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1

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

2

Head Start Teachers’ Views of Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research indicates that pre-kindergarten programs have not fully closed the gap between low-income and middle-income\\u000a children regarding phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge, two key predictors of later reading success. The current\\u000a study examined Head Start teachers’ views of and challenges in implementing instruction to improve children’s sound and word\\u000a skills. Teachers’ descriptions of their instructional strategies emphasized more planning

Patrick M. O’Leary; Mary K. Cockburn; Douglas R. Powell; Karen E. Diamond

2010-01-01

3

Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children.

Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

4

The Comprehensive Language Approach to Early Literacy: The Interrelationships Among Vocabulary, Phonological Sensitivity, and Print Knowledge Among Preschool-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes 2 points of view about the relationship between oral-language and literacy skills: The phonological sensitivity approach posits that vocabulary provides the basis for phonological sensitivity, which then is the key language ability supporting reading, and the comprehensive language approach (CLA) posits that varied language skills interact with literacy knowledge and continue to play a vital role in

David K. Dickinson; Allyssa McCabe; Louisa Anastasopoulos; Ellen S. Peisner-Feinberg; Michele D. Poe

2003-01-01

5

Development of Bilingual Phonological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Roles of Vocabulary, Letter Knowledge, and Prior Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories concerning the development of phonological awareness place special emphasis on lexical and orthographic knowledge. Given the large degree of variability in preschool classrooms that house Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELL), this study controlled for classroom effects by removing classroom means and covariances based on 158…

Anthony, Jason L.; Solari, Emily J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Schoger, Kimberly D.; Zhang, Zhou; Branum-Martin, Lee; Francis, David J.

2009-01-01

6

English­French bilingual children's phonological awareness and vocabulary skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between English-speaking children's vocabulary skills in English and in French and their phonological aware- ness skills in both languages. Forty-four kindergarten-aged children attending French immersion programs were administered a receptive vocabulary test, an expressive vocabulary test and a phonological awareness test in English and French. Results showed that French phonological awareness was largely explained by

Yu Chiang; Susan Rvachew

7

Reading Vocabulary Knowledge and Deafness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of the relationship of reading vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension offers a vocabulary acquisition model that asserts that both breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are critical to comprehension. The vocabulary/comprehension relationship and the acquisition of word meanings are compared for hearing and deaf students,…

Paul, Peter V.

1996-01-01

8

Effects of Frequency and Vocabulary Type on Phonological Speech Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological speech errors only rarely occur in common function words. This paper explores whether this effect is due to these words' status as function (closed-class) morphemes, or simply their high frequency of usage. Experiments that elicit phonological speech errors revealed strong requency effects (the segments of frequent words tend not to be misordered) and no effect of vocabulary type-the segments

Gary S. Dell

1990-01-01

9

Phonological short-term memory and vocabulary development: further evidence on the nature of the relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The nature and generality of the developmental association between phonological short-term memory and vocabulary knowledge was explored in two studies. Study 1 investigated whether the link between vocabulary and verbal memory arises from the requirement to articulate memory items at recall or from earlier processes involved in the encoding and storage of the verbal material. Four-year-old children were tested

Susan E. Gathercole; Elisabet Service; Graham J. Hitch; Anne-Marie Adams; Amanda J. Martin

1999-01-01

10

Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method: Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS; Samuelsson et al., 2005). The ILTS includes 1,045…

Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

2013-01-01

11

One Complicated Extended Family: The Influence of Alphabetic Knowledge and Vocabulary on Phonemic Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research evaluated possible sources of individual differences in early explicit, smaller segment phonological awareness. In particular, the unique contributions of oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge to phonemic awareness acquisition were examined across the first year of school. A total of 57 participants were tested in kindergarten…

Ouellette, Gene P.; Haley, Allyson

2013-01-01

12

Assessing the Depth of Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge*11  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the constructs of vocabulary knowledge, some of the estab- lished measures of the depth of L2 vocabulary knowledge, and proposes three measures to assess the depth of meaning dimension of L2 vocabulary knowl- edge and one measure of the breadth of meaning dimension of L2 vocabulary knowledge. The depth of meaning dimension refers to the knowledge of

Fransiscus Xaverius Mukarto

2005-01-01

13

Relationships between Vocabulary Size, Working Memory, and Phonological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The goals of this study were to evaluate the impact of short-term phonological awareness (PA) instruction presented in children's first language (L1; Spanish) on gains in their L1 and second language (L2; English) and to determine whether relationships exist between vocabulary size, verbal working memory, and PA in Spanish-speaking…

Gorman, Brenda K.

2012-01-01

14

Process Dissociation of Sight Vocabulary and Phonetic Decoding in Reading: A New Perspective on Surface and Phonological Dyslexias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research on developmental dyslexia has suggested a phonological core deficit hypothesis (e.g., Manis, Seidenberg, Doi, McBride-Chang, & Peterson, 1996; Stanovich, Siegel, & Gottardo, 1997) whereby pure cases of developmental phonological dyslexia (dysfunctional phonetic decoding processing but normal sight vocabulary processing) can exist,…

McDougall, Patricia; Borowsky, Ron; MacKinnon, G. E.; Hymel, Shelley

2005-01-01

15

What's in a Word? Using Content Vocabulary to "Generate" Growth in General Academic Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of vocabulary knowledge in supporting students' comprehension and understanding of their content-area reading is critical. This article explores how content-area teachers can help students become aware of, understand, and apply generative knowledge about English words to grow and develop their vocabularies. Generative vocabulary

Flanigan, Kevin; Templeton, Shane; Hayes, Latisha

2012-01-01

16

Assessing Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge: Depth Versus Breadth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a detailed analysis of techniques used for second language vocabulary assessment and the implied assumptions about the underlying construct of vocabulary knowledge. The article notes that existing measures of vocabulary size are uninformative as to the depth of knowledge that learners have about particular words. (56 references)…

Wesche, Marjorie; Paribakht, T. Sima

1996-01-01

17

Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.

Carrier, Sarah J.

2013-03-01

18

Comparing Multidimensional and Continuum Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: An Empirical Examination of the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second language vocabulary acquisition has been modeled both as multidimensional in nature and as a continuum wherein the learner's knowledge of a word develops along a cline from recognition through production. In order to empirically examine and compare these models, the authors assess the degree to which the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS;…

Stewart, Jeffrey; Batty, Aaron Olaf; Bovee, Nicholas

2012-01-01

19

Using Knowledge Networks to Develop Preschoolers' Content Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that children accrue vocabulary knowledge by understanding relationships between new words and their connected concepts. This article describes three research-based principles that preschool teachers can use to design shared book reading lessons that accelerate content vocabulary knowledge by helping young children to talk about…

Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Davis, Matthew J.; Simmons, Leslie; Nava-Walichowski, Miranda

2012-01-01

20

Demystifying Lexical Inferencing: The Role of Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This empirical study examines how English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners use their vocabulary knowledge for inferring meanings of unknown words in reading comprehension. The data, collected through interviews with young adult ESL students in Canadian universities, indicate that: (a) semantic and morphological aspects of vocabulary knowledge

Qian, David D.

2005-01-01

21

The Relationship between Phonological Memory, Receptive Vocabulary, and Fast Mapping in Young Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study assessed the fast mapping performance of children with specific language impairment (SLI) across the preschool to kindergarten age span in relation to their phonological memory and vocabulary development. Method: Fifty-three children diagnosed with SLI and 53 children with normal language (NL) matched for age and gender (30…

Gray, Shelley

2006-01-01

22

Promoting Vocabulary, Phonological Awareness and Concept about Print among Children at Risk for Learning Disability: Can E-Books Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the…

Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra; Fellah, Renat

2012-01-01

23

A Structural Factor Analysis of Vocabulary Knowledge and Relations to Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary knowledge may not be a unidimensional construct, and the relations between vocabulary knowledge and age may depend on the aspect of vocabulary knowledge being assessed. In this study, we examined the factor structure of a vocabulary test given to a large nationally representative sample of individuals (N ; 20,500). Results indicated that the vocabulary test is not unidimensional but

Ryan P. Bowles; Kevin J. Grimm; John J. McArdle

2005-01-01

24

Improving Teacher Candidates' Knowledge of Phonological Awareness: A Multimedia Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach students to develop PA is an important component of teacher preparation given its role in learning to read. We believe multimedia can play a key role in improving how educators acquire, master, and prepare to implement evidence-based reading instruction in any nation. One multimedia-based…

Kennedy, Michael J.; Driver, Melissa K.; Pullen, Paige C.; Ely, Emily; Cole, Mira T.

2013-01-01

25

Differentiating the Effects of Phonotactic Probability and Neighborhood Density on Vocabulary Comprehension and Production: A Comparison of Preschool Children with versus without Phonological Delays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To differentiate the effect of phonotactic probability from that of neighborhood density on a vocabulary probe administered to preschool children with or without phonological delays. Method: Twenty preschool children with functional phonological delays and 34 preschool children with typical language development completed a 121-item…

Storkel, Holly L.; Maekawa, Junko; Hoover, Jill R.

2010-01-01

26

Assessing the Roles of Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge in Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the relationships between depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension in English as a Second Language. Results support the hypotheses that scores on vocabulary size, depth of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension are highly and positively correlated; and scores on depth of vocabulary knowledge can make a…

Qian, David D.

1999-01-01

27

MATERIAL KNOWLEDGE FOR DESIGN - THE ARCHITECT'S VOCABULARY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how architects select materials during the design process. It argues that not only performance aspects are factored in, but also aspects related to the experience or sensorial stimulation take part in this choice. The argument starts by constructing a hierarchy in the vocabulary that is used to discuss spaces, elements and materials. This hierarchy is derived from

Lisa Wastiels; Ine Wouters; Jonas Lindekens

28

The English Vocabulary Knowledge of Indonesian University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article reports on a research study conducted in an Indonesian university to estimate the English vocabulary knowledge of a large sample of first-year students. This is a significant topic because the students are expected to be able to read English language texts in their university courses, something that is difficult for them to manage without an adequate knowledge of

Ari Nurweni; John Read

1999-01-01

29

An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study of EFL College Students' Vocabulary Knowledge, Syntactic Knowledge and Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Success in reading comprehension is usually seen as fundamental to the academic success of foreign language learners. Many language factors affect second language learners' reading comprehension, such as vocabulary, and syntactic or grammatical knowledge. In practice, vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge can not be discussed separately with…

Chen, Kuang Yu

2009-01-01

30

The Effects of Repetition on Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the effects of repetition (1, 3, 7, and 10 encounters) on word knowledge in a carefully controlled study of 121 Japanese students learning English. The study is innovative and original in several aspects. (1) The study uses 10 tests to measure knowledge of orthography, association, grammatical functions, syntax, and meaning…

Webb, Stuart

2007-01-01

31

The Vocabulary Knowledge Scale: A Critical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are normally two major research reasons for assessing second and foreign language (L2) knowledge: either to gauge a participant's actual level of competence/proficiency or to assess language development over a period of time. In testing, the corresponding contrasts are typically referred to as proficiency tests on the one hand and…

Bruton, Anthony

2009-01-01

32

Building Word Knowledge: Opportunities for Direct Vocabulary Instruction in General Education for Students with Reading Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct vocabulary instruction is 1 critical component of reading instruction. Although most students in the elementary grades need to continue building their vocabulary knowledge, students with reading difficulties are at the greatest risk of falling further behind each year in vocabulary and concept knowledge without effective instruction. This…

Wanzek, Jeanne

2014-01-01

33

Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

Zhang, Dongbo

2012-01-01

34

A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Foreign-Language Vocabulary Learning Enhanced by Phonological Rehearsal: The Role of the Right Cerebellum and Left Fusiform Gyrus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological research suggests that foreign-language vocabulary acquisition recruits the phonological loop for verbal working memory. To depict the neural underpinnings and shed light on the process of foreign language learning, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging of Japanese participants without previous exposure to the Uzbek…

Makita, Kai; Yamazaki, Mika; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Koike, Takahiko; Kochiyama, Takanori; Yokokawa, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Haruyo; Sadato, Norihiro

2013-01-01

35

Semantic representation of CDC-PHIN vocabulary using Simple Knowledge Organization System.  

PubMed

PHIN Vocabulary Access and Distribution System (VADS) promotes the use of standards based vocabulary within CDC information systems. However, the current PHIN vocabulary representation hinders its wide adoption. Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a W3C draft specification to support the formal representation of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) within the framework of the Semantic Web. We present a method of adopting SKOS to represent PHIN vocabulary in order to enable automated information sharing and integration. PMID:18999292

Zhu, Min; Mirhaji, Parsa

2008-01-01

36

Listeners' knowledge of phonological universals: Evidence from nasal clusters  

PubMed Central

Optimality Theory explains typological markedness implications by proposing that all speakers possess universal constraints penalizing marked structure, irrespective of the evidence provided by their language (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). An account of phonological perception sketched here entails that markedness constraints reveal their presence by inducing perceptual ‘repairs’ to structures ungrammatical in the hearer’s language. As onset clusters of falling sonority are typologically marked relative to those of rising sonority (Greenberg, 1978), we examine English speakers’ perception of nasal-initial clusters—lacking in English. We find greater accuracy for rising-sonority clusters, evidencing knowledge of markedness constraints favoring such onset clusters. The misperception of sonority falls cannot be accounted for by stimulus artifacts (the materials are perceived accurately by speakers of Russian—a language allowing nasal-initial clusters) nor by phonetic failure (English speakers misperceive falls even with printed materials) nor by putative relations of such onsets to the statistics of the English lexicon.

Berent, Iris; Lennertz, Tracy; Smolensky, Paul; Vaknin, Vered

2009-01-01

37

Kindergarten Letter Knowledge, Phonological Skills, and Memory Processes: Relative Effects on Early Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kindergarten phonological awareness tasks are first compared as to their predictability of later literacy performance independent of letter knowledge for a group of German children. Results indicate that the phonological awareness tasks vary in their prediction of later literacy performance, which includes spelling and a variety of reading tasks in the first and second grades. A second concern was the

Jan Carol Näslund; Wolfgang Schneider

1996-01-01

38

Changes in Letter Sound Knowledge Are Associated with Development of Phonological Awareness in Pre-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Letter sound knowledge, which, together with phonological awareness, is highly predictive of pre-school children's reading acquisition, derives from children's knowledge of their associated letter names and the phonological patterns of those names. In this study of 66 monolingual pre-school children we examined whether phonological patterns…

Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia

2006-01-01

39

Children with Down Syndrome Use Phonological Knowledge in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an experiment that links phonological awareness and reading performance in children with Down syndrome. Examines the results within the framework of the author's metalinguistic development theory in which alphabet reading is a pacemaker for the development of explicit phonological awareness. (PM)

Gombert, Jean-Emile

2002-01-01

40

Changing Models across Cultures: Associations of Phonological Awareness and Morphological Structure Awareness with Vocabulary and Word Recognition in Second Graders from Beijing, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data provided by approximately 100 second graders each from Beijing, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States, we investigated relations among phonological awareness, morphological structure awareness, vocabulary, and word recognition. Our results indicate that across languages, phonological awareness and morphological structure awareness are…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Liu, Hongyun; Wagner, Richard K.; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Cheuk, Cecilia S-M.; Muse, Andrea

2005-01-01

41

Investigating the Relationship between Vocabulary Knowledge and Academic Reading Performance: An Assessment Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted in the context of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) research to conceptually validate the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in reading comprehension in academic settings and to empirically evaluate a test measuring three elements of the depth dimension of vocabulary knowledge, including,…

Qian, David D.

2002-01-01

42

Contrasting Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge on Temporal and Parietal Brain Structure across Lifespan  

PubMed Central

Using behavioral, structural, and functional imaging techniques, we demonstrate contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure in 47 healthy volunteers who ranged in age from 7 to 73 years. In the left posterior supramarginal gyrus, vocabulary knowledge was positively correlated with gray matter density in teenagers but not adults. This region was not activated during auditory or visual sentence processing, and activation was unrelated to vocabulary skills. Its gray matter density may reflect the use of an explicit learning strategy that links new words to lexical or conceptual equivalents, as used in formal education and second language acquisition. By contrast, in left posterior temporal regions, gray matter as well as auditory and visual sentence activation correlated with vocabulary knowledge throughout lifespan. We propose that these effects reflect the acquisition of vocabulary through context, when new words are learnt within the context of semantically and syntactically related words.

Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Filippi, Roberto; Harth, Helen; Price, Cathy J.

2010-01-01

43

Teachers' Knowledge and Skills in Phonological Awareness in United Arab Emirates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' knowledge and skills in phonological awareness (PA). The sample included 145 teachers teaching first to 3rd grade elementary public schools in United Arab Emirates (UAE). A valid and reliable instrument was developed together the data. The instrument included to major sections; knowledge and…

Tibi, Sana

2005-01-01

44

The Value of Vocabulary Knowledge Measures in Predicting ESL Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the relationships among vocabulary size, depth of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension in English as a second language (ESL). Subjects were 74 native Chinese- and Korean-speaking students in intensive academic ESL courses in two Ontario universities. They were administered questionnaires to gather demographic and…

Qian, David D.

45

Self-reported reading as a predictor of vocabulary knowledge.  

PubMed

25 engineering students in India, who were highly motivated to improve their English, filled out a questionnaire about their reading habits in English and took a demanding vocabulary test based on words taken from preparation books for the Graduate Records Examination. The correlation between reading habits and vocabulary was substantial (r = .78). PMID:24611248

Pratheeba, N; Krashen, S

2013-10-01

46

Naming Speed, Phonological Awareness, and Orthographic Knowledge in Second Graders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study with 85 second graders found that naming speed accounted for a sizable amount of unique variance in reading with vocabulary and phonemic awareness partialled out. Marked difficulties on reading tasks were seen in students with both slow naming speed and low phonemic awareness, thus supporting the double deficit hypothesis of reading…

Manis, Franklin R.; Doi, Lisa Michelle; Bhadha, Bhaktawahr

2000-01-01

47

Assessing the Role of Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge in Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the extent to which scores on depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge as two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge would contribute to predicting the EFL learners' reading performance with a minimum vocabulary size of 3000 word families and also to find out the difference, if any, between the reading…

Rashidi, Nasser; Khosravi, Negar

2010-01-01

48

Home Literacy Environment and Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children: Differential Effects for Rhyme and Phoneme Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature to date suggests that the best predictor of early reading ability, phonological awareness, appears to be associated with the acquisition of letter-sound and vocabulary knowledge and with the development of well-defined phonological representations. It further suggests that at least some aspects of phonological awareness critically depend upon literacy exposure. In this study of 4- to 6-year-olds, we examine

Judith G. Foy; Virginia A. Mann

2003-01-01

49

Trait and Process Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge and Verbal Ability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study sought to investigate the construct validity of vocabulary tests and the nature of verbal ability by integrating findings and theories of cognitive psychology with those of differential psychology. The study included three kinds of measurements...

B. Marshalek

1981-01-01

50

Knowledge of words, knowledge about words: Dimensions of vocabulary in first and second language learners in sixth grade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite acknowledging the complex nature of vocabulary knowledge, researchers have rarely investigated the dimensionality\\u000a of this construct empirically. This study was designed to test a multi-dimensional model of English vocabulary knowledge for\\u000a sixth-grade students from linguistically diverse backgrounds (n = 584). Participants included language minority students learning English as a second language (L2) and students who learned\\u000a English as a first language

Michael J. KiefferNonie; Nonie K. Lesaux

51

The Foundation of Literacy Skills in Korean: The Relationship between Letter-Name Knowledge and Phonological Awareness and Their Relative Contribution to Literacy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique…

Kim, Young-Suk

2009-01-01

52

Perceptual Recovery from Consonant-Cluster Simplification in Korean Using Language-Specific Phonological Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined whether perceptual recovery from Korean consonant-cluster simplification is based on language-specific phonological knowledge. In tri-consonantal C1C2C3 sequences such as /lkt/ and /lpt/ in Seoul Korean, either C1 or C2 can be completely deleted. Seoul Koreans monitored for C2 targets (/p/ or /k/, deleted or preserved) in…

Cho, Taehong; McQueen, James M.

2011-01-01

53

Strategies and Precise Vocabulary Knowledge: Exploring the Relationships Among Mathematics Vocabulary, Problem Solving, and Confidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this action research study I focused on my eighth grade pre-algebra students’ abilities to attack problems with enthusiasm and self confidence whether they completely understand the concepts or not. I wanted to teach them specific strategies and introduce and use precise vocabulary as a part of the problem solving process in hopes that I would see students’ confidence improve

Deb Borgelt

2008-01-01

54

Does Strength of Phonological Representation Predict Phonological Awareness in Preschool Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on aspects of spoken language skill that may contribute to the development of phonological awareness, as manifested in rhyme awareness and phoneme awareness. Examined rhyme awareness, articulation, speech perception, vocabulary, and letter and word knowledge in 40 preschool children. (Author/VWL)

Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia

2001-01-01

55

Does Phonological Short-Term Memory Causally Determine Vocabulary Learning? Toward a Computational Resolution of the Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between nonword repetition ability and vocabulary size and vocabulary learning has been a topic of intense research interest and investigation over the last two decades, following the demonstration that nonword repetition accuracy is predictive of vocabulary size (Gathercole & Baddeley, 1989). However, the nature of this…

Gupta, Prahlad; Tisdale, Jamie

2009-01-01

56

Vocabulary knowledge and growth in immersion and regular language-learning programmes in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate vocabulary knowledge and growth across two different language-learning programmes in Hong Kong. The two programmes compared were English immersion programmes (IM) and regular English second-language programmes (RL2). While previous research has identified an overall advantage to IM with respect to language development, comparatively little research on vocabulary development in IM has examined

Yuen Yi Lo; Victoria A. Murphy

2010-01-01

57

Linking vocabulary to imagery: Improving science knowledge through multimedia design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study looked at the vocabulary development of four urban sixth-grade students as they used laser disk and computer technologies to view images and then connect those images to textual definitions through multimedia design. Focusing on three science content areas (the water cycle, the rock cycle, and the web of life), students worked in pairs to create their own

Tracy R. Adler

2000-01-01

58

Improving the Knowledge and Application of Vocabulary within Content Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research paper depicts the teacher-developed instructional strategies to enhance vocabulary instruction among school-age students in the public school setting. The selected population spans across three school districts and includes a third grade classroom, a fifth grade classroom, as well as a select fourth and fifth grade students…

Austermuehle, Dana; Kautz, Tabitha; Sprenzel, Jennifer

2007-01-01

59

People's Knowledge of Phonological Universals: Evidence from Fricatives and Stops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates whether people possess knowledge of fine-grained distinctions among the sonority levels that are unattested in their language. Specifically, I investigate the whether people encode the putatively universal distinction between the sonority levels of fricatives and stops. Across languages, fricatives and stops differ…

Lennertz, Tracy Jordan

2010-01-01

60

Vocabulary Knowledge and Growth in Immersion and Regular Language-Learning Programmes in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate vocabulary knowledge and growth across two different language-learning programmes in Hong Kong. The two programmes compared were English immersion programmes (IM) and regular English second-language programmes (RL2). While previous research has identified an overall advantage to IM with respect to language…

Lo, Yuen Yi; Murphy, Victoria A.

2010-01-01

61

Bilingual Vocabulary Knowledge and Arrival Age among Japanese Heritage Language Students at "Hoshuukoo"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines bilingual vocabulary knowledge in relation to arrival age among first language (L1) Japanese students attending "hoshuukoo" (i.e., supplementary academic schools for Japanese-speaking children) in the United States. It also examines the relationship between L1 Japanese and English as a second language (L2), as…

Mori, Yoshiko; Calder, Toshiko M.

2013-01-01

62

Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding. Students might be able to formally recite a definition for a term without actually having understood the meaning of the term and its connection to other terms or to related concepts. Researchers (Cassels & Johnstone, 1983; Gabel, 1999;

Peggy Labrosse

2007-01-01

63

Tracking the unique effects of print exposure in children: Associations with vocabulary, general knowledge, and spelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the construct validity of a recently introduced measure of children's exposure to print, the Title Recognition Test (TRT). In samples of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children, the TRT demonstrated significant correlations with spelling, vocabulary, verbal fluency, word knowledge, and general information. Most important, it accounted for variance in these criterion variables when differences in both general ability

Anne E. Cunningham; Keith E. Stanovich

1991-01-01

64

Evaluation of an In-depth Vocabulary Knowledge Measure for Assessing Reading Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central purpose of this study was to empirically evaluate an in-depth vocabulary knowledge measure in the context of developing the new TOEFL test. The study was carried out with a sample of 207 international students attending an intensive English as a second language (ESL) program in a major Canadian university, in order to determine whether…

Qian, D.D.; Schedl, M.

2004-01-01

65

Letter Knowledge, Phonological Processing, and Print Knowledge: Skill Development in Nonreading Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development of reading skills was examined in 4-year-old children from low-income homes attending a prekindergarten program. Fall to spring gains in letter identification were examined and compared with skills in phonological processing, rhyme detection, and environmental print, and with performance on a screening tool ("Get Ready to Read"). It…

Molfese, Victoria J.; Modglin, Arlene A.; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Neamon, Jessica D.; Berg, Shelby A.; Berg, C. Jeffrey; Molnar, Andrew

2006-01-01

66

The simple view of reading redux: vocabulary knowledge and the independent components hypothesis.  

