motion artifacts. Furthermore, it implied the location and/or age dependence of the collagen fiber orientation in human facial skin. The robustness to motion artifacts in the collagen orientation measurement will expand the application scope of SHG microscopy in dermatology and collagen-related fields.

Tanaka, Yuji; Hase, Eiji; Fukushima, Shuichiro; Ogura, Yuki; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Hirao, Tetsuji; Araki, Tsutomu; Yasui, Takeshi

2014-01-01

289

Column and high-performance size exclusion chromatography applications to the in vivo digestibility study of a thermoxidized and polymerized olive oil.  

PubMed

This study aimed (i) to design an in vivo model to study fat digestibility, and (ii) to apply this design to test the in vivo digestibility of a highly thermoxidized olive oil. True digestibility of unheated olive oil was tested 2, 4, 6, and 7 h after administering 1 g of olive oil/100 g body weight to young adult Wistar rats by means of esophageal probes. Remaining gastrointestinal lumen fat showed an inversely linear relationship (r= -0.9932; P < 0.001) with the length of the experiment. A 4-h test was considered adequate because after this period, half of the oil administer still remains in the lumen, making it possible to accurately measure the different nondigested, nonabsorbed thermoxidized compounds. In a second experiment, fresh olive oil (3.6 mg polar content/100 mg oil) was heated at 180 degrees C for 50 h in the presence of air; the polar content in this oil rose to 46.0 mg/100 mg oil. After 4 h, the true digestibility coefficient of 50-h heated olive oil did not significantly change, although it tended to decrease (24%) with respect to the unheated oil. Silica gel column chromatography and high-performance size exclusion chromatography were used to quantify nonthermoxidized and thermoxidized products present in the oils and in the gastrointestinal lumen after these test periods. True digestibility of the different thermoxidized compounds from the heated oil was 30-40%, whereas that of thermoxidized compounds from the fresh oil was much higher (approximately 80%). Nonoxidized triacylglycerol hydrolysis was negatively affected by the presence of large amounts of thermoxidized compounds. The present proposed model seems to be a useful tool for the study of thermoxidized oils. Data also show that thermoxidized compounds from abused olive oil are poorly but actively hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. PMID:10606041

Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Bastida, S; González-Muñoz, M J

1999-11-01

290

A new ex vivo beating heart model to investigate the application of heart valve performance tools with a high-speed camera.  

PubMed

High-speed camera examination of heart valves is an established technique to examine heart valve prosthesis. The aim of this study was to examine the possibility to transmit new tools for high-speed camera examination of heart valve behavior under near-physiological conditions in a porcine ex vivo beating heart model. After explantation of the piglet heart, main coronary arteries were cannulated and the heart was reperfused with the previously collected donor blood. When the heart started beating in sinus rhythm again, the motion of the aortic and mitral valve was recorded using a digital high-speed camera system (recording rate 2,000 frames/sec). The image sequences of the mitral valve were analyzed, and digital kymograms were calculated at different angles for the exact analysis of the different closure phases. The image sequence of the aortic valve was analyzed, and several snakes were performed to analyze the effective orifice area over the time. Both processing tools were successfully applied to examine heart valves in this ex vivo beating heart model. We were able to investigate the exact open and closure time of the mitral valve, as well as the projected effective orifice area of the aortic valve over the time. The high-speed camera investigation in an ex vivo beating heart model of heart valve behavior is feasible and also reasonable because of using processing feature such as kymography for exact analysis. These analytical techniques might help to optimize reconstructive surgery of the mitral valve and the development of heart valve prostheses in future. PMID:24270227

Kondruweit, Markus; Friedl, Sven; Heim, Christian; Wittenberg, Thomas; Weyand, Michael; Harig, Frank

2014-01-01

291

Effects of imidacloprid on adult and larval stages of the flea Ctenocephalides felis after in vivo and in vitro application: a light- and electron-microscopy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of imidacloprid (Advantage®) on the larval and adult stages of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) were studied in?vivo and in?vitro by means of light and electron microscopy. It was found that:\\u000a \\u000a 1. The compound acted rapidly on both larval and adult fleas, killing both stages within 20?min of contact.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. When applied as a spot-on to the skin of

Heinz Mehlhorn; Norbert Mencke; Olaf Hansen

1999-01-01

292

/sup 31/P in-vivo spectroscopic study by high-field whole-body MR system--an application to a case with arteriosclerosis obliterans  

SciTech Connect

/sup 31/P in-vivo spectroscopy was performed by a 1.5-tesla whole-body MR system. The /sup 31/P spectrum for the calf muscle in a patient with arteriosclerosis obliterans having intermittent claudication was obtained every two minutes. When the spectrum after the workload was compared with that at rest, an increase in inorganic phosphate (Pi) and a decrease in phosphocreatine (PCr) were observed, resulting in a strong decrease in the PCr/Pi ratio. This method can measure the ischemic and recovery stages of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle noninvasively and continuously in addition to magnetic resonance imaging.

Nishimura, T.; Imakita, S.; Naito, H.; Takamiya, M.; Matsuo, H.; Nakayama, R.

1987-08-01

293

In vivo fluence rate measurements during Foscan®-mediated photodynamic therapy of persistent and recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinomas using a dedicated light applicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a dedicated light applicator for light delivery and fluence rate monitoring during Foscan®-mediated photodynamic therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a clinical phase I\\/II study. We have developed a flexible silicone applicator that can be inserted through the mouth and fixed in the nasopharyngeal cavity. Three isotropic fibers, for measuring

R. L. P. van Veen; H. Nyst; S. R. Indrasari; M. A. Yudharto; D. J. Robinson; I. B. Tan; C. Meewis; R. Peters; Stefan B. Spaniol; Fiona A. Stewart; P. C. Levendag; Henricus J. C. M. Sterenborg

2006-01-01

294

Patient-derived Models of Human Breast Cancer: Protocols for In vitro and In vivo Applications in Tumor Biology and Translational Medicine  

PubMed Central

Research models that replicate the diverse genetic and molecular landscape of breast cancer are critical for developing the next generation therapeutic entities that can target specific cancer subtypes. Patient-derived tumorgrafts, generated by transplanting primary human tumor samples into immune-compromised mice, are a valuable method to model the clinical diversity of breast cancer in mice, and are a potential resource in personalized medicine. Primary tumorgrafts also enable in vivo testing of therapeutics and make possible the use of patient cancer tissue for in vitro screens. Described in this unit are a variety of protocols including tissue collection, biospecimen tracking, tissue processing, transplantation, and 3-dimensional culturing of xenografted tissue, that enable use of bona fide uncultured human tissue in designing and validating cancer therapies.

DeRose, Yoko S.; Gligorich, Keith M.; Wang, Guoying; Georgelas, Ann; Bowman, Paulette; Courdy, Samir J.; Welm, Alana L.; Welm, Bryan E.

2013-01-01

295

Development of a liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of paromomycin. Application to in vitro release and ex vivo permeation studies.  

PubMed

We have developed a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography pulsed amperometric detection (RPHPLC-PAD) method for the determination of paromomycin. It is sensitive, repeatable, and selective without the pretreatment step. Trifluoroacetic acid-water was utilized as the eluent and detected by PAD under NaOH alkaline conditions. The paromomycin detection limit (S/N=3.3) was 2?gmL(-1) and the quantification limit (S/N=10) was 6?gmL(-1). Coefficients of linear regression were higher than 0.99 for concentrations between 6.25 and 200?gmL(-1). The intra and inter-day precision (RSD) was less than 6.5%. The average recoveries were 97.53-102.01%. The proposed HPLC-PAD method presented advantageous performance characteristics and it can be considered suitable for the evaluation of paromomycin loaded nanogel formulation in ex vivo permeation and in vitro release studies. PMID:24992924

Pujol-Brugués, A; Calpena-Campmany, A C; Riera-Lizandra, C; Halbaut-Bellowa, L; Clares-Naveros, B

2014-12-10

296

Behavior of tip-steerable needles in ex vivo and in vivo tissue.  

PubMed

Robotic needle steering is a promising technique to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures, such as biopsies and ablation, by computer-controlled, curved insertions of needles within solid organs. In this paper, we explore the capabilities, challenges, and clinical relevance of asymmetric-tip needle steering through experiments in ex vivo and in vivo tissue. We evaluate the repeatability of needle insertion in inhomogeneous biological tissue and compare ex vivo and in vivo needle curvature and insertion forces. Steerable needles curved more in kidney than in liver and prostate, likely due to differences in tissue properties. Pre-bent needles produced higher insertion forces in liver and more curvature in vivo than ex vivo. When compared to straight stainless steel needles, steerable needles did not cause a measurable increase in tissue damage and did not exert more force during insertion. The minimum radius of curvature achieved by prebent needles was 5.23 cm in ex vivo tissue, and 10.4 cm in in vivo tissue. The curvatures achieved by bevel tip needles were negligible for in vivo tissue. The minimum radius of curvature for bevel tip needles in ex vivo tissue was 16.4 cm; however, about half of the bevel tip needles had negligible curvatures. We also demonstrate a potential clinical application of needle steering by targeting and ablating overlapping regions of cadaveric canine liver. PMID:22711767

Majewicz, Ann; Marra, Steven P; van Vledder, Mark G; Lin, MingDe; Choti, Michael A; Song, Danny Y; Okamura, Allison M

2012-10-01

297

[In vitro and in vivo inhibition of HIV1 replication by retroviral transfer of interferon alpha, beta, or gamma genes: application to gene therapy of AIDS].  

PubMed

Somatic gene therapy is defined as the transfer of a heterologous gene into an organism for the purpose of correcting a genetic defect or providing a new therapeutic function to the target cell and thus inducing a cure or improving associated symptoms. While encouraging results have been generated by recent clinical evaluation of combination of anti-viral drugs, Aids still constitute an obvious candidate among the infectious diseases which might be treated by gene therapy. We have therefore chosen to develop and evaluate a gene therapy strategy based on the transfer into human target cells of HIV1-inducible interferon (IFN) alpha, beta or gamma genes. In a preliminary study, myeloïd U937 cell lines transfected with expression vectors containing the IFN alpha, beta or gamma genes under the control of the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences of HIV1 were shown to be strongly resistant against an in vitro and in vivo (in HIV1 challenged SCID mice model) HIV1 infection. This cellular resistance was correlated with a strong induction of transgenic IFN synthesis and for IFN gamma, with a defect of HIV particles maturation. Secondly, construction and production of high titer retroviral vectors containing Tat-inducible IFN genes allowed efficient transduction of lymphoïd cell lines and human primary lymphocytes. These transduced cells were shown to be highly resistant against laboratory and primary HIV isolates. Taken together, our in vitro and in vivo results suggest that HIV1 inducible IFN gene therapy can be beneficial to HIV-infected individuals provided the fact that methods are developed that allow the efficient transduction of human hematopoïetic stem cells. PMID:9754242

Leissner, P; Calenda, V; Marigliano, M; Sanhadji, K; Touraine, J L; Pavirani, A; Mehtali, M

1998-01-01

298

In vivo evaluation of glucose permeability of an immunoisolation device intended for islet transplantation: a novel application of the microdialysis technique.  

PubMed

Immunoisolation devices consist of semipermeable membranes chosen to protect the islets from the immune system but still allow sufficient passage of nutrients, oxygen, and the therapeutic products, insulin. The exchange between the device and the microcirculation will influence the survival of the graft as well as the metabolic efficacy of the islet implant. Glucose is the important trigger factor for insulin secretion. In this study, we evaluate the in vivo glucose permeability of the Theracyte immunoisolation device at various times after implantation. Empty devices were implanted s.c. in rats. The glucose kinetics in the device was compared to that in the SC tissue during i.v. glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs), using the microdialysis technique. In rats studied on day 1, or 1, 2, and 4 weeks after implantation, the peak glucose levels (Cmax) were significantly lower, the times-to-peak (TTP) were significantly longer, and the areas under the curve during the first 40 min (AUC(0-40)) were significantly smaller in the device than in the SC fat. However, at 3 months all parameters improved and Cmax, TTP, and AUC(0-40) in the device did not differ significantly from those measured in the SC fat. Thus, during the first 4 weeks the device constitutes a significant diffusion barrier, but at 3 months the exchange between the lumen of devices and the blood stream improves. Our data indicate that implantation of the device several months before transplantation of the cellular graft would improve the exchange across the membrane during the early posttransplant period. This should have positive effects on graft survival and function. We also suggest that microdialysis is a useful tool for evaluating the in vivo performance of macroencapsulation devices. PMID:10442744

Rafael, E; Wernerson, A; Arner, P; Wu, G S; Tibell, A

1999-01-01

299

Detection of soluble co-factor dependent protein expression in vivo: application to the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase PptT from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The need for early-on diagnostic tools to assess the folding and solubility of expressed protein constructs in vivo is of great interest when dealing with recalcitrant proteins. In this paper, we took advantage of the picomolar sensitivity of the bipartite GFP1-10/GFP11 system to investigate the solubility of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase PptT, an enzyme essential for the viability of the tubercle bacillus. In vivo and in vitro complementation assays clearly showed the improved solubility of the full-length PptT compared to its N- and C-terminally truncated counterparts. However, initial attempts to purify the full-length enzyme overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells were hampered by aggregation issues overtime that caused the protein to precipitate within hours. The fact that the naturally occurring Coenzyme A and Mg(2+), essentials for PptT to carry out its function, could play a role in stabilizing the enzyme was confirmed using DSF experiments. In vitro activity assays were performed using the ACP substrate from the type I polyketide synthase PpsC from M. tuberculosis, a 2188 amino-acid enzyme that plays a major role in the virulence and pathogenicity of this microbial pathogen. We selected the most soluble and compact ACP fragment (2042-2188), identified by genetic selection of in-frame fragments from random library experiments, to monitor the transfer of the P-pant moiety from Coenzyme A onto a conserved serine residue of this ACP domain. PMID:23916562

