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1

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

2

Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children.

Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

3

The Comprehensive Language Approach to Early Literacy: The Interrelationships Among Vocabulary, Phonological Sensitivity, and Print Knowledge Among Preschool-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes 2 points of view about the relationship between oral-language and literacy skills: The phonological sensitivity approach posits that vocabulary provides the basis for phonological sensitivity, which then is the key language ability supporting reading, and the comprehensive language approach (CLA) posits that varied language skills interact with literacy knowledge and continue to play a vital role in

David K. Dickinson; Allyssa McCabe; Louisa Anastasopoulos; Ellen S. Peisner-Feinberg; Michele D. Poe

2003-01-01

4

The Nature of Preschool Phonological Processing Abilities and Their Relations to Vocabulary, General Cognitive Abilities, and Print Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities represents an important developmental milestone in the process of learning to read. In this cross-sectional study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of phonological processing abilities in 129 younger preschoolers (M = 40.88 months, SD = 4.65) and 304…

Lonigan, Christopher J.; Anthony, Jason L.; Phillips, Beth M.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; McQueen, Jessica D.

2009-01-01

5

Metalinguistic skills and vocabulary knowledge in Chinese (L1) and English (L2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

How are metalinguistic skills associated with vocabulary knowledge in languages with contrasting phonological and morphological properties? To address this question, tasks of phonological awareness and morphological awareness, other reasoning and literacy-related skills, and measures of vocabulary knowledge in Chinese and English, were administered to 217 Hong Kong Chinese kindergarten children learning English as a second language. Syllable-level awareness but not

C. McBride-Chang; H. Cheung; B. W.-Y. Chow; C. S.-L. Chow; L. Choi

2006-01-01

6

Phonological working memory: A critical building block for reading development and vocabulary acquisition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we review findings from a recent longitudinal study of the contribution of phonological working memory to\\u000a vocabulary acquisition and reading development. A total of 80 children were tested initially at school entry at the age of\\u000a four years, and were tested in three further waves at ages 5, 6, and 8 years. The results indicate that phonological

Susan E. Gathercole; Alan D. Baddeley

1993-01-01

7

What's in a Word? Using Content Vocabulary to "Generate" Growth in General Academic Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of vocabulary knowledge in supporting students' comprehension and understanding of their content-area reading is critical. This article explores how content-area teachers can help students become aware of, understand, and apply generative knowledge about English words to grow and develop their vocabularies. Generative vocabulary

Flanigan, Kevin; Templeton, Shane; Hayes, Latisha

2012-01-01

8

Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…

Carrier, Sarah J.

2013-01-01

9

Phonological recoding, rapid automatized naming, and orthographic knowledge.  

PubMed

Phonological recoding, orthographic knowledge, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) are three major contributors to word identification. However, the interrelations between these components remain somewhat unclear. The current analyses focus on how phonological recoding and alphanumeric versus non-alphanumeric RAN contribute to different components of orthographic knowledge (word specific vs. general). Results indicate that alphanumeric and non-alphanumeric RAN contribute to orthographic knowledge components differently. Alphanumeric RAN relates more to word-specific orthographic knowledge, whereas non-alphanumeric RAN relates more to general orthographic knowledge. Furthermore, phonological recoding is more closely related to word-specific orthographic knowledge than to general orthographic knowledge. PMID:23827643

Loveall, Susan J; Channell, Marie Moore; Phillips, B Allyson; Conners, Frances A

2013-07-01

10

Using Knowledge Networks to Develop Preschoolers' Content Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research shows that children accrue vocabulary knowledge by understanding relationships between new words and their connected concepts. This article describes three research-based principles that preschool teachers can use to design shared book reading lessons that accelerate content vocabulary knowledge by helping young children to talk about…

Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Davis, Matthew J.; Simmons, Leslie; Nava-Walichowski, Miranda

2012-01-01

11

A study of students' beliefs about vocabulary knowledge and acquisition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the vocabulary of a discipline is important for students, especially in the sciences (Gee, 2003). Therefore, the extant literature has emphasized the need for more research on vocabulary knowledge and acquisition (Simpson, et al., 2004). This study investigated whether or not community college students' beliefs about vocabulary knowledge and acquisition changed as a result of a one-semester enrollment in a vocabulary-rich biology course. The rationale for the study, a review of the existing research underlying the study, the methodology of the study, and the results and conclusions of the study will be discussed.

Francis, Michelle Andersen

12

Promoting Vocabulary, Phonological Awareness and Concept about Print among Children at Risk for Learning Disability: Can E-Books Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the…

Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra; Fellah, Renat

2012-01-01

13

Phonological Memory and Children's Second Language Grammar Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…

French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena

2008-01-01

14

Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness, print awareness, and early reading abilities. Phonological awareness, the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, is a precursor to reading. Phonological awareness…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

15

Promoting vocabulary, phonological awareness and concept about print among children at risk for learning disability: can e-books help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as\\u000a compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as\\u000a concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the participation of 110 children\\u000a aged

Adina Shamir; Ofra Korat; Renat Fellah

16

Fostering the Development of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension Though Contextually-Based Multiple Meaning Vocabulary Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to assess the effects of contextuallybased multiple meaning (i.e., words with multiple meanings) vocabulary instruction on the vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension of students. Third and 5 th grade students received either contextuallybased multiple meaning vocabulary instruction embedded in the standard language arts instruction offered to all students over a three-month period or

J. Ron. Nelson; Scott A. Stage

2007-01-01

17

Improving Teacher Candidates' Knowledge of Phonological Awareness: A Multimedia Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Knowledge of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach students to develop PA is an important component of teacher preparation given its role in learning to read. We believe multimedia can play a key role in improving how educators acquire, master, and prepare to implement evidence-based reading instruction in any nation. One multimedia-based…

Kennedy, Michael J.; Driver, Melissa K.; Pullen, Paige C.; Ely, Emily; Cole, Mira T.

2013-01-01

18

Linking vocabulary to imagery: Improving science knowledge through multimedia design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative study looked at the vocabulary development of four urban sixth-grade students as they used laser disk and computer technologies to view images and then connect those images to textual definitions through multimedia design. Focusing on three science content areas (the water cycle, the rock cycle, and the web of life), students worked in pairs to create their own multimedia stacks that focused on the prescribed vocabulary. Using a combination of text, images, and audio, students demonstrated their understanding of content vocabulary words and how these words are interconnects within a science topic. Further, the study examined the impact that linking images to vocabulary and textual definitions has on helping students memorize definitions of the science content words. It was found that the use of imagery had a positive affect on the students' ability to identify textual definitions and vocabulary words, though it did not have a great impact on their later recall of word/definition connections. In addition, by designing their own multimedia artifacts, students were able to connect the vocabulary and images within a specific content area and explain their function within a broader science concept. The results of this study were inconclusive as to the impact this activity had on the students' ability to transfer their knowledge to correctly answering questions similar to the ones they see on their state proficiency exam.

Adler, Tracy R.

19

Differentiating the effects of phonotactic probability and neighborhood density on vocabulary comprehension and production: A comparison of preschool children with versus without phonological delays  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to differentiate the effect of phonotactic probability from that of neighborhood density on a vocabulary probe administered to preschool children with or without a phonological delay. Method Twenty preschool children with functional phonological delays and 34 preschool children with typical language development completed a 121 item vocabulary probe in both an expressive and receptive response format. Words on the vocabulary probe orthogonally varied on phonotactic probability and neighborhood density but were matched on age-of-acquisition, word frequency, word length, semantic set size, concreteness, familiarity, and imagability. Results Results showed an interaction between phonotactic probability and neighborhood density with variation across groups. Specifically, the optimal conditions for typically developing children were rare phonotactic probability with sparse neighborhoods and common phonotactic probability with dense neighborhoods. In contrast, only rare phonotactic probability with sparse neighborhoods was optimal for children with phonological delays. Conclusions Rare sound sequences and sparse neighborhoods may facilitate triggering of word learning for typically developing children and children with phonological delays. In contrast, common sound sequences and dense neighborhoods may facilitate configuration and engagement for typically developing children but not children with phonological delays due to their weaker phonological and/or lexical representations.

Storkel, Holly L.; Maekawa, Junko; Hoover, Jill R.

2009-01-01

20

Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Word Reading in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants: Does Age of Implantation Explain Individual Variability in Performance Outcomes and Growth?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonological awareness (PA), vocabulary, and word reading abilities of 19 children with cochlear implants (CI) were assessed. Nine children had an implant early (between 2 and 3.6 years) and 10 had an implant later (between 5 and 7 years). Participants were tested twice over a 12-month period on syllable, rhyme, and phoneme awareness (see…

James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha

2008-01-01

21

The effect of vocabulary knowledge on novel word identification.  

PubMed

The study investigated the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and novel word reading. Fourth-grade students were assessed on standardized measures of word identification, decoding, and receptive vocabulary, as well as on an experimental word identification measure using words that students in the fourth grade are unlikely to have seen before in print. In the experimental measure, pairs of words were matched on printed frequency and orthographic pattern (with a variety of spelling patterns represented), but differed in terms of the frequency of expected oral exposure for children (i.e., higher vs. lower). Results showed that students' receptive vocabulary knowledge was significantly related to performance on both the standardized and experimental measures of word identification, even after accounting for the substantial amount of variance explained by decoding ability. Students performed better reading the words with higher expected oral frequencies on the experimental task than on those items with lower expected oral frequencies. The results point to the benefits, albeit modest, of oral word familiarity for reading words when they are first encountered in print and suggest that this top-down effect is not limited to exception words, as has been suggested, but has a wider scope. PMID:23456304

Mitchell, Alison M; Brady, Susan A

2013-03-01

22

Phonological awareness, letter-sound knowledge and word recognition in Greek deaf children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study presented in this paper was to investigate the relation between phonological awareness and orthographic knowledge in deaf children who read in the transparent Greek orthography. Preschool and school-aged deaf children (N = 24) and two comparison groups of hearing children (N = 30) were administered measures of phonological awareness, letter-sound knowledge and word recognition at

Evi Kyritsi; Deborah James; Susan Edwards

23

Specific Contributions of Phonological Abilities to Early Reading Acquisition: Results From a Dutch Latent Variable Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contributions of phonological abilities to early reading acquisition were examined in a longitudinal study of 166 Dutch children from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Various phonological abilities, nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary, and letter knowledge were assessed in kindergarten and Grade 1. Reading and arithmetic were examined in 1st and 2nd grades. The importance of individual differences in phonological ability for subsequent reading

Peter F. de Jong; Aryan van der Leij

1999-01-01

24

Building Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary in Science in the Intermediate Grades: Creating Hooks for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary knowledge is a salient factor influencing success both in and out of school. The specialized vocabulary knowledge in science represents the concept-laden hooks on which learning is hung and enables students to build prior knowledge through the expansion of these conceptual hooks. We have identified four levels of learners--struggling…

Rupley, William H.; Slough, Scott

2010-01-01

25

Phonological knowledge in compensation for native and non-native assimilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether compensation for phonological assimilation in the first language depends on language specific knowledge of phonological pro- cesses. To this end, we tested two different assimilation rules, one that exists in English and involves place of articulation, and another that exists in French and involves voicing. Both contrasts were tested on speakers of French and American English. In

Isabelle Darcy; Franck Ramus; Anne Christophe; Katherine Kinzler; Emmanuel Dupoux

2007-01-01

26

Investigating the Relationship between Vocabulary Knowledge and Academic Reading Performance: An Assessment Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was conducted in the context of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) research to conceptually validate the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in reading comprehension in academic settings and to empirically evaluate a test measuring three elements of the depth dimension of vocabulary knowledge, including,…

Qian, David D.

2002-01-01

27

Children with Down Syndrome Use Phonological Knowledge in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses an experiment that links phonological awareness and reading performance in children with Down syndrome. Examines the results within the framework of the author's metalinguistic development theory in which alphabet reading is a pacemaker for the development of explicit phonological awareness. (PM)|

Gombert, Jean-Emile

2002-01-01

28

Children with Down syndrome use phonological knowledge in reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the findings of Cossu, Rossini &Marshall [(1993a), Cognition 46: 129–138], the present experiment showed a clear link between phonological awareness and reading performance in children with Down syndrome. Although metaphonologicalperformance was lower in children with Downsyndrome than in normal controls of the samereading level, phonological awareness andreading were significantly correlated in bothgroups. However, children with Down syndromeremained deficient

Jean-Emile Gombert

2002-01-01

29

Knowledge, Skills, and Practices Concerning Phonological Awareness among Early Childhood Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom…

Alghazo, Emad M.; Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

2010-01-01

30

Knowledge, Skills, and Practices Concerning Phonological Awareness Among Early Childhood Education Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom practices, on the other hand, was significantly noticeable, an indication that

Emad M. Alghazo; Yasser A. Al-Hilawani

2010-01-01

31

Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36 to 60 months, participated. Children’s print knowledge, phonological awareness, language, speech production, and speech perception abilities were assessed. Results For phonological awareness, the CI group’s mean score fell within 1 standard deviation of the TOPEL’s normative sample mean but was more than 1 standard deviation below our NH group mean. The CI group’s performance did not differ significantly from that of the NH group for print knowledge. For the CI group, phonological awareness and print knowledge were significantly correlated with language, speech production, and speech perception. Together, these predictor variables accounted for 34% of variance in the CI group’s phonological awareness but no significant variance in their print knowledge. Conclusions Children with CIs have the potential to develop age-appropriate early literacy skills by preschool-age but are likely to lag behind their NH peers in phonological awareness. Intervention programs serving these children should target these skills with instruction and by facilitating speech and language development.

Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

2012-01-01

32

The Yes/No Test as a Measure of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance on the Yes/No test (Huibregtse et al., 2002) was assessed as a predictor of scores on the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), a standard test of receptive second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 1990). The use of identical items on both tests allowed a direct comparison of test performance, with alternative methods for scoring the…

Mochida, Akira; Harrington, Michael

2006-01-01

33

Self-efficacy, word reading, and vocabulary knowledge in English language learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

English language learners (ELLs) are dramatically behind in the number of English vocabulary words they have acquired when they enter kindergarten. Research that has been conducted on early reading skills and vocabulary knowledge in ELLs focuses almost exclusively on instruction despite the fact that student characteristics such as self-efficacy play a significant role in academic outcomes. The aim of this

Tricia Florence Mase

2011-01-01

34

Enhancing Phonological Awareness and Letter Knowledge in Preschool Children with Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of a phonological awareness intervention for 4?year?old children with Down syndrome. Seven children with Down syndrome who attended an early intervention centre participated in the intervention. Their performance on measures of phonological awareness (initial phoneme identity), letter name and sound knowledge, and print concepts pre?intervention and post?intervention, was compared with that of a randomly selected

Anne K. van Bysterveldt; Gail T. Gillon; Catherine Moran

2006-01-01

35

Trait and Process Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge and Verbal Ability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study sought to investigate the construct validity of vocabulary tests and the nature of verbal ability by integrating findings and theories of cognitive psychology with those of differential psychology. The study included three kinds of measurements...

B. Marshalek

1981-01-01

36

Knowledge Building and Vocabulary Growth over Two Years, Grades 3 and 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Productive knowledge work and high-level literacy are essential for engagement in a Knowledge society. In the research reported in this article, students were engaged in sustained collaborative knowledge building in science and social studies. The vocabulary growth of 22 students over Grades 3 and 4 was traced, based on their entries to Knowledge

Sun, Yanqing; Zhang, Jianwei; Scardamalia, Marlene

2010-01-01

37

Knowledge Building and Vocabulary Growth over Two Years, Grades 3 and 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Productive knowledge work and high-level literacy are essential for engagement in a Knowledge society. In the research reported in this article, students were engaged in sustained collaborative knowledge building in science and social studies. The vocabulary growth of 22 students over Grades 3 and 4 was traced, based on their entries to Knowledge

Sun, Yanqing; Zhang, Jianwei; Scardamalia, Marlene

2010-01-01

38

Does Phonological Short-Term Memory Causally Determine Vocabulary Learning? Toward a Computational Resolution of the Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between nonword repetition ability and vocabulary size and vocabulary learning has been a topic of intense research interest and investigation over the last two decades, following the demonstration that nonword repetition accuracy is predictive of vocabulary size (Gathercole & Baddeley, 1989). However, the nature of this…

Gupta, Prahlad; Tisdale, Jamie

2009-01-01

39

Linking vocabulary to imagery: Improving science knowledge through multimedia design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study looked at the vocabulary development of four urban sixth-grade students as they used laser disk and computer technologies to view images and then connect those images to textual definitions through multimedia design. Focusing on three science content areas (the water cycle, the rock cycle, and the web of life), students worked in pairs to create their own

Tracy R. Adler

2000-01-01

40

The Foundation of Literacy Skills in Korean: The Relationship between Letter-Name Knowledge and Phonological Awareness and Their Relative Contribution to Literacy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique…

Kim, Young-Suk

2009-01-01

41

Perceptual Recovery from Consonant-Cluster Simplification in Korean Using Language-Specific Phonological Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments examined whether perceptual recovery from Korean consonant-cluster simplification is based on language-specific phonological knowledge. In tri-consonantal C1C2C3 sequences such as /lkt/ and /lpt/ in Seoul Korean, either C1 or C2 can be completely deleted. Seoul Koreans monitored for C2 targets (/p/ or /k/, deleted or preserved) in…

Cho, Taehong; McQueen, James M.

2011-01-01

42

Relative Contribution of Vocabulary Knowledge and Working Memory Span to Elaborative Inferences in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Eye fixations were assessed during the reading of continuation sentences confirming inferences suggested by a preceding context sentence. In multiple regression analysis, individual differences in available prior vocabulary knowledge, working memory span, and speed of access to prior word knowledge served as predictors of eye fixations.…

Calvo, Manuel G.

2005-01-01

43

Vocabulary Knowledge and Growth in Immersion and Regular Language-Learning Programmes in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate vocabulary knowledge and growth across two different language-learning programmes in Hong Kong. The two programmes compared were English immersion programmes (IM) and regular English second-language programmes (RL2). While previous research has identified an overall advantage to IM with respect to language…

Lo, Yuen Yi; Murphy, Victoria A.

2010-01-01

44

The Role of Depth versus Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge in Success and Ease in L2 Lexical Inferencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study determines whether breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are related to L2 ease and success in lexical inferencing. To this end, two tests measuring vocabulary breadth and depth were administered to 50 participants. Two weeks later, all participants received an inferencing task and rated the degree of perceived ease in inferencing…

Hatami, Sarvenaz; Tavakoli, Mansoor

2012-01-01

45

Teaching New Words to Children with Poor Existing Vocabulary Knowledge: A Controlled Evaluation of the Definition and Context Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Children who have poor vocabulary knowledge are at risk of wider language weaknesses and reading comprehension difficulties, which will impact upon their educational achievement. The central question addressed in this paper is how best to teach new vocabulary items to these children. Aims: To investigate the effects of two different…

Nash, Hannah; Snowling, Margaret

2006-01-01

46

The Impact of General and Specific Vocabulary Knowledge on Reading and Listening Comprehension: A Case of Iranian EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study was carried out to determine the effect of general vocabulary knowledge and gaining familiarity with the specific vocabulary content of a reading or listening comprehension test on a group of Iranian EFL learners' reading and listening comprehension ability. Two groups of male and female English majors (N = 58) participated in…

Mehrpour, Saeed; Rahimi, Mohammad

2010-01-01

47

People's Knowledge of Phonological Universals: Evidence from Fricatives and Stops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation investigates whether people possess knowledge of fine-grained distinctions among the sonority levels that are unattested in their language. Specifically, I investigate the whether people encode the putatively universal distinction between the sonority levels of fricatives and stops. Across languages, fricatives and stops differ…

Lennertz, Tracy Jordan

2010-01-01

48

Reading vocabulary influences in phonological recoding during the development of reading skill: a re-examination of theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children’s skill at recoding graphemes to phonemes is widely understood as the driver of their progress in acquiring reading\\u000a vocabulary. This recoding skill is usually assessed by children’s reading of pseudowords (e.g., yeep) that represent “new words.” This study re-examined the extent to which pseudoword reading is, itself, influenced by orthographic\\u000a rimes (e.g., eep) of words of the child’s reading

Michael F. McKay; G. Brian Thompson

2009-01-01

49

Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge in Low-Functioning Autism as Assessed by Eye Movements, Pupillary Dilation, and Event-Related Potentials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have been testing the hypothesis that relatively implicit measures of cognitive processing (eye movements, pupillary dilation monitoring, and the N400 component of event-related potentials) will prove sensitive to receptive vocabulary knowledge, even i...

B. Gordon K. Ledoux

2013-01-01

50

L2 Vocabulary Knowledge in and out of Context: Is It the Same for Reading and Listening?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The vast majority of second language (L2) vocabulary research focuses on learners' knowledge of isolated word forms. However, it is unclear to what extent this knowledge can be used as an indicator of knowledge in context (i.e. reading and listening). This study aims to shed light on this issue by comparing ESL learners' knowledge of the meaning…

van Zeeland, Hilde

2013-01-01

51

College Students' Memory for Vocabulary in Their Majors: Evidence for a Nonlinear Relation Between Knowledge and Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of domain knowledge on students' memory for vocabulary terms was investigated. Participants were 142 college students (94 education majors and 48 business majors). The measure of domain knowledge was the number of courses completed in the major. Students recalled three different lists (control, education, and business) of 20 words. Knowledge effects were estimated controlling for academic aptitude, academic

Darlene DeMarie; Patricia A. Aloise-Young; Cheri L. Prideaux; Jean Muransky-Doran; Julie Hart Gerda

2004-01-01

52

How Does Second Language Vocabulary Grow over Time? A Multi-Methodological Study of Incremental Vocabulary Knowledge Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the longitudinal development of L2 vocabulary by 17 individual adult L2 learners in an English as a second language (ESL) instructed context over one academic year, combining a longitudinal case study design with two cross-sectional comparisons in order to enhance (a) detailed documentation addressing the idiosyncrasy of…

Huang, Hung-Tzu

2010-01-01

53

The relationship between phonological processing skills and word and nonword identification performance in children with mild intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

Word and nonword identification skills were examined in a sample of 80 elementary school age students with mild intellectual disabilities and mixed etiologies who were described as struggling to learn to read by their teachers. Performance on measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary, measures of phonological awareness, and measures of word and nonword identification were included for analyses. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for chronological age and vocabulary knowledge, phonological processing accounted for a large and significant amount of unique variance of both word and nonword identification. In addition, the pattern of results found in this study is similar to that obtained with typically developing learners. As with typically developing children, measures of phonological awareness were significantly correlated with measures of both reading achievement and vocabulary knowledge. PMID:20846821

Wise, Justin C; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, Maryann; Morris, Robin D

2010-09-16

54

Lexical Learning in Bilingual Adults: The Relative Importance of Short-Term Memory for Serial Order and Phonological Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies of monolingual speakers have shown a strong association between lexical learning and short-term memory (STM) capacity, especially STM for serial order information. At the same time, studies of bilingual speakers suggest that phonological knowledge is the main factor that drives lexical learning. This study tested these two hypotheses…

Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Van der Linden, Martial; Weekes, Brendan S.

2008-01-01

55

Phonemes, Rimes, Vocabulary, and Grammatical Skills as Foundations of Early Reading Development: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the results of a 2-year longitudinal study of 90 British children beginning at school entry when they were 4 years 9 months old (range = 4 years 2 months to 5 years 2 months). The relationships among early phonological skills, letter knowledge, grammatical skills, and vocabulary knowledge were investigated as predictors of word recognition and reading comprehension.

Valerie Muter; Charles Hulme; Margaret J. Snowling; Jim Stevenson

2004-01-01

56

The Contributions of Phonological Awareness and Letter-Name Knowledge to Letter-Sound Acquisition--A Cross-Classified Multilevel Model Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…

Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu

2010-01-01

57

Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Program on Word Knowledge and Passage Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cluster randomized trial estimated the effects of a supplemental vocabulary program, Elements of Reading[R]: vocabulary on student vocabulary and passage comprehension in moderate- to high-poverty elementary schools. Forty-four schools participated over a period spanning 2 consecutive school years. At baseline, 1,057 teachers and 16,471 students…

Apthorp, Helen; Randel, Bruce; Cherasaro, Trudy; Clark, Tedra; McKeown, Margaret; Beck, Isabel

2012-01-01

58

The Importance of Letter Knowledge in the Relationship between Phonological Awareness and Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous correlational and experimental research has found a positive association between phonological awareness and reading skills. This paper provides an overview of studies in this area and shows that many studies have neglected to control for extraneous variables such as ability, phonological memory, pre-existing reading skills and letter…

Blaiklock, Ken E.

2004-01-01

59

Do Children with Williams Syndrome Really Have Good Vocabulary Knowledge? Methods for Comparing Cognitive and Linguistic Abilities in Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The comparison of cognitive and linguistic skills in individuals with developmental disorders is fraught with methodological and psychometric difficulties. In this paper, we illustrate some of these issues by comparing the receptive vocabulary knowledge and non-verbal reasoning abilities of 41 children with Williams syndrome, a genetic disorder…

Brock, Jon; Jarrold, Christopher; Farran, Emily K.; Laws, Glynis; Riby, Deborah M.