PubMed

This study investigated the hypothesis that the contributions of oral language comprehension (C) and word recognition (D) to reading comprehension (R) in the simple view of reading (SVR) are not independent because a component of C (vocabulary knowledge) directly contributes to the variance in D. Three analysis procedures (hierarchical regression analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling) were used to analyze data obtained from a sample (N = 122) of 7-year-old students who were administered tests of vocabulary knowledge, nonword reading, word recognition (two standardized tests), and parallel forms of listening and reading comprehension. Results from the regression analysis indicated that vocabulary made a contribution to R beyond that made by word recognition and listening comprehension; results from the exploratory factor analysis showed that two factors (Decoding and Linguistic Comprehension) were extracted, with vocabulary and listening comprehension loading highly on the Linguistic Comprehension factor; and results from structural equation modeling revealed that the latent construct, C, influenced R not only directly but also indirectly through the latent construct, D. PMID:22293683

Tunmer, William E; Chapman, James W

2012-01-01

67

Teaching New Words to Children with Poor Existing Vocabulary Knowledge: A Controlled Evaluation of the Definition and Context Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children who have poor vocabulary knowledge are at risk of wider language weaknesses and reading comprehension difficulties, which will impact upon their educational achievement. The central question addressed in this paper is how best to teach new vocabulary items to these children. Aims: To investigate the effects of two different…

Nash, Hannah; Snowling, Margaret

2006-01-01

68

An Experimental Analysis of the Affective Dimensions of Deep Vocabulary Knowledge Used in Inferring the Meaning of Words in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines an under-studied component of deep vocabulary knowledge, affective meaning, which is used to convey attitudes. Two affective dimensions, evaluation and potency, are examined to determine whether they influence the vocabulary choices of native speakers of American-English in describing interpersonal interactions. In Experiment…

Corrigan, Roberta

2007-01-01

69

Phonological Short-Term Memory and New Word Learning in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-five 5-year old children participated in 4 experimental tasks of word learning that varied systematically in the amounts of phonological and nonphonological learning required. Measures of the children’s performances on 2 measures of phonological memory (digit span and nonword repetition), vocabulary knowledge, and nonverbal ability were also obtained. Learning of the sound structures of new words was significantly, and to

Susan E. Gathercole; Graham J. Hitch; Elisabet Service; Amanda J. Martin

1997-01-01

70

Exploring the Increase of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge in the Foreign Language: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper tracks the increase in the overall word reception knowledge of 224 young pupils in their 4th, 5th and 6th grades of primary education and in their 1st year of secondary education (7th grade), who learn EFL in a formal context. The 2,000 word frequency band of The Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt and Clapham, 2001, version 2) is…

Gallego, Melania Terrazas; Llach, Maria del Pilar Agustin

2009-01-01

71

Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge in Low-Functioning Autism as Assessed by Eye Movements, Pupillary Dilation, and Event-Related Potentials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have been testing the hypothesis that relatively implicit measures of cognitive processing (eye movements, pupillary dilation monitoring, and the N400 component of event-related potentials) will prove sensitive to receptive vocabulary knowledge, even i...

B. Gordon K. Ledoux

2012-01-01

72

Phonological Knowledge Guides Two-year-olds' and Adults' Interpretation of Salient Pitch Contours in Word Learning  

PubMed Central

Phonology provides a system by which a limited number of types of phonetic variation can signal communicative intentions at multiple levels of linguistic analysis. Because phonologies vary from language to language, acquiring the phonology of a language demands learning to attribute phonetic variation appropriately. Here, we studied the case of pitch-contour variation. In English, pitch contour does not differentiate words, but serves other functions, like marking yes/no questions and conveying emotions. We show that, in accordance with their phonology, English-speaking adults and two-year-olds do not interpret salient pitch contours as inherent to novel words. We taught participants a new word with consistent segmental and pitch characteristics, and then tested word recognition for trained and deviant pronunciations using an eyegaze-based procedure. Vowel-quality mispronunciations impaired recognition, but large changes in pitch contour did not. By age two, children already apply their knowledge of English phonology to interpret phonetic consistencies in their experience with words.

Quam, Carolyn; Swingley, Daniel

2009-01-01

73

The Contributions of Phonological Awareness and Letter-Name Knowledge to Letter-Sound Acquisition--A Cross-Classified Multilevel Model Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…

Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu

2010-01-01

74

How Does Second Language Vocabulary Grow over Time? A Multi-Methodological Study of Incremental Vocabulary Knowledge Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the longitudinal development of L2 vocabulary by 17 individual adult L2 learners in an English as a second language (ESL) instructed context over one academic year, combining a longitudinal case study design with two cross-sectional comparisons in order to enhance (a) detailed documentation addressing the idiosyncrasy of L2…

Huang, Hung-Tzu

2010-01-01

75

Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Program on Word Knowledge and Passage Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cluster randomized trial estimated the effects of a supplemental vocabulary program, Elements of Reading[R]: vocabulary on student vocabulary and passage comprehension in moderate- to high-poverty elementary schools. Forty-four schools participated over a period spanning 2 consecutive school years. At baseline, 1,057 teachers and 16,471 students…

Apthorp, Helen; Randel, Bruce; Cherasaro, Trudy; Clark, Tedra; McKeown, Margaret; Beck, Isabel

2012-01-01

76

"I Know the Word, but..." Korean-English Late Bilinguals' Vocabulary Knowledge in the L1 and L2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilinguals sometimes report on difficulties in finding words while speaking in the first language (L1) or the second language (L2), which is frequently attributed to the negative influence of one language onto the other. This paper addresses this issue by investigating the relationship between L1 and L2 vocabulary knowledge of Korean-English…

Kim, Sun Hee Ok

2005-01-01

77

The Role of Vocabulary Knowledge, Syntactic Awareness and Metacognitive Awareness in Reading Comprehension of Adult English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of vocabulary knowledge, syntactic awareness and metacognitive awareness in reading comprehension has been established in the first language research. By contrast, fewer studies have documented the role of these components in the reading comprehension of English language learners (ELLs) in the field of second language (L2) research. The proposed study specifically focused on an L2-only model to examine

Ying Guo

2008-01-01

78

The Relationship Between Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and L2 Learners’ Lexical Inferencing Strategy Use and Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between ESL learners' depth of vocabulary knowledge, their lexical inferencing strategy use, and their success in deriving word meaning from context. Participants read a passage containing 10 unknown words and attempted to derive the meanings of the unknown words from context. Introspective think-aloud protocols were used to discover the degree and types of inferencing strategies

HOSSEIN NASSAJI

2006-01-01

79

The Relationship between Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and L2 Learners' Lexical Inferencing Strategy Use and Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between English as a second language (ESL) learners' depth of vocabulary knowledge, their lexical inferencing strategy use, and their success in deriving word meaning from context. Participants read a passage containing 10 unknown words and attempted to derive the meanings of the unknown words from context.…

Nassaji, Hossein

2006-01-01

80

The Relationship between Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge and L2 Learners' Lexical Inferencing Strategy Use and Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between ESL learners' depth of vocabulary knowledge, their lexical inferencing strategy use, and their success in deriving word meaning from context. Participants read a passage containing 10 unknown words and attempted to derive the meanings of the unknown words from context. Introspective think-aloud…

Nassaji, Hossein

2004-01-01

81

The Role of Children's Phonological and Semantic Knowledge in Learning to Read Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of phonology and semantics on word learning in 5- and 6-year-old children was explored. In Experiment 1, children learned to read words varying in spelling-sound consistency and imageability. Consistency affected performance on early trials, whereas imageability affected performance on later trials. Individual differences among children…

Duff, Fiona J.; Hulme, Charles

2012-01-01

82

The role of phonetic knowledge in phonological patterning Corpus and survey evidence from Tagalog in  

Microsoft Academic Search

The task of linguistics could be viewed as discovering and explaining cross-linguistic regularities. In the realm of phonology, at least, it has become clear that this task is not as straightforward as it might seem. To take a simple example, it has observed that many languages assimilate a nasal consonant in place to a following obstruent (\\/an+pa\\/\\u0009[ampa]), while assimilation

Kie Zuraw

2005-01-01

83

Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

2013-01-01

84

Toward a Better Understanding of First Language Vocabulary Knowledge: The Case of Second-Generation Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the first language (L1) vocabulary knowledge in a large-scale sample (n = 70) of second-generation Russian-Jewish immigrants in Israel. The interest in this research population follows from the unique demographic, sociocultural, linguistic, and psychological distinctiveness of RJ immigration in Israel. The study focused on the question of whether the L1 vocabulary knowledge

Mila Schwartz; Ely Kozminsky; Mark Leikin

2009-01-01

85

Contribution of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability to L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced EFL learners: testing direct and indirect effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness\\u000a and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in\\u000a a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling) methods, the study found that morphological awareness contributed to L2\\u000a vocabulary knowledge directly

Dongbo Zhang; Keiko Koda

86

Cognitive Correlates of Vocabulary Growth in English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study modeled vocabulary trajectories in 91 English language learners (ELLs) with Punjabi, Tamil, or Portuguese home languages, and 50 English monolinguals (EL1) from Grades 1 to 6. The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between phonological awareness and phonological short-term memory and vocabulary were examined. ELLs underperformed…

Farnia, Fataneh; Geva, Esther

2011-01-01

87

Non-Word Repetition in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Deficit in Phonological Working Memory or in Long-Term Verbal Knowledge?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the effects of long-term memory (LTM) verbal knowledge on short-term memory (STM) verbal recall in a sample of Italian children affected by different subtypes of specific language impairment (SLI). The aim of the study was to evaluate if phonological working memory (PWM) abilities of SLI children can be supported by LTM linguistic representations and if

Claudia Casalini; Daniela Brizzolara; Anna Chilosi; Paola Cipriani; Stefania Marcolini; Chiara Pecini; Silvia Roncoli; Cristina Burani

2007-01-01

88

Size and Strength: Do We Need Both to Measure Vocabulary Knowledge?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and validation of a test of vocabulary size and strength. The first part of the article sets out the theoretical rationale for the test, and describes how the size and strength constructs have been conceptualized and operationalized. The second part of the article focusses on the process of test validation,…

Laufer, B.; Elder, C.; Hill, K.; Congdon, P.

2004-01-01

89

What's in a Word? Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Three Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding how words are created is potentially a key component to being able to learn and understand new vocabulary words. However, research on morphological awareness is relatively rare. In this study, over 660 preschool-aged children from three language groups (Cantonese, Mandarin, and Korean speakers) in which compounding morphology is…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua; Fletcher, Paul; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Wong, Anita; Leung, Kawai

2008-01-01

90

Developing Vocabulary and Conceptual Knowledge for Low-Income Preschoolers: A Design Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test, and iteratively derive principles of word learning and word organization that could help to theoretically advance our understanding of vocabulary development for low-income preschoolers. Six Head Start teachers in morning and afternoon programs and their children (N = 89) were selected…

Neuman, Susan B.; Dwyer, Julie

2011-01-01

91

Picture naming deficits in developmental dyslexia: the phonological representations hypothesis.  

PubMed

The picture and word naming performance of developmental dyslexics was compared to the picture and word naming performance of non-dyslexic ("garden variety") poor readers, reading age, and chronological age-matched controls. The stimulus list used for both tasks was systematically manipulated for word length and word frequency. In order to examine picture naming errors in more depth, an object name recognition test assessed each subject's vocabulary knowledge of those names which they were unable to spontaneously label in the picture naming task. Findings indicated that the dyslexic and the garden variety poor readers exhibited a picture naming deficit relative to both chronological and reading age-matched controls. Findings also indicated that both groups of impaired readers obtained superior scores in the word naming task than in the picture naming task, while both groups of controls showed no difference in performance across tasks. The dyslexics' picture naming errors, but not those of the garden variety poor readers, were particularly marked on polysyllabic and/or low frequency words, indicating a possible phonological basis to the picture naming deficit of the dyslexic children. These children also recognized significantly more unnamed target words than all comparison groups, suggesting a particular difficulty in retrieving the phonological codes of known picture names rather than a vocabulary deficit. Results are discussed in terms of dyslexics' difficulty in encoding full segmental phonological representations of names in long-term memory and/or in processing these representations in order to generate required names on demand. PMID:9070416

Swan, D; Goswami, U

1997-02-15

92

Building Vocabulary Knowledge and Phonological Awareness Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment through Hybrid Language Intervention: A Feasibility Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background & Aims: Preschool and early school-aged children with specific language impairment not only have spoken language difficulties, but also are at risk of future literacy problems. Effective interventions targeting both spoken language and emergent literacy skills for this population are limited. This paper reports a feasibility study of a…

Munro, Natalie; Lee, Kerrie; Baker, Elise

2008-01-01

93

Phonologic-graphemic transcodifier for Portuguese Language spoken in Brazil (PLB)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automatic speech-to-text transformer system, suited to unlimited vocabulary, is presented. The basic acoustic unit considered are the allophones of the phonemes corresponding to the Portuguese language spoken in Brazil (PLB). The input to the system is a phonetic sequence, from a former step of isolated word recognition of slowly spoken speech. In a first stage, the system eliminates phonetic elements that don't belong to PLB. Using knowledge sources such as phonetics, phonology, orthography, and PLB specific lexicon, the output is a sequence of written words, ordered by probabilistic criterion that constitutes the set of graphemic possibilities to that input sequence. Pronunciation differences of some regions of Brazil are considered, but only those that cause differences in phonological transcription, because those of phonetic level are absorbed, during the transformation to phonological level. In the final stage, all possible written words are analyzed for orthography and grammar point of view, to eliminate the incorrect ones.

Fragadasilva, Francisco Jose; Saotome, Osamu; Deoliveira, Carlos Alberto

94

How word decoding, vocabulary and prior topic knowledge predict reading comprehension. A study of language-minority students in Norwegian fifth grade classrooms.  

PubMed

This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native Turkish speakers) from 21 different fifth grade classrooms in Norway. Multiple regression analyses revealed that word decoding and different facets of L2 vocabulary explained most of the variance in Woodcock Passage Comprehension, but a smaller proportion of variance in the Global Warming Test. For the Global Warming Test, prior topic knowledge was the most influential predictor. Furthermore, L2 vocabulary depth appeared to moderate the contribution of prior topic knowledge to the Global Warming Test in this sample of language minority students. PMID:22308061

Rydland, Veslemøy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver; Fulland, Helene

2012-02-01

95

Content Area Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2014-01-01

96

Development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension: receptive vocabulary and conceptual knowledge.  

PubMed

Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy are common in our daily communication. This is one of the first studies to investigate metaphor and metonymy comprehension using a developmental approach. Forty-five typically developing individuals participated in a metaphor-metonymy verbal comprehension task incorporating 20 short picture-stories. Cross-sectional trajectory analyses linking task performance to either chronological age or receptive vocabulary (mental age, MA) were used to compare the development of metaphor and metonymy. Results showed that development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension is strongly linked with chronological and MA, but metaphor comprehension develops at a slower rate compared to metonymy. It was also found that participants, across all ages, consistently showed around 21% better performance on metonymy. The relationship between metaphor and metonymy comprehension is discussed in terms of linguistic and cognitive models of figurative language comprehension arguing that metonymy is cognitively more basic than metaphor. PMID:20849033

Rundblad, Gabriella; Annaz, Dagmara

2010-09-01

97

Morphological Awareness in Chinese: Unique Associations of Homophone Awareness and Lexical Compounding to Word Reading and Vocabulary Knowledge in Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An in-depth exploration of the associations of two aspects of morphological awareness in Chinese--homophone awareness and lexical compounding awareness--to Chinese word reading and vocabulary knowledge was the primary focus of the present study. Among 154 9-year-old Hong Kong Chinese children, both lexical compounding and homophone awareness were…

Liu, Phil D.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Terry T.-Y.; Shu, Hua; Wong, Anita M.-Y.

2013-01-01

98

The Impact of Using Student-Dictated Oral Review Stories on Science Vocabulary, Content Knowledge, and Non-Fiction Writing Skills of First Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The…

Bishoff, Sandra Wells

2010-01-01

99

Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

2012-01-01

100

Phonological Awareness and Decoding Skills in Deaf Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the phonological awareness skills of a group of deaf adolescents and how these skills correlated with decoding skills (single word and non-word reading) and receptive vocabulary. Twenty, congenitally profoundly deaf adolescents with at least average nonverbal cognitive skills were tested on a range of phonological awareness…

Gravenstede, L.

2009-01-01

101

A Vocabulary-Added Reading Intervention for English Learners At-Risk of Reading Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the added value of a vocabulary plus phonological awareness (vocab+) intervention against a phonological awareness (PA only) intervention only. The vocabulary intervention built networks among words through attention to morphological and semantic relationships. This supplementary classroom instruction augmented existing…

Filippini, Alexis L.; Gerber, Michael M.; Leafstedt, Jill M.

2012-01-01

102

The Effects of Individualized, Online Vocabulary Instruction on Picture Vocabulary Scores: An Efficacy Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is of fundamental importance to reading comprehension, and many students lack the vocabulary knowledge necessary to facilitate learning to read. A study was conducted to determine the effects of an individualized, online vocabulary program on picture vocabulary test scores. Elementary summer school students (N = 43), entering…

Fehr, Charles N.; Davison, Mark L.; Graves, Michael F.; Sales, Gregory C.; Seipel, Ben; Sekhran-Sharma, Sarah

2012-01-01

103

PUS in turbulent times II - A shifting vocabulary that brokers inter-disciplinary knowledge.  

PubMed

To reflect further on 20 years of the journal, we present a lexicographic and bibliometric study of all papers published in Public Understanding of Science (PUS). Lexicographical analysis of the vocabulary of 465 abstracts shows five classes of associated concepts in two periods, 1992-2001 and 2002-2010. The concern for public attitudes and mass media coverage remains on the card; while language has shifted from 'public understanding' to 'public engagement' and environmental concerns have waned then waxed. The bibliometric analysis traces the position of PUS in the inter-citation network of 165 related journals (ISI Web of Science citation database), grouped into 10 disciplines for the purpose of this analysis. Indicators derived from network logic show that the established position of PUS has been stable since 1997. PUS serves a varied brokerage role as gatekeeper into and liaison maker between disciplines. Its inter-citation network position allows PUS to perform inter-disciplinary boundary spanning work that offers a safe space for experimentation with ideas. PMID:23832881

Suerdem, Ahmet; Bauer, Martin W; Howard, Susan; Ruby, Luke

2013-01-01

104

Contemporary Classroom Vocabulary Assessment for Content Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the challenges of teaching disciplinary vocabulary effectively is the paucity of available, classroom-friendly vocabulary assessments that can be used to gauge students' vocabulary growth and to inform vocabulary instruction. This article describes the intricacies of word knowledge that make assessment difficult. Three continua…

Stahl, Katherine A. Dougherty; Bravo, Marco A.

2010-01-01

105

Bantoanon Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bantoanon language has borrowed from Spanish and English, as well as from Hiligaynon and Tagalog. Many of the borrowed words have been assimilated into the Bantoanon phonemic patterns. In this paper on Bantoanon phonology, discussion focuses on the phonology of native Bantoanon words and the added phonemic patterns and phonemes resulting from…

Kilgour, Heather; Hendrickson, Gail

1992-01-01

106

Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction for Secondary Students. Professional Development Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide an overview of vocabulary development and to focus on ways that enhance secondary vocabulary instruction. It includes strategies for teaching vocabulary and for integrating vocabulary into a lesson. It includes specific instructional strategies for teaching vocabulary skills based on the Texas Essential Knowledge

Texas Univ., Austin. Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts.

107

Predicting bilingual Spanish-English children's phonological awareness abilities from their preschool English and Spanish oral language  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish–English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children’s 2 years in Head Start for a total of four measurement occasions. Phonological awareness was assessed during the spring of children’s kindergarten year. Results indicated that English receptive vocabulary at the end of preschool predicted English phonological awareness abilities in kindergarten, whereas Spanish vocabulary was observed to have a negative predictive relationship with children’s English phonological awareness abilities. However, after controlling for English vocabulary, Spanish vocabulary no longer had an effect on English phonological awareness. Broad receptive language abilities in English and Spanish did not predict later English phonological awareness skills.

Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.

2012-01-01

108

Teaching Vocabulary in Storybooks: Embedding Explicit Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary instruction is a critical component of early language and literacy programs. Vocabulary skills in the early elementary school years are strong predictors of later reading achievement and there is a correlation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Children who have limited vocabulary in kindergarten are at high risk of…

Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth

2012-01-01

109

Vocabulary Notebook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking for a fine way to get your vocabulary up to speed, you should definitely check out Vocabulary Notebook. Teachers can use the program to study words with their students in the classroom and individuals can use it to craft their own personalized vocabulary lists for reviewing while on the go. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-02-13

110

Visualizing Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

111

Vocabulary Visits: Virtual Field Trips for Content Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant body of research suggests that wide differences in concept and vocabulary knowledge exacerbate the achievement gap among students, especially in schools with large numbers of children of poverty. Educators sometimes attribute this difference to the Matthew effect: the sad reality that having a well-developed vocabulary allows a…

Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.; Obrochta, Connie

2005-01-01

112

Toward vocabulary control for chief complaint.  

PubMed

The chief complaint (CC) is the data element that documents the patient's reason for visiting the emergency department (ED). The need for a CC vocabulary has been acknowledged at national meetings and in multiple publications, but to our knowledge no groups have specifically focused on the requirements and development plans for a CC vocabulary. The national consensus meeting "Towards Vocabulary Control for Chief Complaint" was convened to identify the potential uses for ED CC and to develop the framework for CC vocabulary control. The 10-point consensus recommendations for action were 1) begin to develop a controlled vocabulary for CC, 2) obtain funding, 3) establish an infrastructure, 4) work with standards organizations, 5) address CC vocabulary characteristics for all user communities, 6) create a collection of CC for research, 7) identify the best candidate vocabulary for ED CCs, 8) conduct vocabulary validation studies, 9) establish beta test sites, and 10) plan publicity and marketing for the vocabulary. PMID:18439204

Haas, Stephanie W; Travers, Debbie; Tintinalli, Judith E; Pollock, Daniel; Waller, Anna; Barthell, Edward; Burt, Catharine; Chapman, Wendy; Coonan, Kevin; Kamens, Donald; McClay, James

2008-05-01

113

The State of Vocabulary Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

2011-01-01

114

Vocabulary Development: A Continuing Need.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strong relationship between knowledge of vocabulary and reading achievement leads to the conclusion that knowing the meaning of words in a passage enables the reader to answer questions about the passage. The goal of vocabulary instruction is the acquisition of the concepts represented by words as well as the ability to recognize and analyze…

Kapinus, Barbara A.

1987-01-01

115

Vocabulary Knowledge Is a Critical Determinant of the Difference in Reading Comprehension Growth between First and Second Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examines the role of decoding and vocabulary skills as longitudinal predictors of reading comprehension in young first (L1) and second (L2) language learners. Methods: Two-group latent growth models were used to assess differences in growth and predictions of growth between the 198 L1 and 90 L2 language learners. Results: L1…

Lervag, Arne; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover

2010-01-01

116

A Hybrid Method for Determining Technical Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of technical vocabulary has become increasingly important over the last few decades along with the advances in various subject disciplines. ESP teachers and book authors need to know what words are considered technical vocabulary when creating ESP learning materials. LSP lexicographers need to know how to determine technical vocabulary

Kwary, Deny Arnos

2011-01-01

117

How word decoding, vocabulary and prior topic knowledge predict reading comprehension. A study of language-minority students in Norwegian fifth grade classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic\\u000a knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock\\u000a Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple\\u000a lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native

Veslemøy Rydland; Vibeke Grøver Aukrust; Helene Fulland

118

Vocabulary Instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the web site Doing What Works, this section describes research-based practices to promote vocabulary development in middle and high school. It includes a multimedia overview of the importance of providing explicit vocabulary instruction, video clips, links to research, and other resources. Content area teachers and strategies for use in content areas like science are specifically addressed in the recommendations.

2008-01-01

119

Cross-Linguistic Transfer of Oral Language, Decoding, Phonological Awareness and Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis of the Correlational Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a meta-analysis of cross-linguistic transfer of oral language (vocabulary and listening comprehension), phonology (decoding and phonological awareness) and reading comprehension. Our findings show a small meta-correlation between first (L1) and second (L2) oral language and a moderate to large correlation between L1 and L2 phonological

Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

2011-01-01

120

Phonological iconicity  

PubMed Central

The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern.

Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2014-01-01

121

Contributions of Morphology Beyond Phonology to Literacy Outcomes of Upper Elementary and Middle-School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using structural equation modeling the authors evaluated the contribution of morphological awareness, phonological memory, and phonological decoding to reading comprehension, reading vocabulary, spelling, and accuracy and rate of decoding morphologically complex words for 182 4th- and 5th-grade students, 218 6th- and 7th-grade students, and 207…

Nagy, William; Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

2006-01-01

122

Integrating teaching practice with developmental norms: the case of phonological teaching in L2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights the crucial role of phonological instruction in early second language English learning. Although older learners can acquire grammar and vocabulary efficiently, younger learners appear to have a greater facility with the learning of sounds. Thus, it makes good sense to focus on articulatory skills for these early learners. By comparing the developmental norms in phonology between an

Brian MacWhinney

2009-01-01

123

Learning Phonologically Specific New Words Fosters Rhyme Awareness in Dutch Preliterate Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do children use phonological knowledge about spoken language in acquiring literacy? Phonological precursors of literacy include phonological awareness, speech decoding skill, and lexical specificity (i.e., the richness of phonological representations in the mental lexicon). An intervention study investigated whether early literacy skills can…

van Goch, Merel M.; McQueen, James M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2014-01-01

124

Developing Low-Income Preschoolers’ Social Studies and Science Vocabulary Knowledge Through Content-Focused Shared Book Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of integrating science and social studies vocabulary instruction into shared book reading with low-income preschool children. Twenty-one preschool teachers and 148 children from their classrooms were randomly assigned at the class level to either the Words of Oral Reading and Language Development (WORLD) intervention or a practice-as-usual condition. Children were screened and selected to approximate

Jorge E. Gonzalez; Sharolyn Pollard-Durodola; Deborah C. Simmons; Aaron B. Taylor; Matthew J. Davis; Minjun Kim; Leslie Simmons

2010-01-01

125

Speaking up for vocabulary: reading skill differences in young adults.  

PubMed

This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (a) Does the simple view of reading capture all nonrandom variation in reading comprehension? (b) Does orally assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the lexical quality hypothesis? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, and experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly played an important role in reading comprehension. The simple view of reading gave a reasonable fit to the data, although it did not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captured unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill were accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215

Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P; Mencl, W Einar

2007-01-01

126

Vocabulary: Needed If More Children Are To Read Well.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that vocabulary has long been recognized as a strong determinant of reading success. Discusses how children's vocabulary knowledge is largely determined by informal factors, such as parental interaction and other sources, such as the television. Addresses individual differences in vocabulary acquisition; amount of vocabulary needed for…

Biemiller, Andrew

2003-01-01

127

Wikipedia as a tool promoting specialized vocabulary learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timely learning of discipline-specific vocabulary is critical for building solid knowledge base in any field of study. Without a doubt students with good vocabulary knowledge master the material faster, communicate their knowledge better and start critical analysis of the discussed material sooner. To emphasize, the point in a fashion that students can easily relate to, I have designed a vocabulary

Boriana Marintcheva

2012-01-01

128

Math Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page has suggestions for ways to make effective use of word walls, including making it interactive and setting expectations with students. Several activities are described. Links to supporting workbooks and vocabulary cards are provided.

