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1

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

2

Head Start Teachers’ Views of Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research indicates that pre-kindergarten programs have not fully closed the gap between low-income and middle-income\\u000a children regarding phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge, two key predictors of later reading success. The current\\u000a study examined Head Start teachers’ views of and challenges in implementing instruction to improve children’s sound and word\\u000a skills. Teachers’ descriptions of their instructional strategies emphasized more planning

Patrick M. O’Leary; Mary K. Cockburn; Douglas R. Powell; Karen E. Diamond

2010-01-01

3

The Nature of Preschool Phonological Processing Abilities and Their Relations to Vocabulary, General Cognitive Abilities, and Print Knowledge  

PubMed Central

The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities (PPA) represents an important developmental milestone in the process of learning to read. In this cross-sectional study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of PPA in 129 younger preschoolers (M = 40.88 months, SD = 4.65) and 304 older preschoolers (M = 56.49 months, SD = 5.31). A 2-factor model in which phonological awareness and phonological memory was represented by one factor and lexical access was represented by a second factor provided the best fit for both samples and was largely invariant across samples. Measures of vocabulary, cognitive abilities, and print knowledge were significantly correlated with both factors, but phonological awareness/memory had unique relations with word reading. Despite significant development of PPA across the preschool years and into kindergarten, these results show that the structure of these skills remains invariant. PMID:22180662

Lonigan, Christopher J.; Anthony, Jason L.; Phillips, Beth M.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; McQueen, Jessica D.

2011-01-01

4

Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of…

Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

5

The Nature of Preschool Phonological Processing Abilities and Their Relations to Vocabulary, General Cognitive Abilities, and Print Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities represents an important developmental milestone in the process of learning to read. In this cross-sectional study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of phonological processing abilities in 129 younger preschoolers (M = 40.88 months, SD = 4.65) and 304…

Lonigan, Christopher J.; Anthony, Jason L.; Phillips, Beth M.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; McQueen, Jessica D.

2009-01-01

6

Modulation of N400 by Word Frequency: The Role of Vocabulary Knowledge and Phonological Working Memory in Adolescents with SLI  

E-print Network

3. Child Language and Cognitive Processes Laboratory, SDSU BACKGROUND Children with SLI have smaller). Phonological working memory has been proposed as a mechanism to support lexical acquisition in typical language Program in Language and Communicative Disorders 2. School of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, SDSU

7

Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

2015-01-01

8

Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method: Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS; Samuelsson et al., 2005). The ILTS includes 1,045…

Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

2013-01-01

9

Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To explore the phonological awareness skills of deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and relationships with vocabulary and reading development. Method: Forty-three deaf children with implants who were between 5 and 15 years of age were tested; 21 had been implanted at around 2.5 years of age (Early CI group), and 22 had been…

Johnson, Carol; Goswami, Usha

2010-01-01

10

Relationships between Vocabulary Size, Working Memory, and Phonological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The goals of this study were to evaluate the impact of short-term phonological awareness (PA) instruction presented in children's first language (L1; Spanish) on gains in their L1 and second language (L2; English) and to determine whether relationships exist between vocabulary size, verbal working memory, and PA in Spanish-speaking…

Gorman, Brenda K.

2012-01-01

11

Process Dissociation of Sight Vocabulary and Phonetic Decoding in Reading: A New Perspective on Surface and Phonological Dyslexias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research on developmental dyslexia has suggested a phonological core deficit hypothesis (e.g., Manis, Seidenberg, Doi, McBride-Chang, & Peterson, 1996; Stanovich, Siegel, & Gottardo, 1997) whereby pure cases of developmental phonological dyslexia (dysfunctional phonetic decoding processing but normal sight vocabulary processing) can exist,…

McDougall, Patricia; Borowsky, Ron; MacKinnon, G. E.; Hymel, Shelley

2005-01-01

12

Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS). The ILTS includes 1,045 twin pairs from the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia aged 5 to 8 years. We applied the DeFries-Fulker regression method to determine whether problems in PM and vocabulary tend to co-occur because of overlapping genes, overlapping environmental risk factors, or both. Results Among children with isolated PM deficits, we found significant bivariate heritability of PM and vocabulary weaknesses both within and across time. However, when probands were selected for a vocabulary deficit, there was no evidence for bivariate heritability. In this case, the PM-vocabulary relationship appeared to owe to common shared environmental experiences. Conclusions The findings are consistent with previous research on the heritability of specific language impairment and suggest that there are etiologic subgroups of children with poor vocabulary for different reasons, one more influenced by genes and another more influenced by environment. PMID:23275423

Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

2012-01-01

13

Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…

Carrier, Sarah J.

2013-01-01

14

Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.

Carrier, Sarah J.

2013-03-01

15

Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates…

Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

2014-01-01

16

Phonological Knowledge in Typical and Atypical Speech-Sound Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses 4 types of phonological knowledge: knowledge of the acoustic and perceptual characteristics of speech sounds (perceptual knowledge), knowledge of the articulatory characteristics of speech sounds (articulatory knowledge), higher level knowledge of the ways that words can be divided into sounds and related phonotactic…

Munson, Benjamin; Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

2005-01-01

17

Orthographic Influences, Vocabulary Development, and Phonological Awareness in Deaf Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study, we explore the influence of orthographic knowledge on phonological awareness in children with cochlear implants and compare developmental associations to those found for hearing children matched for word reading level or chronological age. We show an influence of orthographic knowledge on syllable and phoneme awareness in…

James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha

2009-01-01

18

Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students  

PubMed Central

Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates to other aspects of academic achievement. This study used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test to examine the vocabulary knowledge of DHH and hearing postsecondary students as well as their awareness (predictions) of that knowledge. Relationships between vocabulary knowledge and print exposure, communication backgrounds, and reading and verbal abilities also were examined. Consistent with studies of children, hearing college students demonstrated significantly larger vocabularies than DHH students both with and without cochlear implants. DHH students were more likely to overestimate their vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary scores were positively related to reading and verbal abilities but negatively related to sign language abilities. Among DHH students they also were positively related to measures of spoken language ability. Results are discussed in terms of related cognitive abilities, language fluency, and academic achievement of DHH students and implications for postsecondary education. PMID:25558473

Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

2014-01-01

19

Promoting Vocabulary, Phonological Awareness and Concept about Print among Children at Risk for Learning Disability: Can E-Books Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the…

Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra; Fellah, Renat

2012-01-01

20

Phonological Memory and Children's Second Language Grammar Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…

French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena

2008-01-01

21

Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness, print awareness, and early reading abilities. Phonological awareness, the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, is a precursor to reading. Phonological awareness…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

22

Differentiating the Effects of Phonotactic Probability and Neighborhood Density on Vocabulary Comprehension and Production: A Comparison of Preschool Children with versus without Phonological Delays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To differentiate the effect of phonotactic probability from that of neighborhood density on a vocabulary probe administered to preschool children with or without phonological delays. Method: Twenty preschool children with functional phonological delays and 34 preschool children with typical language development completed a 121-item…

Storkel, Holly L.; Maekawa, Junko; Hoover, Jill R.

2010-01-01

23

Promoting vocabulary, phonological awareness and concept about print among children at risk for learning disability: can e-books help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as\\u000a compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as\\u000a concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the participation of 110 children\\u000a aged

Adina Shamir; Ofra Korat; Renat Fellah

24

Improving Teacher Candidates' Knowledge of Phonological Awareness: A Multimedia Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach students to develop PA is an important component of teacher preparation given its role in learning to read. We believe multimedia can play a key role in improving how educators acquire, master, and prepare to implement evidence-based reading instruction in any nation. One multimedia-based…

Kennedy, Michael J.; Driver, Melissa K.; Pullen, Paige C.; Ely, Emily; Cole, Mira T.

2013-01-01

25

The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

2014-01-01

26

Phonological sensitivity and the acquisition of new words in children.  

PubMed

Two studies are reported which aimed to examine the relationship between phonological sensitivity and the acquisition of new words that systematically differed in the familiarity of their sound structures. In the first study measures of phonological sensitivity, phonological short-term memory, vocabulary, and nonverbal ability were administered to forty-one 5-year-old children. Phonological sensitivity was related to the paired-associate learning of phonologically unfamiliar words, but not to the learning of familiar words. In the second study a group of 14 nonreading 5-year-old children received phonological sensitivity training. A control group was trained in semantic categorization. After the training, the phonological sensitivity group did perform better on measures of letter knowledge and phonological sensitivity (rhyme and first-sound categorization) and appeared to learn phonologically unfamiliar words more easily. The findings of both studies suggest that phonological sensitivity can support the acquisition of novel words. PMID:10882476

de Jong, P F; Seveke, M J; van Veen, M

2000-08-01

27

The Relationship between Prosodic Perception, Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary in Emergent Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have begun to focus on what skills contribute to the development of phonological awareness, an important predictor of reading attainment. One of these skills is the perception of prosody, which is the rhythm, tempo and stress of a language. To examine whether prosodic perception contributes to phonological awareness prior to reading…

Beattie, Rachel L.; Manis, Franklin R.

2014-01-01

28

Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Word Reading in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants: Does Age of Implantation Explain Individual Variability in Performance Outcomes and Growth?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonological awareness (PA), vocabulary, and word reading abilities of 19 children with cochlear implants (CI) were assessed. Nine children had an implant early (between 2 and 3.6 years) and 10 had an implant later (between 5 and 7 years). Participants were tested twice over a 12-month period on syllable, rhyme, and phoneme awareness (see…

James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha

2008-01-01

29

A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Foreign-Language Vocabulary Learning Enhanced by Phonological Rehearsal: The Role of the Right Cerebellum and Left Fusiform Gyrus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological research suggests that foreign-language vocabulary acquisition recruits the phonological loop for verbal working memory. To depict the neural underpinnings and shed light on the process of foreign language learning, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging of Japanese participants without previous exposure to the Uzbek…

Makita, Kai; Yamazaki, Mika; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Koike, Takahiko; Kochiyama, Takanori; Yokokawa, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Haruyo; Sadato, Norihiro

2013-01-01

30

Reading teachers’ knowledge of children’s literature and English phonology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated relationships among elementary teachers’ reading-related content knowledge (knowledge of literature and phonology),\\u000a their philosophical orientation toward reading instruction, their classroom practice, and their students’ learning. Correlations\\u000a showed little relationship between instructional philosophy and content knowledge, and little relationship between instructional\\u000a philosophy and classroom practice. However, relationships emerged between content knowledge and instruction, and between kindergarten\\u000a teachers’ phonological knowledge

Deborah McCutchen; Dawn R. Harry; Susanne Cox; Susan Sidman; Amy E. Covill; Anne E. Cunningham

2002-01-01

31

Teachers' Perceptions and Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Phonological Awareness, Phonics, and Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2011, a small Midwestern school district referred an increasing number of 2nd-4th grade students, with reading problems due to phonetic and phonological awareness deficits, to the district's intervention team. Framed in Shulman's pedagogical content knowledge model and the International Dyslexia Association's phonological deficit…

Williams, Jennifer S.

2012-01-01

32

Enhancing Vocabulary, Print Awareness and Phonological Awareness through Shared Storybook Reading with Low-Income Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study compares the effects of two shared storybook reading (SSR) interventions on language and emergent literacy skills of low-income preschoolers. The control intervention targeted language and print awareness, skills for which there is strong evidence of the effect of SSR. The experimental intervention added a focus on phonological

Lefebvre, Pascal; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

2011-01-01

33

Children with Down Syndrome Use Phonological Knowledge in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an experiment that links phonological awareness and reading performance in children with Down syndrome. Examines the results within the framework of the author's metalinguistic development theory in which alphabet reading is a pacemaker for the development of explicit phonological awareness. (PM)

Gombert, Jean-Emile

2002-01-01

34

Developmental Relations between Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Change Score Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, M[subscript age] = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and…

Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

2015-01-01

35

Lexical Inference in L2: Predictive Roles of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skill beyond Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…

Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami

2014-01-01

36

Contrasting Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge on Temporal and Parietal Brain Structure across Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using behavioral, structural, and functional imaging techniques, we demonstrate contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure in 47 healthy volunteers who ranged in age from 7 to 73 years. In the left posterior supramarginal gyrus, vocabulary knowledge was positively correlated with gray matter density in…

Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Filippi, Roberto; Harth, Helen; Price, Cathy J.

2010-01-01

37

Knowledge of Words, Knowledge about Words: Dimensions of Vocabulary in First and Second Language Learners in Sixth Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite acknowledging the complex nature of vocabulary knowledge, researchers have rarely investigated the dimensionality of this construct empirically. This study was designed to test a multi-dimensional model of English vocabulary knowledge for sixth-grade students from linguistically diverse backgrounds (n = 584). Participants included language…

Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2012-01-01

38

Knowledge, Skills, and Practices Concerning Phonological Awareness among Early Childhood Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom…

Alghazo, Emad M.; Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

2010-01-01

39

Knowledge, Skills, and Practices Concerning Phonological Awareness Among Early Childhood Education Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom practices, on the other hand, was significantly noticeable, an indication that

Emad M. Alghazo; Yasser A. Al-Hilawani

2010-01-01

40

Letter knowledge, phonological processing, and print knowledge: skill development in nonreading preschool children.  

PubMed

Development of reading skills was examined in 4-year-old children from low-income homes attending a prekindergarten program. Fall to spring gains in letter identification were examined and compared with skills in phonological processing, rhyme detection, and environmental print, and with performance on a screening tool (Get Ready to Read). It was anticipated that participants might show slow skill development. However, the identification of a large group of children (n = 30) who made little or no gains in letter identification compared to their classmates (n = 27), whose gains averaged 7 letters, was not anticipated. Fall to spring gains in letter identification correlated with phonological processing, rhyme detection, environmental print, and Get Ready to Read! scores. Age and general cognitive skills influenced performance on some tasks. More knowledge of the characteristics of children who show the most variations in skill development may lead to insights on using classroom curriculum to focus on skill development. PMID:16895155

Molfese, Victoria J; Modglin, Arlene A; Beswick, Jennifer L; Neamon, Jessica D; Berg, Shelby A; Berg, C Jeffrey; Molnar, Andrew

2006-01-01

41

The Effects of English/Language Arts Academic Vocabulary Alignment on Elementary Student Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to provide professional development in vocabulary instructional practices and analyze the impact on student achievement. This quasi-experimental study utilized the PLC to curriculum map English/Language Arts state academic vocabulary words in K-4 into each of the four nine-weeks. The first through fourth grade…

Elkins, Stacey Michelle

2012-01-01

42

Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: a latent change score modeling study.  

PubMed

The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, Mage  = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension to test for the presence of leading and lagging influences. Univariate models indicated growth in vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension was determined by two parts: constant yearly change and change proportional to the previous level of the variable. Bivariate models indicated previous levels of vocabulary knowledge acted as leading indicators of reading comprehension growth, but the reverse relation was not found. Implications for theories of developmental relations between vocabulary and reading comprehension are discussed. PMID:25201552

Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

2015-01-01

43

Nonword Repetition and Levels of Abstraction in Phonological Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Susan Gathercole's Keynote Article (2006) is an impressive summary of the literature on nonword repetition and its relationship to word learning and vocabulary size. When considering research by Mary Beckman, Jan Edwards, and myself, Gathercole speculates that our finding of a stronger relationship between vocabulary measures and repetition…

Munson, Benjamin

2006-01-01

44

Estimating Guessing Effects on the Vocabulary Levels Test for Differing Degrees of Word Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) are often viewed as a preferable estimator of vocabulary knowledge when compared to yes/no checklists, because self-reporting tests introduce the possibility of students overreporting or underreporting scores. However, multiple-choice tests have their own unique disadvantages. It has…

Stewart, Jeffrey; White, David A.

2011-01-01

45

The Yes/No Test as a Measure of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance on the Yes/No test (Huibregtse et al., 2002) was assessed as a predictor of scores on the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), a standard test of receptive second language (L2) vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 1990). The use of identical items on both tests allowed a direct comparison of test performance, with alternative methods for scoring the…

Mochida, Akira; Harrington, Michael

2006-01-01

46

Self-reported reading as a predictor of vocabulary knowledge.  

PubMed

25 engineering students in India, who were highly motivated to improve their English, filled out a questionnaire about their reading habits in English and took a demanding vocabulary test based on words taken from preparation books for the Graduate Records Examination. The correlation between reading habits and vocabulary was substantial (r = .78). PMID:24611248

Pratheeba, N; Krashen, S

2013-10-01

47

Investigating Deaf Children's Vocabulary Knowledge in British Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores different aspects of the mapping between phonological form and meaning of signs in British Sign Language (BSL) by means of four tasks to measure meaning recognition, form recognition, form recall, and meaning recall. The aim was to investigate whether there is a hierarchy of difficulty for these tasks and, therefore, whether…

Mann, Wolfgang; Marshall, Chloe

2012-01-01

48

Does Phonological Short-Term Memory Causally Determine Vocabulary Learning? Toward a Computational Resolution of the Debate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between nonword repetition ability and vocabulary size and vocabulary learning has been a topic of intense research interest and investigation over the last two decades, following the demonstration that nonword repetition accuracy is predictive of vocabulary size (Gathercole & Baddeley, 1989). However, the nature of this…

Gupta, Prahlad; Tisdale, Jamie

2009-01-01

49

Perceptual Recovery from Consonant-Cluster Simplification in Korean Using Language-Specific Phonological Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined whether perceptual recovery from Korean consonant-cluster simplification is based on language-specific phonological knowledge. In tri-consonantal C1C2C3 sequences such as /lkt/ and /lpt/ in Seoul Korean, either C1 or C2 can be completely deleted. Seoul Koreans monitored for C2 targets (/p/ or /k/, deleted or preserved) in…

Cho, Taehong; McQueen, James M.

2011-01-01

50

Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method: The sample comprised 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36…

Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

2012-01-01

51

Mathematical Vocabulary: Fixers of Knowledge or Points of Exploration?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the idea that in mathematics education it is important to wean pupils off the use of informal everyday language and to privilege the use of formal technical vocabulary. I will first make some observations on the use of formal and informal language in the Dimensions transcript. The main focus of the next part of the discussion…

Leung, Constant

2005-01-01

52

The contributions of vocabulary and letter writing automaticity to word reading and spelling for kindergartners  

PubMed Central

In the present study we examined the relation between alphabet knowledge fluency (letter names and sounds) and letter writing automaticity, and unique relations of letter writing automaticity and semantic knowledge (i.e., vocabulary) to word reading and spelling over and above code-related skills such as phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge. These questions were addressed using data from 242 English-speaking kindergartners and employing structural equation modeling. Results showed letter writing automaticity was moderately related to and a separate construct from alphabet knowledge fluency, and marginally (p = .06) related to spelling after accounting for phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge fluency, and vocabulary. Furthermore, vocabulary was positively and uniquely related to word reading and spelling after accounting for phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge fluency, and letter writing automaticity. PMID:24982590

Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Gruelich, Luana

2013-01-01

53

Phonological awareness and the use of phonological similarity in letter-sound learning.  

PubMed

The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were taught the letter sounds that were paired to these same symbols. Each letter sound corresponded to the first sound of the word that was previously associated with that symbol in the phonological similarity group, whereas such a relation was absent in the other group. In addition, measures of vocabulary, letter knowledge, and phonological awareness were administered. Phonological similarity facilitated letter-sound learning. Individual differences in phonological awareness had a strong effect on letter-sound learning even after current letter knowledge was controlled. Unexpectedly, the effects of phonological awareness and the ability to use phonological similarity on letter-sound learning were found to be independent. PMID:17692331

de Jong, Peter F

2007-11-01

54

The relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students. Models were developed and tested using multiple linear regression (MLR) to determine whether vocabulary knowledge is a statistically significant predictor of reading and science. A model was tested for reading achievement, and a model was tested for science achievement. Other independent variables in the models included socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, status as an English-language learner, status as a special education student, classification as gifted/talented, history of retention, and migrant status. Archival data from fifth-grade students in a large, urban public school district were used in the analyses. Both models were found to be statistically significant (p < .001). Findings indicated that reading vocabulary was a statistically significant predictor for both reading achievement (B = .571, p < .001) and science achievement (B = .241, p < .001). The significance of vocabulary to reading achievement confirmed past research. The role of reading vocabulary in science achievement revealed a significant, if modest, relationship. In addition, findings pointed out the significance of variables such as history of retention, gender, and status as an English-language learner. Conclusions from the study, pedagogical implications, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Montgomery, Jennifer Dawn

55

Jump-Start Your Middle School Students' Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in the…

Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara

2012-01-01

56

The Relation between Test Formats and Kindergarteners' Expressions of Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested how 53 kindergarteners' expressions of depth of vocabulary knowledge and use in novel contexts were related to in-context and out-of-context test formats for 16 target words. Applying multilevel, multi-categorical Logit to all 1,696 test item responses, the authors found that kindergarteners were more likely to express deep…

Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming; Currie, Ashelin; Cipielewski, James

2014-01-01

57

An Investigation of the Relationships between Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary Development with Culturally Diverse Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a semantic mapping technique for vocabulary instruction, a study explored how children of diverse groups bring different cultural backgrounds and prior knowledge to tasks involved in learning new words. The study was conducted in three sixth-grade classrooms--one containing rural Native American (especially Menominee) children, another…

Karbon, Jacqueline C.

58

Bilingual Vocabulary Knowledge and Arrival Age among Japanese Heritage Language Students at "Hoshuukoo"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines bilingual vocabulary knowledge in relation to arrival age among first language (L1) Japanese students attending "hoshuukoo" (i.e., supplementary academic schools for Japanese-speaking children) in the United States. It also examines the relationship between L1 Japanese and English as a second language (L2), as…

Mori, Yoshiko; Calder, Toshiko M.

2013-01-01

59

Evaluation of an In-depth Vocabulary Knowledge Measure for Assessing Reading Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central purpose of this study was to empirically evaluate an in-depth vocabulary knowledge measure in the context of developing the new TOEFL test. The study was carried out with a sample of 207 international students attending an intensive English as a second language (ESL) program in a major Canadian university, in order to determine whether…

Qian, D.D.; Schedl, M.

2004-01-01

60

Teaching New Words to Children with Poor Existing Vocabulary Knowledge: A Controlled Evaluation of the Definition and Context Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children who have poor vocabulary knowledge are at risk of wider language weaknesses and reading comprehension difficulties, which will impact upon their educational achievement. The central question addressed in this paper is how best to teach new vocabulary items to these children. Aims: To investigate the effects of two different…

Nash, Hannah; Snowling, Margaret

2006-01-01

61

The Impact of General and Specific Vocabulary Knowledge on Reading and Listening Comprehension: A Case of Iranian EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was carried out to determine the effect of general vocabulary knowledge and gaining familiarity with the specific vocabulary content of a reading or listening comprehension test on a group of Iranian EFL learners' reading and listening comprehension ability. Two groups of male and female English majors (N = 58) participated in…

Mehrpour, Saeed; Rahimi, Mohammad

2010-01-01

62

The Contributions of Vocabulary and Letter Writing Automaticity to Word Reading and Spelling for Kindergartners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study we examined the relation between alphabet knowledge fluency (letter names and sounds) and letter writing automaticity, and unique relations of letter writing automaticity and semantic knowledge (i.e., vocabulary) to word reading and spelling over and above code-related skills such as phonological awareness and alphabet…

Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Gruelich, Luana

2014-01-01

63

Perceptual Recovery from Consonant-Cluster Simplification in Korean Using Language-Specific Phonological Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined whether perceptual recovery from Korean consonant-cluster simplification is based on language-specific\\u000a phonological knowledge. In tri-consonantal C1C2C3 sequences such as \\/lkt\\/ and \\/lpt\\/ in Seoul Korean, either C1 or C2 can be\\u000a completely deleted. Seoul Koreans monitored for C2 targets (\\/p\\/ or \\/ k\\/, deleted or preserved) in the second word of a two-word\\u000a phrase with an underlying

Taehong Cho; James M. McQueen

2011-01-01

64

Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding. Students might be able to formally recite a definition for a term without actually having understood the meaning of the term and its connection to other terms or to related concepts. Researchers (Cassels & Johnstone, 1983; Gabel, 1999; Johnstone, 1991) have been studying the difficulty students have in learning science, particularly chemistry. Gabel (1999) suggests that, "while research into misconceptions (also known as alternative conceptions) and problem-solving has dominated the field for the past 25 years, we are no closer to a solution that would improve the teaching and learning of chemistry" (P. 549). Gabel (1999) relates the difficulty in learning chemistry to use of language. She refers to student difficulty both with words that have more than one meaning in English and with words that are used to mean one idea in chemistry and another idea in every day language. The Frayer Model, a research-based teaching strategy, is a graphic organizer which students use to create meaningful definitions for terms in context (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969). It was used as the treatment---the specific vocabulary instruction---in this research study. The researcher collected and analyzed data to answer three research questions that focused on the effect of using the Frayer model (a graphic organizer) on high school students' knowledge and understanding of academic language used in chemistry. The research took place in a New England high school. Four intact chemistry classes provided the student participants; two classes were assigned to the treatment group (TG) and two classes were assigned to the control group (CG). The TG received vocabulary instruction on 14 chosen terms using the Frayer Model. The CG received traditional vocabulary instruction with no special attention to the 14 terms selected for this study. The vocabulary knowledge was examined by means of multiple-choice pre- and post-tests which were administered to all student participants. The choices included a scientific synonym, an everyday synonym, and a synonym based on a common misconception related to the term. Student understanding of the chemistry content was examined using chemistry content understanding pre- and post-tests comprised of four probes based on the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) and linked to common student misconceptions which were administered to all student participants. Vocabulary knowledge effect scores were compared between the TG and CG using a t-test. Only a slight gain in vocabulary knowledge mean effect scores was found in the TG compared to the CG; however, it was not statistically significant. Chemistry content understanding effect scores were compared between the TG and CG using Chi-square analysis. The results of the chemistry content understanding effect scores in the TG compared to the CG showed that the student participants in the CG did significantly better. Chemistry content understanding effect scores and vocabulary knowledge effect scores were compared using a t-test. Chapter V provides explanations for the results which do not corroborate those found by other researchers. The researcher contends that the use of the Frayer model for specific terms in content across the curriculum is worth further study.