2007-01-01

60

The Role of Vocabulary Knowledge, Syntactic Awareness and Metacognitive Awareness in Reading Comprehension of Adult English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of vocabulary knowledge, syntactic awareness and metacognitive awareness in reading comprehension has been established in the first language research. By contrast, fewer studies have documented the role of these components in the reading comprehension of English language learners (ELLs) in the field of second language (L2) research. The proposed study specifically focused on an L2-only model to examine

Ying Guo

2008-01-01

61

A Comparison of Phonological Awareness, Lexical Compounding, and Homophone Training for Chinese Word Reading in Hong Kong Kindergartners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: In this study, 88 kindergartners received special training in lexical compounding, homophone awareness, or phonological awareness or were assigned to a control condition over a period of approximately 2 months, with 20-min lessons administered twice per week. Chinese word reading improved significantly more in the lexical compounding group as compared to the other groups. Vocabulary knowledge also showed

Yan-Ling Zhou; Catherine McBride-Chang; Cathy Y.-C. Fong; Terry T.-Y. Wong; Sum Kwing Cheung

2012-01-01

62

Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Program on Word Knowledge and Passage Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cluster randomized trial estimated the effects of a supplemental vocabulary program, Elements of Reading®: vocabulary on student vocabulary and passage comprehension in moderate- to high-poverty elementary schools. Forty-four schools participated over a period spanning 2 consecutive school years. At baseline, 1,057 teachers and 16,471 students from kindergarten, first, third, and fourth grade participated. The schools were randomly assigned to

Helen Apthorp; Bruce Randel; Trudy Cherasaro; Tedra Clark; Margaret McKeown; Isabel Beck

2012-01-01

63

Phonological Development in Lexically Precocious 2-Year-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine interactions between young children's vocabulary size and their phonological abilities, spontaneous language samples were collected from 24-month-olds with precocious lexicons, their age mates (24-month-olds with average-sized lexicons), and their vocabulary mates (30-month-olds with average-sized lexicons). Phonological ability was…

Smith, Bruce L.; McGregor, Karla K.; Demille, Darcie

2006-01-01

64

Contribution of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability to L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced EFL learners: testing direct and indirect effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness\\u000a and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in\\u000a a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling) methods, the study found that morphological awareness contributed to L2\\u000a vocabulary knowledge directly

Dongbo Zhang; Keiko Koda

65

Cognitive Correlates of Vocabulary Growth in English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study modeled vocabulary trajectories in 91 English language learners (ELLs) with Punjabi, Tamil, or Portuguese home languages, and 50 English monolinguals (EL1) from Grades 1 to 6. The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between phonological awareness and phonological short-term memory and vocabulary were examined. ELLs underperformed…

Farnia, Fataneh; Geva, Esther

2011-01-01

66

Modeling the Early Paths of Phonological Awareness and Factors Supporting its Development in Children With and Without Familial Risk of Dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of phonological awareness (PA) before school age was modeled in association with the development of vocabulary and letter knowledge, home literacy environment (HLE), children's reading interest, and beginning reading skill in children with and without familial risk of dyslexia. A total of 186 children were followed from birth to the age of 6.5 years. Of these children, about

Minna Torppa; Anna-Maija Poikkeus; Marja-Leena Laakso; Asko Tolvanen; Esko Leskinen; Paavo H. T. Leppanen; Anne Puolakanaho; Heikki Lyytinen

2007-01-01

67

The Interaction of Vocabulary and Short-Term Memory in Predicting Phonological Awareness: A Comparison of Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from a longitudinal comparative study of children at risk of dyslexia (Snowling, Gallagher & Frith, 2003), this paper reports some replication of work by Gibbs (2004). It was found that the development of phonological awareness might, for children between the ages of 6 and 8 years of age and not considered to be at risk of dyslexia, be…

Gibbs, Simon

2005-01-01

68

Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

2013-01-01

69

Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

2013-01-01

70

Toddlers learn words in a foreign language: The role of native vocabulary knowledge  

PubMed Central

The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers’ (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English and secondly, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the Dutch condition; however, children with high native vocabularies successfully selected the target object for terms trained in fluent Dutch. Furthermore, children with higher vocabularies did not indicate their comprehension of Dutch terms when subsequently tested by an English speaker whereas children with low vocabulary scores responded at chance levels to both the original Dutch speaker and the second English speaker. These findings demonstrate that monolingual toddlers with proficiency in their native language are capable of learning words outside of their conventional system and may be sensitive to the boundaries that exist between language systems.

Koenig, Melissa A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

2013-01-01

71

The effects of individualized, online vocabulary instruction on picture vocabulary scores: an efficacy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary knowledge is of fundamental importance to reading comprehension, and many students lack the vocabulary knowledge necessary to facilitate learning to read. A study was conducted to determine the effects of an individualized, online vocabulary program on picture vocabulary test scores. Elementary summer school students (N = 43), entering grades 2–4, who scored poorly on a vocabulary pretest were randomly assigned to

Charles N. Fehr; Mark L. Davison; Michael F. Graves; Gregory C. Sales; Ben Seipel; Sarah Sekhran-Sharma

2011-01-01

72

The effects of individualized, online vocabulary instruction on picture vocabulary scores: an efficacy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary knowledge is of fundamental importance to reading comprehension, and many students lack the vocabulary knowledge necessary to facilitate learning to read. A study was conducted to determine the effects of an individualized, online vocabulary program on picture vocabulary test scores. Elementary summer school students (N = 43), entering grades 2–4, who scored poorly on a vocabulary pretest were randomly assigned to

Charles N. Fehr; Mark L. Davison; Michael F. Graves; Gregory C. Sales; Ben Seipel; Sarah Sekhran-Sharma

2012-01-01

73

The role of phonetic knowledge in phonological patterning Corpus and survey evidence from Tagalog in  

Microsoft Academic Search

The task of linguistics could be viewed as discovering and explaining cross-linguistic regularities. In the realm of phonology, at least, it has become clear that this task is not as straightforward as it might seem. To take a simple example, it has observed that many languages assimilate a nasal consonant in place to a following obstruent (\\/an+pa\\/\\u0009[ampa]), while assimilation

Kie Zuraw

2005-01-01

74

Developing Vocabulary and Conceptual Knowledge for Low-Income Preschoolers: A Design Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test, and iteratively derive principles of word learning and word organization that could help to theoretically advance our understanding of vocabulary development for low-income preschoolers. Six Head Start teachers in morning and afternoon programs and their children (N = 89) were selected…

Neuman, Susan B.; Dwyer, Julie

2011-01-01

75

Developing Vocabulary and Conceptual Knowledge for Low-Income Preschoolers: A Design Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test, and iteratively derive principles of word learning and word organization that could help to theoretically advance our understanding of vocabulary development for low-income preschoolers. Six Head Start teachers in morning and afternoon programs and their children (N = 89) were selected…

Neuman, Susan B.; Dwyer, Julie

2011-01-01

76

Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

2007-01-01

77

Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

2007-01-01

78

Vocabulary acquisition and reading ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical acquisition ability for aurally taught words was studied in fourthgrade children. Reading ability, intelligence, and working memory were evaluated as predictor factors in vocabulary learning. Reading ability was found to predict facility at learning the novel phonological sequences, while intelligence was the only factor which accounted for performance level for the semantic content of the words. The working memory

Linda Aguiar; Susan Brady

1991-01-01

79

Second Language Vocabulary Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The vocabulary knowledge of 166 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners in Taiwan was measured annually over a five year period using a bilingual version of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) (Nation, 1983, 1990; Schmitt, Schmitt, and Clapham, 2001). The five years of data collection involved English language instruction in high school and…

Webb, Stuart Alexander; Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang

2012-01-01

80

Effects of Robust Vocabulary Instruction and Multicultural Text on the Development of Word Knowledge among African American Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To examine the effect of a systematic vocabulary instructional technique in African American 2nd-grade children with below average vocabulary skills. An additional goal was to examine the role of book type in the retention of novel vocabulary words. Method: Using an adapted alternating treatments design, storybooks were used as a source…

Lovelace, Sherri; Stewart, Sharon R.

2009-01-01

81

Phonologic-graphemic transcodifier for Portuguese Language spoken in Brazil (PLB)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automatic speech-to-text transformer system, suited to unlimited vocabulary, is presented. The basic acoustic unit considered are the allophones of the phonemes corresponding to the Portuguese language spoken in Brazil (PLB). The input to the system is a phonetic sequence, from a former step of isolated word recognition of slowly spoken speech. In a first stage, the system eliminates phonetic elements that don't belong to PLB. Using knowledge sources such as phonetics, phonology, orthography, and PLB specific lexicon, the output is a sequence of written words, ordered by probabilistic criterion that constitutes the set of graphemic possibilities to that input sequence. Pronunciation differences of some regions of Brazil are considered, but only those that cause differences in phonological transcription, because those of phonetic level are absorbed, during the transformation to phonological level. In the final stage, all possible written words are analyzed for orthography and grammar point of view, to eliminate the incorrect ones.

Fragadasilva, Francisco Jose; Saotome, Osamu; Deoliveira, Carlos Alberto

82

Development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension: receptive vocabulary and conceptual knowledge.  

PubMed

Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy are common in our daily communication. This is one of the first studies to investigate metaphor and metonymy comprehension using a developmental approach. Forty-five typically developing individuals participated in a metaphor-metonymy verbal comprehension task incorporating 20 short picture-stories. Cross-sectional trajectory analyses linking task performance to either chronological age or receptive vocabulary (mental age, MA) were used to compare the development of metaphor and metonymy. Results showed that development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension is strongly linked with chronological and MA, but metaphor comprehension develops at a slower rate compared to metonymy. It was also found that participants, across all ages, consistently showed around 21% better performance on metonymy. The relationship between metaphor and metonymy comprehension is discussed in terms of linguistic and cognitive models of figurative language comprehension arguing that metonymy is cognitively more basic than metaphor. PMID:20849033

Rundblad, Gabriella; Annaz, Dagmara

2010-09-01

83

Child Characteristics by Science Instruction Interactions in Second and Third Grade and Their Relation to Students' Content-Area Knowledge, Vocabulary, and Reading Skill Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The associations among second- and third-grade students' content-area knowledge, vocabulary, and reading gains and the science instruction they received were examined in this exploratory longitudinal study. We also asked whether there were child characteristics x instruction interaction effects on students' content-area literacy. Second graders…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Rice, Diana C.; Canto, Angela I.; Southerland, Sherry A.; Underwood, Phyllis; Kaya, Sibel; Fishman, Barry; Morrison, Frederick J.

2012-01-01

84

How Word Decoding, Vocabulary and Prior Topic Knowledge Predict Reading Comprehension. A Study of Language-Minority Students in Norwegian Fifth Grade Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global…

Rydland, Veslemoy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover; Fulland, Helene

2012-01-01

85

Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

2011-01-01

86

Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

2011-01-01

87

Contemporary Classroom Vocabulary Assessment for Content Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the challenges of teaching disciplinary vocabulary effectively is the paucity of available, classroom-friendly vocabulary assessments that can be used to gauge students' vocabulary growth and to inform vocabulary instruction. This article describes the intricacies of word knowledge that make assessment difficult. Three continua…

Stahl, Katherine A. Dougherty; Bravo, Marco A.

2010-01-01

88

A Short Report: Word-Level Phonological and Lexical Characteristics Interact to Influence Phoneme Awareness  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on early phoneme awareness. Typically-developing children, ages 61–78 months, completed a phoneme-based, odd-one-out task that included consonant-vowel-consonant word sets (e.g., “chair-chain-ship”) that varied orthogonally by a phonological characteristic, sound-contrast similarity (similar vs. dissimilar), and a lexical characteristic, neighborhood density (dense vs. sparse). In a subsample of the participants – those with the highest vocabularies – results were in line with a predicted interactive effect of phonological and lexical characteristics on phoneme awareness performance: word sets contrasting similar sounds were less likely to yield correct responses in words from sparse neighborhoods than words from dense neighborhoods. Word sets contrasting dissimilar sounds were most likely to yield correct responses regardless of the words’ neighborhood density. Based on these findings, theories of early phoneme awareness development should consider both word-level (e.g., phonological and lexical characteristics) and child-level (e.g., vocabulary knowledge) influences on phoneme awareness performance. Attention to these word-level item influences is predicted to result in more sensitive and specific measures of reading risk.

Hogan, Tiffany P.

2010-01-01

89

Introduction to the Varieties of Orthographic Knowledge II: Relationships to Phonology, Reading, and Writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the reasons for the lack of consensus on how to measure orthographic processing is that orthographic processing involves\\u000a multiple kinds of orthographic knowledge and different investigators are focusing on different kinds of orthographic knowledge\\u000a (see Introduction to Volume I). Table 1 from that introduction is reproduced on page 2 to provide a conceptual framework for\\u000a discussing the kind(s)

Virginia W. Berninger

90

Visualizing Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

91

Parents' reading-related knowledge and children's reading acquisition.  

PubMed

Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related knowledge, print exposure, storybook reading, and general cultural knowledge. Children were tested on measures of letter-word knowledge, sound awareness, receptive vocabulary, oral expression, and mathematical skill. Parent reading-related knowledge showed significant positive links with child letter-word knowledge and sound awareness, but showed no correlations with child measures of mathematical skill or vocabulary. Furthermore, parent reading-related knowledge was not associated with parents' own print exposure or cultural knowledge, indicating that knowledge about English word structure may be separate from other cognitive skills. Implications are discussed in terms of improving parent reading-related knowledge to promote child literacy. PMID:21678121

Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

2011-06-16

92

Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction for Secondary Students. Professional Development Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is designed to provide an overview of vocabulary development and to focus on ways that enhance secondary vocabulary instruction. It includes strategies for teaching vocabulary and for integrating vocabulary into a lesson. It includes specific instructional strategies for teaching vocabulary skills based on the Texas Essential Knowledge

Texas Univ., Austin. Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts.

93

Partial Lexical Knowledge in Tests of Incidental Vocabulary Learning from L2 Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis evaluates the receptive tests of targeted lexical knowledge in the written medium, which are typically used in empirical research into lexical acquisition from reading foreign/second language texts. Apart from the types of second language cues or prompts, and the language of the responses, the main issues revolve around: (a) the…

Bruton, Anthony

2007-01-01

94

Phonological Networks and New Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first report of a connection between vocabulary learning and phonological short-term memory was published in 1988 (Baddeley, Papagno, & Vallar, 1988). At that time, both Susan Gathercole and I were involved in longitudinal studies, investigating the relation between nonword repetition and language learning. We both found a connection. Now,…

Service, Elisabet

2006-01-01

95

Phonological Networks and New Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first report of a connection between vocabulary learning and phonological short-term memory was published in 1988 (Baddeley, Papagno, & Vallar, 1988). At that time, both Susan Gathercole and I were involved in longitudinal studies, investigating the relation between nonword repetition and language learning. We both found a connection. Now,…

Service, Elisabet

2006-01-01

96

Predicting bilingual Spanish-English children's phonological awareness abilities from their preschool English and Spanish oral language  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish–English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children’s 2 years in Head Start for a total of four measurement occasions. Phonological awareness was assessed during the spring of children’s kindergarten year. Results indicated that English receptive vocabulary at the end of preschool predicted English phonological awareness abilities in kindergarten, whereas Spanish vocabulary was observed to have a negative predictive relationship with children’s English phonological awareness abilities. However, after controlling for English vocabulary, Spanish vocabulary no longer had an effect on English phonological awareness. Broad receptive language abilities in English and Spanish did not predict later English phonological awareness skills.

Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.

2012-01-01

97

The State of Vocabulary Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

2011-01-01

98

The State of Vocabulary Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of…

Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

2011-01-01

99

Toward vocabulary control for chief complaint.  

PubMed

The chief complaint (CC) is the data element that documents the patient's reason for visiting the emergency department (ED). The need for a CC vocabulary has been acknowledged at national meetings and in multiple publications, but to our knowledge no groups have specifically focused on the requirements and development plans for a CC vocabulary. The national consensus meeting "Towards Vocabulary Control for Chief Complaint" was convened to identify the potential uses for ED CC and to develop the framework for CC vocabulary control. The 10-point consensus recommendations for action were 1) begin to develop a controlled vocabulary for CC, 2) obtain funding, 3) establish an infrastructure, 4) work with standards organizations, 5) address CC vocabulary characteristics for all user communities, 6) create a collection of CC for research, 7) identify the best candidate vocabulary for ED CCs, 8) conduct vocabulary validation studies, 9) establish beta test sites, and 10) plan publicity and marketing for the vocabulary. PMID:18439204

Haas, Stephanie W; Travers, Debbie; Tintinalli, Judith E; Pollock, Daniel; Waller, Anna; Barthell, Edward; Burt, Catharine; Chapman, Wendy; Coonan, Kevin; Kamens, Donald; McClay, James

2008-05-01

100

A Hybrid Method for Determining Technical Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of technical vocabulary has become increasingly important over the last few decades along with the advances in various subject disciplines. ESP teachers and book authors need to know what words are considered technical vocabulary when creating ESP learning materials. LSP lexicographers need to know how to determine technical vocabulary

Kwary, Deny Arnos

2011-01-01

101

Vocabulary Knowledge Is a Critical Determinant of the Difference in Reading Comprehension Growth between First and Second Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: This study examines the role of decoding and vocabulary skills as longitudinal predictors of reading comprehension in young first (L1) and second (L2) language learners. Methods: Two-group latent growth models were used to assess differences in growth and predictions of growth between the 198 L1 and 90 L2 language learners. Results:…

Lervag, Arne; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover

2010-01-01

102

How word decoding, vocabulary and prior topic knowledge predict reading comprehension. A study of language-minority students in Norwegian fifth grade classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic\\u000a knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock\\u000a Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple\\u000a lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native

Veslemøy Rydland; Vibeke Grøver Aukrust; Helene Fulland

103

Learning Vocabulary Through Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the hypothesis that new vocabulary knowledge can be acquired through incidental learning of word meanings from context. Fifth graders of two reading abilities read passages containing unfamiliar words. Students were randomly assigned to different numbers of context presentations: 0, 2, 6, or 10 passages read over several days. Half of the unfamiliar words were informally taught before

Joseph R Jenkins; Marcy L Stein; Katherine Wysocki

1984-01-01

104

VOCABULARY: NEEDED IF MORE CHILDREN ARE TO READ WELL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary has long been recognized as a strong determinant of reading success. Despite the importance of vocabulary knowledge, very little information is available about effective strategies for vocabulary instruction in elementary grades and there is a paucity of data on the relative merits of the different programs that are designed to promote vocabulary growth in elementary children. Available information indicates

ANDREW BIEMILLER

2003-01-01

105

Vocabulary: Needed If More Children Are To Read Well.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Notes that vocabulary has long been recognized as a strong determinant of reading success. Discusses how children's vocabulary knowledge is largely determined by informal factors, such as parental interaction and other sources, such as the television. Addresses individual differences in vocabulary acquisition; amount of vocabulary needed for…

Biemiller, Andrew

2003-01-01

106

Developing Low-Income Preschoolers’ Social Studies and Science Vocabulary Knowledge Through Content-Focused Shared Book Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of integrating science and social studies vocabulary instruction into shared book reading with low-income preschool children. Twenty-one preschool teachers and 148 children from their classrooms were randomly assigned at the class level to either the Words of Oral Reading and Language Development (WORLD) intervention or a practice-as-usual condition. Children were screened and selected to approximate

Jorge E. Gonzalez; Sharolyn Pollard-Durodola; Deborah C. Simmons; Aaron B. Taylor; Matthew J. Davis; Minjun Kim; Leslie Simmons

2010-01-01

107

Integrating teaching practice with developmental norms: the case of phonological teaching in L2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights the crucial role of phonological instruction in early second language English learning. Although older learners can acquire grammar and vocabulary efficiently, younger learners appear to have a greater facility with the learning of sounds. Thus, it makes good sense to focus on articulatory skills for these early learners. By comparing the developmental norms in phonology between an

Brian MacWhinney

2009-01-01

108

Speed of word recognition and vocabulary knowledge in infancy predict cognitive and language outcomes in later childhood  

PubMed Central

The nature of predictive relations between early language and later cognitive function is a fundamental question in research on human cognition. In a longitudinal study assessing speed of language processing in infancy, Fernald, Perfors and Marchman (2006) found that reaction time at 25 months was strongly related to lexical and grammatical development over the second year. In this follow-up study, children originally tested as infants were assessed at 8 years on standardized tests of language, cognition, and working memory. Speed of spoken word recognition and vocabulary size at 25 months each accounted for unique variance in linguistic and cognitive skills at 8 years, effects that were attributable to strong relations between both infancy measures and working memory. These findings suggest that processing speed and early language skills are fundamental to intellectual functioning, and that language development is guided by learning and representational principles shared across cognitive and linguistic domains.

Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne

2010-01-01

109

What phonological deficit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a series of experiments aimed at understanding the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia. These experiments investigate input and output phonological representations, phonological grammar, foreign speech perception and production, and unconscious speech processing and lexical access. Our results converge on the observation that the phonological representations of people with dyslexia may be intact, and that the

Franck Ramus; Gayaneh Szenkovits

2008-01-01

110

Bidirectional Relations of Phonological Sensitivity and Prereading Abilities: Evidence from a Preschool Sample.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined the relationship between phonological sensitivity and letter knowledge in 4- and 5-year-olds in a one-year longitudinal study. Found that phonological sensitivity predicted letter knowledge growth, and letter knowledge predicted phonological sensitivity growth, when controlling for age and oral language abilities. Also found that the…

Burgess, Stephen R.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

1998-01-01

111

Internal and External Influences on Vocabulary Development in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…

Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther

2013-01-01

112

Internal and External Influences on Vocabulary Development in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…

Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther

2013-01-01

113

Lexical Network Structures and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: The Role of L1 Lexical/Conceptual Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a theoretical account for how learners might draw upon L1 lexical and conceptual knowledge when making assumptions about connections between words in the L2 lexicon. It is suggested that L1 lexical knowledge can be both a help and a hindrance when forming L2 connections, particularly in respect to collocations. Furthermore,…

Wolter, Brent

2006-01-01

114

Effects of a phonological awareness program on English reading and spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL children.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction which consisted of vocabulary learning and writing tasks but no direct instruction in phonological awareness skills. They were tested on receptive and expressive vocabulary, phonological awareness at the syllable, rhyme and phoneme levels, reading, and spelling in English before and after the program implementation. The results indicated that children who received the phonological awareness instruction performed significantly better than the comparison group on English word reading, spelling, phonological awareness at all levels and expressive vocabulary on the posttest when age, general intelligence and the pretest scores were controlled statistically. The findings suggest that phonological awareness instruction embedded in vocabulary learning activities might be beneficial to kindergarteners learning English as a second language. PMID:23626405

Yeung, Susanna S S; Siegel, Linda S; Chan, Carol K K

2013-05-01

115

Relations among language exposure, phonological memory, and language development in Spanish-English bilingually developing 2-year-olds.  

PubMed

The relation of phonological memory to language experience and development was investigated in 41 Spanish-English bilingual first language learners. The children's relative exposure to English and Spanish and their phonological memory for English- and Spanish-like nonwords were assessed at 22 months of age, and their productive vocabulary and grammar in both languages were assessed at 25 months of age. Phonological memory for English-like nonwords was highly correlated with that for Spanish-like nonwords, and each was related to vocabulary and grammar in both languages, suggesting a language-general component to phonological memory skill. In addition, there was evidence of language-specific benefits of language exposure to phonological memory skill and of language-specific benefits of phonological memory skill to language development. PMID:20828710

Parra, Marisol; Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia

2010-09-09

116

Semantic and phonological fluency in children with Down syndrome: Atypical organization of language or less efficient retrieval strategies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the verbal fluency procedure was used to investigate the organization of semantic and phonological representations in children with Down syndrome (DS) and typically developing children, matched pairwise for receptive vocabulary age. Productivity was found to be significantly reduced in the DS group in both the semantic and the phonological tasks. However, group differences in the number of

Hannah M. Nash; Margaret J. Snowling

2008-01-01

117

Relations among Language Exposure, Phonological Memory, and Language Development in Spanish-English Bilingually Developing 2-Year-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relation of phonological memory to language experience and development was investigated in 41 Spanish-English bilingual first language learners. The children's relative exposure to English and Spanish and their phonological memory for English- and Spanish-like nonwords were assessed at 22 months of age, and their productive vocabulary and…

Parra, Marisol; Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia

2011-01-01

118

Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…

Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.

2006-01-01

119

Incidental Acquisition of Vocabulary by Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the impact of reading on vocabulary development with adult ESL students at the National Institute of Technology (Trichirappalli, India). The researcher analyzes the performance of the students who devoted their time to reading, and the students who learned consciously the meaning of words to develop their vocabulary knowledge.…

Ponniah, R. Joseph

2011-01-01

120

Exploring and Developing Consumer Health Vocabularies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Laypersons (‘‘consumers’’) often have difficulty finding, understanding, and acting on health in- formation due to gaps in their domain knowledge. Ideally, consumer health vocabularies (CHVs) would reflect the different ways consumers express and think about health topics, helping to bridge this vocabulary gap. However, despite the recent research on mismatches between consumer and professional language (e.g., lexical, semantic, and

Qing T. Zeng; Tony Tse

121

Promoting Vocabulary Learning for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary knowledge, which is key to the reading comprehension of English learners (ELs), must be a focus for every teacher in today's increasingly diverse schools, including those in the mainstream classroom. This article strives to increase awareness of the five characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction as well as demonstrate how…

Wessels, Stephanie

2011-01-01

122

Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

Schmitt, Norbert

2008-01-01

123

Effects of Morphological Instruction on Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of a 20-session intervention targeting morphological word structure on vocabulary knowledge were investigated in four Grade 4 and 5 classes, assigned randomly to treatment and control conditions. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for initial vocabulary showed significant instructional effects on morphological analysis and…

Bowers, Peter N.; Kirby, John R.

2010-01-01

124

TOAST: A system to study vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a study system designed specifically for studying vocabulary would be more effective than student?selected study methods. A study system was developed that guided students to pretest their knowledge, organize their vocabulary words, anchor them in memory, practice them at prescribed intervals to facilitate retention, and perform an exit test. The acronym

Carol Dana; Margaret Rodriguez

1992-01-01

125

Patterns of Independent Reading, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Literacy Skills among English- Only, Limited-English Proficient, and Fluent-English Proficient Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined independent reading behaviors and contextual factors that contributed to growth in vocabulary and literacy of fourth grade English-only (EO), limited English proficient (LEP), and fluent English proficient (FEP) children. Participants were given pre-post measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary, word reading, decoding,…

Hansen, Laurie E.