Rottier, Karine; Faille, Alexandre; Prudhomme, Thomas; Leblanc, Cécile; Chalut, Christian; Cabantous, Stéphanie; Guilhot, Christophe; Mourey, Lionel; Pedelacq, Jean-Denis

2013-09-01

300

Design, synthesis and binding properties of a fluorescent ????/???? integrin antagonist and its application as an in vivo probe for bone marrow haemopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

The ?9?1 and ?4?1 integrin subtypes are expressed on bone marrow haemopoietic stem cells and have important roles in stem cell regulation and trafficking. Although the roles of ?4?1 integrin have been thoroughly investigated with respect to HSC function, the role of ?9?1 integrin remains poorly characterised. Small molecule fluorescent probes are useful tools for monitoring biological processes in vivo, to determine cell-associated protein localisation and activation, and to elucidate the mechanism of small molecule mediated protein interactions. Herein, we report the design, synthesis and integrin-dependent cell binding properties of a new fluorescent ?9?1 integrin antagonist (R-BC154), which was based on a series of N-phenylsulfonyl proline dipeptides and assembled using the Cu(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Using transfected human glioblastoma LN18 cells, we show that R-BC154 exhibits high nanomolar binding affinities to ?9?1 integrin with potent cross-reactivity against ?4?1 integrin under physiological mimicking conditions. On-rate and off-rate measurements revealed distinct differences in the binding kinetics between ?9?1 and ?4?1 integrins, which showed faster binding to ?4?1 integrin relative to ?9?1, but more prolonged binding to the latter. Finally, we show that R-BC154 was capable of binding rare populations of bone marrow haemopoietic stem and progenitor cells when administered to mice. Thus, R-BC154 represents a useful multi-purpose fluorescent integrin probe that can be used for (1) screening small molecule inhibitors of ?9?1 and ?4?1 integrins; (2) investigating the biochemical properties of ?9?1 and ?4?1 integrin binding and (3) investigating integrin expression and activation on defined cell phenotypes in vivo. PMID:24363056

Cao, Benjamin; Hutt, Oliver E; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Songhui; Heazlewood, Shen Y; Williams, Brenda; Smith, Jessica A; Haylock, David N; Savage, G Paul; Nilsson, Susan K

2014-02-14

301

Effects of In Vitro Low Oxygen Tension Preconditioning of Adipose Stromal Cells on Their In Vivo Chondrogenic Potential: Application in Cartilage Tissue Repair  

PubMed Central

Purpose Multipotent stromal cell (MSC)-based regenerative strategy has shown promise for the repair of cartilage, an avascular tissue in which cells experience hypoxia. Hypoxia is known to promote the early chondrogenic differentiation of MSC. The aim of our study was therefore to determine whether low oxygen tension could be used to enhance the regenerative potential of MSC for cartilage repair. Methods MSC from rabbit or human adipose stromal cells (ASC) were preconditioned in vitro in control or chondrogenic (ITS and TGF-?) medium and in 21 or 5% O2. Chondrogenic commitment was monitored by measuring COL2A1 and ACAN expression (real-time PCR). Preconditioned rabbit and human ASC were then incorporated into an Si-HPMC hydrogel and injected (i) into rabbit articular cartilage defects for 18 weeks or (ii) subcutaneously into nude mice for five weeks. The newly formed tissue was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated by cartilage-specific immunohistological staining and scoring. The phenotype of ASC cultured in a monolayer or within Si-HPMC in control or chondrogenic medium and in 21 or 5% O2 was finally evaluated using real-time PCR. Results/Conclusions 5% O2 increased the in vitro expression of chondrogenic markers in ASC cultured in induction medium. Cells implanted within Si-HPMC hydrogel and preconditioned in chondrogenic medium formed a cartilaginous tissue, regardless of the level of oxygen. In addition, the 3D in vitro culture of ASC within Si-HPMC hydrogel was found to reinforce the pro-chondrogenic effects of the induction medium and 5% O2. These data together indicate that although 5% O2 enhances the in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of ASC, it does not enhance their in vivo chondrogenesis. These results also highlight the in vivo chondrogenic potential of ASC and their potential value in cartilage repair.

Gauthier, Olivier; Lesoeur, Julie; Sourice, Sophie; Masson, Martial; Fellah, Borhane Hakim; Geffroy, Olivier; Lallemand, Elodie; Weiss, Pierre

2013-01-01

302

Immobilized Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9): Applications for Metabolite Generation, Monitoring Protein-Protein Interactions, and Improving In-vivo Predictions Using Enhanced In-vitro Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are a family of oxoferroreductase enzymes containing a heme moiety and are well known to be involved in the metabolism of a wide variety of endogenous and xenobiotic materials. It is estimated that roughly 75% of all pharmaceutical compounds are metabolized by these enzymes. Traditional reconstituted in-vitro incubation studies using recombinant P450 enzymes are often used to predict in-vivo kinetic parameters of a drug early in development. However, in many cases, these reconstituted incubations are prone to aggregation which has been shown to affect the catalytic activity of an enzyme. Moreover, the presence of other isoforms of P450 enzymes present in a metabolic incubation, as is the case with microsomal systems, may affect the catalytic activity of an enzyme through isoform-specific protein-protein interactions. Both of these effects may result in inaccurate prediction of in-vivo drug metabolism using in-vitro experiments. Here we described the development of immobilized P450 constructs designed to elucidate the effects of aggregation and protein-protein interactions between P450 isoforms on catalytic activities. The long term objective of this project is to develop a system to control the oligomeric state of Cytochrome P450 enzymes to accurately elucidate discrepancies between in vitro reconstituted systems and actual in vivo drug metabolism for the precise prediction of metabolic activity. This approach will serve as a system to better draw correlations between in-vivo and in-vitro drug metabolism data. The central hypothesis is that Cytochrome P450 enzymes catalytic activity can be altered by protein-protein interactions occurring between Cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in drug metabolism, and is dependent on varying states of protein aggregation. This dissertation explains the details of the construction and characterization of a nanostructure device designed to control the state of aggregation of a P450 enzyme. Moreover, applications of immobilized P450 enzyme constructs will also be used for monitoring protein-protein interaction and metabolite production with the use of immobilized-P450 bioreactor constructs. This work provides insight into the effect on catalytic activity caused by both P450 aggregation as well as isoform-specific protein-protein interactions and provides insight in the production of biosynthetically produced drug metabolites

Wollenberg, Lance A.

303

Tropisms of AAV for Subretinal Delivery to the Neonatal Mouse Retina and Its Application for In Vivo Rescue of Developmental Photoreceptor Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is well established as a vehicle for in vivo gene transfer into the mammalian retina. This virus is promising not only for gene therapy of retinal diseases, but also for in vivo functional analysis of retinal genes. Previous reports have shown that AAV can infect various cell types in the developing mouse retina. However, AAV tropism in the developing retina has not yet been examined in detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We subretinally delivered seven AAV serotypes (AAV2/1, 2/2, 2/5, 2/8, 2/9, 2/10, and 2/11) of AAV-CAG-mCherry into P0 mouse retinas, and quantitatively evaluated the tropisms of each serotype by its infecting degree in retinal cells. After subretinal injection of AAV into postnatal day 0 (P0) mouse retinas, various retinal cell types were efficiently transduced with different AAVs. Photoreceptor cells were efficiently transduced with AAV2/5. Retinal cells, except for bipolar and Müller glial cells, were efficiently transduced with AAV2/9. Horizontal and/or ganglion cells were efficiently transduced with AAV2/1, AAV2/2, AAV2/8, AAV2/9 and AAV2/10. To confirm the usefulness of AAV-mediated gene transfer into the P0 mouse retina, we performed AAV-mediated rescue of the Cone-rod homeobox gene knockout (Crx KO) mouse, which exhibits an outer segment formation defect, flat electroretinogram (ERG) responses, and photoreceptor degeneration. We injected an AAV expressing Crx under the control of the Crx 2kb promoter into the neonatal Crx KO retina. We showed that AAV mediated-Crx expression significantly decreased the abnormalities of the Crx KO retina. Conclusion/Significance In the current study, we report suitable AAV tropisms for delivery into the developing mouse retina. Using AAV2/5 in photoreceptor cells, we demonstrated the possibility of gene replacement for the developmental disorder and subsequent degeneration of retinal photoreceptors caused by the absence of Crx.

Watanabe, Satoshi; Sanuki, Rikako; Ueno, Shinji; Koyasu, Toshiyuki; Hasegawa, Toshiaki; Furukawa, Takahisa

2013-01-01

304

Development of a Nuclear-Localized Fluorescent Probe for Hydrogen Peroxide and Applications to the Study of Sirtuin-Mediated Oxidative Stress Responses in vivo  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can serve as a beneficial signaling agent or toxin depending on its concentration and location within a cell or organism. Methods to measure the localized accumulation of H2O2 in living specimens remain limited. Motivated to meet this need, we have developed a new type of nuclear-localized fluorescent probe for H2O2, Nuclear Peroxy Emerald 1 (NucPE1), to selectively interrogate ROS fluxes within this sensitive organelle. NucPE1 selectively accumulates in the nuclei of a variety of mammalian cell lines as well as in whole model organisms like C. clegans, where it can respond to subcellular changes in H2O2 fluxes. Moreover, in vivo NucPE1 imaging reveals a reduction in nuclear H2O2 levels in worms overexpressing sir-2.1 compared to wildtype congeners, supporting a link between this longevity-promoting sirtuin protein and enhanced regulation of nuclear ROS pools.

Dickinson, Bryan C.; Tang, Yan; Chang, Zengyi; Chang, Christopher J.

2011-01-01

305

Cultivation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in a three-dimensional bovine collagen-elastin matrix (Matriderm®) and application for full thickness wound coverage in vivo.  

PubMed

New skin substitutes for burn medicine or reconstructive surgery pose an important issue in plastic surgery. Matriderm® is a clinically approved three-dimensional bovine collagen-elastin matrix which is already used as a dermal substitute of full thickness burn wounds. The drawback of an avital matrix is the limited integration in full thickness skin defects, depending on the defect size. To further optimize this process, Matriderm® has also been studied as a matrix for tissue engineering of skin albeit long-term cultivation of the matrix with cells has been difficult. Cells have generally been seeded onto the matrix with high cell loss and minimal time-consuming migration. Here we developed a cell seeded skin equivalent after microtransfer of cells directly into the matrix. First, cells were cultured, and microinjected into Matriderm®. Then, cell viability in the matrix was determined by histology in vitro. As a next step, the skin substitute was applied in vivo into a full thickness rodent wound model. The wound coverage and healing was observed over a period of two weeks followed by histological examination assessing cell viability, proliferation and integration into the host. Viable and proliferating cells could be found throughout the entire matrix. The presented skin substitute resembles healthy skin in morphology and integrity. Based on this study, future investigations are planned to examine behaviour of epidermal stem cells injected into a collagen-elastin matrix under the aspects of establishment of stem cell niches and differentiation. PMID:23852021

Killat, Jasper; Reimers, Kerstin; Choi, Claudia Y; Jahn, Sabrina; Vogt, Peter M; Radtke, Christine

2013-01-01

306

Multimodal Mn-doped I-III-VI quantum dots for near infrared fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging: from synthesis to in vivo application.  

PubMed

The development of sensitive multimodal contrast agents is a key issue to provide better global, multi-scale images for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Here we present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se)/Zn1-xMnxS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) that can be used as markers for both near-infrared fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We first present the synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-(S, Se) cores coated with a thick ZnS shell doped with various proportions of Mn. Their emission wavelengths can be tuned over the NIR optical window suitable for deep tissue imaging. The incorporation of manganese ions (up to a few thousand ions per QD) confers them a paramagnetic character, as demonstrated by structural analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These QDs maintain their optical properties after transfer to water using ligand exchange. They exhibit T1-relaxivities up to 1400 mM(-1) [QD] s(-1) at 7 T and 300 K. We finally show that these QDs are suitable multimodal in vivo probes and demonstrate MRI and NIR fluorescence detection of regional lymph nodes in mice. PMID:24980473

Sitbon, Gary; Bouccara, Sophie; Tasso, Mariana; Francois, Aurélie; Bezdetnaya, Lina; Marchal, Frédéric; Beaumont, Marine; Pons, Thomas

2014-07-10

307

Cultivation of Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts in a Three-Dimensional Bovine Collagen-Elastin Matrix (Matriderm®) and Application for Full Thickness Wound Coverage in Vivo  

PubMed Central

New skin substitutes for burn medicine or reconstructive surgery pose an important issue in plastic surgery. Matriderm® is a clinically approved three-dimensional bovine collagen-elastin matrix which is already used as a dermal substitute of full thickness burn wounds. The drawback of an avital matrix is the limited integration in full thickness skin defects, depending on the defect size. To further optimize this process, Matriderm® has also been studied as a matrix for tissue engineering of skin albeit long-term cultivation of the matrix with cells has been difficult. Cells have generally been seeded onto the matrix with high cell loss and minimal time-consuming migration. Here we developed a cell seeded skin equivalent after microtransfer of cells directly into the matrix. First, cells were cultured, and microinjected into Matriderm®. Then, cell viability in the matrix was determined by histology in vitro. As a next step, the skin substitute was applied in vivo into a full thickness rodent wound model. The wound coverage and healing was observed over a period of two weeks followed by histological examination assessing cell viability, proliferation and integration into the host. Viable and proliferating cells could be found throughout the entire matrix. The presented skin substitute resembles healthy skin in morphology and integrity. Based on this study, future investigations are planned to examine behaviour of epidermal stem cells injected into a collagen-elastin matrix under the aspects of establishment of stem cell niches and differentiation.