Labrosse, Peggy

65

How Does Second Language Vocabulary Grow over Time? A Multi-Methodological Study of Incremental Vocabulary Knowledge Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the longitudinal development of L2 vocabulary by 17 individual adult L2 learners in an English as a second language (ESL) instructed context over one academic year, combining a longitudinal case study design with two cross-sectional comparisons in order to enhance (a) detailed documentation addressing the idiosyncrasy of L2…

Huang, Hung-Tzu

2010-01-01

66

The Contributions of Phonological Awareness and Letter-Name Knowledge to Letter-Sound Acquisition--A Cross-Classified Multilevel Model Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…

Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu

2010-01-01

67

Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Program on Word Knowledge and Passage Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cluster randomized trial estimated the effects of a supplemental vocabulary program, Elements of Reading[R]: vocabulary on student vocabulary and passage comprehension in moderate- to high-poverty elementary schools. Forty-four schools participated over a period spanning 2 consecutive school years. At baseline, 1,057 teachers and 16,471 students…

Apthorp, Helen; Randel, Bruce; Cherasaro, Trudy; Clark, Tedra; McKeown, Margaret; Beck, Isabel

2012-01-01

68

The Relation of Morphological Awareness and Syntactic Awareness to Adults' Reading Comprehension: Is Vocabulary Knowledge a Mediating Variable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors' goal was to examine the structural relationships among vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension in English-speaking adults. Structural equation analysis of data collected from 151 participants revealed that morphological awareness affected reading comprehension directly. Syntactic…

Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.; Williams, Rihana S.

2011-01-01

69

Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: An 8-year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

2014-01-01

70

Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

2015-01-01

71

Phonology, reading acquisition, and dyslexia: Insights from connectionist models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of reading skill and bases of developmental dyslexia were explored using con- nectionist models. Four issues were examined: the acquisition of phonological knowledge prior to reading, how this knowledge facilitates learning to read, phonological and non phonological bases of dyslexia, and effects of literacy on phonological representation. Compared with simple feedforward networks, representing phonological knowledge in an attractor

Michael W. Harm; Mark S. Seidenberg

1999-01-01

72

Middle School Students Increase Their Vocabulary Knowledge Using Learning Style Preferences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study compared students’ individual learning style preferences on vocabulary achievement in grade seven of communication arts classes by investigating those factors that contribute to intermediate school students' vocabulary achievement. The results of this study throw into question the educational benefit that has been promoted in previous learning style research.

Vivian Nespoli Koppleman

2002-01-01

73

The Relationship between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer…

Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Pae, Hye K.

2014-01-01

74

Generating Vocabulary Knowledge for At-Risk Middle School Readers: Contrasting Program Effects and Growth Trajectories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested whether urban middle-school students from mostly low-income homes had improved academic vocabulary when they participated in a freely available vocabulary program, Word Generation (WG). To understand how this program may support students at risk for long-term reading difficulty, we examined treatment interactions with baseline…

Lawrence, Joshua F.; Rolland, Rebecca Givens; Branum-Martin, Lee; Snow, Catherine E.

2014-01-01

75

Phonological Development in Lexically Precocious 2-Year-Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine interactions between young children's vocabulary size and their phonological abilities, spontaneous language samples were collected from 24-month-olds with precocious lexicons, their age mates (24-month-olds with average-sized lexicons), and their vocabulary mates (30-month-olds with average-sized lexicons). Phonological ability was…

Smith, Bruce L.; McGregor, Karla K.; Demille, Darcie

2006-01-01

76

Modeling the Early Paths of Phonological Awareness and Factors Supporting its Development in Children With and Without Familial Risk of Dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of phonological awareness (PA) before school age was modeled in association with the development of vocabulary and letter knowledge, home literacy environment (HLE), children's reading interest, and beginning reading skill in children with and without familial risk of dyslexia. A total of 186 children were followed from birth to the age of 6.5 years. Of these children, about

Minna Torppa; Anna-Maija Poikkeus; Marja-Leena Laakso; Asko Tolvanen; Esko Leskinen; Paavo H. T. Leppanen; Anne Puolakanaho; Heikki Lyytinen

2007-01-01

77

The Relationship Between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers  

PubMed Central

This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer spontaneously correct answers, and were not helped by stimulus or phonemic cues. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that expressive vocabulary accounted for significant variance in both reading comprehension and exception word reading, but not for general word reading or nonword reading. PMID:24778459

Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Gore, Jacqueline Laures; Pae, Hye K.

2012-01-01

78

The Relationship Between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers.  

PubMed

This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer spontaneously correct answers, and were not helped by stimulus or phonemic cues. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that expressive vocabulary accounted for significant variance in both reading comprehension and exception word reading, but not for general word reading or nonword reading. PMID:24778459

Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Gore, Jacqueline Laures; Pae, Hye K

2014-03-01

79

Cognitive Correlates of Vocabulary Growth in English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study modeled vocabulary trajectories in 91 English language learners (ELLs) with Punjabi, Tamil, or Portuguese home languages, and 50 English monolinguals (EL1) from Grades 1 to 6. The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between phonological awareness and phonological short-term memory and vocabulary were examined. ELLs underperformed…

Farnia, Fataneh; Geva, Esther

2011-01-01

80

Using Instructional Technology to Improve Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher understanding of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach PA is related to student outcomes; however, many teachers have an inadequate understanding of PA. The purpose of this study is to describe an intervention intended to improve preservice teachers' understanding of PA, using an example of instructional technology called…

Driver, Melissa K.; Pullen, Paige C.; Kennedy, Michael J.; Williams, Mira Cole; Ely, Emily

2014-01-01

81

Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

2013-01-01

82

Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

2007-01-01

83

Vocabulary Instruction: The State of Knowledge. Technical Report 1980-4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of studies of four vocabulary teaching methods--context learning, imagery, cognitive style, and natural word learning--resulted in several generalizations about their effectiveness. The generalizations are limited by problems such as the difficulty of defining when a word is "known" and the lack of a way to test permanence of word…

Bowker, Richard

84

Size and Strength: Do We Need Both to Measure Vocabulary Knowledge?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and validation of a test of vocabulary size and strength. The first part of the article sets out the theoretical rationale for the test, and describes how the size and strength constructs have been conceptualized and operationalized. The second part of the article focusses on the process of test validation,…

Laufer, B.; Elder, C.; Hill, K.; Congdon, P.

2004-01-01

85

Developing Vocabulary and Conceptual Knowledge for Low-Income Preschoolers: A Design Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test, and iteratively derive principles of word learning and word organization that could help to theoretically advance our understanding of vocabulary development for low-income preschoolers. Six Head Start teachers in morning and afternoon programs and their children (N = 89) were selected…

Neuman, Susan B.; Dwyer, Julie

2011-01-01

86

Vocabulary acquisition and reading ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical acquisition ability for aurally taught words was studied in fourthgrade children. Reading ability, intelligence, and working memory were evaluated as predictor factors in vocabulary learning. Reading ability was found to predict facility at learning the novel phonological sequences, while intelligence was the only factor which accounted for performance level for the semantic content of the words. The working memory

Linda Aguiar; Susan Brady

1991-01-01

87

Content Area Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2014-01-01

88

Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

2011-01-01

89

PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT?  

E-print Network

PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT? Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet, Michele Miozzo dyslexia. In languages like English or French, in which orthog- raphy allows only an imperfect realisation of phonology, patients with surface dyslexia fail more frequently with words that have an irregular orthography

90

The impact of using student-dictated oral review stories on science vocabulary, content knowledge, and non-fiction writing skills of first grade students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The five science units involved in the study were

Sandra Wells Bishoff

2010-01-01

91

The Impact of Using Student-Dictated Oral Review Stories on Science Vocabulary, Content Knowledge, and Non-Fiction Writing Skills of First Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The…

Bishoff, Sandra Wells

2010-01-01

92

Toward a Better Understanding of First Language Vocabulary Knowledge: The Case of Second-Generation Russian-Jewish Immigrants in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to evaluate the first language (L1) vocabulary knowledge in a large-scale sample (n = 70) of second-generation Russian-Jewish immigrants in Israel. The interest in this research population follows from the unique demographic, sociocultural, linguistic, and psychological distinctiveness of RJ immigration in Israel.…

Schwartz, Mila; Kozminsky, Ely; Leikin, Mark

2009-01-01

93

Effects of Three Comprehensive Models of Vocabulary Instruction during Shared Storybook Read Alouds on Kindergartener's Tier Two Target Word Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of three researcher-designed experimental models of vocabulary instruction during shared storybook read alouds on kindergarten children's Tier Two target word learning and maintenance of word knowledge. The Integrated Model consisted of two readings of the same storybook, direct…

Steuber, Julie Ann

2013-01-01

94

Effective Social Studies Instruction to Promote Knowledge Acquisition and Vocabulary Learning of English Language Learners in the Middle Grades. CREATE Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief explains a CREATE intervention that incorporates literacy and language development activities into social studies instruction. It describes lessons designed to increase English language learners' social studies knowledge while simultaneously improving their vocabulary acquisition and overall reading comprehension.

Reutebuch, Colleen Klein

2010-01-01

95

Teaching Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

Lessard-Clouston, M.

2013-01-01

96

Phonological neighbourhood density : effects in a rhyme awareness task in five-year-old children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological awareness skills are critical for reading acquisition, yet relatively little is known about the origins of phonological awareness. This study investigates one plausible source of the emergence of phono- logical awareness, phonological neighbourhood density. As vocabulary grows, the number of similar-sounding words in the child's mental lexicon increases. This could create developmental pressure to develop awareness of sub-units within

BRUNO D E C ARA; USHA G OSWAMI

2003-01-01

97

The impact of using student-dictated oral review stories on science vocabulary, content knowledge, and non-fiction writing skills of first grade students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The five science units involved in the study were written incorporating the strand of physical science. Data from pre- and posttests from each unit and an end-of-study assessment were compiled and analyzed. This study also looked at integration of science with literacy through analysis of students' science journal writings. Journal writings were analyzed for vocabulary usage and non-fiction writing skills of capitalization and punctuation. Average sentence length was also analyzed for Units 1--5 of the treatment group. It was anticipated that the outcomes of this study would allow school districts and curriculum writers to determine how to best integrate key concepts and important vocabulary with literacy particularly in the area of science. Results from the study showed significant differences in the end-of-study assessment, vocabulary usage as evidenced in journal writings, and average sentence length. Although there was gain over time for every student in the study in vocabulary and content knowledge, these gains could not be attributed to the intervention. This study also hoped to establish whether students were using science vocabulary routinely in their discussions and their writings and were building and continually assessing their own schemas about scientific concepts through using Student Dictated Oral Review Stories.

Bishoff, Sandra Wells

98

Word Meanings Matter: Cultivating English Vocabulary Knowledge in Fifth-Grade Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pilot study investigated the effects of a 20-week quasiexperimental vocabulary intervention aimed at improving Spanish-speaking language minority students' English vocabulary and writing outcomes. Participants were two matched samples of fifth graders (N = 49) in a predominantly Latino, low-income urban school. Pre- and posttest analyses…

Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette

2010-01-01

99

Toward a Model of Motivated Vocabulary Learning: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents a structural model that integrates vocabulary knowledge and motivation with six latent variables: the initial appraisal of vocabulary learning experience, self-regulating capacity of vocabulary learning, strategic vocabulary learning involvement, mastery of vocabulary learning tactics, vocabulary knowledge, and postappraisal of…

Tseng, Wen-Ta; Schmitt, Norbert

2008-01-01

100

Visualizing Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary can become tedious and a chore if it is approached as such. By making art terms and vocabulary meaningful, students will remember and use them for years to come. In this article, the author describes two vocabulary review projects that work wonderfully and create great works of art: (1) cursive creature rubbings; and (2) bubbling bodies…

Skophammer, Karen

2012-01-01

101

What Is Most Important to Know about Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes use of Perfetti's Lexical Quality Hypothesis as a perspective for thinking about vocabulary instruction in terms of semantics (meaning), phonology (pronunciation), orthography (spelling), morphology (meaningful word parts), and syntax (how words function in sentences). Examples are presented of how these aspects of vocabulary

Kucan, Linda

2012-01-01

102

Learning with sublexical information from emerging reading vocabularies in exceptionally early and normal reading development.  

PubMed

Predictions from theories of the processes of word reading acquisition have rarely been tested against evidence from exceptionally early readers. The theories of Ehri, Share, and Byrne, and an alternative, Knowledge Sources theory, were so tested. The former three theories postulate that full development of context-free letter sounds and awareness of phonemes are required for normal acquisition, while the claim of the alternative is that with or without such, children can use sublexical information from their emerging reading vocabularies to acquire word reading. Results from two independent samples of children aged 3-5, and 5 years, with mean word reading levels of 7 and 9 years respectively, showed underdevelopment of their context-free letter sounds and phoneme awareness, relative to their word reading levels and normal comparison samples. Despite such underdevelopment, these exceptional readers engaged in a form of phonological recoding that enabled pseudoword reading, at the level of older-age normal controls matched on word reading level. Moreover, in the 5-year-old sample further experiments showed that, relative to normal controls, they had a bias toward use of sublexical information from their reading vocabularies for phonological recoding of heterophonic pseudowords with irregular consistent spelling, and were superior in accessing word meanings independently of phonology, although only if the readers were without exposure to explicit phonics. The three theories were less satisfactory than the alternative theory in accounting for the learning of the exceptionally early readers. PMID:25498743

Thompson, G Brian; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M; Wilson, Kathryn J; McKay, Michael F; Margrain, Valerie G

2015-03-01

103

Vocabulary Instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the web site Doing What Works, this section describes research-based practices to promote vocabulary development in middle and high school. It includes a multimedia overview of the importance of providing explicit vocabulary instruction, video clips, links to research, and other resources. Content area teachers and strategies for use in content areas like science are specifically addressed in the recommendations.

2008-01-01

104

Developing Low-Income Preschoolers' Social Studies and Science Vocabulary Knowledge through Content-Focused Shared Book Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effects of integrating science and social studies vocabulary instruction into shared book reading with low-income preschool children. Twenty-one preschool teachers and 148 children from their classrooms were randomly assigned at the class level to either the Words of Oral Reading and Language Development (WORLD)…

Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Kim, Minjun; Simmons, Leslie

2011-01-01

105

Vocabulary Knowledge Is a Critical Determinant of the Difference in Reading Comprehension Growth between First and Second Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examines the role of decoding and vocabulary skills as longitudinal predictors of reading comprehension in young first (L1) and second (L2) language learners. Methods: Two-group latent growth models were used to assess differences in growth and predictions of growth between the 198 L1 and 90 L2 language learners. Results: L1…

Lervag, Arne; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover

2010-01-01

106

Phonological and Phonetic Biases in Speech Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates how knowledge of phonological generalizations influences speech perception, with a particular focus on evidence that phonological processing is autonomous from (rather than interactive with) auditory processing. A model is proposed in which auditory cue constraints and markedness constraints interact to determine a…

Key, Michael Parrish

2012-01-01

107

Error-Related Negativities During Spelling Judgments Expose Orthographic Knowledge  

PubMed Central

In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects’ spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. PMID:24389506

Harris, Lindsay N.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Benjamin

2014-01-01

108

Phonological iconicity  

PubMed Central

The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062

Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2014-01-01

109

Phonological bases for L2 morphological learning.  

PubMed

Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g., inflate - inflation) from multiple exposures. Experiment 2 further assessed children's ability to use morphological cues for syntactic categorization through exposures to novel morphologically varying forms (e.g., lutate vs. lutant) presented in the corresponding sentential positions (noun vs. verb). The third-grade EFL learners revealed emergent sensitivity to the morphological cues in the input but failed in fully processing intraword variations. The learners with poorer L1 PA were likely to encounter difficulties in identifying morphological alternation rules and in discovering the syntactic properties of L2 morphology. In addition to L1 PA, L2 vocabulary knowledge also contributed significantly to L2 morphological learning. PMID:20091121

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2010-08-01

110

The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills in the Adult Basic Education Population.  

PubMed

The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In this study, phonological decoding was a unique predictor of spelling ability, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension. We also found that morphological awareness was a unique predictor of spelling ability, vocabulary, and listening comprehension. Morphological awareness indirectly contributed to reading comprehension through vocabulary. These findings suggest the need for morphological interventions for this group of learners. PMID:24935886

Fracasso, Lucille E; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S

2014-06-16

111

Orthography facilitates vocabulary learning for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).  

PubMed

This study investigated the extent to which children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can use orthography to facilitate vocabulary learning, as is the case for typically developing (TD) children. Forty-one children aged 7-12 years, 20 with a formal diagnosis of ASD and 21 TD peers, were taught 16 low-frequency concrete science words, such as "breccia". Half of the stimuli had the written word presented alongside a picture of the target item (orthography present: OP) while the remaining items were taught with orthography absent (OA). During the learning phase, eye movements were recorded; there were no group differences in the time spent fixating the written form. Production, comprehension, and recognition of orthographic forms of new words were assessed immediately after learning and again after a 24-hour delay. The vocabulary learning of both groups was facilitated by the presence of orthography. Overall, the groups did not differ in comprehension of new words or recognition of new orthographic forms, although the children with ASD demonstrated superior phonological learning (as measured by a picture naming task) relative to TD peers. Additionally, both groups retained or increased new knowledge after 24 hours. The results suggest that presenting the written form during oral vocabulary teaching will enhance learning and provide a mechanism for children with ASD to increase word knowledge despite potential limitations in social learning. PMID:24313313

Lucas, Rebecca; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

2014-01-01

112

Vocabulary Size Matters: The Assimilation of Second-Language Australian English Vowels to First-Language Japanese Vowel Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult second-language (L2) learners' perception of L2 phonetic segments is influenced by first-language phonological and phonetic properties. It was recently proposed that L2 vocabulary size in adult learners is related to changes in L2 perception (perceptual assimilation model), analogous to the emergence of first-language phonological function…

Bundgaard-Nielsen, Rikke L.; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.

2011-01-01

113

Speech Perception, Vocabulary, and the Development of Reading Skills in English Among Korean and English-Speaking Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the roles of speech perception and phonological processing in reading and spelling acquisition for native and nonnative speakers of English in the 1st grade. The performance of 50 children (23 native English speakers and 27 native Korean speakers) was examined on tasks assessing reading and spelling, phonological processing, speech perception, and receptive vocabulary at the start and

Penny Chiappe; Barbara Glaeser; Doreen Ferko

2007-01-01

114

Incidental Acquisition of Vocabulary by Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the impact of reading on vocabulary development with adult ESL students at the National Institute of Technology (Trichirappalli, India). The researcher analyzes the performance of the students who devoted their time to reading, and the students who learned consciously the meaning of words to develop their vocabulary knowledge.…

Ponniah, R. Joseph

2011-01-01

115

Vocabulary Practices in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a correlational study of the relationship between teachers' vocabulary instruction practices and pre-kindergarten and kindergarten children's vocabulary. We observed sixteen teachers during three 90-minute language arts blocks, and we assessed the performance of their 244 children on knowledge of target words and…

Silverman, Rebecca; Crandell, Jennifer DiBara

2010-01-01

116

English Vocabulary Instruction for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…

Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

2009-01-01

117

Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

Schmitt, Norbert

2008-01-01

118

Promoting Vocabulary Learning for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge, which is key to the reading comprehension of English learners (ELs), must be a focus for every teacher in today's increasingly diverse schools, including those in the mainstream classroom. This article strives to increase awareness of the five characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction as well as demonstrate how such…

Wessels, Stephanie

2011-01-01

119

Patterns of Independent Reading, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Literacy Skills among English- Only, Limited-English Proficient, and Fluent-English Proficient Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined independent reading behaviors and contextual factors that contributed to growth in vocabulary and literacy of fourth grade English-only (EO), limited English proficient (LEP), and fluent English proficient (FEP) children. Participants were given pre-post measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary, word reading, decoding,…

Hansen, Laurie E.

2011-01-01

120

Development of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…

Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2012-01-01

121

English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

2012-01-01

122

Teaching Vocabulary through Poetry in an EFL Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study has been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using poetry to teach vocabulary in a foreign language classroom. It aims to find answers to two research questions (1) "Do the learners enhance more extensive vocabulary knowledge by means of poetry-based vocabulary teaching activities than the traditional coursebook activities?"…

Ozen, Baki; Mohammadzadeh, Behbood

2012-01-01

123

The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary that supplements the Tier 1 core curriculum in language. Recent findings from research developing a…

Kong, Na Young

2013-01-01

124

Academic Vocabulary and Middle School English Learners: An Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this experimental intervention study was to determine if evidence-based instructional strategies for general vocabulary words are effective with middle school English learner (EL) students and academic vocabulary words. Participants showed significantly more growth in their knowledge of academic vocabulary during the treatment…

Townsend, Dianna; Collins, Penny

2009-01-01

125

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

126

Research Article Phonological Dyslexia  

E-print Network

Research Article Phonological Dyslexia A Test Case for Reading Models Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet,1 words, a type of deficit referred to as phonological dyslexia. We report on 2 individuals with Alzheimer's disease who show phonological dyslexia. Although highly accurate in reading familiar words aloud (even

127

CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Declarative Knowledge): Students will demonstrate that they have learned the vocabulary and concepts specific to the discipline of history.  

E-print Network

and technical skills. COMMUNICATION (Written Communication; Oral Communication): Students will produce will also demonstrate effective oral communication skills by presenting a portion of the written work of History through various oral and written assignments. CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Research Skills; Technical

Fernandez, Eduardo

128

Analysis of reading strategies in deaf adults as a function of their language and meta-phonological skills.  

PubMed

The first aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms used in reading sentences by deaf adults who had completed secondary or higher education. Previous data allowed us to hypothesize that they used the key word strategy, consisting of identifying (some of) the frequent content words, and deriving an overall representation of the sentence's meaning ignoring the function words. The results supported the hypothesis. The second aim was to establish the relationships between this strategy and the linguistic and phonological abilities of deaf participants. The results show that vocabulary increased with reading level, but syntax, evaluated with the use of function words, did not. This suggests that using the key word strategy during long periods of time increases knowledge of content words but not syntax, probably because function words are neglected by this strategy. The results also showed that the deaf participants had a fairly large orthographical lexicon. This implies that the extensive use of the key word strategy allows them to store lexical information. The next question was whether the written word representations of the deaf participants were memorized as mere logograms, or if they had been stored in connection with the phonological representations of the corresponding words. The metaphonological tasks conducted produced evidence indicating that deaf participants used both orthographic and phonological representations. A factor analysis of the metaphonological tasks together with reading and spelling confirmed that both factors were necessary to explain the whole variance in the deaf group. PMID:24751906

Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; Pérez, Maria Del Mar; Alegría, Jesus

2014-07-01

129

The Challenge of Validation: Assessing the Performance of a Test of Productive Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the performance of a vocabulary test designed to measure second language productive vocabulary knowledge.The test, Lex30, uses a word association task to elicit vocabulary, and uses word frequency data to measure the vocabulary produced. Here we report firstly on the reliability of the test as measured by a test-retest study, a…

Fitzpatrick, Tess; Clenton, Jon

2010-01-01

130

The Role of Vocabulary Size in Predicting Performance on TOEFL Reading Item Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine a) whether vocabulary knowledge, captured in the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), is related to the performance on the five types of reading comprehension items tested in TOEFL, i.e., Guessing Vocabulary, Main Idea, Inference, Reference, and Stated Detail; and b) whether EFL learners with different levels of vocabulary

Alavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Akbarian, Is'haaq

2012-01-01

131

Neurocognitive mechanisms of learning to read: print tuning in beginning readers related to word-reading fluency and semantics but not phonology.  

PubMed

During reading acquisition children learn to recognize orthographic stimuli and link them to phonology and semantics. The present study investigated neurocognitive processes of learning to read after one year of schooling. We aimed to elucidate the cognitive processes underlying neural tuning for print that has been shown to play an important role for reading and dyslexia. A 128-channel EEG was recorded while 68 (Swiss-)German monolingual first grade children (mean age: 7.6) performed a one-back task with different types of letter and false-font strings. Print tuning was indexed by the N1 difference in the ERPs between German words and false-font strings, while the N1 lexicality effect was indexed by the difference between German words and pseudowords. In addition, we measured reading fluency, rapid automatized naming, phonological awareness, auditory memory span, and vocabulary. After one year of formal reading instruction N1 print tuning was clearly present at the group level, and could be detected at the individual level in almost 90% of the children. The N1 lexicality effect, however, could not be reliably found. On the cognitive level, next to word-reading fluency, vocabulary was also associated with N1 print tuning, but not measures reflecting phonological processing. These results demonstrate the presence of print tuning in the first year of reading acquisition and its development at the individual level. Moreover, individual differences in print tuning are not only related to word-reading fluency, but also to semantic knowledge, indicating that at early stages of learning to read the top-down modulation of print tuning is semantic rather than phonological in nature. PMID:24863157

Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K; Jost, Lea B; Raith, Margit; Maurer, Urs

2015-01-01

132

Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their collaborators using SISSvoc3, including: * geologic timescale (multiple versions) * soils classification * definitions from OGC standards * geosciml vocabularies * mining commodities * hyperspectral scalars Several other agencies in Australia have adopted SISSvoc3 for their vocabularies. SISSvoc3 differs from other SKOS-based vocabulary-access APIs such as GEMET [3] and NVS [4] in that (a) the service is decoupled from the content store, (b) the service URI is independent of the content URIs This means that a SISSvoc3 interface can be deployed over any SKOS vocabulary which is available at a SPARQL endpoint. As an example, a SISSvoc3 query and presentation interface has been deployed over the NERC vocabulary service hosted by the BODC, providing a search interface which is not available natively. We use vocabulary services to populate menus in user interfaces, to support data validation, and to configure data conversion routines. Related services built on LDA have also been used as a generic registry interface, and extended for serving gazetteer information. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The CSIRO SISSvoc3 implementation is built using the Epimorphics ELDA platform http://code.google.com/p/elda/. We thank Jacqui Githaiga and Terry Rankine for their contributions to SISSvoc design and implementation. REFERENCES 1. SISSvoc3 Specification https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/Siss/SISSvoc30Specification 2. Linked Data API http://code.google.com/p/linked-data-api/wiki/Specification 3. GEMET https://svn.eionet.europa.eu/projects/Zope/wiki/GEMETWebServiceAPI 4. NVS 2.0 http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/

Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

2013-04-01

133

Phonological Awareness and Reading Proficiency in Adults with Profound Deafness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…

Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.

2014-01-01

134

PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN THE LAST 50 YEARS Peter Ladefoged  

E-print Network

1 PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN THE LAST 50 YEARS Peter Ladefoged Dept. Linguistics, UCLA, Los Angeles Communication, MIT, 11-13 June 2004.] ABSTRACT In the last 50 years there have been steady gains in phonetic knowledge and punctuated equilibrium in phononological theories. Phonetics and phonology meet most obviously

Port, Robert

135

A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may be more easily mapped to the OGC Observations & Measurements model for cross-domain applications.

Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

2014-05-01

136

The Relation of Linguistic Awareness and Vocabulary to Word Reading and Spelling for First-Grade Students Participating in Response to Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The relations of phonological, orthographic, and morphological awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling were examined for 304 first-grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RtI) model of instruction. Method: First-grade children were assessed on their phonological,…

Kim, Young-Suk; Apel, Kenn; Al Otaiba, Stephanie

2013-01-01

137

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development  

PubMed Central

Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge, but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and reading continued for word recognition and decoding through grade 4, but genetic and environmental correlations between vocabulary and reading comprehension approached unity by grade 4, when vocabulary and word recognition accounted for all of the genetic and shared environment influences on reading comprehension. PMID:21132077

Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

2010-01-01

138

Phonological coding during reading.  