2011-01-01

126

Development of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…

Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2012-01-01

127

Measuring and Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Basic Skills Reading Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A vocabulary improvement project, comprised of three components, was initiated at Del Mar College (DMC) in Corpus Christi, Texas, in spring 1991. Component 1 consisted of a baseline study of vocabulary knowledge among students in two levels of remedial reading classes. The test instrument measured content-specific vocabulary in…

Snouffer, Nancy Kendall; And Others

128

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

129

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE VOCABULARY ACQUISITION: IMPLICATIONS FOR CALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarises current cognitive psychological knowledge concerning vocabulary acquisition and discusses implications for the development of effective computer assisted vocabulary acquisition methods. It argues that there are several aspects of vocabulary acquisition which involve qualitatively different learning processes: (1) acquisition of cognitive mechanisms for pattern recognition of written or spoken word forms, as well as of mechanisms for the

Nick C. Ellis

1995-01-01

130

Measuring and Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Basic Skills Reading Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A vocabulary improvement project, comprised of three components, was initiated at Del Mar College (DMC) in Corpus Christi, Texas, in spring 1991. Component 1 consisted of a baseline study of vocabulary knowledge among students in two levels of remedial reading classes. The test instrument measured content-specific vocabulary in English/literature,…

Snouffer, Nancy Kendall; And Others

131

Teaching Vocabulary through Poetry in an EFL Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study has been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using poetry to teach vocabulary in a foreign language classroom. It aims to find answers to two research questions (1) "Do the learners enhance more extensive vocabulary knowledge by means of poetry-based vocabulary teaching activities than the traditional coursebook activities?"…

Ozen, Baki; Mohammadzadeh, Behbood

2012-01-01

132

Investigating the Receptive Vocabulary Size of University-Level Chinese Learners of English: How Suitable Is the Vocabulary Levels Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) is widely used to assess the vocabulary size of second-language learners of English. The test assesses learners' knowledge of words of different frequencies within general English and of high-frequency words within academic texts. We used the VLT to measure the English vocabulary size of Chinese university students…

Li, Lan; MacGregor, Lucy J.

2010-01-01

133

English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

2012-01-01

134

The Rediscovery of Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews four recent books of current research in vocabulary acquisition: "Exploring the Second Language Mental Lexicon," (D. Singleton); "Assessing Vocabulary," (J. Read); "Vocabulary in Language Teaching" (N. Schmitt); "Learning Vocabulary in Another Language" (L.S.P. Nation). (Author/VWL)|

Meara, Paul

2002-01-01

135

Closing the Vocabulary Gap?: A Review of Research on Early Childhood Vocabulary Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our qualitative literature review of 31 published studies found that (a) three major approaches are used in early childhood classrooms to support children's vocabulary learning—exposing children to advanced words, providing direct word-meaning instruction, and employing mixed-method interventions; (b) these practices support children's learning of targeted vocabulary words and\\/or general vocabulary knowledge gains, but various methods have differential impacts on children's

Tanya Christ; X. Christine Wang

2011-01-01

136

Online study of frequency list vocabulary with the WordChamp website  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intentional study of vocabulary is an effective way for learners to increase their vocabulary in the target language. Word frequency lists help learners determine the most useful words to study. In order to systematically study vocabulary, learners may first take a test to determine their vocabulary knowledge, then drill the appropriate words. However, to date, classroom teachers and researchers

John Spiri

137

Early phonological development: creating an assessment test.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills (PEEPS), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation ) differs from currently available assessments in that age of acquisition, based on lexical norms from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Developmental Inventories, served as the primary criterion for creating a word list. Phonetic and semantic properties of the words were also considered in selecting items for the test. Productions of words using the PEEPS protocol have been gathered from a group of children with typical development and another group with cleft lip and/or palate. By 24 months of age, the children with typical development produced more than 90% of the target words and the children with atypical development produced 73% of the words. Regarding administration, the time needed for administering the protocol decreased with age. PMID:23489340

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A Lynn

2013-04-01

138

Name Writing but not Environmental Print Recognition Is Related to Letter-Sound Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Pre-Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports a study exploring the associations between measures of two levels of phonological representation: recognition (epi-linguistic) and production (meta-linguistic) tasks, and very early reading and writing skills. Thirty-eight pre-reading Ottawa-area children, aged 4-5 years, named environmental print (EP), wrote their own name,…

Blair, Rebecca; Savage, Robert

2006-01-01

139

The Effects of Vocabulary Instruction on the Fluency and Comprehension of Fifth-Grade Nonnative English Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A single-subject design of the effects of teaching Tier Two vocabulary on the vocabulary knowledge, comprehension, fluency, and prosody of fifth-grade nonnative English speakers was conducted. Results suggested that vocabulary instruction improved vocabulary knowledge, but further research and study is needed to determine ways to improve fluency,…

Lia, Michelle P.

2010-01-01

140

Contributions of Morphology Beyond Phonology to Literacy Outcomes of Upper Elementary and Middle-School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using structural equation modeling the authors evaluated the contribution of morphological awareness, phonological memory, and phonological decoding to reading comprehension, reading vocabulary, spelling, and accuracy and rate of decoding morphologically complex words for 182 4th- and 5th-grade students, 218 6th- and 7th-grade students, and 207 8th- and 9th-grade students in a suburban school district. Morphological awareness made a significant unique

William Nagy; Virginia W. Berninger; Robert D. Abbott

2006-01-01

141

Vocabulary learning in primary school children: Working memory and long-term memory components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to investigate which working memory and long-term memory components predict vocabulary learning. We used a nonword learning paradigm in which 8- to 10-year-olds learned picture–nonword pairs. The nonwords varied in length (two vs. four syllables) and phonology (native sounding vs. including one Russian phoneme). Short, phonologically native nonwords were learned best, whereas learning long

Sergio Morra; Roberta Camba

2009-01-01

142

Compadre Educational Subject Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ComPADRE has developed a fixed vocabulary for educational content in collaboration with PER-CENTRAL and ENC. The vocabulary is broken into two main categories, pure research and applied research and resources. Comments and suggestions are requested.

Mason, Bruce

2005-12-29

143

Mapping Entry Vocabulary to Unfamiliar Metadata Vocabularies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on work at the University of California, Berkeley, on the design and development of English-language indices to metadata vocabularies. Discusses the significance of unfamiliar metadata and describes the Entry Vocabulary Module which helps searchers to be more effective and increases the return on the original investment in generating…

Buckland, Michael; Chen, Aitao; Chen, Hui-Min; Kim, Youngin; Lam, Byron; Larson, Ray; Norgard, Barbara; Purat, Jacek; Gey, Frederic

1999-01-01

144

Changing Relations Between Phonological Processing Abilities and Word-Level Reading as Children Develop From Beginning to Skilled Readers: A 5Year Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between phonological processing abilities and word-level reading skills were examined in a longitudinal correlational study of 216 children. Phonological processing abilities, word-level reading skills, and vocabulary were assessed annually from kindergarten through 4th grade, as the children developed from beginning to skilled readers. Individual differences in phonological awareness were related to subsequent individual differences in word-level reading for every

Richard K. Wagner; Joseph K. Torgesen; Carol A. Rashotte; Steve A. Hecht; Theodore A. Barker; Stephen R. Burgess; John Donahue; Tamara Garon

1997-01-01

145

Changing relations between phonological processing abilities and word-level reading as children develop from beginning to skilled readers: A 5-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between phonological processing abilities and word-level reading skills were examined in a longitudinal correlational study of 216 children. Phonological processing abilities, word-level reading skills, and vocabulary were assessed annually from kindergarten through 4th grade, as the children developed from beginning to skilled readers. Individual differences in phonological aware- ness were related to subsequent individual differences in word-level reading for

Richard K. Wagner; Joseph K. Torgesen; Carol A. Rashotte; Steve A. Hecht

1997-01-01

146

The evolution of vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human language is unique among the communication systems of the natural world. The vocabulary of human language is unique in being both culturally transmitted and symbolic. In this paper I present an investigation into the factors involved in the evolution of such vocabulary systems. I investigate both the cultural evolution of vocabulary systems and the biological evolution of learning rules

Kenny Smith

2004-01-01

147

THE EFFECTS OF VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT ON TEXT COMPREHENSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported in this paper adopts three strategies- knowledge and use of context clues, doing structural analysis and making associations- to help ESL learners improve their vocabulary knowledge and hence their text comprehension. Forty-six secondary school ESL students participated in the study. The treatment took the form of explicit strategy instruction to acquire word meaning of selected vocabulary items

Wong Bee Eng; Mardziah Hayati Abdullah

148

Number-Concept Acquisition and General Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et…

Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

2012-01-01

149

Japanese Vocabulary Acquisition by Learners in Three Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an investigation of the development of vocabulary knowledge during study abroad (SA), intensive domestic immersion (IM) and academic-year formal classroom (AY) learning. Its focus was the growth of vocabulary knowledge in Japanese--a language where little SA research has been conducted to date. Unlike most studies addressing…

Dewey, Dan P.

2008-01-01

150

It Is More than Knowledge Seeking: Examining the Effects of OpenCourseWare Lectures on Vocabulary Acquisition in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|OpenCourseWare (OCW) has received increasing attention over the past few years in higher education. These courses provide appealing opportunities to view classes taught in well-established universities worldwide. The current study aims to examine how OCW lectures can serve as authentic learning materials to facilitate vocabulary acquisition for…

Yang, Hui-Chi; Sun, Yu-Chih

2013-01-01

151

Relationships of General Vocabulary, Science Vocabulary, and Student Questioning with Science Comprehension in Students with Varying Levels of English Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the influence of general vocabulary knowledge, science vocabulary knowledge, and text based questioning on the science reading comprehension of three types of students who varied in their English language proficiency. Specifically, grade 5 English-Only speakers, English Language Learners in the United States, and students…

Taboada, Ana

2012-01-01

152

THE EFFECTS OF CALL PROGRAM ON EXPANDING LEXICAL KNOWLEDGE OF EFL IRANIAN INTERMEDIATE LEARNERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foreign language learning is a challenging task, involving mastering a new sound system, phonological and syntactical forms, vocabulary, and sometimes a new writing system. For the adult second language learner, one of the most frustrating aspects is having an inadequate vocabulary for expressing complex ideas that are so easy to relate in one's native tongue. The acquiring of new vocabulary

Zargham Ghabanchi; Mojgan Anbarestani

2008-01-01

153

Recursive Patterns in Phonological Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate an instance of phonological recursion, more specifically we investigate iterative rule application in phonological phrases. The question is whether or not edge-marking processes, such as early pitch accent placement, can be applied recursively to phonological phrases that are embedded in larger phonological phrases. 1. Overview

Maartje Schreuder; Dicky Gilbers

154

What effects do text-based tasks promoting generation have on incidental vocabulary acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large proportion of vocabulary is acquired incidentally from written contexts However, in text-based studies promoting generaUve processing, it is not dear if, or to what extent, generation influences incidental vocabulary learning This study examined the effects of text-based tasks and background knowledge (pnor vocabulary knowledge and a disposiuon to use generative learning tactics when tackling new vocabulary) on incidental

ANGELA JOE

1998-01-01

155

It is more than knowledge seeking: examining the effects of OpenCourseWare lectures on vocabulary acquisition in English as a foreign language (EFL) context  

Microsoft Academic Search

OpenCourseWare (OCW) has received increasing attention over the past few years in higher education. These courses provide appealing opportunities to view classes taught in well-established universities worldwide. The current study aims to examine how OCW lectures can serve as authentic learning materials to facilitate vocabulary acquisition for learners learning English as a foreign language (EFL). It further investigates factors that

Hui-Chi Yang; Yu-Chih Sun

2011-01-01

156

The contribution of phonological short-term memory to artificial grammar learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments investigated the contribution of phonological short-term memory (STM) to grammar learning by manipulating rehearsal during study of an auditory artificial grammar made up from a vocabulary of spoken Mandarin syllables. Experiment 1 showed that concurrent, irrelevant articulation impaired grammar learning compared with a nonverbal control task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding, showing that repeating the grammatical

Jackie Andrade; Alan Baddeley

2011-01-01

157

Very Early Phonological and Language Skills: Estimating Individual Risk of Reading Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Analyses from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia project show that the key childhood predictors (phonological awareness, short-term memory, rapid naming, expressive vocabulary, pseudoword repetition, and letter naming) of dyslexia differentiate the group with reading disability (n = 46) and the group without reading problems…

Puolakanaho, Anne; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Eklund, Kenneth; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Tolvanen, Asko; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki

2007-01-01

158

Evidence for Preserved Novel Word Learning in Down Syndrome Suggests Multiple Routes to Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to…

Mosse, Emma K.; Jarrold, Christopher

2011-01-01

159

Manipulating Word Properties: Targeting Vocabulary Learning for Children with and without Speech Sound Inaccuracies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the relations between speech sound accuracy, vocabulary, and phonological awareness, and (2) to examine the effect of word properties of neighborhood density and phonotactic probability on word learning within a storybook context, for children with and without speech sound inaccuracies. Fifty…

McDowell, Kimberly D.; Carroll, Jeri

2012-01-01

160

Interactive Frames for Vocabulary Growth and Word Consciousness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Limited vocabulary knowledge has been cited as a key factor in the literacy achievement gap, particularly for students with learning disabilities, students of color, and English-language learners. Recent authorities have recommended multipronged approaches to assist vocabulary growth in classrooms. In addition, authorities have called for…

Winters, Rod

2009-01-01

161

Viewpoint Paper: Exploring and Developing Consumer Health Vocabularies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laypersons (“consumers”) often have difficulty finding, understanding, and acting on health information due to gaps in their domain knowledge. Ideally, consumer health vocabularies (CHVs) would reflect the different ways consumers express and think about health topics, helping to bridge this vocabulary gap. However, despite the recent research on mismatches between consumer and professional language (e.g., lexical, semantic, and explanatory), there

Qing T. Zeng; Tony Tse

2006-01-01

162

Beyond raw frequency: Incidental vocabulary acquisition in extensive reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second language vocabulary can be learned incidentally while the learner is engaged in extensive reading or reading for meaning, inferring the meaning of unknown words (Huckin & Coady, 1999; Hulstijn, 1992; Krashen, 1993; Pigada & Schmitt, 2006). 12 Korean learners of English read authentic literary texts and were tested on their knowledge of vocabulary before reading (pretest), immediately after reading

Soo-Ok Kweon; Hae-Ri Kim

2008-01-01

163

Books, Not Direct Instruction, Are the Key to Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When a child has an extensive knowledge of vocabulary, it is most likely from extensive reading, regardless of whether the reading is from comic books, magazines, or a recommended reading literature list. Teachers who are always trying to find the best strategies for teaching literacy skills such as reading comprehension, vocabulary development,…

Shin, Fay

2004-01-01

164

Vocabulary Strategies that Work: Do This-Not that!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Update your vocabulary practices to meet the Common Core and improve students' word knowledge! This new, clearly-structured guide shows you how. It's packed with engaging, research-based, classroom-ready strategies for teaching vocabulary. Topics include: (1) Selecting meaningful words for direct instruction; (2) Strategies for engaging students…

Wilfong, Lori

2013-01-01

165

Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. The Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collection of essays on second language vocabulary learning includes: "Historical Trends in Second Language Vocabulary Instruction" (Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman); "The Lexical Plight in Second Language Reading: Words You Don't Know, Words You Think You Know, and Words You Can't Guess" (Batia Laufer); "Orthographic Knowledge in L2 Lexical Processing:…

Coady, James, Ed.; Huckin, Thomas, Ed.

166

Math Vocabulary Bingo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides students an opportunity to assess their understanding of mathematical vocabulary as they relate to key concepts from the five content areas. Through the use of a familiar game format, Bingo, students will identify numbers 0-75 that correspond to mathematical descriptions from math vocabulary clue cards.

Nctm

2010-06-03

167

Vocabularies in the VO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

2009-09-01

168

Invited Commentary: Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While formal research into the effect various technologies have on vocabulary acquisition is still in its infancy, it is clear that--intentionally or incidentally--students have used various electronic media to learn new words for some time now. Moreover, although it is still far from clear exactly how one acquires vocabulary in a second language…

Martinez, Ron; Schmitt, Norbert

2010-01-01

169

VISUAL VOCABULARY IN BRANDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual vocabulary or visual language is a set of symbols used to describe a system or a process; it refers to all graphical representations that supplement a brand image, a logo, and build a brand identity that is bound to remain invariable even when the sign undergoes fundamental changes. The article is a presentation of the concept of visual vocabulary\\/language

Adriana Vintean; Ovidiu Matiu

2011-01-01

170

Building Mathematics Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

Kovarik, Madeline

2010-01-01

171

Vocabulary Integration Environment: VINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interoperability between distributed information systems requires an agreement of metadata standards, protocols, interfaces and controlled vocabularies. Such an agreement is often pursued by adopting standards published by organizations such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC); however, controlled vocabularies are domain specific, and semantic conflicts within information communities are found when extracting metadata. For

Luis E. Bermudez

172

Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

Surajlal, K. C.

1986-01-01

173

tagging, communities, vocabulary, evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tagging community's vocabulary of tags forms the basis for social navigation and shared expression. We present a user-centric model of vocabulary evolution in tagging com- munities based on community influence and personal ten- dency. We evaluate our model in an emergent tagging sys- tem by introducing tagging features into the MovieLens rec- ommender system. We explore four tag selection

Shilad Sen; Shyong K. Lam; Al Mamunur Rashid; Dan Cosley; Dan Frankowski; Jeremy Osterhouse; F. Maxwell Harper; John Riedl

2006-01-01

174

The Superlearning of Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of Georgi Lozanov's technique using rhythm, breathing, music, and meditation to bring about hypermnesia, or supermemory, to teach vocabulary to 15 university students. Reviews students' vocabulary gains, as seen in pre- and post-test scores, and describes how some students implemented superlearning techniques with their own…

Fillmer, H. Thompson

1983-01-01

175

Phonological awareness of Cantonese-speaking pre-school children with cochlear implants.  

PubMed

The study investigated the phonological awareness abilities of Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. Participants were 15 Cantonese-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) aged 3.08-6.10, chronological-age-matched with 15 children with normal hearing. Each participant performed 10 tasks evaluating different levels of phonological awareness abilities and phonological knowledge. The results showed that pre-schoolers with cochlear implants and their normal hearing peers had similar levels of syllable awareness, phoneme awareness and rhyme awareness. However, cochlear implant users showed significantly poorer performance on tone awareness and phonological knowledge tasks than their normal hearing peers. Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants were able to develop phonological awareness. However, the cochlear implants might not provide enough tonal information for children with hearing impairment for tonal lexical comprehension. Incomplete speech and language stimulation may affect phonological knowledge development in Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. PMID:22257071

Tse, Wing Ting; So, Lydia K H

2012-02-01

176

Phonological memory and vocabulary learning in children with focal lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven children with early focal lesions were compared with 70 age-matched controls to assess their performance in repeating non-words, in learning new words, and in immediate serial recall, a triad of abilities that are believed to share a dependence on serial ordering mechanisms (e.g., Baddeley, Gathercole, & Papagno, 1998; Gupta, in press-a). Results for the experimental group were also compared

Prahlad Gupta; Brian MacWhinney; Heidi M. Feldman; Kelley Saccob

2003-01-01

177

The Role of Home Literacy and Language Environment on Bilinguals' English and Spanish Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For the monolingual population, research has shown that vocabulary knowledge is closely related to reading achievement. However, the role of vocabulary has not been studied as extensively in the bilingual population. It is important to look at vocabulary to better understand reading achievement in the bilingual population in the United States.…

Duursma, Elisabeth; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Szuber, Anna; Proctor, Patrick; Snow, Catherine; August, Diane; Calderon, Margarita

2007-01-01

178

Successful Learning of Frequent Vocabulary through CALL also Benefits Reading Comprehension and Speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of direct vocabulary learning using Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on vocabulary knowledge, reading comprehension, and speed of word recognition. It found that students who used Tutorial CALL to learn highly frequent vocabulary did learn a significantly larger number of words than those in a control group. They decreased their reaction time for frequent word

Anjel Tozcu; James Coady

2004-01-01

179

Research on Vocabulary Instruction in the Content Areas: Implications for Struggling Readers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of current knowledge about vocabulary teaching and learning—understandings that influence learning across different disciplines. Research on the teaching and learning of vocabulary in particular subject matter areas, including mathematics, social studies, and science, is discussed. Based upon the instructional implications evident in this body of work, this article also offers suggestions for providing effective vocabulary

Janis M. Harmon; Wanda B. Hedrick; Karen D. Wood

2005-01-01

180

Direct Teaching of Vocabulary after Reading: Is It Worth the Effort?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of direct teaching of new vocabulary items in reading passages. The study compared vocabulary learning under a reading only condition (incidental learning) to learning that is aided by direct communication of word meanings (explicit learning). Three levels of vocabulary knowledge (form recall,…

Sonbul, Suhad; Schmitt, Norbert

2010-01-01

181

eVoc Strategies: 10 Ways to Use Technology to Build Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary knowledge is key to comprehension and expression. For students in the intermediate grades, the need for breadth and depth of vocabulary accelerates as they encounter more challenging academic texts in print and on the Internet. Drawing on research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning, this article presents…

Dalton, Bridget; Grisham, Dana L.

2011-01-01

182

Bridging the Gap between Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Size through Extensive Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that extensive reading promotes the incidental learning of L1 and L2 receptive vocabulary; however, little is known about its effectiveness on productive gains in vocabulary knowledge. This paper investigates the extent to which extensive reading combined with writing tasks promotes productive vocabulary growth of Japanese…

Yamamoto, Yuka

2011-01-01

183

eVoc Strategies: 10 Ways to Use Technology to Build Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is key to comprehension and expression. For students in the intermediate grades, the need for breadth and depth of vocabulary accelerates as they encounter more challenging academic texts in print and on the Internet. Drawing on research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning, this article presents…

Dalton, Bridget; Grisham, Dana L.

2011-01-01

184

Reading with partial phonology: Developmental phonological dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent psycholinguistic investigations have advanced our understanding of the acquired dyslexias. Developmental analogues have been described to some of these disorders. A new case of developmental phonological dyslexia is described here. A.H. is an intelligent 10-year-old boy with no neurological abnormality. Reading and spelling are below age level. A.H. is poorer at reading words than nonwords. The majority of his

Christine M. Temple

1985-01-01

185

Teaching Difficult Vocabulary in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of the relationship of vocabulary to reading comprehension focuses on the instruction of difficult vocabulary to learners of English as a Second Language. The historical background of vocabulary instruction is chronicled and the importance of reading and vocabulary learning to each other is examined. Various kinds of difficult…

Washburn, Jonathan Walter

186

The Structure of Phonological Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…

Samuels, Bridget D.

2009-01-01

187

The Structure of Phonological Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al.…

Samuels, Bridget D.

2009-01-01

188

Developing Science Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This wiki page explores best practices in vocabulary development for middle school science teachers. Science, like other disciplines, has a specialized vocabulary, encompassing both terms that represent scientific concepts and those that describe process skills. Although science education focuses on inquiry and hands-on experiences, current research shows that teachers must also help students develop vocabulary to be successful in both the content and methods of science.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-07-01

189

The Influence of Speech Perception, Oral Language Ability, the Home Literacy Environment, and Pre-Reading Knowledge on the Growth of Phonological Sensitivity: A One-Year Longitudinal Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the influences of speech perception, oral language ability, emergent literacy, and the home literacy environment on the growth of phonological sensitivity. Finds, overall, the combination of predictors explained a significant proportion of the variance in phonological sensitivity and its growth. Discusses results in terms of their…

Burgess, Stephen R.

2002-01-01

190

The influence of speech perception, oral language ability, the home literacy environment, and pre-reading knowledge on the growth of phonological sensitivity: A one-year longitudinal investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in phonologicalsensitivity are among the most powerfulpredictors of early word decoding ability and adeficit in phonological sensitivity is thoughtto be the primary stumbling block for thosechildren who have difficulty learning to read. However, only recently have researchers begunto search for the potential causes andcorrelates in phonological sensitivitydevelopment. In the present one-yearlongitudinal study, the influences of speechperception, oral language

Stephen R. Burgess

2002-01-01

191

Flooding Vocabulary Gaps to Accelerate Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students entering school with limited vocabularies are at a disadvantage compared to classmates with robust knowledge of words and meanings. Teaching a few unrelated words at a time is insufficient for catching these students up with peers and preparing them to comprehend texts they will encounter across the grades. This article presents…

Brabham, Edna; Buskist, Connie; Henderson, Shannon Coman; Paleologos, Timon; Baugh, Nikki

2012-01-01

192

The Importance of Vocabulary for Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A major component of literacy is "vocabulary," or the words employed by a language or in a field of knowledge. Understanding novel words and concepts is important for young students as they are confronted with a great deal of new terminology in the passages they read, especially in content areas such as science. Science is a discipline that…

Cohen, Marisa T.

2012-01-01

193

Contextual vocabulary acquisition: from algorithm to curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing algorithms for computational contextual vocabulary acquisition (CVA; computing a meaning for an unknown word from context) and applying the computational CVA system to build an educational curriculum for enhancing students' abilities to use CVA strategies in their reading. The knowledge gained from case studies of students using our CVA techniques feeds back into further development of our

William J. Rapaport; Michael W. Kibby

2003-01-01

194

Phonological processing is uniquely associated with neuro-metabolic concentration.  