Killat, Jasper; Reimers, Kerstin; Choi, Claudia Y.; Jahn, Sabrina; Vogt, Peter M.; Radtke, Christine

2013-01-01

308

Robust 3-D reconstruction of surfaces from image focus by local cross-sectional multivariate statistical analyses: application to human ex vivo corneal endotheliums.  

PubMed

The considered problem of 3-D reconstruction consists in computationally and passively recovering both topography and texture of a scene surface observed by optical sectioning with a limited depth-of-field imaging system (typically a conventional optical microscope). Throughout a sequence of registered 2-D images, the concepts of shape-from-focus and extended-depth-of-field involve recovering both topography (depth map) and texture image of the surface by researching in-focus information, respectively. Toward that aim, traditional approaches generally follow a 2-D sectional way and thereby fail to deal with noisy and disturbed acquisitions, quite frequent in transmitted light observations and of interest in this paper. Such examples are the acquisitions of human ex vivo corneal endotheliums from the medical issue addressed in this paper, which are mainly damaged by cellular fragments in the sample immersion medium and by emphasized contrast reversals. To achieve with such noisy and disturbed acquisitions, a new focus analysis is introduced that originally adopts a 3-D strategy throughout the image sequence. This method exploits simultaneously all available cross-sectional cues that effectively strengthens the robustness. More precisely, it locally performs multivariate statistical analyses over cross-sectional spatial windows so as to find sectional in-focus positions. Comparisons to state-of-the-art methods on both synthetic data and real acquisitions from the deal-with medical issue demonstrate the efficiency and the robustness of the proposed approach. PMID:22831775

Fernandes, Mathieu; Gavet, Yann; Pinoli, Jean-Charles

2012-08-01

309

Very small embryonic-like stem-cell optimization of isolation protocols: an update of molecular signatures and a review of current in vivo applications.  

PubMed

As the theory of stem cell plasticity was first proposed, we have explored an alternative hypothesis for this phenomenon: namely that adult bone marrow (BM) and umbilical cord blood (UCB) contain more developmentally primitive cells than hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In support of this notion, using multiparameter sorting we were able to isolate small Sca1(+)Lin(-)CD45(-) cells and CD133(+)Lin(-)CD45(-) cells from murine BM and human UCB, respectively, which were further enriched for the detection of various early developmental markers such as the SSEA antigen on the surface and the Oct4 and Nanog transcription factors in the nucleus. Similar populations of cells have been found in various organs by our team and others, including the heart, brain and gonads. Owing to their primitive cellular features, such as the high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and the presence of euchromatin, they are called very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs). In the appropriate in vivo models, VSELs differentiate into long-term repopulating HSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), lung epithelial cells, cardiomyocytes and gametes. In this review, we discuss the most recent data from our laboratory and other groups regarding the optimal isolation procedures and describe the updated molecular characteristics of VSELs. PMID:24232255

Shin, Dong-Myung; Suszynska, Malwina; Mierzejewska, Kasia; Ratajczak, Janina; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

2013-01-01

310

The application of hyaluronic acid-derivatized carbon nanotubes in hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether-based photodynamic therapy for in vivo and in vitro cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great potential in both photothermal therapy and drug delivery. In this study, a CNT derivative, hyaluronic acid-derivatized CNTs (HA-CNTs) with high aqueous solubility, neutral pH, and tumor-targeting activity, were synthesized and characterized, and then a new photodynamic therapy agent, hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), was adsorbed onto the functionalized CNTs to develop HMME-HA-CNTs. Tumor growth inhibition was investigated both in vivo and in vitro by a combination of photothermal therapy and photodynamic therapy using HMME-HA-CNTs. The ability of HMME-HA-CNT nanoparticles to combine local specific photodynamic therapy with external near-infrared photothermal therapy significantly improved the therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatment. Compared with photodynamic therapy or photothermal therapy alone, the combined treatment demonstrated a synergistic effect, resulting in higher therapeutic efficacy without obvious toxic effects to normal organs. Overall, it was demonstrated that HMME-HA-CNTs could be successfully applied to photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy simultaneously in future tumor therapy.

Shi, Jinjin; Ma, Rourou; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Ruiyuan; Li, Lulu; Liu, Yan; Hou, Lin; Yu, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Jun; Zhang, Zhenzhong

2013-01-01

311

Determination of oxycodone, noroxycodone and oxymorphone by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in human matrices: in vivo and in vitro applications.  

PubMed

The opioid analgesic oxycodone is widely abused and increasingly associated with overdose deaths. A sensitive analytical method was developed for oxycodone and its metabolites, noroxycodone and oxymorphone, in human plasma, urine (±enzymatic hydrolysis at 50°C for 16 h) and liver microsomes (HLMs). Liquid-liquid extraction was followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The calibration range was 0.2-250 ng/mL for plasma and HLM and 10-5000 ng/mL for urine. Intra- and interrun accuracies were within 13.3% of target; precisions were within 12.8% for all matrices. Recoveries from plasma were: oxycodone, 75.6%; noroxycodone, 37.4% and oxymorphone, 18.2%. Analytes exhibited room temperature stability in plasma and urine up to 24 h, and freeze-thaw stability in plasma up to three cycles. In 24-h hydrolyzed urine from subjects administered intranasal oxycodone (30 mg/70 kg, n = 5), mean concentrations (ng/mL) and % daily doses excreted were: oxycodone, 1150, 6.53%; noroxycodone, 1330, 7.81% and oxymorphone, 3000, 17.1%. Oxycodone incubated with HLM produced more noroxycodone than oxymorphone. With a panel of recombinant human cytochrome P450s (CYPs), CYP2C18 and CYP3A4 produced the most noroxycodone, whereas CYP2D6 produced the most oxymorphone. These results demonstrate a new method suitable for both in vivo and in vitro metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies of oxycodone. PMID:23743505

Fang, Wenfang B; Lofwall, Michelle R; Walsh, Sharon L; Moody, David E

2013-01-01

312

Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells labeled with multimodal iron oxide nanoparticles with fluorescent and magnetic properties: application for in vivo cell tracking.  

PubMed

Here we describe multimodal iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated to Rhodamine-B (MION-Rh), their stability in culture medium, and subsequent validation of an in vitro protocol to label mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord blood (UC-MSC) with MION-Rh. These cells showed robust labeling in vitro without impairment of their functional properties, the viability of which were evaluated by proliferation kinetic and ultrastructural analyzes. Thus, labeled cells were infused into striatum of adult male rats of animal model that mimic late onset of Parkinson's disease and, after 15 days, it was observed that cells migrated along the medial forebrain bundle to the substantia nigra as hypointense spots in T2 magnetic resonance imaging. These data were supported by short-term magnetic resonance imaging. Studies were performed in vivo, which showed that about 5 × 10(5) cells could be efficiently detected in the short term following infusion. Our results indicate that these labeled cells can be efficiently tracked in a neurodegenerative disease model. PMID:24531365

Sibov, Tatiana T; Pavon, Lorena F; Miyaki, Liza A; Mamani, Javier B; Nucci, Leopoldo P; Alvarim, Larissa T; Silveira, Paulo H; Marti, Luciana C; Gamarra, Lf

2014-01-01

313

In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the skin hydrating and anti-erythema activity of gel materials from Aloe marlothii A. Berger and A. ferox Mill. in comparison to that of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in healthy human volunteers. Materials and Methods: Aqueous solutions of the polisaccharidic fractions of the selected aloe leaf gel materials were applied to the volar forearm skin of female subjects. The hydration effect of the aloe gel materials were measured with a Corneometer® CM 825, Visioscan® VC 98 and Cutometer® dual MPA 580 after single and multiple applications. The Mexameter® MX 18 was used to determine the anti-erythema effects of the aloe material solutions on irritated skin areas. Results: The A. vera and A. marlothii gel materials hydrated the skin after a single application, whereas the A. ferox gel material showed dehydration effects compared to the placebo. After multiple applications all the aloe materials exhibited dehydration effects on the skin. Mexameter® readings showed that A. vera and A. ferox have anti-erythema activity similar to that of the positive control group (i.e. hydrocortisone gel) after 6 days of treatment. Conclusion: The polysaccharide component of the gel materials from selected aloe species has a dehydrating effect on the skin after multiple applications. Both A. vera and A. ferox gel materials showed potential to reduce erythema on the skin similar to that of hydrocortisone gel.

Fox, Lizelle T.; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja; van Zyl, Sterna; Boneschans, Banie; Hamman, Josias H.

2014-01-01

314

Silicate, borosilicate, and borate bioactive glass scaffolds with controllable degradation rate for bone tissue engineering applications. II. In vitro and in vivo biological evaluation.  

PubMed

In Part I, the in vitro degradation of bioactivAR52115e glass scaffolds with a microstructure similar to that of human trabecular bone, but with three different compositions, was investigated as a function of immersion time in a simulated body fluid. The glasses consisted of a silicate (13-93) composition, a borosilicate composition (designated 13-93B1), and a borate composition (13-93B3), in which one-third or all of the SiO2 content of 13-93 was replaced by B2O3, respectively. This work is an extension of Part I, to investigate the effect of the glass composition on the in vitro response of osteogenic MLO-A5 cells to these scaffolds, and on the ability of the scaffolds to support tissue infiltration in a rat subcutaneous implantation model. The results of assays for cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity showed that the slower degrading silicate 13-93 and borosilicate 13-93B1 scaffolds were far better than the borate 13-93B3 scaffolds in supporting cell proliferation and function. However, all three groups of scaffolds showed the ability to support tissue infiltration in vivo after implantation for 6 weeks. The results indicate that the required bioactivity and degradation rate may be achieved by substituting an appropriate amount of SiO2 in 13-93 glass with B2O3, and that these trabecular glass scaffolds could serve as substrates for the repair and regeneration of contained bone defects. PMID:20540099

Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Bal, B Sonny; Bonewald, Lynda F; Kuroki, Keiichi; Brown, Roger F

2010-10-01

315

Ocular Distribution, Spectrum of Activity, and In Vivo Viral Neutralization of a Fully Humanized Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus IgG Fab Fragment following Topical Application  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex ocular infection is a major cause of corneal blindness. Local antiviral treatments exist but are associated with corneal toxicity, and resistance has become an issue. We evaluated the biodistribution and efficacy of a humanized anti-herpes simplex virus (anti-HSV) IgG FAb fragment (AC-8; 53 kDa) following repeated topical administration. AC-8 was found in the corneal epithelium, anterior stroma, subepithelial stromal cells, and retinal glial cells, with preferential entry through the ocular limbus. AC-8 was active against 13 different strains of HSV-1, with 50% and 90% mean effective concentrations (MEC50 and MEC90, respectively) ranging from 0.03 to 0.13 ?g/ml, indicating broad-spectrum activity. The in vivo efficacy of AC-8 was evaluated in a mouse model of herpes-induced ocular disease. Treatment with low-dose AC-8 (1 mg/ml) slightly reduced the ocular disease scores. A greater reduction of the disease scores was observed in the 10-mg/ml AC-8-treated group, but not as much as with trifluridine (TFT). AC-8 treatment reduced viral titers but less than trifluridine. AC-8 did not display any toxicity to the cornea or other structures in the eye. In summary, topical instillation of an anti-HSV FAb can be used on both intact and ulcerated corneas. It is well tolerated and does not alter reepithelialization. Further studies to improve the antiviral effect are needed for AC-8 to be considered for therapeutic use.

Berdugo, Marianne; Larsen, Inna V.; Abadie, Claire; Deloche, Catherine; Kowalczuk, Laura; Touchard, Elodie; Dubielzig, Richard; Brandt, Curtis R.; Combette, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

316

Optimization of In Vivo Confocal Autofluorescence Imaging of the Ocular Fundus in Mice and Its Application to Models of Human Retinal Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the feasibility and to identify sources of experimental variability of quantitative and qualitative fundus autofluorescence (AF) assessment in mice. Methods. Blue (488 nm) and near-infrared (790 nm) fundus AF imaging was performed in various mouse strains and disease models (129S2, C57Bl/6, Abca4?/?, C3H-Pde6brd1/rd1, Rho?/?, and BALB/c mice) using a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Gray-level analysis was used to explore factors influencing fundus AF measurements. Results. A contact lens avoided cataract development and resulted in consistent fundus AF recordings. Fundus illumination and magnification were sensitive to changes of the camera position. Standardized adjustment of the recorded confocal plane and consideration of the pupil area allowed reproducible recording of fundus AF from the retinal pigment epithelium with an intersession coefficient of repeatability of ±22%. Photopigment bleaching occurred during the first 1.5 seconds of exposure to 488 nm blue light (?10 mW/cm2), resulting in an increase of fundus AF. In addition, there was a slight decrease in fundus AF during prolonged blue light exposure. Fundus AF at 488 nm was low in animals with an absence of a normal visual cycle, and high in BALB/c and Abca4?/? mice. Degenerative alterations in Pde6brd1/rd1 and Rho?/? were reminiscent of findings in human retinal disease. Conclusions. Investigation of retinal phenotypes in mice is possible in vivo using standardized fundus AF imaging. Correlation with postmortem analysis is likely to lead to further understanding of human disease phenotypes and of retinal degenerations in general. Fundus AF imaging may be useful as an outcome measure in preclinical trials, such as for monitoring effects aimed at lowering lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium.