PubMed

The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679

Leinenger, Mallorie

2014-11-01

139

Investigating Methods of Kindergarten Vocabulary Instruction: Which Methods Work Best?  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOR OUTSTANDING STUDENT RESEARCH AWARD WINNER Early vocabulary knowledge provides an important foundation for children's reading development (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 2000; Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Thus, the many children who enter school with limited vocabulary knowledge may be at risk for experiencing later difficulty in reading. In order to provide support for the

Rebecca Deffes Silverman

140

Number-Concept Acquisition and General Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et…

Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W.

2012-01-01

141

Direct and Extended Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten: Investigating Transfer Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an 18-week program of direct and extended vocabulary instruction with kindergarten students on both proximal measures of target word knowledge and transfer measures of generalized language and literacy. A second purpose was to examine whether treatment effects would be moderated by initial receptive vocabulary knowledge measured at pretest. In

Michael D. Coyne; D. Betsy McCoach; Susan Loftus; Richard Zipoli Jr; Maureen Ruby; Yvel C. Crevecoeur; Sharon Kapp

2010-01-01

142

What Is Academic Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

2010-01-01

143

Phonetics Is Not Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A re-examination of phonological rules called "reciprocal rules" for Catalan. Their use is disclaimed as being responsible for processes of stop deletion and stop insertion since the rules violate ordering constraints and morpheme structure conditions and confuse phonetics with phonology. (SC)

Roca, Ignacio M.

1975-01-01

144

Gradient Weight in Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

Ryan, Kevin Michael

2011-01-01

145

Improving Vocabulary Skills of Kindergarten Students through a Multi-Tier Instructional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing need for the inclusion of direct, explicit vocabulary instruction in the early elementary grades. Young children are entering school with a wide range of early literacy experiences, including vocabulary knowledge. Those students who are limited in their vocabulary knowledge are at a greater risk for later language and reading…

Cuticelli, Mari; Coyne, Michael D.; Ware, Sharon M.; Oldham, Ashley; Loftus Rattan, Susan

2015-01-01

146

Phonological Skills and Writing of Presyllabic Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies causal relationships between the development of phonological abilities and progress in knowledge about writing in 90 middle-class Portuguese preschool children. Discusses how two experimental intervention programs proved equivalent in terms of the conceptual evolution they triggered, to the extent that the children in both experimental…

Silva, Cristina; Alves-Martins, Margarida

2002-01-01

147

Development of phonological constancy: 19-month-olds, but not 15-month-olds, identify words in a non-native regional accent  

PubMed Central

By 12 months, children grasp that a phonetic change to a word can change its identity (phonological distinctiveness). However, they must also grasp that some phonetic changes do not (phonological constancy). To test development of phonological constancy, 16 15-month-olds and 16 19-month-olds completed an eye-tracking task that tracked their gaze to named versus unnamed images for familiar words spoken in their native (Australian) and an unfamiliar non-native (Jamaican) regional accent of English. Both groups looked longer at named than unnamed images for Australian pronunciations, but only 19-month-olds did so for Jamaican pronunciations, indicating that phonological constancy emerges by 19 months. Vocabulary size predicted 15-month-olds' identifications for the Jamaican pronunciations, suggesting vocabulary growth is a viable predictor for phonological constancy development. PMID:23521607

Mulak, Karen E.; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.; Kitamura, Christine; Irwin, Julia R.

2014-01-01

148

The dorsal stream contribution to phonological retrieval in object naming  

PubMed Central

Meaningful speech, as exemplified in object naming, calls on knowledge of the mappings between word meanings and phonological forms. Phonological errors in naming (e.g. GHOST named as ‘goath’) are commonly seen in persisting post-stroke aphasia and are thought to signal impairment in retrieval of phonological form information. We performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis of 1718 phonological naming errors collected from 106 individuals with diverse profiles of aphasia. Voxels in which lesion status correlated with phonological error rates localized to dorsal stream areas, in keeping with classical and contemporary brain-language models. Within the dorsal stream, the critical voxels were concentrated in premotor cortex, pre- and postcentral gyri and supramarginal gyrus with minimal extension into auditory-related posterior temporal and temporo-parietal cortices. This challenges the popular notion that error-free phonological retrieval requires guidance from sensory traces stored in posterior auditory regions and points instead to sensory-motor processes located further anterior in the dorsal stream. In a separate analysis, we compared the lesion maps for phonological and semantic errors and determined that there was no spatial overlap, demonstrating that the brain segregates phonological and semantic retrieval operations in word production. PMID:23171662

Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Kim, Junghoon; Coslett, H. Branch

2012-01-01

149

Retrieval, Automaticity, Vocabulary Elaboration, Orthography (RAVE-O): A Comprehensive, Fluency-based Reading Intervention Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The RAVE-O (Retrieval, Automaticity, Vocabulary Elaboration, Orthography) program is an experimental, fluency-based approach to reading intervention that is designed to accompany a phonological analysis program for children with developmental reading disabilities. The goals, theoretical principles, and applied activities of the RAVE-O curriculum…

Wolf, Maryanne; Miller, Lynne; Donnelly, Katharine

2000-01-01

150

Speech Perception, Metalinguistic Awareness, Reading, and Vocabulary in Chinese-English Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the intercorrelations among speech perception, metalinguistic (i.e., phonological and morphological) awareness, word reading, and vocabulary in a 1st language (L1) and a 2nd language (L2). Results from 3 age groups of Chinese-English bilingual children showed that speech perception was more predictive of reading and…

Cheung, Him; Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Wong, Simpson Wai Lap; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Penney, Trevor Bruce; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

2010-01-01

151

The Benefit of Orthographic Support for Oral Vocabulary Learning in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Down syndrome typically have weaknesses in oral language, but it has been suggested that this domain may benefit from learning to read. Amongst oral language skills, vocabulary is a relative strength, although there is some evidence of difficulties in learning the phonological form of spoken words. This study investigated the effect…

Mengoni, Sylvana E.; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

2013-01-01

152

Evidence for Preserved Novel Word Learning in Down Syndrome Suggests Multiple Routes to Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to…

Mosse, Emma K.; Jarrold, Christopher

2011-01-01

153

Manipulating Word Properties: Targeting Vocabulary Learning for Children with and without Speech Sound Inaccuracies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the relations between speech sound accuracy, vocabulary, and phonological awareness, and (2) to examine the effect of word properties of neighborhood density and phonotactic probability on word learning within a storybook context, for children with and without speech sound inaccuracies. Fifty…

McDowell, Kimberly D.; Carroll, Jeri

2012-01-01

154

Cell Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to cells, organelles, and the plasma membrane. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Jennifer Doherty

155

Genetics Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing genetics vocabulary. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Jennifer Doherty

156

NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

1991-01-01

157

Effects of nonfiction guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds on fourth grader's depth of content area science vocabulary knowledge and comprehension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of nonfiction guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds as a supplement to basal science textbooks on three vocabulary measures, definitions, examples, and characteristics, and one multiple-choice comprehension measure were assessed for 127 fourth graders over three time periods: pretest, posttest, and a 2-week delayed posttest. Two of three fourth-grade elementary science teachers implemented a series of 12 content-enhanced guided interactive scripted lessons. Two of these teachers implemented two treatments each. The first condition employed basal science textbooks as the text for guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds while the second treatment employed basal science textbooks in conjunction with nonfiction text sets as the texts for guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds. The third teacher, guided by traditional lesson plans, provided students with silent independent reading instruction using basal science textbooks. Multivariate analyses of variance and analyses of variance tests showed that mean scores for both treatment groups significantly improved on definitions and characteristics measures at posttest and either stabilized or slightly declined at delayed posttest. The treatment-plus group lost considerably on the examples posttest measure. The treatment group improved mean scores on the examples posttest measure, outperforming the treatment-plus group and the control group. Alternately, the control group significantly improved on the delayed posttest examples measure. Additionally, the two groups implementing guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds performed better than the independent reading group on multiple-choice comprehension measures at posttest and sustained those gains 2 weeks later on delayed posttests. Findings maintain the incremental nature of vocabulary acquisition and development research and emphasize the roles of listening and speaking as critical features for integrating vocabulary into long-term memory.

Hanna, Tania Tamara

158

Redefining Vocabulary: The New Learning Strategy for Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although vocabulary development is an important part of the social studies curriculum, vocabulary activities are often inadequate, leaving students with cursory knowledge of terms. Worse still is the fact that many of the most critical words demarcating the field are not included in those activities. Therefore, a transformation from viewing…

Alexander-Shea, Aimee

2011-01-01

159

The Role of Experience in Learning Science Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparing traditional to experiential instruction, a study investigated whether teaching content area vocabulary using hands-on experiences and teacher/student interaction would result in greater vocabulary knowledge and better comprehension of a related text than conventional dictionary work. Subjects, 45 fourth grade students from a chapter 1…

Lloyd, Carol V.; Contreras, Norma J.

160

ESL Preschoolers' English Vocabulary Acquisition from Storybook Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents a study which focused on some of the gaps in current knowledge about vocabulary acquisition from storybook reading. First, the study examined the effects of storybook reading on the vocabulary acquisition of 4- and 5-year-olds. Second, the study not only employed repeated readings of stories but also employed…

Collins, Molly Fuller

2005-01-01

161

Bridging the Gap between Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Size through Extensive Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that extensive reading promotes the incidental learning of L1 and L2 receptive vocabulary; however, little is known about its effectiveness on productive gains in vocabulary knowledge. This paper investigates the extent to which extensive reading combined with writing tasks promotes productive vocabulary growth of Japanese…

Yamamoto, Yuka

2011-01-01

162

Nine Things Every Teacher Should Know about Words and Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge contributes to comprehension, fluency, and student achievement. The goal of vocabulary instruction should be to build students' independent word-learning strategies. This article provides research and theory in support of nine key ideas about words and vocabulary instruction. These ideas are important for middle and secondary…

Bromley, Karen

2007-01-01

163

The Role of Home Literacy and Language Environment on Bilinguals' English and Spanish Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the monolingual population, research has shown that vocabulary knowledge is closely related to reading achievement. However, the role of vocabulary has not been studied as extensively in the bilingual population. It is important to look at vocabulary to better understand reading achievement in the bilingual population in the United States.…

Duursma, Elisabeth; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Szuber, Anna; Proctor, Patrick; Snow, Catherine; August, Diane; Calderon, Margarita

2007-01-01

164

English Language Learners and English-Only Learners' Response to Direct Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined data from an 18-week kindergarten vocabulary intervention study to determine whether treatment outcomes had differential effects that favored English language learners (ELLs) or English-only learners (EOLs) and whether the relationship between initial English general receptive vocabulary knowledge and response to vocabulary

Crevecoeur, Yvel C.; Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy

2014-01-01

165

Does Discussion Make a Difference in Vocabulary Learning from Expository Text Read Alouds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of discussion on vocabulary learning from expository text read alouds. This study used a pre-/post within-subjects design to investigate whether discussion contributed to improved vocabulary knowledge from expository text read alouds and whether the placement of discussion makes a difference in vocabulary

Zelinke, Sarah Beall

2011-01-01

166

Influence of Three Teaching Strategies on Korean EFL Students' Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the effectiveness of three different learning strategies on Korean EFL students' vocabulary comprehension and retention: context, semantic mapping, and word lists. 116 college freshmen were placed into one of the three treatments of vocabulary instruction. Subjects were tested on varying levels of vocabulary knowledge using…

Chin, Cheongsook

2009-01-01

167

VISUAL VOCABULARY IN BRANDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual vocabulary or visual language is a set of symbols used to describe a system or a process; it refers to all graphical representations that supplement a brand image, a logo, and build a brand identity that is bound to remain invariable even when the sign undergoes fundamental changes. The article is a presentation of the concept of visual vocabulary\\/language

Adriana Vintean; Ovidiu Matiu

2011-01-01

168

Math Vocabulary Bingo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"This lesson provides students an opportunity to assess their understanding of mathematical vocabulary as they relate to key concepts from the five content areas. Through the use of a familiar game format, Bingo, students will identify numbers 0-75 that correspond to mathematical descriptions from math vocabulary clue cards" from NCTM's Illuminations).

NCTM

2010-06-03

169

The Structure of Phonological Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…

Samuels, Bridget D.

2009-01-01

170

The influence of speech perception, oral language ability, the home literacy environment, and pre-reading knowledge on the growth of phonological sensitivity: A one-year longitudinal investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in phonologicalsensitivity are among the most powerfulpredictors of early word decoding ability and adeficit in phonological sensitivity is thoughtto be the primary stumbling block for thosechildren who have difficulty learning to read. However, only recently have researchers begunto search for the potential causes andcorrelates in phonological sensitivitydevelopment. In the present one-yearlongitudinal study, the influences of speechperception, oral language

Stephen R. Burgess

2002-01-01

171

Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

Kugelmass, Rachel

172

Language evolution: syntax before phonology?  

PubMed Central

Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364

Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.

2014-01-01

173

Use of Metadata Vocabularies in Data Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a prototype system for devising and using a metadata vocabulary for data retrieval, based on a project at the United States Department of Agriculture. A unified information-access system called REEIS (Research, Education, Economics, Extension Information System) is being designed to provide a knowledge base of programs, projects, and…

Cortez, Edwin M.

1999-01-01

174

The Importance of Vocabulary for Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major component of literacy is "vocabulary," or the words employed by a language or in a field of knowledge. Understanding novel words and concepts is important for young students as they are confronted with a great deal of new terminology in the passages they read, especially in content areas such as science. Science is a discipline that relies…

Cohen, Marisa T.

2012-01-01

175

Phonological Memory as a Predictor of Language Comprehension in Down Syndrome: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study reports the language and memory progress over five years of 30 adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome, and investigates the relationship of earlier phonological memory abilities to later language development. Methods: Tests of nonverbal ability, receptive vocabulary, grammar comprehension, digit span and nonword…

Laws, Glynis; Gunn, Deborah

2004-01-01

176

Improving Early Language and Literacy Skills: Differential Effects of an Oral Language versus a Phonology with Reading Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study compares the efficacy of two school-based intervention programmes (Phonology with Reading (P + R) and Oral Language (OL)) for children with poor oral language at school entry. Methods: Following screening of 960 children, 152 children (mean age 4;09) were selected from 19 schools on the basis of poor vocabulary and verbal…

Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Snowling, Margaret J.; Duff, Fiona J.; Fieldsend, Elizabeth; Carroll, Julia M.; Miles, Jeremy; Gotz, Kristina; Hulme, Charles

2008-01-01

177

Phonetics and Phonology. Occasional Papers, No. 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is devoted to phonetics and phonology. It consists of the following papers: (1) "Generative Phonology, Dependency Phonology and Southern French," by J. Durand, which discusses aspects of a regional pronunciation of French, the status of syllables in generative phonology, and concepts of dependency phonology; (2) "On the Role of…

Essex Univ., Colchester (England). Dept. of Language and Linguistics.

178

Learning Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…

Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris

2009-01-01

179

Playing Games: Vocabulary Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finding ways to keep students active and engaged in the classroom is not easy. Introducing a game like Vocabulary Survival in which students are allowed to compete while also learning moral concepts can create a fun and successful learning environment.

Sara Dea

180

Geospatial Revolution: GIS Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive based on Penn State Public Broadcasting’s Geospatial Revolution project, learn vocabulary that has developed with the growth of GIS, watch relevant videos and check your understanding of those words using the embedded assessment.

WPSU

2010-10-12

181

Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background & Aims: The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among…

Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

2013-01-01

182

Phonological Awareness: From Research to Practice. Challenges in Language and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unique resource provides a comprehensive review of current knowledge about phonological awareness, together with practical guidance for helping preschoolers to adolescents acquire needed skills. Up-to-date findings are synthesized on the development of phonological awareness; its role in literacy learning; and how it can be enhanced in…

Gillon, Gail T.

2007-01-01

183

The Tug of War between Phonological, Semantic and Shape Information in Language-Mediated Visual Search  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments 1 and 2 examined the time-course of retrieval of phonological, visual-shape and semantic knowledge as Dutch participants listened to sentences and looked at displays of four pictures. Given a sentence with "beker," "beaker," for example, the display contained phonological (a beaver, "bever"), shape (a bobbin, "klos"), and semantic (a…

Huettig, Falk; McQueen, James M.

2007-01-01

184

Pushing the Positive: Encouraging Phonological Transfer from L2 to L3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared to monolinguals, multilingual learners possess a larger repertoire of phonetic-phonological parameters, have a higher degree of language and meta-linguistic awareness, and have developed increased phonological knowledge. This, combined with the increased cognitive flexibility that accompanies experienced learners, supports their…

Marx, Nicole; Mehlhorn, Grit

2010-01-01

185

Math Vocabulary Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These math vocabulary cards are available as both an iOS app and as a web app. Each card features three sections: a math term, a representative example or model, and a concise definition. The user can choose which of the three they want to be visible and which they would like students to identify. The teacher can choose which vocabulary terms the students will view based on grade, math topic, and even specific word selection from the given list.

Clarity Innovations

2014-01-01

186

Speech recognition: Acoustic phonetic and lexical knowledge representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this program is to develop a speech data base facility under which the acoustic characteristics of speech sounds in various contexts can be studied conveniently; investigate the phonological properties of a large lexicon of, say 10,000 words, and determine to what extent the phontactic constraints can be utilized in speech recognition; study the acoustic cues that are used to mark work boundaries; develop a test bed in the form of a large-vocabulary, IWR system to study the interactions of acoustic, phonetic and lexical knowledge; and develop a limited continuous speech recognition system with the goal of recognizing any English word from its spelling in order to assess the interactions of higher-level knowledge sources.

Zue, V. W.

1983-02-01

187

Speech recognition: Acoustic phonetic and lexical knowledge representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this program is to develop a speech data base facility under which the acoustic characteristics of speech sounds in various contexts can be studied conveniently; investigate the phonological properties of a large lexicon of, say 10,000 words and determine to what extent the phonotactic constraints can be utilized in speech recognition; study the acoustic cues that are used to mark work boundaries; develop a test bed in the form of a large-vocabulary, IWR system to study the interactions of acoustic, phonetic and lexical knowledge; and develop a limited continuous speech recognition system with the goal of recognizing any English word from its spelling in order to assess the interactions of higher-level knowledge sources.

Zue, V. W.

1984-02-01

188

Research report Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: Cognitive  

E-print Network

Research report Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: Cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates Jordan Grafman Published online 5 June 2008 Keywords: Phonological dyslexia/dysgraphia Perisylvian cortex the neuropsychological mechanisms and lesion correlates of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia, we studied written

189

Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

190

Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

2013-12-01

191

The Role of Home and School Factors in Predicting English Vocabulary among Bilingual Kindergarten Children in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in monolingual populations indicate that vocabulary knowledge is essential to reading achievement, but how vocabulary develops in bilingual children has been understudied. The current study investigated the role of home and school factors in predicting English vocabulary among 284 bilingual kindergartners (168 Chinese, 65 Malay, 51…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2011-01-01

192

The Future Teachers' Frequency Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the compilation of the Future Teachers' Frequency Vocabulary, based on 236 written compositions by students at a teacher training college in Belgrade. Results were compared with the Child Frequency Vocabulary compiled in 1983, based on children's compositions. (LET)

Knaflic, Vladislava

1992-01-01

193

Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: Direct Tests and Text-Derived Simulations of Vocabulary Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determining word meanings that ought to be taught or introduced is important for educators. A sequence for vocabulary growth can be inferred from many sources, including testing children's knowledge of word meanings at various ages, predicting from print frequency, or adult-recalled Age of Acquisition. A new approach, Word Maturity, is based…

Biemiller, Andrew; Rosenstein, Mark; Sparks, Randall; Landauer, Thomas K.; Foltz, Peter W.

2014-01-01

194

Analyses of Receptive and Productive Korean EFL Vocabulary: Computer-Based Vocabulary Learning Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research study investigated the effects of 8 versions of a computer-based vocabulary learning program on receptive and productive knowledge levels of college students. The participants were 106 male and 103 female Korean EFL students from Kyungsung University and Kwandong University in Korea. Students who participated in versions of…

Kim, Scott Sungki

2013-01-01

195

Spelling in oral deaf and hearing dyslexic children: A comparison of phonologically plausible errors.  

PubMed

A written single word spelling to dictation test and a single word reading test were given to 68 severe-profoundly oral deaf 10-11-year-old children and 20 hearing children with a diagnosis of dyslexia. The literacy scores of the deaf children and the hearing children with dyslexia were lower than expected for children of their age and did not differ from each other. Three quarters of the spelling errors of hearing children with dyslexia compared with just over half the errors of the oral deaf group were phonologically plausible. Expressive vocabulary and speech intelligibility predicted the percentage of phonologically plausible errors in the deaf group only. Implications of findings for the phonological decoding self-teaching model and for supporting literacy development are discussed. PMID:25462488

Roy, P; Shergold, Z; Kyle, F E; Herman, R

2014-11-01

196

Adapting a Vocabulary Notebook Strategy to the Needs of Community College English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary, both the number of words and the knowledge about each word, are important in the comprehension of academic text in post-secondary education, and adult English language learners often have vocabularies of low quantity (number of words) and quality (knowledge about words). Research points to the effectiveness of teaching independent…

Taveggia, Diane Elizabeth

2013-01-01

197

Teaching Vocabulary to ESL Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the ways in which vocabulary is taught and in particular what important learning points ESL students should know in order to understand new vocabulary words. It also discusses various ideas of how teachers could teach vocabulary. It highlights the importance of a theory that states there are 3 key stages that students progress…

McBain, Robert

2011-01-01

198

New Directions in Vocabulary Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been great strides made in research on vocabulary in the last 30 years. However, there has been relatively little progress in the development of new vocabulary tests. This may be due in some degree to the impressive contributions made by tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (Nation, 1983; Schmitt et al., 2001) and the Word…

Webb, Stuart A.; Sasao, Yosuke

2013-01-01

199

Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule  

PubMed Central

Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X?XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal. PMID:24959158

Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

2014-01-01

200

Phonological Priming and Irregular Past  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been shown that the processing of irregular past-tense forms is affected by phonological factors that are inherent in the relationship of the past-tense forms to other words in the lexicon (rhyming families of irregulars) or to their base forms (vowel dominance effects). This paper addresses more ephemeral phonological effects. In a…

Stemberger, Joseph Paul

2004-01-01

201

Addressing phonological questions with ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of consonant cluster phonotactics is presented as an example of how ultrasound

Lisa Davidson

2005-01-01

202

Global Rules and Phonological Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is asserted that the treatment of intonation within the framework of generative grammar has not shown whether surface syntactic structure is sufficient for formulation of phonological rules. An attempt is made to demonstrate that within English phonology reference to deep structure is necessary. (Available from: See FL 508 214). (RM)

Gussmann, Edmund

1973-01-01

203

The Dynamics of Phonological Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation proposes a dynamical computational model of the timecourse of phonological parameter setting. In the model, phonological representations embrace phonetic detail, with phonetic parameters represented as activation fields that evolve over time and determine the specific parameter settings of a planned utterance. Existing models of…

Roon, Kevin D.

2013-01-01

204

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

205

Unlocking the Mystery of Mathematics: Give Vocabulary Instruction a Chance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Math teacher Bizzie Cors realized that her students needed to “construct meaning for all vocabulary terms and connect to prior knowledge as well as to new concepts and algorithms.” This led her to create a new process to teach vocabulary development. Described in this article is what she calls the “sticky-note chain” process; its final product is a graphic organizer complete with sticky notes, connections, and problems created by the students themselves.

Bizzie Cors

2008-01-01

206

Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.

2009-01-01

207

Supporting Math Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing appropriate language support is important for all students and essential to the success of English Language Learners (ELLs), struggling readers, and students with learning disabilities. In a mathematics classroom, the support includes the ongoing development of everyday vocabulary--such as names of fruit and actions such as skipping--and…

Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.; Livers, Stefanie

2009-01-01

208

Vocabulary at the Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

2009-01-01

209

"Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…

Voorhees, Roxy

210

The Electric Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

Sheils, James

2012-01-01

211

Vocabulary for Healthcare Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by educators from the Emily Griffith Opportunity School, this teacher's guide presents a course in health care vocabulary for secretaries, medical records personnel, laboratory assistants, shipping personnel, and patient relations personnel in health care facilities. The course, which should require 10-14 hours of instruction, contains…

Falagrady, Teresa

212

Phonological Distance Measures  

PubMed Central

Phonological distance can be measured computationally using formally specified algorithms. This work investigates two such measures, one developed by Nerbonne and Heeringa (1997) based on Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1965) and the other an adaptation of Dunning’s (1994) language classifier that uses maximum likelihood distance. These two measures are compared against naïve transcriptions of the speech of pediatric cochlear implant users. The new measure, maximum likelihood distance, correlates highly with Levenshtein distance and naïve transcriptions; results from this corpus are easier to obtain since cochlear implant speech has a lower intelligibility than the usually high intelligibility of the speech of a different dialect. PMID:20407614

Sanders, Nathan C; Chin, Steven B

2010-01-01

213

Concrete and relational vocabulary: comparison between Williams and Smith-Magenis syndromes.  