PubMed

Reading is a complex process involving recruitment and coordination of a distributed network of brain regions. The present study sought to establish a methodologically sound evidentiary base relating specific reading and phonological skills to neuro-metabolic concentration. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed to measure metabolite concentration in a left hemisphere region around the angular gyrus for 31 young adults with a range of reading and phonological abilities. Correlation data demonstrated a significant negative association between phonological decoding and normalized choline concentration and as well as a trend toward a significant negative association between sight word reading and normalized choline concentration, indicating that lower scores on these measures are associated with higher concentrations of choline. Regression analyses indicated that choline concentration accounted for a unique proportion of variance in the phonological decoding measure after accounting for age, cognitive ability and sight word reading skill. This pattern of results suggests some specificity for the negative relationship between choline concentration and phonological decoding. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence that choline concentration in the angular region may be related to phonological skills independently of other reading skills, general cognitive ability, and age. These results may have important implications for the study and treatment of reading disability, a disorder which has been related to deficits in phonological decoding and abnormalities in the angular gyrus. PMID:23147236

Bruno, Jennifer Lynn; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Manis, Franklin R

2012-11-10

195

Playing Games: Vocabulary Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finding ways to keep students active and engaged in the classroom is not easy. Introducing a game like Vocabulary Survival in which students are allowed to compete while also learning moral concepts can create a fun and successful learning environment.

Dea, Sara

2011-02-01

196

Geospatial Revolution: GIS Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive based on Penn State Public Broadcasting’s Geospatial Revolution project, learn vocabulary that has developed with the growth of GIS, watch relevant videos and check your understanding of those words using the embedded assessment.

Wpsu

2010-10-12

197

Effects of lexical intervention on the phonology of late talkers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether a focused stimulation intervention focusing on lexical training has indirect, secondary effects on children's phonological abilities. Twenty-five toddlers with expressive vocabulary delays and their mothers were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The children were between 23 and 33 months of age at entry into the study and were at the single-word stage of language development. Parents of late talkers in the experimental group were trained to employ frequent, highly concentrated presentations of target words without requiring responses. Two measures of phonological diversity (i.e., syllable structure level and consonant inventory) and one measure of accuracy of production (i.e., percent consonants correct) were measured prior to and following intervention within the context of mother-child interactions. The toddlers who received intervention made treatment gains in two areas of phonological ability. They used a greater variety of complex syllable shapes and expanded their speech sound inventories to include more consonant sounds in both initial and final position. In contrast, there were no effects of language treatment on the accuracy of correct production when compared to the adult phonological system. PMID:9130202

Girolametto, L; Pearce, P S; Weitzman, E

1997-04-01

198

Sounds, Letters and Meanings: The Independent Influences of Phonological, Morphological and Orthographic Skills on Early Word Reading Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to examine the independent contributions of phonological awareness, orthographic processing and morphological awareness on early word reading. English-speaking children in Grades 1 and 3 completed measures of these three constructs, as well as standardised measures of real and pseudoword reading and of vocabulary. Each of…

Deacon, S. Helene

2012-01-01

199

The Importance of Phonological Awareness for the Development of Early English Reading Skills among Bilingual Singaporean Kindergartners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and English word-level reading among a multilingual sample, a random sample of 297 Singaporean kindergartners, stratified by ethnicity (169 Chinese, 65 Malay, and 63 Indian), were tested on their PA, receptive vocabulary, and word-level reading skills. Singaporean kindergartners are…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2010-01-01

200

A Phonological Rules System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A phonological rules system has been implemented as a language extension of SDC INFIX LISP. The system can be used in two modes: as an interactive rule tester, and as a library of functions with other LISP programs. The key language capabilities are: defi...

J. A. Barnett

1975-01-01

201

Learning new vocabulary during childhood: Effects of semantic training on lexical consolidation and integration.  

PubMed

Research suggests that word learning is an extended process, with offline consolidation crucial for the strengthening of new lexical representations and their integration with existing lexical knowledge (as measured by engagement in lexical competition). This supports a dual memory systems account, in which new information is initially sparsely encoded separately from existing knowledge and integrated with long-term memory over time. However, previous studies of this type exploited unnatural learning contexts, involving fictitious words in the absence of word meaning. In this study, 5- to 9-year-old children learned real science words (e.g., hippocampus) with or without semantic information. Children in both groups were slower to detect pauses in familiar competitor words (e.g., hippopotamus) relative to control words 24h after training but not immediately, confirming that offline consolidation is required before new words are integrated with the lexicon and engage in lexical competition. Children recalled more new words 24h after training than immediately (with similar improvements shown for the recall and recognition of new word meanings); however, children who were exposed to the meanings during training showed further improvements in recall after 1week and outperformed children who were not exposed to meanings. These findings support the dual memory systems account of vocabulary acquisition and suggest that the association of a new phonological form with semantic information is critical for the development of stable lexical representations. PMID:23981272

Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Gaskell, Gareth

2013-08-24

202

The Effect of Keeping Vocabulary Notebooks on Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary notebooks are frequently advocated as a way for students to take control of their vocabulary learning (Fowle, 2002), with the added benefit of improvements in vocabulary learning (Schmitt and Schmitt, 1995; Laufer and Nation, 1999). The study described in this article attempts to lend empirical support to these claims, by investigating…

Walters, JoDee; Bozkurt, Neval

2009-01-01

203

Phonological Awareness: From Research to Practice. Challenges in Language and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unique resource provides a comprehensive review of current knowledge about phonological awareness, together with practical guidance for helping preschoolers to adolescents acquire needed skills. Up-to-date findings are synthesized on the development of phonological awareness; its role in literacy learning; and how it can be enhanced in…

Gillon, Gail T.

2007-01-01

204

The tug of war between phonological, semantic and shape information in language-mediated visual search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments 1 and 2 examined the time-course of retrieval of phonological, visual-shape and semantic knowledge as Dutch participants listened to sentences and looked at displays of four pictures. Given a sentence with beker, ‘beaker’, for example, the display contained phonological (a beaver, bever), shape (a bobbin, klos), and semantic (a fork, vork) competitors. When the display appeared at sentence onset,

Falk Huettig; James M. McQueen

2007-01-01

205

Reducing Solid Waste: Reusable Vocabulary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Recycling:  Separating, collecting, processing, marketing, and ultimately using a material that would have been thrown away.   From Reducing Solid Waste: Reusable Vocabulary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing (Marketing vocabulary)

2010-07-08

206

Effect size in clinical phonology  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and evaluation of generalization learning, both of which are key to experimental studies in clinical phonology.

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

207

Conceptually based vocabulary intervention: second graders' development of vocabulary words.  

PubMed

An instructional strategy was investigated that addressed the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students through a conceptually based sign language vocabulary intervention. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used to determine the effects of the vocabulary intervention on word recognition, production, and comprehension. Six students took part in the 30-minute intervention over 6-8 weeks, learning 12 new vocabulary words each week by means of the three intervention components: (a) word introduction, (b) word activity (semantic mapping), and (c) practice. Results indicated that the vocabulary intervention successfully improved all students' recognition, production, and comprehension of the vocabulary words and phrases. PMID:21305978

Dimling, Lisa M

2010-01-01

208

The Role of Home and School Factors in Predicting English Vocabulary among Bilingual Kindergarten Children in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in monolingual populations indicate that vocabulary knowledge is essential to reading achievement, but how vocabulary develops in bilingual children has been understudied. The current study investigated the role of home and school factors in predicting English vocabulary among 284 bilingual kindergartners (168 Chinese, 65 Malay, 51…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2011-01-01

209

The Role of Home and School Factors in Predicting English Vocabulary among Bilingual Kindergarten Children in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research in monolingual populations indicate that vocabulary knowledge is essential to reading achievement, but how vocabulary develops in bilingual children has been understudied. The current study investigated the role of home and school factors in predicting English vocabulary among 284 bilingual kindergartners (168 Chinese, 65 Malay, 51…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2011-01-01

210

Supporting Math Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Providing appropriate language support is important for all students and essential to the success of English Language Learners (ELLs), struggling readers, and students with learning disabilities. In a mathematics classroom, the support includes the ongoing development of everyday vocabulary--such as names of fruit and actions such as…

Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.; Livers, Stefanie

2009-01-01

211

Nasa Thesaurus Aeronautics Vocabulary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the...

1991-01-01

212

The Electric Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

Sheils, James

2012-01-01

213

"Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…

Voorhees, Roxy

214

Vocabulary at the Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

2009-01-01

215

Reexamining the Vocabulary Spurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors asked whether there is evidence to support the existence of the vocabulary spurt, an increase in the rate of word learning that is thought to occur during the 2nd year of life. Using longitudinal data from 38 children, they modeled the rate of word learning with two functions, one with an inflection point (logistic), which would indicate a

Jennifer Ganger; Michael R. Brent

2004-01-01

216

Vocabulary at the Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

2009-01-01

217

The role of compound awareness in Chinese children’s vocabulary acquisition and character reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined compound awareness in relation to Chinese children's vocabulary acquisition and character reading. Two\\u000a aspects of compound awareness were investigated: the ability to identify the head of a compound noun and the ability to construct\\u000a a new compound word from familiar morphemes. The compound awareness tasks, along with rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonological\\u000a awareness tasks, were administered

Xi Chen; Meiling Hao; Esther Geva; Jin Zhu; Hua Shu

2009-01-01

218

Effect Size in Clinical Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2011-01-01

219

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

220

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

221

Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.

2009-01-01

222

The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill  

PubMed Central

Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words—some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (SES, parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n=62), and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness, and may help identify children at risk for starting behind.

Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2011-01-01

223

Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number…

Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

2012-01-01

224

Phonological Awareness Predicts Activation Patterns for Print and Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using fMRI, we explored the relationship between phonological awareness (PA), a measure of metaphonological knowledge of the segmental structure of speech, and brain activation patterns during processing of print and speech in young readers from 6 to 10 years of age. Behavioral measures of PA were positively correlated with activation levels for…

Frost, Stephen J.; Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Fulbright, Robert K.; Tejada, Eleanor T.; Jacobsen, Leslie; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Pugh, Kenneth R.

2009-01-01

225

The SUMMIT speech recognition system: phonological modelling and lexical access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phonological modeling and lexical access components of the SUMMIT speech recognition system are described in detail. SUMMIT makes explicit use of acoustic-phonetic knowledge, embedded in a segmental framework that can be trained automatically. Performance results for the complete system on the DARPA 1000-word Naval Resource Management task are presented

Victor Zue; James Glass; David Goodine; Michael Phillips; Stephanie Seneff

1990-01-01

226

Phonological Awareness Predicts Activation Patterns for Print and Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using fMRI, we explored the relationship between phonological awareness (PA), a measure of metaphonological knowledge of the segmental structure of speech, and brain activation patterns during processing of print and speech in young readers from 6 to 10 years of age. Behavioral measures of PA were positively correlated with activation levels for…

Frost, Stephen J.; Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Fulbright, Robert K.; Tejada, Eleanor T.; Jacobsen, Leslie; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Pugh, Kenneth R.

2009-01-01

227

Phonological Processing, Language, and Literacy: A Comparison of Children with Mild-to-moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Those with Specific Language Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological skills, language ability, and literacy scores were compared for four groups: 19 children with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss (SNH), 20 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 20 controls matched on chronological age to the SNH group (CA), and 15 controls matched on receptive vocabulary level to a subset of the SLI group (CB). In common with the SLI group,

Josie Briscoe; Dorothy V. M. Bishop; Courtenay Frazier Norbury

2001-01-01

228

Divergence of verbal expression and embodied knowledge: Evidence from speech and gesture in children with speciéc language impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that phonological working memory serves to link speech comprehension to production. We suggest further that impairments in phonological working memory may inèuence the way in which children represent and express their knowledge about the world around them. In particular, children with severe phonological working memory deécits may have diféculty retaining stable representations of phonological forms, which

Julia L. Evans; Martha W. Alibali; Nicole M. McNeil

2001-01-01

229

The relationship between vocabulary and short-term memory measures in monolingual and bilingual speakers  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may influence the efficiency of lexical access in adults. The goals of this research were (1) to compare bilingual and monolingual adults on their native-language vocabulary performance, and (2) to examine the relationship between short-term memory skills and vocabulary performance in monolinguals and bilinguals. In Experiment 1, English-speaking monolingual adults and simultaneous English–Spanish bilingual adults were administered measures of receptive English vocabulary and of phonological short-term memory. In Experiment 2, monolingual adults were compared to sequential English–Spanish bilinguals, and were administered the same measures as in Experiment 1, as well as a measure of expressive English vocabulary. Analyses revealed comparable levels of performance on the vocabulary and the short-term memory measures in the monolingual and the bilingual groups across both experiments. There was a stronger effect of digit-span in the bilingual group than in the monolingual group, with high-span bilinguals outperforming low-span bilinguals on vocabulary measures. Findings indicate that bilingual speakers may rely on short-term memory resources to support word retrieval in their native language more than monolingual speakers.

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

2012-01-01

230

The effect of different types of hypertext annotations on vocabulary recall, text comprehension, and knowledge transfer in learning from scientific texts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The instructional uses of hypertext and multimedia are widespread but there are still many questions about how to maximize learning from these technologies. The purpose of this research was to determine whether providing learners with a basic science text in addition to hypertext annotations, designed to support the cognitive processes of selection, organization, and integration (Mayer, 1997), would result in different types of learning. Learning was measured using instruments designed to measure learning corresponding to each of the three processes. For the purposes of this study, selection-level learning was defined analogous to Bloom's (Bloom, 1956) knowledge level of learning and was measured with a recognition test. Organization-level learning was defined analogous to Bloom's (1956) comprehension-level of learning and was measured with a short-answer recall test. Integration-level learning was defined analogous to Bloom's (1956) levels of analysis and synthesis and was measured with a transfer test. In experiment one, participants read a text describing how cell phones work and viewed either no annotations (control), or annotations designed to support the selection, organization, or integration of information. As predicted, participants who viewed the selection-level annotations did significantly better than control participants on the recognition test. Results indicate that, for this group of novice learners, lower-level annotations were the most helpful for all levels of learning. In experiment two, participants read the text and viewed either no annotations (control) or combinations of annotations including selection and organization, organization and integration, or selection and integration. No significant differences were found between groups in these experiments. The results are discussed in terms of both multimedia learning theory and text comprehension theory and a new visualization of the generative theory of multimedia learning is offered.

Wallen, Erik Stanley

231

Long-term phonological learning begins at the level of word form.  

PubMed

Incidental learning of phonological structures through repeated exposure is an important component of native and foreign-language vocabulary acquisition that is not well understood at the neurophysiological level. It is also not settled when this type of learning occurs at the level of word forms as opposed to phoneme sequences. Here, participants listened to and repeated back foreign phonological forms (Korean words) and new native-language word forms (Finnish pseudowords) on two days. Recognition performance was improved, repetition latency became shorter and repetition accuracy increased when phonological forms were encountered multiple times. Cortical magnetoencephalography responses occurred bilaterally but the experimental effects only in the left hemisphere. Superior temporal activity at 300-600 ms, probably reflecting acoustic-phonetic processing, lasted longer for foreign phonology than for native phonology. Formation of longer-term auditory-motor representations was evidenced by a decrease of a spatiotemporally separate left temporal response and correlated increase of left frontal activity at 600-1200 ms on both days. The results point to item-level learning of novel whole-word representations. PMID:22836182

Nora, Anni; Hultén, Annika; Karvonen, Leena; Kim, Jeong-Young; Lehtonen, Minna; Yli-Kaitala, Hely; Service, Elisabet; Salmelin, Riitta

2012-07-23

232

Vocabulary and Environment Adaptation in Vocabulary-Independent Speech Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we are looking into the adaptation issues of vocabulary-independent (VI) systems. Just as with speaker-adaptation in speaker-independent system, two vocabulary adaptation algorithms are implemented in order to tailor the VI subword models t...

H. Hon K. Lee

1992-01-01

233

Conceptually Based Vocabulary Intervention: Second Graders' Development of Vocabulary Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An instructional strategy was investigated that addressed the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students through a conceptually based sign language vocabulary intervention. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used to determine the effects of the vocabulary intervention on word recognition, production, and comprehension. Six students…

Dimling, Lisa M.

2010-01-01

234

Phonological Complexity and Language Learnability  

PubMed Central

Purpose To extend formal models of language learnability to applications in clinical treatment of children with functional phonological delays. Method The focus of the narrative review is on phonological complexity. This follows from learnability theory, whereby complexity in the linguistic input to children has been shown to trigger language learning. Drawing from the literature, phonological complexity is defined from epistemic, ontological, and functional perspectives, with specific emphasis on the application of language universals in the selection of target sounds for treatment. Results The cascading effects of phonological complexity on children’s generalization learning are illustrated, and frequently asked questions about complexity in treatment are addressed. Conclusion The role of complexity in cognitive development is introduced to demonstrate the apparent robustness of effects.

Gierut, Judith A.

2008-01-01

235

Phonological typicality and sentence processing.  

PubMed

In studies of language, it is widely accepted that the form of a word is independent of its meaning and syntactic category. Thus, the relationship between phonological form and grammatical class would not be expected to affect reading time. However, Farmer et al. have now shown that the phonological typicality of a noun or verb influences how rapidly it is read. This finding has implications for both sentence processing and the interpretation of fixation patterns in reading. PMID:17207653

Tanenhaus, Michael K; Hare, Mary

2007-01-04

236

"Why Are There so Many Words in Math?": Planning for Content-Area Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary presents a challenge to students in content area classes, making it difficult to understand new concepts and make connections to background knowledge. This article describes the 5 Cs, a tool developed to help content area teachers consider vocabulary as part of lesson planning. By selecting a set of key words for instruction, teachers…

Smith, Antony T.; Angotti, Robin L.

2012-01-01

237

Scoring Yes-No Vocabulary Tests: Reaction Time vs. Nonword Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite a number of research studies investigating the Yes-No vocabulary test format, one main question remains unanswered: What is the best scoring procedure to adjust for testee overestimation of vocabulary knowledge? Different scoring methodologies have been proposed based on the inclusion and selection of nonwords in the test. However, there…

Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana; Schmitt, Norbert

2012-01-01

238

A Vocabulary Flood: Making Words "Sticky" with Computer-Response Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's literature is a primary source for introducing young children to new words at home and at school, and children's early vocabulary knowledge is a key component of oral language, which is essential for comprehension. This column is focused on children from low socioeconomic backgrounds who frequently find themselves in a vocabulary

Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary S.; Ryan, Tammy

2007-01-01

239

THE EFFECT OF CULTURAL FAMILIARITY ON INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY ACQUISITION THROUGH READING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the effects of cultural background knowledge on immediate incidental vocabulary gain through reading brief narratives that depicted either culturally familiar or culturally unfamiliar versions of everyday scenarios. Participants were high-intermediate adult learners of Spanish. Independent variables included (a) cultural familiarity, (b) group assignment, and (c) L2 passage sight vocabulary. The dependent variable was an adapted version of

Diana Pulido

2004-01-01

240

A Summary of the Vocabulary Research with Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is essential for communicating, reading, thinking, and learning. In comparison to typical hearing peers, students who are deaf or hard of hearing demonstrate vocabulary knowledge that is quantitatively reduced. The authors review and summarize research studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1967 and 2008 focusing on…

Luckner, John L.; Cooke, Christine

2010-01-01

241

A Vocabulary Flood: Making Words "Sticky" with Computer-Response Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children's literature is a primary source for introducing young children to new words at home and at school, and children's early vocabulary knowledge is a key component of oral language, which is essential for comprehension. This column is focused on children from low socioeconomic backgrounds who frequently find themselves in a vocabulary

Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary S.; Ryan, Tammy

2007-01-01

242

A Summary of the Vocabulary Research with Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary is essential for communicating, reading, thinking, and learning. In comparison to typical hearing peers, students who are deaf or hard of hearing demonstrate vocabulary knowledge that is quantitatively reduced. The authors review and summarize research studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1967 and 2008 focusing on…

Luckner, John L.; Cooke, Christine

2010-01-01

243

Phonological processes and the perception of phonotactically illegal consonant clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perception of consonant clusters that are phonotactically illegal word initially in English (e.g., \\/tl\\/, \\/sr\\/) was investigated\\u000a to determine whether listeners’ phonological knowledge of the language influences speech processing. Experiment 1 examined\\u000a whether the phonotactic context effect (Massaro & Cohen, 1983), a bias toward hearing illegal sequences (e.g., \\/tl\\/) as legal\\u000a (e.g., \\/tr\\/), is more likely due to knowledge

Mark A. Pitt

1998-01-01

244

Profiling Vocabulary Acquisition in Irish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigations into early vocabulary development, including the timing of the acquisition of nouns, verbs and closed-class words, have produced conflicting results, both within and across languages. Studying vocabulary development in Irish can contribute to this area, as it has potentially informative features such as a VSO word order, and…

O'Toole, Ciara; Fletcher, Paul

2012-01-01

245

Profiling Vocabulary Acquisition in Irish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigations into early vocabulary development, including the timing of the acquisition of nouns, verbs and closed-class words, have produced conflicting results, both within and across languages. Studying vocabulary development in Irish can contribute to this area, as it has potentially informative features such as a VSO word order, and…

O'Toole, Ciara; Fletcher, Paul

2012-01-01

246

Number-concept acquisition and general vocabulary development.  

PubMed

How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et al., 2003). This result calls into question arguments that (a) the number-concept creation process is scaffolded mainly by visuo-spatial development and (b) that language only becomes integrated after the concepts are created (D. Ansari et al., 2003). Instead, this may suggest that having a larger nominal vocabulary helps children learn number words. Experiment 3 shows that the differences with previous results are likely due to changes in how the data were analyzed. PMID:22803603

Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W

2012-07-16

247

The Interface between Morphology and Phonology: Exploring a Morpho-Phonological Deficit in Spoken Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

248

The importance of phonological awareness for the development of early English reading skills among bilingual Singaporean kindergartners  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and English word-level reading among a multilingual sample, a random sample of 297 Singaporean kindergartners, stratified by ethnicity (169 Chinese, 65 Malay, and 63 Indian), were tested on their PA, receptive vocabulary, and word-level reading skills. Singaporean kindergartners are all bilingual or early second-language (L2) learners of English and learn English reading

L. Quentin Dixon

2010-01-01

249

Formal and Substantive Approaches to Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Supplements Hans Basboll's state-of-the-art report on generative phonology (EJ 227 659), focusing on "abstract" v "concrete" approaches to surface data. Includes a summary of a discussion on phonology. (RL)|

Hooper, Joan Bybee

1980-01-01

250

Extension and integration of the gene ontology (GO): combining GO vocabularies with external vocabularies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured vocabulary development enhances the management of information in biological databases. As information grows, handling the complexity of vocabularies becomes difficult. Defined methods are needed to manipulate, expand and integrate complex vocabularies. The Gene Ontology (GO) project provides the scientific community with a set of structured vocabularies to describe domains of molecular biology. The vocabularies are used for annotation of

D. P. Hill; J A Blake; J E Richardson; M Ringwald

2002-01-01

251

Vocabularies and Vocabulary Structure: A New Approach Linking Categories, Practices, and Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational scholars have long used vocabularies, and with the rise of research on language this work has grown. Yet the research drawing on vocabularies is wide-ranging and not integrated. We review work on vocabularies from literatures on rhetoric, culture, cognition, and coordination. We integrate and extend this work on vocabularies, introducing the new concept of vocabulary structure to capture different

Jeffrey Loewenstein; William Ocasio; Candace Jones

2012-01-01

252

Vocabulary Expansion in Modern Standard Chinese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the discrepancy between spoken and written vocabularies in modern standard Chinese (MSC) textbooks that contributes to slow vocabulary development, and outlines a teaching technique to extend students' vocabulary using the ideographic nature of MSC characters rather than phonetic learning to increase efficient use of vocabulary

Edwards, Louise

1997-01-01

253

Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains 14 essays on reading and vocabulary learning in second language acquisition. Chapters include: "Research on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: Putting It in Context" (James Coady); "Implications for L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Instruction From L1 Vocabulary Research" (Fredricka Stoller and William Grabe); "Patterns and Perils of…

Huckin, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

254

Phonology, working memory, and foreign-language learning.  

PubMed

Three tasks were used to predict English learning by Finnish children over a three-year period. In the pseudoword repetition task the pupils had to repeat aloud tape-recorded pseudowords sounding like Finnish or English. In the pseudoword copying task the pupils saw strings of letters resembling Finnish or English words and copied them when they had disappeared from view. When comparing syntactic-semantic structures, the pupils had to find the syntactically matching pairs from two sets of Finnish sentences. Repetition and copying accuracy and the ability to compare syntactic-semantic structures predicted English learning. Intercorrelations between test scores and English and mathematics grades suggest that repetition and copying accuracy were specifically related to language learning. It is concluded that the ability to represent unfamiliar phonological material in working memory underlies the acquisition of new vocabulary items in foreign-language learning. PMID:1636010

Service, E

1992-07-01

255

Phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of phonological awareness has mainly focused on the nature of the relationship between reading ability and awareness of phonemes. However, a recent study of phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome questioned the existence of any neces- sary relationship (Cossu, Rossini & Marshall, 1993). This paper describes a study of phonological awareness in children with Down

Helen Fletcher; Sue Buckley

2002-01-01

256

On Some Claims of Atomic Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines some of the rules of atomic phonology so as to elucidate just what the theory is and is not capable of. The theory of atomic phonology maintains that all linguistic variation requiring distinctly varied formulations of phonological rules is predictable from a set of "atomic rules" and universal principles of grammar. (SED)|

Wheeler, Max W.