Issa, Peter Charbel; Singh, Mandeep S.; Lipinski, Daniel M.; Chong, Ngaihang V.; Delori, Francois C.; Barnard, Alun R.; MacLaren, Robert E.

2012-01-01

317

Relevance of sunscreen application method, visible light and sunlight intensity to free-radical protection: A study of ex vivo human skin.  

PubMed

With the continued rise in skin cancers worldwide there is a need for effective skin protection against sunlight damage. It was shown previously that sunscreens, which claimed UVA protection (SPF 20+), provided limited protection against UV-induced ascorbate radicals in human skin. Here the results of an electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation to irradiate ex vivo human skin with solar-simulated light are reported. The ascorbate radical signal in the majority of skin samples was directly proportional to the irradiance over relevant sunlight intensities (0.9-2.9 mW cm(-2)). Radical production (substratum-corneum) by UV (wavelengths < 400 nm) and visible components (> 400 nm) was approximately 67% and 33% respectively. Ascorbate radicals were in steady state concentration at low irradiance (approximately 1 mW cm(-2) equivalent to UK sunlight), but at higher irradiance (approximately 3 mW cm(-2)) decreased with time, suggesting ascorbate depletion. Radical protection by a four star-rated sunscreen (with UVA protection) was optimal when applied as a thin film (40-60% at 2 mg cm(-2)) but less so when rubbed into the skin (37% at 4 mg cm(-2) and no significant protection at 2 mg cm(-2)), possibly due to cream filling crevices, which reduced film thickness. This study validates ESR determinations of the ascorbate radical for quantitative protection measurements. Visible light contribution to radical production, and loss of protection when sunscreen is rubbed into skin, has implications for sunscreen design and use for the prevention of free-radical damage. PMID:17205635

Haywood, Rachel

2006-01-01

318

Effects of imidacloprid on adult and larval stages of the flea Ctenocephalides felis after in vivo and in vitro application: a light- and electron-microscopy study.  

PubMed

The effects of imidacloprid (Advantage) on the larval and adult stages of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) were studied in vivo and in vitro by means of light and electron microscopy. It was found that: 1. The compound acted rapidly on both larval and adult fleas, killing both stages within 20 min of contact. 2. When applied as a spot-on to the skin of dogs, the compound localized in the water-resistant lipid layer of the skin surface and in the hairs but not in the blood. 3. Thus, the compound was not taken up during sucking of the flea but was absorbed via the thin intersegmental membranes, since larval and adult fleas that had only external contact with imidacloprid-impregnated paper or with shaved hairs from imidacloprid-treated dogs showed reactions similar to those shown by fleas sitting on treated skin. 4. The compound led to a continuous blockage of insect-specific nicotinic-acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), causing tetanic muscle cotractions within minutes of exposure. This manifested as intense trembling of the legs and pumping movements of the body. The affected flea stages remained motionless while the nerves and muscles were constantly and irreversibly destroyed due to hyperactivity. The ganglia of the head and thorax and the striated muscles of the flea body and legs were damaged first, whereas the intestinal movements (e.g., visible in larvae) took longer to exhibit damage. In summary, these studies show that imidacloprid kills larval and adult flea stages rapidly via the same mode of action and thus prevents the development of flea populations in human or animal dwellings. PMID:10431725

Mehlhorn, H; Mencke, N; Hansen, O

1999-08-01

319

The effect of in vivo and in vitro applications of ethrel and GA 3 on sex expression in bitter melon ( Momordica charantia L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitter melon (Momordica\\u000a Charantia L.) is an important vegetable crop with nutritional and medicinal qualities. As a member of cucurbitaceae it is monoecious\\u000a with varying proportions of staminate and pistillate flowers. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of various\\u000a applications of ethrel and gibberellic acid (GA3) on sex modification in M. charantia. In the first set of experiments,

T. Dennis Thomas

2008-01-01

320

One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of lanthanide ions doped one-dimensional upconversion submicrocrystals and their potential application in vivo CT imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-functional rare-earth Yb3+ and Ln3+ (Ln = Er, Tm and Ho) ions doped one-dimensional (1-D) upconversion submicrocrystals (NaYF4 and NaGdF4) possessing upconversion luminescence, biocompatibility and magnetic properties have been synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal method. Rare-earth Yb3+ and Ln3+ ions doped NaYF4 microrods (~1 ?m in diameter, 3-5 ?m in length) exhibit porous properties, and the average pore sizes are ~28.2 nm. They show paramagnetism in the magnetic range of -60 to -2 kOe and 2 to 60 kOe at 300 K, and exhibit near superparamagnetic behaviour at the magnetic range of -2 to 2 kOe. Saturation magnetization was ~12.1 emu g-1 at 2 K. The Yb3+ and Ln3+ ions doped NaGdF4 submicrocrystals (~100 nm in diameter, 200-300 nm in length) show paramagnetism at 300 K, and exhibit superparamagnetic behaviour with a saturation magnetization of 129.2 emu g-1 at 2 K. The magnetic properties of Yb3+ and Ln3+ ions doped 1-D upconversion submicrocrystals indicate they can be used for drug targeting under a magnetic field. Their unique upconversion emission (green for Yb3+/Er3+ and blue for Yb3+/Tm3+) under 980 nm laser excitation indicate that they could be used for specific luminescent immunolabeling and imaging. MTT assays reveal that 1-D upconversion submicrocrystals have satisfactory bio-affinity, where the viability keeps in good state even at a concentration of 500 ?g mL-1, which is much higher than the concentration usually used in cell labelling. Luminescent microscopy images show that the morphologies of the cytoskeleton and cell nucleus are well maintained after incubating different concentrations of 1-D upconversion submicrocrystals. After injecting upconversion submicrocrystals into the mice (tumor sites or back normal tissue), a clearly distinguished CT signal was observed, indicating the synthesized 1-D submicrocrystals are effective for CT imaging in vivo.Multi-functional rare-earth Yb3+ and Ln3+ (Ln = Er, Tm and Ho) ions doped one-dimensional (1-D) upconversion submicrocrystals (NaYF4 and NaGdF4) possessing upconversion luminescence, biocompatibility and magnetic properties have been synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal method. Rare-earth Yb3+ and Ln3+ ions doped NaYF4 microrods (~1 ?m in diameter, 3-5 ?m in length) exhibit porous properties, and the average pore sizes are ~28.2 nm. They show paramagnetism in the magnetic range of -60 to -2 kOe and 2 to 60 kOe at 300 K, and exhibit near superparamagnetic behaviour at the magnetic range of -2 to 2 kOe. Saturation magnetization was ~12.1 emu g-1 at 2 K. The Yb3+ and Ln3+ ions doped NaGdF4 submicrocrystals (~100 nm in diameter, 200-300 nm in length) show paramagnetism at 300 K, and exhibit superparamagnetic behaviour with a saturation magnetization of 129.2 emu g-1 at 2 K. The magnetic properties of Yb3+ and Ln3+ ions doped 1-D upconversion submicrocrystals indicate they can be used for drug targeting under a magnetic field. Their unique upconversion emission (green for Yb3+/Er3+ and blue for Yb3+/Tm3+) under 980 nm laser excitation indicate that they could be used for specific luminescent immunolabeling and imaging. MTT assays reveal that 1-D upconversion submicrocrystals have satisfactory bio-affinity, where the viability keeps in good state even at a concentration of 500 ?g mL-1, which is much higher than the concentration usually used in cell labelling. Luminescent microscopy images show that the morphologies of the cytoskeleton and cell nucleus are well maintained after incubating different concentrations of 1-D upconversion submicrocrystals. After injecting upconversion submicrocrystals into the mice (tumor sites or back normal tissue), a clearly distinguished CT signal was observed, indicating the synthesized 1-D submicrocrystals are effective for CT imaging in vivo. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32850j

Gao, Guo; Zhang, Chunlei; Zhou, Zhijun; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Jiebing; Li, Chao; Jin, Weilin; Cui, Daxiang

2012-12-01

321

Measuring Proteome Dynamics in Vivo  

PubMed Central

Proteomics investigations typically yield information regarding static gene expression profiles. The central issues that limit the study of proteome dynamics include how to (i) administer a labeled amino acid in vivo, (ii) measure the isotopic labeling of a protein(s) (which may be low), and (iii) reliably interpret the precursor/product labeling relationships. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of quantifying proteome dynamics by coupling the administration of stable isotopes with mass spectrometric assays. Although the direct administration of a labeled amino acid(s) is typically used to measure protein synthesis, we explain the application of labeled water, comparing 2H2O versus H218O for measuring albumin biosynthesis in vivo. This application emphasizes two distinct advantages of using labeled water over a labeled amino acid(s). First, in long term studies (e.g. days or weeks), it is not practical to continuously administer a labeled amino acid(s); however, in the presence of labeled water, organisms will generate labeled amino acids. Second, to calculate rates of protein synthesis in short term studies (e.g. hours), one must utilize a precursor/product labeling ratio; when using labeled water it is possible to reliably identify and easily measure the precursor labeling (i.e. water). We demonstrate that labeled water permits studies of protein synthesis (e.g. albumin synthesis in mice) during metabolic “steady-state” or “non-steady-state” conditions, i.e. integrating transitions between the fed and fasted state or during an acute perturbation (e.g. following a meal), respectively. We expect that the use of labeled water is applicable to wide scale investigations of proteome dynamics and can therein be used to obtain a functional image of gene expression in vivo.

Rachdaoui, Nadia; Austin, Leanne; Kramer, Eric; Previs, Michael J.; Anderson, Vernon E.; Kasumov, Takhar; Previs, Stephen F.

2009-01-01

322

Application of Carbon-Ion Beams or Gamma-Rays on Primary Tumors Does Not Change the Expression Profiles of Metastatic Tumors in an In Vivo Murine Model  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To clarify how carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion) on primary tumors affects the characteristics of subsequently arising metastatic tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Mouse squamous cell carcinomas, NR-S1, in synergic C3H/HeMsNrs mice were irradiated with a single dose of 5-50 Gy of C-ion (290 MeV per nucleon, 6-cm spread-out Bragg peak) or {gamma}-rays ({sup 137}Cs source) as a reference beam. The volume of the primary tumors and the number of metastatic nodules in lung were studied, and histologic analysis and microarray analysis of laser-microdissected tumor cells were also performed. Results: Including 5 Gy of C-ion and 8 Gy of {gamma}-rays, which did not inhibit the primary tumor growth, all doses used in this study inhibited lung metastasis significantly. Pathologic findings showed no difference among the metastatic tumor nodules in the nonirradiated, C-ion-irradiated, and {gamma}-ray-irradiated groups. Clustering analysis of expression profiles among metastatic tumors and primary tumors revealed a single cluster consisting of metastatic tumors different from their original primary tumors, indicating that the expression profiles of the metastatic tumor cells were not affected by the local application of C-ion or {gamma}-ray radiotherapy. Conclusion: We found no difference in the incidence and histology, and only small differences in expression profile, of distant metastasis between local C-ion and {gamma}-ray radiotherapy. The application of local radiotherapy per se or the type of radiotherapy applied did not influence the transcriptional changes caused by metastasis in tumor cells.

Tamaki, Tomoaki [RadGenomics Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Iwakawa, Mayumi [RadGenomics Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail: mayumii@nirs.go.jp; Ohno, Tatsuya; Imadome, Kaori; Nakawatari, Miyako; Sakai, Minako; Tsujii, Hirohiko [RadGenomics Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Imai, Takashi [RadGenomics Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

2009-05-01

323

Application of the Principles of Systems Biology and Wiener's Cybernetics for Analysis of Regulation of Energy Fluxes in Muscle Cells in Vivo  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of regulation of respiration and energy fluxes in the cells are analyzed based on the concepts of systems biology, non-equilibrium steady state kinetics and applications of Wiener’s cybernetic principles of feedback regulation. Under physiological conditions cardiac function is governed by the Frank-Starling law and the main metabolic characteristic of cardiac muscle cells is metabolic homeostasis, when both workload and respiration rate can be changed manifold at constant intracellular level of phosphocreatine and ATP in the cells. This is not observed in skeletal muscles. Controversies in theoretical explanations of these observations are analyzed. Experimental studies of permeabilized fibers from human skeletal muscle vastus lateralis and adult rat cardiomyocytes showed that the respiration rate is always an apparent hyperbolic but not a sigmoid function of ADP concentration. It is our conclusion that realistic explanations of regulation of energy fluxes in muscle cells require systemic approaches including application of the feedback theory of Wiener’s cybernetics in combination with detailed experimental research. Such an analysis reveals the importance of limited permeability of mitochondrial outer membrane for ADP due to interactions of mitochondria with cytoskeleton resulting in quasi-linear dependence of respiration rate on amplitude of cyclic changes in cytoplasmic ADP concentrations. The system of compartmentalized creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes functionally coupled to ANT and ATPases, and mitochondrial-cytoskeletal interactions separate energy fluxes (mass and energy transfer) from signalling (information transfer) within dissipative metabolic structures – intracellular energetic units (ICEU). Due to the non-equilibrium state of CK reactions, intracellular ATP utilization and mitochondrial ATP regeneration are interconnected by the PCr flux from mitochondria. The feedback regulation of respiration occurring via cyclic fluctuations of cytosolic ADP, Pi and Cr/PCr ensures metabolic stability necessary for normal function of cardiac cells.

Guzun, Rita; Saks, Valdur

2010-01-01

324

Multicolor core/shell silica nanoparticles for in vivo and ex vivo imaging.  