PubMed

We compared the performance of two clinical groups, Williams syndrome (WS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), in terms of concrete and relational vocabulary. We analyzed (a) whether the WS group had an advantage in concrete vocabulary when compared to the SMS group, as good concrete vocabulary knowledge is considered a hallmark of WS; (b) if spatial processing difficulties in WS would be reflected specifically in their knowledge of relational spatial vocabulary; (c) if a specific vocabulary profile could be outlined for SMS. Our results show similar performances on receptive concrete and relational vocabulary in both groups. However, and as anticipated, performance on relational space concepts was significantly lower in the WS group. PMID:25194511

Garayzábal Heinze, Elena; Osório, Ana; Lens, María; Sampaio, Adriana

2014-12-01

214

Practiced Connections of Orthographic and Phonological Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When one’s assignment is the clean-up act—the last chapter in a two-volume series on The Varieties of Orthographic\\u000a Knowledge—one can claim poetic license. Through a few rhymes and orthographic maneuvers I have tried to capture many of the themes\\u000a discussed in the nine chapters of this second volume relating orthography to phonology, reading, and writing. The themes,\\u000a organized into stanzas

Barbara R. Foorman

215

The relation of linguistic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first grade students participating in Response to Intervention  

PubMed Central

Purpose We examined the relations of phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RTI) model of instruction (N = 304). Method First grade children were assessed on their phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, word reading, and spelling. Year-end word reading and spelling were outcome variables while phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, and RTI status (Tiers 1, 2, & 3) were predictor variables assessed in the middle of the school year. Results The three linguistic awareness skills were unique predictors of word reading and phonological and orthographic awareness were unique predictors of spelling. The contributions these linguistic awareness skills and vocabulary made to word reading and spelling did not differ by children's RTI tier status. Conclusion These results, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that even beginning readers and spellers draw on multiple linguistic awareness skills for their word reading and spelling regardless of their level of literacy skills. Educational implications are discussed. PMID:23833281

Kim, Young-Suk; Apel, Kenn; Otaiba, Stephanie Al

2013-01-01

216

Phonological Priming Effects on Word Retrieval and Tip-of-the-Tongue Experiences in Young and Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a repetition priming paradigm, young and older participants read aloud prime words that sometimes shared phonological components with a target word that answered a general knowledge question. In Experiment 1, prior processing of phonologically related words decreased tip-of-the-tongue states (TOTs) and increased correct responses to subsequent questions. In Experiment 2, the priming task occurred only when the participant could

Lori E. James; Deborah M. Burke

2000-01-01

217

Effects of an Embedded Phonological Awareness Intervention during Repeated Book Reading on Preschool Children with Language Delays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efficacy of an explicit phonological awareness intervention embedded within repeated shared book reading with preschool children from low-income backgrounds with language delays was investigated. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors assessed the effects of phonological awareness training on rhyme and letter-sound knowledge with 13 preschool…

Ziolkowski, Robyn A.; Goldstein, Howard

2008-01-01

218

Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among words. While children with SLI have well documented memory difficulties, it is not clear whether these language knowledge factors also influence recall in this population. Methods & Procedures 16 children with SLI (mean age 10;2) and CAM controls recalled lists of words differing in phonological similarity, word frequency, and phonotactic pattern frequency. While previous studies used a small set of words appearing in multiple word lists, the current study used a larger set of words, without replacement, so that children could not gain practice with individual test items. Outcomes & Results All main effects were significant. Interactions revealed that children with SLI were affected by similarity, but less so than their peers, comparably affected by word frequency, and unaffected by phonotactic pattern frequency. Conclusions Results due to phonological similarity suggest that children with SLI use less efficient encoding, while results due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency were mixed. Children with SLI used coarse-grained language knowledge (word frequency) comparably to peers, but were less able to use fine-grained knowledge (phonotactic pattern frequency). Paired with phonological similarity results, this suggests that children with SLI have difficulty establishing robust phonological knowledge for use in language tasks. PMID:23472955

Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

2014-01-01

219

Biased learning of phonological alternations  

E-print Network

What is the initial state of the grammar when children begin to figure out patterns of phonological alternations? This thesis documents the developmental stages of children acquiring Korean verb and noun paradigms, and ...

Do, Young Ah

2013-01-01

220

Fall 2012 Phonetics and Phonology  

E-print Network

80282 Fall 2012 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will learn to make phonetic transcriptions of raw data from unfamiliar

Spirtes, Peter

221

Improving Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Development in At-Risk Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program was designed and implemented to improve student vocabulary and comprehension. The target population consisted of 59 students in grades 1, 2, and 3 in a low-income area of a large city in central Illinois. The problems of lack of prior knowledge, poor vocabulary, and insufficient comprehension were documented through data collected from…

Brooks, Michelle; Hamann, Louise; Vetter, Mary

222

A Summary of the Vocabulary Research with Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is essential for communicating, reading, thinking, and learning. In comparison to typical hearing peers, students who are deaf or hard of hearing demonstrate vocabulary knowledge that is quantitatively reduced. The authors review and summarize research studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1967 and 2008 focusing on…

Luckner, John L.; Cooke, Christine

2010-01-01

223

Breadth and Depth Specialized Vocabulary Learning in Theology among Native and Non-Native English Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a case study on native and non-native English-speaker (NES and NNES) students' knowledge and learning of specialized vocabulary over one academic term in a graduate school of theology. After outlining the collection of baseline data on theological vocabulary and the development of a Test of Theological Language (TTL), the…

Lessard-Clouston, Michael

2006-01-01

224

A Comparative Study on Second Language Vocabulary Development: Study Abroad vs Classroom Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper aims to achieve a better understanding of the process of vocabulary acquisition by examining the development of lexical knowledge in both classroom and study abroad contexts. Taking Ife, Vives Boix, and Meara's (2000) study as a starting point, this study attempts to determine whether development in both levels of vocabulary

Jimenez-Jimenez, Antonio F.

2010-01-01

225

Aspects of Validity of a Test of Productive Vocabulary: Lex30  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates aspects of validity of an alternative measure of productive vocabulary. Lex30, developed by Meara and Fitzpatrick, is a word association task that claims to give an indication of productive vocabulary knowledge. Previous studies of Lex30 have assessed test-retest reliability, performance against native speaker norms,…

Walters, JoDee

2012-01-01

226

Children with Developmental Language Impairment Have Vocabulary Deficits Characterized by Limited Breadth and Depth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Deficient vocabulary is a frequently reported symptom of developmental language impairment, but the nature of the deficit and its developmental course are not well documented. Aims: To describe the nature of the deficit in terms of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge and to determine whether the nature and the extent of the…

McGregor, Karla K.; Oleson, Jacob; Bahnsen, Alison; Duff, Dawna

2013-01-01

227

Scoring Yes-No Vocabulary Tests: Reaction Time vs. Nonword Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a number of research studies investigating the Yes-No vocabulary test format, one main question remains unanswered: What is the best scoring procedure to adjust for testee overestimation of vocabulary knowledge? Different scoring methodologies have been proposed based on the inclusion and selection of nonwords in the test. However, there…

Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana; Schmitt, Norbert

2012-01-01

228

Making the "Very" Most of Classroom Read-Alouds to Promote Comprehension and Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating comprehension and vocabulary instruction in read-alouds can help teachers make the very most of class time. The curriculum described illustrates how read-alouds, when implemented with strategic purpose, can boost learners' vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Specifically, the author presents guidelines for: (1) selecting…

Santoro, Lana Edwards; Chard, David J.; Howard, Lisa; Baker, Scott K.

2008-01-01

229

An RDF Vocabulary for the Representation and Exploration of Expressions with an Illustration  

E-print Network

An RDF Vocabulary for the Representation and Exploration of Expressions with an Illustration for a large part of human knowledge. It is therefore desirable to allow for their representation in RDF and for their exploration through semantic search. We propose an RDF vocabulary that fulfills three ob- jectives. The first

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

A Descriptive Study on the Use of Materials in Vocabulary Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is important because it is highly correlated with content area learning. Strategies for vocabulary instruction recommend using new words in multiple contexts as key to learning. To date, the term "multiple contexts" emphasizes written contexts, not three-dimensional concrete material contexts. This article describes the…

Holmes, Kerry; Holmes, Stacy V.; Watts, Karley

2012-01-01

231

"It Takes a Village" to Support the Vocabulary Development of Children with Multiple Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly…

Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C.; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

2014-01-01

232

Longer Term Effects of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the longer term effectiveness of a standard protocol, Tier 2 supplemental vocabulary intervention for kindergarten English learners, designed to develop root word vocabulary knowledge and reinforce beginning word reading skills. Participating students in the original study ("n" = 93 treatment, 92 control) received 20 weeks of…

Vadasy, Patricia F.; Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

233

The Effects of Pre-Learning Vocabulary on Reading Comprehension and Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effects of pre-learning vocabulary on reading comprehension and writing. Japanese students studying English as a foreign language (EFL) learned word pairs receptively and productively; four tests were used to measure reading comprehension, writing, and receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. The findings suggest…

Webb, Stuart A.

2009-01-01

234

A Vocabulary Flood: Making Words "Sticky" with Computer-Response Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's literature is a primary source for introducing young children to new words at home and at school, and children's early vocabulary knowledge is a key component of oral language, which is essential for comprehension. This column is focused on children from low socioeconomic backgrounds who frequently find themselves in a vocabulary

Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary S.; Ryan, Tammy

2007-01-01

235

Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological  

E-print Network

Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological evidence from Tashlhiyt Berber* Rachid Ridouane syllables do exist in Tashlhiyt, both at the phonetic and phonological levels. Acoustic, fibrescopic due to subject consultants for their participation to the phonetic experiments. Any errors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

Cultural survey of network vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network is a platform of society and life in today. People use more and more network vocabularies with the relation of network and people's life becoming closer and closer. Whether young or old, as long as people going online, they will not be unfamiliar with the network vocabulary. One will be thought be timeout if he doesn't know the network

Zhijiang Yang

2011-01-01

237

Designing Vocabulary Instruction in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language skills are becoming an increasingly important feature of performance in mathematics classrooms. This new focus on language highlights the need to identify math vocabulary words and to apply research-based principles for vocabulary instruction in mathematics lessons. This article offers one way to analyze state high-stakes math tests to…

Pierce, Margaret E.; Fontaine, L. Melena

2009-01-01

238

Vocabulary Development Using Visual Displays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kindergarten teachers use a variety of strategies that focus on vocabulary development. A common and effective practice to introduce new vocabulary to kindergarteners is reading storybooks to children, what is commonly known as "read-alouds" (Bus, van Ijzendoorn, & Pelligrini, 1995; Christ & Wang, 2010; Newton, Padak &…

McKenzie, Ellen

2014-01-01

239

Vocabulary Demands of Television Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…

Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

2009-01-01

240

Profiling Vocabulary Acquisition in Irish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigations into early vocabulary development, including the timing of the acquisition of nouns, verbs and closed-class words, have produced conflicting results, both within and across languages. Studying vocabulary development in Irish can contribute to this area, as it has potentially informative features such as a VSO word order, and…

O'Toole, Ciara; Fletcher, Paul

2012-01-01

241

Phonological Representations and Early Literacy in Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological processing skills predict early reading development, but what underlies developing phonological processing skills? Phonological representations of 140 native Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (age 4-10) were assessed with speech gating, mispronunciation detection, and nonword repetition tasks; their nonverbal IQ, reading, and…

Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy Kar-Man; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Au, Terry Kit-fong

2015-01-01

242

Specific phonological impairments in dyslexia revealed by eyetracking.  

PubMed

Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a display (e.g., candle) were accompanied by distractors sharing a cohort (candy) or rhyme (sandal). Like controls, dyslexics showed slower recognition times when a cohort distractor was present than in a baseline condition with only phonologically unrelated distractors. However, unlike controls, dyslexic children did not show slowed recognition of targets with a rhyme distractor, suggesting they had not encoded rhyme relationships. This was further explored in an overt phonological awareness test of cohort and rhyme. Surprisingly, dyslexics showed normal rhyme performance but poorer judgment of initial sounds on these overt tests. The results implicate impaired knowledge of rhyme information in dyslexia; however they also indicate that testing methodology plays a critical role in how such problems are identified. PMID:16288732

Desroches, Amy S; Joanisse, Marc F; Robertson, Erin K

2006-07-01

243

Teaching Vocabulary through Code-Mixing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined code-mixing, a little-known technique used in teaching vocabulary. Found that using code-mixing to introduce new vocabulary can be an efficient and effective method. Discusses procedures and cognitive processes involved in vocabulary learning and explains the use of code mixing to introduce vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

Celik, Mehmet

2003-01-01

244

For ELLs: Vocabulary beyond the Definitions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, a classroom teacher discusses ambiguities in mathematics vocabulary and strategies for ELL students in building understanding. The authors note that mathematics vocabulary may be more difficult to learn than other academic vocabulary for several reasons: (1) definitions are filled with technical vocabulary, symbols, and diagrams;…

Roberts, Nancy S.; Truxaw, Mary P.

2013-01-01

245

Mapping Opthalmic Terms to a Standardized Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes work by the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) to expand the standardized vocabulary, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), to accommodate a definitive ophthalmic standardized vocabulary. Mapped a practice-based clinical ophthalmic vocabulary to SNOMED and other vocabularies in the Metathesaurus of the Unified Medical…

Patrick, Timothy B.; Reid, John C.; Sievert, MaryEllen; Popescu, Mihail; Gigantelli, James W.; Shelton, Mark E.; Schiffman, Jade S.

2000-01-01

246

Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 14 essays on reading and vocabulary learning in second language acquisition. Chapters include: "Research on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: Putting It in Context" (James Coady); "Implications for L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Instruction From L1 Vocabulary Research" (Fredricka Stoller and William Grabe); "Patterns and Perils of…

Huckin, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

247

Clinical applications of a cognitive phonology.  

PubMed

It is noted that much previous work in phonology has attempted to provide economical theories of sound systems without explicitly attempting to provide theories that have psycholinguistic validity. The work of Bybee on a cognitive approach to phonology is described, and its possible application to disordered speech is considered. It is discussed that cognitive phonology, coupled with gestural phonology, provides descriptive as well as explanatory accounts of disordered speech, and has specific implications for approaches to therapy. The article concludes with a case study of child with severely unintelligible speech, where it seems that the insights of cognitive phonology provide both an explanation for and a description of her speech behaviors. PMID:14582829

Ball, Martin J

2003-01-01

248

The Relationship between Vocabulary and Writing Quality in Three Genres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocabulary in writing across three genres. Fifth graders (N = 105) wrote three compositions: story, persuasive, and informative. Each composition revolved around the topic of outer space to control for background knowledge. Written compositions were scored for holistic writing quality and…

Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Wilson, Joshua

2013-01-01

249

Tracking the Changes: Vocabulary Acquisition in the Study Abroad Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical evidence suggests that the study abroad experience accelerates growth in global vocabulary knowledge. The exact nature of this growth is rarely reported, however, and there is little documented evidence to indicate whether it is linear or uneven, whether the speed of growth is constant or changing, or whether the study abroad context…

Fitzpatrick, Tess

2012-01-01

250

Direct and Extended Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten: Investigating Transfer Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an 18-week program of direct and extended vocabulary instruction with kindergarten students on both proximal measures of target word knowledge and transfer measures of generalized language and literacy. A second purpose was to examine whether treatment effects would be moderated by…

Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Loftus, Susan; Zipoli, Richard, Jr.; Ruby, Maureen; Crevecoeur, Yvel C.; Kapp, Sharon

2010-01-01

251

A Differentiated Vocabulary Unit for John Knowles's "A Separate Peace"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shannon E. Coulter and Susan L. Groenke recognize that student differences in interests, learning styles, and readiness for certain knowledge necessitate individualized processes for effectively learning vocabulary. They offer strategies and word games that help students make meaningful connections and improve comprehension. They also give advice…

Coulter, Shannon E.; Groenke, Susan L.

2008-01-01

252

fMRI evidence for the interaction between orthography and phonology in reading Chinese compound words  

PubMed Central

Compound words make up a major part of modern Chinese vocabulary. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that access to lexical semantics of compound words is driven by the interaction between orthographic and phonological information. However, little is known about the neural underpinnings of compound word processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we asked participants to perform lexical decisions to pseudohomophones, which were constructed by replacing one or both constituents of two-character compound words with orthographically dissimilar homophonic characters. Mixed pseudohomophones, which shared the first constituent with the base words, were more difficult to reject than non-pseudohomophone non-words. This effect was accompanied by the increased activation of bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and left angular gyrus. The pure pseudohomophones, which shared no constituent with their base words, were rejected as quickly as non-word controls and did not elicit any significant neural activation. The effective connectivity of a phonological pathway from left IPL to left IFG was enhanced for the mixed pseudohomophones but not for pure pseudohomophones. These findings demonstrated that phonological activation alone, as in the case of the pure pseudohomophones, is not sufficient to drive access to lexical representations of compound words, and that orthographic information interacts with phonology, playing a gating role in the recognition of Chinese compound words. PMID:24319418

Zhan, Jiayu; Yu, Hongbo; Zhou, Xiaolin

2013-01-01

253

Molecular Biology Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to molecular biology, including DNA and RNA structure and function, transcription and translation. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Jennifer Doherty

254

DSpace and customized controlled vocabularies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The open source platform of DSpace could be defined as a repository application used to provide access to digital resources. DSpace is installed and used by more than 1000 organizations worldwide. A predefined taxonomy of keyword, called the Controlled Vocabulary, can be used for describing and accessing the information items stored in the repository. In this paper, we describe how the users can create, and customize their own vocabularies. Various heterogeneous items, such as research papers, videos, articles and educational material of the repository, can be indexed in order to provide advanced search functionality using new controlled vocabularies.

Skourlas, C.; Tsolakidis, A.; Kakoulidis, P.; Giannakopoulos, G.

2015-02-01

255

Is reading different for deaf individuals? Reexamining the role of phonology.  

PubMed

Quarter century ago, Hanson (1989) asked, "Is reading different for deaf individuals?" (p. 85). Appealing to evidence available at the time, she argued that skilled deaf readers, like their hearing counterparts, relied on their knowledge of English structure, including phonological information. This perspective on the role phonology plays in the reading process for deaf learners continues to generate much debate in the field, and little consensus exists on whether it is a necessary aspect of learning to read for this population. The present article revisits this question in terms of what is known about phonology and reading in typically developing learners, and in light of two reviews of the research from the field of deafness. The authors conclude that there is stronger empirical evidence for the argument for a relationship between phonology and reading in the population of deaf readers than for the counter-argument. PMID:25669018

Mayer, Connie; Trezek, Beverly J

2014-01-01

256

Phonological Attentional Blink 1 Running Head: Phonological Attentional Blink  

E-print Network

of Phonological Length on the Attentional Blink for Words Ingrid R. Olson Yale University Marvin M. Chun; Chun & Potter, 1995; Duncan, 1980; Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell, 1992; Sperling, 1960; Weichselgartner store (Chun, 1997; Chun & Potter, 1995; Jolicoeur, 1998; Shapiro, Raymond, & Arnell, 1994; Shapiro

Chun, Marvin M.

257

Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Phonological Awareness Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning. Phonological awareness is a precursor to reading. "Phonological Awareness Training" can involve various…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

258

Smart subtitles for vocabulary learning  

E-print Network

Language learners often use subtitled videos to help them learn. However, standard subtitles are geared more towards comprehension than vocabulary learning, as translations are nonliteral and are provided only for phrases, ...

Kovacs, Geza

259

A virtual vocabulary speech recognizer  

E-print Network

A system for the automatic recognition of human speech is described. A commercially available speech recognizer sees its recognition vocabulary increased through the use of virtual memory management techniques. central to ...

Pathe, Peter D

1983-01-01

260

Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

2012-01-01

261

REFERRAL FORM PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS CLINIC  

E-print Network

REFERRAL FORM PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS CLINIC Concerns regarding communication Please return this form to: Clinical Administrator Email: clinic@cmds.canterbury.ac.nz Department of Communication/s: Home Phone: Work Phone: Mobile Phone: Email: Preferred method of contact during the day: (Between 9am

Hickman, Mark

262

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

263

GENERATIVE RULES FOR ITALIAN PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TWO MODELS OF DESCRIPTION, GENERATIVE AND NONGENERATIVE, ARE APPLIED TO THE PHONOLOGY OF ITALIAN TO DETERMINE WHICH OF THE TWO OFFERS A SIMPLER YET MORE COMPREHENSIVE STATEMENT. THE NONGENERATIVE MODEL IS GIVEN IN A LISTING OF PHONEMES AND A BRIEF STATEMENT OF THE PHONOTACTICS AND ALLOPHONICS. THE GENERATIVE MODEL STATES THE FACTS IN 11 REWRITE…

DI PIETRO, ROBERT J.

264

The Phonological Assimilation of Borrowing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistic borrowing from English to Jordanian Arabic at the lexical level is described, focusing on phonology and the extent to which Jordanian Arabic has affected the phonetic structure of English loans assimilated partially or completely into it. Conspicuous distinctive sound features in the two languages that may affect non-native speakers'…

Suleiman, Saleh M.

265

Phonetics and Phonology Course goals  

E-print Network

80282 Fall 2013 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course picks up where Nature of Language leaves off in the investigation of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will practice reading and producing phonetic transcriptions of data from natural languages

Spirtes, Peter

266

Twin Language or Phonological Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The claim that multiple-birth children use "twin language" was investigated by describing and comparing the phonological characteristics of the speech of 19 sets of multiple birth children (aged 2-4) and by measuring multiple-birth children's understanding of their twins' or triplets' context-free speech. Results indicated that multiple birth…

Dodd, Barbara; McEvoy, Sandra

1994-01-01

267

The interface between morphology and phonology: Exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production  

PubMed Central

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment—these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

268

Effects of multimedia vocabulary instruction on adolescents with learning disabilities.  

PubMed

The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of using content acquisition podcasts (CAPs), an example of instructional technology, to provide vocabulary instruction to adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD). A total of 279 urban high school students, including 30 with LD in an area related to reading, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions with instruction occurring at individual computer terminals over a 3-week period. Each of the four conditions contained different configurations of multimedia-based instruction and evidence-based vocabulary instruction. Dependent measures of vocabulary knowledge indicated that students with LD who received vocabulary instruction using CAPs through an explicit instructional methodology and the keyword mnemonic strategy significantly outperformed other students with LD who were taught using the same content, but with multimedia instruction that did not adhere to a specific theoretical design framework. Results for general education students mirrored those for students with LD. Students also completed a satisfaction measure following instruction with multimedia and expressed overall agreement that CAPs are useful for learning vocabulary terms. PMID:23649222

Kennedy, Michael J; Deshler, Donald D; Lloyd, John Wills

2015-01-01

269

Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill  

PubMed Central

This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D.

2012-01-01

270

Phonological Awareness Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia and the Phonological Representations Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The claim that the well-documented difficulties shown by dyslexic children in phonological awareness tasks may arise from deficits in the accuracy and the segmental organization of the phonological representations of words in their mental lexicons is receiving increasing interest from researchers. In this experiment, two versions of the phonological representations hypothesis were investigated by using a picture naming task and

Denise Swan; Usha Goswami

1997-01-01

271

Density, Frequency and the Expressive Phonology of Children with Phonological Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

272

Assessment of individual differences in phonological representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the\\u000a development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement\\u000a of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the dimensionality of phonological\\u000a representation abilities. Second, we empirically compared how well typical measures index various

Jason L. Anthony; Jeffrey M. Williams; Rachel G. Aghara; Martha Dunkelberger; Barbara Novak; Anuja Divatia Mukherjee

2010-01-01

273

Examining Differential Effects of a Family Literacy Program on Language and Literacy Growth of English Language Learners with Varying Vocabularies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many English language learners (ELLs) and children living in poverty begin school with substantially less English vocabulary knowledge than their monolingual, economically advantaged peers. Without effective intervention, these vocabulary gaps are likely to contribute to long-term reading failure. This quasi-experimental study examined the extent…

O'Brien, Lisa M.; Paratore, Jeanne R.; Leighton, Christine M.; Cassano, Christina M.; Krol-Sinclair, Barbara; Green, Jennifer Greif

2014-01-01

274

The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

2013-01-01

275

Effect of phonological training in French children with SLI: perspectives on voicing identification, discrimination and categorical perception.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of auditory training on voicing perception in French children with specific language impairment (SLI). We used an adaptive discrimination training that was centred across the French phonological boundary (0 ms voice onset time--VOT). One group of nine children with SLI attended eighteen twenty-minute training sessions with feedback, and a control group of nine children with SLI did not receive any training. Identification, discrimination and categorical perception were evaluated before, during and after training as well as one month following the final session. Phonological awareness and vocabulary were also assessed for both groups. The results showed that children with SLI experienced strong difficulties in the identification, discrimination and categorical perception of the voicing continuum prior to training. However, as early as after the first nine training sessions, their performance in the identification and discrimination tasks increased significantly. Moreover, phonological awareness scores improved during training, whereas vocabulary scores remained stable across sessions. PMID:22699254

Collet, G; Colin, C; Serniclaes, W; Hoonhorst, I; Markessis, E; Deltenre, P; Leybaert, J

2012-01-01

276

Incremental Phonological Encoding during Unscripted Sentence Production  

PubMed Central

We investigate phonological encoding during unscripted sentence production, focusing on the effect of phonological overlap on phonological encoding. Previous work on this question has almost exclusively employed isolated word production or highly scripted multi-word production. These studies have led to conflicting results: some studies found that phonological overlap between two words facilitates phonological encoding, while others found inhibitory effects. One worry with many of these paradigms is that they involve processes that are not typical to everyday language use, which calls into question to what extent their findings speak to the architectures and mechanisms underlying language production. We present a paradigm to investigate the consequences of phonological overlap between words in a sentence while leaving speakers much of the lexical and structural choices typical in everyday language use. Adult native speakers of English described events in short video clips. We annotated the presence of disfluencies and the speech rate at various points throughout the sentence, as well as the constituent order. We find that phonological overlap has an inhibitory effect on phonological encoding. Specifically, if adjacent content words share their phonological onset (e.g., hand the hammer), they are preceded by production difficulty, as reflected in fluency and speech rate. We also find that this production difficulty affects speakers’ constituent order preferences during grammatical encoding. We discuss our results and previous works to isolate the properties of other paradigms that resulted in facilitatory or inhibitory results. The data from our paradigm also speak to questions about the scope of phonological planning in unscripted speech and as to whether phonological and grammatical encoding interact. PMID:23162515

Jaeger, T. Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin

2012-01-01

277

Phonological Awareness and Types of Sound Errors in Preschoolers with Speech Sound Disorders  

PubMed Central

Purpose Some children with speech sound disorders (SSD) have difficulty with literacy-related skills, particularly phonological awareness (PA). This study investigates the PA skills of preschoolers with SSD using a regression model to evaluate the degree to which PA can be concurrently predicted by types of speech sound errors. Method Preschoolers with SSD (n=43) participated in PA and speech sound production assessment. Errors from a 125-item picture naming task were coded in two ways: (1) considering all consonant errors equally (Percent Consonants Correct, PCC), and (2) using a three-category system that captures component features of sound errors: typical sound changes, atypical sound changes, and distortions. PA tasks included rhyme matching, onset matching, onset segmentation and matching, and blending. Results Variance in a PA composite score could be predicted partly by vocabulary and age (33%). Atypical sound changes accounted for an additional 6% of variance in PA, but distortions and typical errors did not account for significant variance. When the same consonant errors were analyzed using PCC, speech errors did not predict significant variance in PA. Conclusions Poorer PA is associated with lower receptive vocabularies and more atypical sound errors. Results are interpreted in the context of the accuracy of phonological representations. PMID:19717651

Edwards, Mary Louise

2010-01-01

278

Assessing Vocabulary Learning in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is widespread agreement with in the field of early childhood education that vocabulary is important to literacy achievement and that reading aloud can support vocabulary growth. However, there are unexplored and significant problems with the ways we assess young children's vocabulary learning from read-alouds. This paper critically…

Hoffman, Jessica L.; Teale, William H.; Paciga, Kathleen A.

2014-01-01

279

Some Vocabulary Activities Worth Teaching About.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12 activities presented in this pamphlet are intended to help make vocabulary study a stimulating experience for both teacher and student. The activities are as follows: (1) a commercially prepared list of suggestions for vocabulary development, (2) an exercise designed to relate vocabulary study to every day reading, (3) a variation of the…

Brand, Helena S.