1985-01-01

257

Developmental Hierarchy of Arabic Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates a strong relationship between phonological awareness and reading success. Phonemic intervention programs clearly show the benefits of explicitly teaching phonological awareness skills. Phonological awareness skills vary in nature and degree of difficulty and appear to follow a developmental progression. This study examined a…

Tibi, Sana

2010-01-01

258

Contextual Vocabulary Acquisition: A Computational Theory and Educational Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a research project that develops and applies algorithms for computational contextual vocabulary ac- quisition (CVA): learning the meaning of unknown words from context. We try to unify a disparate literature on the topic of CVA from psychology, first- and second- language acquisition, and reading science, in order to help develop these algorithms: We use the knowledge gained from

William J. RAPAPORT; Michael W. KIBBY

2002-01-01

259

Beyond Raw Frequency: Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition in Extensive Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Second language vocabulary can be learned incidentally while the learner is engaged in extensive reading or reading for meaning, inferring the meaning of unknown words (Huckin & Coady, 1999; Hulstijn, 1992; Krashen, 1993; Pigada & Schmitt, 2006). 12 Korean learners of English read authentic literary texts and were tested on their knowledge of…

Kweon, Soo-Ok; Kim, Hae-Ri

2008-01-01

260

The Effects of Vocabulary Learning on Collocation and Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the effects of receptive and productive vocabulary tasks on learning collocation and meaning. Japanese English as a foreign language students learned target words in three glossed sentences and in a cloze task. To determine the effects of the treatments, four tests were used to measure receptive and productive knowledge of…

Webb, Stuart; Kagimoto, Eve

2009-01-01

261

Tracking the Changes: Vocabulary Acquisition in the Study Abroad Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Empirical evidence suggests that the study abroad experience accelerates growth in global vocabulary knowledge. The exact nature of this growth is rarely reported, however, and there is little documented evidence to indicate whether it is linear or uneven, whether the speed of growth is constant or changing, or whether the study abroad context…

Fitzpatrick, Tess

2012-01-01

262

The Relationship between Vocabulary and Writing Quality in Three Genres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocabulary in writing across three genres. Fifth graders (N = 105) wrote three compositions: story, persuasive, and informative. Each composition revolved around the topic of outer space to control for background knowledge. Written compositions were scored for holistic writing quality and…

Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Wilson, Joshua

2013-01-01

263

A Model of L2 Vocabulary Learning and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary is an essential component of language. It is central to reading ability, writing ability and listening ability, and the most important aspect of second-language (L2) knowledge for academic achievement. The aim of this paper is to investigate quantitatively some of the factors that make some L2 words more difficult to learn and retain…

Willis, Martin; Ohashi, Yoshie

2012-01-01

264

ACTION PSYCHOLOGY AS APPLIED TO FOREIGN LANGUAGE VOCABULARY ACQUISITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In teaching vocabulary the most productive principles from the psychology of learning and memory are often ignored. This paper discusses the relevant educational implications of action psychology. Two topics from action psychology as elaborated by Vygotsky are discussed in detail: 1) the relationship between activity and memory and 2) the conditions for the personal integration of knowledge ? the cognitive

1995-01-01

265

Vocabulary acquisition from extensive reading: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have shown that second language learners acquire vocabulary through reading, but only relatively small amounts. However, most of these studies used only short texts, measured only the acquisition of meaning, and did not credit partial learning of words. This case study of a learner of French explores whether an extensive reading program can enhance lexical knowledge.

Maria Pigada; Norbert Schmitt

266

Current Perspectives on Vocabulary Teaching and Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews key vocabulary research and draws a number of teaching and learning implications from that research.\\u000a Lexical areas addressed include the amount of vocabulary required to use English, what it means to know and learn a word,\\u000a the incremental nature of vocabulary acquisition, the role of memory in vocabulary learning, incidental and intentional vocabulary\\u000a learning, techniques for effective

Norbert Schmitt

267

The benefit of orthographic support for oral vocabulary learning in children with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Children with Down syndrome typically have weaknesses in oral language, but it has been suggested that this domain may benefit from learning to read. Amongst oral language skills, vocabulary is a relative strength, although there is some evidence of difficulties in learning the phonological form of spoken words. This study investigated the effect of orthographic support on spoken word learning with seventeen children with Down syndrome aged seven to sixteen years and twenty-seven typically developing children aged five to seven years matched for reading ability. Ten spoken nonwords were paired with novel pictures; for half the nonwords the written form was also present. The spoken word learning of both groups did not differ and benefited to the same extent from the presence of the written word. This suggests that compared to reading-matched typically developing children, children with Down syndrome are not specifically impaired in phonological learning and benefit equally from orthographic support. PMID:23217296

Mengoni, Silvana E; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

2013-01-01

268

Degree of illiteracy and phonological and metaphonological skills in unschooled adults.  

PubMed

Phonological and metaphonological skills are explored in 97 Brazilian illiterate and semiliterate adults. A simple letter- and word-reading task was used to define the degree of illiteracy. Phonemic awareness was strongly dependent on the level of letter and word reading ability. Phonological memory was very low in illiterates and unrelated to letter knowledge. Rhyme identification was relatively preserved in illiterates and semiliterates, and unrelated to letter and word reading level. Phonetic discrimination (minimal pairs) was fairly good and marginally related to reading ability. These results suggest that phonological sensitivity, phonological memory, rhyme identification, and phonemic awareness are distinctive cognitive processes, and that only phonemic awareness is clearly and strongly dependent on the alphabetical acquisition. PMID:15120540

Loureiro, Clara de Santos; Braga, Lucia Willadino; Souza, Ligia do Nascimento; Nunes Filho, Gilberto; Queiroz, Elizabeth; Dellatolas, Georges

2004-06-01

269

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

270

The Phonological Assimilation of Borrowing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Linguistic borrowing from English to Jordanian Arabic at the lexical level is described, focusing on phonology and the extent to which Jordanian Arabic has affected the phonetic structure of English loans assimilated partially or completely into it. Conspicuous distinctive sound features in the two languages that may affect non-native speakers'…

Suleiman, Saleh M.

271

Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

2012-01-01

272

Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Phonological Awareness Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning. Phonological awareness is a precursor to reading. "Phonological Awareness Training" can involve various…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

273

The interface between morphology and phonology: exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production.  

PubMed

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment-these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-03-06

274

Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word derivations from other languages;…

Lamb, Barbara

275

The Expressive Vocabulary of Preschool Deaf Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From the individual expressive vocabularies of 19 preschool deaf children a composite vocabulary list of 493 words was assembled to include all words and expressions used by two or more children. (Author/MC)|

Griswold, L. Earl; Commings, Janet

1974-01-01

276

THE EFFECT OF EXPLICIT VOCABULARY TEACHING ON VOCABULARY ACQUISITION AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS READING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of explicit vocabulary teaching on vocabulary acquisition and on attitude towards reading in an EFL class. Vocabulary exercises following the Lexical Approach (Lewis, 1993, 1997, 2000) were designed to supplement a college reading comprehension course, and several reading strategies were systematically practiced. Statistical analyses revealed that the students acquired the vocabulary. In addition, at the

Leyla Hasbún Hasbún

2005-01-01

277

Incorporating a Microbiology Curriculum with an Emphasis on Vocabulary by Utilizing Verbal, Reading, and Writing Skills in a Secondary Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was believed that if students received microbiology instruction with an emphasis on vocabulary by utilizing reading, writing, and verbal skills, their knowledge of microbiology would increase more than if they received instruction without an emphasis on vocabulary. The curriculum for this project was designed for a secondary microbiology class and consisted of oral, written, and reading activities to promote

K. L. Wright

278

How Do Vocabulary Interventions Affect Young At-Risk Children's Word Learning: A Meta-Analytic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis is designed to build on the existing knowledge base by examining vocabulary interventions specifically for factors associated with child outcomes for at-risk children. Specifically, the authors addressed the following questions: (1) To what extent are vocabulary interventions an effective method for at-risk children prior to…

Marulis, Loren M.; Neuman, Susan B.

2011-01-01

279

How vocabulary size in two languages relates to efficiency in spoken word recognition by young Spanish-English bilinguals  

PubMed Central

Research using online comprehension measures with monolingual children shows that speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition are correlated with lexical development. Here we examined speech processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary development in bilingual children learning both Spanish and English (n=26; 2;6 yrs). Between-language associations were weak: vocabulary size in Spanish was uncorrelated with vocabulary in English, and children’s facility in online comprehension in Spanish was unrelated to their facility in English. Instead, efficiency of online processing in one language was significantly related to vocabulary size in that language, after controlling for processing speed and vocabulary size in the other language. These links between efficiency of lexical access and vocabulary knowledge in bilinguals parallel those previously reported for Spanish and English monolinguals, suggesting that children’s ability to abstract information from the input in building a working lexicon relates fundamentally to mechanisms underlying the construction of language.

Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

2010-01-01

280

Evidence for Catch-up in Cognition and Receptive Vocabulary Among Adolescents Born Very Preterm  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Very preterm adolescents display persistent deficits in neuropsychological functions. OBJECTIVE: To compare cognitive and language outcomes at 16 years and cognitive and receptive vocabulary trajectories throughout school years between very preterm and term children and to determine child and family factors associated with better developmental trajectories. DESIGN AND METHODS: At 8, 12, and 16 years, 322 very preterm children with birth weights of 1250 g or less and 41 term children had cognitive and language testing. Hierarchical growth-curve modeling was used to delineate the differences in cognitive and receptive vocabulary development between participants. Cluster analyses allowed for the characterization of very preterm children with different patterns of cognitive and receptive vocabulary development. RESULTS: At 16 years, very preterm adolescents had deficits in general cognition and higher-order language skills (phonological awareness and phonemic decoding) compared with term peers. Although the between-group difference in cognitive scores remained stable from 8 to 16 years, very preterm children demonstrated catch-up gains in receptive vocabulary during the same period. Moreover, subgroups of very preterm children displayed developmental trajectories in cognition similar to term children (55% on the vocabulary and 46% on the block-design subtests). These children had lower rates of neurosensory impairment and mothers with higher education and were from an ethnic nonminority. CONCLUSIONS: Significant catch-up in receptive vocabulary is observed by the age of 16 years among very preterm children compared to term peers. The absence of neurosensory impairment and residing in a favorable socioeconomic milieu are associated with the most optimal developmental trajectories.

Vohr, Betty R.; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen C.; Ment, Laura R.

2011-01-01

281

What's the Big Deal about Vocabulary?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his 8-page article Dunston and Tyminski discuss the importance of directly teaching math vocabulary, why this may differ from vocabulary instruction in other content areas, and methods for math vocabulary instruction. The methods for math vocabulary instruction addressed in this article include: The Frayer Model, Four Square, and Feature Analysis. While the scenarios presented in this article deal with middle school students these strategies can be applied to upper elementary students.

Dunston, Pamela J.; Tyminski, Andrew M.

2013-08-01

282

Early Contribution of Phonological Awareness and Later Influence of Phonological Memory throughout Reading Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The acquisition of reading skills is known to rely on early phonological abilities, but only a few studies have investigated the independent contribution of the different steps involved in phonological processing. This 1-year longitudinal study, spanning the initial year of reading instruction, aimed at specifying the development of phonological

Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle; Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Leybaert, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

283

Density, Frequency and the Expressive Phonology of Children with Phonological Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

284

Density, Frequency and the Expressive Phonology of Children with Phonological Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

285

Young Readers' Use of Phonological Information: Phonological Awareness, Memory, and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we explored the relationship between beginning readers' phonological awareness and other aspects of phonological processing, specifically as manifested in short-term memory and comprehension tasks. The theoretical questions underlying the study were (a) what roles phonological processes play in children's beginning reading, from…

Gray, Audra; McCutchen, Deborah

2006-01-01

286

Phonological Recoding in the Second Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A phonological priming task was conducted in order to determine the presence of second language phonological recoding. Eighteen\\u000a Koreans who had acquired English after a critical language learning period participated in the experiment. Compared with controls,\\u000a the phonological condition (e.g., TOWED -> toad) was more advantageous in processing the target in the priming task than the\\u000a orthographic condition (e.g., TOLD

Chang H. Lee; Kyungill Kim; HeuiSeok Lim

2010-01-01

287

A statistical estimate of infant and toddler vocabulary size from CDI analysis.  

PubMed

For the last 20 years, developmental psychologists have measured the variability in lexical development of infants and toddlers using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) - the most widely used parental report forms for assessing language and communication skills in infants and toddlers. We show that CDI reports can serve as a basis for estimating infants' and toddlers'total vocabulary sizes, beyond serving as a tool for assessing their language development relative to other infants and toddlers. We investigate the link between estimated total vocabulary size and raw CDI scores from a mathematical perspective, using both single developmental trajectories and population data. The method capitalizes on robust regularities, such as the overlap of individual vocabularies observed across infants and toddlers, and takes into account both shared knowledge and idiosyncratic knowledge. This statistical approach enables researchers to approximate the total vocabulary size of an infant or a toddler, based on her raw MacArthur-Bates CDI score. Using the model, we propose new normative data for productive and receptive vocabulary in early childhood, as well as a tabulation that relates individual CDI measures to realistic lexical estimates. The correction required to estimate total vocabulary is non-linear, with a far greater impact at older ages and higher CDI scores. Therefore, we suggest that correlations of developmental indices to language skills should be made to vocabulary size as estimated by the model rather than to raw CDI scores. PMID:21676097

Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

2010-12-16

288

A Core Vocabulary for Tamil. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This vocabulary list is directed towards the Tamil instructor and the advanced student. Its primary goal is to bring some order to the teaching of vocabulary in the first two years of Tamil instruction. A secondary goal is to help the student through the vocabulary maze of Tamil diglossia. Three main criteria were employed in selecting words for…

McAlpin, David W.

289

Vocabulary Development: Context Clues versus Word Definitions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study determined which approach for vocabulary development, context or definition, would yield the best results on a teacher-made content area vocabulary test. Two random samples (for a total of 45 students) of fourth graders from a central New Jersey elementary school were formed. One sample was taught 50 social studies vocabulary words using…

Szymborski, Julie Ann

290

Vocabulary assistance before and during reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermediate learners of Spanish read a Spanish newspaper article with vocabulary assistance either before reading, while reading, both, or without any such assistance. Reading performance was significantly better for students receiving vocabulary assistance during reading, but not for those receiving it before reading. Reading time of the newspaper article was less for students receiving prereading vocabulary assistance, but total lesson

Stephen Alessi; Angelique Dwyer

2008-01-01

291

Teaching Vocabulary in the Literature Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Advocates concept-related vocabulary instruction, in which students link individual words with larger literature concepts. Outlines four steps to creating a concept-related vocabulary lesson. Offers examples of how concept-related vocabulary lessons can be conducted while reading, before reading, and after reading. Outlines web, weave, and…

Barton, James

2001-01-01

292

The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2012-01-01

293

Teaching Vocabulary Expeditiously: Three Keys to Improving Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Integrating vocabulary games and activities more often into the structure of the day, Thomas B. Smith establishes a word-rich environment for high school students to experiment with unfamiliar words in varying, playful contexts. Smith asserts that giving frequent opportunities for hearing, speaking, and writing in the typical context of the day…

Smith, Thomas B.

2008-01-01

294

The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2012-01-01

295

An interlingua for electronic interchange of medical information: using frames to map between clinical vocabularies.  

PubMed

The proliferation of medical knowledge has led to the development of extensive dictionaries for electronically accessing information resources. The task of standardizing terminology used for electronic hospital records and for knowledge bases for medical expert systems and indexing the medical literature cannot easily be met by developing a single, monolithic "official" medical vocabulary. Developing a monolithic vocabulary would require a massive effort, and its existence would not guarantee its use by third-party payors, by practicing clinicians, or by developers of electronic medical information systems. Recognizing this, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) has begun to develop the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) as a means of promoting electronic information exchange among systems with controlled vocabularies. The authors describe a frame-based system developed as an experimental approach to mapping between controlled clinical vocabularies. PMID:1889203

Masarie, F E; Miller, R A; Bouhaddou, O; Giuse, N B; Warner, H R

1991-08-01

296

Earth Science Vocabulary Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of activities lets students test their knowledge of hundreds of random geologic terms. The activities include games such as hangman (several varieties), flash cards, guessing words or definitions, and matching terms with definitions. Topics include rocks and minerals, Earth dynamics, Earth history, surface processes, weather, and astronomy.

297

Is There an "Academic Vocabulary"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article considers the notion of "academic vocabulary": the assumption that students of English for academic purposes (EAP) should study a core of high frequency words because they are common in an English academic register. We examine the value of the term by using Cox-head's (2000) Academic Word List (AWL) to explore the distribution of its…

Hyland, Ken; Tse, Polly

2007-01-01

298

The vocabulary of educational psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary analyses of 8 educational psychology texts published since 1937 were made by looking up every word on odd pages of each book in Thorndike's word lists and keeping a frequency count of those not found in the first 10,000 words, and by checking difficult words with Warren's Dictionary of psychology to single out those of psychological nature. Frequency of

G. M. Blair

1941-01-01

299

Vocabulary Instruction through Storybook Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article summarizes a research study investigating the effects of asking preschool teachers to use a professional development tool to support their planning, implementation, and reflection of vocabulary-rich storybook reading. Findings suggested that not only could teachers use the tool in their planning and reflection but also that use of…

Blamey, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.; Sweetman, Heidi

2012-01-01

300

Multisensory Strategies for Science Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Seeing, touching, smelling, hearing, and learning! The authors observed that their English Language Learner (ELL) students achieved a deeper understanding of the properties of matter, as well as enhanced vocabulary development, when they were guided through inquiry-based, multisensory explorations that repeatedly exposed them to words and…

Husty, Sandra; Jackson, Julie

2008-01-01

301

Interactive Vocabulary Acquisition in XTRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a practical solution to on- line dictionary update in XTRA, a machine transla- tion system developed by Xiuming Huang at the Computing Research Laboratory of New Mexico State University. The focus of the discussion in on IVES — an Interactive Vocabulary Enrichment Sys­ tem built by this writer for XTRA, It reflects an on­ going effort at

Cheng-ming Guo

1987-01-01

302

The Vocabulary Problem in Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research in information science and in human-computer interaction has shown that people tend to use different terms to describe a similar concept. Due to the unique backgrounds, training, and experiences of different people, the chance of two collaborators using the same term to describe a concept or an object for a common task is quite low. This vocabulary difference

Hsinchun Chen

303

The Effect of Questioning Style During Storybook Reading on Novel Vocabulary Acquisition of Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of adult questioning on children’s novel word acquisition during storybook reading were investigated. Three-year-olds were assigned to one of three conditions: vocabulary eliciting questions, noneliciting questions, and no questions (control). General vocabulary comprehension and novel word knowledge were equivalent across the groups before the storybook reading intervention. Children were read 3 storybooks repeatedly across 4 reading sessions and

Bridget A. Walsh; Pamela Blewitt

2006-01-01

304

Incremental Phonological Encoding during Unscripted Sentence Production  

PubMed Central

We investigate phonological encoding during unscripted sentence production, focusing on the effect of phonological overlap on phonological encoding. Previous work on this question has almost exclusively employed isolated word production or highly scripted multi-word production. These studies have led to conflicting results: some studies found that phonological overlap between two words facilitates phonological encoding, while others found inhibitory effects. One worry with many of these paradigms is that they involve processes that are not typical to everyday language use, which calls into question to what extent their findings speak to the architectures and mechanisms underlying language production. We present a paradigm to investigate the consequences of phonological overlap between words in a sentence while leaving speakers much of the lexical and structural choices typical in everyday language use. Adult native speakers of English described events in short video clips. We annotated the presence of disfluencies and the speech rate at various points throughout the sentence, as well as the constituent order. We find that phonological overlap has an inhibitory effect on phonological encoding. Specifically, if adjacent content words share their phonological onset (e.g., hand the hammer), they are preceded by production difficulty, as reflected in fluency and speech rate. We also find that this production difficulty affects speakers’ constituent order preferences during grammatical encoding. We discuss our results and previous works to isolate the properties of other paradigms that resulted in facilitatory or inhibitory results. The data from our paradigm also speak to questions about the scope of phonological planning in unscripted speech and as to whether phonological and grammatical encoding interact.

Jaeger, T. Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin

2012-01-01

305

Vocabulary influences older and younger listeners' processing of dysarthric speech.  

PubMed

This study examined younger (n?=?16) and older (n?=?16) listeners' processing of dysarthric speech-a naturally occurring form of signal degradation. It aimed to determine how age, hearing acuity, memory, and vocabulary knowledge interacted in speech recognition and lexical segmentation. Listener transcripts were coded for accuracy and pattern of lexical boundary errors. For younger listeners, transcription accuracy was predicted by receptive vocabulary. For older listeners, this same effect existed but was moderated by pure-tone hearing thresholds. While both groups employed syllabic stress cues to inform lexical segmentation, older listeners were less reliant on this perceptual strategy. The results were interpreted to suggest that individuals with larger receptive vocabularies, with their presumed greater language familiarity, were better able to leverage cue redundancies within the speech signal to form lexical hypothesis-leading to an improved ability to comprehend dysarthric speech. This advantage was minimized as hearing thresholds increased. While the differing levels of reliance on stress cues across the listener groups could not be attributed to specific individual differences, it was hypothesized that some combination of larger vocabularies and reduced hearing thresholds in the older participant group led to them prioritize lexical cues as a segmentation frame. PMID:23927132

McAuliffe, Megan J; Gibson, Elizabeth M R; Kerr, Sarah E; Anderson, Tim; LaShell, Patrick J

2013-08-01

306

Infant Word Segmentation and Childhood Vocabulary Development: A Longitudinal Analysis  

PubMed Central

Infants begin to segment novel words from speech by 7.5 months, demonstrating an ability to track, encode and retrieve words in the context of larger units. Although it is presumed that word recognition at this stage is a prerequisite to constructing a vocabulary, the continuity between these stages of development has not yet been empirically demonstrated. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether infant word segmentation skills are indeed related to later lexical development. Two word segmentation tasks, varying in complexity, were administered in infancy and related to childhood outcome measures. Outcome measures consisted of age-normed productive vocabulary percentiles and a measure of cognitive development. Results demonstrated a strong degree of association between infant word segmentation abilities at 7 months and productive vocabulary size at 24 months. In addition, outcome groups, as defined by median vocabulary size and growth trajectories at 24 months, showed distinct word segmentation abilities as infants. These findings provide the first prospective evidence supporting the predictive validity of infant word segmentation tasks and suggest that they are indeed associated with mature word knowledge.

Singh, Leher; Reznick, J. Steven; Xuehua, Liang

2012-01-01

307

Orthographic vs. Phonologic Syllables in Handwriting Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

French children program the words they write syllable by syllable. We examined whether the syllable the children use to segment words is determined phonologically (i.e., is derived from speech production processes) or orthographically. Third, 4th and 5th graders wrote on a digitiser words that were mono-syllables phonologically (e.g. "barque" =…

Kandel, Sonia; Herault, Lucie; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Lambert, Eric; Fayol, Michel

2009-01-01

308

Phonological Priming in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological

Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

2012-01-01

309

Phonological Representations in Children with SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It has been hypothesized that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty processing sound-based information, including storing and accessing phonological representations in the lexicon. Tasks are emerging in the literature that provide a measure of the quality of stored phonological representations, without requiring a…

Claessen, Mary; Leitao, Suze

2012-01-01

310

Outstanding Questions about Phonological Processing in Dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that developmental dyslexia results from some sort of phonological deficit. Yet, it can be argued that phonological representations and their processing have been insufficiently tested in dyslexia research. Firstly, claims about how tasks tap into certain kinds of representations or processes are best appreciated in the light of an explicit information-processing model. Here, a cognitive model

Franck Ramusn

311

Phonological Priming and Cohort Effects in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…

Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

2011-01-01

312

The Acquisition of L2 Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Acquisition of L2 Phonology is a wide-ranging new collection which focuses on various aspects of the acquisition of an L2 phonological system. The authors are researchers and practitioners from five different countries. The volume has been divided into three major sections. Phonetic Analysis presents five studies of language learners in both…

Wojtaszek, Adam; Arabski, Janusz

2011-01-01

313

Phonological Awareness in Young Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies explored the nature of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese. In Study 1, involving 146 children, awareness of phoneme onset did not differ from chance levels at ages 3-5 years in preschool but increased to 70% correct in first grade, when children first received phonological coding (Pinyin) instruction. Similarly, tone awareness was…

Shu, Hua; Peng, Hong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2008-01-01

314

Depth of Teachers' Knowledge: Frameworks for Teachers' Knowledge of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes seven teacher knowledge frameworks and relates these frameworks to the teaching and assessment of elementary teacher's mathematics knowledge. The frameworks classify teachers' knowledge and provide a vocabulary and common language through which knowledge can be discussed and assessed. These frameworks are categorized into…

Holmes, Vicki-Lynn

2012-01-01

315

A Probabilistic Model of Phonological Relationships from Contrast to Allophony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…

Hall, Kathleen Currie

2009-01-01

316

Down syndrome phonology: Developmental patterns and intervention strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes phonological development in children with Down syndrome paying particular attention to underlying defi cits and intervention strategies. The fi rst section provides an overview of factors believed to infl uence phonological development in this population. The second section describes four aspects of Down syndrome phonology: (1) the prelinguistic stage; (2) the transition to speech; (3) the phonology

Carol Stoel-Gammon

2001-01-01

317

A Treatment Sequence for Phonological Alexia/Agraphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Damage to left perisylvian cortex often results in impaired phonological processing abilities with written language profiles consistent with phonological alexia and phonological agraphia. The purpose of this article was to examine a behavioral treatment sequence for such individuals intended to strengthen phonological processing and links…

Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rising, Kindle; Kim, Esther S.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

2010-01-01

318

Four Measures of Vocabulary Ability Compared in Older Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thirty-six children, aged four-five, completed four vocabulary measures: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, Picture Vocabulary subtest of the Test of Oral Language Development, Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test, and Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test. Only moderate correlations were found among these tests, implying that a…

Channell, Ron W.; Peek, Michelle S.

1989-01-01

319

Learning Novel Phonological Representations in Developmental Dyslexia: Associations with Basic Auditory Processing of Rise Time and Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across languages, children with developmental dyslexia are known to have impaired lexical phonological representations. Here, we explore associations between learning new phonological representations, phonological awareness, and sensitivity to amplitude envelope onsets (rise time). We show that individual differences in learning novel phonological

Thomson, Jennifer M.; Goswami, Usha

2010-01-01

320

Do Language Proficiency and Lecture Comprehension Matter? OpenCourseWare Lectures for Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open source lectures not only provide knowledge-seekers with convenient ways to obtain knowledge and information, they also serve as potential language learning resources that provide extensive language input and repeated exposure to vocabulary within specific topics or disciplines. This current study aims to examine the relationship between…

Sun, Yu-Chih; Yang, Hui-Chi

2012-01-01

321

Social Constructs and Disease: Implications for a Controlled Vocabulary for HIV/AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The body of knowledge associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents complexity not present in any other disease. A controlled vocabulary and classification structure used to organize the body of knowledge associated with HIV/AIDS is discussed. (Author/AEF)|

Huber, Jeffrey T.; Gillaspy, Mary L.