2013-01-01

129

What phonological deficit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a series of experiments aimed at understanding the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia. These experiments investigate input and output phonological representations, phonological grammar, foreign speech perception and production, and unconscious speech processing and lexical access. Our results converge on the observation that the phonological representations of people with dyslexia may be intact, and that the

Franck Ramus; Gayaneh Szenkovits

2008-01-01

130

Design and Use of a Joint Order Vocabulary Knowledge Representation Tier in a Multi-tier CPOE Architecture  

PubMed Central

Two major barriers to adoption of computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems are the initial physician effort to learn the system and ongoing time costs to use the system. These barriers stem from the CPOE system’s need to reformulate physician orders into services that can be electronically communicated to ancillary clinical systems such as pharmacy, nursing, lab or radiology as well as to billing systems. Typical CPOE systems use significant custom user interface programming to match the terms used by physicians to order services as well as the aggregation of those orders into order sets with the underlying orderable services. We describe the design and implementation of a commercial CPOE system that has a formal separate intermediate mapping layer to match physician screen vocabulary and ordering behaviors to underlying services, both individually and in groups, supported by powerful search tools.

Rucker, Donald W.; Steele, Andrew W.; Douglas, Ivor S.; Couderc, Carmela A.; Hardel, Gary G.

2006-01-01

131

Developing an Integrated Diagnostic Test of Vocabulary Size and Depth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following growing interest in vocabulary acquisition, a number of researchers have proposed how learners' vocabulary knowledge can be measured both in terms of how many words they know (vocabulary size) and how well they know those words (depth of knowledge). However, most of the depth measures have addressed only a single depth aspect (often for…

Ishii, Tomoko; Schmitt, Norbert

2009-01-01

132

Learning to Read Setswana and English: Cross-Language Transference of Letter Knowledge, Phonological Awareness and Word Reading Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigates how beginner readers learn to read Setswana and English, and whether there is cross-language transference of skills between these two languages. Letter knowledge, phoneme awareness and reading of words and pseudowords in both Setswana and English were assessed in 36 Grade 2 children. A complex pattern emerged.…

Lekgoko, Olemme; Winskel, Heather

2008-01-01

133

Effects of a phonological awareness program on English reading and spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL children.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction which consisted of vocabulary learning and writing tasks but no direct instruction in phonological awareness skills. They were tested on receptive and expressive vocabulary, phonological awareness at the syllable, rhyme and phoneme levels, reading, and spelling in English before and after the program implementation. The results indicated that children who received the phonological awareness instruction performed significantly better than the comparison group on English word reading, spelling, phonological awareness at all levels and expressive vocabulary on the posttest when age, general intelligence and the pretest scores were controlled statistically. The findings suggest that phonological awareness instruction embedded in vocabulary learning activities might be beneficial to kindergarteners learning English as a second language. PMID:23626405

Yeung, Susanna S S; Siegel, Linda S; Chan, Carol K K

2013-05-01

134

Relations among Language Exposure, Phonological Memory, and Language Development in Spanish-English Bilingually Developing 2-Year-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation of phonological memory to language experience and development was investigated in 41 Spanish-English bilingual first language learners. The children's relative exposure to English and Spanish and their phonological memory for English- and Spanish-like nonwords were assessed at 22 months of age, and their productive vocabulary and…

Parra, Marisol; Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia

2011-01-01

135

Effects of a Phonological Awareness Program on English Reading and Spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction…

Yeung, Susanna S. S.; Siegel, Linda S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

2013-01-01

136

Orthography facilitates vocabulary learning for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).  

PubMed

This study investigated the extent to which children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can use orthography to facilitate vocabulary learning, as is the case for typically developing (TD) children. Forty-one children aged 7-12 years, 20 with a formal diagnosis of ASD and 21 TD peers, were taught 16 low-frequency concrete science words, such as "breccia". Half of the stimuli had the written word presented alongside a picture of the target item (orthography present: OP) while the remaining items were taught with orthography absent (OA). During the learning phase, eye movements were recorded; there were no group differences in the time spent fixating the written form. Production, comprehension, and recognition of orthographic forms of new words were assessed immediately after learning and again after a 24-hour delay. The vocabulary learning of both groups was facilitated by the presence of orthography. Overall, the groups did not differ in comprehension of new words or recognition of new orthographic forms, although the children with ASD demonstrated superior phonological learning (as measured by a picture naming task) relative to TD peers. Additionally, both groups retained or increased new knowledge after 24 hours. The results suggest that presenting the written form during oral vocabulary teaching will enhance learning and provide a mechanism for children with ASD to increase word knowledge despite potential limitations in social learning. PMID:24313313

Lucas, Rebecca; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

2014-07-01

137

Phonological alexia: three dissociations.  

PubMed Central

Three dissociations were observed in a case of alexia: a disturbance of reading, without comparable disturbance of oral expression, oral comprehension, writing, or spelling aloud; a disturbance of the phonological reading process, without disturbance of the non-phonological reading process; a disturbance located at the level of the phonological stage, without disturbance of the perceptual and expressive stages. This pattern of results has been called phonological alexia.

Beauvois, M F; Derouesne, J

1979-01-01

138

Vocabulary, Context, and Speech Perception among Good and Poor Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the interaction between speech perception and sentential context among 13 poor readers and 49 good readers in grades one to three. Children's performance was examined on tasks assessing expressive and receptive vocabulary, reading skill, phonological awareness, pseudoword repetition, and phoneme identification. Good readers…

Chiappe, Penny; Chiappe, Dan L.; Gottardo, Alexandra

2004-01-01

139

Internal and External Influences on Vocabulary Development in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…

Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther

2013-01-01

140

Developing Mathematical Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the importance of mathematical vocabulary, difficulties students encounter in learning this vocabulary, and some instructional strategies. Two general methods for teaching vocabulary are discussed: context and explicit vocabulary instruction. The methods are summarized as they apply to mathematical vocabulary instruction and…

Monroe, Eula Ewing; Orme, Michelle P.

2002-01-01

141

English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

2012-01-01

142

Replication Studies: Vocabulary Knowledge in Relation to Memory and Analysis--An Approximate Replication of Milton's (2007) Study on Lexical Profiles and Learning Style  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an approximate replication of Milton's (2007) study on lexical profiles and learning style. Milton investigated the assumption that more frequent words are acquired before less frequent ones. Using a vocabulary recognition test ("X-Lex") to measure vocabulary size, Milton found that L2 English group profiles show…

Booth, Paul

2013-01-01

143

Development of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…

Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2012-01-01

144

Patterns of Independent Reading, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Literacy Skills among English- Only, Limited-English Proficient, and Fluent-English Proficient Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined independent reading behaviors and contextual factors that contributed to growth in vocabulary and literacy of fourth grade English-only (EO), limited English proficient (LEP), and fluent English proficient (FEP) children. Participants were given pre-post measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary, word reading, decoding,…

Hansen, Laurie E.

2011-01-01

145

Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

Schmitt, Norbert

2008-01-01

146

Promoting Vocabulary Learning for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge, which is key to the reading comprehension of English learners (ELs), must be a focus for every teacher in today's increasingly diverse schools, including those in the mainstream classroom. This article strives to increase awareness of the five characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction as well as demonstrate how such…

Wessels, Stephanie

2011-01-01

147

From sound to syntax: phonological constraints on children's lexical categorization of new words.  

PubMed

Two studies examined the role of phonological cues in the lexical categorization of new words when children could also rely on learning by exclusion and whether the role of phonology depends on extensive experience with a language. Phonological cues were assessed via phonological typicality - an aggregate measure of the relationship between the phonology of a word and the phonology of words in the same lexical class. Experiment 1 showed that when monolingual English-speaking seven-year-olds could rely on learning by exclusion, phonological typicality only affected their initial inferences about the words. Consistent with recent computational analyses, phonological cues had stronger impact on the processing of verb-like than noun-like items. Experiment 2 revealed an impact of French on the performance of seven-year-olds in French immersion when tested in a French language environment. Thus, phonological knowledge may affect lexical categorization even in the absence of extensive experience. PMID:19105858

Fitneva, Stanka A; Christiansen, Morten H; Monaghan, Padraic

2009-11-01

148

Name Writing but not Environmental Print Recognition Is Related to Letter-Sound Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Pre-Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a study exploring the associations between measures of two levels of phonological representation: recognition (epi-linguistic) and production (meta-linguistic) tasks, and very early reading and writing skills. Thirty-eight pre-reading Ottawa-area children, aged 4-5 years, named environmental print (EP), wrote their own name,…

Blair, Rebecca; Savage, Robert

2006-01-01

149

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

150

Remove Limits to Learning with Systematic Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is a pivotal component of a student's background knowledge, and the research indicates that vocabulary instruction can be an effective means for increasing it. This booklet describes the positive outcomes that result when a school- or district-wide vocabulary program is strategically developed and intentionally implemented. The…

Stone, Bj; Urquhart, Vicki

2008-01-01

151

Investigating the Receptive Vocabulary Size of University-Level Chinese Learners of English: How Suitable Is the Vocabulary Levels Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) is widely used to assess the vocabulary size of second-language learners of English. The test assesses learners' knowledge of words of different frequencies within general English and of high-frequency words within academic texts. We used the VLT to measure the English vocabulary size of Chinese university students…

Li, Lan; MacGregor, Lucy J.

2010-01-01

152

Analysis of reading strategies in deaf adults as a function of their language and meta-phonological skills.  

PubMed

The first aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms used in reading sentences by deaf adults who had completed secondary or higher education. Previous data allowed us to hypothesize that they used the key word strategy, consisting of identifying (some of) the frequent content words, and deriving an overall representation of the sentence's meaning ignoring the function words. The results supported the hypothesis. The second aim was to establish the relationships between this strategy and the linguistic and phonological abilities of deaf participants. The results show that vocabulary increased with reading level, but syntax, evaluated with the use of function words, did not. This suggests that using the key word strategy during long periods of time increases knowledge of content words but not syntax, probably because function words are neglected by this strategy. The results also showed that the deaf participants had a fairly large orthographical lexicon. This implies that the extensive use of the key word strategy allows them to store lexical information. The next question was whether the written word representations of the deaf participants were memorized as mere logograms, or if they had been stored in connection with the phonological representations of the corresponding words. The metaphonological tasks conducted produced evidence indicating that deaf participants used both orthographic and phonological representations. A factor analysis of the metaphonological tasks together with reading and spelling confirmed that both factors were necessary to explain the whole variance in the deaf group. PMID:24751906

Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; Pérez, Maria Del Mar; Alegría, Jesus

2014-07-01

153

Phonological Specificity of Vowels and Consonants in Early Lexical Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants become selectively sensitive to phonological distinctions relevant to their native language at an early age. One might expect that infants bring some of this phonological knowledge to bear in encoding the words they subsequently acquire. In line with this expectation, studies have found that 14-month-olds are sensitive to mispronunciations…

Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

2007-01-01

154

Phonological Representations in Deaf Children: Rethinking the "Functional Equivalence" Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sources of knowledge that individuals use to make similarity judgments between words are thought to tap underlying phonological representations. We examined the effects of perceptual similarity between stimuli on deaf children's ability to make judgments about the phonological similarity between words at 3 levels of linguistic structure…

McQuarrie, Lynn; Parrila, Rauno

2009-01-01

155

Closing the Vocabulary Gap?: A Review of Research on Early Childhood Vocabulary Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our qualitative literature review of 31 published studies found that (a) three major approaches are used in early childhood classrooms to support children's vocabulary learning—exposing children to advanced words, providing direct word-meaning instruction, and employing mixed-method interventions; (b) these practices support children's learning of targeted vocabulary words and\\/or general vocabulary knowledge gains, but various methods have differential impacts on children's

Tanya Christ; X. Christine Wang

2011-01-01

156

Verbal short-term memory deficits in Down syndrome: phonological, semantic, or both?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the phonological and semantic contributions to the verbal short-term memory (VSTM) deficit in Down\\u000a syndrome (DS) by experimentally manipulating the phonological and semantic demands of VSTM tasks. The performance of 18 individuals\\u000a with DS (ages 11–25) and 18 typically developing children (ages 3–10) matched pairwise on receptive vocabulary and gender\\u000a was compared on four VSTM tasks,

Nancy Raitano Lee; Bruce F. Pennington; Janice M. Keenan

2010-01-01

157

Marathi Vocabulary Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is part of a set of elementary and intermediate Marathi teaching materials. It consists of three parts: a classified vocabulary, a Marathi-English vocabulary, and an English-Marathi vocabulary. The classified vocabulary presents lists of words the student needs in talking about the natural world and the material culture. The…

Nimbkar, Jai; Berntsen, Maxine

158

The Challenge of Validation: Assessing the Performance of a Test of Productive Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the performance of a vocabulary test designed to measure second language productive vocabulary knowledge.The test, Lex30, uses a word association task to elicit vocabulary, and uses word frequency data to measure the vocabulary produced. Here we report firstly on the reliability of the test as measured by a test-retest study, a…

Fitzpatrick, Tess; Clenton, Jon

2010-01-01

159

The Role of Vocabulary Size in Predicting Performance on TOEFL Reading Item Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine a) whether vocabulary knowledge, captured in the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), is related to the performance on the five types of reading comprehension items tested in TOEFL, i.e., Guessing Vocabulary, Main Idea, Inference, Reference, and Stated Detail; and b) whether EFL learners with different levels of vocabulary

Alavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Akbarian, Is'haaq

2012-01-01

160

Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their collaborators using SISSvoc3, including: * geologic timescale (multiple versions) * soils classification * definitions from OGC standards * geosciml vocabularies * mining commodities * hyperspectral scalars Several other agencies in Australia have adopted SISSvoc3 for their vocabularies. SISSvoc3 differs from other SKOS-based vocabulary-access APIs such as GEMET [3] and NVS [4] in that (a) the service is decoupled from the content store, (b) the service URI is independent of the content URIs This means that a SISSvoc3 interface can be deployed over any SKOS vocabulary which is available at a SPARQL endpoint. As an example, a SISSvoc3 query and presentation interface has been deployed over the NERC vocabulary service hosted by the BODC, providing a search interface which is not available natively. We use vocabulary services to populate menus in user interfaces, to support data validation, and to configure data conversion routines. Related services built on LDA have also been used as a generic registry interface, and extended for serving gazetteer information. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The CSIRO SISSvoc3 implementation is built using the Epimorphics ELDA platform http://code.google.com/p/elda/. We thank Jacqui Githaiga and Terry Rankine for their contributions to SISSvoc design and implementation. REFERENCES 1. SISSvoc3 Specification https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/Siss/SISSvoc30Specification 2. Linked Data API http://code.google.com/p/linked-data-api/wiki/Specification 3. GEMET https://svn.eionet.europa.eu/projects/Zope/wiki/GEMETWebServiceAPI 4. NVS 2.0 http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/

Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

2013-04-01

161

Effects of Four Vocabulary Exercises on Facilitating Learning Vocabulary Meaning, Form, and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims to answer the questions concerning whether composition tasks or blank-filling tasks better facilitate vocabulary learning, which aspect of vocabulary knowledge is enhanced, whether the benefits can be retained over two weeks, and which task is more suitable to foreign language classrooms facing the challenge of time…

Lu, Minhui

2013-01-01

162

The Vocabulary-Rich Classroom: Modeling Sophisticated Word Use to Promote Word Consciousness and Vocabulary Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is a critical contributor to reading, especially reading comprehension. A word-rich classroom environment maximizes students' opportunities to learn new words. The teacher's use of language provides an important model for children's vocabulary development. By modeling the use of sophisticated words, teachers can promote…

Lane, Holly B.; Allen, Stephanie Arriaza

2010-01-01

163

The Acquisition of Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with methods and models appropriate to the systematic linguistic study of the child's acquisiton of phonology. Sections I through IV present a review of previous studies in the field, discuss the usefulness of the concept of "innateness," discriminate between phonetic and phonological ability, and discuss the concept of discrete…

Moskowitz, Arlene I.

164

Metrical Phonology and SLA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English language with the intention that it may be used in second language instruction. Stress is defined by its physical and acoustical correlates, and the principles of…

Tice, Bradley S.

165

A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may be more easily mapped to the OGC Observations & Measurements model for cross-domain applications.

Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

2014-05-01

166

The N400 effect in children: relationships with comprehension, vocabulary and decoding.  

PubMed

Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we investigated the N400 (an ERP component that occurs in response to meaningful stimuli) in children aged 8-10 years old and examined relationships between the N400 and individual differences in listening comprehension, word recognition and non-word decoding. Moreover, we tested the claim that the N400 effect provides a valuable indicator of behavioural vocabulary knowledge. Eighteen children were presented with picture-word pairs that were either 'congruent' (the picture depicted the spoken word) or 'incongruent' (they were unrelated). Three peaks were observed in the ERP waveform triggered to the onset of the picture-word stimuli: an N100 in fronto-central channels, an N200 in central-parietal channels and an N400 in frontal, central and parietal channels. In contrast to the N100 peak, the N200 and N400 peaks were sensitive to semantic incongruency with greater peak amplitudes for incongruent than congruent conditions. The incongruency effects for each peak correlated positively with listening comprehension but when the peak amplitudes were averaged across congruent/incongruent conditions they correlated positively with non-word decoding. These findings provide neurophysiological support for the position that sensitivity to semantic context (reflected in the N400 effect) is crucial for comprehension whereas phonological decoding skill relates to more general processing differences reflected in the ERP waveform. There were no correlations between ERP and behavioural measures of expressive or receptive vocabulary knowledge for the same items, suggesting that the N400 effect may not be a reliable estimate of vocabulary knowledge in children aged 8-10 years. PMID:21272930

Henderson, Lisa M; Baseler, Heidi A; Clarke, Paula J; Watson, Sarah; Snowling, Margaret J

2011-05-01

167

Phonological Skills and Writing of Presyllabic Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies causal relationships between the development of phonological abilities and progress in knowledge about writing in 90 middle-class Portuguese preschool children. Discusses how two experimental intervention programs proved equivalent in terms of the conceptual evolution they triggered, to the extent that the children in both experimental…

Silva, Cristina; Alves-Martins, Margarida

2002-01-01

168

It Is More than Knowledge Seeking: Examining the Effects of OpenCourseWare Lectures on Vocabulary Acquisition in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

OpenCourseWare (OCW) has received increasing attention over the past few years in higher education. These courses provide appealing opportunities to view classes taught in well-established universities worldwide. The current study aims to examine how OCW lectures can serve as authentic learning materials to facilitate vocabulary acquisition for…

Yang, Hui-Chi; Sun, Yu-Chih

2013-01-01

169

Direct and Extended Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten: Investigating Transfer Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an 18-week program of direct and extended vocabulary instruction with kindergarten students on both proximal measures of target word knowledge and transfer measures of generalized language and literacy. A second purpose was to examine whether treatment effects would be moderated by initial receptive vocabulary knowledge measured at pretest. In

Michael D. Coyne; D. Betsy McCoach; Susan Loftus; Richard Zipoli Jr; Maureen Ruby; Yvel C. Crevecoeur; Sharon Kapp

2010-01-01

170

What Classroom Observations Reveal about Oral Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is now compelling evidence that children's early vocabulary development is essential to their long-term reading comprehension. Findings from experimental studies have indicated that vocabulary knowledge influences the development of conceptual knowledge and comprehension, suggesting a causal relationship among these fundamental language…

Wright, Tanya S.

2012-01-01

171

Number-Concept Acquisition and General Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et…

Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

2012-01-01

172

Japanese Vocabulary Acquisition by Learners in Three Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an investigation of the development of vocabulary knowledge during study abroad (SA), intensive domestic immersion (IM) and academic-year formal classroom (AY) learning. Its focus was the growth of vocabulary knowledge in Japanese--a language where little SA research has been conducted to date. Unlike most studies addressing…

Dewey, Dan P.

2008-01-01

173

How Does Home Language Influence Early Spellings? Phonologically Plausible Errors of Diglossic Malay Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diglossia, or the use of two forms of a language in a single speech community, is widespread. Differences between the nonstandard form, used for everyday conversations, and the standard form, used for formal occasions and writing, often extend to phonology as well as grammar and vocabulary. Most preschoolers from diglossic families are routinely…

Jalil, Sajlia Binte; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

2008-01-01

174

The contribution of phonological short-term memory to artificial grammar learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments investigated the contribution of phonological short-term memory (STM) to grammar learning by manipulating rehearsal during study of an auditory artificial grammar made up from a vocabulary of spoken Mandarin syllables. Experiment 1 showed that concurrent, irrelevant articulation impaired grammar learning compared with a nonverbal control task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding, showing that repeating the grammatical

Jackie Andrade; Alan Baddeley

2011-01-01

175

What Is Academic Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

2010-01-01

176

The dorsal stream contribution to phonological retrieval in object naming  

PubMed Central

Meaningful speech, as exemplified in object naming, calls on knowledge of the mappings between word meanings and phonological forms. Phonological errors in naming (e.g. GHOST named as ‘goath’) are commonly seen in persisting post-stroke aphasia and are thought to signal impairment in retrieval of phonological form information. We performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis of 1718 phonological naming errors collected from 106 individuals with diverse profiles of aphasia. Voxels in which lesion status correlated with phonological error rates localized to dorsal stream areas, in keeping with classical and contemporary brain-language models. Within the dorsal stream, the critical voxels were concentrated in premotor cortex, pre- and postcentral gyri and supramarginal gyrus with minimal extension into auditory-related posterior temporal and temporo-parietal cortices. This challenges the popular notion that error-free phonological retrieval requires guidance from sensory traces stored in posterior auditory regions and points instead to sensory-motor processes located further anterior in the dorsal stream. In a separate analysis, we compared the lesion maps for phonological and semantic errors and determined that there was no spatial overlap, demonstrating that the brain segregates phonological and semantic retrieval operations in word production.

Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Kim, Junghoon; Coslett, H. Branch

2012-01-01

177

Development of phonological constancy: 19-month-olds, but not 15-month-olds, identify words in a non-native regional accent  

PubMed Central

By 12 months, children grasp that a phonetic change to a word can change its identity (phonological distinctiveness). However, they must also grasp that some phonetic changes do not (phonological constancy). To test development of phonological constancy, 16 15-month-olds and 16 19-month-olds completed an eye-tracking task that tracked their gaze to named versus unnamed images for familiar words spoken in their native (Australian) and an unfamiliar non-native (Jamaican) regional accent of English. Both groups looked longer at named than unnamed images for Australian pronunciations, but only 19-month-olds did so for Jamaican pronunciations, indicating that phonological constancy emerges by 19 months. Vocabulary size predicted 15-month-olds' identifications for the Jamaican pronunciations, suggesting vocabulary growth is a viable predictor for phonological constancy development.

Mulak, Karen E.; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.; Kitamura, Christine; Irwin, Julia R.

2014-01-01

178

Phonological awareness of Cantonese-speaking pre-school children with cochlear implants.  

PubMed

The study investigated the phonological awareness abilities of Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. Participants were 15 Cantonese-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) aged 3.08-6.10, chronological-age-matched with 15 children with normal hearing. Each participant performed 10 tasks evaluating different levels of phonological awareness abilities and phonological knowledge. The results showed that pre-schoolers with cochlear implants and their normal hearing peers had similar levels of syllable awareness, phoneme awareness and rhyme awareness. However, cochlear implant users showed significantly poorer performance on tone awareness and phonological knowledge tasks than their normal hearing peers. Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants were able to develop phonological awareness. However, the cochlear implants might not provide enough tonal information for children with hearing impairment for tonal lexical comprehension. Incomplete speech and language stimulation may affect phonological knowledge development in Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. PMID:22257071

Tse, Wing Ting; So, Lydia K H

2012-02-01

179

Effects of nonfiction guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds on fourth grader's depth of content area science vocabulary knowledge and comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of nonfiction guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds as a supplement to basal science textbooks on three vocabulary measures, definitions, examples, and characteristics, and one multiple-choice comprehension measure were assessed for 127 fourth graders over three time periods: pretest, posttest, and a 2-week delayed posttest. Two of three fourth-grade elementary science teachers implemented a series of 12 content-enhanced guided interactive

Tania Tamara Hanna

2008-01-01

180

What's Meaning Got to Do with It: The Role of Vocabulary in Word Reading and Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is at present no clear consensus as to the nature of the relations between oral vocabulary and specific literacy skills. The present study distinguished between vocabulary breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge to better explain the role of oral vocabulary in various reading skills. A sample of 60 typically developing Grade 4 students…

Oullette, Gene P.

2006-01-01

181

Evidence for Preserved Novel Word Learning in Down Syndrome Suggests Multiple Routes to Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to…

Mosse, Emma K.; Jarrold, Christopher

2011-01-01

182

Subject Area Glossary: Greek-English Vocabulary. Curriculum Bulletin Number 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A glossary of Greek counterparts for terms used in the Chicago public schools' curricula is intended to be used by teachers of native Greek-speaking, limited-English speaking students. An introductory section outlines Greek phonology and pronunciation, and ensuing sections provide English vocabulary lists with both the Greek orthography and…

Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

183

Manipulating Word Properties: Targeting Vocabulary Learning for Children with and without Speech Sound Inaccuracies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the relations between speech sound accuracy, vocabulary, and phonological awareness, and (2) to examine the effect of word properties of neighborhood density and phonotactic probability on word learning within a storybook context, for children with and without speech sound inaccuracies. Fifty…

McDowell, Kimberly D.; Carroll, Jeri

2012-01-01

184

The effects of audibility and novel word learning ability on vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants.  