1982-01-01

280

Teaching Vocabulary in the Literature Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates concept-related vocabulary instruction, in which students link individual words with larger literature concepts. Outlines four steps to creating a concept-related vocabulary lesson. Offers examples of how concept-related vocabulary lessons can be conducted while reading, before reading, and after reading. Outlines web, weave, and…

Barton, James

2001-01-01

281

Open Vocabulary ASR for Audiovisual Document Indexation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an investigation of an open vocabulary recognizer that allows new words to be introduce in the recognition vocabulary, without the need to retrain or adapt the language model. This method uses special word classes, whose ngram probabilities are estimated during the training process by discounting a mass of probability from the out of vocabulary words. A

Alexandre Allauzen; Jean-Luc Gauvain

2005-01-01

282

The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2012-01-01

283

Teaching Vocabulary Expeditiously: Three Keys to Improving Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating vocabulary games and activities more often into the structure of the day, Thomas B. Smith establishes a word-rich environment for high school students to experiment with unfamiliar words in varying, playful contexts. Smith asserts that giving frequent opportunities for hearing, speaking, and writing in the typical context of the day is…

Smith, Thomas B.

2008-01-01

284

Knowledge Utility: From Social Relevance to Knowledge Mobilization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, a more sophisticated vocabulary has emerged in the field of higher education. Categories such as" socially relevant research"; "knowledge mobilization"; "research impact"; "innovation"; and "university priorities" have appeared. At first glance, these words may appear neutral,…

Naidorf, Judith

2014-01-01

285

Depth of Teachers' Knowledge: Frameworks for Teachers' Knowledge of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes seven teacher knowledge frameworks and relates these frameworks to the teaching and assessment of elementary teacher's mathematics knowledge. The frameworks classify teachers' knowledge and provide a vocabulary and common language through which knowledge can be discussed and assessed. These frameworks are categorized into…

Holmes, Vicki-Lynn

2012-01-01

286

The "No Crossing Constraint" in Autosegmental Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of autosegmental phonology (AP), a theory of phonological representation that uses graphs rather than strings as the central data structure, considers its principal constraint, the "No Crossing Constraint" (NCC). The NCC is the statement that in a well-formed autosegmental diagram, lines of association may not cross. After an…

Coleman, John; Local, John

287

Assessment of Individual Differences in Phonological Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Dunkelberger, Martha; Novak, Barbara; Mukherjee, Anuja Divatia

2010-01-01

288

Phonology in Language Learning and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at absorbing the pronunciation teachers task and how much phonology should teachers know. Teachers and future teachers need a well-rounded concept of the phonology of the language they are going to teach and the native language of learners. Emphasis must be placed on the understanding of language as a system of rules and as a…

Jarrah, Ali Saleh

2012-01-01

289

Phonological Priming and Cohort Effects in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…

Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

2011-01-01

290

Phonological Skills in English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the English phonological skills of English language learners (ELLs) over 5 time points. Method: Sound class accuracy, whole-word accuracy, percentage of occurrence of phonological patterns, and sociolinguistic correlational analyses were investigated in 19 ELLs ranging in age from 5;0…

Morrow, Alyse; Goldstein, Brian A.; Gilhool, Amanda; Paradis, Johanne

2014-01-01

291

Earth Science Vocabulary Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of activities lets students test their knowledge of hundreds of random geologic terms. The activities include games such as hangman (several varieties), flash cards, guessing words or definitions, and matching terms with definitions. Topics include rocks and minerals, Earth dynamics, Earth history, surface processes, weather, and astronomy.

292

Evaluating the Relationship Between General Health Vocabulary and Student Achievement in Pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine whether achievement in pharmacology is related to students’ general health vocabulary knowledge. Methods. Students registered for the pharmacology modules in the second (n=117), third (n=54), and fourth (n=41) years of the bachelor of pharmacy degree program completed a general health vocabulary assessment. Results of the vocabulary assessments in Pharmacology 3 and Pharmacology 4 were used to determine the effects of academic progression. Grades in the summative Pharmacology 2 examination served as indicators of achievement in pharmacology. Focus group sessions were held with a convenience sample of Pharmacology 2 (n=12), Pharmacology 3 (n=10), and Pharmacology 4 (n=5) students. Results. A significant, positive correlation between Pharmacology 2 grades and vocabulary assessment scores was demonstrated. Student perceptions revealed during focus group interviews were that poor pharmacy-related vocabulary knowledge impacted their ability to learn pharmacology. Conclusion. Achievement in pharmacology correlated positively with vocabulary knowledge (p=0.031) among a South African, multilingual student cohort in a setting where English is used in teaching and thus is imperative for learning. PMID:25147394

Webb, Paul

2014-01-01

293

A New Academic Vocabulary List  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…

Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

2014-01-01

294

LARGE-VOCABULARY RECOGNITION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABBOT is the hybrid connectionist-hidden Markov model large- vocabulary speech recognition system developed at Cambridge Uni- versity. In this system, a recurrent network maps each acoustic vector to an estimate of the posterior probabilities of the phone classes. The maximum likelihood word string is then extracted using Markov models. As in traditional hidden Markov models, the Markov pro- cess is

M. M. Hochberg; G. D. Cook; S. J. Renals; A. J. Robinson; R. S. Schechtman

295

A Probabilistic Model of Phonological Relationships from Contrast to Allophony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…

Hall, Kathleen Currie

2009-01-01

296

Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness, or the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, has been identified as a key early literacy skill and precursor to reading. For the purposes of this review, "phonological awareness training" refers to any practice targeting young children's phonological awareness abilities. "Phonological

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

297

Probed Serial Recall in Williams Syndrome: Lexical Influences on Phonological Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams syndrome is a genetic disorder that, it has been claimed, results in an unusual pattern of linguistic strengths and weaknesses. The current study investigated the hypothesis that there is a reduced influence of lexical knowledge on phonological short-term memory in Williams syndrome. Fourteen children with Williams syndrome and 2…

Brock, Jan; McCormack, Teresa; Boucher, Jill

2005-01-01

298

Letter Names and Phonological Awareness Help Children to Learn Letter-Sound Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds…

Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

2011-01-01

299

Letter-Name Letter-Sound and Phonological Awareness: Evidence from Greek-Speaking Kindergarten Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…

Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia

2011-01-01

300

Low Intensity Phonological Awareness Training in a Preschool Classroom for Children with Communication Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness is a term that refers to one's knowledge of the sound structure of spoken language. Children who understand that sounds in language represent the letters used in reading and writing typically learn to read more easily than children who do not. Children with language and/or speech impairments often demonstrate a lack of…

Laing, Sandra P.; Espeland, Wendy

2005-01-01

301

Dynamic and Static Assessment of Phonological Awareness in Preschool: A Behavior-Genetic Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The genetic and environmental overlap between static and dynamic measures of preschool phonological awareness (PA) and their relation to preschool letter knowledge (LK) and kindergarten reading were examined using monozygotic and dizygotic twin children (maximum N = 1,988). The static tests were those typically used to assess a child's current…

Coventry, William L.; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Corley, Robin; Samuelsson, Stefan

2011-01-01

302

READING and VOCABULARY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are "math" definitions different or the same from "everyday" definitions of words? PRE-READING QUESTIONS (Remember Bloom's Taxonomy?) KNOWLEDGE Name all the attributes of a polygon that make it a triangle. COMPREHENSION Describe what the word ?similar? means. APPLICATION Demonstrate how you determine if two triangles are similar. ANALYSIS Examine why we would want to know if two triangles are similar. SYNTHESIS Construct a triangle similar to this triangle ...

Mrs. Squire

2009-04-13

303

Phonologically driven variability: the case of determiners.  

PubMed

Speakers usually produce words in connected speech. In such contexts, the form in which many words are uttered is influenced by the phonological properties of neighboring words. The current article examines the representations and processes underlying the production of phonologically constrained word form variations. For this purpose, we consider determiners whose form is sensitive to phonological context (e.g., in English: a car vs. an animal; in French: le chien 'the dog' vs. l'âne 'the donkey'). Two hypotheses have been proposed regarding how these words are processed. Determiners either are thought to have different representations for each of their surface forms, or they are thought to have only 1 representation while other forms are generated online after selection through a rule-based process. We tested the predictions derived from these 2 views in 3 picture naming experiments. Participants named pictures using determiner-adjective-noun phrases (e.g., la nouvelle table 'the new table'). Phonologically consistent or inconsistent conditions were contrasted, based on the phonological onsets of the adjective and the noun. Results revealed shorter naming latencies for consistent than for inconsistent sequences (i.e., a phonological consistency effect) for all the determiner types tested. Our interpretation of these findings converges on the assumption that determiners with varying surface forms are represented in memory with multiple phonological-lexical representations. This conclusion is discussed in relation to models of determiner processing and models of lexical variability. PMID:24797443

Bürki, Audrey; Laganaro, Marina; Alario, F Xavier

2014-09-01

304

Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

2014-01-01

305

Multisensory Strategies for Science Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Seeing, touching, smelling, hearing, and learning! The authors observed that their English Language Learner (ELL) students achieved a deeper understanding of the properties of matter, as well as enhanced vocabulary development, when they were guided through inquiry-based, multisensory explorations that repeatedly exposed them to words and definitions in context. In this article, they describe their experiences using a multisensory approach with a group of third-grade students who are classified as ELL.

Julie Jackson

2008-12-01

306

Documenting the Vocabulary of Astronomy Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning astronomy can be a life-long process, with the seeds of knowledge planted in K-12 classes blossoming in elective college courses to create adults who actively acquire astronomy content. One of the goals of many astronomy 101 courses is to prepare students to be intelligent consumers of mainstream astronomy content, including magazine articles, popular books, and online news. To meet this goal, astronomy educators need to understand what content is being presented in the media and what level vocabulary is being used. The most simplistic way to address this problem is to examine the topics covered and vocabulary used in mainstream astronomy blogs and news feeds. In this study we looked at a selection of prominent blogs and news feeds and we present a statistical study of the frequency different scientific terms are used and topics are addressed. To make this study possible, software to read in RSS feeds was created. This software had to meet the following design specifications: runs in a reasonable amount of time, removes all XML and HTML code from text, sees words with different capitalizations as the same word, ignores end of sentence or phrase punctuation without ignoring hyphens, and has an editable list of "common English words.” This code will be available after the conference at http://www.starstryder.com. Results of this study find that many of the primary topics of Astronomy 101 classes, such as the HR Diagram, are rarely mentioned in blogs and online news, while often de-emphasized topics, such as extra solar planets, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics, show up regularly.

Miller, Scott; Parrish, M.; Gay, P. L.

2008-05-01

307

Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to mitosis, meiosis and fertilization. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Jennifer Doherty

308

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes  

MedlinePLUS

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech sound disorders ? Can adults have speech sound disorders ? What ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...

309

Speech synthesis by phonological structure matching.   

E-print Network

This paper presents a new technique for speech synthesis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonological trees, and using a selection algorithm which ...

Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W

1999-01-01

310

Language-based intervention for phonological disorders.  

PubMed

Children with phonological disorders often display difficulty in other domains of language. Language-based approaches focus on all aspects of language; therefore, little attention may be drawn to sound errors and these may not be specific targets of intervention. These approaches involve a variety of naturalistic, conversationally based techniques such as focused stimulation in the form of expansions and recasts, scaffolding narratives, and elicited production devices such as forced choice questions, cloze tasks, and preparatory sets. Results from well-controlled group studies are inconclusive regarding the cross-domain effects of morphosyntax approaches on phonology. There are, however, individual children whose phonology improves with a language-based approach. Preliminary evidence suggests that such an approach may be an appropriate choice for children with both speech and language impairments whose phonological systems are highly inconsistent. One advantage of a language-based approach is that it may lead to simultaneous improvements in both speech and language for children with difficulty in both these domains. It is also a viable option when service delivery dictates classroom and collaborative settings. When a language-based approach is chosen for children with phonological disorders, it is imperative that the practitioner monitor phonological progress closely to ensure its effectiveness. PMID:11938492

Tyler, Ann A

2002-02-01

311

Community structure in the phonological network  

PubMed Central

Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language. PMID:23986735

Siew, Cynthia S. Q.

2013-01-01

312

The VVT Project: A Web-Based Platform for Strategy Instruction and Research into Self-Regulated Learning of L2 Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this dissertation is a web-based, second language (L2) instructional resource called VVT (Virtual Vocabulary Trainer) designed to teach integrated vocabulary depth of knowledge and dictionary referencing skills to tertiary-level learners of English as a Second Language (ESL). In addition to evaluating the potential of online resources…

Ranalli, James M.

2012-01-01

313

Strengthening Vocabulary for Literacy: An Analysis of the Use of Explicit Instruction Techniques to Improve Word Learning from Story Book Read-Alouds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is an important predictor of literacy and broader academic outcomes, and children's literature is a rich source of sophisticated vocabulary. This study investigated the effect of providing instruction in word meanings as an adjunct to story-book read-aloud sessions in Grade One classrooms. The main intervention programme…

Moore, Wendy; Hammond, Lorraine; Fetherston, Tony

2014-01-01

314

The Phonological Store of Working Memory: Is It Phonological and Is It a Store?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonological store construct of the working memory model is critically evaluated. Three experiments test the prediction that the effect of irrelevant sound and the effect of phonological similarity each survive the action of articulatory suppression but only when presentation of to-be-remembered lists is auditory, not visual. No evidence was…

Jones, Dylan M.; Macken, William J.; Nicholls, Alastair P.

2004-01-01

315

Phonological Awareness and the Use of Phonological Similarity in Letter-Sound Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…

de Jong, Peter F.

2007-01-01

316

Innovative Writing Instruction: Reducing Vocabulary to Increase Vocabulary--Student-Centered Vocabulary Instruction for Writing that Makes a Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people, particularly teachers and students, associate vocabulary instruction with long lists of ambiguous words, copying the definitions from the dictionary by rote, completing accompanying analogies, or matching the words with their meanings and taking a quiz at the end of the week. This approach to vocabulary instruction is typical to many…

Faulkner, Julie

2010-01-01

317

Studies Find Vocabulary Instruction Is Falling Short  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary

Sparks, Sarah D.

2013-01-01

318

Building Academic Vocabulary Student Notebook, Revised Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We've changed our BAV (Building Academic Vocabulary) student materials to a sturdy bound notebook to give you a lower price and a more durable format. Instead of using loose-leaf pages, teachers can now give each student this colorful notebook that follows the 6-step method for teaching academic vocabulary. There is space for more terms, and…

Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra

2008-01-01

319

Vocabulary Support for Independent Online Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Frequent reading practice is one of the best ways to develop vocabulary and improve reading comprehension. "Extensive reading" (reading large amounts of text without worrying too much about details or looking up all vocabulary) and "intensive reading" (closely examining meaning and structures to be sure you figure out all the details) are both…

LeLoup, Jean W.; Ponterio, Robert

2005-01-01

320

Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary

Feezell, Greg

2012-01-01

321

Promoting Vocabulary Development in Your Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After reviewing the literature, this paper seeks to show the importance and significance of direct vocabulary instruction on students' critical literacy skills; specifically, reading comprehension. Although some may suggest that the greatest amount of vocabulary growth occurs through incidental word learning in wide reading, research indicates…

Long, Nicole Amber

322

Redirective Labels and Early Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents' object labels can be distinguished by whether the child is already attending to the object (follow-in) or not (lead-in). Lead-in labels have been found to be associated with low vocabulary. The current study examines whether the relation between lead-in labels and child vocabulary is influenced by whether the child's attention is…

Shimpi, Priya Mariana; Huttenlocher, Janellen

2007-01-01

323

Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

2012-01-01

324

Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

Howell, Gina

2012-01-01

325

Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word…

Ozturk, Meral

2015-01-01

326

A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

Labrie, Gilles

2000-01-01

327

A Framework for Developing EFL Reading Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective second language vocabulary acquisition is particularly important for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners who frequently acquire impoverished lexicons despite years of formal study. This paper comprehensively reviews and critiques second language (L2) reading vocabulary research and proposes that EFL teachers and administrators…

Hunt, Alan; Beglar, David

2005-01-01

328

Evaluation of Core Vocabulary Intervention for Treatment of Inconsistent Phonological Disorder: Three Treatment Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with unintelligible speech differ in severity, underlying deficit, type of surface error patterns and response to treatment. Detailed treatment case studies, evaluating specific intervention protocols for particular diagnostic groups, can identify best practice for children with speech disorder. Three treatment case studies evaluated the…

McIntosh, Beth; Dodd, Barbara

2009-01-01

329

Evaluation of Core Vocabulary Intervention for Treatment of Inconsistent Phonological Disorder: Three Treatment Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with unintelligible speech differ in severity, underlying deficit, type of surface error patterns and response to treatment. Detailed treatment case studies, evaluating specific intervention protocols for particular diagnostic groups, can identify best practice for children with speech disorder. Three treatment case studies evaluated the…

McIntosh, Beth; Dodd, Barbara

2008-01-01

330

Tonguetwisting and dyslexia: Investigating the phonological deficit hypothesis   

E-print Network

There is growing agreement that people with dyslexia have difficulty processing speech sounds. Proponents of the phonological deficit hypothesis argue that the core difficulty in dyslexia lies with phonological processing itself, either in encoding...

Fraser, Catriona

2012-06-27

331

Aspects of phonetics, phonology and morphophonology of Thok Reel   

E-print Network

of Thok Reel phonetics, phonology and morphophonology. The description follows the topics on word and syllable structure, consonants, vowels, and tone. Each section accounts for the phonological distinctions and provides the phonetic description...

Reid, Tatiana

2010-11-24

332

Doubly blessed: Older adults know more vocabulary and know better what they know.  

PubMed

This study examined age-related differences in the ability to judge one's vocabulary. Young, middle-age, and older adults completed a multiple-choice test of vocabulary, judged their confidence in each answer, and estimated their overall performance. Older adults performed better and were more confident in their knowledge than were the other 2 groups. Importantly, relative to young adults, older adults demonstrated better calibration both on item-by-item confidence judgments and on global estimates. Resolution, as defined by correlations between item-by-item performance and confidence judgments, was age-invariant. We suggest that age-related accumulation of vocabulary is accompanied by enhanced perception of mastery in one's knowledge. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25602490

Kavé, Gitit; Halamish, Vered

2015-03-01

333

Phonological Patterns in Mandarin-English Bilingual Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adele Miccio recognized the paucity of information on the phonological development of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, and emphasized the need to apply advances in bilingual phonological research toward an appropriate phonological measure for bilingual children. In the spirit of her pioneering work, the present study…

Lin, Lu-Chun; Johnson, Cynthia J.

2010-01-01

334

Phonological Processing and Reading in Children with Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergarten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological

Rvachew, Susan

2007-01-01

335

ITRI-00-36 Phonological feature based multilingual lexical description  

E-print Network

applies to words within one language, but also across different languages, allowing high level cross morphological machinery. Our proposal extends the PolyLex word model down to the level of phonological features as morphology and phonology in a single phonology-based representation. This representation is more uniform

van Deemter, Kees

336

Quality of Phonological Representations: A Window into the Lexicon?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a great deal of evidence to support the robust relationship between phonological awareness and literacy development. Researchers are beginning to understand the relationship between the accuracy and distinctiveness of stored phonological representations and performance on phonological awareness tasks. However, many of the…

Claessen, Mary; Heath, Steve; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John; Leitao, Suze

2009-01-01

337

Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

2013-01-01

338

The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article challenges educators to rethink reading instruction practices for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors begin with a discussion of the role of phonology in reading, then summarize the evidence of phonological coding among skilled deaf readers and investigate alternative routes for acquiring phonologically related skills…

Wang, Ye; Trezek, Beverly J.; Luckner, John L.; Paul, Peter V.

2008-01-01

339

A Bilingual Vocabulary Size Test of English for Vietnamese Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and validation of a Vietnamese bilingual version of the Vocabulary Size Test--a test which measures written receptive vocabulary size. The test can be used to measure the English vocabulary size of Vietnamese learners of English. A learner's total vocabulary size is calculated by multiplying their test result…

Nguyen, Le Thi Cam; Nation, Paul

2011-01-01

340

Acoustic evidence for phonologically mismatched speech errors.  

PubMed

Speech errors are generally said to accommodate to their new phonological context. This accommodation has been validated by several transcription studies. The transcription methodology is not the best choice for detecting errors at this level, however, as this type of error can be difficult to perceive. This paper presents an acoustic analysis of speech errors that uncovers non-accommodated or mismatch errors. A mismatch error is a sub-phonemic error that results in an incorrect surface phonology. This type of error could arise during the processing of phonological rules or they could be made at the motor level of implementation. The results of this work have important implications for both experimental and theoretical research. For experimentalists, it validates the tools used for error induction and the acoustic determination of errors free of the perceptual bias. For theorists, this methodology can be used to test the nature of the processes proposed in language production. PMID:24389843

Gormley, Andrea

2015-04-01

341

The Effects of Speech Production and Vocabulary Training on Different Components of Spoken Language Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of 21 hard-of-hearing and deaf children attending primary school were trained by their teachers on the production of selected consonants and on the meanings of selected words. Speech production, vocabulary knowledge, reading aloud, and speech perception measures were obtained before and after each type of training. The speech production…

Paatsch, Louise E.; Blamey, Peter J.; Sarant, Julia Z.; Bow, Catherine P.

2006-01-01

342

The Relationship between Text Comprehension and Second Language Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: A Matter of Topic Familiarity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this article describes second language (L2) vocabulary learning outcomes associated with adult L2 reading comprehension processes, thus connecting L2 learning with the complex cognitive and linguistic processing involved in reading. The study aimed to determine whether background knowledge moderated the relationship between…

Pulido, Diana

2007-01-01

343

Bilingual Word Power. Research Based Vocabulary Strategies for English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English language learners may bring linguistic knowledge in the area of cognates to their learning of new English words, but they also will have special vocabulary learning needs that English speakers will not. They need to learn basic, survival words that English speakers begin school knowing, words such as house, school, walk, and eat. They also…

Green, Laura Chris

2004-01-01

344

Word Travelers: Using Digital Tools to Explore Vocabulary and Develop Independent Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internet is full of tools for vocabulary development, but the quality and usefulness for teachers and students vary greatly. With a traditionalist's respect for word knowledge and an adventurer's spirit for discovering new routes to learning, Lee Ann Tysseling shares an exciting array of technology-assisted resources that can boost students'…

Tysseling, Lee Ann

2012-01-01

345

Indigenizing Vocabulary Teaching: An Example of Multiliteracies Pedagogy from Unamen Shipu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a community-based pedagogical initiative for teaching vocabulary. The research took place in the Innu community of Unamen Shipu in northern Quebec. The study introduced a teaching method grounded in Indigenous knowledge theory that exemplified the multiliteracies pedagogy principles. This exploratory study used participatory…

Lavoie, Constance; Mark, Marie-Paul; Jenniss, Brigitte

2014-01-01

346

Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

Zschocke, Thomas

2012-01-01

347

Application of Automatic Thesaurus Extraction for Computer Generation of Vocabulary Questions  

E-print Network

processing techniques to English as a Second language education is a promising step toward automatically for an aspect of word knowledge found to be important for language learning. Automatic generation producing vocabulary practice and assessment materials for language learners. Index Terms: automatic

Eskenazi, Maxine

348

Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Animated Tutor for Language and Vocabulary Learning  

E-print Network

or not they are disadvantaged because of sensory limitations, learning disabilities, or social condition. Finally, vocabulary opportunity for improving conceptual knowledge and language competence for all individuals, whether, 2000; Wood, 2001) and individuals with special needs (Barker, in press). An incentive to employing

Massaro, Dominic

349

Latin Revived: Source-Based Vocabulary Lessons Courtesy of Harry Potter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers can build on students' familiarity with and respect for the Harry Potter books to create source-based vocabulary lessons. The idea is to work with the Latin roots that J. K. Rowling uses to create original names for places, people, and magical charms and then to extend students' knowledge through exploration of additional English words…

Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

2006-01-01

350

Cybertext Redux: Using Digital Game-Based Learning to Teach L2 Vocabulary, Reading, and Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essay reports on a mixed-methods study using an interactive fiction (IF) game to teach German vocabulary, reading, and culture to university students. The study measured knowledge retention and transfer, and evaluated the attitudes of students toward the game. The results tentatively indicate that contextualized, immersive role play may have…

Neville, David O.; Shelton, Brett E.; McInnis, Brian

2009-01-01

351

Phonological Planning during Sentence Production: Beyond the Verb  

PubMed Central

The current study addresses the extent of phonological planning during spontaneous sentence production. Previous work shows that at articulation, phonological encoding occurs for entire phrases, but encoding beyond the initial phrase may be due to the syntactic relevance of the verb in planning the utterance. I conducted three experiments to investigate whether phonological planning crosses multiple grammatical phrase boundaries (as defined by the number of lexical heads of phrase) within a single phonological phrase. Using the picture–word interference paradigm, I found in two separate experiments a significant phonological facilitation effect to both the verb and noun of sentences like “He opens the gate.” I also altered the frequency of the direct object and found longer utterance initiation times for sentences ending with a low-frequency vs. high-frequency object offering further support that the direct object was phonologically encoded at the time of utterance initiation. That phonological information for post-verbal elements was activated suggests that the grammatical importance of the verb does not restrict the extent of phonological planning. These results suggest that the phonological phrase is unit of planning, where all elements within a phonological phrase are encoded before articulation. Thus, consistent with other action sequencing behavior, there is significant phonological planning ahead in sentence production. PMID:22069396

Schnur, Tatiana T.

2011-01-01

352

Coping with out-of-vocabulary words: Open versus huge vocabulary asr  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates methods for coping with out-of-vocabulary words in a large vocabulary speech recognition task, namely the automatic transcription of Italian broadcast news. Two alternative ways for augmenting a 64 K(thousand)-word recognition vocabulary and language model are compared: introducing extra words with their phonetic transcription up to 1.2 M (million) words, or extending the language model with so-called graphones,

Matteo Gerosa; Marcello Federico

2009-01-01

353

Phonological patterns in Mandarin-English bilingual children.  