PubMed

Biocompatible highly bright silica nanoparticles were designed, prepared and tested in small living organisms for both in vivo and ex vivo imaging. The results that we report here demonstrate that they are suitable for optical imaging applications as a possible alternative to commercially available fluorescent materials including quantum dots. Moreover, the tunability of their photophysical properties, which was enhanced by the use of different dyes as doping agents, constitutes a very important added value in the field of medical diagnostics. PMID:22159192

Rampazzo, Enrico; Boschi, Federico; Bonacchi, Sara; Juris, Riccardo; Montalti, Marco; Zaccheroni, Nelsi; Prodi, Luca; Calderan, Laura; Rossi, Barbara; Becchi, Serena; Sbarbati, Andrea

2012-02-01

325

Ex vivo optical metabolic measurements from cultured tissue reflect in vivo tissue status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical measurements of metabolism are ideally acquired in vivo; however, intravital measurements are often impractical. Accurate ex vivo assessments would greatly broaden the applicability of optical measurements of metabolism. We investigate the use of live tissue culture experiments to serve as a surrogate for in vivo metabolic measurements. To validate this approach, NADH and FAD fluorescence intensity and lifetime images were acquired with a two-photon microscope from hamster cheek pouch epithelia in vivo, from biopsies maintained in live tissue culture up to 48 h, and from flash-frozen and thawed biopsies. We found that the optical redox ratio (fluorescence intensity of NADH/FAD) of the cultured biopsy was statistically identical to the in vivo measurement until 24 h, while the redox ratio of the frozen-thawed samples decreased by 15% (p<0.01). The NADH mean fluorescence lifetime (?m) remained unchanged (p>0.05) during the first 8 h of tissue culture, while the NADH ?m of frozen-thawed samples increased by 13% (p<0.001). Cellular morphology did not significantly change between in vivo, cultured, and frozen-thawed tissues (p>0.05). All results were consistent across multiple depth layers in this stratified squamous epithelial tissue. Histological markers for proliferation and apoptosis also confirm the viability of tissues maintained in culture. This study suggests that short-term ex vivo tissue culture may be more appropriate than frozen-thawed tissue for optical metabolic and morphologic measurements that approximate in vivo status.

Walsh, Alex J.; Poole, Kristin M.; Duvall, Craig L.; Skala, Melissa C.

2012-11-01

326

Ex vivo optical metabolic measurements from cultured tissue reflect in vivo tissue status  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Optical measurements of metabolism are ideally acquired in vivo; however, intravital measurements are often impractical. Accurate ex vivo assessments would greatly broaden the applicability of optical measurements of metabolism. We investigate the use of live tissue culture experiments to serve as a surrogate for in vivo metabolic measurements. To validate this approach, NADH and FAD fluorescence intensity and lifetime images were acquired with a two-photon microscope from hamster cheek pouch epithelia in vivo, from biopsies maintained in live tissue culture up to 48 h, and from flash-frozen and thawed biopsies. We found that the optical redox ratio (fluorescence intensity of NADH/FAD) of the cultured biopsy was statistically identical to the in vivo measurement until 24 h, while the redox ratio of the frozen-thawed samples decreased by 15% (p<0.01). The NADH mean fluorescence lifetime (?m) remained unchanged (p>0.05) during the first 8 h of tissue culture, while the NADH ?m of frozen-thawed samples increased by 13% (p<0.001). Cellular morphology did not significantly change between in vivo, cultured, and frozen-thawed tissues (p>0.05). All results were consistent across multiple depth layers in this stratified squamous epithelial tissue. Histological markers for proliferation and apoptosis also confirm the viability of tissues maintained in culture. This study suggests that short-term ex vivo tissue culture may be more appropriate than frozen-thawed tissue for optical metabolic and morphologic measurements that approximate in vivo status.

Walsh, Alex J.; Poole, Kristin M.; Duvall, Craig L.; Skala, Melissa C.

2012-01-01

327

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of porous PCL-PLLA 3D polymer scaffolds fabricated via salt leaching method for bone tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Three dimensional porous scaffolds composed of various ratios of polycaprolactone and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) were prepared using salt leaching method for bone regeneration applications. Surfaces of the scaffolds were visualized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the combination of the polymers was confirmed by FT-IR. Addition of PLLA increased the porosity and pore sizes of the scaffolds and also the scaffolds' compressive strength initially. Osteoblast-like cells were used and it was found that the samples' cell biocompatibility was further promoted with the increase in PLLA content as observed via cell proliferation assays using MTT, gene expression with RT-PCR, and micrographs from SEM and confocal microscopy. Samples were then implanted into male rabbits for 2 months, and histological staining and micro-CT histomorphometry show that new bone formations were detected in the site containing the implants of the scaffolds and that bone regeneration was further promoted with the increased concentration of PLLA in the scaffold. PMID:24138179

Sadiasa, Alexander; Nguyen, Thi Hiep; Lee, Byong-Taek

2014-01-01

328

In vivo RNAi: Today and Tomorrow  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY RNA interference (RNAi) provides a powerful reverse genetics approach to analyze gene functions both in tissue culture and in vivo. Because of its widespread applicability and effectiveness it has become an essential part of the tool box kits of model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and the mouse. In addition, the use of RNAi in animals in which genetic tools are either poorly developed or nonexistent enables a myriad of fundamental questions to be asked. Here, we review the methods and applications of in vivo RNAi to characterize gene functions in model organisms and discuss their impact to the study of developmental as well as evolutionary questions. Further, we discuss the applications of RNAi technologies to crop improvement, pest control and RNAi therapeutics, thus providing an appreciation of the potential for phenomenal applications of RNAi to agriculture and medicine.

Perrimon, Norbert; Ni, Jian-Quan; Perkins, Lizabeth

2010-01-01

329

Stress proteins are proinflammatory in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibrosis of biosensors, placed in vivo, represents a major hurdle to the wide-spread application of real-time monitoring of biochemical and metabolic processes in animals and humans. The fibrotic reaction is the end result of the acute inflammatory response caused by significant tissue trauma at the time of biosensor placement. This response may be associated with increased expression and release from

R. Kumar; G. Perdrizet; J. Enderle; M. Rewinski; M. Berman; L. Hightower

2004-01-01

330

Computational design of in vivo biomarkers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (or quantum dots) are very promising agents for bioimaging applications because their optical properties are superior compared to those of conventional organic dyes. However, not all the properties of these quantum dots suit the stringent criteria of in vivo applications, i.e. their employment in living organisms that might be of importance in therapy and medicine. In our review, we first summarize the properties of an ‘ideal’ biomarker needed for in vivo applications. Despite recent efforts, no such hand-made fluorescent quantum dot exists that may be considered as ‘ideal’ in this respect. We propose that ab initio atomistic simulations with predictive power can be used to design ‘ideal’ in vivo fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles. We briefly review such ab initio methods that can be applied to calculate the electronic and optical properties of very small nanocrystals, with extra emphasis on density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT which are the most suitable approaches for the description of these systems. Finally, we present our recent results on this topic where we investigated the applicability of nanodiamonds and silicon carbide nanocrystals for in vivo bioimaging.

Somogyi, Bálint; Gali, Adam

2014-04-01

331

Computational design of in vivo biomarkers.  

PubMed

Fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (or quantum dots) are very promising agents for bioimaging applications because their optical properties are superior compared to those of conventional organic dyes. However, not all the properties of these quantum dots suit the stringent criteria of in vivo applications, i.e. their employment in living organisms that might be of importance in therapy and medicine. In our review, we first summarize the properties of an 'ideal' biomarker needed for in vivo applications. Despite recent efforts, no such hand-made fluorescent quantum dot exists that may be considered as 'ideal' in this respect. We propose that ab initio atomistic simulations with predictive power can be used to design 'ideal' in vivo fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles. We briefly review such ab initio methods that can be applied to calculate the electronic and optical properties of very small nanocrystals, with extra emphasis on density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT which are the most suitable approaches for the description of these systems. Finally, we present our recent results on this topic where we investigated the applicability of nanodiamonds and silicon carbide nanocrystals for in vivo bioimaging. PMID:24651562

Somogyi, Bálint; Gali, Adam

2014-04-01

332

Stress proteins are proinflammatory in vivo: implications for bioengineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibrosis of biosensors, placed in vivo, represents a major hurdle to the widespread application of real-time monitoring of biochemical and metabolic processes in animals and humans. The fibrotic reaction is the end result of the acute inflammatory response caused by significant tissue trauma at the time of biosensor placement in vivo and is probably associated with increased expression of cellular

J. Enderle; L. Hightower; G. Perdrizet

2002-01-01

333

Fluorescence Glucose Detection: Advances Toward the Ideal In Vivo Biosensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of glucose monitoring for in vivo as well as for ex vivo applications has driven a vast number of scientific groups to pursue the development of an advanced glucose sensor. Such a sensor must be robust, versatile, and capable of the long-term, accurate and reproducible detection of glucose levels in various testing media. Among the different configurations and

Elizabeth A. Moschou; Bethel V. Sharma; Sapna K. Deo; Sylvia Daunert

2004-01-01

334

Following protein association in vivo with fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and two-photon excitation provides us with a powerful spectroscopic technique. Its submicron resolution and single molecule sensitivity make it an attractive technique for in vivo applications. Experiments have demonstrated that quantitative in vivo fluorescence fluctuation measurements are feasible, despite the presence of autofluorescence and the heterogeneity of the cellular environment. I will demonstrate that

Joachim D. Muller

2003-01-01

335

Liquid chromatographic assay for common sunscreen agents: application to in vivo assessment of skin penetration and systemic absorption in human volunteers.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to develop a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay for quantifying four common sunscreen agents, namely 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate, 2-ethylhexylsalicylate (octylsalicylate) and salicylic acid 3,3,5-trimethcyclohexyl ester (homosalate) in a range of biological matrices. This assay was further applied to study the skin penetration and systemic absorption of sunscreen filters after topical application to human volunteers. Separation was achieved utilizing a Symmetry C(18) column with methanol-water as the mobile phase. The assay permits analysis of the sunscreen agents in biological fluids, including bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution, plasma and urine, and in human epidermis. The assay was linear (r2 > 0.99) with minimum detectable limits of 0.8 ng for oxybenzone, 0.3 ng for octylmethoxycinnamate, and 2 ng for homosalate and octylsalicylate. The inter- and intra-day variation for the four sunscreens was less than 3% at the upper end of the linear range and less than 6% at the lower end. Recoveries of sunscreens from plasma, 4% (w/v) BSA solution and epidermal membranes were within the range of 91-104%. Recoveries from urine of the four sunscreens, and oxybenzone with its metabolites were more than 86%. Up to approximately 1% of the applied dose of oxybenzone and its metabolites was detected in the urine. Appreciable amounts were also detected in the stratum corneum through tape stripping. The HPLC assay and extraction procedures developed are sensitive, simple, rapid, accurate and reproducible. Results from the preliminary clinical study demonstrate significant penetration of all sunscreen agents into the skin, and oxybenzone and metabolites across the skin. PMID:15063329

Sarveiya, Vikram; Risk, Stacey; Benson, Heather A E

2004-04-25

336

Biocatalyst Engineering by Assembly of Fatty Acid Transport and Oxidation Activities for In Vivo Application of Cytochrome P-450BM-3 Monooxygenase  

PubMed Central

The application of whole cells containing cytochrome P-450BM-3 monooxygenase [EC 1.14.14.1] for the bioconversion of long-chain saturated fatty acids to ?-1, ?-2, and ?-3 hydroxy fatty acids was investigated. We utilized pentadecanoic acid and studied its conversion to a mixture of 12-, 13-, and 14-hydroxypentadecanoic acids by this monooxygenase. For this purpose, Escherichia coli recombinants containing plasmid pCYP102 producing the fatty acid monooxygenase cytochrome P-450BM-3 were used. To overcome inefficient uptake of pentadecanoic acid by intact E. coli cells, we made use of a cloned fatty acid uptake system from Pseudomonas oleovorans which, in contrast to the common FadL fatty acid uptake system of E. coli, does not require coupling by FadD (acyl-coenzyme A synthetase) of the imported fatty acid to coenzyme A. This system from P. oleovorans is encoded by a gene carried by plasmid pGEc47, which has been shown to effect facilitated uptake of oleic acid in E. coli W3110 (M. Nieboer, Ph.D. thesis, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands, 1996). By using a double recombinant of E. coli K27, which is a fadD mutant and therefore unable to consume substrates or products via the ?-oxidation cycle, a twofold increase in productivity was achieved. Applying cytochrome P-450BM-3 monooxygenase as a biocatalyst in whole cells does not require the exogenous addition of the costly cofactor NADPH. In combination with the coenzyme A-independent fatty acid uptake system from P. oleovorans, cytochrome P-450BM-3 recombinants appear to be useful alternatives to the enzymatic approach for the bioconversion of long-chain fatty acids to subterminal hydroxylated fatty acids.

Schneider, Silke; Wubbolts, Marcel G.; Sanglard, Dominique; Witholt, Bernard

1998-01-01

337

In vitro, ex vivo, in vivo veritas.  