PubMed

Objectives A novel word learning (NWL) paradigm was used to explore underlying phonological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for delayed vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants (CIs). Methods One hundred and one children using CIs, 6-12 years old, were tested along with 47 children with normal hearing (NH). Tests of NWL, receptive vocabulary, and speech perception at 2 loudness levels were administered to children with CIs. Those with NH completed the NWL task and a receptive vocabulary test. CI participants with good audibility (GA) versus poor audibility (PA) were compared on all measures. Analysis of variance was used to compare performance across the children with NH and the two groups of children with CIs. Multiple regression analysis was employed to identify independent predictors of vocabulary outcomes. Results Children with CIs in the GA group scored higher in receptive vocabulary and NWL than children in the PA group, although they did not reach NH levels. CI-aided pure tone threshold and performance on the NWL task predicted independent variance in vocabulary after accounting for other known predictors. Discussion Acquiring spoken vocabulary is facilitated by GA with a CI and phonological learning and memory skills. Children with CIs did not learn novel words at the same rate or achieve the same receptive vocabulary levels as their NH peers. Maximizing audibility for the perception of speech and direct instruction of new vocabulary may be necessary for children with CIs to reach levels seen in peers with NH. PMID:23998324

Davidson, Lisa S; Geers, Ann E; Nicholas, Johanna G

2014-07-01

185

Academic vocabulary and middle school English learners: an intervention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this experimental intervention study was to determine if evidence-based instructional strategies for general vocabulary\\u000a words are effective with middle school English learner (EL) students and academic vocabulary words. Participants showed significantly\\u000a more growth in their knowledge of academic vocabulary during the treatment condition than during the control condition. A\\u000a secondary goal of this study was to examine

Dianna Townsend; Penny Collins

2009-01-01

186

The Structure of Phonological Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…

Samuels, Bridget D.

2009-01-01

187

Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

Tice, Bradley S.

188

Effects of nonfiction guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds on fourth grader's depth of content area science vocabulary knowledge and comprehension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of nonfiction guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds as a supplement to basal science textbooks on three vocabulary measures, definitions, examples, and characteristics, and one multiple-choice comprehension measure were assessed for 127 fourth graders over three time periods: pretest, posttest, and a 2-week delayed posttest. Two of three fourth-grade elementary science teachers implemented a series of 12 content-enhanced guided interactive scripted lessons. Two of these teachers implemented two treatments each. The first condition employed basal science textbooks as the text for guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds while the second treatment employed basal science textbooks in conjunction with nonfiction text sets as the texts for guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds. The third teacher, guided by traditional lesson plans, provided students with silent independent reading instruction using basal science textbooks. Multivariate analyses of variance and analyses of variance tests showed that mean scores for both treatment groups significantly improved on definitions and characteristics measures at posttest and either stabilized or slightly declined at delayed posttest. The treatment-plus group lost considerably on the examples posttest measure. The treatment group improved mean scores on the examples posttest measure, outperforming the treatment-plus group and the control group. Alternately, the control group significantly improved on the delayed posttest examples measure. Additionally, the two groups implementing guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds performed better than the independent reading group on multiple-choice comprehension measures at posttest and sustained those gains 2 weeks later on delayed posttests. Findings maintain the incremental nature of vocabulary acquisition and development research and emphasize the roles of listening and speaking as critical features for integrating vocabulary into long-term memory.

Hanna, Tania Tamara

189

Cell Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to cells, organelles, and the plasma membrane. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

190

Genetics Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing genetics vocabulary. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

191

NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

1991-01-01

192

Redefining Vocabulary: The New Learning Strategy for Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although vocabulary development is an important part of the social studies curriculum, vocabulary activities are often inadequate, leaving students with cursory knowledge of terms. Worse still is the fact that many of the most critical words demarcating the field are not included in those activities. Therefore, a transformation from viewing…

Alexander-Shea, Aimee

2011-01-01

193

Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. The Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of essays on second language vocabulary learning includes: "Historical Trends in Second Language Vocabulary Instruction" (Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman); "The Lexical Plight in Second Language Reading: Words You Don't Know, Words You Think You Know, and Words You Can't Guess" (Batia Laufer); "Orthographic Knowledge in L2 Lexical Processing: A…

Coady, James, Ed.; Huckin, Thomas, Ed.

194

English Language Learners and English-Only Learners' Response to Direct Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined data from an 18-week kindergarten vocabulary intervention study to determine whether treatment outcomes had differential effects that favored English language learners (ELLs) or English-only learners (EOLs) and whether the relationship between initial English general receptive vocabulary knowledge and response to vocabulary

Crevecoeur, Yvel C.; Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy

2014-01-01

195

Bridging the Gap between Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Size through Extensive Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that extensive reading promotes the incidental learning of L1 and L2 receptive vocabulary; however, little is known about its effectiveness on productive gains in vocabulary knowledge. This paper investigates the extent to which extensive reading combined with writing tasks promotes productive vocabulary growth of Japanese…

Yamamoto, Yuka

2011-01-01

196

Depth of Reading Vocabulary in Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main point of our study was to examine the vocabulary knowledge of pupils in grades 3-6, and in particular the relative reading vocabulary disadvantage of hearing-impaired pupils. The achievements of 394 pupils with normal hearing and 106 pupils with a hearing impairment were examined on two vocabulary assessment tasks: a lexical decision task…

Coppens, Karien M.; Tellings, Agnes; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

2011-01-01

197

Exploring the relationship between children's knowledge of text message abbreviations and school literacy outcomes.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study of 88 British 10-12-year-old children's knowledge of text message (SMS) abbreviations ('textisms') and how it relates to their school literacy attainment. As a measure of textism knowledge, the children were asked to compose text messages they might write if they were in each of a set of scenarios. Their text messages were coded for types of text abbreviations (textisms) used, and the ratio of textisms to total words was calculated to indicate density of textism use. The children also completed a short questionnaire about their mobile phone use. The ratio of textisms to total words used was positively associated with word reading, vocabulary, and phonological awareness measures. Moreover, the children's textism use predicted word reading ability after controlling for individual differences in age, short-term memory, vocabulary, phonological awareness and how long they had owned a mobile phone. The nature of the contribution that textism knowledge makes to children's word reading attainment is discussed in terms of the notion of increased exposure to print, and Crystal's (2006a) notion of ludic language use. PMID:19972666

Plester, Beverly; Wood, Clare; Joshi, Puja

2009-03-01

198

Learning Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…

Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris

2009-01-01

199

Aspects of Phonological Fusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological fusion occurs when the phonemes of two different speech stimuli are combined into a new percept that is longer and linguistically more complex than either of the two inputs. The present article is an investigation of the conditions necessary and sufficient for fusion to occur. (Editor/RK)

Cutting, James E.

1975-01-01

200

Phonetics and Phonology. Occasional Papers, No. 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is devoted to phonetics and phonology. It consists of the following papers: (1) "Generative Phonology, Dependency Phonology and Southern French," by J. Durand, which discusses aspects of a regional pronunciation of French, the status of syllables in generative phonology, and concepts of dependency phonology; (2) "On the Role of…

Essex Univ., Colchester (England). Dept. of Language and Linguistics.

201

Phonology and Lexicon in a Cross-Linguistic Perspective: The Importance of Phonetics--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her interesting article, Stoel-Gammon (this issue) reviews studies concerning the interactions between lexical and phonological development. While the focus of the review is on vocabulary production from children acquiring American English, she also suggests that cross-linguistic research be undertaken to examine how universal and…

Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lum, Jarrad; Vach, Werner

2011-01-01

202

Graded Readers and Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the potential for vocabulary learning using a corpus of 42 grade readers from one series of graded readers (seven at each of six levels in the series). It was found that in order to have 95% coverage of the running words at a level in the series, it was necessary to already know the vocabulary of the current level in the scheme.…

Nation, Paul; Ming-Tzu, Karen Wang

1999-01-01

203

Marathi Illustrated Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a set of Marathi teaching materials, this book is designed to help the student learn vocabulary through the association of printed words and pictures. The book represents more than 400 basic vocabulary items in pictorial form. It includes sketches of the natural world, the human body, clothing, house and furnishings, town and village,…

Berntsen, Maxine; Nimbkar, Jai

204

Vocabulary Practice Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates games that can be used for developing vocabulary in the English-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom. The games are intended to be integrated into the general language syllabus and can be an important and enjoyable way of practicing vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

Shaptoshvili, Shalva

2002-01-01

205

tagging, communities, vocabulary, evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tagging community's vocabulary of tags forms the basis for social navigation and shared expression. We present a user-centric model of vocabulary evolution in tagging com- munities based on community influence and personal ten- dency. We evaluate our model in an emergent tagging sys- tem by introducing tagging features into the MovieLens rec- ommender system. We explore four tag selection

Shilad Sen; Shyong K. Lam; Al Mamunur Rashid; Dan Cosley; Dan Frankowski; Jeremy Osterhouse; F. Maxwell Harper; John Riedl

2006-01-01

206

VISUAL VOCABULARY IN BRANDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual vocabulary or visual language is a set of symbols used to describe a system or a process; it refers to all graphical representations that supplement a brand image, a logo, and build a brand identity that is bound to remain invariable even when the sign undergoes fundamental changes. The article is a presentation of the concept of visual vocabulary\\/language

Adriana Vintean; Ovidiu Matiu

2011-01-01

207

The phonological-distributional coherence hypothesis: Cross-linguistic evidence in language acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several phonological and prosodic properties of words have been shown to relate to diVer- ences between grammatical categories. Distributional information about grammatical categories is also a rich source in the child's language environment. In this paper we hypothesise that such cues operate in tandem for developing the child's knowledge about grammatical categories. We term this the Phonological-Distributional Coherence Hypothesis (PDCH).

Padraic Monaghan; Morten H. Christiansen; Nick Chater

208

Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background & Aims: The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among…

Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

2013-01-01

209

The tug of war between phonological, semantic and shape information in language-mediated visual search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments 1 and 2 examined the time-course of retrieval of phonological, visual-shape and semantic knowledge as Dutch participants listened to sentences and looked at displays of four pictures. Given a sentence with beker, ‘beaker’, for example, the display contained phonological (a beaver, bever), shape (a bobbin, klos), and semantic (a fork, vork) competitors. When the display appeared at sentence onset,

Falk Huettig; James M. McQueen

2007-01-01

210

Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

211

Flooding Vocabulary Gaps to Accelerate Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students entering school with limited vocabularies are at a disadvantage compared to classmates with robust knowledge of words and meanings. Teaching a few unrelated words at a time is insufficient for catching these students up with peers and preparing them to comprehend texts they will encounter across the grades. This article presents…

Brabham, Edna; Buskist, Connie; Henderson, Shannon Coman; Paleologos, Timon; Baugh, Nikki

2012-01-01

212

Playing Games: Vocabulary Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finding ways to keep students active and engaged in the classroom is not easy. Introducing a game like Vocabulary Survival in which students are allowed to compete while also learning moral concepts can create a fun and successful learning environment.

Dea, Sara

2011-02-01

213

Phonological Awareness and Reading Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was proposed that the young child's awareness of the phonology of language would influence early reading success. Results revealed a strong relationship between the first grader's reading performance and two measures of his/her phonological awareness, invented spelling and phoneme segmentation abilities. (Author/RD)

Zifcak, Michael

1981-01-01

214

The Universality of Acquisitional Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with the Aristotelian notion of "universal" as applied to phonological phenomena. It is claimed that speech production in children and adults, in normal and deviant speakers, and in a variety of languages, can all be described according to the same universal phonological rules which constitute the universal process of…

Salus, Peter H.

215

Effect Size in Clinical Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2011-01-01

216

Phonological Awareness Is Child's Play!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noticing and being able to manipulate the sounds of spoken language-phonological awareness-is highly related to later success in reading and spelling. The authors define and explain the levels of phonological awareness-syllable awareness, onset-rime awareness, phoneme awareness. They give teachers step-by-step instructions for implementing a…

Yopp, Hallie Kay; Yopp, Helen

2009-01-01

217

Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

2013-12-01

218

Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule  

PubMed Central

Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X?XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

2014-01-01

219

Chinese Scientific & Technical Vocabulary System for domain content computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese Scientific & Technical Vocabulary System (CSTVS) is a kind of knowledge organization systems for Chinese SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL information resources management and deep knowledge services that proposed by us. Now we provides the CSTVS as free semantic resources for research and education users all over the world. In this paper, knowledge infrastructure and related content computing tools are introduced.

Yunliang Zhang; Shuo Xu; Lijun Zhu; Xiaodong Qiao; Chunxiang Xue; Shujuan Jiao; Yingying Yan

2010-01-01

220

The Effect of Keeping Vocabulary Notebooks on Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary notebooks are frequently advocated as a way for students to take control of their vocabulary learning (Fowle, 2002), with the added benefit of improvements in vocabulary learning (Schmitt and Schmitt, 1995; Laufer and Nation, 1999). The study described in this article attempts to lend empirical support to these claims, by investigating…

Walters, JoDee; Bozkurt, Neval

2009-01-01

221

The Role of Home and School Factors in Predicting English Vocabulary among Bilingual Kindergarten Children in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in monolingual populations indicate that vocabulary knowledge is essential to reading achievement, but how vocabulary develops in bilingual children has been understudied. The current study investigated the role of home and school factors in predicting English vocabulary among 284 bilingual kindergartners (168 Chinese, 65 Malay, 51…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2011-01-01

222

Divergence of verbal expression and embodied knowledge: Evidence from speech and gesture in children with speciéc language impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that phonological working memory serves to link speech comprehension to production. We suggest further that impairments in phonological working memory may inèuence the way in which children represent and express their knowledge about the world around them. In particular, children with severe phonological working memory deécits may have diféculty retaining stable representations of phonological forms, which

Julia L. Evans; Martha W. Alibali; Nicole M. McNeil

2001-01-01

223

Sources of the Medical Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to determine as precisely as possible just how much of medical vocabulary is derived from every source, the vocabulary defined in the 24th edition of "Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary" was analyzed. Results indicate that medical vocabulary is relying increasingly upon the Greek and Latin languages as the sources of its…

Butler, Roy F.

1980-01-01

224

Teaching Vocabulary across the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning vocabulary is an important instructional aim for teachers in all content areas in middle grades schools. Recent research, however, indicates that vocabulary instruction may be problematic because many teachers are not "confident about best practice in vocabulary instruction and at times don't know where to begin to form an instructional…

Bintz, William P.

2011-01-01

225

New Directions in Vocabulary Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been great strides made in research on vocabulary in the last 30 years. However, there has been relatively little progress in the development of new vocabulary tests. This may be due in some degree to the impressive contributions made by tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (Nation, 1983; Schmitt et al., 2001) and the Word…

Webb, Stuart A.; Sasao, Yosuke

2013-01-01

226

Teaching Vocabulary to ESL Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the ways in which vocabulary is taught and in particular what important learning points ESL students should know in order to understand new vocabulary words. It also discusses various ideas of how teachers could teach vocabulary. It highlights the importance of a theory that states there are 3 key stages that students progress…

McBain, Robert

2011-01-01

227

Vocabulary Development and the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A person can communicate more accurately by possessing a rich vocabulary, be it in listening, speaking, reading, or writing. Then too, students need a well developed vocabulary which is integrated across the entire curriculum. This paper focuses on the plethora of vocabulary terms in diverse curriculum areas, including social studies, science,…

Ediger, Marlow

228

Phonological Processing, Language, and Literacy: A Comparison of Children with Mild-to-moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Those with Specific Language Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological skills, language ability, and literacy scores were compared for four groups: 19 children with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss (SNH), 20 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 20 controls matched on chronological age to the SNH group (CA), and 15 controls matched on receptive vocabulary level to a subset of the SLI group (CB). In common with the SLI group,

Josie Briscoe; Dorothy V. M. Bishop; Courtenay Frazier Norbury

2001-01-01

229

Vocabulary at the Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

2009-01-01

230

Research into Practice: Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a personal view of the application of research on vocabulary to teaching and how there are three different types or categories of relationship between that research and the teaching to which it is applied: first, where the research is not applied or not applied well, second, where it is reasonably well applied, and third, where it…

Nation, I. S. P.

2011-01-01

231

The Electric Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

Sheils, James

2012-01-01

232

"Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…

Voorhees, Roxy

233

Vocabulary: Desk versus Table.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complexity of teaching second-language vocabulary is illustrated with numerous examples of words that do not have an exact reciprocal from one language to another. Some insurmountable differences are cited, and the rationale for usage of an inaccurate but culturally acceptable word is offered. (13 references) (LB)

Torna, Zelda

1992-01-01

234

Building Students' Technical Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the structured overview, a chart that helps students associate known terms with new terms. Discusses a method of introducing the structured overview. The author then presents two exercises that reinforce learning of vocabulary and the relationship between key concepts: the scrambled overview and label-object matching. More advanced…

Darlington, Alan J.

1985-01-01

235

VOCABULARY AND CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PROCESSES OF THOUGHT, OF CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT, AND OF VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT ARE SIGNIFICANTLY INTERRELATED. COMMUNICATION OF IDEAS DEPENDS UPON THE ABILITY TO ASSOCIATE WRITTEN AND VERBAL SYMBOLS WITH THE REFERENTS THROUGH A SYSTEMATIC PROCESS OF REORGANIZING AND INTEGRATING OLD AND NEW CONCEPTS. THE ABILITY TO ASSOCIATE, IN TURN, DEPENDS UPON…

LANGER, JOHN H.

236

Effects of an Embedded Phonological Awareness Intervention during Repeated Book Reading on Preschool Children with Language Delays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efficacy of an explicit phonological awareness intervention embedded within repeated shared book reading with preschool children from low-income backgrounds with language delays was investigated. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors assessed the effects of phonological awareness training on rhyme and letter-sound knowledge with 13 preschool…

Ziolkowski, Robyn A.; Goldstein, Howard

2008-01-01

237

Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among words. While children with SLI have well documented memory difficulties, it is not clear whether these language knowledge factors also influence recall in this population. Methods & Procedures 16 children with SLI (mean age 10;2) and CAM controls recalled lists of words differing in phonological similarity, word frequency, and phonotactic pattern frequency. While previous studies used a small set of words appearing in multiple word lists, the current study used a larger set of words, without replacement, so that children could not gain practice with individual test items. Outcomes & Results All main effects were significant. Interactions revealed that children with SLI were affected by similarity, but less so than their peers, comparably affected by word frequency, and unaffected by phonotactic pattern frequency. Conclusions Results due to phonological similarity suggest that children with SLI use less efficient encoding, while results due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency were mixed. Children with SLI used coarse-grained language knowledge (word frequency) comparably to peers, but were less able to use fine-grained knowledge (phonotactic pattern frequency). Paired with phonological similarity results, this suggests that children with SLI have difficulty establishing robust phonological knowledge for use in language tasks.

Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

2014-01-01

238

Phonological processes and the perception of phonotactically illegal consonant clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perception of consonant clusters that are phonotactically illegal word initially in English (e.g., \\/tl\\/, \\/sr\\/) was investigated\\u000a to determine whether listeners’ phonological knowledge of the language influences speech processing. Experiment 1 examined\\u000a whether the phonotactic context effect (Massaro & Cohen, 1983), a bias toward hearing illegal sequences (e.g., \\/tl\\/) as legal\\u000a (e.g., \\/tr\\/), is more likely due to knowledge

Mark A. Pitt

1998-01-01

239

Depth of reading vocabulary in hearing and hearing-impaired children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main point of our study was to examine the vocabulary knowledge of pupils in grades 3–6, and in particular the relative\\u000a reading vocabulary disadvantage of hearing-impaired pupils. The achievements of 394 pupils with normal hearing and 106 pupils\\u000a with a hearing impairment were examined on two vocabulary assessment tasks: a lexical decision task and a use decision task.\\u000a The

Karien M. Coppens; Agnes Tellings; Ludo Verhoeven; Robert Schreuder

2011-01-01

240

The Interface between Morphology and Phonology: Exploring a Morpho-Phonological Deficit in Spoken Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

241

Phonological Awareness Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children with Mild to Moderate Phonological Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized and nonstandardized assessments of phonological awareness skills were administered to two groups of 6-year-old children. Group 1 passed a language screening but exhibited mild or moderate phonological impairments on the "Assessment of Phonological Processes--Revised." Group 2 passed a language screening and exhibited no phonological

Gernand, Keri Leigh; Moran, Michael J.

2007-01-01

242

The relationship between vocabulary and short-term memory measures in monolingual and bilingual speakers  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may influence the efficiency of lexical access in adults. The goals of this research were (1) to compare bilingual and monolingual adults on their native-language vocabulary performance, and (2) to examine the relationship between short-term memory skills and vocabulary performance in monolinguals and bilinguals. In Experiment 1, English-speaking monolingual adults and simultaneous English–Spanish bilingual adults were administered measures of receptive English vocabulary and of phonological short-term memory. In Experiment 2, monolingual adults were compared to sequential English–Spanish bilinguals, and were administered the same measures as in Experiment 1, as well as a measure of expressive English vocabulary. Analyses revealed comparable levels of performance on the vocabulary and the short-term memory measures in the monolingual and the bilingual groups across both experiments. There was a stronger effect of digit-span in the bilingual group than in the monolingual group, with high-span bilinguals outperforming low-span bilinguals on vocabulary measures. Findings indicate that bilingual speakers may rely on short-term memory resources to support word retrieval in their native language more than monolingual speakers.

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

2012-01-01

243

On Some Claims of Atomic Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines some of the rules of atomic phonology so as to elucidate just what the theory is and is not capable of. The theory of atomic phonology maintains that all linguistic variation requiring distinctly varied formulations of phonological rules is predictable from a set of "atomic rules" and universal principles of grammar. (SED)

Wheeler, Max W.

1985-01-01

244

The Test of Phonological Awareness. Critique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Test of Phonological Awareness (TOPA) was developed to help identify children who are delayed in their development of phonological awareness. Research supports the theory that children with poor phonological awareness are at risk of later reading difficulties. Children who score in the bottom quartile of the TOPA are considered to be at risk…

Moore, Jenny

245

Phonological Awareness in Children with Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined phonological awareness in 17 children with Down syndrome (ages 9-14). Children demonstrated measurable levels of phonological awareness. Significant positive correlations were found among phonological awareness and reading and spelling competence, and ability to spell non-words and non-verbal measures. (Contains references.)…

Fletcher, Helen; Buckley, Sue

2002-01-01

246

Developmental Hierarchy of Arabic Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates a strong relationship between phonological awareness and reading success. Phonemic intervention programs clearly show the benefits of explicitly teaching phonological awareness skills. Phonological awareness skills vary in nature and degree of difficulty and appear to follow a developmental progression. This study examined a…

Tibi, Sana

2010-01-01

247

Spanish dermatological vocabulary used by Mexican workers.  

PubMed

Spanish is the second most common language spoken in the United States. Physicians can expect a growing population of patients who speak Spanish as their primary language. The purpose of this study was to develop a glossary of Spanish dermatological vocabulary commonly used by Mexican workers. Dermatologic terms were gathered from transcripts of in-depth interviews with 31 Latino farmworkers in North Carolina. Participants were asked to name and define words related to skin irritations. Farmworkers provided several definitions of some terms, and several Spanish equivalents exist for specific English words. This glossary is a supplement to other resources for learning medical Spanish and expands health care professionals' knowledge of dermatology-related Spanish vocabulary. PMID:16150240

Vallejos, Quirina M; Marin, Antonio J; Feldman, Steven R; Krejci-Manwaring, Jennifer; Fleischer, Alan; Quandt, Sara A; Schulz, Mark; Smith, Gerell; Rapp, Stephen R; Arcury, Thomas A

2005-01-01

248

A Comparative Study on Second Language Vocabulary Development: Study Abroad vs Classroom Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper aims to achieve a better understanding of the process of vocabulary acquisition by examining the development of lexical knowledge in both classroom and study abroad contexts. Taking Ife, Vives Boix, and Meara's (2000) study as a starting point, this study attempts to determine whether development in both levels of vocabulary

Jimenez-Jimenez, Antonio F.

2010-01-01

249

A Summary of the Vocabulary Research with Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is essential for communicating, reading, thinking, and learning. In comparison to typical hearing peers, students who are deaf or hard of hearing demonstrate vocabulary knowledge that is quantitatively reduced. The authors review and summarize research studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1967 and 2008 focusing on…

Luckner, John L.; Cooke, Christine

2010-01-01

250

The Effects of Pre-Learning Vocabulary on Reading Comprehension and Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effects of pre-learning vocabulary on reading comprehension and writing. Japanese students studying English as a foreign language (EFL) learned word pairs receptively and productively; four tests were used to measure reading comprehension, writing, and receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. The findings suggest…

Webb, Stuart A.

2009-01-01

251

Longer Term Effects of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the longer term effectiveness of a standard protocol, Tier 2 supplemental vocabulary intervention for kindergarten English learners, designed to develop root word vocabulary knowledge and reinforce beginning word reading skills. Participating students in the original study ("n" = 93 treatment, 92 control) received 20 weeks of…

Vadasy, Patricia F.; Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

252

Children with Developmental Language Impairment Have Vocabulary Deficits Characterized by Limited Breadth and Depth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Deficient vocabulary is a frequently reported symptom of developmental language impairment, but the nature of the deficit and its developmental course are not well documented. Aims: To describe the nature of the deficit in terms of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge and to determine whether the nature and the extent of the…

McGregor, Karla K.; Oleson, Jacob; Bahnsen, Alison; Duff, Dawna

2013-01-01

253

Vocabulary Improvement and Reading in English Language Learners: An Intervention Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study involves the collaboration of researchers with 24 teachers in a 3-year intervention study aimed at investigating and improving vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension of fourth and fifth grade students for whom English is a second language. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data were collected on various aspects of vocabulary

McLaughlin, Barry; August, Diane; Snow, Catherine; Carlo, Maria; Dressler, Cheryl; White, Claire; Lively, Teresa; Lippman, David

254

A Vocabulary Flood: Making Words "Sticky" with Computer-Response Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's literature is a primary source for introducing young children to new words at home and at school, and children's early vocabulary knowledge is a key component of oral language, which is essential for comprehension. This column is focused on children from low socioeconomic backgrounds who frequently find themselves in a vocabulary

Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary S.; Ryan, Tammy

2007-01-01

255

Breadth and Depth Specialized Vocabulary Learning in Theology among Native and Non-Native English Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a case study on native and non-native English-speaker (NES and NNES) students' knowledge and learning of specialized vocabulary over one academic term in a graduate school of theology. After outlining the collection of baseline data on theological vocabulary and the development of a Test of Theological Language (TTL), the…

Lessard-Clouston, Michael

2006-01-01

256

Breadth and Depth: Specialized Vocabulary Learning in Theology among Native and Non-native English Speakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a case study on native and non- native English-speaker (NES and NNES) students' knowledge and learning of specialized vocabulary over one academic term in a graduate school of theol- ogy. After outlining the collection of baseline data on theological vocabulary and the development of a Test of Theological Language (TTL), the article discusses the five NNES and

Michael. Lessard-Clouston

2006-01-01

257

Aspects of Validity of a Test of Productive Vocabulary: Lex30  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates aspects of validity of an alternative measure of productive vocabulary. Lex30, developed by Meara and Fitzpatrick, is a word association task that claims to give an indication of productive vocabulary knowledge. Previous studies of Lex30 have assessed test-retest reliability, performance against native speaker norms,…

Walters, JoDee

2012-01-01

258

A Descriptive Study on the Use of Materials in Vocabulary Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is important because it is highly correlated with content area learning. Strategies for vocabulary instruction recommend using new words in multiple contexts as key to learning. To date, the term "multiple contexts" emphasizes written contexts, not three-dimensional concrete material contexts. This article describes the…

Holmes, Kerry; Holmes, Stacy V.; Watts, Karley

2012-01-01

259

Vocabulary and Environment Adaptation in Vocabulary-Independent Speech Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we are looking into the adaptation issues of vocabulary-independent (VI) systems. Just as with speaker-adaptation in speaker-independent system, two vocabulary adaptation algorithms are implemented in order to tailor the VI subword models t...