PubMed

Adele Miccio recognized the paucity of information on the phonological development of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, and emphasized the need to apply advances in bilingual phonological research toward an appropriate phonological measure for bilingual children. In the spirit of her pioneering work, the present study investigated both Mandarin and English phonological patterns in typically-developing 5-year-old bilingual children in an English-immersion programme in Taiwan. Consonant and vowel accuracy, number and types of phonological processes, and Mandarin-influenced English patterns were assessed on a single-word assessment in each language. Results indicated comparable levels of phoneme accuracy and similar rates and types of phonological processes for bilinguals and their monolingual counterparts. A number of English phonological processes for bilinguals, however, suggested a possible Mandarin influence. The present results reiterate Dr Miccio's call for interdisciplinary collaboration to enhance one's understanding of bilingual language development, to advance successful intervention for bilingual children. PMID:20345265

Lin, Lu-Chun; Johnson, Cynthia J

2010-01-01

354

Infants’ Learning of Phonological Status  

PubMed Central

There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants’ discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I’m should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I’d, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants’ sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11?months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions. PMID:23130004

Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

2012-01-01

355

Brain and behavior in children with phonological delays : phonological, lexical, and sensory system interactions  

E-print Network

of their treated sound in high frequency words, as compareda given sound within the context of high frequency words washigh-frequency words induced phonological change in both treated and untreated sounds (in untreated words), while low-frequency

Cummings, Alycia Erin

2009-01-01

356

Exploring the nature of the phonological deficit in dyslexia: are phonological representations impaired?   

E-print Network

Developmental dyslexia is widely believed to be caused either mainly or in part by an impairment of phonological representations. Although this hypothesis predicts that individuals with dyslexia should show deficits in ...

Dickie, Catherine Elizabeth

2009-07-03

357

An exploratory study of phonological awareness and working memory differences and literacy performance of people that use AAC.  

PubMed

Twelve cerebral palsied adolescents and young adults with complex communicative needs who used augmentative and alternative communication were studied. They were classified according to their working memory capacity (high vs. low) into two groups of 6 participants. They were also divided into two groups of 6 participants according to their high vs. low phonological skills. These groups were compared on their performance in reading tests -orthographic knowledge, a word test and a pseudoword reading test- and in the spelling of words, pseudowords and pictures' names. Statistical differences were found between high vs. low phonological skills groups, and between high and low working memory groups. High working memory capacity group scored significantly higher than low working memory group in the orthographic and word reading tests. The high phonological skills group outperformed the low phonological skills group in the word reading test and in the spelling of pseudowords and pictures' names. From a descriptive point of view, phonological skills and working memory, factors known to be highly predictive of literacy skills in people without disabilities, also hold as factors for the participants that used AAC in our study. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:20977006

Gómez Taibo, María Luisa; Vieiro Iglesias, Pilar; González Raposo, María del Salvador; Sotillo Méndez, María

2010-11-01

358

NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1988-01-01

359

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains, 40,661 entries that give increased access to he hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1982-01-01

360

NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains 40,738 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1985-01-01

361

Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

2014-05-01

362

Glides and Phonological Change in Mombasan Swahili.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the pronunciation of an adult male Swahili speaker, a native and long-term resident of Mombasa Old Town, supplemented with notes on other adult speakers, suggests a new account of glides and phonological change in this variation of the language. The asymmetrical distribution of the two glide types (palatal and labiovelar) is analyzed…

Kelly, John

1991-01-01

363

Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

Suh, Yunju

2009-01-01

364

A Structural Account of Phonological Paraphasias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to develop a partial theory of phonological paraphasias which has some cross-syndrome and cross-linguistic validity. It is based on the distinction between content and structural units and emphasizes the role of the latter. The notion of structure holds the key to an understanding of the differences among the following…

Berg, Thomas

2006-01-01

365

A Structural Account of Phonological Paraphasias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to develop a partial theory of phonological paraphasias which has some cross-syndrome and cross-linguistic validity. It is based on the distinction between content and structural units and emphasizes the role of the latter. The notion of structure holds the key to an understanding of the differences among the following…

Berg, T.

2005-01-01

366

Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2010-01-01

367

Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

2014-01-01

368

Perspectives on Interlanguage Phonetics and Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in this special issue include the following: "Allophonic Splits in L2 Phonology: The Questions of Learnability" (Fred R. Eckman, Abdullah Elreyes, Gregory K. Iverson); "Native Language Influence in Learners' Assessment of English Focus" (M. L. Garcia Lecumberri); "Obstruent Voicing in English and Polish. A Pedagogical Perspective" (Wiktor…

Monroy, Rafael, Ed.; Gutierrez, Francisco, Ed.

2001-01-01

369

Phonological Precedence in Dyslexia: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A very frequent reading error of the case is to misread

Patricia Schneider-Zioga

2012-01-01

370

Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…

Lee, Su-Yeon

2011-01-01

371

Rational Transductions for Phonetic Conversion and Phonology  

E-print Network

Rational Transductions for Phonetic Conversion and Phonology Eric Laporte Institut Gaspard-Monge France laporte@univ-mlv.fr August 1995 Abstract Phonetic conversion, and other conversion problems related to phonetics, can be performed by nite-state tools. We present a nite-state conversion system, Bi

Boyer, Edmond

372

The Phonology and Phonetics of Tone Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…

Ramadoss, Deepti

2012-01-01

373

Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

Rubrecht, August Weston

374

Grammatical and Phonological Influences on Word Order  

PubMed Central

During the grammatical encoding of spoken multiword utterances, various kinds of information must be used to determine the order of words. For example, whereas in adjective-noun utterances like “red car”, word order can be determined on the basis of the word's grammatical class information, in noun-noun utterances like “…by car, bus, or…”, word order cannot be determined on the basis of a word's grammatical class information. We investigated whether a word's phonological properties play a role in grammatical encoding. In four experiments participants produced multiword utterances in which the words' onset phonology was manipulated. Phonological-onset relatedness yielded inhibitory effects in noun-noun utterances, no effects in noun-adjective utterances, and facilitatory effects in adjective-noun, noun-verb, and adjective-adjective-noun utterances. These results cannot be explained by differences in the stimulus displays used to elicit the utterances and suggest that grammatical encoding is sensitive to the phonological properties of words. PMID:19694981

Janssen, Niels; Caramazza, Alfonso

2009-01-01

375

Individual Differences in the Effect of Orthographic/Phonological Conflict on Rhyme and Spelling Decisions  

PubMed Central

In typical readers, orthographic knowledge has been shown to influence phonological decisions. In the present study, we used visual rhyme and spelling tasks to investigate the interaction of orthographic and phonological information in adults with varying reading skill. Word pairs that shared both orthography and phonology (e.g., throat/boat), differed in both orthography and phonology (e.g., snow/arm), shared only orthography (e.g., farm/warm), and shared only phonology (e.g., vote/boat) were visually presented to university students who varied in reading ability. For rhyme judgment, participants were slower and less accurate to accept rhyming pairs when words were spelled differently and to reject non-rhyming pairs when words were spelled similarly. Similarly, for spelling judgments, participants were slower and less accurate when indicating that word endings were spelled differently when words rhymed, and slower and less accurate when indicating that words were spelled similarly when words did not rhyme. Crucially, while these effects were clear at the group level, there were large individual differences in the extent to which participants were impacted by conflict. In two separate samples, reading skill was associated with the extent to which orthographic conflict impacted rhyme decisions such that individuals with better nonword reading performance were less impacted by orthographic conflict. Thus, university students with poorer reading skills may differ from their peers either in the reading strategies they use or in the degree to which they automatically access word form information. Understanding these relationships is important for understanding the roles that reading processes play in readers of different skill. PMID:25751539

Welcome, Suzanne E.; Alton, Amanda C.

2015-01-01

376

A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.

Prevost, Jill K.

377

Phonological manipulation between speech perception and production activates a parieto-frontal circuit.  

PubMed

Repetition has been shown to activate the so-called 'dorsal stream', a network of temporo-parieto-frontal areas subserving the mapping of acoustic speech input onto articulatory-motor representations. Among these areas, a region in the posterior Sylvian fissure at the temporo-parietal boundary (also called 'area Spt') has been suggested to play a central role particularly with increasing computational demands on phonological processing. Most of the relevant evidence stems from tasks requiring metalinguistic processing. To date, the relevance of area Spt in natural phonological operations based on implicit linguistic knowledge has not yet been investigated. We examined two types of phonological processes assumed to be lateralized differently, i.e., the processing of syllabic stress versus subsyllabic segmental processing. In two ways, subjects modified an auditorily presented pseudoword before reproducing it overtly: (a) by a prosodic manipulation involving a stress shift across syllable boundaries, (b) by a segmental manipulation involving a vowel substitution. Manipulation per se was expected to engage area Spt. Segmental compared to prosodic processing was expected to reveal predominantly left lateralized activation, while prosodic compared to segmental processing was expected to result in bilateral or right-lateralized activation. Contrary to expectation, activation in area Spt did not vary with increased phonological processing demand. Instead, area Spt was engaged regardless of whether subjects simply repeated a pseudoword or performed a phonological manipulation before reproduction. However, for both segmental and prosodic stimuli, reproduction after manipulation (compared to repetition) activated the left intraparietal sulcus and left inferior frontal cortex. We propose that these parieto-frontal regions are recruited when the task requires phonological manipulation over and above the more automated transfer of auditory into articulatory verbal codes, which appears to involve area Spt. When directly contrasted with prosodic manipulation, segmental manipulation resulted in increased activation predominantly in left inferior frontal areas. This may be due to an increased demand on phonological sequencing operations at the subsyllabic phoneme level. Contrasted with segmental manipulations, prosodic manipulation did not result in increased activation, which may be due to a lower degree of morphosyntactic and to syllable-level processing. PMID:21787870

Peschke, Claudia; Ziegler, Wolfram; Eisenberger, Juliane; Baumgaertner, Annette

2012-01-01

378

Serial and free recall in children can be improved by training: evidence for the importance of phonological and semantic representations in immediate memory tasks.  

PubMed

Children were assigned to three groups given training on unfamiliar words--phoneme-awareness training, rhyme training, and vocabulary training--and an untrained control group. Before and after training, we assessed the children's performance on serial- and free-recall tasks with these words, as well as their ability to define the words, manipulate phonemes in them, and generate rhymes for them. We found that phoneme-awareness training improved serial recall substantially and improved free recall to a lesser extent. In contrast, vocabulary training produced a substantial increase in free recall and a lesser increase in serial recall. These effects on recall were specific and did not generalize to untrained words. Rhyme training produced increases in rhyming skills but no increase in either serial or free recall. We argue that serial and free recall depend on common memory mechanisms, but serial recall relies more on phonological codes and free recall relies more on semantic codes. PMID:20921571

Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Hulme, Charles

2010-11-01

379

Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing.  

PubMed

WE COMPARED THREE PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING COMPONENTS (PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS, RAPID AUTOMATIZED NAMING AND PHONOLOGICAL MEMORY), VERBAL WORKING MEMORY, AND ATTENTION CONTROL IN TERMS OF HOW WELL THEY PREDICT THE VARIOUS ASPECTS OF READING: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8-12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley's model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081

Kibby, Michelle Y; Lee, Sylvia E; Dyer, Sarah M

2014-01-01

380

A phonological investigation of four siblings with childhood autism.  

PubMed

Multiple autistic siblings of four or more are extremely rare. This study carried out a phonological investigation of four siblings in a unique family. Phonological investigations were carried out on four siblings with childhood autism (one female and three males). In addition, behavioral characteristics were described and compared among the four children. The two methods used for speech elicitation were object naming and spontaneous speech utterances. Data analyses included phonetic inventory and phonological process analyses. Phonological investigations showed that these autistic children, at least the more severely impaired ones, do not only exhibit delayed phonological behavior, but also show some atypical patterns that rarely occur in normal development. Findings from this study reveal five general patterns of phonological behavior, namely: (a) evidence of several phonological processes that are common in normal development; (b) persistence of several phonological processes, such as labialization, cluster reduction, or final consonant deletion, beyond the expected age; (c) evidence of unusual sound changes, such as extensive segment coalescence, frication of liquids, and velarization; (d) evidence of "chronological mismatch" (Grunwell, 1981), which is the notion of the absence of earlier sounds co-occurring with characteristics of later development; and (e) restricted use of contrasts. These findings support earlier work on a single autistic child using phonological investigations (Wolk & Edwards, 1993), but contrast with all previous research suggesting that autistic children exhibit delayed rather than unusual phonological development. Clinical implications are suggested. PMID:11081786

Wolk, L; Giesen, J

2000-01-01

381

Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing  

PubMed Central

We compared three phonological processing components (phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and phonological memory), verbal working memory, and attention control in terms of how well they predict the various aspects of reading: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8–12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley’s model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Lee, Sylvia E.; Dyer, Sarah M.

2014-01-01

382

A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…

Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

2014-01-01

383

Online Vocabulary Games as a Tool for Teaching and Learning English Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary learning is often perceived as boring by learners, especially for those who grew up in the digital age. This paper reports a study of the usefulness of online games in vocabulary learning for some undergraduate students. Three teachers and 100 engineering students participated in a quasi-experimental study for approximately nine weeks.…

Yip, Florence W. M.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.

2006-01-01

384

Effects of Noun-Verb Conceptual/ Phonological Relatedness on Verb Production Changes in Broca’s Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with Broca’s aphasia show better performance on nouns than on verbs, but distinction between nouns and verbs is not always clear; some verbs are conceptually and/ or phonologically related to nouns, while others are not. Inconsistent results on effects of noun-verb relatedness on verb production have been reported in the literature. Aims We investigated (1) whether verb instrumentality (a conceptual relationship to nouns) or homonymy (a phonological relationship to nouns) would affect verb production in individuals with Broca’s aphasia and (2) whether conceptual/ phonological noun-verb relationship would affect responsiveness to aphasia therapy that focused on verb production. Methods & Procedures Three English speaking individuals with Broca’s aphasia produced 96 verbs in sentences in response to picture stimuli. The target verbs included those that use an instrument and those that do not (e.g., to hammer vs. to yawn) and verbs that are phonologically identical to a related noun (e.g., to comb – a comb), morpho-phonologically-related to a noun (e.g., to grind – a grinder), and verbs for which there is no phonologically similar noun (e.g., to lean). The participants’ verb retrieval ability was assessed before and after a 4-week period of aphasia therapy. Outcomes & Results The participants produced more accurate instrumental than non-instrumental verbs both pre- and post-treatment. They also produced more verbs correctly that are homonyms of nouns than verbs that are phonologically related or unrelated to nouns before treatment. However, the effect of homonymy was not observed following treatment. Conclusion Individuals with Broca’s aphasia were more accurate in their production of verbs that were conceptually and phonologically related to nouns than on verb that were not. The performance on verb production improved significantly after therapy. We interpret the results to indicate that whereas prior to treatment the participants relied on phonologically related nouns to retrieve the target verbs, this reliance on knowledge of nouns decreased following therapy that was designed to improve verb production. PMID:23914001

Goral, Mira; Verkuilen, Jay; Kempler, Daniel

2013-01-01

385

Phonological processing in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological assessment.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits that cause functional impairments across several domains, including language. There is experimental evidence that basal ganglia and frontostriatal circuits are implicated in phonological processing, which leads to the hypothesis that a dysfunction of these circuits could be expressed behaviorally as phonological deficiencies in patients with PD. Using neuropsychological assessments, the present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities of patients in the initial stages of PD while controlling for other cognitive processes. The results showed lower scores in patients with PD on phonological tests with respect to a control group and these differences were independent of processes such as attention/working memory, long-term memory, thinking, and verbal language comprehension. However, there was an association between phonological skills and reading comprehension abilities. This finding implies a specific phonological deficit in terms of word reading. PMID:23963326

Elorriaga-Santiago, Sergio; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Carrasco-Vargas, Humberto

2013-10-23

386

Phonological and morphological processing in adult students with learning/reading disabilities.  

PubMed

A target group of college students with learning/reading disabilities was compared with reading-level (RA) and chronological-age (CA) contrast groups on several phonological and morphological computerized information-processing tasks. Results confirm the importance of accurate and rapid processing of simple lexical items to the automatic level. The target students were less accurate and took longer reaction time, as compared with their CA controls, though not with the RA contrast group, in deciding if pseudohomophonics sounded like real words and if pairs of words with different rime conditions rhymed. The target students showed both quantitative and qualitative differences in processing morphological words and morphographic letter strings, in contrast to some earlier findings. The integration of phonological and morphological knowledge is emphasized in working with adult college students with learning/reading disabilities. PMID:15508242

Leong, C K

1999-01-01

387

Comparative Difficulties with Non-Scientific General Vocabulary and Scientific/Medical Terminology in English as a Second Language (ESL) Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Medical education requires student comprehension of both technical (scientific/medical) and non-technical (general) vocabulary. Our experience with “English as a second language” (ESL) Arab students suggested they often have problems comprehending scientific statements because of weaknesses in their understanding of non-scientific vocabulary. This study aimed to determine whether ESL students have difficulties with general vocabulary that could hinder their understanding of scientific/medical texts. Methods: A survey containing English text was given to ESL students in the premedical years of an English-medium medical school in an Arabic country. The survey consisted of sample questions from the Medical College Admission Test (USA). Students were instructed to identify all unknown words in the text. Results: ESL students commenced premedical studies with substantial deficiencies in English vocabulary. Students from English-medium secondary schools had a selective deficiency in scientific/medical terminology which disappeared with time. Students from Arabic-medium secondary schools had equal difficulty with general and scientific/medical vocabulary. Deficiencies in both areas diminished with time but remained even after three years of English-medium higher education. Conclusion: Typically, when teaching technical subjects to ESL students, attention is focused on subject-unique vocabulary and associated modifiers. This study highlights that ESL students also face difficulties with the general vocabulary used to construct statements employing technical words. Such students would benefit from increases in general vocabulary knowledge. PMID:23275846

Heming, Thomas A.; Nandagopal, Shobha

2012-01-01

388

Children with Developmental Language Impairment Have Vocabulary Deficits Characterized by Limited Breadth and Depth  

PubMed Central

Background Deficient vocabulary is a frequently reported symptom of developmental language impairment but the nature of the deficit and its developmental course are not well documented. Aims We aimed to describe the nature of the deficit in terms of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge and to determine whether the nature and the extent of the deficit change over the school years. Methods A total of 25,681 oral definitions produced by 177 children with developmental language impairment (LI) and 325 grade-mates with normally developing language (ND) in grades 2, 4, 8, and 10 were taken from an existing longitudinal database. We analyzed these for breadth by counting the number of words defined correctly and for depth by determining the amount of information in each correct definition. Via a linear mixed model, we determined whether breadth and depth varied with language diagnosis independent of nonverbal IQ, mothers’ education level, race, gender, income and (for depth only) word. Results Children with LI scored significantly lower than children with ND on breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in all grades. The extent of the deficit did not vary significantly across grades. Language diagnosis was an independent predictor of breadth and depth and as strong a predictor as maternal education. For the LI group, growth in depth relative to breadth was slower than for the ND group. Conclusions Compared to their grade-mates, children with LI have fewer words in their vocabularies and they have shallower knowledge of the words that are in their vocabularies. This deficit persists over developmental time. PMID:23650887

McGregor, Karla K.; Oleson, Jacob; Bahnsen, Alison; Duff, Dawna

2012-01-01

389

Systematisierungsuebungen zum englischen Wortschatz (Systematizing Exercises on the English Vocabulary)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary grouped according to subject matter is well-adapted to developing speaking competence. Even in the use of blackboard pictures for teaching vocabulary, systematic aspects should be observed. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

Festag, Ewald

1975-01-01

390

A decentralized approach for establishing a shared communication vocabulary  

E-print Network

facilitates in publishing and making decisions about the the communication vocabulary. For example, the FIPA ontology agent [1] publishes information about ontologies and thereby facilitates communicationA decentralized approach for establishing a shared communication vocabulary Jurriaan van Diggelen

Dignum, Frank

391

THE PHONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF SIGN LANGUAGES  

PubMed Central

Visually perceivable and movable parts of the body – the hands, facial features, head, and upper body – are the articulators of sign language. It is through these articulators that that words are formed, constrained, and contrasted with one another, and that prosody is conveyed. This article provides an overview of the way in which phonology is organized in the alternative modality of sign language. PMID:23539295

SANDLER, WENDY

2013-01-01

392

Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the IdentifiedObject individuals are linked to the ChEBI ontology for definitions of chemical substances.. Second, to allow compatibility with SKOS-based tools and to ensure the vocabulary does not violate the meta-modelling constraints of the OWL-DL profile, the relevant classes in QUDT are declared to be subclasses of SKOS Concept and a shadow SKOS view of ChEBI was generated (as ChEBI models all elements and substances as OWL classes). The provenance of each SKOS concept shadowing an OWL class is recorded using the PROV-O ontology. Some aspects of these processing steps can be automated through SPARQL queries, while other aspects must be done manually. For maintenance and provenance purposes, the complete vocabulary and ontologies are persisted in around 20 separate RDF files (in addition to the QUDT and ChEBI sources), each of which constitutes a separate RDF graph and reflects the various aspects of above steps. The vocabularies are published in multiple ways: - For download as files from the ontology URI - At a SPARQL endpoint - Through a URI-based SKOS API (SISSvoc) - Through search UIs built on top of the SPARQL endpoint or SISSvoc service

Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

2013-12-01

393

Controlled Vocabularies Boost International Participation and Normalization of Searches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) science staff set out to document Earth science data and provide a mechanism for it's discovery in fulfillment of a commitment to NASA's Earth Science progam and to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites' (CEOS) International Directory Network (IDN.) At the time, whether to offer a controlled vocabulary search or a free-text search was resolved with a decision to support both. The feedback from the user community indicated that being asked to independently determine the appropriate 'English" words through a free-text search would be very difficult. The preference was to be 'prompted' for relevant keywords through the use of a hierarchy of well-designed science keywords. The controlled keywords serve to 'normalize' the search through knowledgeable input by metadata providers. Earth science keyword taxonomies were developed, rules for additions, deletions, and modifications were created. Secondary sets of controlled vocabularies for related descriptors such as projects, data centers, instruments, platforms, related data set link types, and locations, along with free-text searches assist users in further refining their search results. Through this robust 'search and refine' capability in the GCMD users are directed to the data and services they seek. The next step in guiding users more directly to the resources they desire is to build a 'reasoning' capability for search through the use of ontologies. Incorporating twelve sets of Earth science keyword taxonomies has boosted the GCMD S ability to help users define and more directly retrieve data of choice.

Olsen, Lola M.

2006-01-01

394

Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

2013-01-01

395

Reliability Assessment for Two Versions of Vocabulary Levels Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a reliability study of two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test at the 5000 word level. This study was motivated by a finding from an ongoing longitudinal study of vocabulary acquisition that Version A and Version B of Vocabulary Levels Test at the 5000 word level were not parallel. In order to investigate this issue,…

Xing, Peiling; Fulcher, Glenn

2007-01-01

396

Focus on the Forms: Recognition Practice in Chinese Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of recognition-based retrieval practice on vocabulary learning in a university Chinese class. Students (N=26) were given practice retrieving new vocabulary (single or two-character words) in a series of simple form recognition tests administered over four weeks. The test sets consisted of target vocabulary that…

Harrington, Michael; Jiang, Wenying

2013-01-01

397

Using PDA for Undergraduate Student Incidental Vocabulary Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have explored English vocabulary learning in environments where students used mobile technologies for prescribed vocabulary learning tasks, or tested designed personalized learning systems to enhance student vocabulary learning for short periods of time in language related courses. Dictionary use via mobile devices has mostly been…

Song, Yanjie; Fox, Robert

2008-01-01

398

Construction of marine vocabularies in the Marine Metadata Interoperability Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data producers often overlook existing metadata descriptors and controlled vocabularies for describing their data, opting instead to create custom descriptors and vocabularies. One of the objectives of the Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project is to reduce this vocabulary proliferation. The work is accomplished as community collaborations, which are supported via the content management framework of the MMI Web site. Services,

L. Bermudez; J. Graybeal; Anthony W. Isenor; Roy Lowry; D. Wright

2005-01-01

399

Vocabulary Mining for Information Retrieval: Rough Sets and Fuzzy Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains vocabulary mining in information retrieval and describes a framework for vocabulary mining that allows the use of rough set-based approximations even when documents and queries are described using weighted, or fuzzy, representations. Examines coordination between multiple vocabulary views and applies the framework to the Unified Medical…

Srinivasan, Padmini; Ruiz, Miguel E.; Kraft, Donald H.; Chen, Jianhua

2001-01-01

400

Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

Cimino, James J.

1995-01-01

401

ELL Preschoolers' English Vocabulary Acquisition from Storybook Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effects of rich explanation, baseline vocabulary, and home reading practices on English language learning (ELL) preschoolers' sophisticated vocabulary learning from storybook reading. Eighty typically developing preschoolers were pretested in L1 (Portuguese) and L2 (English) receptive vocabulary and were assigned to…

Collins, Molly F.

2010-01-01

402

Phonological Dyslexia and Dysgraphia: Cognitive Mechanisms and Neural Substrates  

PubMed Central

To examine the validity of different theoretical assumptions about the neuropsychological mechanisms and lesion correlates of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia, we studied written and spoken language performance in a large cohort of patients with focal damage to perisylvian cortical regions implicated in phonological processing. Despite considerable variation in accuracy for both words and non-words, the majority of participants demonstrated the increased lexicality effects in reading and spelling that are considered the hallmark features of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia. Increased lexicality effects were also documented in spoken language tasks such as oral repetition, and patients performed poorly on a battery of phonological tests that did not involve an orthographic component. Furthermore, a composite measure of general phonological ability was strongly predictive of both reading and spelling accuracy, and we obtained evidence that the continuum of severity that characterized the written language disorder of our patients was attributable to an underlying continuum of phonological impairment. Although patients demonstrated qualitatively similar deficits across measures of written and spoken language processing, there were quantitative differences in levels of performance reflecting task difficulty effects. Spelling was more severely affected than reading by the reduction in phonological capacity and this differential vulnerability accounted for occasional disparities between patterns of impairment on the two written language tasks. Our findings suggest that phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia in patients with perisylvian lesions are manifestations of a central or modality-independent phonological deficit rather than the result of damage to cognitive components dedicated to reading or spelling. Our results also provide empirical support for shared-components models of written language processing, according to which the same central cognitive systems support both reading and spelling. Lesion-deficit correlations indicated that phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia may be produced by damage to a variety of perisylvian cortical regions, consistent with distributed network models of phonological processing. PMID:18625494

Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Beeson, Pélagie M.; Henry, Maya L.; Leyden, Anne; Kim, Esther; Rising, Kindle; Andersen, Sarah; Cho, HyeSuk

2009-01-01

403

Enhancing Teacher Read Alouds with Small-Group Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Low Vocabulary in First-Grade Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of small-group instruction on the vocabulary and comprehension of first-grade students identified with low language and low vocabulary skills. Overall, 102 first-grade students scoring below the 50th percentile on relational vocabulary were blocked by classroom, matched according to…

Fien, Hank; Santoro, Lana; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Chard, David J.; Williams, Susanna; Haria, Priti

2011-01-01

404

General Academic or Domain-Specific Vocabulary?: The Impact of Word Selection in High School Biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of learning various types of words in biology on students' reading comprehension, vocabulary performance, and science content knowledge. The study involved 315 ninth grade biology students who were placed in one of four groups and spent two weeks for ten minutes per day working on independent vocabulary packets in which they practiced a set of 15 words. Group one's list was a combination of domain-specific and general academic words, group two's list was a set of general academic words, and group three's list was a set of domain-specific words. The fourth group, the control group, did no formal vocabulary work but instead completed lessons involving the ecology content. In this quasi-experiment, the independent variable was the instructional group assignment, and the dependent variables were the students' performances on the reading comprehension, vocabulary (broken into various categories), and content assessments. Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) found the differences to be statistically significant. The individual dependent variables were analyzed and found two question types on the vocabulary test, the domainspecific and general academic, to be significant in the test of between-subjects effects. Further, instructional group assignment did not have an effect on reading comprehension and content Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) found the differences to be statistically significant. The individual dependent variables were analyzed and found two question types on the vocabulary test, the domainspecific and general academic, to be significant in the test of between-subjects effects. Further, instructional group assignment did not have an effect on reading comprehension and content

Birmingham, Elizabeth A.