1998-01-01

322

Letter-Name Letter-Sound and Phonological Awareness: Evidence from Greek-Speaking Kindergarten Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…

Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia

2011-01-01

323

Letter Names and Phonological Awareness Help Children to Learn Letter-Sound Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose…

Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

2011-01-01

324

Probed Serial Recall in Williams Syndrome: Lexical Influences on Phonological Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Williams syndrome is a genetic disorder that, it has been claimed, results in an unusual pattern of linguistic strengths and weaknesses. The current study investigated the hypothesis that there is a reduced influence of lexical knowledge on phonological short-term memory in Williams syndrome. Fourteen children with Williams syndrome and 2…

Brock, Jan; McCormack, Teresa; Boucher, Jill

2005-01-01

325

Structure of Preschool Phonological Sensitivity: Overlapping Sensitivity to Rhyme, Words, Syllables, and Phonemes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined relations among sensitivity to words, syllables, rhymes, and phonemes in older and younger preschoolers. Confirmatory factor analyses found that a one-factor model best explained the date from both groups of children. Only variance common to all phonological sensitivity skills was related to print knowledge and rudimentary…

Anthony, Jason L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Burgess, Stephen R.; Driscoll, Kimberly; Phillips, Beth M.; Cantor, Brenlee G.

2002-01-01

326

Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming…

Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

2012-01-01

327

Documenting the Vocabulary of Astronomy Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning astronomy can be a life-long process, with the seeds of knowledge planted in K-12 classes blossoming in elective college courses to create adults who actively acquire astronomy content. One of the goals of many astronomy 101 courses is to prepare students to be intelligent consumers of mainstream astronomy content, including magazine articles, popular books, and online news. To meet this goal, astronomy educators need to understand what content is being presented in the media and what level vocabulary is being used. The most simplistic way to address this problem is to examine the topics covered and vocabulary used in mainstream astronomy blogs and news feeds. In this study we looked at a selection of prominent blogs and news feeds and we present a statistical study of the frequency different scientific terms are used and topics are addressed. To make this study possible, software to read in RSS feeds was created. This software had to meet the following design specifications: runs in a reasonable amount of time, removes all XML and HTML code from text, sees words with different capitalizations as the same word, ignores end of sentence or phrase punctuation without ignoring hyphens, and has an editable list of "common English words.” This code will be available after the conference at http://www.starstryder.com. Results of this study find that many of the primary topics of Astronomy 101 classes, such as the HR Diagram, are rarely mentioned in blogs and online news, while often de-emphasized topics, such as extra solar planets, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics, show up regularly.

Miller, Scott; Parrish, M.; Gay, P. L.

2008-05-01

328

Adaptive vocabularies for transcribing multilingual broadcast news  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most prevailing problems of large-vocabulary speech recognition systems is the large number of out-of-vocabulary words. This is especially the case for automatically transcribing broadcast news in languages other than English, that have a large number of inflections and compound words. We introduce a set of techniques to decrease the number of out-of-vocabulary words during recognition by using

P. Geutner; M. Finke; P. Scheytt

1998-01-01

329

Density, frequency and the expressive phonology of children with phonological delay*  

PubMed Central

The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were taught using stimulus words that varied orthogonally in neighborhood density and word frequency as the independent variables. Generalization was the dependent variable, defined as production accuracy of treated and untreated (erred) sounds. Blocked comparisons showed that dense neighborhoods triggered greater generalization, but frequency did not have a clear differential effect. Orthogonal comparisons revealed graded effects, with frequent words from dense neighborhoods being optimal for generalization. The results contrast with prior literature, which has reported a sparse neighborhood advantage for children with phonological delay. There is a suggestion that children with phonological delay require greater than usual cue redundancy and convergence to prompt expressive phonological learning.

GIERUT, JUDITH A.; MORRISETTE, MICHELE L.

2012-01-01

330

Semantic memory impairment does not impact on phonological and orthographic processing in a case of developmental hyperlexia.  

PubMed

Recent evidence from patients with progressive language disorders and dementia has been used to suggest that phonological and orthographic processing depend on intact semantic memory. These claims challenge the traditional view that there are functionally separate modules in the language system. The effect of a severe, but nonprogressive, semantic impairment on phonological and orthographic processing was evaluated in LA, a mentally retarded child with hyperlexia. Knowledge of a word's meaning did not affect LA's word repetition, a measure of phonological processing, or his acquisition and retention of orthographic patterns for writing to dictation low-frequency words with exceptional spellings. These findings support the assertion that both orthographic and phonological whole-word representations can be acquired, stored, and retrieved in the absence of a functional link to semantic memory. PMID:9027372

Glosser, G; Grugan, P; Friedman, R B

1997-02-01

331

Perseus Greek and Latin Vocabulary Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Perseus Digital Library of Tufts University (first discussed in the October 17, 1997 Scout Report) has just introduced the Perseus Vocabulary Tool, intended to help users of texts in the Perseus Digital Library build word lists based on those texts. The tool shows the frequency of words used by specific authors or in specific texts, and identifies key terms for building vocabulary lists. For each vocabulary word, a pop-up window containing the definition, part of speech, and word gender, plus links are given. It's a good idea to check out the help page before embarking on a journey through the Perseus Vocabulary Tool.

2001-01-01

332

Grammatical and Phonological Influences on Word Order  

PubMed Central

During the grammatical encoding of spoken multiword utterances, various kinds of information must be used to determine the order of words. For example, whereas in adjective-noun utterances like “red car”, word order can be determined on the basis of the word's grammatical class information, in noun-noun utterances like “…by car, bus, or…”, word order cannot be determined on the basis of a word's grammatical class information. We investigated whether a word's phonological properties play a role in grammatical encoding. In four experiments participants produced multiword utterances in which the words' onset phonology was manipulated. Phonological-onset relatedness yielded inhibitory effects in noun-noun utterances, no effects in noun-adjective utterances, and facilitatory effects in adjective-noun, noun-verb, and adjective-adjective-noun utterances. These results cannot be explained by differences in the stimulus displays used to elicit the utterances and suggest that grammatical encoding is sensitive to the phonological properties of words.

Janssen, Niels; Caramazza, Alfonso

2009-01-01

333

Phonological "Deviance" in British Sign Language Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the phonological deviance of the poetry of Dorothy Miles, who composed her work in both British Sign Language and English. Analysis is based on three poems performed by Miles herself. (Author/VWL)

Sutton-Spence, Rachel

2001-01-01

334

Phonological "Deviance" in British Sign Language Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on the phonological deviance of the poetry of Dorothy Miles, who composed her work in both British Sign Language and English. Analysis is based on three poems performed by Miles herself. (Author/VWL)|

Sutton-Spence, Rachel

2001-01-01

335

Phonological priming in children's picture naming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults, using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words (IWs) were presented over headphones. In terms of their relation to target pictures, IWs were either phonologically related, unrelated, neutral (the word go), or identical. Ninety children (30 aged 4;11 to 5;11,

PATRICIA J. BROOKS; BRIAN MACWHINNEY

2000-01-01

336

A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

Labrie, Gilles

2000-01-01

337

Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

2012-01-01

338

Teaching Collocations for Productive Vocabulary Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One important but undervalued aspect of productive vocabulary is collocation--the ways in which words are combined with one another. To move from receptive to productive vocabulary, students need to learn a wide variety of ways that words collocate with each other. This paper describes the major types of collocations, typical collocational errors…

Wei, Yong

339

Studies Find Vocabulary Instruction Is Falling Short  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary

Sparks, Sarah D.

2013-01-01

340

The Teacher's Mediation in Students' Vocabulary Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three stages of teaching second language vocabulary are examined using examples of typical situations for Poles learning English. A basic assumption is that the vocabulary of any two languages, especially Indo-European languages, exhibits both ethnological and accidental similarity. The first stage is to make the phonic, or graphic, or both forms,…

Krakowian, Bogdan

341

Tuning in to Vocabulary Frequency in Coursebooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For second language learners vocabulary growth is of major importance, and for many learners commercially published coursebooks will be the source of this vocabulary learning. In this preliminary study, input from three levels of the coursebook series "New English File" (Oxenden and Latham-Koenig, 2006; Oxenden, Latham-Koenig, and Seligson, 2004,…

O'Loughlin, Richard

2012-01-01

342

Adapted Vocabularies for Generic Visual Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several state-of-the-art Generic Visual Categorization (GVC) systems are built around a vocabulary of visual terms and char- acterize images with one histogram of visual word counts. We propose a novel and practical approach to GVC based on a universal vocabu- lary, which describes the content of all the considered classes of images, and class vocabularies obtained through the adaptation of

Florent Perronnin; Christopher R. Dance; Gabriela Csurka; Marco Bressan

2006-01-01

343

Redirective Labels and Early Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents' object labels can be distinguished by whether the child is already attending to the object (follow-in) or not (lead-in). Lead-in labels have been found to be associated with low vocabulary. The current study examines whether the relation between lead-in labels and child vocabulary is influenced by whether the child's attention is…

Shimpi, Priya Mariana; Huttenlocher, Janellen

2007-01-01

344

Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary

Feezell, Greg

2012-01-01

345

Community structure in the phonological network  

PubMed Central

Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language.

Siew, Cynthia S. Q.

2013-01-01

346

What Models of Verbal Working Memory Can Learn from Phonological Theory: Decomposing the Phonological Similarity Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…

Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf

2011-01-01

347

Phonological Awareness and the Use of Phonological Similarity in Letter-Sound Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…

de Jong, Peter F.

2007-01-01

348

Exploring cross-linguistic vocabulary effects on brain structures using voxel-based morphometry  

PubMed Central

Given that there are neural markers for the acquisition of a non-verbal skill, we review evidence of neural markers for the acquisition of vocabulary. Acquiring vocabulary is critical to learning one’s native language and to learning other languages. Acquisition requires the ability to link an object concept (meaning) to sound. Is there a region sensitive to vocabulary knowledge? For monolingual English speakers, increased vocabulary knowledge correlates with increased grey matter density in a region of the parietal cortex that is well-located to mediate an association between meaning and sound (the posterior supramarginal gyrus). Further this region also shows sensitivity to acquiring a second language. Relative to monolingual English speakers, Italian-English bilinguals show increased grey matter density in the same region. Differences as well as commonalities might exist in the neural markers for vocabulary where lexical distinctions are also signalled by tone. Relative to monolingual English, Chinese multilingual speakers, like European multilinguals, show increased grey matter density in the parietal region observed previously. However, irrespective of ethnicity, Chinese speakers (both Asian and European) also show highly significant increased grey matter density in two right hemisphere regions (the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus). They also show increased grey matter density in two left hemisphere regions (middle temporal and superior temporal gyrus). Such increases may reflect additional resources required to process tonal distinctions for lexical purposes or to store tonal differences in order to distinguish lexical items. We conclude with a discussion of future lines of enquiry.

Green, D.W.; Crinion, J.; Price, C. J.

2007-01-01

349

Intro to Space Weather Vocabulary  

NASA Video Gallery

Heliophysics research studies how energy and material from the sun affects Earth and the entire solar system. It’s a complex system that begins on the sun when events on the sun, such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections, travel out into space. These cause electromagnetic effects that drive space weather close to Earth -- from aurora to radio blackouts to changes in the radiation belts surrounding Earth. Scientists study the minutiae of how energy transfers from one event to the other and which electromagnetic waves create which conditions near Earth. Since space weather effects can disrupt satellites in space, scientists need to understand the system in even more detail. Watch the video to see how events on the sun affect Earth. Suitable for all ages, this intro to space weather covers vocabulary like coronal mass ejection (CME), solar wind, and solar flare. It also outlines potential effects of solar storms on our planet.

gsfcvideo

2013-02-26

350

Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

2013-01-01

351

Phonological Awareness Intervention for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness intervention to improve the speech production, phonological awareness and printed word decoding skills for three children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) aged 7;3, 6;3 and 6;10. The three children presented with severely delayed phonological awareness skills…

Moriarty, Brigid C.; Gillon, Gail T.

2006-01-01

352

Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

2013-01-01

353

Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

2006-01-01

354

Focusing on Phonology To Teach Morphological Form in French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues for the importance of phonological form in the second language (L2) classroom, proposing that a thorough grounding in L2 phonological patterns is essential for language learners. Suggests the importance of phonological information for the auditory detection of morphological form in French. (Author/VWL)

Arteaga, Deborah; Herschensohn, Julia; Gess, Randall

2003-01-01

355

Phonological Awareness Instruction for Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forty middle school students with learning disabilities identified as having phonological awareness deficits were provided with phonological awareness instruction to investigate the effectiveness of the instruction on phonological awareness and word recognition skills. Results indicated that following instruction, students improved on word…

Bhat, Preetha; Griffin, Cynthia C.; Sindelar, Paul T.

2003-01-01

356

Differential Effects of Phonological Priming on Chinese Character Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds phonological priming effects on compound targets (characters containing separate radical components); no evidence of phonological priming on integrated targets (those not containing separate radicals); semantic priming effects on both compound and integrated target recognition, suggesting that phonological and semantic activation are…

Weekes, B. S.; Chen, M. J.; Lin, Y-B.

1998-01-01

357

The Shakespeare in All of Us: A Monumental, Multitudinous, Premeditated Approach to Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shakespeare, who worked actively with words through punning, playing, and inventing, serves as the model for students to experience a deepening knowledge of vocabulary and love of words. Through instructional activities aimed at increasing word play, word exposure, and word consciousness, students gain the verbal capacity needed to understand…

Savino, Jennifer Ann

2011-01-01

358

Effects of Culturally-Responsive Teaching Practices on First Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accumulating research reveals that children's reading comprehension is influenced by a reader's experiences, knowledge, language structure, and vocabulary. Thus, this researcher investigated the construct, culturally-responsive practice, as a way to provide effective learning opportunities for children from non-mainstream cultures, including…

Underwood, Phyllis Swann

2009-01-01

359

The Relationship between Text Comprehension and Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: A Matter of Topic Familiarity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study reported in this article describes second language (L2) vocabulary learning outcomes associated with adult L2 reading comprehension processes, thus connecting L2 learning with the complex cognitive and linguistic processing involved in reading. The study aimed to determine whether background knowledge moderated the relationship between…

Pulido, Diana

2007-01-01

360

Variables Predicting Foreign Language Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Linear Hypermedia Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Factors predicting vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced language learners of English in a linear multimedia text were investigated in the current study. Predictor variables of interest were multimedia type, reading proficiency, learning styles, topic interest and background knowledge about the topic. The outcome variables of…

Akbulut, Yavuz

2007-01-01

361

Effects of Culturally-Responsive Teaching Practices on First Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Accumulating research reveals that children's reading comprehension is influenced by a reader's experiences, knowledge, language structure, and vocabulary. Thus, this researcher investigated the construct, culturally-responsive practice, as a way to provide effective learning opportunities for children from non-mainstream cultures, including…

Underwood, Phyllis Swann

2009-01-01

362

The Effects of Long-Term Vocabulary Instruction on Reading Comprehension: A Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study that investigated the relationship between vocabulary instruction and reading comprehension was replicated and extended. The original study showed substantial gains in accuracy of word knowledge and speed of lexical access, but only marginal gains in comprehension. This latter result was attributable to methodological problems, and thus the comprehension measure was revised. In the present study, fourth graders were

Margaret G. McKeown; Isabel L. Beck; Richard C. Omanson; Charles A. Perfetti

1983-01-01

363

Improving Vocabulary and Comprehension Skills of Secondary-Level Students from Diverse Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary-level students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds who struggle with reading need strategies for aligning new information with their previous knowledge as well as for obtaining and retaining essential information from the text. Important components of all secondary literacy support must include instruction in word identification, vocabulary, and comprehension skills.

Michelle McCollin; Doris J. OShea; Kathleen McQuiston

2009-01-01

364

The effects of vocabulary instruction on readers’ ability to make causal connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown that for comprehension to take place, a reader must form strong, coherent mental representations of text. The reader accesses prior knowledge, makes inferences when necessary, and makes causal connections. This study investigated the effects of teaching text specific vocabulary on eighth graders’ comprehension of expository text and their ability to make causal connections. The materials used

Mary A. Medo; Randall J. Ryder

1993-01-01

365

The Shakespeare in All of Us: A Monumental, Multitudinous, Premeditated Approach to Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shakespeare, who worked actively with words through punning, playing, and inventing, serves as the model for students to experience a deepening knowledge of vocabulary and love of words. Through instructional activities aimed at increasing word play, word exposure, and word consciousness, students gain the verbal capacity needed to understand…

Savino, Jennifer Ann

2011-01-01

366

Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize…

Zschocke, Thomas

2012-01-01

367

Latin Revived: Source-Based Vocabulary Lessons Courtesy of Harry Potter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers can build on students' familiarity with and respect for the Harry Potter books to create source-based vocabulary lessons. The idea is to work with the Latin roots that J. K. Rowling uses to create original names for places, people, and magical charms and then to extend students' knowledge through exploration of additional English words…

Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

2006-01-01

368

Psychometric Evaluation of a Receptive Vocabulary Test for Greek Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assessment of lexical/semantic knowledge is performed with a variety of tests varying in response requirements. The present study exemplifies the application of modern statistical approaches in the adaptation and assessment of the psychometric properties of the "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised" (PPVT-R) Greek. Confirmatory factor…

Simos, Panagiotis G.; Sideridis, Georgios D.; Protopapas, Athanassios; Mouzaki, Angeliki

2011-01-01

369

Dare to Differentiate: Vocabulary Strategies for All Students. Teaching Practices that Work Series. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This highly practical resource for K-6 teachers is packed with 25 classroom-tested, step-by-step strategies for developing word knowledge. The emphasis throughout is not only on teaching new words, but also on strengthening students' comprehension and long-term vocabulary acquisition. Especially valuable are guidelines for how to differentiate…

Brassell, Danny

2010-01-01

370

Word Travelers: Using Digital Tools to Explore Vocabulary and Develop Independent Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Internet is full of tools for vocabulary development, but the quality and usefulness for teachers and students vary greatly. With a traditionalist's respect for word knowledge and an adventurer's spirit for discovering new routes to learning, Lee Ann Tysseling shares an exciting array of technology-assisted resources that can boost students'…

Tysseling, Lee Ann

2012-01-01

371

The Effects of Repetition and L1 Lexicalization on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading, involving 72 freshmen at two Asian universities, investigated (i) the effect of repeated encounters with target words on the development of seven aspects of word knowledge, and (ii) the effect of L1 lexicalization on the acquisition of meaning--does the absence of an L1 translation…

Chen, Chuntien; Truscott, John

2010-01-01

372

Towards Very Large Vocabulary Word Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, preliminary considerations and some experimental results are presented in an effort to design Very Large Vocabulary Recognition (VLVR) systems. We will first consider the applicability of current recognition techniques and argue their inade...

A. Waibel

1982-01-01

373

Terminology Change: Effect on Index Vocabularies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents results of a study using changes in language in the "Annual Review of Information Science and Technology" over a period of eleven years to determine the effect of such change on index vocabularies. (CWM)|

Harris, Jessica L.

1979-01-01

374

Vocabulary Learning: A Critical Analysis of Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates more than a dozen vocabulary learning techniques for students of a second or foreign language. Each technique is evaluated in terms of underlying theoretical assumptions and practical utility. (53 references) (Author/CB)

Oxford, Rebecca; Crookall, David

1990-01-01

375

Inferring New Vocabulary Using Online Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through small-scale sampling of relevant specialized texts to craft hands-on inferential vocabulary tasks, both students and teachers can benefit from corpus linguistic information. By discovering ways to collect and access real data, second-language teachers can create topic-specific corpora and use software to sort and highlight the data to create more rich and revealing classroom materials for improving vocabulary learning. This

Laurel Smith Stvan

2005-01-01

376

The Creation and Establishment of Moral Vocabularies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The moral vocabularies approach offers a way of examining and organizing the essential moral claims disseminated by a group\\u000a of claimsmakers. Moral claims and understandings are organized internally (in claims and the actions of moral entrepreneurs)\\u000a and externally (how internal moral vocabularies intersect with the larger societal dynamics). This framework seeks to strike\\u000a a theoretical balance between recognizing the essential

Brian M. Lowe

377

Infants' Learning of Phonological Status  

PubMed Central

There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants’ discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I’m should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I’d, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants’ sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11?months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions.

Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

2012-01-01

378

Promoting vocabulary learning in young children who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing: translating research into practice.  

PubMed

Vocabulary knowledge is strongly associated with reading achievement and becomes increasingly predictive of overall reading proficiency as children progress through the elementary grades. Children who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing often begin schooling with small meaning vocabularies, a disadvantage that puts them at risk of struggling to learn to read. Recent research on vocabulary intervention with young children who have typical hearing demonstrates the effectiveness of targeted, contextualized instruction on children's word learning and provides insights for early childhood educators of young d/Deaf and hard of hearing children. In the present essay, which is grounded in the qualitative similarity hypothesis (Paul, 2010, in press; Paul & Lee, 2010) and sociocultural theories of learning, the author argues for evidence-based vocabulary interventions for young d/Deaf and hard of hearing children that are rooted in the contemporary research literature. PMID:22524095

Williams, Cheri

2012-01-01

379

Hearing experience and receptive vocabulary development in deaf children with cochlear implants.  

PubMed

This study investigated receptive vocabulary delay in deaf children with cochlear implants. Participants were 23 children with profound hearing loss, ages 6-14 years, who received a cochlear implant between ages 1.4 and 6 years. Duration of cochlear implant use ranged from 3.7 to 11.8 years. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Third Edition (PPVT-III) data were analyzed first by examining children's errors for evidence of difficulty in specific lexical content areas, and second by calculating standard scores with reference to hearing age (HA) (i.e., chronological age [CA]--age at implantation) rather than CA. Participants showed evidence of vocabulary understanding across all PPVT-III content categories with no strong evidence of disproportionate numbers of errors in any specific content area despite below-average mean standard scores. However, whereas mean standard scores were below the test mean established for hearing children when based on CA, they were within the average range for hearing children when calculated based on HA. Thus, children's vocabulary knowledge was commensurate with years of cochlear implant experience, providing support for the role of spoken language experience in vocabulary acquisition. PMID:20130017

Fagan, Mary K; Pisoni, David B

2010-02-03

380

Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Acquisition: The CSLU Vocabulary Tutor in Oral-Deaf Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated the acquisition of everyday vocabulary of 16 children (ages 8-14) with deafness in an auditory/oral program using specially designed computer-based vocabulary applications. On average, children learned 70 words for everyday objects from immediate use of the lessons and remembered nearly 39 after more than 4 weeks. (Contains…

Barker, Lecia J.

2003-01-01

381

Short-Term Memory and Working Memory in Children as a Function of Language-Specific Knowledge in English and Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study determined the degree to which the phonological and executive components of memory reflect language-specific capacities in Spanish and English vocabulary. We tested whether the memory processes in a sample of English language learners found in Grade 1 also emerged in Grade 2. For the total sample (N=90), Grade 1 English STM measures…

Lanfranchi, Silvia; Swanson, H. Lee

2005-01-01

382

THE PHONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF SIGN LANGUAGES  

PubMed Central

Visually perceivable and movable parts of the body – the hands, facial features, head, and upper body – are the articulators of sign language. It is through these articulators that that words are formed, constrained, and contrasted with one another, and that prosody is conveyed. This article provides an overview of the way in which phonology is organized in the alternative modality of sign language.

SANDLER, WENDY

2013-01-01

383

How Abstract Is English Vowel Phonology?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses itself to the question of whether the high degree of abstractness in Chomsky's and Halle's analysis of English vowels is justified. Secondarily, two related topics are discussed: (1) limitations on the tongue-height features [+low] and [+high] and (2) the role of rule features in phonological rules. Numerous examples of a more…

Krohn, Robert

384

Phonological Precedence in Dyslexia: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…

Schneider-Zioga, Patricia

2012-01-01

385

Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

Suh, Yunju

2009-01-01

386

Towards a Phonology of Hong Kong English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses findings in the first part of a research project on Hong Kong English (HKE) phonology, including the underlying phonemic system of HKE speakers. Subjects were 15 undergraduates at Hong Kong Baptist University. Using spectrographic analysis, it was found that the typical HKE speaker operates with a considerably smaller set of vowel and…

Hung, Tony T. N.

2000-01-01

387

Phonological Precedence in Dyslexia: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…

Schneider-Zioga, Patricia

2012-01-01

388

Activation of phonological competitors in visual search.  