H. Hon K. Lee

1992-01-01

260

"Extraordinary,""Tremendous,""Exhilarating,""Magnificent": Middle School At-Risk Students Become Avid Word Learners with the Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers what kinds of classroom interactions contributed to the awareness and motivation of at-risk students' interest in vocabulary. Describes the effects of the Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS). Provides strong support for the VSS as an effective means both for increasing the depth and breadth of student vocabulary knowledge and for…

Ruddell, Martha Rapp; Shearer, Brenda A.

2002-01-01

261

A Tiered Intervention Model for Early Vocabulary Instruction: The Effects of Tiered Instruction for Young Students at Risk for Reading Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge at school entry is a robust predictor of later reading achievement. Many children begin formal reading instruction at a significant disadvantage due to low levels of vocabulary. Until recently, relatively few research studies examined the efficacy of vocabulary interventions for children in the early primary grades (e.g.,…

Pullen, Paige C.; Tuckwiller, Elizabeth D.; Konold, Timothy R.; Maynard, Katrina L.; Coyne, Michael D.

2010-01-01

262

Vocabulary Demands of Television Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…

Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

2009-01-01

263

Learner centredness in vocabulary learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary learning has, to a great extent, been left to the students to cope with, possibly because teachers, in general, prefer to dedícate time and effort to more complex teaching matters. But, although vocabulary acquisition is still a neglected aspect of language learning, it is rapidly changing status and becoming an área of growing research and publication. Current second language

Miriam Manzanares Codesal

264

Closing the Gap: Addressing the Vocabulary Needs of English-Language Learners in Bilingual and Mainstream Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gaps in reading performance between Anglo and Latino children are associated with gaps in vocabulary knowledge. An intervention was designed to enhance fifth graders' academic vocabulary. The meanings of academically useful words were taught together with strategies for using information from context, from morphology, from knowledge about multiple…

Carlo, Mara S.; August, Diane; McLaughlin, Barry; Snow, Catherine E.; Dressler, Cheryl; Lippman, David N.; Lively, Teresa J.; White, Claire E.

2004-01-01

265

Number-concept acquisition and general vocabulary development.  

PubMed

How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et al., 2003). This result calls into question arguments that (a) the number-concept creation process is scaffolded mainly by visuo-spatial development and (b) that language only becomes integrated after the concepts are created (D. Ansari et al., 2003). Instead, this may suggest that having a larger nominal vocabulary helps children learn number words. Experiment 3 shows that the differences with previous results are likely due to changes in how the data were analyzed. PMID:22803603

Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W

2012-11-01

266

Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

2012-01-01

267

Phonological Awareness and Musical Aptitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between phonological awareness and musical aptitude in pre-school Turkish and American children. Finds that children in the high musical aptitude group did much better on all tasks than those in the low musical aptitude group, showing that success in manipulating linguistic sounds was related to awareness of distinct…

Peynircioglu, Zehra F.; Durgunoglu, Aydyn Y.; Oney-Kusefoglu, Banu

2002-01-01

268

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

269

The Phonological Assimilation of Borrowing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistic borrowing from English to Jordanian Arabic at the lexical level is described, focusing on phonology and the extent to which Jordanian Arabic has affected the phonetic structure of English loans assimilated partially or completely into it. Conspicuous distinctive sound features in the two languages that may affect non-native speakers'…

Suleiman, Saleh M.

270

The interface between morphology and phonology: Exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production  

PubMed Central

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment—these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing.

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

271

The consequences of progressive phonological impairment for reading aloud.  

PubMed

The 'primary systems' view of reading disorders proposes that there are no neural regions devoted exclusively to reading, and therefore that acquired dyslexias should reliably co-occur with deficits in more general underlying capacities. This perspective predicted that surface dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading aloud 'exception' words (those with atypical spelling-sound characteristics), should be a consistent feature of semantic dementia, a progressive disorder of conceptual knowledge, and just such a pattern has been observed in previous research. In a similar vein, one might expect the gradual deterioration of phonological processing seen in the nonfluent forms of progressive aphasia to be accompanied by phonological dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading of unfamiliar letter strings, i.e., nonwords. The present study, reporting a case-series consideration of reading-aloud data from 16 progressive nonfluent aphasic patients, revealed a pattern in which both low-frequency exception word and nonword reading were comparably compromised. The severity of the reading disorder was predicted by scores on the expressive language task of picture naming but not the receptive task of spoken word-to-picture matching. Our hypothesis that a phonological deficit underpins diminished performance for both naming and reading was supported by the finding that reading-aloud performance was predicted specifically by the rate of phonological errors in picture naming. Moreover, the strength of this relationship was similar for low-frequency exception words and nonwords, suggesting that reading deficits for these two types of items in this disorder shared a common cause: a progressive impairment of phonological processing. PMID:23000132

Woollams, Anna M; Patterson, Karalyn

2012-12-01

272

Mapping Opthalmic Terms to a Standardized Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes work by the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) to expand the standardized vocabulary, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), to accommodate a definitive ophthalmic standardized vocabulary. Mapped a practice-based clinical ophthalmic vocabulary to SNOMED and other vocabularies in the Metathesaurus of the Unified Medical…

Patrick, Timothy B.; Reid, John C.; Sievert, MaryEllen; Popescu, Mihail; Gigantelli, James W.; Shelton, Mark E.; Schiffman, Jade S.

2000-01-01

273

Vocabulary's Influence on Successful Writing. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguing that the ability to write effectively hinges upon having an adequate vocabulary, this digest explores some of the ways vocabulary influences writing ability, and how teachers can use vocabulary development specifically to improve writing skills. The digest suggests that the breadth and depth of a student's vocabulary will have a direct…

Brynildssen, Shawna

274

Direct and Extended Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten: Investigating Transfer Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an 18-week program of direct and extended vocabulary instruction with kindergarten students on both proximal measures of target word knowledge and transfer measures of generalized language and literacy. A second purpose was to examine whether treatment effects would be moderated by…

Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Loftus, Susan; Zipoli, Richard, Jr.; Ruby, Maureen; Crevecoeur, Yvel C.; Kapp, Sharon

2010-01-01

275

A Rasch-Based Validation of the Vocabulary Size Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study was to provide preliminary validity evidence for a 140-item form of the Vocabulary Size Test, which is designed to measure written receptive knowledge of the first 14,000 words of English. Nineteen native speakers of English and 178 native speakers of Japanese participated in the study. Analyses based on the Rasch…

Beglar, David

2010-01-01

276

Towards a Mapping from ERDF(S) to Take Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a mapping solution from ERDF(S) to Take vocabulary. The work is related to an investigation of integrat- ing ERDF Derivation Rules into Take inference engine. Some steps are required to finalize this task: a mapping between ERDF(S) and Take vo- cabulary, integration of ERDF knowledge base in Take, and empowering Take inference engine to deal with both

Ion-mircea Diaconescu; Adrian Giurca; Gerd Wagner; Jens Dietrich

2008-01-01

277

Listening to Learn: Boosting Vocabulary with Interactive Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite being one of our most important and most often used modalities, listening is an area of language instruction that is often overlooked by teachers and researchers alike as fertile ground for the enhancement of students' vocabulary knowledge. For low-level learners, especially those not in full control of the first 2000 most-frequent words…

Cohen, Joshua

2008-01-01

278

Tracking the Changes: Vocabulary Acquisition in the Study Abroad Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical evidence suggests that the study abroad experience accelerates growth in global vocabulary knowledge. The exact nature of this growth is rarely reported, however, and there is little documented evidence to indicate whether it is linear or uneven, whether the speed of growth is constant or changing, or whether the study abroad context…

Fitzpatrick, Tess

2012-01-01

279

Beyond Raw Frequency: Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition in Extensive Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second language vocabulary can be learned incidentally while the learner is engaged in extensive reading or reading for meaning, inferring the meaning of unknown words (Huckin & Coady, 1999; Hulstijn, 1992; Krashen, 1993; Pigada & Schmitt, 2006). 12 Korean learners of English read authentic literary texts and were tested on their knowledge of…

Kweon, Soo-Ok; Kim, Hae-Ri

2008-01-01

280

The Relationship between Vocabulary and Writing Quality in Three Genres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocabulary in writing across three genres. Fifth graders (N = 105) wrote three compositions: story, persuasive, and informative. Each composition revolved around the topic of outer space to control for background knowledge. Written compositions were scored for holistic writing quality and…

Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Wilson, Joshua

2013-01-01

281

Peek, Peak, Pique: Using Homophones to Teach Vocabulary (and Spelling!).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that regular homophone practice enhances vocabulary knowledge, spelling skills, pronunciation ability, and overall reading proficiency. Describes how card games played with decks of homophones helped to accomplish these things. Notes particular benefits of homophone games to English-as-a-second-language students, and outlines key advantages…

Pryle, Marilyn Bogusch

2000-01-01

282

Building interoperable vocabulary and structures for learning objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural, functional, and production views on learning objects influence metadata structure and vocabulary. We drew on these views and conducted a literature review and in-depth analysis of 14 learning objects and over 500 components in these learning objects to model the knowledge framework for a learning object ontology. The learning object ontology reported in this paper consists of 8

Jian Qin; Naybell Hernández

2006-01-01

283

Pre-Service Teacher Cognition and Vocabulary Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The knowledge and beliefs that teachers hold are an important determiner of what happens in the classroom. Ideally teacher cognition should be informed by research and theory about effective language learning. This paper examines the beliefs related to vocabulary teaching held by a cohort of 60 Malaysian pre-service teachers engaged in a…

Macalister, John

2012-01-01

284

Connectives: Fitting Another Piece of the Vocabulary Instruction Puzzle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connectives (e.g., although, consequently, in contrast) are often considered the "signposts" of texts. In this article we argue that connectives represent a special kind of vocabulary knowledge that students need to develop both in order to read challenging, academic texts with understanding and to produce academic writing. Yet tapping…

Crosson, Amy C.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2013-01-01

285

Depth of reading vocabulary in hearing and hearing-impaired children.  

PubMed

The main point of our study was to examine the vocabulary knowledge of pupils in grades 3-6, and in particular the relative reading vocabulary disadvantage of hearing-impaired pupils. The achievements of 394 pupils with normal hearing and 106 pupils with a hearing impairment were examined on two vocabulary assessment tasks: a lexical decision task and a use decision task. The target words in both tasks represent the vocabulary children should have at the end of primary school. The results showed that most hearing pupils reached this norm, whereas most hearing-impaired pupils did not. In addition, results showed that hearing-impaired pupils not only knew fewer words, but that they also knew them less well. This lack of deeper knowledge remained even when matching hearing and hearing-impaired children on minimal word knowledge. Additionally, comparison of the two tasks demonstrated the efficacy of the lexical decision task as a measure of lexical semantic knowledge. PMID:21475681

Coppens, Karien M; Tellings, Agnes; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

2011-04-01

286

Molecular Biology Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to molecular biology, including DNA and RNA structure and function, transcription and translation. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

287

Kindergartners' Vocabulary Acquisition as a Function of Active vs. Passive Storybook Reading, Prior Vocabulary, and Working Memory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that children either actively participated by asking questions or passively participated by listening to a recast containing a familiar synonym for each target word. Finds that children with higher vocabulary knowledge acquired significantly more words than did passive participants, and children with high versus low working memory did not…

Ewers, Cynthia A.; Brownson, Shirley M.

1999-01-01

288

Phonological Working Memory, Phonological Awareness and Language in Literacy Difficulties in Brazilian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most usual flaws that lead to literacy disability regards cognitive difficulties and alterations some children present in the literacy process. Many studies have found alterations in phonological processing, more specifically in phonological working memory (PWM) and phonological awareness (PA). Therefore, our aim was to identify…

Barbosa, Thais; Miranda, Monica Carolina; Santos, Ruth F.; Bueno, Orlando Francisco A.

2009-01-01

289

Training in Phonological Awareness Generalizes to Phonological Working Memory: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early reading achievement relies on phonological awareness (PA) and phonological working memory (WM). Children with language impairment (LI) have problems with both. Three studies were conducted to determine whether treating PA would also improve phonological WM in preschoolers with LI. Study 1 confirmed that children with specific LI perform more poorly than age-matched peers on both PA and WM tasks.

Anne van Kleeck; Ronald B. Gilla; LaVae M. Hoffman

2006-01-01

290

The Relationship between Phonological Awareness and Reading: Implications for the Assessment of Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) use phonological awareness assessments in many ways. This study examines the usefulness of these assessments in kindergarten and 2nd grade. Method: Measures of phonological awareness and letter identification were administered in kindergarten, and measures of phonological awareness, phonetic decoding…

Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Little, Todd D.

2005-01-01

291

Early Contribution of Phonological Awareness and Later Influence of Phonological Memory throughout Reading Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acquisition of reading skills is known to rely on early phonological abilities, but only a few studies have investigated the independent contribution of the different steps involved in phonological processing. This 1-year longitudinal study, spanning the initial year of reading instruction, aimed at specifying the development of phonological

Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle; Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Leybaert, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

292

Is the Phonological Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia Related to Impaired Phonological Representations and to Universal Phonological Grammar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia is still debated. We concur with possible impairments in the representations of the universal phonological constraints that universally govern how phonemes co-occur as a source of this deficit. We were interested in whether-and how-dyslexic children have sensitivity to…

Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Taki, Yasuyuki; Yokoyama, Satoru; Magnan, Annie; Takahashi, Kei; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ecalle, Jean; Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-01-01

293

Phonological Priming and Cohort Effects in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…

Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

2011-01-01

294

The Acquisition of L2 Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Acquisition of L2 Phonology is a wide-ranging new collection which focuses on various aspects of the acquisition of an L2 phonological system. The authors are researchers and practitioners from five different countries. The volume has been divided into three major sections. Phonetic Analysis presents five studies of language learners in both…

Wojtaszek, Adam; Arabski, Janusz

2011-01-01

295

Phonological Representations in Children with SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been hypothesized that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty processing sound-based information, including storing and accessing phonological representations in the lexicon. Tasks are emerging in the literature that provide a measure of the quality of stored phonological representations, without requiring a verbal…

Claessen, Mary; Leitao, Suze

2012-01-01

296

Phonological Awareness. ERIC Topical Bibliography and Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Topical Bibliography and Commentary examines recent studies on phonological awareness, finding the evidence conclusive that teaching phonological awareness to young children greatly facilitates the reading process. Researchers have studied problems children experience in reading for many years. The focus of research during the 1990s has been…

Smith, Carl B., Ed.

297

Phonological Priming in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological

Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

2012-01-01

298

Phonological similarity effects in verbal complex span  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological similarity effects were used to assess the role of acoustic coding in verbal complex span, a processing-plus-storage measure found to correlate significantly with aspects of complex cognition. Three experiments demonstrated consistent effects of phonological similarity on listening span. These effects appeared relatively insensitive to manipulations of task materials (Experiment 1) and differences in processing task demands (Experiments 2 and

Katy J. Lobley; Alan D. Baddeley; Susan E. Gathercole

2005-01-01

299

Recent Advances in Phonological Theory and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a clinical forum that considers a variety of theoretical and analytical frameworks that have been applied to developing systems in phonological theory and treatment. It explains phonological theory, in which sound properties that are marked in language are those sounds that are most complex. (Contains references.)…

Barlow, Jessica A.

2001-01-01

300

Assessment of Individual Differences in Phonological Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Dunkelberger, Martha; Novak, Barbara; Mukherjee, Anuja Divatia

2010-01-01

301

Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing

Lisa B. Wilson; Jason R. Tregellas; Erin Slason; Bryce E. Pasko; Donald C. Rojas

2011-01-01

302

Phonology in Language Learning and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at absorbing the pronunciation teachers task and how much phonology should teachers know. Teachers and future teachers need a well-rounded concept of the phonology of the language they are going to teach and the native language of learners. Emphasis must be placed on the understanding of language as a system of rules and as a…

Jarrah, Ali Saleh

2012-01-01

303

Planned NLM/AHCPR large-scale vocabulary test: using UMLS technology to determine the extent to which controlled vocabularies cover terminology needed for health care and public health.  

PubMed

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) are sponsoring a test to determine the extent to which a combination of existing health-related terminologies covers vocabulary needed in health information systems. The test vocabularies are the 30 that are fully or partially represented in the 1996 edition of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, plus three planned additions: the portions of SNOMED International not in the 1996 Metathesaurus Read Clinical Classification, and the Logical Observations Identifiers, Names, and Codes (LOINC) system. These vocabularies are available to testers through a special interface to the Internet-based UMLS Knowledge Source Server. The test will determine the ability of the test vocabularies to serve as a source of controlled vocabulary for health data systems and applications. It should provide the basis for realistic resource estimates for developing and maintaining a comprehensive "standard" health vocabulary that is based on existing terminologies. PMID:8816351

Humphreys, B L; Hole, W T; McCray, A T; Fitzmaurice, J M

1996-01-01

304

Semantic Clustering Versus Thematic Clustering of English Vocabulary Words for Second Language Instruction: Which Method Is More Effective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a multitude of research on vocabulary methods or strategies, how many relate to second language learners and the importance of vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension. Researchers have explored the possibility that grouping words in a manner other than the traditional list of nouns, all fitting under a common theme, might be more…

Hippner-Page, Tina

305

How Do Vocabulary Interventions Affect Young At-Risk Children's Word Learning: A Meta-Analytic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis is designed to build on the existing knowledge base by examining vocabulary interventions specifically for factors associated with child outcomes for at-risk children. Specifically, the authors addressed the following questions: (1) To what extent are vocabulary interventions an effective method for at-risk children prior to…

Marulis, Loren M.; Neuman, Susan B.

2011-01-01

306

Picture--Vocabulary--Story, P-V-S: A Guide to the New Reading Process through a Total Language Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet presents a medium which attempts to capitalize on the major strengths of all reading language approaches by incorporating the three basic teaching methods (auditory-visual-kinesthetic). The Picture-Vocabulary-Story (PVS) medium is designed to provide students with suitable experiences, knowledge of vocabulary, comprehension of what…

Lloyd, Bruce A.

307

Electropalatography in the treatment of articulation/phonological disorders.  

PubMed

Treatment using electropalatography (EPG) is described. Speech learners wear a custom-made appliance called a pseudopalate in order to view their tongue-to-palate (lingual palatal) contacts on a computer monitor. The results from studies with children who have either articulation or phonology-based problems are discussed. Assessments of contact patterns used by articulation-impaired children suggests that they may produce more atypical articulatory contacts than are noted perceptually. Remediation, using electropalatography, showed that the children benefited from learning new articulatory gestures rather than learning to correct isolated errors. Studies with phonologically-impaired children have shown that perceptually neutralized (or non-contrasted) sounds may actually be produced with consistent articulatory contrasts. This knowledge could assist in identifying sounds that might soon emerge and be more responsive to therapy. Training studies with phonologically-impaired children have shown that a motor approach using sound contrasts to teach a phonetic inventory is an effective way to assist these children. Considerations for candidacy for EPG training are also discussed. PMID:8576412

Dagenais, P A

1995-12-01

308

Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness, or the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, has been identified as a key early literacy skill and precursor to reading. For the purposes of this review, "phonological awareness training" refers to any practice targeting young children's phonological awareness abilities. "Phonological

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

309

A Treatment Sequence for Phonological Alexia/Agraphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Damage to left perisylvian cortex often results in impaired phonological processing abilities with written language profiles consistent with phonological alexia and phonological agraphia. The purpose of this article was to examine a behavioral treatment sequence for such individuals intended to strengthen phonological processing and links…

Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rising, Kindle; Kim, Esther S.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

2010-01-01

310

Relationship between intelligence and vocabulary.  

PubMed

This study explored the correlations of scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III in screening language problems and scores on the three Comprehensive Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test subscales. Participants were 243 students ages 6 to 17 years in Grades K-11 who were identified as learning disabled, learning disabled with speech impairment, mentally retarded, and speech impaired. Analysis indicated strong correlations between the two measures, particularly between the CREVT General Vocabulary and WISC-III Verbal IQ (r = .80), WISC-III Verbal Comprehension Index (r =.83), and the Vocabulary subtest (r =.76). These results held across the grades. Supporting earlier studies of relationships of Verbal IQ and Receptive Vocabulary, correlations were lower between participants in Grades K through 2 than those in higher grades on the WISC-III Verbal IQ and the Receptive Vocabulary subtest. An analysis of the accuracy of the WISC-III for classifying students with language problems indicated improvement in classification over chance. These findings suggest that the WISC-III may be an effective screen for language problems. PMID:15773700

Smith, Billy L; Smith, Teresa D; Taylor, Loria; Hobby, Melissa

2005-02-01

311

Depth of Teachers' Knowledge: Frameworks for Teachers' Knowledge of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes seven teacher knowledge frameworks and relates these frameworks to the teaching and assessment of elementary teacher's mathematics knowledge. The frameworks classify teachers' knowledge and provide a vocabulary and common language through which knowledge can be discussed and assessed. These frameworks are categorized into…

Holmes, Vicki-Lynn

2012-01-01

312

Evaluation of the Vocabulary Switching System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vocabulary Switching System (VSS) is an experimental system designed to enhance search strategies and ultimately retrieval performance for those who use online bibliographic data bases. VSS contains 15 indexing and retrieval vocabularies from 12 diffe...

R. Niehoff G. Mack

1984-01-01

313

Development of Indexing Vocabularies in Electrical Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the project was to develop a controlled indexing vocabulary and classification system. Sections of the Ei indexing vocabulary pertaining to electrical engineering, computer technology, and automatic control were correlated with the Electr...

D. Dosamantes

1971-01-01

314

Optimal Document-Indexing Vocabulary for MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indexing vocabulary is an important determinant of success in text retrieval. Researchers have compared the effectiveness of indexing using free-text and controlled vocabularies in a variety of text contexts. A number of studies have investigated the relative merits of free-text, MeSH and UMLS Metathesaurus indexing vocabularies for MEDLINE document indexing. Most of these studies conclude that controlled vocabularies offer

Padmini Srinivasan

1996-01-01

315

Letter-Name Letter-Sound and Phonological Awareness: Evidence from Greek-Speaking Kindergarten Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…

Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia

2011-01-01

316

Letter Names and Phonological Awareness Help Children to Learn Letter-Sound Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds…

Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

2011-01-01

317

Probed Serial Recall in Williams Syndrome: Lexical Influences on Phonological Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams syndrome is a genetic disorder that, it has been claimed, results in an unusual pattern of linguistic strengths and weaknesses. The current study investigated the hypothesis that there is a reduced influence of lexical knowledge on phonological short-term memory in Williams syndrome. Fourteen children with Williams syndrome and 2…

Brock, Jan; McCormack, Teresa; Boucher, Jill

2005-01-01

318

Teachers' Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…

Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

2010-01-01

319

Teaching Vocabulary in the Literature Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates concept-related vocabulary instruction, in which students link individual words with larger literature concepts. Outlines four steps to creating a concept-related vocabulary lesson. Offers examples of how concept-related vocabulary lessons can be conducted while reading, before reading, and after reading. Outlines web, weave, and…

Barton, James

2001-01-01

320

Vocabulary Instruction for the Struggling Reader  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's acquisition of vocabulary is essential for gains in reading comprehension and reading development. Struggling readers often do not make gains in their reading comprehension because they have a limited reading vocabulary. Enhancing the vocabulary development and growth for children who are experiencing reading difficulties enables them to better identify key concepts in text that they read, make inferences within

William H. Rupley; William Dee Nichols

2005-01-01

321

Computer Assisted Vocabulary Learning: Design and Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the design and evaluation of the computer-assisted vocabulary learning (CAVL) software WUFUN. It draws on the current research findings of vocabulary acquisition and CALL, aiming to help Chinese university students to improve their learning of English vocabulary, particularly that with which they experience most difficulty.…

Ma, Qing; Kelly, Peter

2006-01-01

322

A Core Vocabulary for Tamil. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocabulary list is directed towards the Tamil instructor and the advanced student. Its primary goal is to bring some order to the teaching of vocabulary in the first two years of Tamil instruction. A secondary goal is to help the student through the vocabulary maze of Tamil diglossia. Three main criteria were employed in selecting words for…

McAlpin, David W.

323

Enhancing Vocabulary Development in Multiple Classroom Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes ways teachers can enhance students' vocabulary development through multiple contexts available in typical middle school classroom settings. Addresses questions about vocabulary learning and offers suggestions for enhancing vocabulary with narrative and expository texts that involve multiple classroom contexts. Considers the Vocab-o-gram…

Harmon, Janis M.; Staton, Denise G.

1999-01-01

324

Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories  

PubMed Central

Purpose The prelinguistic infant’s babbling repertoire of syllables—the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning—is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver’s role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning. In the present work, the authors begin to address this gap. Method The authors explored vocalizations produced by 8 infants at 3 ages (8, 10, and 12 months) in studies illustrating identification of phonological categories through caregiver report, laboratory procedures simulating the caregiver’s natural mode of listening, and the more traditional laboratory approach (phonetic transcription). Results Caregivers reported small repertoires of syllables for their infants. Repertoires of similar size and phonetic content were discerned in the laboratory by judges who simulated the caregiver’s natural mode of listening. However, phonetic transcription with repeated listening to infant recordings yielded repertoire sizes that vastly exceeded those reported by caregivers and naturalistic listeners. Conclusions The results suggest that caregiver report and naturalistic listening by laboratory staff can provide a new way to explore key characteristics of early infant vocal categories, a way that may provide insight into later speech and language development.

Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

2014-01-01

325

Teaching Vocabulary Expeditiously: Three Keys to Improving Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating vocabulary games and activities more often into the structure of the day, Thomas B. Smith establishes a word-rich environment for high school students to experiment with unfamiliar words in varying, playful contexts. Smith asserts that giving frequent opportunities for hearing, speaking, and writing in the typical context of the day is…

Smith, Thomas B.

2008-01-01

326

Articulation Accuracy and Vocabulary Size Contributions to Phonemic Awareness and Word Reading in English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among articulation, vocabulary, phonemic awareness, and word reading were examined in 45 children who spoke either Hmong or Spanish as their primary language. A theoretical perspective suggesting that English articulation and vocabulary would influence children's English phonemic awareness and English word reading was developed. Articulation influenced both kindergarten phonemic awareness and 1st-grade word reading. Letter-sound knowledge was also associated

Theresa A. Roberts

2005-01-01

327

The relationship between vocabulary size and depth for ESP\\/EAP learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary knowledge occupies an important position in language learning. This study investigates the relationship between vocabulary size and depth for Iranian learners of English for specific\\/academic purposes (ESP\\/EAP). The participants include 112 ESP graduate students at a university in Iran. The findings from linear regression analyses show that, overall, VLT (size test) and WAT (depth test) have a great deal of

Is’haaq Akbarian

2010-01-01

328

Semantic memory impairment does not impact on phonological and orthographic processing in a case of developmental hyperlexia.  

PubMed

Recent evidence from patients with progressive language disorders and dementia has been used to suggest that phonological and orthographic processing depend on intact semantic memory. These claims challenge the traditional view that there are functionally separate modules in the language system. The effect of a severe, but nonprogressive, semantic impairment on phonological and orthographic processing was evaluated in LA, a mentally retarded child with hyperlexia. Knowledge of a word's meaning did not affect LA's word repetition, a measure of phonological processing, or his acquisition and retention of orthographic patterns for writing to dictation low-frequency words with exceptional spellings. These findings support the assertion that both orthographic and phonological whole-word representations can be acquired, stored, and retrieved in the absence of a functional link to semantic memory. PMID:9027372

Glosser, G; Grugan, P; Friedman, R B

1997-02-01

329

Multisensory Strategies for Science Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeing, touching, smelling, hearing, and learning! The authors observed that their English Language Learner (ELL) students achieved a deeper understanding of the properties of matter, as well as enhanced vocabulary development, when they were guided through inquiry-based, multisensory explorations that repeatedly exposed them to words and…

Husty, Sandra; Jackson, Julie

2008-01-01

330

Academic Vocabulary and the CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The College and Career Ready Standards of the CCSS articulate a range of expectations regarding what students should be able to do with regards to academic vocabulary: (1) Interpret technical, connotative, and figurative meanings of words and phrases; (2) Analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone; (3) Determine or clarify the meaning…

Aspen Institute, 2012

2012-01-01

331

Vocabulary, Intelligence, and Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted at Cuyahoga Community College to test the relationship between student scores on timed and untimed reading comprehension and vocabulary tests, and to investigate the relationship between those scores and intelligence. The study sample included 72 students enrolled in classes at developmental, freshman, and sophomore levels.…

Gabriel, Dennis; Richards, Irving

332

Vocabulary Resources for Material Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for writers of instructional materials for teaching English as a Second Language (ESL), the list describes word lists and language corpora that may be of use in creating, simplifying, and refining vocabulary content in ESL materials. The sources are dated from 1944 to the present, and include a freeware computer program. Some limited…

Bauman, John

1996-01-01

333

Earth Science Vocabulary Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of activities lets students test their knowledge of hundreds of random geologic terms. The activities include games such as hangman (several varieties), flash cards, guessing words or definitions, and matching terms with definitions. Topics include rocks and minerals, Earth dynamics, Earth history, surface processes, weather, and astronomy.

2011-06-24

334

Ethnicity in Phonological Variation and Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of ethnicity, or the family and community, in determining linguistic variants (specifically, phonological variants) among Italians, Jews, and Irish in Boston. Implications for phonetic change and language acquisition are also discussed. (Author/AM)

Laferriere, Martha

1979-01-01

335

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes  

MedlinePLUS

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech sound disorders ? Can adults have speech sound disorders ? What ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...

336

Community structure in the phonological network  

PubMed Central

Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language.

Siew, Cynthia S. Q.

2013-01-01

337

Phonology and orthography in reading aloud.  

PubMed

This study investigated the orthographic and phonological contribution of visually masked primes to reading aloud in Dutch. Although there is a relatively clear mapping between the spelling and sound of words in Dutch, words starting with the letter c are ambiguous as to whether they begin with the phoneme /s/ (e.g., citroen, "lemon") or with the phoneme /k/ (e.g., complot, "conspiracy"). Therefore, using words of this type, one can tease apart the contributions of orthographic and phonological activation in reading aloud. Dutch participants read aloud bisyllabic c-initial target words, which were preceded by visually masked, bisyllabic prime words that either shared the initial phoneme with the target (phonologically related) or the first grapheme (orthographically related) or both (phonologically and orthographically related). Unrelated primes did not share the first segment with the target. Response latencies in the phonologically related conditions were shorter than those in the unrelated condition. However, primes that were orthographically related did not speed up responses. One may conclude that the nature of the onset effect in reading aloud is phonological and not orthographic. PMID:17874588

Schiller, Niels O

2007-06-01

338

Do Language Proficiency and Lecture Comprehension Matter? OpenCourseWare Lectures for Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open source lectures not only provide knowledge-seekers with convenient ways to obtain knowledge and information, they also serve as potential language learning resources that provide extensive language input and repeated exposure to vocabulary within specific topics or disciplines. This current study aims to examine the relationship between…

Sun, Yu-Chih; Yang, Hui-Chi

2012-01-01

339

Comparing Teacher-Directed and Computer-Assisted Instruction of Elementary Geography Place Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increased knowledge of geographic place name vocabulary continues to be important to student academic success. Place knowledge is a vital part of students' learning to be responsible citizens by helping them become more conscious of the world around them and preparing the world around them and preparing them to enter a global workplace. This study…

Salsbury, Denise E.

2006-01-01

340

The Phonological Store of Working Memory: Is It Phonological and Is It a Store?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phonological store construct of the working memory model is critically evaluated. Three experiments test the prediction that the effect of irrelevant sound and the effect of phonological similarity each survive the action of articulatory suppression but only when presentation of to-be-remembered lists is auditory, not visual. No evidence was found to support the interaction predicted among irrelevant speech, modality,

Dylan M. Jones; William J. Macken; Alastair P. Nicholls

2004-01-01

341

Phonological Awareness and Phonological Hierarchy in Unintelligible Speech: What Does the Child Really "Know"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness has been claimed to play an important role in the development of language skills, and it is essential that the child's phonological skills be assessed accurately in order to predict and to take early measures to help those that may encounter problems. Although the mora has attracted much attention in the discussion of…

Miyakoda, Haruko; Imatomi, Setsuko

2009-01-01

342

Phonological Awareness and the Use of Phonological Similarity in Letter-Sound Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…

de Jong, Peter F.

2007-01-01

343

What Models of Verbal Working Memory Can Learn from Phonological Theory: Decomposing the Phonological Similarity Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…

Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf

2011-01-01

344

Adaptive vocabularies for transcribing multilingual broadcast news  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most prevailing problems of large-vocabulary speech recognition systems is the large number of out-of-vocabulary words. This is especially the case for automatically transcribing broadcast news in languages other than English, that have a large number of inflections and compound words. We introduce a set of techniques to decrease the number of out-of-vocabulary words during recognition by using

P. Geutner; M. Finke; P. Scheytt

1998-01-01

345

Vocabulary Teaching Strategies: Effects on Vocabulary Recognition and Comprehension at the First Grade Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined teaching methods for vocabulary at the first grade level. The study compared teaching vocabulary in context and teaching vocabulary in isolation. Subjects were 32 culturally diverse first-grade students from varying socio-economic backgrounds. The sample consisted of 14 boys and 18 girls, heterogeneously grouped. Two teacher-made…

Peitz, Patricia; Vena, Patricia

346

Extracting Enterprise Vocabularies Using Linked Open Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common vocabulary is vital to smooth business operation, yet codifying and maintaining an enterprise vocabulary is an arduous, manual task. We describe a process to automatically extract a domain specific vocabulary (terms and types) from unstructured data in the enterprise guided by term definitions in Linked Open Data (LOD). We validate our techniques by applying them to the IT (Information Technology) domain, taking 58 Gartner analyst reports and using two specific LOD sources - DBpedia and Freebase. We show initial findings that address the generalizability of these techniques for vocabulary extraction in new domains, such as the energy industry.

Dolby, Julian; Fokoue, Achille; Kalyanpur, Aditya; Schonberg, Edith; Srinivas, Kavitha

347

Phonological Awareness Instruction for Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty middle school students with learning disabilities identified as having phonological awareness deficits were provided with phonological awareness instruction to investigate the effectiveness of the instruction on phonological awareness and word recognition skills. Results indicated that following instruction, students improved on word…

Bhat, Preetha; Griffin, Cynthia C.; Sindelar, Paul T.

2003-01-01

348

Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

2013-01-01

349

Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

2006-01-01

350

Evaluation of Core Vocabulary Intervention for Treatment of Inconsistent Phonological Disorder: Three Treatment Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with unintelligible speech differ in severity, underlying deficit, type of surface error patterns and response to treatment. Detailed treatment case studies, evaluating specific intervention protocols for particular diagnostic groups, can identify best practice for children with speech disorder. Three treatment case studies evaluated the…

McIntosh, Beth; Dodd, Barbara

2009-01-01

351

Evaluation of Core Vocabulary Intervention for Treatment of Inconsistent Phonological Disorder: Three Treatment Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with unintelligible speech differ in severity, underlying deficit, type of surface error patterns and response to treatment. Detailed treatment case studies, evaluating specific intervention protocols for particular diagnostic groups, can identify best practice for children with speech disorder. Three treatment case studies evaluated the…

McIntosh, Beth; Dodd, Barbara

2008-01-01

352

A Comparison of Difficulty Levels of Vocabulary in First Grade Basal Readers for Preschool Dual Language Learners and Monolingual English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated preschoolers' knowledge of vocabulary that appears in first grade basal readers by applying Rasch modeling to data from a researcher-developed receptive picture vocabulary assessment administered to 238 children. Levels of word difficulty for dual language learners (DLLs) and monolingual English learners (MELs) were…

Leung, Cynthia B.; Silverman, Rebecca; Nandakumar, Ratna; Qian, Xiaoyu; Hines, Sara

2011-01-01

353

Infants' Learning of Phonological Status  

PubMed Central

There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants’ discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I’m should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I’d, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants’ sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11?months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions.

Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

2012-01-01

354

Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

2012-01-01

355

Vocabulary Instruction in the Middle Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Michael Graves points out that it is only in the last 40 years that a rich base of theory and research about teaching and learning vocabulary has come into being. Grounding his article in this research, he lists some of the factors testifying to the importance of vocabulary and discusses what may be the most crucial fact about the task of teaching…

Graves, Michael F.

2007-01-01

356

Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio) on (a) the learning of written and aural word forms, (b) overall vocabulary gains, (c) attention to input, and (d) vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian…

Sydorenko, Tetyana

2010-01-01

357

Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary

Feezell, Greg

2012-01-01

358

A Framework for Developing EFL Reading Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective second language vocabulary acquisition is particularly important for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners who frequently acquire impoverished lexicons despite years of formal study. This paper comprehensively reviews and critiques second language (L2) reading vocabulary research and proposes that EFL teachers and administrators…

Hunt, Alan; Beglar, David

2005-01-01

359

Tuning in to Vocabulary Frequency in Coursebooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For second language learners vocabulary growth is of major importance, and for many learners commercially published coursebooks will be the source of this vocabulary learning. In this preliminary study, input from three levels of the coursebook series "New English File" (Oxenden and Latham-Koenig, 2006; Oxenden, Latham-Koenig, and Seligson, 2004,…

O'Loughlin, Richard

2012-01-01

360

A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

Labrie, Gilles

2000-01-01

361

Redirective Labels and Early Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents' object labels can be distinguished by whether the child is already attending to the object (follow-in) or not (lead-in). Lead-in labels have been found to be associated with low vocabulary. The current study examines whether the relation between lead-in labels and child vocabulary is influenced by whether the child's attention is…

Shimpi, Priya Mariana; Huttenlocher, Janellen

2007-01-01

362

Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

Howell, Gina

2012-01-01

363

Multiword Vocabulary in Japanese ESL Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe our analysis of vocabulary across three sets of Japanese ESL texts. We focus upon frequency analysis of individual words and multiword sequences (n-grams), giving cross comparisons of 2, 3 and 4-gram multiword sequences. In addition, we consider the degree of emphasis on multiword vocabulary that is evident in each textbook corpus. This is derived from

George R S Weir; Toshiaki Ozasa

2008-01-01

364

A Self-Organizing Spatial Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language is a shared set of conventions for mapping meaningsto expressions. This paper explores self-organization as the primarymechanism for the formation of a vocabulary. It reports on a computationalexperiment in which a group of distributed agents developways to identify each other using names or spatial descriptions. It isalso shown that the proposed mechanism copes with the acquisitionof an existing vocabulary

Luc Steels

1995-01-01

365

Building Academic Vocabulary Student Notebook, Revised Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We've changed our BAV (Building Academic Vocabulary) student materials to a sturdy bound notebook to give you a lower price and a more durable format. Instead of using loose-leaf pages, teachers can now give each student this colorful notebook that follows the 6-step method for teaching academic vocabulary. There is space for more terms, and…

Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra

2008-01-01

366

Studies Find Vocabulary Instruction Is Falling Short  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary

Sparks, Sarah D.

2013-01-01

367

Promoting Vocabulary Development in Your Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After reviewing the literature, this paper seeks to show the importance and significance of direct vocabulary instruction on students' critical literacy skills; specifically, reading comprehension. Although some may suggest that the greatest amount of vocabulary growth occurs through incidental word learning in wide reading, research indicates…

Long, Nicole Amber

368

Exploring cross-linguistic vocabulary effects on brain structures using voxel-based morphometry  

PubMed Central

Given that there are neural markers for the acquisition of a non-verbal skill, we review evidence of neural markers for the acquisition of vocabulary. Acquiring vocabulary is critical to learning one’s native language and to learning other languages. Acquisition requires the ability to link an object concept (meaning) to sound. Is there a region sensitive to vocabulary knowledge? For monolingual English speakers, increased vocabulary knowledge correlates with increased grey matter density in a region of the parietal cortex that is well-located to mediate an association between meaning and sound (the posterior supramarginal gyrus). Further this region also shows sensitivity to acquiring a second language. Relative to monolingual English speakers, Italian-English bilinguals show increased grey matter density in the same region. Differences as well as commonalities might exist in the neural markers for vocabulary where lexical distinctions are also signalled by tone. Relative to monolingual English, Chinese multilingual speakers, like European multilinguals, show increased grey matter density in the parietal region observed previously. However, irrespective of ethnicity, Chinese speakers (both Asian and European) also show highly significant increased grey matter density in two right hemisphere regions (the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus). They also show increased grey matter density in two left hemisphere regions (middle temporal and superior temporal gyrus). Such increases may reflect additional resources required to process tonal distinctions for lexical purposes or to store tonal differences in order to distinguish lexical items. We conclude with a discussion of future lines of enquiry.

Green, D.W.; Crinion, J.; Price, C. J.

2007-01-01

369

Role of Phonology in Foreign Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the importance of phonology in second language learning, comparing phonetic mistakes made by adult native speakers of English learning Georgian and adult native speakers of Georgian learning English. It emphasizes the importance of a holistic, systemic approach to teaching second languages that involves making the first…

Meskhi, Anna

370

A BINI GRAMMAR, PART 1--PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PHONOLOGY OF BINI GRAMMAR (A LANGUAGE OF WESTERN NIGERIA) HAS BEEN DESIGNED FOR A HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS AUDIENCE. THE VOLUME IS AIMED AT (1) AREA SPECIALISTS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE OR CULTURE STUDIES OF AFRICA, (2) ETHNOGRAPHERS FOCUSING ON THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES, (3) HISTORIANS WORKING ON THE BENIN PROJECT OF IBADAN…

WESCOTT, ROGER W.

371

Nonword Repetition, Phonological Storage, and Multiple Determinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposals that (a) nonword repetition and word learning both rely on phonological storage and (b) both are multiply determined are two of the major foci of Gathercole's (2006) Keynote Article, which marshals considerable evidence in support of each. In my view, the importance of these proposals cannot be overstated: these two notions go to the…

Gupta, Prahlad

2006-01-01

372

Early Bilingualism, Language Transfer, and Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relations between early bilingualism and phonological awareness in a sample of 75 Turkish-Dutch bilingual kindergarten children living in The Netherlands. In a longitudinal design, the children's first (L1) and second (L2) language abilities were measured at the beginning and end of…

Verhoeven, Ludo

2007-01-01

373

Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

Suh, Yunju

2009-01-01

374

Assessment of Phonological Discrimination in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature indicated that conventional tests are inadequate for accurate assessment of phonological discrimination ability in children. Higher error rates on discrimination tests than those which would be predicted from articulation measures seemed to implicate task variables. To reduce task difficulty, repeated contrast test…

Rudegeair, Robert E.; Kamil, Michael L.

375

Phonological Development in Urdu Speaking Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that examined phonological features of a group of 10 Urdu speaking children (20 to 30 months) to determine if a general theory of language learning can be deduced on the basis of Jakobson's theory of language universals. Addresses the question of how far such a theory is applicable to Urdu speaking children acquiring their native…

Khan, Farhat

1984-01-01

376

Stuttering, Cluttering, and Phonological Complexity: Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonological complexity of dysfluencies in those who clutter and/or stutter may help us better understand phonetic factors in these two types of fluency disorders. In this preliminary investigation, cases were three 14-year-old males, diagnosed as a Stutterer, a Clutterer, and a Stutterer-Clutterer. Spontaneous speech samples were transcribed,…

LaSalle, Lisa R.; Wolk, Lesley

2011-01-01

377

Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

Rubrecht, August Weston

378

Perspectives on Interlanguage Phonetics and Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in this special issue include the following: "Allophonic Splits in L2 Phonology: The Questions of Learnability" (Fred R. Eckman, Abdullah Elreyes, Gregory K. Iverson); "Native Language Influence in Learners' Assessment of English Focus" (M. L. Garcia Lecumberri); "Obstruent Voicing in English and Polish. A Pedagogical Perspective" (Wiktor…

Monroy, Rafael, Ed.; Gutierrez, Francisco, Ed.

2001-01-01

379

Fragile X Speech in Finnish: Phonological Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the phonological patterns of two physically normal boys, aged 5 and 8 years, with fragile X syndrome, an X-chromosomal abnormality usually connected with severe to moderate mental retardation, found language features similar to those found in other studies of fragile X speech. Some of these language features are: repetition of initial…

Niemi, Jussi; And Others

380

Anatomical coupling among distributed cortical regions in youth varies as a function of individual differences in vocabulary abilities.  

PubMed

Patient lesion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided convincing evidence that a distributed brain network subserves word knowledge. However, little is known about the structural correlates of this network within the context of typical development and whether anatomical coupling in linguistically relevant regions of cortex varies as a function of vocabulary skill. Here we investigate the association between vocabulary and anatomical coupling in 235 typically developing youth (ages 6-19 years) using structural MRI. The study's primary aim was to evaluate whether higher vocabulary performance was associated with greater vertex-level cortical thickness covariation in distributed regions of cortex known to be associated with word knowledge. Results indicate that better vocabulary skills are associated with greater anatomical coupling in several linguistically relevant regions of cortex, including the left inferior parietal (temporal-parietal junction), inferior temporal, middle frontal, and superior frontal gyri and the right inferior frontal and precentral gyri. Furthermore, in high vocabulary scorers, stronger coupling is found among these regions. Thus, complementing patient and fMRI studies, this is the first investigation to highlight the relevance of anatomical covariance within the cortex to vocabulary skills in typically developing youth, further elucidating the distributed nature of neural systems subserving word knowledge. Hum Brain Mapp 35:1885-1895, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23728856

Lee, Nancy Raitano; Raznahan, Armin; Wallace, Gregory L; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Clasen, Liv S; Lerch, Jason P; Giedd, Jay N

2014-05-01

381

Development of a Change Model for a Controlled Medical Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing change in controlled medical vocabularies is labor intensive and costly, but change is inevitable if vocabularies are to be kept up to date. The changes that are appropriate for a controlled medical vocabulary depend on the data stored for that vocabulary, and those data in turn depend on the needs of users. The set of change operations is the

Diane E. Oliver

1997-01-01

382

Vocabulary: The Key to Teaching English Language Learners to Read  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The greatest challenge inhibiting the ability of English-language learners (ELLs) to read at the appropriate grade level is perhaps a lack of sufficient vocabulary development. While extensive reading is beneficial, these students must acquire the necessary vocabulary in order to read extensively. Both vocabulary breadth and vocabulary depth are…

Wallace, Christopher

2008-01-01

383

Vocabulary: The Key to Teaching English Language Learners to Read  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The greatest challenge inhibiting the ability of English-language learners (ELLs) to read at the appropriate grade level is perhaps a lack of sufficient vocabulary development. While extensive reading is beneficial, these students must acquire the necessary vocabulary in order to read extensively. Both vocabulary breadth and vocabulary depth are…

Wallace, Christopher

2007-01-01

384

Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition.  

PubMed

Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in the left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task. PMID:21159322

Wilson, Lisa B; Tregellas, Jason R; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E; Rojas, Donald C

2011-03-15

385

Cybertext Redux: Using Interactive Fiction to Teach German Vocabulary, Reading, and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Included within a second language acquisition program, digital games possibly can increase knowledge retention and transfer rates. This mixed-methods study uses a computer- based interactive fiction (IF) game to teach German vocabulary, reading, and culture to university students. The results indicate that contextualized, immersive role-play may have assisted in second language learning, but students were apprehensive given the departure from

Brett E. Shelton; David Neville; Brian McInnis

386

The Shakespeare in All of Us: A Monumental, Multitudinous, Premeditated Approach to Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shakespeare, who worked actively with words through punning, playing, and inventing, serves as the model for students to experience a deepening knowledge of vocabulary and love of words. Through instructional activities aimed at increasing word play, word exposure, and word consciousness, students gain the verbal capacity needed to understand…

Savino, Jennifer Ann

2011-01-01

387

Word Travelers: Using Digital Tools to Explore Vocabulary and Develop Independent Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internet is full of tools for vocabulary development, but the quality and usefulness for teachers and students vary greatly. With a traditionalist's respect for word knowledge and an adventurer's spirit for discovering new routes to learning, Lee Ann Tysseling shares an exciting array of technology-assisted resources that can boost students'…

Tysseling, Lee Ann

2012-01-01

388

Latin Revived: Source-Based Vocabulary Lessons Courtesy of Harry Potter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers can build on students' familiarity with and respect for the Harry Potter books to create source-based vocabulary lessons. The idea is to work with the Latin roots that J. K. Rowling uses to create original names for places, people, and magical charms and then to extend students' knowledge through exploration of additional English words…

Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

2006-01-01

389

Cybertext Redux: Using Digital Game-Based Learning to Teach L2 Vocabulary, Reading, and Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essay reports on a mixed-methods study using an interactive fiction (IF) game to teach German vocabulary, reading, and culture to university students. The study measured knowledge retention and transfer, and evaluated the attitudes of students toward the game. The results tentatively indicate that contextualized, immersive role play may have…

Neville, David O.; Shelton, Brett E.; McInnis, Brian

2009-01-01

390

Beyond Word Meaning: Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Exceptional Language Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A well-developed academic vocabulary is foundational for understanding academic texts used in elementary and secondary classrooms. In-depth word knowledge is critical to understanding the abstract concepts and complex language structures of text. Students with learning disabilities and English language learners both characteristically have limited…

Spies, Tracy G.; Dema, Alexandra A.

2014-01-01

391

Bilingual Word Power. Research Based Vocabulary Strategies for English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English language learners may bring linguistic knowledge in the area of cognates to their learning of new English words, but they also will have special vocabulary learning needs that English speakers will not. They need to learn basic, survival words that English speakers begin school knowing, words such as house, school, walk, and eat. They also…

Green, Laura Chris

2004-01-01

392

Improving Spelling and Vocabulary in the Secondary School. Theory & Research into Practice (TRIP).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing upon research into the nature of the English writing system and about the development of spelling ability, this booklet presents an approach to improving spelling and vocabulary at the secondary school level based on a knowledge of the fabric of the language itself. The first section of the booklet reviews theory and research concerning…

Hodges, Richard E.

393

Use of Orthographic Knowledge in Reading by Chinese-English Bi-Scriptal Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested Chinese-English bi-scriptal fourth-graders on reading aloud and comprehension in Chinese and English and their understanding of some structural principles underlying Chinese orthography. These principles concern phonological and semantic representation in written Chinese. Regressions showed that knowledge about phonological

Cheung, Him; Chan, Miranda; Chong, Karen

2007-01-01

394

Sensitivity to Phonological Similarity Within and Across Languages  

PubMed Central

The influence of phonological similarity on bilingual language processing was examined within and across languages in three experiments. Phonological similarity was manipulated within a language by varying neighborhood density, and across languages by varying extent of cross-linguistic overlap between native and non-native languages. In Experiment 1, speed and accuracy of bilinguals’ picture naming were susceptible to phonological neighborhood density in both the first and the second language. In Experiment 2, eye-movement patterns indicated that the time-course of language activation varied across phonological neighborhood densities and across native/non-native language status. In Experiment 3, speed and accuracy of bilingual performance in an auditory lexical decision task were influenced by degree of cross-linguistic phonological overlap. Together, the three experiments confirm that bilinguals are sensitive to phonological similarity within and across languages and suggest that this sensitivity is asymmetrical across native and non-native languages and varies along the timecourse of word processing.

Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Boukrina, Olga V.

2009-01-01

395

Phonological processing in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological assessment.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits that cause functional impairments across several domains, including language. There is experimental evidence that basal ganglia and frontostriatal circuits are implicated in phonological processing, which leads to the hypothesis that a dysfunction of these circuits could be expressed behaviorally as phonological deficiencies in patients with PD. Using neuropsychological assessments, the present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities of patients in the initial stages of PD while controlling for other cognitive processes. The results showed lower scores in patients with PD on phonological tests with respect to a control group and these differences were independent of processes such as attention/working memory, long-term memory, thinking, and verbal language comprehension. However, there was an association between phonological skills and reading comprehension abilities. This finding implies a specific phonological deficit in terms of word reading. PMID:23963326

Elorriaga-Santiago, Sergio; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Carrasco-Vargas, Humberto

2013-10-23

396

Qualitative Vocabulary Test Responses and Age.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vocabulary test responses as traditionally scored were compared to these same responses when scored for finer nuances of understanding, as determined by the criterion of superior synonyms. It was hypothesized that the latter would be more related to age i...

J. Botwinick R. West M. Storandt

1975-01-01

397

Utilizing OODB schema modeling for vocabulary management.  

PubMed Central

Comprehension of complex controlled vocabularies is often difficult. We present a method, facilitated by an object-oriented database, for depicting such a vocabulary (the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) from the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center) in a schematic way which uses a sparse inheritance network of area classes. The resulting Object Oriented Health Vocabulary repository (OOHVR) allows visualization of the 43,000 MED concepts as 90 area classes. This view has provided valuable information to those responsible with maintaining the MED. As a result, the MED organization has been improved and some previously-unrecognized errors and inconsistencies have been removed. We believe that this schematic approach allows improved comprehension of the gestalt of large controlled medical vocabulary.

Gu, H.; Cimino, J. J.; Halper, M.; Geller, J.; Perl, Y.

1996-01-01

398

Atomic Energy Control Board vocabulary - preliminary edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This preliminary edition was prepared at the Board's request to help it establish a standardized terminology. It was produced by scanning the 99 French and English documents listed at the end of this Vocabulary. The documents include legislation concernin...

D. Nolet

1995-01-01

399

Vocabulary Usage and Intelligibility in Learner Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

In verbal communication, the primary purpose of which is to convey and understand messages, speakers need to make intelligible utterances. The intelligibility of an utterance depends on the sentence structure, discourse, and the vocabulary usage. In foreign-language utterances, \\

Emi Izumi; Kiyotaka Uchimoto; Hitoshi Isahara

400

Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

2014-05-01

401

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains, 40,661 entries that give increased access to he hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1982-01-01

402

NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains 40,738 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1985-01-01

403

NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1988-01-01

404

Promoting vocabulary learning in young children who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing: translating research into practice.  

PubMed

Vocabulary knowledge is strongly associated with reading achievement and becomes increasingly predictive of overall reading proficiency as children progress through the elementary grades. Children who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing often begin schooling with small meaning vocabularies, a disadvantage that puts them at risk of struggling to learn to read. Recent research on vocabulary intervention with young children who have typical hearing demonstrates the effectiveness of targeted, contextualized instruction on children's word learning and provides insights for early childhood educators of young d/Deaf and hard of hearing children. In the present essay, which is grounded in the qualitative similarity hypothesis (Paul, 2010, in press; Paul & Lee, 2010) and sociocultural theories of learning, the author argues for evidence-based vocabulary interventions for young d/Deaf and hard of hearing children that are rooted in the contemporary research literature. PMID:22524095

Williams, Cheri

2012-01-01

405

Phonological Processing and Reading in Children With Speech Sound Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergar- ten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological processing skills (SSD-high PP), and 35 children with

Susan Rvachew

2007-01-01

406

Enhancement of phonological memory following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Phonologically similar items (mell, rell, gell) are more difficult to remember than dissimilar items (shen, floy, stap), likely because of mutual interference of the items in the phonological store. Low-frequency transcranial magnetic,stimulation (TMS), guided by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to disrupt this phonological confusion by stimulation of the left inferior parietal (LIP) lobule. Subjects received TMS

Matthew P. Kirschen; Mathew S. Davis-ratner; Thomas E. Jerde; Pam Schraedley-desmond; John E. Desmond

2006-01-01

407

Measuring vocabulary by free expression and recognition tasks: Implications for assessing children, adolescents, and young adults.  

PubMed

Vocabulary tests are commonly used for assessing verbal ability. Most vocabulary tests employ the free expressive format that taps both verbal knowledge and expressive ability. The recognition format, which requires less expressive ability, has been suggested to be more sensitive in assessing the fund of verbal knowledge. We assessed vocabulary performance of 285 normal individuals (aged 6 to 23 years) using both free expressive and recognition tasks. Results showed that participants aged 6 to 15 performed significantly better on the recognition than on the free expressive task. While the recognition task significantly correlated with the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-Third Edition (TONI-III) IQ for individuals aged 9 and above, the free expressive task correlated with TONI-III IQ only for young adults. Shortened 18-item versions yielded high reliability and correlation with the full version and reliable association with TONI-III IQ. These results highlight the utility of recognition tasks in measuring the fund of knowledge and suggest the possibility of developing shorter vocabulary tests for more cost-effective assessment. PMID:18608684

Chan, Agnes S; Cheung, Mei-chun; Sze, Sophia L; Leung, Winnie W; Cheung, Rebecca W Y

2008-11-01

408

A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.

Prevost, Jill K.

409

"It takes a village" to support the vocabulary development of children with multiple risk factors.  

PubMed

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 50(4) of Developmental Psychology (see record 2014-11369-001). The institutional affiliation in the byline and author note for Nuran Aydemir was incorrect. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly associated with language stimulation and learning materials in all families regardless of risk status. Maternal warmth and responsiveness supported vocabulary competence in families of low economic status only when maternal depressive symptoms were low. In families with the highest levels of risk, that is, with depression and economic distress jointly present, support by the extended family and neighbors for caring for the child protected children's vocabulary development against these adverse conditions. The empirical evidence on the positive contribution of extrafamilial support to young children's receptive vocabulary under adverse conditions allows an expansion of our current theorizing about influences on language development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24188041

Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

2014-04-01

410

Phonological learning and lexicality of treated stimuli  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to evaluate the lexicality of treated stimuli relative to phonological learning by preschool children with functional phonological disorders. Four children were paired in a single-subject alternating treatments design that was overlaid on a multiple baseline across subjects design. Within each pair, one child was taught one sound in real words and a second sound in non-words; for the other child of the pair, lexicality was reversed and counterbalanced. The dependent variable was production accuracy of the treated sounds as measured during the session-by-session course of instruction. Results indicated that production accuracy of the treated sound was as good as or better using non-word as opposed to real word stimuli. The clinical implications are considered, along with potential accounts of the patterns of learning.

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

411

Phonological similarity effects in simple and complex span tasks.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to examine the effect of phonological similarity in simple and complex memory span tasks. In Experiment 1, participants performed either a simple or a complex span task, and the memoranda within lists were either phonologically similar or distinct. Phonologically similar lists consisted of words that rhymed.The simple span task was word span. There were two complex span tasks; one was the original reading span task, and the other was a variant of reading span in which all the sentences within a list were contextually related. The classic phonological similarity decrement was observed in word span. In contrast, phonological similarity facilitation was observed in both versions of reading span. This facilitation effect was further investigated in Experiment 2 using two new versions of reading span. In Experiment 2, the sentences in reading span were either short or long, and the memoranda were presented separately from, and were unrelated to, the sentences. Again, words within phonologically similar lists rhymed, and again, facilitation was observed. In Experiment 3, phonological similarity was operationalized in terms of feature overlap, rather than rhyme. The classic phonological similarity decrement was still observed in word span, but facilitation was not observed in complex span. The results suggest that phonological similarity, when operationalized using words that rhyme, serves as a list retrieval cue and that complex span tasks are more dependent on cue-driven memory retrieval mechanisms than are simple span tasks. PMID:21503805

Macnamara, Brooke N; Moore, Adam B; Conway, Andrew R A

2011-10-01

412

Prominence, Augmentation, and Neutralization in Phonology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain phonological phenomena, such as the lengthening of vowels in stressed sylla-bles or the attraction of stress to heavy syllables, are best accounted for by means of markedness constraints that make specific reference to strong positions (M\\/str con-straints). However, not just any markedness constraint can be relativized to strong positions. If an ordinary featural markedness constraint such as *MIDV ('output

JENNIFER L. SMITH

413

Phonological similarity effect in complex span task.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that two systems are involved in verbal working memory; one is specifically dedicated to the maintenance of phonological representations through verbal rehearsal while the other would maintain multimodal representations through attentional refreshing. This theoretical framework predicts that phonologically related phenomena such as the phonological similarity effect (PSE) should occur when the domain-specific system is involved in maintenance, but should disappear when concurrent articulation hinders its use. Impeding maintenance in the domain-general system by a concurrent attentional demand should impair recall performance without affecting PSE. In three experiments, we manipulated the concurrent articulation and the attentional demand induced by the processing component of complex span tasks in which participants had to maintain lists of either similar or dissimilar words. Confirming our predictions, PSE affected recall performance in complex span tasks. Although both the attentional demand and the articulatory requirement of the concurrent task impaired recall, only the induction of an articulatory suppression during maintenance made the PSE disappear. These results suggest a duality in the systems devoted to verbal maintenance in the short term, constraining models of working memory. PMID:23419012

Camos, Valérie; Mora, Gérôme; Barrouillet, Pierre

2013-01-01

414

Online Vocabulary Games as a Tool for Teaching and Learning English Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary learning is often perceived as boring by learners, especially for those who grew up in the digital age. This paper reports a study of the usefulness of online games in vocabulary learning for some undergraduate students. Three teachers and 100 engineering students participated in a quasi-experimental study for approximately nine weeks.…

Yip, Florence W. M.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.

2006-01-01

415

Primary Grade Understanding Vocabulary as Measured by Orally Administered Basic Word Vocabulary Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Basic Word Vocabulary Test (BWVT) was extended downward by administering it orally to 96 pupils selected randomly from grades one through four. Estimates of aural understanding vocabulary at each grade were obtained and were found to be much lower than results from previous studies, due to the strict criteria of the BWVT. Correlations with the…

Bayer, Maria L.

416

Procedures for Mapping Vocabularies from Non-Professional Discourse A Case Study: "Consumer Medical Vocabulary."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a methodology for collecting and extracting linguistic forms from documents authored by healthcare consumers. The forms were mapped to concepts and the resulting terms were analyzed. Although the case study uses examples from a "consumer medical vocabulary," procedures are applicable to investigating non-professional vocabularies in…

Tse, Tony; Soergel, Dagobert

2003-01-01

417

Partitioning a vocabulary's IS-A hierarchy into trees.  

PubMed Central

Controlled medical vocabularies are useful in application areas such as medical information-systems and decision-support. However, such vocabularies are large and complex, and working with them can be daunting. It is important to provide a means for orienting users to the vocabulary's contents. This paper introduces a methodology for partitioning a vocabulary into small, meaningful pieces. The partitioning is done with respect to the vocabulary's IS-A hierarchy. The methodology, based on a set of rules for refining the IS-A hierarchy, is a process carried out by a user in conjunction with the computer. The methodology is demonstrated on a complex portion of a vocabulary.

Gu, H.; Perl, Y.; Geller, J.; Halper, M.; Cimino, J. J.; Singh, M.

1997-01-01

418

Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates.  

PubMed

To examine the validity of different theoretical assumptions about the neuropsychological mechanisms and lesion correlates of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia, we studied written and spoken language performance in a large cohort of patients with focal damage to perisylvian cortical regions implicated in phonological processing. Despite considerable variation in accuracy for both words and non-words, the majority of participants demonstrated the increased lexicality effects in reading and spelling that are considered the hallmark features of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia. Increased lexicality effects were also documented in spoken language tasks such as oral repetition, and patients performed poorly on a battery of phonological tests that did not involve an orthographic component. Furthermore, a composite measure of general phonological ability was strongly predictive of both reading and spelling accuracy, and we obtained evidence that the continuum of severity that characterized the written language disorder of our patients was attributable to an underlying continuum of phonological impairment. Although patients demonstrated qualitatively similar deficits across measures of written and spoken language processing, there were quantitative differences in levels of performance reflecting task difficulty effects. Spelling was more severely affected than reading by the reduction in phonological capacity and this differential vulnerability accounted for occasional disparities between patterns of impairment on the two written language tasks. Our findings suggest that phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia in patients with perisylvian lesions are manifestations of a central or modality-independent phonological deficit rather than the result of damage to cognitive components dedicated to reading or spelling. Our results also provide empirical support for shared-components models of written language processing, according to which the same central cognitive systems support both reading and spelling. Lesion-deficit correlations indicated that phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia may be produced by damage to a variety of perisylvian cortical regions, consistent with distributed network models of phonological processing. PMID:18625494

Rapcsak, Steven Z; Beeson, Pélagie M; Henry, Maya L; Leyden, Anne; Kim, Esther; Rising, Kindle; Andersen, Sarah; Cho, Hyesuk

2009-05-01

419

Parents' Reading-Related Knowledge and Children's Reading Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related…

Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

2011-01-01

420

Michael Lessard-Clouston - Breadth and Depth: Specialized Vocabulary Learning in Theology among Native and Non-native English Speakers - The Canadian Modern Language Review \\/ La revue canadienne des langues vivantes 63:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a case study on native and non-native English-speaker (NES and NNES) students' knowledge and learning of specialized vocabulary over one academic term in a graduate school of theology. After outlining the collection of baseline data on theological vocabulary and the development of a Test of Theological Language (TTL), the article discusses the five NNES and seven NES

Michael Lessard-Clouston

2006-01-01

421

Contribution of Phonological and Broader Language Skills to Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent models of reading ability propose that both phonological and broader language skills are important for the development of literacy. Whilst there are numerous studies that consider the role of phonological skills in literacy, fewer studies have considered the role of broader language skills and reading proficiency. Aims: To…

Fraser, Jill; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

2008-01-01

422

Age of Acquisition and the Completeness of Phonological Representations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests the Phonological Completeness Hypothesis of Brown and Watson, which proposes that early acquired words are recognized and produced faster than late acquired words because they have less fragmented phonological representations. Indicates that the results of the segmentation task failed to provide any support for Brown and Watson's (1987)…

Monaghan, Josephine; Ellis, Andrew W.

2002-01-01

423

Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

Proctor, Michael Ian

2009-01-01

424

Phonological Memory Predicts Second Language Oral Fluency Gains in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and second language (L2) fluency gains in native English-speaking adults learning Spanish in two learning contexts: at their home university or abroad in an immersion context. Phonological memory (operationalized as serial nonword recognition) and Spanish oral fluency…

O'Brien, Irena; Segalowitz, Norman; Freed, Barbara; Collentine, Joe

2007-01-01

425

Interactive Influences on Phonological Behaviour: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An infant girl's unusual phonological behavior was evaluated in light of a maternal model which appeared to exaggerate features of normal conversational speech. Parental responses to immature speech patterns may account for selected case study behaviors which have been reported in both the child phonology and child fluency literatures. (KM)

Bernstein Ratner, Nan

1993-01-01

426

Phonology in syntax: The Somali optional agreement rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would

Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum

1983-01-01

427

Integration of Phonological Information in Obstruent Consonant Identification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech perception requires the integration of information from multiple phonetic and phonological dimensions. Numerous studies have investigated the mapping between multiple acoustic-phonetic dimensions and single phonological dimensions (e.g., spectral and temporal properties of stop consonants in voicing contrasts). Many fewer studies have…

Silbert, Noah H.

2009-01-01

428

The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process, but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic, and phonological abilities. The present article reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of…

Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

2011-01-01

429

Phonological Repetition-Suppression in Bilateral Superior Temporal Sulci  

PubMed Central

Evidence has accumulated that posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is critically involved in phonological processing during speech perception, although there are conflicting accounts regarding the degree of lateralization. The current fMRI experiment aimed to identify phonological processing during speech perception through repetition-suppression effects. Repetition-suppression occurs when brain activity decreases from repetitive presentation of stimulus characteristics, in regions of cortex that process those characteristics. We manipulated the degree of phonological repetition among words in short lists to obtain systematic decreases in brain response, indicative of phonological processing. The fMRI experiment presented seventeen participants with recorded wordlists, of low, medium, or high phonological repetition, defined by how many phonemes were shared among words. Bilaterally, middle STS demonstrated activity differences consistent with our prediction of repetition-suppression, as responses decreased systematically with each increase in phonological repetition. Phonological repetition-suppression in bilateral STS converges with neuroimaging evidence for phonological processing, and word deafness resulting from bilateral superior temporal lesions.

Vaden, Kenneth I.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Hickok, Gregory

2009-01-01

430

Phonological Meanings in Literary Prose Texts and Their Translations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses phonological meanings and their realization in fiction texts and the problematics of their translations. The various views linguists appear to have about what phonological meanings are and how they are expressed linguistically are examined. Furthermore two linguistically oriented approaches on translation theory, Nida's and…

Ventola, Eija

431

Auditory Cortex Accesses Phonological Categories: An MEG Mismatch Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies presented here use an adapted oddball paradigm to show evidence that representations of discrete phonological categories are available to the human auditory cortex. Brain activity was recorded using a 37-channel biomagnetometer while eight subjects listened passively to synthetic speech sounds. In the phonological condition, which contrasted stimuli from an acoustic \\/dæ\\/-\\/tæ\\/ continuum, a magnetic mismatch field (MMF) was

Colin Phillips; Thomas Pellathy; Alec Marantz; Elron Yellin; Kenneth Wexler; David Poeppel; Martha McGinnis; Timothy Roberts

2000-01-01

432

Quantifying Phonological Representation Abilities in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed three important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

Anthony, Jason L.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Solari, Emily J.; Dunkelberger, Martha J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Liang, Lan

2011-01-01

433

Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

Farrell, Simon

2006-01-01

434

Visual Feedback in Treatment of Residual Phonological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of visual biofeedback in the treatment of individuals who have residual phonological errors is discussed. Biofeedback is conceptualized as a cognitive treatment that requires the client's analysis of visual information and then use of that information in developing correct productions of residual phonological errors. Results suggest the…

Ruscello, Dennis M.

1995-01-01

435

Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

2012-01-01

436

Disfluency Patterns and Phonological Skills Near Stuttering Onset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are…

Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

2012-01-01

437

Specific Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia Revealed by Eyetracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…

Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.

2006-01-01

438

Phonological Processing and Arithmetic Fact Retrieval: Evidence from Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact…

De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart

2010-01-01

439

Children with Developmental Language Impairment Have Vocabulary Deficits Characterized by Limited Breadth and Depth  

PubMed Central

Background Deficient vocabulary is a frequently reported symptom of developmental language impairment but the nature of the deficit and its developmental course are not well documented. Aims We aimed to describe the nature of the deficit in terms of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge and to determine whether the nature and the extent of the deficit change over the school years. Methods A total of 25,681 oral definitions produced by 177 children with developmental language impairment (LI) and 325 grade-mates with normally developing language (ND) in grades 2, 4, 8, and 10 were taken from an existing longitudinal database. We analyzed these for breadth by counting the number of words defined correctly and for depth by determining the amount of information in each correct definition. Via a linear mixed model, we determined whether breadth and depth varied with language diagnosis independent of nonverbal IQ, mothers’ education level, race, gender, income and (for depth only) word. Results Children with LI scored significantly lower than children with ND on breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in all grades. The extent of the deficit did not vary significantly across grades. Language diagnosis was an independent predictor of breadth and depth and as strong a predictor as maternal education. For the LI group, growth in depth relative to breadth was slower than for the ND group. Conclusions Compared to their grade-mates, children with LI have fewer words in their vocabularies and they have shallower knowledge of the words that are in their vocabularies. This deficit persists over developmental time.

McGregor, Karla K.; Oleson, Jacob; Bahnsen, Alison; Duff, Dawna

2012-01-01

440

Phonological Interference in Proofreading: Evidence for the Primacy of Phonological Recoding in Lexical Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined proofreading errors to test whether reading is mediated by a phonological recoding stage. In the first experiment, 162 undergraduates circled the misspelled words in a text as the experimenter read the passage aloud. In the second experiment, 165 undergraduates corrected misspellings as they read the same passage silently,…

McCusker, Leo X.; And Others

441

Natural Phonology or Natural Memory? The Interaction between Phonological Processes and Recall Mechanisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents study in which attempts by children to learn a number of new words revealed that their recall errors were similar to phonological deformations found in speech of young children in early stages of language development. Suggests role of memory needs to be taken into consideration. (Author/BK)

Aitchison, Jean; Chiat, Schulamuth

1981-01-01

442

Letter names and phonological awareness help children to learn letter-sound relations.  

PubMed

Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds occur either at the beginning (e.g., the letter /be/) or in the middle (e.g., the letter /'eli/) of the letter name. The control group was taught the shapes of the letters but not their names. Then both groups were taught the sounds of the letters. Results showed an advantage for the experimental group, but only for beginning-sound letters. Experiment 2 investigated whether training in phonological awareness could boost the learning of letter sounds, particularly middle-sound letters. In addition to learning the names of beginning- and middle-sound letters, children in the experimental group were taught to categorize words according to rhyme and alliteration, whereas controls were taught to categorize the same words semantically. All children were then taught the sounds of the letters. Results showed that children who were given phonological awareness training found it easier to learn letter sounds than controls. This was true for both types of letters, but especially for middle-sound letters. PMID:21316064

Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

2011-05-01

443

Content Area Vocabulary Instruction: Is Preteaching Worth the Effort? (Research).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research concerning the preteaching of content area vocabulary. Questions the value of solely preteaching content terms and suggests teaching both general and content vocabulary in ways that aid students in becoming independent word learners. (MG)

Mealey, Donna; Konopak, Bonnie

1990-01-01

444

Vocabulary Acquisition: Acquiring Depth of Knowledge through Network Building.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on a longitudinal study of young foreign language learners' acquisition of English adjectives. A series of tasks was developed to tap lexical relations between adjectives of emotion in order to study how a particular adjective, such as "thrilled," finds its place among other near-synonomous expressions in the subfield "happy." (Author/VWL)

Haastrup, Kirsten; Henriksen, Birgit

2000-01-01

445

Unlocking the Nature of the Phonological-Deep Dyslexia Continuum: The Keys to Reading Aloud Are in Phonology and Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that normal reading and acquired dyslexias reflect the role of three underlying primary systems (phonology, semantics, and vision) rather than neural mech- anisms dedicated to reading. This proposal is potentially consistent with the suggestion that phonological and deep dyslexia represent variants of a single reading disorder rather than two separate entities. The current study explored this

Jenni Crisp; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

2006-01-01

446

Phonological Segmentation Assessment Is Not Enough: A Comparison of Three Phonological Awareness Tests with First and Second Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite extensive research on phonological awareness and reading, there has been little effort to study practical questions that would assist practitioners regarding the choice and interpretation of the phonological awareness tests available to them. This study examined the relationship between decoding (real and pseudowords) and three…

Kilpatrick, David A.

2012-01-01

447

From Sound to Syntax: Phonological Constraints on Children's Lexical Categorization of New Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined the role of phonological cues in the lexical categorization of new words when children could also rely on learning by exclusion and whether the role of phonology depends on extensive experience with a language. Phonological cues were assessed via phonological typicality--an aggregate measure of the relationship between the…

Fitneva, Stanka A.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Monaghan, Padraic

2009-01-01

448

Cross-linguistic comparison of speech errors produced by English- and French-speaking preschool-age children with developmental phonological disorders.  

PubMed

Twenty-four French-speaking children with developmental phonological disorders (DPD) were matched on percentage of consonants correct (PCC)-conversation, age, and receptive vocabulary measures to English-speaking children with DPD in order to describe how speech errors are manifested differently in these two languages. The participants' productions of consonants on a single-word test of articulation were compared in terms of feature-match ratios for the production of target consonants, and type of errors produced. Results revealed that the French-speaking children had significantly lower match ratios for the major sound class features [+ consonantal] and [+ sonorant]. The French-speaking children also obtained significantly lower match ratios for [+ voice]. The most frequent type of errors produced by the French-speaking children was syllable structure errors, followed by segment errors, and a few distortion errors. On the other hand, the English-speaking children made more segment than syllable structure and distortion errors. The results of the study highlight the need to use test instruments with French-speaking children that reflect the phonological characteristics of French at multiple levels of the phonological hierarchy. PMID:23829437

Brosseau-Lapré, Françoise; Rvachew, Susan

2014-04-01

449

Controlled Vocabularies Boost International Participation and Normalization of Searches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) science staff set out to document Earth science data and provide a mechanism for it's discovery in fulfillment of a commitment to NASA's Earth Science progam and to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites' (CEOS) International Directory Network (IDN.) At the time, whether to offer a controlled vocabulary search or a free-text search was resolved with a decision to support both. The feedback from the user community indicated that being asked to independently determine the appropriate 'English" words through a free-text search would be very difficult. The preference was to be 'prompted' for relevant keywords through the use of a hierarchy of well-designed science keywords. The controlled keywords serve to 'normalize' the search through knowledgeable input by metadata providers. Earth science keyword taxonomies were developed, rules for additions, deletions, and modifications were created. Secondary sets of controlled vocabularies for related descriptors such as projects, data centers, instruments, platforms, related data set link types, and locations, along with free-text searches assist users in further refining their search results. Through this robust 'search and refine' capability in the GCMD users are directed to the data and services they seek. The next step in guiding users more directly to the resources they desire is to build a 'reasoning' capability for search through the use of ontologies. Incorporating twelve sets of Earth science keyword taxonomies has boosted the GCMD S ability to help users define and more directly retrieve data of choice.

Olsen, Lola M.