405

Attentional Blink Is Hierarchically Modulated by Phonological, Morphological, Semantic and Lexical Connections between Two Chinese Characters  

PubMed Central

The ability to identify the second of two targets (T2) is impaired if that target is presented less than ?500 ms after the first (T1). This transient deficit is known as attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have suggested that the magnitude of the AB effect can be modulated by manipulating the allocation of attentional resources to T1 or T2. However, few experiments have used Chinese characters and words to explore this phenomenon. The existence of lexical, semantic, phonological and morphological connections between Chinese characters has been well established, and understanding these connections may improve our knowledge of reading Chinese. In this study, we employed varying connections between T1 and T2 and examined how these connections modulate the AB effect. We found that the strongest AB was observed when the two Chinese characters were completely unrelated, while the AB was reduced when T1 and T2 were phonologically, orthographically or semantically related and was almost completely eliminated when T1 and T2 were united in a lexical phrase. The order of activation between Chinese characters was identified as follows: (a) lexical phrases, (b) semantic connection, (c) morphological connection, (d) phonological connection and (e) unrelated words. PMID:25101959

Cao, Hong-Wen; Jin, Kai-Bin; Li, Chao-Yi; Yan, Hong-Mei

2014-01-01

406

Coexistence of stuttering and disordered phonology in young children.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to assess differences in stuttering, phonological, and diadochokinetic behaviors in young children who exhibit both stuttering and disordered phonology and children who exhibit only one of the disorders. Subjects were 21 male children (aged 4 to 6 years), representing three groups of seven children each: (a) stuttering and normal phonological abilities (S+NP), (b) stuttering and disordered phonology (S+DP), and (c) normal fluency and disordered phonology (NF+DP). Stuttering behavior was assessed during a 30-minute conversational speech task; phonological behavior was assessed during a 162 item picture-naming task; and diadochokinetic abilities were assessed during bi- and multisyllable productions. Results indicated that the S+DP group produced significantly more sound prolongations and significantly fewer iterations per whole-word repetition than the S+NP group. However, there were no differences between the two groups in other stuttering indices. Moreover, no differences were noted between the S+DP and NF+DP groups in phonological behavior. Diadochokinetic rates did not differ among the three groups. The possibility of two types of stuttering, one occurring with and one without disordered phonology, is discussed. PMID:8246479

Wolk, L; Edwards, M L; Conture, E G

1993-10-01

407

Visual Feedback in Treatment of Residual Phonological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of visual biofeedback in the treatment of individuals who have residual phonological errors is discussed. Biofeedback is conceptualized as a cognitive treatment that requires the client's analysis of visual information and then use of that information in developing correct productions of residual phonological errors. Results suggest the…

Ruscello, Dennis M.

1995-01-01

408

Phonological Processing In Adults with Deficits in Musical Pitch Recognition  

PubMed Central

Educational Objectives The reader will 1) understand the broad range of deficits in phonological perception and processing that accompany deficits in musical pitch recognition, and 2) recognize the possible utility of musical evaluation measures and music-based therapies in the treatment of phonological and other speech disorders. PMID:19233383

Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis

2009-01-01

409

Dynamic Assessment in Phonological Disorders: The Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dynamic assessment is applied to phonological disorders with the Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS). The SSS comprises a 21-point hierarchical scale of cues and linguistic environments. With the SSS, clinicians assess stimulability as a diagnostic indicator and use the measure to monitor progress across treatment. Unlike other phonological

Glaspey, Amy M.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2005-01-01

410

Evidence-Based Practice: A Matrix for Predicting Phonological Generalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a matrix for clinical use in the selection of phonological treatment targets to induce generalization, and in the identification of probe sounds to monitor during the course of intervention. The matrix appeals to a set of factors that have been shown to promote phonological generalization in the research literature, including…

Gierut, Judith A.; Hulse, Lauren E.

2010-01-01

411

School-Aged Children's Phonological Production of Derived English Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Little is known about the phonological aspects of derivational processes. Neutral suffixes (e.g., "-ness") that do not change stress and rhythmic or nonneutral suffixes (e.g., "-ity") that alter stem stress were used in a production task that explored developmental changes in phonological accuracy of derived English words. Method: Three…

Jarmulowicz, Linda

2006-01-01

412

Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

Farrell, Simon

2006-01-01

413

Phonological and Surface Subtypes among University Students with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological

Wolff, Ulrika

2009-01-01

414

Speech Perception Deficits by Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…

Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang

2009-01-01

415

Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia—a developmental analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper presents data from seven developmental dyslexics who exhibit the profile of abilities which can be described as “phonological” dyslexia. Three of the cases, all children, were of low reading age; four cases, one of which was an adult, had reading ages above ten years. Tests of reading, spelling and auditory processing revealed a range of phonological deficits

Maggie Snowling; Joy Stackhouse; John Rack

1986-01-01

416

Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2012-01-01

417

Phonology in syntax: The Somali optional agreement rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would

Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum

1983-01-01

418

Hyphenation can improve reading in acquired phonological dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We describe JD, a person with severe phonological dyslexia. JD is good at reading words yet is extremely poor at reading nonwords. She shows no effect of word regularity on her reading performance. However, she has only a very mild general phonological deficit. Although it is known that teaching grapheme–phoneme correspondence rules and learning bigraph syllables can improve dyslexic

Trevor A. Harley; David A. OMara

2006-01-01

419

Quantifying Phonological Representation Abilities in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed three important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

Anthony, Jason L.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Solari, Emily J.; Dunkelberger, Martha J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Liang, Lan

2011-01-01

420

Specific Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia Revealed by Eyetracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…

Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.

2006-01-01

421

Phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval: evidence from developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact retrieval. The present study tested this proposal in 25 adults with developmental dyslexia and 25 matched controls by examining strategy use during single-digit multiplication and subtraction and its associations with phonological processing. Findings revealed that individuals with dyslexia retrieved fewer arithmetic facts from memory and were less efficient in doing so. At the same time, they showed deficits in phonological processing. Phonological processing, particularly phonological awareness, was related to arithmetic fact retrieval. This association was especially prominent in multiplication, indicating that fact retrieval in multiplication rather than subtraction is mediated by phonological processes. These data provide ground for future neuroimaging studies, who should examine the neural overlap between phonological processing and multiplication fact retrieval in the same sample of participants. PMID:20965205

De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart

2010-12-01

422

Phonological Similarity, Markedness, and Rate of L2 Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the interrelationship of several factors--phonological similarity between L1 and L2, transfer, and markedness as they relate to the acquisition of two English vowel phonemes by native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Phonetic and phonological similarity between L1 and L2 appear to be important factors. (LMO)

Major, Roy C.

1987-01-01

423

The Structure of Phonological Awareness among Kindergarten Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness, an understanding that spoken language is comprised of individual sounds, is an important construct that has implications for educational assessment and intervention. Unfortunately, the relationship between phonological awareness and its many operationalizations is ambiguous, resulting in both theoretical and practical…

Runge, Timothy J.; Watkins, Marley W.

2006-01-01

424

The Effect of Phonological Neighborhood Density on Vowel Articulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent literature suggests that phonological neighborhood density and word frequency can affect speech production, in addition to the well-documented effects that they have on speech perception. This article describes 2 experiments that examined how phonological neighborhood density influences the durations and formant frequencies of adults'…

Munson, Benjamin; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

2004-01-01

425

THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE*  

E-print Network

THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE* SÃ?NIA FROTA1 , MARIAPAOLA D, 5 Universidade do Minho Abstract This paper examines the phonetics and phonology of intonational rise (H) and sustained pitch (!H). A detailed analysis of the phonetics of the H boundary tone, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

426

Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

2012-01-01

427

The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process, but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic, and phonological abilities. The present article reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of…

Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

2011-01-01

428

Phonological Memory Predicts Second Language Oral Fluency Gains in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and second language (L2) fluency gains in native English-speaking adults learning Spanish in two learning contexts: at their home university or abroad in an immersion context. Phonological memory (operationalized as serial nonword recognition) and Spanish oral fluency…

O'Brien, Irena; Segalowitz, Norman; Freed, Barbara; Collentine, Joe

2007-01-01

429

Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

Proctor, Michael Ian

2009-01-01

430

S'COOL Lesson Plan 57: Vocabulary Art Using Art as a Vocabulary Strategy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this lesson plan students focus on a predetermined vocabulary list, then use the words, definitions, or familiar context to draw (either by hand or on the computer) a picture that depicts that word. Detailed Procedure and Materials, Vocabulary linked to an on-line glossary, and Teacher Notes are provided. This activity is related to the Students' Cloud Observations Online (S’COOL) project.

2009-01-01

431

The Role of Knowledge in Visual Shape Representation  

E-print Network

This report shows how knowledge about the visual world can be built into a shape representation in the form of a descriptive vocabulary making explicit the important geometrical relationships comprising objects' shapes. ...

Saund, Eric

1988-10-01

432

Matching controlled vocabulary words Natalia Grabar  

E-print Network

is that lemmatization brings a statistically significant improvement and that stemming additionally improves the results, but in a non-statistically significant way. 3 Material used The queries studied are those received by.g., the MeSH): is the vocabulary of user queries comparable with that of the index terms? The two

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

433

Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

2010-01-01

434

Russian Emotion Vocabulary in American Learners' Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the uses of emotion vocabulary in narratives elicited from monolingual speakers of Russian and English and advanced American learners of Russian. Monolingual speakers differed significantly in the distribution of emotion terms across morphosyntactic categories: English speakers favored an adjectival pattern of emotion…

Pavlenko, Aneta; Driagina, Viktoria

2007-01-01

435

Adaptive Training for Large Vocabulary Continuous  

E-print Network

Adaptive Training for Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Kai Yu Hughes Hall College for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy #12;ii Summary In recent years, there has been a trend towards training is to train hidden Markov models (HMMs) on the whole data set as if all data comes from a single acoustic

Hain, Thomas

436

Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

2014-01-01

437

Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

2015-01-01

438

Notes on an Environmental Pollution Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocabulary covering the field of environmental pollution was compiled by the staff of the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution. The view of the approach is to include an outline-classification all physical, life, and social science aspects of environmental pollution, trying to achieve a balance in the representation of each…

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

439

Interactive Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word walls are designed to serve as visual scaffolds and are a common classroom tool used to support reading and language arts instruction. To support vocabulary development in science and support students who are ELLs, Husty and Jackson (2008) created interactive word walls that resemble semantic maps (Masters, Mori, and Mori 1993). Semantic maps…

Jackson, Julie; Tripp, Sherry; Cox, Kimberly

2011-01-01

440

Should Vocabulary Instruction Be Integrated or Isolated?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares integrated and isolated form-focused instruction for vocabulary development in an English as a second language (ESL) reading lesson. Two classes of ESL learners (N = 20) from a university preparation academic English course were involved in the study. Each class did two reading treatments in which they read an article and…

File, Kieran Andrew; Adams, Rebecca

2010-01-01

441

Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

Lu, M.

2008-01-01

442

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Thesaurus -- Volume 2, Access Vocabulary -- contains an alphabetical listing of all Thesaurus terms (postable and nonpostable) and permutations of all multiword and pseudo-multiword terms. Also included are Other Words (non-Thesaurus terms) consisting of abbreviations, chemical symbols, etc. The permutations and Other Words provide 'access' to the appropriate postable entries in the Thesaurus.

1976-01-01

443

The Controlled Vocabulary--A Reexamination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The controlled vocabulary method of reading instruction (popular in the 1950's and 60's in the Dick and Jane basic reading series) had many inherent and numerous strong points. As with all beginning reading instruction methods, including the Big Book, heterogeneous reading group, holism, phonics, library book, and constructivist methods,…

Ediger, Marlow

444

Enhancing Basal Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To enhance the basal vocabulary instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties, lessons provided in typical curricular materials can be supplemented with instructional elements derived from research. This article addresses how teachers can add 15 minutes of higher order instructional activities to daily reading lessons to…

Lenfest, Ashleigh; Reed, Deborah K.

2015-01-01

445

Instant Mapping of American Regional Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When it is published in four or five years, the "Dictionary of American Regional English" (DARE) will be the official dictionary of the American Dialect Society. This dictionary will contain information concerning vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammatical forms which are restricted regionally or socially in American speech. One distinctive…

Hirshberg, Jeffrey

446

Running Head: SPEECH ERRORS AND PHONOLOGICAL THEORY Linking speech errors and generative phonological theory  

E-print Network

1 Running Head: SPEECH ERRORS AND PHONOLOGICAL THEORY Linking speech errors-goldrick@northwestern.edu #12; 2 Abstract Speech errors are a critical source of data on the tacit in spontaneous speech, in experimental paradigms such as tongue twisters, and those

Reber, Paul J.

447

Mapping medical vocabularies to the Unified Medical Language System.  

PubMed Central

This paper presents our work in automated mapping of medical vocabularies to the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). We used the UMLS Knowledge Source (KS) tool to map terms from several sources to UMLS Metathesaurus concepts. We compared performance of the KS tools with our own Minimal Representable Units Method (MRUM). The KS tools were able to map terms from 13% to 54% of the time, depending on the term set and the KS options used. Our MRUM method mapped between 96% and 99% of the terms. Based on our experience, we believe that questions remain about the best method by which the UMLS can be used to achieve automated term translation. PMID:8947637

Zeng, Q.; Cimino, J. J.

1996-01-01

448

PatientsLikeMe: Consumer health vocabulary as a folksonomy.  

PubMed

PatientsLikeMe is an online social networking community. Subcommunities center on three diagnoses: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinsons Disease. Community members can describe their symptoms online in natural language, resulting in folksonomic tags available for clinical analysis and for browsing by other users to find patients like me. Forty-three percent of PatientsLikeMe symptom terms are present as exact (24%) or synonymous (19%) terms in the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus (National Library of Medicine; 2007AC). Slightly more than half of the symptom terms either do not match the UMLS, or are unclassifiable. A clinical vocabulary, SNOMED CT, accounts for 93% of the matching terms. Analysis of the failed matches reveals challenges for online patient communication, not only with healthcare professionals, but with other patients. In a Web 2.0 environment with lowered barriers between consumers and professionals, a deficiency in knowledge representation affects not only professionals, but consumers as well. PMID:18999004

Smith, Catherine Arnott; Wicks, Paul J

2008-01-01

449

Reading and Phonological Skills in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome.  

PubMed

Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in standardized assessments of reading and phonological skills. Phonological skills were impaired in FXS, while reading was on-par with that of controls. Phonological awareness predicted reading ability and ASD severity predicted poorer phonological abilities in FXS. Boys with FXS are capable of attaining reading skills that are commensurate with developmental level and phonological awareness skills may play a critical role in reading achievement in FXS. PMID:25448919

Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W; Mirrett, Penny L; Hatton, Deborah D; Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Jane E; Bailey, Donald B

2014-12-01

450

Language and phonological skills in children at high risk of reading difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dyslexia is now generally acknowledged to involve difficulties in phonological processing. However, the links between reading difficulties and speech difficulties remain unclear. Method: In the present study, 17 children with speech difficulties between the ages of four and six were compared to children with a family history of dyslexia and normally developing controls on phonological processing, phonological learning, phonological

Julia M. Carroll; Margaret J. Snowling

2004-01-01

451

The Effects of Embedded Phonological Awareness Training on the Reading and Spelling Skills of Kindergarten Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness is the ability to attend to and recognize the sound structure of a language. This skill is known to be important for learning to spell and read and a lack of phonological awareness skills is linked with reading difficulties. Previous research has shown phonological awareness training improves phonological awareness skills,…

Robinson, Sarah

2010-01-01

452

The Word Complexity Measure: Description and Application to Developmental Phonology and Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miccio's work included a number of articles on the assessment of phonology in children with phonological disorders, typically using measures of correct articulation, using the PCC, or analyses of errors, using the framework of phonological processes. This paper introduces an approach to assessing phonology by examining the phonetic complexity of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2010-01-01

453

IV. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): measuring language (vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding).  

PubMed

Mastery of language skills is an important predictor of daily functioning and health. Vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding are relatively quick and easy to measure and correlate highly with overall cognitive functioning, as well as with success in school and work. New measures of vocabulary comprehension and reading decoding (in both English and Spanish) were developed for the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB). In the Toolbox Picture Vocabulary Test (TPVT), participants hear a spoken word while viewing four pictures, and then must choose the picture that best represents the word. This approach tests receptive vocabulary knowledge without the need to read or write, removing the literacy load for children who are developing literacy and for adults who struggle with reading and writing. In the Toolbox Oral Reading Recognition Test (TORRT), participants see a letter or word onscreen and must pronounce or identify it. The examiner determines whether it was pronounced correctly by comparing the response to the pronunciation guide on a separate computer screen. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of language during childhood and the relation of language and brain function. We also review the development of the TPVT and TORRT, including information about the item calibration process and results from a validation study. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of the measures are discussed. PMID:23952202

Gershon, Richard C; Slotkin, Jerry; Manly, Jennifer J; Blitz, David L; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Schnipke, Deborah; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Gleason, Jean Berko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Weintraub, Sandra

2013-08-01

454

The Effect of Speed Reading Instruction on Japanese High School Students' English Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of a six-month course in speed reading in three areas of reading proficiency development: 1) general reading comprehension, 2) knowledge of high-frequency vocabulary, and 3) reading-rate and accuracy. The participants (N = 105) were Japanese students studying English as a foreign language in Grade 10 at a…

Underwood, Paul; Myskow, Gordon; Hattori, Takahiko

2012-01-01

455

E-Word Wall: An Interactive Vocabulary Instruction Tool for Students with Learning Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development for students with learning disability (LD) is affected by "differences in the amount of independent reading, lack of strategies to learn words from content, and diffuse word knowledge" (Jitendra, Edwards, Sacks, & Jacobson, 2004, p. 300). Generally, students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have relatively strong skills…

Narkon, Drue E.; Wells, Jenny C.; Segal, Lillian S.

2011-01-01

456

Hypertext Annotation: Effects of Presentation Formats and Learner Proficiency on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in Foreign Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends current knowledge by exploring the effect of different annotation formats, namely in-text annotation, glossary annotation, and pop-up annotation, on hypertext reading comprehension in a foreign language and vocabulary acquisition across student proficiencies. User attitudes toward the annotation presentation were also…

Chen, I-Jung; Yen, Jung-Chuan

2013-01-01

457

EFL Students' Vocabulary Learning in NS-NNS E-Mail Interactions: Do They Learn New Words by Imitation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated Japanese students' EFL vocabulary development through e-mail interactions with a native English speaker (NS), with primary focus on students' imitation of new words. According to sociocultural theory, learners can internalize new linguistic knowledge by imitating an expert's expressions to create his/her own…

Sasaki, Akihiko; Takeuchi, Osamu

2010-01-01

458

Vocabulary learning and teaching beliefs of pre-service and in-service teachers in Hong Kong and mainland China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language learners and teachers’ cognition in respect of learning and teaching plays a critical role in mediating their actual behaviour and decisions in the process. This study investigates the vocabulary learning and teaching beliefs held by pre-service and in-service teachers in Hong Kong and on the Chinese mainland so that teacher education programmes can better equip teachers with appropriate knowledge

Xuesong Gao; Qing Ma

2011-01-01

459

Comparing Vocabulary Development in Spanish- and Chinese-Speaking ELLs: The Effects of Metalinguistic and Sociocultural Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the impact of two metalinguistic factors, English derivational awareness and English-Spanish cognate awareness, and the impact of two sociocultural factors, maternal education and children's length of residence in Canada, on English Language Learners (ELLs)' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study were 89…

Chen, Xi; Ramirez, Gloria; Luo, Yang C.; Geva, Esther; Ku, Yu-Min

2012-01-01

460

A Quantile Regression Approach to Understanding the Relations Among Morphological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in adult basic education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at multiple points (quantiles) along the continuous distribution of reading comprehension. To demonstrate the efficacy of our multiple quantile regression analysis, we compared and contrasted our results with a traditional multiple regression analytic approach. Our results indicated that morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge accounted for a large portion of the variance (82%-95%) in reading comprehension skills across all quantiles. Morphological awareness exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at lower levels of reading comprehension whereas vocabulary knowledge exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at higher levels of reading comprehension. These results indicate the utility of using multiple quantile regression to assess trajectories of component skills across multiple levels of reading comprehension. The implications of our findings for ABE programs are discussed. PMID:25351773

Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

2014-10-28

461

Use of standard vocabulary services in validation of water resources data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ontology repositories are increasingly being exposed through vocabulary and concept services. Primarily this is in support of resource discovery. Thesaurus functionality and even more sophisticated reasoning offers the possibility of overcoming the limitations of simple text-matching and tagging which is the basis of most search. However, controlled vocabularies have other important roles in distributed systems: in particular in constraining content validity. A national water information system established by the Australian Bureau of Meterorology ('the Bureau') has deployed a system for ingestion of data from multiple providers. This uses a http interface onto separately maintained vocabulary services as part of the quality assurance chain. With over 200 data providers potentially transferring data to the Bureau, a standard XML-based Water Data Transfer Format (WDTF) was developed for receipt of data into an integrated national water information system. The WDTF schema was built upon standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The structure and syntax specified by a W3C XML Schema is complemented by additional constraints described using Schematron. These implement important content requirements and business rules including: • Restricted cardinality: where optional elements and attributes inherited from the base standards become mandatory in the application, or repeatable elements or attributes are limited to one or omitted. For example, the sampledFeature element from O&M is optional but is mandatory for a samplingPoint element in WDTF. • Vocabulary checking: WDTF data use seventeen vocabularies or code lists derived from Regulations under the Commonwealth Water Act 2007. Examples of codelists are the Australian Water Regulations list, observed property vocabulary, and units of measures. • Contextual constraints: in many places, the permissible value is dependent on the value of another field. For example, within observations the unit of measure must be commensurate with the observed property type Validation of data submitted in WDTF uses a two-pass approach. First, syntax and structural validation is performed by standard XML Schema validation tools. Second, validation of contextual constraints and code list checking is performed using a hybrid method combining context-sensitive rule-based validation (allowing the rules to be expressed within a given context) and semantic vocabulary services. Schematron allows rules to incorporate assertions of XPath expressions to access and constrain element content, therefore enabling contextual constraints. Schematron is also used to perform element cardinality checking. The vocabularies or code lists are formalized in SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System), an RDF-based language. SKOS provides mechanisms to define concepts, associate them with (multi-lingual) labels or terms, and record thesaurus-like relationships between them. The vocabularies are managed in a RDF database or semantic triple store. Querying is implemented as a semantic vocabulary service, with an http-based API that allows queries to be issued from rules written in Schematron. WDTF has required development and deployment of some ontologies whose scope is much more general than this application, in particular covering 'observed properties' and 'units of measure', which also have to be related to each other and consistent with the dimensional analysis. Separation of the two validation passes reflects the separate governance and stability of the structural and content rules, and allows an organisation's business rules to be moved out of the XML schema definition and the XML schema to be reused by other businesses with their own specific rules. With the general approach proven, harmonization opportunities with more generic services are being explored, such as the GEMET API for SKOS, developed by the European Environment Agency. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the AUSCOPE team for their development and support provided of the vocabulary services.

Yu, Jonathan; Cox, Simon; Ratcliffe, David

2010-05-01

462

Do Pseudoword False Alarm Rates and Overestimation Rates in Yes/No Vocabulary Tests Change with Japanese University Students' English Ability Levels?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Pseudowords", or non-real words, were introduced to the Yes/No (YN) vocabulary test format to provide a means of checking for overestimation of word knowledge by test takers. The purpose of this study is to assess the assumption that more pseudoword checks (false alarms) indicate more instances of overestimation of word knowledge in YN tests.…

Stubbe, Raymond

2012-01-01

463

Ontology Re-engineering Use Case: Extending SWEET to map Climate and Forecasting Vocabulary Terms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common problem faced while developing metadata for scientific data archives is that of keywords. Although keywords are an effective way for searching the resource catalogs, data archive designers may select from one of many different controlled vocabularies to describe their holdings. For example, in Earth Science, Climate and Forecasting (CF Convention) is a controlled vocabulary commonly used within the Modeling community. Similarly, the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) keywords list is the convention used within the NASA Earth Science Program. The use of controlled vocabularies allows searches on the resource catalogs to be accurate and complete, but the burden of framing the precise query falls on the shoulders of the users. The user has to know the keyword before hand in order to perform a "free text" search. This might be perfectly acceptable in smaller projects where the users are specialized and have the required knowledge, but is impractical in larger projects where the users may have varied levels of domain knowledge. One solution to this problem is the use of an ontology, where the ontology contains higher level abstract concepts and the corresponding mapping to the different controlled vocabulary terms. This use of ontologies eliminates the barrier of entry based on domain knowledge and provides easy-to-use search capabilities to the users. In this presentation, we will describe an ontology designed and created to address this problem. However, this ontology required re-engineering of higher level ontologies, namely the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies, instead of the initial creation of an ontology. Since the traditional methodologies for creating an ontology do not account for reengineering and reuse of higher level ontologies, we propose a new modified methodology. This presentation will describe this methodology and also explore some of the issues and challenges involved in the construction of an ontology using this approach.

Ramachandran, R.; Graves, S.; Raskin, R.

2006-05-01

464

Phonological Recoding in Error Detection: A Cross-sectional Study in Beginning Readers of Dutch  

PubMed Central

The present cross-sectional study investigated the development of phonological recoding in beginning readers of Dutch, using a proofreading task with pseudohomophones and control misspellings. In Experiment 1, children in grades 1 to 3 rejected fewer pseudohomophones (e.g., wein, sounding like wijn ‘wine’) as spelling errors than control misspellings (e.g., wijg). The size of this pseudohomophone effect was larger in grade 1 than in grade 2 and did not differ between grades 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, we replicated the pseudohomophone effect in beginning readers and we tested how orthographic knowledge may modulate this effect. Children in grades 2 to 4 again detected fewer pseudohomophones than control misspellings and this effect decreased between grades 2 and 3 and between grades 3 and 4. The magnitude of the pseudohomophone effect was modulated by the development of orthographic knowledge: its magnitude decreased much more between grades 2 and 3 for more advanced spellers, than for less advanced spellers. The persistence of the pseudohomophone effect across all grades illustrates the importance of phonological recoding in Dutch readers. At the same time, the decreasing pseudohomophone effect across grades indicates the increasing influence of orthographic knowledge as reading develops. PMID:24386453

Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2013-01-01

465

Risk Factors for Low Receptive Vocabulary Abilities in the Preschool and Early School Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children  

PubMed Central

Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4–8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4–8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well-fitted multivariate model featuring risks of substantive magnitude does not do particularly well in predicting low receptive vocabulary ability from 4–8 years. PMID:24988308

Christensen, Daniel; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L.