PubMed

In vitro assessments of inhaler performance are important in product development and quality control, but are not, as such, good predictors of performance in vivo. It is, however, possible to modify in vitro techniques so that they more closely resemble the in vivo situation. Measurements of fine-particle dose (defined as the amount of drug with an aerodynamic diameter less than 5 microm) by cascade impactor have shown that the measured fine-particle dose in vitro is highly dependent on the geometry of the inlet to the impactor, the fine-particle dose being considerably lower when the cast of a human throat (an "anatomical throat") is used than when a standard glass inlet is used. This difference is, however, less with a dry-powder inhaler such as Turbuhaler than with a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI). Furthermore, there is a good correlation between fine-particle dose measured in vitro and in vivo lung deposition, provided that an anatomically correct inlet is used for the in vitro determination. Studies in children have shown that the degree of lung deposition of budesonide, delivered via Turbuhaler, is of the same order of size as the in vitro fine-particle dose. No comparable data are available for pMDIs; however, since children are smaller than adults, it is likely that differences in lung deposition between Turbuhaler and pMDIs are probably greater in children than in adults. PMID:10422754

Borgström, L

1999-01-01

338

In vivo effects of fluoride on enamel permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This in vivo study evaluated the effects of topical fluoride application on enamel by repeated scanning electron microscopy\\u000a analysis of replicas. Baseline fluid droplets were employed as qualitative indication of enamel permeability. CaF2-like globules were detected in vivo after fluoride application and were not found after professional brushing, ultrasound\\u000a action, or chemical extraction. Absence of water permeability of enamel was

Stefano Chersoni; Angelica Bertacci; David H. Pashley; Franklin R. Tay; Lucio Montebugnoli; Carlo Prati

2011-01-01

339

Bioluminescence imaging of myeloperoxidase activity in vivo  

PubMed Central

The myeloperoxidase (MPO) system of activated phagocytes is central to normal host defense mechanisms, and dysregulated MPO contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease states ranging from atherosclerosis to cancer. Here we show that upon systemic administration, the small molecule luminol enables noninvasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of MPO activity in vivo. Luminol-BLI allowed quantitative longitudinal monitoring of MPO activity in animal models of acute dermatitis, mixed allergic contact hypersensitivity, focal arthritis and spontaneous large granular lymphocytic tumors. Bioluminescence colocalized with histological sites of inflammation and was totally abolished in gene-deleted Mpo?/? mice, despite massive tissue infiltration of neutrophils and activated eosinophils, indicating that eosinophil peroxidase did not contribute to luminol-BLI in vivo. Thus, luminol-BLI provides a noninvasive, specific and highly sensitive optical readout of phagocyte-mediated MPO activity in vivo and may enable new diagnostic applications in a wide range of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Gross, Shimon; Gammon, Seth T; Moss, Britney L; Rauch, Daniel; Harding, John; Heinecke, Jay W; Ratner, Lee; Piwnica-Worms, David

2010-01-01

340

Desmosomes In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The structure, function, and regulation of desmosomal adhesion in vivo are discussed. Most desmosomes in tissues exhibit calcium-independent adhesion, which is strongly adhesive or “hyperadhesive”. This is fundamental to tissue strength. Almost all studies in culture are done on weakly adhesive, calcium-dependent desmosomes, although hyperadhesion can be readily obtained in confluent cell culture. Calcium dependence is a default condition in vivo, found in wounds and embryonic development. Hyperadhesion appears to be associated with an ordered arrangement of the extracellular domains of the desmosomal cadherins, which gives rise to the intercellular midline identified in ultrastructural studies. This in turn probably depends on molecular order in the desmosomal plaque. Protein kinase C downregulates hyperadhesion and there is preliminary evidence that it may also be regulated by tyrosine kinases. Downregulation of desmosomes in vivo may occur by internalisation of whole desmosomes rather than disassembly. Hyperadhesion has implications for diseases such as pemphigus.

Garrod, David

2010-01-01

341

Preliminary results of development of a single-mode Q-switched Nd: YAG ring laser at 213 nm and its application for the microsurgical dissection of retinal tissue ex vivo.  

PubMed

The Nd: YAG laser family offers wide possibilities for surgery applications in medicine. The radiation at 213 nm provides similar tissue effects as compared to 193 nm excimer lasers, but offers considerable practical advantages in the operating room. As such, it is of considerable interest to create single-mode Q-switched fifth harmonic Nd: YAG pulsed lasers with a high coefficient of efficiency and low divergence. Parameters of the ring three-mirror anisotropic cavity TEM00-Nd: YAG laser were calculated on the basis of the analysis of Gaussian beam behavior in the three-mirror ring cavity, with one convex spherical mirror and one intracavity positive lens. On the hand of numerical calculations a prototype of a single-mode Q-switched Nd: YAG-213 nm laser with an output energy of 4 mJ and a beam divergence of 1 mrad has been developed. At a pulse repetition rate of 50 Hz, it has a generation efficiency in the Q-switched mode of 0,6%. A hollow core wave guide is used in combination with a short length of a special fused silica optical fiber to guide the laser beam. Full-depth dissection of rabbit retina ex vivo was achieved at the intensities of 0.18-0.05 J/cm2 and a repetition rate of 50 Hz, with a linear cutting rate of 6 mm/s. Although the retina was completely cut, heat necrosis of the choroid did not occur. We are currently in the process of testing the dissection of retinal tissue during retinotomy, and the formation of holes in the trabecular meshwork in glaucoma surgery. PMID:15714260

Yasukawa, Tsutomu; Yafai, Yousef; Wang, Yu-sheng; Dietz, Hartmut; Molotkov, Dimitry; Kongratyuk, Nikolai; Hillrichs, Georg; Wiedemann, Peter; Schastak, Stanislaw I

2005-01-01

342

Ex vivo DNA Assembly  

PubMed Central

Even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid, and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. Advances in cloning techniques have resulted in powerful in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA. However, monetary and time costs have limited these approaches. Here, we report an ex vivo DNA assembly method that uses cellular lysates derived from a commonly used laboratory strain of Escherichia coli for joining double-stranded DNA with short end homologies embedded within inexpensive primers. This method concurrently shortens the time and decreases costs associated with current DNA assembly methods.

Fisher, Adam B.; Canfield, Zachary B.; Hayward, Laura C.; Fong, Stephen S.; McArthur, George H.

2013-01-01

343

Improving in vivo calibration phantoms  

SciTech Connect

Anthropomorphic phantoms have been the basis for quantification of radioactive material in the body using in vivo measurements. The types of phantoms used and the degree of anthropomorphic detail vary depending on the counting application, the radioactive material to be measured, phantom availability and cost. Consequently, measurement results for the same types of radioactive material from different facilities are not always comparable. At a February 1990 meeting at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) the need to develop the gold standards'' or primary reference standards for in vivo phantoms was discussed in detail. The consensus of the attendees at the meeting was that the state of the art in phantoms was adequate as a starting point and that there was no need to start phantom development from scratch. In particular, the torso phantom developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and its commercial progeny, the bottle manikin absorption (BOMAB) phantom and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard N44.3 thyroid phantom, were identified as the starting points for the development of the primary reference standards. Working groups at the meeting subsequently recommended design improvements for the existing phantom designs. The implementation of these recommendations is the subject of this paper.

Lynch, T.P.; Olsen, P.C.

1991-10-01

344

In-vivo optical investigation of psoriasis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by hyperkeratosis, hyperproliferation of the epidermis, inflammatory cell accumulation and increased dilatation of dermal papillary blood vessels. Cases of psoriasis were investigated in vivo with optical means in order to evaluate the potential of in vivo optical biopsy. A Polarization Multispectral Dermoscope was employed for the macroscopic observation. Features such as the 'dotted' blood vessels pattern was observed with high contrast. The average size of dot vessels in Psoriasis was measured to be 974 ?m2 which is much higher compared to healthy skin. High resolution image sections of the epidermis and the dermis were produced with a custom made Multiphoton Microscope. Imaging extended from the surface of the lesion down to the papillary dermis, at a depth of 200 ?m. In the epidermis, a characteristic morphology of the stratum corneum found only in Psoriasis was revealed. Additionally, the cytoplasmic area of the cells in the stratum spinosum layer was found to be smaller than normal. In the dermis the morphological features were more pronounced, where the elongated dermal papillae dominated the papillary layer. Their length exceeds 100?m, which is a far greater value compared to that of healthy skin. These in vivo observations are consistent with the ex vivo histopathological observations, supporting both the applicability and potentiality of multispectral dermoscopy and multiphoton microscopy in the field of in vivo optical investigation and biopsy of skin.

Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Cicchi, Riccardo; Bruscino, Nicola; Alfieri, Domenico; Massi, Daniela; Lotti, Torello; Pavone, Francesco S.

2011-02-01

345

Communication Quantifying in vivo MR spectra with circles q  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and robust quantification of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data is essential to its application in research and medicine. The performance of existing analysis methods is problematic for in vivo studies where low signal-to-noise ratio, overlap- ping peaks and intense artefacts are endemic. Here, a new frequency-domain technique for MRS data analysis is introduced wherein the circular trajectories

Refaat E. Gabr; Ronald Ouwerkerk; Paul A. Bottomley

346

In vivo muscle electroporation threshold determination: realistic numerical models and in vivo experiments.  

PubMed

In vivo electroporation is used as an effective technique for delivery of therapeutic agents such as chemotherapeutic drugs or DNA into target tissue cells for different biomedical purposes. In order to successfully electroporate a target tissue, it is essential to know the local electric field distribution produced by an application of electroporation voltage pulses. In this study three-dimensional finite element models were built in order to analyze local electric field distribution and corresponding tissue conductivity changes in rat muscle electroporated either transcutaneously or directly (i.e., two-plate electrodes were placed either on the skin or directly on the skeletal muscle after removing the skin). Numerical calculations of electroporation thresholds and conductivity changes in skin and muscle were validated with in vivo measurements. Our model of muscle with skin also confirms the in vivo findings of previous studies that electroporation "breaks" the skin barrier when the applied voltage is above 50 V. PMID:22622286

?orovi?, Selma; Mir, Lluis M; Miklav?i?, Damijan

2012-09-01

347

Guidance for Industry. Waiver of In Vivo Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Studies for Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms Based on a Biopharmaceutics Classification System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidance provides recommendations for sponsors of investigational new drug applications (INDs), new drug applications (NDAs), abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs), and supplements to these applications who wish to request a waiver of in vivo bio...

2000-01-01

348

[In vivo Migration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells].  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have the capacities of low immunogeneity, multiple differentiation, hemotopoitic supporting and immunoregulation. And due to their relative ease of availability and ex vivo expansion, the applications of MSC in the prevention and treatment of clinical disease have been rapidly expanded in the recent years. However, increasing investigations indicate that intravenously infused MSC widely distribute to various organs of the recipients. The two intended clinical goals of adoptive cellular therapy reached to the greatest efficiency. Therefore, the ideal candidate cells showed to have the capacity of site-specific relocation in vivo. In this review, the distribution characteristics of infused MSC and the recent research advances on the strategies to enhance targeted migration of MSCs are summarized. PMID:24763038

Li, Hong; Gao, Xu-Guang; Lu, Long; Bai, Yu-Shan; Mao, Ning

2014-03-01

349

Target-directed proteolysis in vivo.  

PubMed

The experimental problems associated with in vivo studies of essential proteins or integral membrane proteins have triggered geneticists to generate novel approaches that have often led to insights of general relevance (Shuman and Silhavy, 2003). In order to extend the experimental portfolio, we developed target-directed proteolysis (TDP), an in vivo method allowing structural and functional characterization of target proteins in living cells. TDP is based on the activity of the highly sequence-specific NIa protease from tobacco etch virus. When its recognition site of seven residues is engineered into target proteins and NIa protease is expressed under tight promoter control, substrates can be conditionally processed while other cellular proteins remain unaffected. Applications include conditional inactivation as well as functional characterization of target proteins. PMID:17352916

Eser, Markus; Henrichs, Tanja; Boyd, Dana; Ehrmann, Michael

2007-01-01

350

In vivo dosimetry for IMRT  

SciTech Connect

In vivo dosimetry has a well established role in the quality assurance of 2D radiotherapy and 3D conformal radiotherapy. The role of in vivo dosimetry for IMRT is not as well established. IMRT introduces a range of technical issues that complicate in vivo dosimetry. The first decade or so of IMRT implementation has largely relied upon pre-treatment phantom based dose verification. During that time, several new devices and techniques for in vivo dosimetry have emerged with the promise of providing the ultimate form of IMRT dose verification. Solid state dosimeters continue to dominate the field of in vivo dosimetry in the IMRT era. In this report we review the literature on in vivo dosimetry for IMRT, with an emphasis on clinical evidence for different detector types. We describe the pros and cons of different detectors and techniques in the IMRT setting and the roles that they are likely to play in the future.

Vial, Philip [Department of Medical Physics, Liverpool Cancer Therapy Centre (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia)

2011-05-05

351

31P-MRS-Based Determination of Brain Intracellular and Interstitial pH: Its Application to In Vivo H+ Compartmentation and Cellular Regulation during Hypoxic\\/Ischemic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, significant progress has been made in the characterization of pH regulation in nervous tissue in vitro. However, little work has been directed at understanding how pH regulatory mechanisms function in vivo. We are interested in how ischemic acidosis can effect pH regulation and modulate the extent of post-ischemic brain damage. We used 31P-MRS to determine normal

D. B. Kintner; M. K. Anderson; J. H. Fitzpatrick; K. A. Sailor; D. D. Gilboe

2000-01-01

352

Reactive polymer enables efficient in vivo bioorthogonal chemistry  

PubMed Central

There has been intense interest in the development of selective bioorthogonal reactions or “click” chemistry that can proceed in live animals. Until now however, most reactions still require vast surpluses of reactants because of steep temporal and spatial concentration gradients. Using computational modeling and design of pharmacokinetically optimized reactants, we have developed a predictable method for efficient in vivo click reactions. Specifically, we show that polymer modified tetrazines (PMT) are a key enabler for in vivo bioorthogonal chemistry based on the very fast and catalyst-free [4 + 2] tetrazine/trans-cyclooctene cycloaddition. Using fluorescent PMT for cellular resolution and 18F labeled PMT for whole animal imaging, we show that cancer cell epitopes can be easily reacted in vivo. This generic strategy should help guide the design of future chemistries and find widespread use for different in vivo bioorthogonal applications, particularly in the biomedical sciences.