PubMed

Recently, Meyer, Belke, Telling and Humphreys (2007) reported that competitor objects with homophonous names (e.g., boy) interfere with identifying a target object (e.g., buoy) in a visual search task, suggesting that an object name's phonology becomes automatically activated even in situations in which participants do not have the intention to speak. The present study explored the generality of this finding by testing a different phonological relation (rhyming object names, e.g., cat-hat) and by varying details of the experimental procedure. Experiment 1 followed the procedure by Meyer et al. Participants were familiarized with target and competitor objects and their names at the beginning of the experiment and the picture of the target object was presented prior to the search display on each trial. In Experiment 2, the picture of the target object presented prior to the search display was replaced by its name. In Experiment 3, participants were not familiarized with target and competitor objects and their names at the beginning of the experiment. A small interference effect from phonologically related competitors was obtained in Experiments 1 and 2 but not in Experiment 3, suggesting that the way the relevant objects are introduced to participants affects the chances of observing an effect from phonologically related competitors. Implications for the information flow in the conceptual-lexical system are discussed. PMID:23584102

Görges, Frauke; Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jörg D; Schriefers, Herbert

2013-04-10

389

Stuttering, Cluttering, and Phonological Complexity: Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonological complexity of dysfluencies in those who clutter and/or stutter may help us better understand phonetic factors in these two types of fluency disorders. In this preliminary investigation, cases were three 14-year-old males, diagnosed as a Stutterer, a Clutterer, and a Stutterer-Clutterer. Spontaneous speech samples were transcribed,…

LaSalle, Lisa R.; Wolk, Lesley

2011-01-01

390

Preschool Phonological Awareness and Subsequent Literacy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an unresolved debate in the developmental literature regarding whether phonemic awareness is acquired naturally as part of phonological awareness, or whether it is instead an artefact of reading tuition. This ambiguity affects the interpretation of studies which show that pre?literate phonemic awareness is a powerful predictor of literacy attainment in school. There is also evidence to suggest that

Clare Wood; Colin Terrell

1998-01-01

391

Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial…

Suh, Yunju

2009-01-01

392

Topics in Mocho' Phonology and Morphology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation is a grammatical description of several features of the morphology and phonology of the Mocho' language. Mocho' (Motozintleco) is a moribund Mayan language spoken in the Chiapas region of Mexico near the border of Guatemala. This dissertation, based on data collected during several field trips and supplemented with…

Palosaari, Naomi Elizabeth

2011-01-01

393

Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2010-01-01

394

Persistence of Dyslexics' Phonological Awareness Deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the phonological awareness skills of dyslexic children, adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia, and good readers at various age levels. Comparisons of the dyslexics to good readers of the same age or the same reading level indicated that dyslexics do not acquire appropriate levels of phoneme awareness, regardless of their age or reading levels, although they eventually

Maggie Bruck

1992-01-01

395

Phonological Feature Representations in Auditory Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although phonemes are the smallest linguistic units that speakers are usually aware of, a good deal of linguistic evidence indicates that sub-phonemic features are the smallest building blocks of language. We present evidence from biomagnetic studies that indicate that representations of discrete phonological feature categories are available to left-hemisphere auditory cortex. Sequences of voiced (\\/bæ, dæ, gæ\\/) and voiceless (\\/pæ,

Colin Phillips; Thomas Pellathy

2000-01-01

396

Nonword Repetition, Phonological Storage, and Multiple Determinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The proposals that (a) nonword repetition and word learning both rely on phonological storage and (b) both are multiply determined are two of the major foci of Gathercole's (2006) Keynote Article, which marshals considerable evidence in support of each. In my view, the importance of these proposals cannot be overstated: these two notions go to…

Gupta, Prahlad

2006-01-01

397

A BINI GRAMMAR, PART 1--PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PHONOLOGY OF BINI GRAMMAR (A LANGUAGE OF WESTERN NIGERIA) HAS BEEN DESIGNED FOR A HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS AUDIENCE. THE VOLUME IS AIMED AT (1) AREA SPECIALISTS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE OR CULTURE STUDIES OF AFRICA, (2) ETHNOGRAPHERS FOCUSING ON THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES, (3) HISTORIANS WORKING ON THE BENIN PROJECT OF IBADAN…

WESCOTT, ROGER W.

398

A Phonological Model of French Intonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

French and in the degree of abstractness in the tonal representation, which isdue to the conceptual differences linked to the application of the model: the focus is either on acoustic,representation of models,relevant for speech synthesis and recognition, or on abstract representation for phonological description, or on both levels. Inthis paper, we propose a development of our previous model (Jun &

SUN-AH JUN; CÉCILE FOUGERON

2000-01-01

399

Role of Phonology in Foreign Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the importance of phonology in second language learning, comparing phonetic mistakes made by adult native speakers of English learning Georgian and adult native speakers of Georgian learning English. It emphasizes the importance of a holistic, systemic approach to teaching second languages that involves making the first…

Meskhi, Anna

400

A Comparative Sketch of Pueblo Languages: Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an attempt to determine some of the shared phonological traits among Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest, this paper compares the sound systems of Pueblo languages. The languages within the scope of this research are Zuni, Keresan (Acoma and Santa Ana), and Tanoan (Sandia, Taos, Jemez, and Santa Clara). It is noted that Pueblo Indians…

Yumitani, Yukihiro

401

Phonological Difficulties in High-Functioning Dyslexics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses some phonological tasks of well compensated, high-functioning dyslexics, aged 18, whose reading ability had improved to within one standard deviation of the normal population. Compares them with matched controls. Finds they performed well on word recognition tests but worse on nonword reading and spelling, and worse (in terms of speed) on…

Gallagher, A. M.; And Others

1996-01-01

402

Nonword Repetition, Phonological Storage, and Multiple Determinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposals that (a) nonword repetition and word learning both rely on phonological storage and (b) both are multiply determined are two of the major foci of Gathercole's (2006) Keynote Article, which marshals considerable evidence in support of each. In my view, the importance of these proposals cannot be overstated: these two notions go to the…

Gupta, Prahlad

2006-01-01

403

Phonological awareness predicts activation patterns for print and speech  

PubMed Central

Using fMRI, we explored the relationship between phonological awareness (PA), a measure of metaphonological knowledge of the segmental structure of speech, and brain activation patterns during processing of print and speech in young readers from six to ten years of age. Behavioral measures of PA were positively correlated with activation levels for print relative to speech tokens in superior temporal and occipito-temporal regions. Differences between print-elicited activation levels in superior temporal and inferior frontal sites were also correlated with PA measures with the direction of the correlation depending on stimulus type: positive for pronounceable pseudowords and negative for consonant strings. These results support and extend the many indications in the behavioral and neurocognitive literature that PA is a major component of skill in beginning readers and point to a developmental trajectory by which written language engages areas originally shaped by speech for learners on the path toward successful literacy acquisition.

Frost, Stephen J.; Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Fulbright, Robert K.; Tejada, Eleanor T.; Jacobsen, Leslie; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Pugh, Kenneth R.

2009-01-01

404

Beyond Zebra: Preschoolers' Knowledge about Letters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that an important type of child knowledge about letters is knowledge of the phonological structure of the letters' names in English. Concludes that learning the alphabet forms the basis for generalizations about the structure of letter names. (22 references) (Author/CK)|

Treiman, Rebecca; Richmond-Welty, E. Daylene; Tincoff, Ruth

1997-01-01

405

A web-based architecture for a medical vocabulary server.  

PubMed Central

For health care providers to share computing resources and medical application programs across different sites, those applications must share a common medical vocabulary. To construct a common vocabulary, researchers must have an architecture that supports collaborative, networked development. In this paper, we present a web-based server architecture for the collaborative development of a medical vocabulary: a system that provides network services in support of medical applications that need a common, controlled medical terminology. The server supports vocabulary browsing and editing and can respond to direct programmatic queries about vocabulary terms. We have tested the programmatic query-response capability of the vocabulary server with a medical application that determines when patients who have HIV infection may be eligible for certain clinical trials. Our emphasis in this paper is not on the content of the vocabulary, but rather on the communication protocol and the tools that enable collaborative improvement of the vocabulary by any network-connected user.

Gennari, J. H.; Oliver, D. E.; Pratt, W.; Rice, J.; Musen, M. A.

1995-01-01

406

Standard controlled vocabulary for climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scope of climate modeling has grown tremendously in the last 10 years, resulting in a large variety of climate models, increasing complexity with more physical or chemical components and huge volumes of data sets (simulation outputs). While significant efforts to standardise the associated metadata (i.e. data describing data and models) have already been made in recent projects (e.g. CF standard names for CMIP3), detailed standards documentation of the models and experiments that created this data is still lacking. The EU METAFOR Project (http://metaforclimate.eu) is specifically addressing this issue by creating new metadata schemas in cooperation with existing standards in Earth System Modeling (Curator, GridSpec, CF convention, NumSim, etc.). Descriptions of climate simulations, of the data they produce, and of the numerical models used to perform these simulations are all within the scope of METAFOR and these descriptions are assembled in a common information model (the CIM). Of particular note is the metadata for numerical models that is found in the CIM. This paper presents the controlled vocabulary (CV) that has been collected by METAFOR to describe (in a common manner) the components of the numerical models developed by the different modeling centres. This vocabulary is used in the model part of the web-based questionnaire that METAFOR has developed in support of the upcoming IPCC exercise (the CMIP5 questionnaire). The methods to (1) establish standards for this vocabulary via interactions with climate scientists, (2) utilise the vocabulary in the web-based questionnaire and (3) process the vocabulary for ingestion in the Earth System Grid (ESG) portal, are described. Governance aspects of this new controlled vocabulary are also addressed.

Moine, Marie-Pierre; Pascoe, Charlotte; Guilyardi, Eric; Ford, Rupert

2010-05-01

407

What's This New Emphasis on Vocabulary All about?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers, especially novice teachers, believe that teaching vocabulary is among their easier duties, but Shanklin makes a convincing argument that high-quality vocabulary teaching requires thoughtful preparation. Here she offers several sound techniques for engaging students with vocabulary in meaningful ways.

Shanklin, Nancy

2007-01-01

408

Enhancing Access to Situational Vocabulary by Leveraging Geographic Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Users of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aids could benefit from novel methods for accelerating access to contextually relevant vocabulary. This paper describes our initial efforts toward improving access to situational vocabulary through the use of geographic context to predict vocabulary. A corpus of spoken data produced by one…

Patel, Rupal; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv

2007-01-01

409

MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) Vocabulary File.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

MeSH Vocabulary File (Medical Subject Headings Vocabulary File) is an online vocabulary file of the 14,000 Medical Subject Headings that are used for indexing and retrieving references and for subject cataloging. Also included are approximately 22,000 che...

W. Finch

1981-01-01

410

Overlapping Vocabulary and Comprehension: Context Clues Complement Semantic Gradients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the clear and longstanding connection between meaning vocabulary and reading comprehension, programs designed to teach vocabulary have often had surprisingly little impact on overall reading ability. One possible reason for this small effect is that teaching methods may not make this vocabulary-to-comprehension connection explicit for the…

Greenwood, Scott C.; Flanigan, Kevin

2007-01-01

411

An Investigation of Two Ways of Presenting Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of semantic links or networks in L2 vocabulary acquisition has been a popular subject for numerous studies. On one hand, there is a strong theoretical background stating that presenting words in related fashion facilitates the learning of L2 vocabulary. On the other hand, research evidence indicates that semantically related vocabulary

Papathanasiou, Evagelia

2009-01-01

412

Developing Academic Vocabulary Independently (DAVI): A usability study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Second language (L2) learners preparing for academic study in English-speaking universities face major challenges in acquiring needed vocabulary that classroom study cannot fully overcome. According to recent second language vocabulary acquisition (SLVA) research, learners must deeply process target vocabulary in comprehensible contexts appropriately spaced over time. However, effective materials facilitating such encounters outside the classroom are rare. This paper reports

Monica Richards

2009-01-01

413

Vocabulary Use in XML Standards in the Financial Market Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary issues are central to XML-based e-commerce standards. The rapid increase in the number of XML standards has made the vocabulary issues a critical area of XML applications. This paper reports the result from a study of the vocabulary use in XML standards. Choosing five DTDs from the financial and capital markets domain, we examined a total of 1346 elements

Jian Qin; Mary D. Taffet

2004-01-01

414

Developing college vocabulary: A content analysis of instructional materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research and theory question many of the traditional methods and techniques of teaching vocabulary. Yet textbooks designed to expand the vocabulary levels of post?secondary learners continue to proliferate. In light of the large number of vocabulary texts available for the college market as well as recent critical findings from research, the investigators undertook a study to determine the content

Norman A. Stahl; William G. Brozo; Michele L. Simpson

1987-01-01

415

Memory Strategy Instruction, Contextual Learning and ESP Vocabulary Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decades there has been an increasing interest in vocabulary learning strategies given that they are found to facilitate second/foreign language vocabulary learning and recall. As many learners do not develop sufficient mastery of the strategy repertoire, explicit instruction on vocabulary learning strategies may help them to become…

Atay, Derin; Ozbulgan, Cengiz

2007-01-01

416

Using PDA for Undergraduate Student Incidental Vocabulary Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent studies have explored English vocabulary learning in environments where students used mobile technologies for prescribed vocabulary learning tasks, or tested designed personalized learning systems to enhance student vocabulary learning for short periods of time in language related courses. Dictionary use via mobile devices has mostly been…

Song, Yanjie; Fox, Robert

2008-01-01

417

ELL preschoolers’ English vocabulary acquisition from storybook reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effects of rich explanation, baseline vocabulary, and home reading practices on English language learning (ELL) preschoolers’ sophisticated vocabulary learning from storybook reading. Eighty typically developing preschoolers were pretested in L1 (Portuguese) and L2 (English) receptive vocabulary and were assigned to experimental or control groups. Eight books were selected and paired. Experimental participants heard books read three

Molly F. Collins

2010-01-01

418

Early Vocabulary Growth: Relation to Language Input and Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the role of exposure to speech in children's early vocabulary growth. It is generally assumed that individual differences in vocabulary depend, in large part, on variations in learning capacity. However, variations in exposure have not been systematically explored. In this study we characterize vocabulary growth rates for each of 22 children by using data obtained at several

Janellen Huttenlocher; Wendy Haight; Anthony Bryk; Michael Seltzer; Thomas Lyons

1991-01-01

419

?????????????????? College Student's Difficulties and Strategies in EFL Vocabulary Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

??:?????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????,????????? ???,???????????????????????????????,? ????:????????????????????,??????????? ????????????????????????????????????? ?????????? ???:??????????? Abstract: This study attempts to explore Chinese EFL learners' vocabulary learning difficulties and vocabulary learning strategies. Ninety first-year Chinese college students in the Department of Applied Foreign Languages participated in this study. The findings show that Chinese learners mainly have difficulty learning vocabulary in all aspects. The five most difficult factors affecting learning

Hsueh-Chu Chen; Huei-Chin Yeh

420

Adaptation to novel accents: feature-based learning of context-sensitive phonological regularities.  

PubMed

This paper examines whether adults can adapt to novel accents of their native language that contain unfamiliar context-dependent phonological alternations. In two experiments, French participants listen to short stories read in accented speech. Their knowledge of the accents is then tested in a forced-choice identification task. In Experiment 1, two groups of listeners are exposed to newly created French accents in which certain vowels harmonize or disharmonize, respectively, to the rounding of the preceding vowel. Despite the cross-linguistic predominance of vowel harmony over disharmony, the two groups adapt equally well to both accents, suggesting that this typological difference is not reflected in perceptual learning. Experiment 2 further explores the mechanism underlying this type of phonological learning. Participants are exposed to an accent in which some vowels harmonize and others disharmonize, yielding an increased featural complexity. They adapt less well to this regularity, showing that adaptation to novel accents involves feature-based inferences. PMID:21429003

Skoruppa, Katrin; Peperkamp, Sharon

2010-11-29

421

Phonology in the bilingual Stroop effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a bilingual Stroop task, we examined between-language interference among proficient Japanese— English bilingual speakers.\\u000a Participants named ink colors either in Japanese or in English. The Japanese color terms were either phonologically similar\\u000a to (i.e., loan words) or dissimilar from (i.e., traditional color terms) English color terms. For both response languages,\\u000a a significant between-language Stroop effect was found despite the

Hiromi Sumiya; Alice F. Healy

2004-01-01

422

Semantic and phonological processing in illiteracy.  

PubMed

Researchers of cognitive processing in illiteracy have proposed that the acquisition of literacy modifies the functional organization of the brain. They have suggested that, while illiterate individuals have access only to innate semantic processing skills, those who have learned the correspondence between graphemes and phonemes have several mechanisms available to them through which to process oral language. We conducted 2 experiments to verify that suggestion with respect to language processing, and to elucidate further the differences between literate and illiterate individuals in the cognitive strategies used to process oral language, as well as hemispheric specialization for these processes. Our findings suggest that semantic processing strategies are qualitatively the same in literates and illiterates, despite the fact that overall performance is augmented by increased education. In contrast, explicit processing of oral information based on phonological characteristics appears to be qualitatively different between literates and illiterates: effective strategies in the processing of phonological information depend upon having had a formal education, regardless of the level of education. We also confirmed the differential abilities needed for the processing of semantic and phonological information and related them to hemisphere-specific processing. PMID:15637772

Kosmidis, Mary H; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Folia, Vasiliki; Vlahou, Christina H; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris

2004-10-01

423

Predictors of phonological change following intervention.  

PubMed

To date, predictor variables strongly associated with phonological change as a result of intervention have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to determine the best predictor or combination of predictors of change in percentage of consonants correct (PCC; L. D. Shriberg and J. Kwiatkowski, 1982) as a result of speech-language intervention for a group of 20 participants and to replicate this procedure with a second group of 20. Participants were preschool children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 5;11, with impairments in phonology and morphosyntax who received intervention focused on both phonology and morphosyntax in different goal attack configurations. The relationship of predictor variables chronological age, inventory size, error consistency, and expressive language to the criterion variable, change in PCC, was investigated. In both the initial study and the replication, the mean change in PCC following a 24-week intervention period was 13.1%. In the initial study, error consistency and a finite morpheme composite (FMC; L. M. Bedore and L. B. Leonard, 1998) accounted for 52% of the variance for the criterion variable. Error consistency at the first step in the regression accounted for 31.6% of the variance. In the replication, error consistency was the only variable related to PCC change, again accounting for 31% of the variance. Further research examining overall error consistency is warranted. PMID:12971818

Tyler, Ann A; Lewis, Kerry E; Welch, Carissa M

2003-08-01

424

Notes on an Environmental Pollution Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocabulary covering the field of environmental pollution was compiled by the staff of the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution. The view of the approach is to include an outline-classification all physical, life, and social science aspects of environmental pollution, trying to achieve a balance in the representation of each…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

425

The Controlled Vocabulary--A Reexamination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The controlled vocabulary method of reading instruction (popular in the 1950's and 60's in the Dick and Jane basic reading series) had many inherent and numerous strong points. As with all beginning reading instruction methods, including the Big Book, heterogeneous reading group, holism, phonics, library book, and constructivist methods,…

Ediger, Marlow

426

Researching and teaching vocabulary in the AMEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a number of years, action research projects have contributed to practitioner- based research and professional development in the Adult Migrant English Program (AMEP). In this article, we describe a recent national project focusing on the teaching of vocabulary. We worked, as a researcher from the National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research (NCELTR) and a researcher from the

ANNE BURNS; SILVA JOYCE

427

Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

Lu, M.

2008-01-01

428

The Political Vocabulary of Hong Kong English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study analyzed patterns of usage of political vocabulary in Hong Kong English as found in newspaper reports of a leading Hong Kong English-medium newspaper and two other English-medium newspapers. Data were drawn from a computerized corpus and a clippings file. The report begins with an overview of the theoretical basis of the study of ideology…

Benson, Phil

1994-01-01

429

Science Process Vocabulary: Our Failure To Communicate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When teachers search the literature for activities they can do with their students, they are exposed to science process vocabulary that is improperly used and ambiguous in meaning. This is particularly so with the science process skills of observing, inferring, and hypothesizing. This study examines the process understanding of science teachers…

Follette, Everette; Smith, Marian

430

MMIE training of large vocabulary recognition systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a framework for optimising the structure and parameters of a continuous density HMM-based large Ž. vocabulary recognition system using the Maximum Mutual Information Estimation MMIE criterion. To reduce the computational complexity of the MMIE training algorithm, confusable segments of speech are identified and stored as word lattices of alternative utterance hypotheses. An iterative mixture splitting procedure is

V. Valtchev; J. J. Odell; Philip C. Woodland; S. J. Young

1997-01-01

431

Teaching Vocabulary through External Context Clues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an instruction approach for teaching external clues that context clue instruction occurs over many years at all grade levels and asserts that this can used for learning vocabulary. Defines external context clues as syntactic and semantic elements within and among sentences. (SRT)|

Ryder, Randall James

1986-01-01

432

Improving out-of-vocabulary name resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents algorithms for generating targeted name lists for candidate out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words for applications in language processing, particularly speech recognition. Focusing on names, which are shown to be the dominant class of OOVs in news broadcasts, the approach involves offline generation of a large name list and online pruning based on a phonetic distance. The resulting list can

David D. Palmer; Mari Ostendorf

2005-01-01

433

Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

Lu, M.

2008-01-01

434

LCSH Entry Vocabulary Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) Entry Vocabulary Project established a routine procedure for new cross references, suggested by designated libraries, to be considered for addition to LCSH entries by the Library of Congress Subject Catalog Division. Since October 1982, suggestions from four libraries (the University of California at…

Cochrane, Pauline A.

435

Word Walk: Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Storybook reading offers an ideal context for teaching young children new words. Text Talk is one method designed for teaching elementary students new words after reading. However, using the Text Talk vocabulary procedures with young children, the authors observed several challenges both for teachers' implementation and children's learning.…

Blarney, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.

2011-01-01

436

Interactive Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Word walls are designed to serve as visual scaffolds and are a common classroom tool used to support reading and language arts instruction. To support vocabulary development in science and support students who are ELLs, Husty and Jackson (2008) created interactive word walls that resemble semantic maps (Masters, Mori, and Mori 1993). Semantic…

Jackson, Julie; Tripp, Sherry; Cox, Kimberly

2011-01-01

437

Issues in Large Vocabulary, Multilingual Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on our activities in multilingual, sp eaker- independent, large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. The multilingual aspect of this work is of particular importanc e in Eu- rope, where each country has its own national language. Our exist- ing recognizer for American English and French, has been ported to British English and German. It has been

Lori Lamel; Martine Adda-Decker; Jean-Luc Gauvain

1995-01-01

438

Package Them in Puzzles: Vocabulary, Culture, Conjugations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a method of using traditional puzzles and crosswords in foreign language instruction. Instead of merely providing amusement, the puzzles are designed to assist in the learning of various language skills. This article gives directions for developing puzzles specifically designed to teach grammar, vocabulary, and culture. (Author/PJM)|

McElroy, Mary E.; Samaniego, Fabian A.

1981-01-01

439

Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

David, Annabelle

2008-01-01

440

Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were observed in both…

Huong, Le Pham Hoai

2006-01-01

441

Vocabulary Questions on Informal Reading Inventories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the utility of informal reading inventories (IRI) and acknowledges four limitations of the research. Indicates that no validity-enhancing measures were implemented in conjunction with the three IRIs analyzed. Suggests that IRI vocabulary questions do not appear to be useful. (MG)

Duffelmeyer, Fredrick A.; And Others

1989-01-01

442

Overcoming Vocabulary Limitations in Twitter Microblogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One major difficulty in performing ad-hoc search on microblogs such as Twitter is the limited vocabulary of each document due their short length. In this paper, two approaches to addressing this issue are presented. The rst is query expansion through pseu...

J. Callan R. Yeniterzi Y. Kim

2012-01-01

443

Teaching Vocabulary to Adolescents To Improve Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that providing vocabulary instruction is one of the most significant ways in which teachers can improve students' reading and listening comprehension. Describes a 16-week intervention in which the comprehension of middle and high school students reading below grade level was improved significantly by instruction that developed their…

Curtis, Mary E.; Longo, Ann Marie

2001-01-01

444

Metaphor and vocabulary teaching in ESP economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metaphors provide insight into particular ways of thinking—both in general terms and in relation to the development of semi-technical registers. In this paper, a case is made for basing vocabulary teaching to ESP economics students on lexis that reflects important underlying metaphors of the subject. These are identified with reference to high frequency lexis in The Economist magazine (as compared

Jonathan Charteris-Black

2000-01-01

445

Vocabulary uptake from informal learning tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is common to encourage foreign-language learners to use their language outside the classroom and to read books and papers, listen to songs and watch films in the foreign language. One of the benefits which are thought to accrue from these activities is that learners can build good vocabularies. It has even been argued that casual exposure to the foreign

James Milton

2008-01-01

446

Instant Mapping of American Regional Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When it is published in four or five years, the "Dictionary of American Regional English" (DARE) will be the official dictionary of the American Dialect Society. This dictionary will contain information concerning vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammatical forms which are restricted regionally or socially in American speech. One distinctive…

Hirshberg, Jeffrey

447

The Cognitive Vocabulary Approach to Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|English teachers face myriad demands every day that include not only helping students read literature in interesting and engaging ways but also attending to the needs of students challenged by the demands of more complex and sophisticated texts. Vocabulary learning is at the heart of this struggle for many students, especially for English…

Harmon, Janis M.; Buckelew-Martin, Elizabeth; Wood, Karen D.

2010-01-01

448

Lesson Plan #3: Comprehension and Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students can learn a number of words in any given day from television, parents, through reading, and through classroom activities. The activity in this lesson plan focuses on students expanding their written vocabulary to make writing passages more vivid and pleasurable to read. The lesson provides an opportunity for individual and group work,…

Christopher, Tonja'

449

Clinical vocabulary as a boundary object in multidisciplinary care management of multiple chemical sensitivity, a complex and chronic condition  

PubMed Central

Background: Research has shown that accurate and timely communication between multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of complex and chronic health conditions is often challenging. The domain knowledge for these conditions is heterogeneous, with poorly categorized, unstructured, and inconsistent clinical vocabulary. The potential of boundary object as a technique to bridge communication gaps is explored in this study. Methods: A standardized and controlled clinical vocabulary was developed as a boundary object in the domain of a complex and chronic health condition, namely, multiple chemical sensitivity, to improve communication among multidisciplinary clinicians. A convenience sample of 100 patients with a diagnosis of multiple chemical sensitivity, nine multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of patients with multiple chemical sensitivity, and 36 clinicians in the community participated in the study. Results: Eighty-two percent of the multidisciplinary and inconsistent vocabulary was standardized using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine – Clinical Terms (SNOMED® CT as a reference terminology. Over 80% of the multidisciplinary clinicians agreed on the overall usefulness of having a controlled vocabulary as a boundary object. Over 65% of clinicians in the community agreed on the overall usefulness of the vocabulary. Conclusion: The results from this study are promising and will be further evaluated in the domain of another complex chronic condition, ie, chronic pain. The study was conducted as a preliminary analysis for developing a boundary object in a heterogeneous domain of knowledge.