2014-01-01

466

Learning to read as the formation of a dynamic system: evidence for dynamic stability in phonological recoding  

PubMed Central

Two aspects of dynamic systems approaches that are pertinent to developmental models of reading are the emergence of a system with self-organizing characteristics, and its evolution over time to a stable state that is not easily modified or perturbed. The effects of dynamic stability may be seen in the differences obtained in the processing of print by beginner readers taught by different approaches to reading (phonics and text-centered), and more long-term effects on adults, consistent with these differences. However, there is little direct evidence collected over time for the same participants. In this study, lexicalized (implicit) phonological processing, and explicit phonological and letter-sound skills are further examined in a precocious reader whose early development at 3 and 5 years has been extensively described (Cognition, 2000, 2004). At ages 10 and 14 years, comparisons were made with these earlier reports and skilled adult readers, using the same tasks for evidence of changes in reading processes. The results showed that along with an increase of reading accuracy and speed, her pattern of lexicalized phonological responses for reading did not change over time. Neither did her pattern of explicit phonological and letter-sound skills, aspects of which were inferior to her lexicalized phonological processing, and word reading. These results suggest dynamic stability of the word reading system. The early emergence of this system with minimal explicit skill development calls into question developmental reading theories that require such skills for learning to read. Currently, only the Knowledge Sources theory of reading acquisition can account for such findings. Consideration of these aspects of dynamic systems raise theoretical issues that could result in a paradigm shift with regard to best practice and intervention. PMID:25071635

Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.

2014-01-01

467

Morphosyntax and phonological awareness in children with speech sound disorders.  

PubMed

The goals of the current study were to examine concurrent and longitudinal relationships of expressive morphosyntax and phonological awareness in a group of children with speech sound disorders. Tests of phonological awareness were administered to 38 children at the end of their prekindergarten and kindergarten years. Speech samples were elicited and analyzed to obtain a set of expressive morphosyntax variables. Finite verb morphology and inflectional suffix use by prekindergarten children were found to predict significant unique variance in change in phonological awareness a year later. These results are consistent with previous research showing finite verb morphology to be a sensitive indicator of language impairment in English. PMID:19076403

Mortimer, Jennifer; Rvachew, Susan

2008-12-01

468

The gradual emergence of phonological form in a new language  

PubMed Central

The division of linguistic structure into a meaningless (phonological) level and a meaningful level of morphemes and words is considered a basic design feature of human language. Although established sign languages, like spoken languages, have been shown to be characterized by this bifurcation, no information has been available about the way in which such structure arises. We report here on a newly emerging sign language, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, which functions as a full language but in which a phonological level of structure has not yet emerged. Early indications of formal regularities provide clues to the way in which phonological structure may develop over time. PMID:22223927

Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol

2011-01-01

469

[Anglicisms in the German medical vocabulary].  

PubMed

In view of an ever-increasing infiltration of the German medical vocabulary by Britishisms and Americanisms, a linguistic attempt was made to categorize this phraseology as follows: more or less incorporated terminology, "internationalized" terms, identical translations, unnecessary use of English expressions instead of German synonyms, borrowing from the English with an alteration of the original meaning, and German neologisms on the basis of English vocabular material. Specimens from all these categories are enumerated. PMID:4024069

Schleyer, F

1985-01-01

470

Development of a Controlled Vocabulary for Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent emergence of a number of Environmental Observing systems calls the for the need of a nationwide geoscience cyberinfrastructure. One of the problems that need to be overcome when building a nationwide CI is the vexing problem of disparate and incompatible metadata descriptions that exist due to the use of different standards (if at all) and also the use of different vocabularies to describe the same thing or multiple use of a single word to describe different things leading to interoperability problems. To avoid syntactic interoperability problems many data clearinghouses (UK's Gigateway, Canada's GeoConnections, Australian Spatial Data Directory, US NSDI etc.) are migrating to ISO 19115 metadata standard. While the adoption of a standard is a first step towards solving the syntactic interoperability problem to some extent semantic difference remain because the ISO 19115 does not provide any controlled vocabulary for scientific terminology. In this study our aim is to develop a thesaurus for hydraulic science (as it is a central subject of all environmental observing systems) and engineering keywords that consists of several thousand entries which will help solving homonym, synonym problems as well as allowing discovery of more specific terms when a broader term was searched for. Development methods allow multi-lingual controlled vocabulary as in ISO standard since the relations (classification, narrower term, broader term, synonym etc.) between the terms in the thesaurus are independent of the language used. Human readable vocabulary may be attached to concepts as labels with a "language" identifier such that an entry of e.g. n0231 returns "rain" in English while "pluie" in French.

Beran, B.; Piasecki, M.; Choi, Y.

2005-12-01

471

Mnemonic instruction of eighth-grade science vocabulary: A focus on retention, and specific vs. general transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There were three goals to this study: (a) to teach eighth-grade students how to use a mnemonic to improve their knowledge of science vocabulary; (b) to investigate retention on an immediate, 2-day, and 2-week retention test among students who use of the method of loci, pegword, keyword mnemonics or free study to study eighth-grade science vocabulary; and (c) to understand whether students could transfer use of a mnemonic under both specific and general transfer conditions. One-hundred and eight eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (e.g., method of loci, pegword, keyword, or free study). Over a 2-week period, students learned their assigned mnemonic device, were tested on immediate, 2-day, and 2-week delay retention of science vocabulary examples and definitions, and were tested on their ability to transfer their mnemonic under a specific transfer condition (study metal alloy uses) and a general transfer condition (study Revolutionary War battle events). The results of this study indicate that students who used the keyword mnemonic to study both science vocabulary examples and definitions outperformed students who used the method of loci and free study methods to study this information. Results also demonstrate that students can use the pegword mnemonic to study science vocabulary definitions. Results also indicate that students who used the keyword and pegword mnemonics retained science vocabulary examples and definitions over time. Additionally, results suggest that students using the keyword mnemonic could transfer the use of a mnemonic under specific transfer and general transfer conditions. The results of this study provide evidence to researchers and teachers that the keyword and pegword mnemonics may help improve eighth-grade students' science knowledge.

Richmond, Aaron S.

472

The effects of speech production and vocabulary training on different components of spoken language performance.  

PubMed

A group of 21 hard-of-hearing and deaf children attending primary school were trained by their teachers on the production of selected consonants and on the meanings of selected words. Speech production, vocabulary knowledge, reading aloud, and speech perception measures were obtained before and after each type of training. The speech production training produced a small but significant improvement in the percentage of consonants correctly produced in words. The vocabulary training improved knowledge of word meanings substantially. Performance on speech perception and reading aloud were significantly improved by both types of training. These results were in accord with the predictions of a mathematical model put forward to describe the relationships between speech perception, speech production, and language measures in children (Paatsch, Blamey, Sarant, Martin, & Bow, 2004). These training data demonstrate that the relationships between the measures are causal. In other words, improvements in speech production and vocabulary performance produced by training will carry over into predictable improvements in speech perception and reading scores. Furthermore, the model will help educators identify the most effective methods of improving receptive and expressive spoken language for individual children who are deaf or hard of hearing. PMID:16192403

Paatsch, Louise E; Blamey, Peter J; Sarant, Julia Z; Bow, Catherine P

2006-01-01

473

Prediction and selection of vocabulary for two leisure activities.  

PubMed

People who use augmentative or alternative communication (AAC) need access to a relevant, socially valid vocabulary if they are to communicate successfully in a variety of contexts. Many people with complex communication needs who utilize some form of high technology or low technology AAC rely on others to predict and select vocabulary for them. In this study the ability of one speech pathologist, nine leisure support workers, and six people with cerebral palsy to accurately predict context-specific vocabulary was explored. Participants predicted vocabulary for two leisure activities - sailing session and Internet café - using the blank page method of vocabulary selection to identify the vocabulary items they considered important for each activity. This predicted vocabulary was then compared with the actual vocabulary used in each of the activities. A total of 187 (68%) of the words predicted for the sailing session were used during recorded conversations, with 88 words (32%) not appearing in the recorded samples. During the visit to the Internet café only 104 (47%) of the words predicted occurred in the recorded samples, with 117 words (53%) not occurring at all. These results support the need to socially validate any vocabulary in order to ensure that it is relevant and useful for the person using the AAC system. PMID:17852052

Dark, Leigha; Balandin, Susan

2007-01-01

474

Social validation of vocabulary selection: ensuring stakeholder relevance.  

PubMed

The vocabulary needs of individuals who are unable to spell their messages continue to be of concern in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Social validation of vocabulary selection has been suggested as one way to improve the effectiveness and relevance of service delivery in AAC. Despite increased emphasis on stakeholder accountability, social validation is not frequently used in AAC research. This paper describes an investigation of the social validity of a vocabulary set identified in earlier research. A previous study used stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary that could be used by South African adults who use AAC to disclose their experiences as victims of crime or abuse. Another study used this vocabulary to create communication boards for use by adults with complex communication needs. In this current project, 12 South African adults with complex communication needs who use AAC systems used a 5-point Likert scale to score the importance of each of the previously identified 57 vocabulary items. This two-step process of first using stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary, and then having literate persons who use AAC provide information on social validity of the vocabulary on behalf of their peers who are illiterate, appears to hold promise as a culturally relevant vocabulary selection approach for sensitive topics such as crime and abuse. PMID:23641830

Bornman, Juan; Bryen, Diane Nelson

2013-06-01

475

Idea Bank: Literature Circle Roles for Science Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study of science is often vocabulary intensive. An analysis of high school chemistry, biology, physics, and Earth science textbooks showed that approximately 1,000 to 3,000 novel science terms are contained in each (Groves 1995). Given the shear magnitude of terms, science vocabulary is problematic for many science teachers and learners. To provide students with meaningful experiences with science vocabulary, the authors group students into literature circles. This article describes how they have modified traditional literature circle roles to help students learn science vocabulary.

Linda Kucan

2007-07-01

476

Phonological Awareness Development of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

E-print Network

Purpose: 1) To assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant (CI) enabled children with severe to profound hearing loss to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities during their preschool years. 2...

Ambrose, Sophie Eva

2009-12-04

477

GraPHIA: a computational model for identifying phonological jokes.  

PubMed

Currently in humor research, there exists a dearth of computational models for humor perception. The existing theories are not quantifiable and efforts need to be made to quantify the models and incorporate neuropsychological findings in humor research. We propose a new computational model (GraPHIA) for perceiving phonological jokes or puns. GraPHIA consists of a semantic network and a phonological network where words are represented by nodes in both the networks. Novel features based on graph theoretical concepts are proposed and computed for the identification of homophonic jokes. The data set for evaluating the model consisted of homophonic puns, normal sentences, and ambiguous nonsense sentences. The classification results show that the feature values result in successful identification of phonological jokes and ambiguous nonsense sentences suggesting that the proposed model is a plausible model for humor perception. Further work is needed to extend the model for identification of other types of phonological jokes. PMID:18618159

Srinivasan, Narayanan; Pariyadath, Vani

2009-02-01

478

Detection of Phonological Features in Continuous Speech using Neural Networks   

E-print Network

which uses binary features, 2) a multi valued (MV) feature system which uses traditional phonetic categories such as manner, place etc, and 3) Government Phonology (GP) which uses a set of structured primes. All experiments used recurrent neural networks...

King, Simon; Taylor, Paul

479

Learning general phonological rules from distributional information: a computational model.  

PubMed

Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony (Peperkamp, Le Calvez, Nadal, & Dupoux, 2006). This paper extends the model to account for learning of a broader set of phonological alternations and the formalization of these alternations as general rules. In Experiment 1, we apply the original model to new data in Dutch and demonstrate its limitations in learning nonallophonic rules. In Experiment 2, we extend the model to allow it to learn general rules for alternations that apply to a class of segments. In Experiment 3, the model is further extended to allow for generalization by context; we argue that this generalization must be constrained by linguistic principles. PMID:25227261

Calamaro, Shira; Jarosz, Gaja

2015-04-01

480

Does "reading" develop "phonological awareness" in Down's syndrome?  

E-print Network

casual relationship for alphabetic scripts. Results discussed in this paper do not support this view as far as reading ability and phonological awareness go in Down's syndrome. The present study compared a sample of children with Down's syndrome (N=10...

Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

2007-01-01

481

Phonological awareness of English by Chinese and Korean bilinguals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined non-native speakers phonological awareness of spoken English. Chinese speaking adults, Korean speaking adults, and English speaking adults were tested. The L2 speakers had been in the US for less than 6 months. Chinese and Korean allow no consonant clusters and have limited numbers of consonants allowable in syllable final position, whereas English allows a variety of clusters and various consonants in syllable final position. Subjects participated in eight phonological awareness tasks (4 replacement tasks and 4 deletion tasks) based on English phonology. In addition, digit span was measured. Preliminary analysis indicates that Chinese and Korean speaker errors appear to reflect L1 influences (such as orthography, phonotactic constraints, and phonology). All three groups of speakers showed more difficulty with manipulation of rime than onset, especially with postvocalic nasals. Results will be discussed in terms of syllable structure, L1 influence, and association with short term memory.

Chung, Hyunjoo; Schmidt, Anna; Cheng, Tse-Hsuan

2002-05-01

482

Towards a Reconceptualisation of "Word" for High Frequency Word Generation in Word Knowledge Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper derives from a PhD study investigating the nexus between Grade 4 textbook vocabulary demands and Grade 3 isiXhosa-speaking learners' knowledge of that vocabulary to enable them to read to learn in Grade 4. The paper challenges the efficacy of the four current definitions of "word" for generating high frequency…

Sibanda, Jabulani; Baxen, Jean

2014-01-01

483

The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to the marine environmental sciences domain since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for • metadata mark-up with verifiable content • populating dynamic drop down lists • semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata • so-called smart search • and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium Web Processing Services in projects including: the NERC Data Grid; SeaDataNet; Geo-Seas; and the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model and following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes in this standard. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". The latest version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: • the removal of the potential for multiple Uniform Resource Names for the same concept to ensure consistent identification of concepts • the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content • the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS • the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base • a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier • and support for multiple human languages to increase the user base of the NVS Version 2 of the NVS underpins the semantic layer for the Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR) project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. Here we present the results of upgrading the NVS from version 1 to 2 and show applications which have been built on top of the NVS using its Application Programming Interface, including a demonstration version of a SPARQL interface.

Leadbetter, A.; Lowry, R.; Clements, O.

2012-04-01

484

Language Deficits in Dyslexic Children: Speech Perception, Phonology, and Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between dyslexia and three aspects of language: speech perception, phonology, and morphology. Reading and language tasks were administered to dyslexics aged 8–9 years and to two normal reader groups (age-matched and reading-level matched). Three dyslexic groups were identified: phonological dyslexics (PD), developmentally language impaired (LI), and globally delayed (delay-type dyslexics). The LI and PD groups exhibited

Marc F. Joanisse; Franklin R. Manis; Patricia Keating; Mark S. Seidenberg

2000-01-01

485

Speech development patterns and phonological awareness in preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the association between speech production and early literacy skills, this study of 102 preschool children looked\\u000a at phonological awareness in relation to whether children were delayed, typical, or advanced in their articulation of consonants.\\u000a Using a developmental typology inspired by some of the literature on speech development (Kahn and Lewis, The Kahn-Lewis phonological analysis, 1986; Shriberg, Journal of

Virginia A. Mann; Judith G. Foy

2007-01-01

486

Phonological awareness for american sign language.  

PubMed

This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers exposed to ASL from infancy perform better than deaf signers exposed to ASL later in life and that this relationship remains even after controlling for the number of years of experience with a signed language. For a subset of participants, we examine the relationship between PA for ASL and performance on a PA test of English and report a positive correlation between ASL PA and English PA in native signers. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to the development of reading skills in deaf children. PMID:25149961

Corina, David P; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

2014-10-01

487

Reading disabilities in SLI and dyslexia result from distinct phonological impairments.  

PubMed

Children with specific language impairment (SLI) who show impaired phonological processing are at risk of developing reading disabilities, which raises the question of phonological impairment commonality between developmental dyslexia (DD) and SLI. In order to distinguish the failing phonological processes in SLI and DD, we investigated the different steps involved in speech processing going from perceptual discrimination through various aspects of phonological memory. Our results show that whereas the memory for sequence is likewise impaired in either disorder, children with SLI have to face additional impairment in phonological discrimination and short-term memory, which may account for even poorer phonological awareness than dyslexics'. PMID:19437205

Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Majerus, Steve; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Poncelet, Martine; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noëlle

2009-01-01

488

Phonological acquisition of a Korean child: An acoustic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on child phonology suggest that there exist phonological universals in the timing of phonological events and the ordering of phonological categories, but the acquisition of speech sounds is influenced by the language-specific aspects of the ambient language such as phonetics, phonology, and the frequency of the sound in child-directed speech. This study investigates a Korean child's phonological acquisition based on tape recordings of longitudinal data (from 2 months to 2 years, recorded in 1- to 2-week intervals). Special attention is given to the change in prosody and the acquisition of the Korean three-way manner contrast (fortis, aspirated, lenis). It is known that Korean fortis and aspirated obstruents trigger high pitch at vowel onset while lenis obstruents trigger low pitch [Jun (1993), (1998)]. Preliminary results suggest that fortis obstruents are acquired first, followed by aspirated, and then lenis. The segmental properties (e.g., voice onset time, breathy phonation) appropriate for the lenis category were acquired later than the pitch. In addition, unlike the universal tendencies, velar and labial consonants were acquired earlier than alveolar consonants. Factors affecting the order of acquisition, including frequency effect and perceptual salience, will be discussed.

Jun, Sun-Ah

2005-09-01

489

Developmental dyslexia and phonological processing in European Portuguese orthography.  

PubMed

This study analysed the performance of phonological processing, the diagnostic accuracy and the influence on reading in children who were native speakers of an orthography of intermediate depth. Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia (DD; N=24; aged 10-12?years), chronological age (CA)-matched controls (N=24; aged 10-12?years) and reading level (RL)-matched controls (N=24; aged 7-9?years) were tested on measures of phonological processing (phonological awareness, naming speed and verbal short-term memory) and reading. The results indicated that the children with DD performed significantly poorer in all measures compared with the CA and RL. Phonological awareness and naming speed showed a high accuracy (receiver operating characteristics curve analysis) for discriminating the children with DD from the CA and RL, whereas the presence of abnormally low scores in phonological awareness and naming speed was more frequent in the DD group than in the controls and the normative population. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that phonological awareness was the most important predictor of all reading accuracy measures, whereas naming speed was particularly related to text reading fluency. PMID:25530196

Moura, Octávio; Moreno, Joana; Pereira, Marcelino; Simões, Mário R

2015-02-01

490

Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers  

PubMed Central

Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7–8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills.

Fonseca-Mora, M. C.; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María

2015-01-01

491

Second language phonology influences first language word naming.  

PubMed

The Masked Onset Priming Effect (MOPE) has been reported in speakers' first languages (L1). The aims of the present study are to investigate whether second language (L2) phonology is active during L1 reading, and to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology in reading aloud. To this end, Dutch-English bilinguals read aloud L1 target words primed by L2 words, while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The onset of the primes was manipulated to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology (i.e. O+P+: kite - KUNST, 'art'; O+P-: knee - KUNST; O-P+: crime - KUNST; O-P-: mine - KUNST). Phonological but not orthographic overlap facilitated RTs. However, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed both orthographic and phonological priming starting 125 ms after target presentation. Taken together, we gained insights into the time course of cross-linguistic priming and demonstrated that L2 phonology is activated rapidly in an L1 environment. PMID:24735994

Timmer, Kalinka; Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Ceusters, Ilse; Schiller, Niels O

2014-06-01

492

Are phonological processing deficits part of the broad autism phenotype?  

PubMed

Two tests of phonological processing, nonword repetition, and nonsense passage reading, were administered to 80 probands with autistic disorder or PDDNOS (index cases) and 59 typically developing controls, together with their parents and siblings. In addition, parents completed a questionnaire about history of language and literacy problems, and all participants were given tests of verbal (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ). Parents also completed the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, which was used to index the broad autism phenotype. Index probands scored well below control probands on the two phonological tests. However, on neither phonological measure did index relatives differ from control relatives. Within the index group, there was no relationship between the proband's level of VIQ, or age at achieving phrase speech, and phonological score of relatives. VIQ was the only measure to show any familiality within the index group. Reported history of language and literacy problems did not differentiate index parents from control parents overall, but those who were categorized as cases of the broad phenotype reported more history of language and literacy problems than did other index parents. However, they did not have poorer scores on the phonological measures. It is concluded that phonological processing deficits are not part of the broad autism phenotype. PMID:15211632

Bishop, Dorothy V M; Maybery, Murray; Wong, Dana; Maley, Alana; Hill, Wayne; Hallmayer, Joachim

2004-07-01

493

Closing the Vocabulary Gap?: A Review of Research on Early Childhood Vocabulary Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our qualitative literature review of 31 published studies found that (a) three major approaches are used in early childhood classrooms to support children's vocabulary learning--exposing children to advanced words, providing direct word-meaning instruction, and employing mixed-method interventions; (b) these practices support children's learning…

Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

2011-01-01

494

Grabbed Early by Vocabulary: Nation's Ongoing Contributions to Vocabulary and Reading in a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"I was grabbed early [by vocabulary] and never let go. That's why it's difficult to explain why I enjoy working in this area. I just love doing it," said Paul Nation (in Coxhead, 2005, p. 46). How many people get grabbed by an area of research, teaching, and learning that continues to engage interest and cause excitement after 30 years? In this…

Coxhead, Averil

2010-01-01

495

The Effects of Topic Interest on the Vocabulary Retention in Third Grade Students with and without Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of topic interest on the vocabulary learning and retention in third grade students with and without learning disabilities. All students learned 12 unfamiliar vocabulary words in three different vocabulary learning conditions: High-interest topic vocabulary, low-interest topic vocabulary, and vocabulary words without…

Endo, Yasuko Amy

2010-01-01

496

Evaluation of Controlled Vocabulary Resources for Development of a Consumer Entry Vocabulary for Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Digital information technology can facilitate informed decision making by individuals regarding their personal health care. The digital divide separates those who do and those who do not have access to or otherwise make use of digital information. To close the digital divide, health care communications research must address a fundamental issue, the consumer vocabulary problem: consumers of health care, at least those who are laypersons, are not always familiar with the professional vocabulary and concepts used by providers of health care and by providers of health care information, and, conversely, health care and health care information providers are not always familiar with the vocabulary and concepts used by consumers. One way to address this problem is to develop a consumer entry vocabulary for health care communications. Objectives To evaluate the potential of controlled vocabulary resources for supporting the development of consumer entry vocabulary for diabetes. Methods We used folk medical terms from the Dictionary of American Regional English project to create exended versions of 3 controlled vocabulary resources: the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus, the Eurodicautom of the European Commission's Translation Service, and the European Commission Glossary of popular and technical medical terms. We extracted consumer terms from consumer-authored materials, and physician terms from physician-authored materials. We used our extended versions of the vocabulary resources to link diabetes-related terms used by health care consumers to synonymous, nearly-synonymous, or closely-related terms used by family physicians. We also examined whether retrieval of diabetes-related World Wide Web information sites maintained by nonprofit health care professional organizations, academic organizations, or governmental organizations can be improved by substituting a physician term for its related consumer term in the query. Results The Dictionary of American Regional English extension of the Metathesaurus provided coverage, either direct or indirect, of approximately 23% of the natural language consumer-term-physician-term pairs. The Dictionary of American Regional English extension of the Eurodicautom provided coverage for 16% of the term pairs. Both the Metathesaurus and the Eurodicautom indirectly related more terms than they directly related. A high percentage of covered term pairs, with more indirectly covered pairs than directly covered pairs, might be one way to make the most out of expensive controlled vocabulary resources. We compared retrieval of diabetes-related Web information sites using the physician terms to retrieval using related consumer terms We based the comparison on retrieval of sites maintained by non-profit healthcare professional organizations, academic organizations, or governmental organizations. The number of such sites in the first 20 results from a search was increased by substituting a physician term for its related consumer term in the query. This suggests that the Dictionary of American Regional English extensions of the Metathesaurus and Eurodicautom may be used to provide useful links from natural language consumer terms to natural language physician terms. Conclusions The Dictionary of American Regional English extensions of the Metathesaurus and Eurodicautom should be investigated further for support of consumer entry vocabulary for diabetes. PMID:11720966

Monga, Harpreet K; Sievert, MaryEllen C; Hall, Joan Houston; Longo, Daniel R

2001-01-01

497

Service Learning: Flooding Students with Vocabulary through Read Alouds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spirit of the Steven Stahl 600 Book Kid Challenge, 90 preservice teachers engaged children in 36 read-aloud sessions for a vocabulary improvement service learning project. This article describes how the preservice teachers used narrative and informational books as a vehicle for rare-word vocabulary exposure for children ages 8-12.

Holmes, Kerry; Thompson, Judith

2014-01-01

498

Translation and Bilingual Practice for German Vocabulary Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a critical examination of the current practices and beliefs about vocabulary teaching and learning in typical communicative-approach German classrooms. While research on vocabulary acquisition is scarce, frequency dictionaries reveal that current practice is based heavily on the use of concrete, referential lexemes that may be…

Augustyn, Prisca

2013-01-01

499

LARGE VOCABULARY DECODING AND CONFIDENCE ESTIMATION USING WORD POSTERIOR PROBABILITIES  

E-print Network

LARGE VOCABULARY DECODING AND CONFIDENCE ESTIMATION USING WORD POSTERIOR PROBABILITIES G. Evermann Email: {ge204,pcw}@eng.cam.ac.uk ABSTRACT This paper investigates the estimation of word posterior probabilities based on word lattices and presents applica- tions of these posteriors in a large vocabulary

Hain, Thomas

500

Occupational Preparation Vocabulary Module. Instructor Manual. Student Manual. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module contains a student manual and an instructor's manual for study of vocabulary for vocational education aimed at students with special needs. The student manual consists of quizzes that consist of matching and multiple-choice items that can be used to review the vocabulary of the unit as presented on a videotaped lesson. Answers to the…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.