Devaraj, Neal K.; Thurber, Greg M.; Keliher, Edmund J.; Marinelli, Brett; Weissleder, Ralph

2012-01-01

353

Reactive polymer enables efficient in vivo bioorthogonal chemistry.  

PubMed

There has been intense interest in the development of selective bioorthogonal reactions or "click" chemistry that can proceed in live animals. Until now however, most reactions still require vast surpluses of reactants because of steep temporal and spatial concentration gradients. Using computational modeling and design of pharmacokinetically optimized reactants, we have developed a predictable method for efficient in vivo click reactions. Specifically, we show that polymer modified tetrazines (PMT) are a key enabler for in vivo bioorthogonal chemistry based on the very fast and catalyst-free [4 + 2] tetrazine/trans-cyclooctene cycloaddition. Using fluorescent PMT for cellular resolution and (18)F labeled PMT for whole animal imaging, we show that cancer cell epitopes can be easily reacted in vivo. This generic strategy should help guide the design of future chemistries and find widespread use for different in vivo bioorthogonal applications, particularly in the biomedical sciences. PMID:22411831

Devaraj, Neal K; Thurber, Greg M; Keliher, Edmund J; Marinelli, Brett; Weissleder, Ralph

2012-03-27

354

In vivo MR tractography using diffusion imaging.  

PubMed

Diffusion in structured tissue, such as white matter or muscle, is anisotropic. MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures anisotropy per pixel and provides the directional information relevant for MR tractography or fiber tracking in vivo. MR tractography is non-invasive, relatively fast, and can be repeated multiple times without destructing important tissue. Moreover, the combination with other MR images is relatively simple. In this paper, the basic principles of tractography are presented. Different tracking methods with varying degrees of complexity are introduced and their potential strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Clinical applications and different strategies for evaluating the fidelity of tracking results are reviewed. PMID:12595107

Bammer, Roland; Acar, Burak; Moseley, Michael E

2003-03-01

355

5-Azacytidine prevents transgene methylation in vivo.  

PubMed

Retroviral sequence can silence transgene expression in vitro and in vivo. We report that this effect can be efficiently prevented by in vivo administration of the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (aza-C). We engineered the U937 human cell line with a retroviral vector consisting of the thymidine kinase suicide gene (tk), which induces sensitivity to ganciclovir (gcv) and through an IRES sequence, the bacterial beta-galactosidase gene (lacZ) as a marker gene. About 90% of the U937 cells expressed the transgene. By injecting the transduced U937 cells in severe combined immunodeficient disease (SCID) mice, we generated a tumor which, during in vivo treatment with aza-C, maintained the high expression of lacZ and tk genes at the baseline values. LacZ-positive cells in the tumour masses after death was weak (1-2%) in the control group, while in mice treated with aza-C it was maintained at 90%. The delay in tumour onset was significantly longer when animals were treated with both aza-C and gcv (P < 0.0001) compared with animals treated with gcv or with aza-C alone. The prevention of silencing phenomena has important implications for gene therapy, because an efficient transduction associated with appropriate drug therapy, might be a powerful strategy for successful application of gene therapy protocols. PMID:10476232

Di Ianni, M; Terenzi, A; Perruccio, K; Ciurnelli, R; Lucheroni, F; Benedetti, R; Martelli, M F; Tabilio, A

1999-04-01

356

In vivo production of thiopeptide variants.  

PubMed

Thiopeptides are a family of highly modified peptide metabolites, characterized by a macrocycle bearing a central piperidine/dehydropiperidine/pyridine ring, multiple thiazole rings, and several dehydrated amino acid residues. Thiopeptides have useful antibacterial, antimalarial, and anticancer properties but have not been adapted for human clinical applications, owing in part to their poor water solubility. In 2009, it was revealed that the thiopeptide scaffold is derived from a ribosomally synthesized precursor peptide subjected to extensive posttranslational modifications. Shortly thereafter, three groups developed two types of in vivo strategies to generate thiopeptide variants: precursor peptide mutagenesis and gene inactivation. The thiopeptide analogs and biosynthetic intermediates obtained from these studies provide much-needed insight into the biosynthetic process for these complicated metabolites. Furthermore, the in vivo production of variants can be employed to interrogate thiopeptide structure-activity relationships and may be useful to address the bioavailability issues plaguing these otherwise promising lead molecules. This chapter discusses the in vivo systems developed to generate thiopeptide variants. PMID:23034221

Zhang, Feifei; Kelly, Wendy L

2012-01-01

357

Ex vivo expansion of cord blood.  

PubMed

A marked increase in the utilization of umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation has been observed in recent years; however, the use of UCB as a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) source is limited primarily by the number of progenitor cells contained in the graft. Graft failure, delayed engraftment and profound delay in immune reconstitution lead to significant morbidity and mortality in adults. The lack of cells available for post transplant therapies, such as donor lymphocyte infusions, has also been considered to be a disadvantage of UCB. To improve outcomes and extend applicability of UCB transplantation, one potential solution is ex vivo expansion of UCB. Investigators have used several methods, including liquid suspension culture with various cytokines and expansion factors, co-culture with stromal elements and continuous perfusion systems. Techniques combining ex vivo expanded and unmanipulated UCB are being explored to optimize the initial engraftment kinetics as well as the long-term durability. The optimal expansion conditions are still not known; however, recent studies suggest that expanded UCB is safe. It is hoped that by ex vivo expansion of UCB, a resulting decrease in the morbidity and mortality of UCB transplantation will be observed, and that the availability of additional cells may allow adoptive immunotherapy or gene transfer therapies in the UCB setting. PMID:19802023

Kelly, S S; Sola, C B S; de Lima, M; Shpall, E

2009-11-01

358

Ex vivo gene therapy and vision.  

PubMed

Ex vivo gene therapy, a technique where genetic manipulation of cells is undertaken remotely and more safely since it is outside the body, is an emerging therapeutic strategy particularly well suited to targeting a specific organ rather than for treating a whole organism. The eye and visual pathways therefore make an attractive target for this approach. With blindness still so prevalent worldwide, new approaches to treatment would also be widely applicable and a significant advance in improving quality of life. Despite being a relatively new approach, ex vivo gene therapy has already achieved significant advances in the treatment of blindness in pre-clinical trials. In particular, advances are being achieved in corneal disease, glaucoma, retinal degeneration, stroke and multiple sclerosis through genetic re-programming of cells to replace degenerate cells and through more refined neuroprotection, modulation of inflammation and replacement of deficient protein. In this review we discuss the latest developments in ex vivo gene therapy relevant to the visual pathways and highlight the challenges that need to be overcome for progress into clinical trials. PMID:22424554

Gregory-Evans, Kevin; Bashar, A M A Emran; Tan, Malcolm

2012-04-01

359

Development of a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of bilobalide in rat plasma with special consideration of ex vivo bilobalide stability: application to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

The ex vivo instability of bilobalide containing three ?-lactone rings has been paid less attention by researchers who developed bioanalytical methods for bilobalide. In the present study, a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of bilobalide in rat plasma was developed with special consideration of ex vivo bilobalide stability. Several important factors affecting the stability of bilobalide in sampling and handling procedures were investigated. To prevent the ex vivo degradation of bilobalide, EDTA instead of heparin was used as an anticoagulant as well as an esterase inhibitor for blood collection and the separation of plasma was performed at 4 °C. 20 ?L of plasma sample was acidified with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, and then extracted with ethyl ether-methylene chloride (2:1, v/v). The extract was chromatographed on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 ?m) column using acetonitrile-10mM ammonium acetate-formic acid (90:10:0.4, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The analyte and the internal standard (ginkgolide B) were detected by selected reaction monitoring mode via negative electrospray ionization. The method was fully validated and proved to be linear over a concentration range of 5.0-5000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 5.2% and the accuracy was within 92.5-101%. The extraction recoveries ranged from 80.7% to 86.7%. The proposed method was successfully applied to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study of bilobalide in rats after intragastric administration of a single dose of bilobalide at 7, 14 and 28 mg/kg. PMID:24704454

Wang, Jie; Ouyang, Jingping; Liu, Youping; Jia, Xian; You, Song; He, Xin; Di, Xin

2014-07-01

360

In Vivo Gene Expression Dynamics of Tumor-Targeted Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The engineering of bacteria to controllably deliver therapeutics is an attractive application for synthetic biology. While most synthetic gene networks have been explored within microbes, there is a need for further characterization of in vivo circuit behavior in the context of applications where the host microbes are actively being investigated for efficacy and safety, such as tumor drug delivery. One major hurdle is that culture-based selective pressures are absent in vivo, leading to strain-dependent instability of plasmid-based networks over time. Here, we experimentally characterize the dynamics of in vivo plasmid instability using attenuated strains of S. typhimurium and real-time monitoring of luminescent reporters. Computational modeling described the effects of growth rate and dosage on live-imaging signals generated by internal bacterial populations. This understanding will allow us to harness the transient nature of plasmid-based networks to create tunable temporal release profiles that reduce dosage requirements and increase the safety of bacterial therapies.

2012-01-01

361

Cerenkov luminescence tomography for in vivo radiopharmaceutical imaging.  

PubMed

Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a cost-effective molecular imaging tool for biomedical applications of radiotracers. The introduction of Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) relative to planar CLI can be compared to the development of X-ray CT based on radiography. With CLT, quantitative and localized analysis of a radiopharmaceutical distribution becomes feasible. In this contribution, a feasibility study of in vivo radiopharmaceutical imaging in heterogeneous medium is presented. Coupled with a multimodal in vivo imaging system, this CLT reconstruction method allows precise anatomical registration of the positron probe in heterogeneous tissues and facilitates the more widespread application of radiotracers. Source distribution inside the small animal is obtained from CLT reconstruction. The experimental results demonstrated that CLT can be employed as an available in vivo tomographic imaging of charged particle emitters in a heterogeneous medium. PMID:21747821

Zhong, Jianghong; Qin, Chenghu; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Shuping; Zhang, Xing; Tian, Jie

2011-01-01

362

Cerenkov Luminescence Tomography for In Vivo Radiopharmaceutical Imaging  

PubMed Central

Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a cost-effective molecular imaging tool for biomedical applications of radiotracers. The introduction of Cerenkov luminescence tomography (CLT) relative to planar CLI can be compared to the development of X-ray CT based on radiography. With CLT, quantitative and localized analysis of a radiopharmaceutical distribution becomes feasible. In this contribution, a feasibility study of in vivo radiopharmaceutical imaging in heterogeneous medium is presented. Coupled with a multimodal in vivo imaging system, this CLT reconstruction method allows precise anatomical registration of the positron probe in heterogeneous tissues and facilitates the more widespread application of radiotracers. Source distribution inside the small animal is obtained from CLT reconstruction. The experimental results demonstrated that CLT can be employed as an available in vivo tomographic imaging of charged particle emitters in a heterogeneous medium.

Zhong, Jianghong; Qin, Chenghu; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Shuping; Zhang, Xing; Tian, Jie

2011-01-01

363

Nanocrystal targeting in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic nanostructures that interface with biological systems have recently attracted widespread interest in biology and medicine. Nanoparticles are thought to have potential as novel intravascular probes for both diagnostic (e.g., imaging) and therapeutic purposes (e.g., drug delivery). Critical issues for successful nanoparticle delivery include the ability to target specific tissues and cell types and escape from the biological particulate filter known as the reticuloendothelial system. We set out to explore the feasibility of in vivo targeting by using semiconductor quantum dots (qdots). Qdots are small (<10 nm) inorganic nanocrystals that possess unique luminescent properties; their fluorescence emission is stable and tuned by varying the particle size or composition. We show that ZnS-capped CdSe qdots coated with a lung-targeting peptide accumulate in the lungs of mice after i.v. injection, whereas two other peptides specifically direct qdots to blood vessels or lymphatic vessels in tumors. We also show that adding polyethylene glycol to the qdot coating prevents nonselective accumulation of qdots in reticuloendothelial tissues. These results encourage the construction of more complex nanostructures with capabilities such as disease sensing and drug delivery.