2006-01-01

450

Standard controlled vocabulary for climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scope of climate modeling has grown tremendously in the last 10 years, resulting in a large variety of climate models, increasing complexity with more physical or chemical components and huge volumes of data sets (simulation outputs). While significant efforts to standardise the associated metadata (i.e. data describing data and models) have already been made in recent projects (e.g. CF standard names for CMIP3), detailed standards documentation of the models and experiments that created this data is still lacking. The EU METAFOR Project (http://metaforclimate.eu) is specifically addressing this issue by creating new metadata schemas in cooperation with existing standards in Earth System Modeling (Curator, GridSpec, CF convention, NumSim, etc.). Descriptions of climate simulations, of the data they produce, and of the numerical models used to perform these simulations are all within the scope of METAFOR and these descriptions are assembled in a common information model (the CIM). Of particular note is the metadata for numerical models that is found in the CIM. This paper presents the controlled vocabulary (CV) that has been collected by METAFOR to describe (in a common manner) the components of the numerical models developed by the different modeling centres. This vocabulary is used in the model part of the web-based questionnaire that METAFOR has developed in support of the upcoming IPCC exercise (the CMIP5 questionnaire). The methods to (1) establish standards for this vocabulary via interactions with climate scientists, (2) utilise the vocabulary in the web-based questionnaire and (3) process the vocabulary for ingestion in the Earth System Grid (ESG) portal, are described. Governance aspects of this new controlled vocabulary are also addressed.

Moine, Marie-Pierre; Pascoe, Charlotte; Guilyardi, Eric; Ford, Rupert

2010-05-01

451

The rhaeadr effect in clinical phonology.  

PubMed

Abstract A distinction is drawn between Crystal's bucket theory of language processing and an overflow of effects between different linguistic levels in language production. Most of the examples are drawn from Welsh (a language of mutual interest to the author and the honoree of this issue). For that reason, it is proposed that this effect is termed the rhaeadr effect (from the Welsh for waterfall). The rhaeadr effect is illustrated with the initial consonant mutation systems of Welsh and Irish, and with data from both normal phonological (and morphophonological) development and disordered speech. PMID:25000371

Ball, Martin J

2014-07-01

452

Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

2013-01-01

453

In Search of Introductory Psychology's Classic Core Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether there was a common vocabulary present within introductory psychology textbooks during the 1950s and if a classic core vocabulary exists. Reports that no common core existed in the textbooks during the 1950s, but there is a set of 100 classic vocabulary terms. (CMK)

Griggs, Richard A.; Mitchell, Montserrat C.

2002-01-01

454

Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

Cimino, James J.

1995-01-01

455

Focus on the Forms: Recognition Practice in Chinese Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of recognition-based retrieval practice on vocabulary learning in a university Chinese class. Students (N=26) were given practice retrieving new vocabulary (single or two-character words) in a series of simple form recognition tests administered over four weeks. The test sets consisted of target vocabulary that…

Harrington, Michael; Jiang, Wenying

2013-01-01

456

A Web-Based Architecture for a Medical Vocabulary Server  

Microsoft Academic Search

For health care providers to share computing resources and medical application programs across different sites, those applications must share a common medical vocabulary. To construct a common vocabulary, researchers must have an architecture that supports collaborative, networked devel- opment. In this paper, we present a web-based server archi- tecture for the collaborative development of a medical vocabulary: a system that

John H. Gennari; Diane E. Oliver; Wanda Pratt; James Rice; Mark A. Musen

1995-01-01

457

Reliability Assessment for Two Versions of Vocabulary Levels Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a reliability study of two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test at the 5000 word level. This study was motivated by a finding from an ongoing longitudinal study of vocabulary acquisition that Version A and Version B of Vocabulary Levels Test at the 5000 word level were not parallel. In order to investigate this issue,…

Xing, Peiling; Fulcher, Glenn

2007-01-01

458

Enhancing Teacher Read Alouds with Small-Group Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Low Vocabulary in First-Grade Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of small-group instruction on the vocabulary and comprehension of first-grade students identified with low language and low vocabulary skills. Overall, 102 first-grade students scoring below the 50th percentile on relational vocabulary were blocked by classroom, matched according to…

Fien, Hank; Santoro, Lana; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Chard, David J.; Williams, Susanna; Haria, Priti

2011-01-01

459

Clinical vocabulary as a boundary object in multidisciplinary care management of multiple chemical sensitivity, a complex and chronic condition  

PubMed Central

Background: Research has shown that accurate and timely communication between multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of complex and chronic health conditions is often challenging. The domain knowledge for these conditions is heterogeneous, with poorly categorized, unstructured, and inconsistent clinical vocabulary. The potential of boundary object as a technique to bridge communication gaps is explored in this study. Methods: A standardized and controlled clinical vocabulary was developed as a boundary object in the domain of a complex and chronic health condition, namely, multiple chemical sensitivity, to improve communication among multidisciplinary clinicians. A convenience sample of 100 patients with a diagnosis of multiple chemical sensitivity, nine multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of patients with multiple chemical sensitivity, and 36 clinicians in the community participated in the study. Results: Eighty-two percent of the multidisciplinary and inconsistent vocabulary was standardized using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine – Clinical Terms (SNOMED® CT as a reference terminology. Over 80% of the multidisciplinary clinicians agreed on the overall usefulness of having a controlled vocabulary as a boundary object. Over 65% of clinicians in the community agreed on the overall usefulness of the vocabulary. Conclusion: The results from this study are promising and will be further evaluated in the domain of another complex chronic condition, ie, chronic pain. The study was conducted as a preliminary analysis for developing a boundary object in a heterogeneous domain of knowledge.

Sampalli, Tara; Shepherd, Michael; Duffy, Jack

2011-01-01

460

Embedded Structures and Representation of Nursing Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing Vocabulary Summit participants were challenged to consider whether reference terminology and information models might be a way to move toward better capture of data in electronic medical records. A requirement of such reference models is fidelity to representations of domain knowledge. This article discusses embedded structures in three different approaches to organizing domain knowledge: scientific reasoning, expertise, and standardized

Marcelline R Harris; Judith R Graves; Harold R Solbrig; Peter L Elkin; Christopher G Chute

2000-01-01

461

Dyslexia impairs speech recognition but can spare phonological competence.  

PubMed

Dyslexia is associated with numerous deficits to speech processing. Accordingly, a large literature asserts that dyslexics manifest a phonological deficit. Few studies, however, have assessed the phonological grammar of dyslexics, and none has distinguished a phonological deficit from a phonetic impairment. Here, we show that these two sources can be dissociated. Three experiments demonstrate that a group of adult dyslexics studied here is impaired in phonetic discrimination (e.g., ba vs. pa), and their deficit compromises even the basic ability to identify acoustic stimuli as human speech. Remarkably, the ability of these individuals to generalize grammatical phonological rules is intact. Like typical readers, these Hebrew-speaking dyslexics identified ill-formed AAB stems (e.g., titug) as less wordlike than well-formed ABB controls (e.g., gitut), and both groups automatically extended this rule to nonspeech stimuli, irrespective of reading ability. The contrast between the phonetic and phonological capacities of these individuals demonstrates that the algebraic engine that generates phonological patterns is distinct from the phonetic interface that implements them. While dyslexia compromises the phonetic system, certain core aspects of the phonological grammar can be spared. PMID:23028654

Berent, Iris; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Balaban, Evan; Galaburda, Albert M

2012-01-01

462

ESL learners' vocabulary use in writing and the effects of explicit vocabulary instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated vocabulary use in writing of 65 secondary school multi-grade and multi-L1 intermediate ESL learners of a Greater Vancouver public secondary school. The investigator was their regular ESL teacher. The subjects' target recognition vocabulary, (assessed in a fill-in-the blanks test consisting of 30 single words and six lexical phrases) was significantly lower than that of 79 grade 8

Siok H. Leea

463

Optimal Document-Indexing Vocabulary for MEDLINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of MEDLINE document indexing focuses on a study that assessed the use of free text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), and a variety of combination retrieval strategies. Prior research involving free text and controlled vocabularies is reviewed, and results of the study indicate that MeSH does have an important role in text retrieval.…

Srinivasan, Padmini

1996-01-01

464

The Cognitive Vocabulary Approach to Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English teachers face myriad demands every day that include not only helping students read literature in interesting and engaging ways but also attending to the needs of students challenged by the demands of more complex and sophisticated texts. Vocabulary learning is at the heart of this struggle for many students, especially for English language…

Harmon, Janis M.; Buckelew-Martin, Elizabeth; Wood, Karen D.

2010-01-01

465

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Thesaurus -- Volume 2, Access Vocabulary -- contains an alphabetical listing of all Thesaurus terms (postable and nonpostable) and permutations of all multiword and pseudo-multiword terms. Also included are Other Words (non-Thesaurus terms) consisting of abbreviations, chemical symbols, etc. The permutations and Other Words provide 'access' to the appropriate postable entries in the Thesaurus.

1976-01-01

466

Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

Lu, M.

2008-01-01

467

Issues in Large Vocabulary, Multilingual Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on our activities in multilingual, sp eaker- independent, large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. The multilingual aspect of this work is of particular importanc e in Eu- rope, where each country has its own national language. Our exist- ing recognizer for American English and French, has been ported to British English and German. It has been

Lori Lamel; Martine Adda-Decker; Jean-Luc Gauvain

1995-01-01

468

A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. The tutor includes words, pic- tures, and sounds to help students learn new words and their pronuncia- tion. The article highlights salient features and design of the tutor and then focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabu- lary

Gilles Labrie

469

Word Walk: Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Storybook reading offers an ideal context for teaching young children new words. Text Talk is one method designed for teaching elementary students new words after reading. However, using the Text Talk vocabulary procedures with young children, the authors observed several challenges both for teachers' implementation and children's learning.…

Blarney, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.

2011-01-01

470

A Computer-Adaptive Vocabulary Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical competence is considered to be an essential step in the development and consolidation of a student's linguistic ability, and thus the reliable assessment of such competence turns out to be a fundamental aspect in this process. The design and construction of vocabulary tests has become an area of special interest, as it may provide teachers…

Molina, Maria Teresa Lopez-Mezquita

2009-01-01

471

Uncertainty in training large vocabulary speech recognizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a technique for annotating data used to train a speech recognizer. The proposed scheme is based on labeling only a single frame for every word in the training set. We make use of the virtual evidence (VE) framework within a graphical model to take advantage of such data. We apply this approach to a large vocabulary speech recognition

Amarnag Subramanya; Chris Bartels; Jeff Bilmes; Patrick Nguyen

2007-01-01

472

A Comprehensive Approach to Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marzano offers a brief review of research in vocabulary instruction, focusing on the concept of "tiers" to describe words used with different contexts and purposes. He then suggests teaching tools that may work to help specific student populations learn and retain those words across the K-12 curriculum.

Marzano, Robert J.

2012-01-01

473

In-Depth Study of Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development is a crucial aspect of literacy. It is our duty as teachers to enrich the language of our students to better prepare them for a successful lifetime of communication. This paper offers several methods to enhance levels of speech in the classroom. Some of the techniques included are the use of repetitive reading, reading…

Mixan, Marisa

2013-01-01

474

Comparative experiments on large vocabulary speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes several key experiments in large vocabulary speech recognition. We demonstrate that, counter to our intuitions, given a fixed amount of training speech, the number of training speakers has little effect on the accuracy. We show how much speech is needed for speaker-independent (SI) recognition in order to achieve the same performance as speaker-dependent (SD) recognition. We demonstrate

Richard Schwartz; Tasos Anastasakos; Francis Kubala; John Makhoul; Long Nguyen; George Zavaliagkos

1993-01-01

475

Interactive Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word walls are designed to serve as visual scaffolds and are a common classroom tool used to support reading and language arts instruction. To support vocabulary development in science and support students who are ELLs, Husty and Jackson (2008) created interactive word walls that resemble semantic maps (Masters, Mori, and Mori 1993). Semantic maps…

Jackson, Julie; Tripp, Sherry; Cox, Kimberly

2011-01-01

476

The Future of Indexing and Retrieval Vocabularies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

T e role of formal, controlled vocabularies for indexing and retrieval is contrasted with the use of natural language for these activities. The following credo is advanced for large central information processors as appropriate to the 1970's. (a) Highly s...

P. H. Klingbiel

1970-01-01

477

On vocabulary-independent speech modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of vocabulary-independent (VI) models to improve the usability of speech recognizers is described. Initial results using generalized triphones as VI models show that with more training data and more detailed modeling, the error rate of VI models can be reduced substantially. For example, the error rates for VI models with 5000, 10000, and 15000 training sentences, are 23.9%,

H.-W. Hon; K.-F. Lee

1990-01-01

478

MMIE training of large vocabulary recognition systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a framework for optimising the structure and parameters of a continuous density HMM-based large Ž. vocabulary recognition system using the Maximum Mutual Information Estimation MMIE criterion. To reduce the computational complexity of the MMIE training algorithm, confusable segments of speech are identified and stored as word lattices of alternative utterance hypotheses. An iterative mixture splitting procedure is

V. Valtchev; J. J. Odell; Philip C. Woodland; S. J. Young

1997-01-01

479

Flip-a-Chip to Build Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a word-game strategy that builds vocabulary and comprehension while motivating students. Concludes that activities like Flip-a-Chip (along with crossword puzzles and other forms of wordplay) have helped the author create a pleasantly literate environment in her classroom. (SG)

Mountain, Lee

2002-01-01

480

Improving Vocabulary Acquisition with Multisensory Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this action research project was to improve student vocabulary acquisition through a multisensory, direct instructional approach. The study involved three teachers and a target population of 73 students in second and seventh grade classrooms. The intervention was implemented from September through December of 2006 and analyzed in…

D'Alesio, Rosemary; Scalia, Maureen T.; Zabel, Renee M.

2007-01-01

481

Morphological Analysis and Vocabulary Development: Critical Criteria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morphological Analysis as a vocabulary acquisition strategy has both its advocates and antagonists. Criticism from opponents is often warranted when programs omit one or more of the three critical criteria that establish the framework behind a successful curriculum. The intent behind this paper is to disseminate and explicate these three criteria,…

Bellomo, Tom S.

2009-01-01

482

Vocabulary Uptake from Informal Learning Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is common to encourage foreign-language learners to use their language outside the classroom and to read books and papers, listen to songs and watch films in the foreign language. One of the benefits which are thought to accrue from these activities is that learners can build good vocabularies. It has even been argued that casual exposure to…

Milton, James

2008-01-01

483

Predicting Reading Vocabulary from Selected Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between two dummy variables representing school effect and five self-concept factors were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of these variables in predicting the reading vocabulary of 432 boys and 424 girls in grades three through six. Also, an effort was made to determine if the percentage of criterion variance accounted…

DeVito, Pasquale J.

484

The gradual emergence of phonological form in a new language  

PubMed Central

The division of linguistic structure into a meaningless (phonological) level and a meaningful level of morphemes and words is considered a basic design feature of human language. Although established sign languages, like spoken languages, have been shown to be characterized by this bifurcation, no information has been available about the way in which such structure arises. We report here on a newly emerging sign language, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, which functions as a full language but in which a phonological level of structure has not yet emerged. Early indications of formal regularities provide clues to the way in which phonological structure may develop over time.

Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol

2011-01-01

485

Evidence-based practice: A matrix for predicting phonological generalization  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a matrix for clinical use in the selection of phonological treatment targets to induce generalization, and in the identification of probe sounds to monitor during the course of intervention. The matrix appeals to a set of factors that have been shown to promote phonological generalization in the research literature, including the nature of error patterns, implicational universals, developmental norms, and stimulability. A case study of a child with a phonological disorder is presented to illustrate how the matrix may be utilized in evidence-based practice. The matrix serves as a demonstration of how the translation of research to practice may be accomplished.

GIERUT, JUDITH A.; HULSE, LAUREN E.

2010-01-01

486

PatientsLikeMe: Consumer health vocabulary as a folksonomy.  

PubMed

PatientsLikeMe is an online social networking community. Subcommunities center on three diagnoses: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinsons Disease. Community members can describe their symptoms online in natural language, resulting in folksonomic tags available for clinical analysis and for browsing by other users to find patients like me. Forty-three percent of PatientsLikeMe symptom terms are present as exact (24%) or synonymous (19%) terms in the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus (National Library of Medicine; 2007AC). Slightly more than half of the symptom terms either do not match the UMLS, or are unclassifiable. A clinical vocabulary, SNOMED CT, accounts for 93% of the matching terms. Analysis of the failed matches reveals challenges for online patient communication, not only with healthcare professionals, but with other patients. In a Web 2.0 environment with lowered barriers between consumers and professionals, a deficiency in knowledge representation affects not only professionals, but consumers as well. PMID:18999004

Smith, Catherine Arnott; Wicks, Paul J

2008-01-01

487

Phonological Recoding in Error Detection: A Cross-sectional Study in Beginning Readers of Dutch  

PubMed Central

The present cross-sectional study investigated the development of phonological recoding in beginning readers of Dutch, using a proofreading task with pseudohomophones and control misspellings. In Experiment 1, children in grades 1 to 3 rejected fewer pseudohomophones (e.g., wein, sounding like wijn ‘wine’) as spelling errors than control misspellings (e.g., wijg). The size of this pseudohomophone effect was larger in grade 1 than in grade 2 and did not differ between grades 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, we replicated the pseudohomophone effect in beginning readers and we tested how orthographic knowledge may modulate this effect. Children in grades 2 to 4 again detected fewer pseudohomophones than control misspellings and this effect decreased between grades 2 and 3 and between grades 3 and 4. The magnitude of the pseudohomophone effect was modulated by the development of orthographic knowledge: its magnitude decreased much more between grades 2 and 3 for more advanced spellers, than for less advanced spellers. The persistence of the pseudohomophone effect across all grades illustrates the importance of phonological recoding in Dutch readers. At the same time, the decreasing pseudohomophone effect across grades indicates the increasing influence of orthographic knowledge as reading develops.

Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2013-01-01

488

The Effect of Morphological Instruction in Improving the Spelling, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension of High School English Language Learners (ELLs)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if Morphological Instruction (knowledge of the Germanic, Latin, and Greek words, roots, and affixes of English) was an effective instructional approach towards accelerating the acquisition of spelling, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and closing at least a 6,000 word gap between English language…

Diaz, Ivan

2010-01-01

489

EFL Students' Vocabulary Learning in NS-NNS E-Mail Interactions: Do They Learn New Words by Imitation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated Japanese students' EFL vocabulary development through e-mail interactions with a native English speaker (NS), with primary focus on students' imitation of new words. According to sociocultural theory, learners can internalize new linguistic knowledge by imitating an expert's expressions to create his/her own…

Sasaki, Akihiko; Takeuchi, Osamu

2010-01-01

490

Hypertext Annotation: Effects of Presentation Formats and Learner Proficiency on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in Foreign Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends current knowledge by exploring the effect of different annotation formats, namely in-text annotation, glossary annotation, and pop-up annotation, on hypertext reading comprehension in a foreign language and vocabulary acquisition across student proficiencies. User attitudes toward the annotation presentation were also…

Chen, I-Jung; Yen, Jung-Chuan

2013-01-01

491

E-Word Wall: An Interactive Vocabulary Instruction Tool for Students with Learning Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development for students with learning disability (LD) is affected by "differences in the amount of independent reading, lack of strategies to learn words from content, and diffuse word knowledge" (Jitendra, Edwards, Sacks, & Jacobson, 2004, p. 300). Generally, students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have relatively strong skills…

Narkon, Drue E.; Wells, Jenny C.; Segal, Lillian S.

2011-01-01

492

Breadth and Depth of Vocabulary in Relation to L1/L2 Acquisition and Frequency of Input.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two empirical studies set out explore the relation between breadth and depth of word knowledge and to link these concepts with language acquisition and frequency of language input. The studies found that there was no conceptual distinction between breadth and depth of vocabulary, and that breadth and depth were affected by the same factors for…

Vermeer, Anne

2001-01-01

493

Comparing Vocabulary Development in Spanish- and Chinese-Speaking ELLs: The Effects of Metalinguistic and Sociocultural Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the impact of two metalinguistic factors, English derivational awareness and English-Spanish cognate awareness, and the impact of two sociocultural factors, maternal education and children's length of residence in Canada, on English Language Learners (ELLs)' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study were 89…

Chen, Xi; Ramirez, Gloria; Luo, Yang C.; Geva, Esther; Ku, Yu-Min

2012-01-01

494

Learning to read as the formation of a dynamic system: evidence for dynamic stability in phonological recoding  

PubMed Central

Two aspects of dynamic systems approaches that are pertinent to developmental models of reading are the emergence of a system with self-organizing characteristics, and its evolution over time to a stable state that is not easily modified or perturbed. The effects of dynamic stability may be seen in the differences obtained in the processing of print by beginner readers taught by different approaches to reading (phonics and text-centered), and more long-term effects on adults, consistent with these differences. However, there is little direct evidence collected over time for the same participants. In this study, lexicalized (implicit) phonological processing, and explicit phonological and letter-sound skills are further examined in a precocious reader whose early development at 3 and 5 years has been extensively described (Cognition, 2000, 2004). At ages 10 and 14 years, comparisons were made with these earlier reports and skilled adult readers, using the same tasks for evidence of changes in reading processes. The results showed that along with an increase of reading accuracy and speed, her pattern of lexicalized phonological responses for reading did not change over time. Neither did her pattern of explicit phonological and letter-sound skills, aspects of which were inferior to her lexicalized phonological processing, and word reading. These results suggest dynamic stability of the word reading system. The early emergence of this system with minimal explicit skill development calls into question developmental reading theories that require such skills for learning to read. Currently, only the Knowledge Sources theory of reading acquisition can account for such findings. Consideration of these aspects of dynamic systems raise theoretical issues that could result in a paradigm shift with regard to best practice and intervention.

Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.

2014-01-01

495

Left- and right-hemisphere forms of phonological alexia.  

PubMed

We studied the ability of patients with lesions arising from operation for an anterior or posterior (left or right) brain tumour to read a set of words and pronounceable nonwords. In line with previous works, we observed that damage to the left posterior or left anterior cortex can give rise to phonological alexia, where the reading performance of nonwords is affected more than that of words. More surprisingly, similar effects were found in the right posterior group. However, there were significant differences in the error types, for both complex and positional errors, between phonological alexic patients in the three location groups. The findings present difficulties for the position held by theorists of the triangle model that phonological alexia arises from impairments in the language production system or in a general-purpose orthographic-phonological translation system. They also pose new questions about the possible role of the right posterior cortex in letter sequence representation. PMID:23521052

Buiatti, Tania; Skrap, Miran; Shallice, Tim

2012-01-01

496

Natural Constraints in Sign Language Phonology: Data from Anatomy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three sets of data (signs from the "Dictionary of ASL," 1976; loan signs; and case histories of specific signs) that demonstrate the involvement of the "knuckle-wrist connection" with American Sign Language phonology. (AM)

Mandel, Mark A.

1979-01-01

497

When Words Collide: Orthographic and Phonological Interference during Word Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interaction between orthographic and phonological information was studied in two experiments by requiring subjects to match visually presented word pairs on the basics of their visual or rhyming similarty. Word pairs either rhymed and looked alike, rh...

J. Polich G. McCarthy W. S. Wang E. Donchin

1983-01-01

498

Unraveling phonological conspiracies: A case study.  

PubMed

Abstract This paper focuses on three seemingly unrelated error patterns in the sound system of a child with a phonological delay, Child 218 (male, age 4 years 6 months) and ascribes those error patterns to a larger conspiracy to eliminate fricatives from the phonetic inventory. Employing Optimality Theory for its advantages in characterizing conspiracies, our analysis offers a unified account of the observed repairs. The contextual restrictions on those repairs are, moreover, attributed to early developmental prominence effects, which are independently manifested in another error pattern involving rhotic consonants. Comparisons are made with a published case study involving a different implementation of the same conspiracy, the intent being to disambiguate the force behind certain error patterns. The clinical implications of the account are also considered. PMID:25000372

Dinnsen, Daniel A; Gierut, Judith A; Morrisette, Michele L; Rose, Darcy E

2014-07-01

499

Cortical Dynamics of Acoustic and Phonological Processing in Speech Perception  

PubMed Central

In speech perception, a functional hierarchy has been proposed by recent functional neuroimaging studies: Core auditory areas on the dorsal plane of superior temporal gyrus (STG) are sensitive to basic acoustic characteristics, whereas downstream regions, specifically the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) ventral to Heschl's gyrus (HG) are responsive to abstract phonological features. What is unclear so far is the relationship between the dorsal and ventral processes, especially with regard to whether low-level acoustic processing is modulated by high-level phonological processing. To address the issue, we assessed sensitivity of core auditory and downstream regions to acoustic and phonological variations by using within- and across-category lexical tonal continua with equal physical intervals. We found that relative to within-category variation, across-category variation elicited stronger activation in the left middle MTG (mMTG), apparently reflecting the abstract phonological representations. At the same time, activation in the core auditory region decreased, resulting from the top-down influences of phonological processing. These results support a hierarchical organization of the ventral acoustic-phonological processing stream, which originates in the right HG/STG and projects to the left mMTG. Furthermore, our study provides direct evidence that low-level acoustic analysis is modulated by high-level phonological representations, revealing the cortical dynamics of acoustic and phonological processing in speech perception. Our findings confirm the existence of reciprocal progression projections in the auditory pathways and the roles of both feed-forward and feedback mechanisms in speech perception.

Xu, Guoqing; Shu, Hua; Wang, Xiaoyi; Li, Ping

2011-01-01

500

Auditory phonological priming in children and adults during word repetition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term auditory phonological priming effects involve changes in the speed with which words are processed by a listener as a function of recent exposure to other similar-sounding words. Activation of phonological/lexical representations appears to persist beyond the immediate offset of a word, influencing subsequent processing. Priming effects are commonly cited as demonstrating concurrent activation of word/phonological candidates during word identification. Phonological priming is controversial, the direction of effects (facilitating versus slowing) varying with the prime-target relationship. In adults, it has repeatedly been demonstrated, however, that hearing a prime word that rhymes with the following target word (ISI=50 ms) decreases the time necessary to initiate repetition of the target, relative to when the prime and target have no phonemic overlap. Activation of phonological representations in children has not typically been studied using this paradigm, auditory-word + picture-naming tasks being used instead. The present study employed an auditory phonological priming paradigm being developed for use with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children. Initial results from normal-hearing adults replicate previous reports of faster naming times for targets following a rhyming prime word than for targets following a prime having no phonemes in common. Results from normal-hearing children will also be reported. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD T32DC000039.

Cleary, Miranda; Schwartz, Richard G.

2001-05-01