Sampalli, Tara; Shepherd, Michael; Duffy, Jack

2011-01-01

450

PatientsLikeMe: Consumer health vocabulary as a folksonomy.  

PubMed

PatientsLikeMe is an online social networking community. Subcommunities center on three diagnoses: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinsons Disease. Community members can describe their symptoms online in natural language, resulting in folksonomic tags available for clinical analysis and for browsing by other users to find patients like me. Forty-three percent of PatientsLikeMe symptom terms are present as exact (24%) or synonymous (19%) terms in the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus (National Library of Medicine; 2007AC). Slightly more than half of the symptom terms either do not match the UMLS, or are unclassifiable. A clinical vocabulary, SNOMED CT, accounts for 93% of the matching terms. Analysis of the failed matches reveals challenges for online patient communication, not only with healthcare professionals, but with other patients. In a Web 2.0 environment with lowered barriers between consumers and professionals, a deficiency in knowledge representation affects not only professionals, but consumers as well. PMID:18999004

Smith, Catherine Arnott; Wicks, Paul J

2008-11-06

451

Parents' Reading-Related Knowledge and Children's Reading Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related…

Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

2011-01-01

452

EFL Students' Vocabulary Learning in NS-NNS E-Mail Interactions: Do They Learn New Words by Imitation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated Japanese students' EFL vocabulary development through e-mail interactions with a native English speaker (NS), with primary focus on students' imitation of new words. According to sociocultural theory, learners can internalize new linguistic knowledge by imitating an expert's expressions to create his/her own…

Sasaki, Akihiko; Takeuchi, Osamu

2010-01-01

453

The Development of Vocabulary in English as a Second Language Children and Its Role in Predicting Word Recognition Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Do older English as a second language (ESL) children have the same knowledge of word meanings as English as a first language (EL1) children? How important is vocabulary's role in predicting word recognition in these groups? This study sought to answer these questions by examining the profiles of ESL and EL1 upper elementary aged children, for a…

Jean, Maureen; Geva, Esther

2009-01-01

454

The Effect of Speed Reading Instruction on Japanese High School Students' English Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effects of a six-month course in speed reading in three areas of reading proficiency development: 1) general reading comprehension, 2) knowledge of high-frequency vocabulary, and 3) reading-rate and accuracy. The participants (N = 105) were Japanese students studying English as a foreign language in Grade 10 at a…

Underwood, Paul; Myskow, Gordon; Hattori, Takahiko

2012-01-01

455

The Effect of Morphological Instruction in Improving the Spelling, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension of High School English Language Learners (ELLs)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine if Morphological Instruction (knowledge of the Germanic, Latin, and Greek words, roots, and affixes of English) was an effective instructional approach towards accelerating the acquisition of spelling, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and closing at least a 6,000 word gap between English language…

Diaz, Ivan

2010-01-01

456

Comparing Vocabulary Development in Spanish- and Chinese-Speaking ELLs: The Effects of Metalinguistic and Sociocultural Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study evaluated the impact of two metalinguistic factors, English derivational awareness and English-Spanish cognate awareness, and the impact of two sociocultural factors, maternal education and children's length of residence in Canada, on English Language Learners (ELLs)' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study were 89…

Chen, Xi; Ramirez, Gloria; Luo, Yang C.; Geva, Esther; Ku, Yu-Min

2012-01-01

457

Developmental changes in activation and effective connectivity in phonological processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined developmental changes in activation and effective connectivity among brain regions during a phonological processing task, using fMRI. Participants, ages 9–15, were scanned while performing rhyming judgments on pairs of visually presented words. The orthographic and phonological similarity between words in the pair was independently manipulated, so that rhyming judgment could not be based on orthographic similarity.

Tali Bitan; Jimmy Cheon; Dong Lu; Douglas D. Burman; Darren R. Gitelman; M-Marsel Mesulam; James R. Booth

2007-01-01

458

Phonological Processing and Arithmetic Fact Retrieval: Evidence from Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact…

De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart

2010-01-01

459

The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process, but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic, and phonological abilities. The present article reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of plural forms for both production

Marc Ettlinger; Jennifer Zapf

2011-01-01

460

Auditory Cortex Accesses Phonological Categories: An MEG Mismatch Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies presented here use an adapted oddball paradigm to show evidence that representations of discrete phonological categories are available to the human auditory cortex. Brain activity was recorded using a 37-channel biomagnetometer while eight subjects listened passively to synthetic speech sounds. In the phonological condition, which contrasted stimuli from an acoustic \\/dæ\\/-\\/tæ\\/ continuum, a magnetic mismatch field (MMF) was

Colin Phillips; Thomas Pellathy; Alec Marantz; Elron Yellin; Kenneth Wexler; David Poeppel; Martha McGinnis; Timothy Roberts

2000-01-01

461

Evidence for Right Hemisphere Phonology in a Backward Masking Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The extent to which orthographic and phonological processes are available during the initial moments of word recognition within each hemisphere is under specified, particularly for the right hemisphere. Few studies have investigated whether each hemisphere uses orthography and phonology under constraints that restrict the viewing time of words…

Halderman, Laura K.

2011-01-01

462

Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2012-01-01

463

Visual versus Phonological Abilities in Spanish Dyslexic Boys and Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phonological and visual theories propose different primary deficits as part of the explanation for dyslexia. Both theories were put to test in a sample of Spanish dyslexic readers. Twenty-one dyslexic and 22 typically-developing children matched on chronological age were administered phonological discrimination and awareness tasks and coherent…

Bednarek, Dorota; Saldana, David; Garcia, Isabel

2009-01-01

464

Language Intelligibility as a Constraint on Phonological Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Languages Change all the time. But communication across living generations does not break down. On-going phonological changes in Chinese dialects were examined. The highest number of changes involved only six types. Moreover, in terms of phonology the maximal loss of mutual intelligibility index across living generations in about 100 years was 0.08. As an exercise of the predictive power of

Chin-Chuan Cheng

465

Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

Proctor, Michael Ian

2009-01-01

466

Speech Perception Deficits by Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…

Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang

2009-01-01

467

Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

Proctor, Michael Ian

2009-01-01

468

Phonology in syntax: The Somali optional agreement rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would

Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum

1983-01-01

469

Specific Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia Revealed by Eyetracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…

Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.

2006-01-01

470

The Structure of Phonological Awareness Among Kindergarten Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological awareness, an understanding that spoken language is comprised of individual sounds, is an important construct that has implications for educational assessment and intervention. Unfortunately, the relationship between phonological awareness and its many operationalizations is ambiguous, resulting in both theoretical and practical difficulties. The present study clarified this situation by factor analyzing 23 preliteracy tests among a sample of 161

Timothy J. Runge; Marley W. Watkins

2006-01-01

471

Frenchville French: A case study in phonological attrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the phonetic and phonological properties of a contracting variety of French spoken in Frenchville, PA, a linguistic enclave community. Specifically, we analyze a pattern of convergence versus preservation that cannot be convincingly explained or understood given current proposals of the process of phonological convergence and attrition in a bilingual contact situation. We demonstrate that our speakers preserve

Barbara E. Bullock; Chip Gerfen

2004-01-01

472

Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri  

PubMed Central

Recent functional imaging studies demonstrated that both the left and right supramarginal gyri (SMG) are activated when healthy right-handed subjects make phonological word decisions. However, lesion studies typically report difficulties with phonological processing after left rather than right hemisphere damage. Here, we used a unique dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approach to test whether the SMG in the right hemisphere contributes to modality-independent (i.e., auditory and visual) phonological decisions. To test task-specificity, we compared the effect of real or sham TMS during phonological, semantic, and perceptual decisions. To test laterality and anatomical specificity, we compared the effect of TMS over the left, right, or bilateral SMG and angular gyri. The accuracy and reaction times of phonological decisions were selectively disrupted relative to semantic and perceptual decisions when real TMS was applied over the left, right, or bilateral SMG. These effects were not observed for TMS over the angular gyri. A follow-up experiment indicated that the threshold-intensity for inducing a disruptive effect on phonological decisions was identical for unilateral TMS over the right or left SMG. Taken together, these findings provide converging evidence that the right SMG contributes to accurate and efficient phonological decisions in the healthy brain, with no evidence that the left and right SMG can compensate for one another during TMS. Our findings motivate detailed studies of phonological processing in patients with acute or long-term damage of the right SMG.

Hartwigsen, Gesa; Baumgaertner, Annette; Price, Cathy J.; Koehnke, Maria; Ulmer, Stephan; Siebner, Hartwig R.

2010-01-01

473

Phonological Neighbors Influence Word Naming through the Least Supported Phoneme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research has shown that phonological neighborhood density facilitates naming latencies. In an attempt to extend this work, the authors evaluated the effect of phonological neighborhood distribution by comparing responding to words that consisted of 3 phonemes but differed in the number of phoneme positions that could be changed to form a…

Yates, Mark; Friend, John; Ploetz, Danielle M.

2008-01-01

474

Visual Feedback in Treatment of Residual Phonological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of visual biofeedback in the treatment of individuals who have residual phonological errors is discussed. Biofeedback is conceptualized as a cognitive treatment that requires the client's analysis of visual information and then use of that information in developing correct productions of residual phonological errors. Results suggest the…

Ruscello, Dennis M.

1995-01-01

475

Mixed-list phonological similarity effects in delayed serial recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 838–849.]. Two explanations have been offered for this effect: an encoding explanation, in

Simon Farrell

2006-01-01

476

Promoting phonological awareness skills of Egyptian kindergarteners through dialogic reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5–6), assigned to an experimental group (n?=?35) or a control group (n?=?32). Kindergarten Inventory of Phonological Awareness was

Randa Abdelaleem Elmonayer

2012-01-01

477

Dynamic Assessment in Phonological Disorders: The Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dynamic assessment is applied to phonological disorders with the Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS). The SSS comprises a 21-point hierarchical scale of cues and linguistic environments. With the SSS, clinicians assess stimulability as a diagnostic indicator and use the measure to monitor progress across treatment. Unlike other phonological

Glaspey, Amy M.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2005-01-01

478

Contribution of Phonological and Broader Language Skills to Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent models of reading ability propose that both phonological and broader language skills are important for the development of literacy. Whilst there are numerous studies that consider the role of phonological skills in literacy, fewer studies have considered the role of broader language skills and reading proficiency. Aims: To…

Fraser, Jill; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

2008-01-01

479

Stress and Syllable Structure in English: Approaches to Phonological Variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is phonological variation? We use phonological variation to refer to alternative forms that can be used for more or less similar purposes. For example, in English a word made of CVCVCV can have stress on the first syllable, as in Canada, or on the second syllable, as in banana. There is no reason why the stress pattern could not

San Duanmu; Hyo-Young Kim; Nathan Stiennon

480

Phonological and semantic priming: evidence for task-independent effects.  

PubMed

The questions asked in the present experiments concern the generality of semantic and phonological priming effects: Do these effects arise automatically regardless of target task, or are these effects restricted to target tasks that specifically require the retrieval of the primed information? In Experiment 1, subjects produced faster color matching times on targets preceded by a masked rhyming prime than on targets preceded by an orthographic control or an unrelated prime. This result suggests that automatic priming effects on the basis of phonological similarity can be obtained even when the target task does not make use of phonological information. This claim was reinforced in Experiment 2 in which a rhyme priming effect and a semantic priming effect were found in a semantic categorization task. In Experiment 3, the target task was phonological (rhyme detection), and, again, both phonological and semantic priming effects were observed. Finally, in Experiments 4 and 5, in a replication and an extension of Experiment 1, phonological and semantic priming effects were found in a color matching task, a task involving neither phonological nor semantic processing. These results are most straightforwardly interpreted by assuming that both semantic and phonological priming effects are, at least in part, due to automatic activation of memorial representations. PMID:10355233

Rouibah, A; Tiberghien, G; Lupker, S J

1999-05-01

481

Assessment of phonological awareness in low-progress readers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of phonological awareness (PA) can serve several purposes, including providing a useful diagnostic function in the management of low-progress readers. This paper discusses various aspects of phonological awareness that have implications for literacy teaching at three different points in children's school career: the point of school entry, where children first come to grips with alphabetic instruction; the first

Roslyn Neilson

2009-01-01

482

The Emerging Phonological System of an Autistic Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case report provides a phonological investigation of the speech of an eight-year-old autistic boy. Speech was elicited using delayed imitation, object naming, and a connected speech sample. The subject's use of phonological processes resulted in extensive homonymy which contributed to severely reduced intelligibility. Both typical and unusual…

Wolk, Lesley; Edwards, Mary Louise

1993-01-01

483

Training phonological awareness skills in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, children with Down syndrome receive literacy instruction based on a phonological awareness philosophy with the expectation of acquiring functional reading skills. Previous research demonstrates that a phonological awareness based reading programme delivers excellent results in terms of literacy acquisition and improvements in speech production for children with speech and language delays. Unfortunately, little research exists to support the effectiveness

Esther J Kennedy; Mark C Flynn

2003-01-01

484

Phonological Processing Skills of Adolescents with Residual Speech Sound Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Research has shown that young children with speech sound disorders may have weaknesses in phonological processing. However, such skills have not been thoroughly examined in adolescents with residual speech sound errors. Therefore, this study compared the phonological processing abilities of adolescents with residual speech sound errors to…

Preston, Jonathan L.; Edwards, Mary Louise

2007-01-01

485

Phonological and Surface Subtypes among University Students with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological

Wolff, Ulrika

2009-01-01

486

The functional unit in phonological encoding: evidence for moraic representation in native Japanese speakers.  

PubMed

Speech production studies have shown that the phonological form of a word is made up of phonemic segments in stress-timed languages (e.g., Dutch) and of syllables in syllable-timed languages (e.g., Chinese). To clarify the functional unit of mora-timed languages, the authors asked native Japanese speakers to perform an implicit priming task (A. S. Meyer, 1990, 1991). In Experiment 1, participants could speed up their production latencies when initial consonant and vowel (CV) of a target word were known in advance but failed to do so when the vowel was unknown. In Experiment 2, prior knowledge of the consonant and glide (Cj) produced no significant priming effect. However, in Experiment 3, significant effects were found for the consonant-vowel coupled with a nasal coda (CVN) and the consonant with a diphthong (CVV), compared with the consonant-vowel alone (CV). These results suggest that the implicit priming effects for Japanese are closely related to the CV-C and CV-V structure, called the mora. The authors discuss cross-linguistic differences in the phonological representation involved in phonological encoding, within current theories of word production. PMID:16938049

Kureta, Yoichi; Fushimi, Takao; Tatsumi, Itaru F

2006-09-01

487

Recovery from OME-related phonologic delay following tube placement.  

PubMed

Subjects with documented histories of frequent or persistent otitis media with effusion (OME) who were judged to be below age level phonologically prior to placement of pressure equalization (PE) tubes were reassessed at 4-month intervals. Group A (n = 22) subjects caught up with their peers by the age of 4 years; Group B (n = 14) subjects' progress was delayed and phonologic intervention was advised. At initial testing the two groups were found to differ significantly in scores on postvocalic singleton obstruent omission, velar deviation, and stridency deletion. Elapsed time between initial diagnosis of OME and beginning of the first remission of 6 months or more also differed significantly, as did scores on the first phonologic reassessment. Subject scores on initial phonologic adequacy, retest adequacy, and elapsed time from diagnosis to remission appropriately classified all but 2 subjects by group. A formula is provided that appears to make early prediction of eventual need for phonologic intervention a practical possibility. PMID:2915531

Paden, E P; Matthies, M L; Novak, M A

1989-02-01

488

Phonological Segmentation Assessment Is Not Enough: A Comparison of Three Phonological Awareness Tests with First and Second Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite extensive research on phonological awareness and reading, there has been little effort to study practical questions that would assist practitioners regarding the choice and interpretation of the phonological awareness tests available to them. This study examined the relationship between decoding (real and pseudowords) and three…

Kilpatrick, David A.

2012-01-01

489

The Structure of Phonological Processing and Its Relationship to Basic Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated various structural models of phonological processing and the relationship of phonological processing abilities to basic reading. Data were collected on 116 kindergarten and first grade students. The specific ability model, which included phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming as separate…

Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will; Denis, Daniel

2012-01-01

490

Bidirectional Relations of Phonological Sensitivity and Prereading Abilities: Evidence from a Preschool Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's phonological sensitivity is a strong predictor of the development of reading skills. Recent evidence indicates that phonological sensitivity and reading are reciprocally related. That is, phonological sensitivity facilitates the development of early reading and early reading facilitates the development of phonological sensitivity. Whereas evidence for this reciprocal relation has come from studies with school-age children, this study examined the

Stephen R. Burgess; Christopher J. Lonigan

1998-01-01

491

The early phonological development of a Farsi-English bilingual child  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the issue of whether bilingual children begin phonological acquisition with one phonological system or two. Five hypotheses are suggested for the possible structure of the bilingual child's phonological system. Analyses of data from a longitudinal study of a Farsi-English bilingual infant, Arsham, supported the hypothesis that the child had acquired two separate phonologies with mutual influence; that

Mohammad Hossein Keshavarz; David Ingram

2002-01-01

492

Development of a Controlled Vocabulary for Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent emergence of a number of Environmental Observing systems calls the for the need of a nationwide geoscience cyberinfrastructure. One of the problems that need to be overcome when building a nationwide CI is the vexing problem of disparate and incompatible metadata descriptions that exist due to the use of different standards (if at all) and also the use of different vocabularies to describe the same thing or multiple use of a single word to describe different things leading to interoperability problems. To avoid syntactic interoperability problems many data clearinghouses (UK's Gigateway, Canada's GeoConnections, Australian Spatial Data Directory, US NSDI etc.) are migrating to ISO 19115 metadata standard. While the adoption of a standard is a first step towards solving the syntactic interoperability problem to some extent semantic difference remain because the ISO 19115 does not provide any controlled vocabulary for scientific terminology. In this study our aim is to develop a thesaurus for hydraulic science (as it is a central subject of all environmental observing systems) and engineering keywords that consists of several thousand entries which will help solving homonym, synonym problems as well as allowing discovery of more specific terms when a broader term was searched for. Development methods allow multi-lingual controlled vocabulary as in ISO standard since the relations (classification, narrower term, broader term, synonym etc.) between the terms in the thesaurus are independent of the language used. Human readable vocabulary may be attached to concepts as labels with a "language" identifier such that an entry of e.g. n0231 returns "rain" in English while "pluie" in French.

Beran, B.; Piasecki, M.; Choi, Y.

2005-12-01

493

Personalized Intelligent English Vocabulary Learning System Based on Item Response Theory and Learning Memory Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning English involves memorization and practice of a large number of vocabularies and grammatical structures. It is well-known that English learning should pay attention to vocabulary learning, and even more the vocabulary learning is a key issue for English learning because vocabularies are basic elements in an English sentence. This study proposes a personalized intelligent English vocabulary learning system based

Chih-Ming Chen; Ching-Ju Chung; Ming-Chuan Chen

2006-01-01

494

Ontology Re-engineering Use Case: Extending SWEET to map Climate and Forecasting Vocabulary Terms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common problem faced while developing metadata for scientific data archives is that of keywords. Although keywords are an effective way for searching the resource catalogs, data archive designers may select from one of many different controlled vocabularies to describe their holdings. For example, in Earth Science, Climate and Forecasting (CF Convention) is a controlled vocabulary commonly used within the Modeling community. Similarly, the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) keywords list is the convention used within the NASA Earth Science Program. The use of controlled vocabularies allows searches on the resource catalogs to be accurate and complete, but the burden of framing the precise query falls on the shoulders of the users. The user has to know the keyword before hand in order to perform a "free text" search. This might be perfectly acceptable in smaller projects where the users are specialized and have the required knowledge, but is impractical in larger projects where the users may have varied levels of domain knowledge. One solution to this problem is the use of an ontology, where the ontology contains higher level abstract concepts and the corresponding mapping to the different controlled vocabulary terms. This use of ontologies eliminates the barrier of entry based on domain knowledge and provides easy-to-use search capabilities to the users. In this presentation, we will describe an ontology designed and created to address this problem. However, this ontology required re-engineering of higher level ontologies, namely the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies, instead of the initial creation of an ontology. Since the traditional methodologies for creating an ontology do not account for reengineering and reuse of higher level ontologies, we propose a new modified methodology. This presentation will describe this methodology and also explore some of the issues and challenges involved in the construction of an ontology using this approach.

Ramachandran, R.; Graves, S.; Raskin, R.

2006-05-01

495

Do statistical segmentation abilities predict lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic abilities in children with and without SLI?  

PubMed

ABSTRACT This study tested the predictions of the procedural deficit hypothesis by investigating the relationship between sequential statistical learning and two aspects of lexical ability, lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic, in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included forty children (ages 8;5-12;3), twenty children with SLI and twenty with typical development. Children completed Saffran's statistical word segmentation task, a lexical-phonological access task (gating task), and a word definition task. Poor statistical learners were also poor at managing lexical-phonological competition during the gating task. However, statistical learning was not a significant predictor of semantic richness in word definitions. The ability to track statistical sequential regularities may be important for learning the inherently sequential structure of lexical-phonological, but not as important for learning lexical-semantic knowledge. Consistent with the procedural/declarative memory distinction, the brain networks associated with the two types of lexical learning are likely to have different learning properties. PMID:23425593

Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L

2013-02-21

496

Embedded Structures and Representation of Nursing Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nursing Vocabulary Summit participants were challenged to consider whether reference terminology and information models might be a way to move toward better capture of data in electronic medical records. A requirement of such reference models is fidelity to representations of domain knowledge. This article discusses embedded structures in three different approaches to organizing domain knowledge: scientific reasoning, expertise, and standardized

Marcelline R Harris; Judith R Graves; Harold R Solbrig; Peter L Elkin; Christopher G Chute

2000-01-01

497

Learning words by hand: Gesture's role in predicting vocabulary development  

PubMed Central

Children vary widely in how quickly their vocabularies grow. Can looking at early gesture use in children and parents help us predict this variability? We videotaped 53 English-speaking parent-child dyads in their homes during their daily activities for 90-minutes every four months between child age 14 and 34 months. At 42 months, children were given the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). We found that child gesture use at 14 months was a significant predictor of vocabulary size at 42 months, above and beyond the effects of parent and child word use at 14 months. Parent gesture use at 14 months was not directly related to vocabulary development, but did relate to child gesture use at 14 months which, in turn, predicted child vocabulary. These relations hold even when background factors such as socio-economic status are controlled. The findings underscore the importance of examining early gesture when predicting child vocabulary development.

Rowe, Meredith L.; Ozcaliskan, Seyda; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2009-01-01

498

Exploiting Ontology Structure and Patterns of Annotation to Mine Significant Associations between Pairs of Controlled Vocabulary Terms  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is significant knowledge captured through annotations on the life sciences Web. In past research, we developed a methodology\\u000a of support and confidence metrics from association rule mining, to mine the association bridge (of termlinks) between pairs of controlled vocabulary (CV) terms across two ontologies. Our (naive) approach did not exploit the following:\\u000a implicit knowledge captured via the hierarchical is-a

Woei-jyh Lee; Louiqa Raschid; Hassan Sayyadi; Padmini Srinivasan

2008-01-01

499

Functional annotation of the Arabidopsis genome using controlled vocabularies.  

PubMed

Controlled vocabularies are increasingly used by databases to describe genes and gene products because they facilitate identification of similar genes within an organism or among different organisms. One of The Arabidopsis Information Resource's goals is to associate all Arabidopsis genes with terms developed by the Gene Ontology Consortium that describe the molecular function, biological process, and subcellular location of a gene product. We have also developed terms describing Arabidopsis anatomy and developmental stages and use these to annotate published gene expression data. As of March 2004, we used computational and manual annotation methods to make 85,666 annotations representing 26,624 unique loci. We focus on associating genes to controlled vocabulary terms based on experimental data from the literature and use The Arabidopsis Information Resource-developed PubSearch software to facilitate this process. Each annotation is tagged with a combination of evidence codes, evidence descriptions, and references that provide a robust means to assess data quality. Annotation of all Arabidopsis genes will allow quantitative comparisons between sets of genes derived from sources such as microarray experiments. The Arabidopsis annotation data will also facilitate annotation of newly sequenced plant genomes by using sequence similarity to transfer annotations to homologous genes. In addition, complete and up-to-date annotations will make unknown genes easy to identify and target for experimentation. Here, we describe the process of Arabidopsis functional annotation using a variety of data sources and illustrate several ways in which this information can be accessed and used to infer knowledge about Arabidopsis and other plant species. PMID:15173566

Berardini, Tanya Z; Mundodi, Suparna; Reiser, Leonore; Huala, Eva; Garcia-Hernandez, Margarita; Zhang, Peifen; Mueller, Lukas A; Yoon, Jungwoon; Doyle, Aisling; Lander, Gabriel; Moseyko, Nick; Yoo, Danny; Xu, Iris; Zoeckler, Brandon; Montoya, Mary; Miller, Neil; Weems, Dan; Rhee, Seung Y

2004-06-01

500

Development and Initial Validation of the Miranda Vocabulary Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miranda vocabulary forms the essential foundation for Miranda comprehension and subsequent decisions to exercise or waive\\u000a Miranda rights. The purpose of the current study is the development of the Miranda Vocabulary Scale (MVS), designed to evaluate\\u000a key vocabulary words found in Miranda warnings and waivers across American jurisdictions. A preliminary list of MVS words\\u000a was refined by expert ratings and

Richard Rogers; Lisa L. Hazelwood; Kenneth W. Sewell; Hayley L. Blackwood; Jill E. Rogstad; Kimberly S. Harrison

2009-01-01