Åkerman, Maria E.; Chan, Warren C. W.; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

2002-10-01

364

Ex vivo gene transfer in the years to come  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synovial fibroblasts (SFs) have become a major target for ex vivo gene transfer in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but efficient transduction of RA-SFs still is a major problem. The low proliferation rate and heterogeneity of RA-SFs, together with their lack of highly specific surface receptors, have hampered a more extensive application of this technique. Improving transduction protocols with conventional viral vectors,

Thomas Pap; Renate E Gay; Ulf Müller-Ladner; Steffen Gay

2002-01-01

365

Transient streamlines: texture synthesis for in vivo flow visualisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a versatile technique for providing detailed information on blood vessel morphology and function. With its ability to acquire multi-dimensional cine flow data, MR is also an important tool for providing insight into blood flow patterns in vivo. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of texture synthesis for flow visualisation. Two related

Guang-Zhong Yang; Philip J. Kilner; Raad H. Mohiaddin; David N. Firmin

2000-01-01

366

Evaluation of robotic needle steering in ex vivo tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insertion velocity, tip asymmetry, and shaft diameter may influence steerable needle insertion paths in soft tissue. In this paper we examine the effects of these variables on needle paths in ex vivo goat liver, and demonstrate practical applications of robotic needle steering for ablation, biopsy, and brachytherapy. All experiments were performed using a new portable needle steering robot that steers

Ann Majewicz; Thomas R. Wedlick; Kyle Brandon Reed; Allison M. Okamura

2010-01-01

367

In-vivo optical imaging and spectroscopy of cerebral hemodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional optical imaging techniques, such as diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy and laser speckle imaging (LSI), were used in research and clinical settings to measure cerebral hemodynamics. In this thesis, theoretical and experimental developments of the techniques and their in-vivo applications ranging from small animals to adult humans are demonstrated. Near infrared diffuse optical techniques non-invasively measure hemoglobin concentrations, blood

Chao Zhou

2007-01-01

368

Culture materials affect ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic cells is im- cell populations on the substrates tested. CFU-GM expansion portant for applications such as cancer treatment, gene ther- was more sensitive to substrate materials than was total cell apy, and transfusion medicine. While cell culture systems expansion. The detrimental effects of a number of the materi- are widely used to evaluate the biocompatibility

Jennifer A. LaIuppa; Todd A. McAdams; E. Terry Papoutsakis; William M. Miller

1997-01-01

369

In vivo optical imaging to visualize photodynamic therapy-induced immune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by recent successes in growing intradermal tumors in the ears of mice and establishing the feasibility of in vivo confocal imaging of anatomic vessels in these tumors using fluorophore-conjugated antibodies to CD31, we are exploring a number of applications of optical fluorescence imaging in superficial murine tumor models in vivo. Immune responses induced by photodynamic therapy (PDT) are dynamic

Soumya Mitra; Thomas H. Foster

2009-01-01

370

Novel methods for adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to blood vessels in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is a promising method for studies of vascular biology and potentially for gene therapy. Intravascular approaches for gene transfer to blood vessels in vivo generally require interruption of blood flow and have several limitations. We have used two alternative approaches for gene transfer to blood vessels in vivo using perivascular application of vectors. First, replication-deficient adenovirus expressing

Hiroaki Ooboshi; C. David Ríos; Donald D. Heistad

1997-01-01

371

In vivo Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Micropuncture in Intact Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intravital microscopy theoretically provides the optimal conditions for studying specific organ functions. However, the application of microscopy in intact organs in vivo has been limited so far due to technical difficulties. The purpose of this study was to establish a method of in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for the study of endocytosis in proximal tubules of intact

Yoshio Ohno; Henrik Birn; Erik I. Christensen

2005-01-01

372

Programmable nanoparticle functionalization for in vivo targeting  

PubMed Central

The emerging demand for programmable functionalization of existing base nanocarriers necessitates development of an efficient approach for cargo loading that avoids nanoparticle redesign for each individual application. Herein, we demonstrate in vivo a postformulation strategy for lipidic nanocarrier functionalization with the use of a linker peptide, which rapidly and stably integrates cargos into lipidic membranes of nanocarriers after simple mixing through a self-assembling process. We exemplified this strategy by generating a VCAM-1-targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticle for in vivo targeting in atherosclerosis (ApoE-deficient) and breast cancer (STAT-1-deficient) models. In the atherosclerotic model, a 4.1-fold augmentation in binding to affected aortas was observed for targeted vs. nontargeted nanoparticles (P<0.0298). Likewise, in the breast cancer model, a 4.9-fold increase in the nanoparticle signal from tumor vasculature was observed for targeted vs. nontargeted nanoparticles (P<0.0216). In each case, the nanoparticle was registered with fluorine (19F) magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the nanoparticle perfluorocarbon core, yielding a quantitative estimate of the number of tissue-bound nanoparticles. Because other common nanocarriers with lipid coatings (e.g., liposomes, micelles, etc.) can employ this strategy, this peptide linker postformulation approach is applicable to more than half of the available nanosystems currently in clinical trials or clinical uses.—Pan, H., Myerson, J. W., Hu, L., Marsh, J. N., Hou K., Scott, M. J., Allen, J. S., Hu, G., San Roman, S., Lanza, G. M., Schreiber, R. D., Schlesinger, P. H., Wickline, S. A. Programmable nanoparticle functionalization for in vivo targeting.

Pan, Hua; Myerson, Jacob W.; Hu, Lingzhi; Marsh, Jon N.; Hou, Kirk; Scott, Michael J.; Allen, John S.; Hu, Grace; San Roman, Susana; Lanza, Gregory M.; Schreiber, Robert D.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Wickline, Samuel A.

2013-01-01

373

Application of in vivo micro-computed tomography in the temporal characterisation of subchondral bone architecture in a rat model of low-dose monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex, multifactorial joint disease affecting both the cartilage and the subchondral bone. Animal models of OA aid in the understanding of the pathogenesis of OA and testing suitable drugs for OA treatment. In this study we characterized the temporal changes in the tibial subchondral bone architecture in a rat model of low-dose monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA using in vivo micro-computed tomography (CT). Methods Male Wistar rats received a single intra-articular injection of low-dose MIA (0.2 mg) in the right knee joint and sterile saline in the left knee joint. The animals were scanned in vivo by micro-CT at two, six, and ten weeks post-injection, analogous to early, intermediate, and advanced stages of OA, to assess architectural changes in the tibial subchondral bone. The articular cartilage changes in the tibiae were assessed macroscopically and histologically at ten weeks post-injection. Results Interestingly, tibiae of the MIA-injected knees showed significant bone loss at two weeks, followed by increased trabecular thickness and separation at six and ten weeks. The trabecular number was decreased at all time points compared to control tibiae. The tibial subchondral plate thickness of the MIA-injected knee was increased at two and six weeks and the plate porosity was increased at all time points compared to control. At ten weeks, histology revealed loss of proteoglycans, chondrocyte necrosis, chondrocyte clusters, cartilage fibrillation, and delamination in the MIA-injected tibiae, whereas the control tibiae showed no changes. Micro-CT images and histology showed the presence of subchondral bone sclerosis, cysts, and osteophytes. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the low-dose MIA rat model closely mimics the pathological features of progressive human OA. The low-dose MIA rat model is therefore suitable to study the effect of therapeutic drugs on cartilage and bone in a non-trauma model of OA. In vivo micro-CT is a non-destructive imaging technique that can track structural changes in the tibial subchondral bone in this animal model, and could also be used to track changes in bone in preclinical drug intervention studies for OA treatments.

2011-01-01

374

In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos.  

PubMed

The ability to noninvasively image embryonic vascular anatomy in mouse models is an important requirement for characterizing the development of the normal cardiovascular system and malformations in the heart and vascular supply. Photoacoustic imaging, which can provide high resolution non invasive images of the vasculature based upon optical absorption by endogenous hemoglobin, is well suited to this application. In this study, photoacoustic images of mouse embryos were obtained ex vivo and in vivo. The images show intricate details of the embryonic vascular system to depths of up to 10 mm, which allowed whole embryos to be imaged in situ. To achieve this, an all-optical photoacoustic scanner and a novel time reversal image reconstruction algorithm, which provide deep tissue imaging capability while maintaining high spatial resolution and contrast were employed. This technology may find application as an imaging tool for preclinical embryo studies in developmental biology as well as more generally in preclinical and clinical medicine for studying pathologies characterized by changes in the vasculature. PMID:22734750

Laufer, Jan; Norris, Francesca; Cleary, Jon; Zhang, Edward; Treeby, Bradley; Cox, Ben; Johnson, Peter; Scambler, Pete; Lythgoe, Mark; Beard, Paul

2012-06-01

375

In vivo photoacoustic imaging of mouse embryos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to noninvasively image embryonic vascular anatomy in mouse models is an important requirement for characterizing the development of the normal cardiovascular system and malformations in the heart and vascular supply. Photoacoustic imaging, which can provide high resolution non invasive images of the vasculature based upon optical absorption by endogenous hemoglobin, is well suited to this application. In this study, photoacoustic images of mouse embryos were obtained ex vivo and in vivo. The images show intricate details of the embryonic vascular system to depths of up to 10 mm, which allowed whole embryos to be imaged in situ. To achieve this, an all-optical photoacoustic scanner and a novel time reversal image reconstruction algorithm, which provide deep tissue imaging capability while maintaining high spatial resolution and contrast were employed. This technology may find application as an imaging tool for preclinical embryo studies in developmental biology as well as more generally in preclinical and clinical medicine for studying pathologies characterized by changes in the vasculature.

Laufer, Jan; Norris, Francesca; Cleary, Jon; Zhang, Edward; Treeby, Bradley; Cox, Ben; Johnson, Peter; Scambler, Pete; Lythgoe, Mark; Beard, Paul

2012-06-01

376

Phase Diagrams in Vivo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity uses three experiments for students to construct a phase diagram; the experiments have been videotaped and can be seen online. The purpose of this laboratory as designed is to gain familiarity with simple phase diagrams, their construction, and their applications to the understanding of geological and environmental problems. Subsidiary objectives include development of strategies for data processing including evaluation of assumptions and sources of errors, as well as honing of computer, spreadsheet, presentation (tabular and graphical), and report writing skills.

377

Ciprofloxacin: in vivo genotoxicity studies.  

PubMed

The fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is widely used in antimicrobial therapy. It inhibits the bacterial gyrase and in high concentrations in vitro also the functionally related eukaryotic topoisomerase-II, which resulted in genotoxic effects in several in vitro tests. In order to evaluate the relevance of these findings, ciprofloxacin was tested in vivo for genotoxic activity using the following test systems: micronucleus test in bone marrow of mice, cytogenetic chromosome analysis in Chinese hamster, dominant lethal assay in male mice and UDS tests in primary rat and mouse hepatocytes in vivo. These results are compared with already published in vitro and in vivo studies with ciprofloxacin. All in vivo genotoxicity revealed no genotoxic effect for ciprofloxacin. In addition, ciprofloxacin was found to be non-carcinogenic in two rodent long-term bioassays. Therefore, ciprofloxacin is considered to be safe for therapeutic use. PMID:11673084

Herbold, B A; Brendler-Schwaab, S Y; Ahr, H J

2001-11-15

378

In Vivo Treg Suppression Assays  

PubMed Central

To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (Treg) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of Tregs upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model includ ing resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described.

Workman, Creg J.; Collison, Lauren W.; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Vignali, Dario A.A.

2011-01-01

379

In vivo imaging of neuroinflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We briefly outline the rationale for employing positron emission tomography (PET), using the ligand [11C](R)-PK11195, the binding site for which is highly expressed by activated microglia, in order (a) to detect in vivo neuroinflammatory changes occurring in a variety of brain diseases and at different disease stages and (b) to monitor the progression of neuroinflammation as a generic in vivo

Annachiara Cagnin; Alexander Gerhard; Richard B Banati

2002-01-01

380

Development and Application of a dapB-Based In Vivo Expression Technology System To Study Colonization of Rice by the Endophytic Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri A15  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas stutzeri A15 is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from paddy rice. Strain A15 is able to colonize and infect rice roots. This strain may provide rice plants with fixed nitrogen and hence promote plant growth. In this article, we describe the use of dapB-based in vivo expression technology to identify P. stutzeri A15 genes that are specifically induced during colonization and infection (cii). We focused on the identification of P. stutzeri A15 genes that are switched on during rice root colonization and are switched off during free-living growth on synthetic medium. Several transcriptional fusions induced in the rice rhizosphere were isolated. Some of the corresponding genes are involved in the stress response, chemotaxis, metabolism, and global regulation, while others encode putative proteins with unknown functions or without significant homology to known proteins.

Rediers, Hans; Bonnecarrere, Victoria; Rainey, Paul B.; Hamonts, Kelly; Vanderleyden, Jos; De Mot, Rene

2003-01-01

381

Human skin levels of retinoic acid and cytochrome P-450-derived 4-hydroxyretinoic acid after topical application of retinoic acid in vivo compared to concentrations required to stimulate retinoic acid receptor-mediated transcription in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Metabolism of retinoic acid to a less active metabolite, 4-hydroxyretinoic acid, occurs via cytochrome P-450 isozyme(s). Effect of a pharmacological dose of retinoic acid on the level of retinoic acid in skin and on cytochrome P-450 activity was investigated. A cream containing 0.1% retinoic acid or cream alone was applied topically to adult human skin for four days under occlusion. Treated areas were removed by a keratome and a microsomal fraction was isolated from each biopsy. In vitro incubation of 3H-retinoic acid with microsomes from in vivo retinoic acid treated sites resulted in a 4.5-fold increase (P = 0.0001, n = 13) in its transformation to 4-hydroxyretinoic acid in comparison to in vitro incubations with microsomes from in vivo cream alone treated sites. This cytochrome P-450 mediated activity was oxygen- and NADPH-dependent and was inhibited 68% by 5 microM ketoconazole (P = 0.0035, n = 8) and 51% by carbon monoxide (P = 0.02, n = 6). Cotransfection of individual retinoic acid receptors (RARs) or retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXR-alpha) and a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter plasmid containing a retinoic acid responsive element into CV-1 cells was used to determine the ED50 values for stimulation of CAT activity by retinoic acid and its metabolites. Levels of all trans and 13-cis RA in RA-treated tissues were greater than the ED50 values determined for all three RARs with these compounds. Furthermore, the level of all trans RA was greater than the ED50 for RXR-alpha whereas the 4-OH RA level was greater than the ED50 for RAR-beta and RAR-gamma but less than for RAR-alpha and RXR-alpha. These data suggest that there are sufficient amounts of retinoic acid in treated skin to activate gene transcription over both RARs and RXR-alpha.

Duell, E A; Astrom, A; Griffiths, C E; Chambon, P; Voorhees, J J

1992-01-01