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1

Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children. PMID:22057983

Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

2

The Comprehensive Language Approach to Early Literacy: The Interrelationships Among Vocabulary, Phonological Sensitivity, and Print Knowledge Among Preschool-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes 2 points of view about the relationship between oral-language and literacy skills: The phonological sensitivity approach posits that vocabulary provides the basis for phonological sensitivity, which then is the key language ability supporting reading, and the comprehensive language approach (CLA) posits that varied language skills interact with literacy knowledge and continue to play a vital role in

David K. Dickinson; Allyssa McCabe; Louisa Anastasopoulos; Ellen S. Peisner-Feinberg; Michele D. Poe

2003-01-01

3

One Complicated Extended Family: The Influence of Alphabetic Knowledge and Vocabulary on Phonemic Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research evaluated possible sources of individual differences in early explicit, smaller segment phonological awareness. In particular, the unique contributions of oral vocabulary and alphabetic knowledge to phonemic awareness acquisition were examined across the first year of school. A total of 57 participants were tested in kindergarten…

Ouellette, Gene P.; Haley, Allyson

2013-01-01

4

Phonological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To explore the phonological awareness skills of deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and relationships with vocabulary and reading development. Method: Forty-three deaf children with implants who were between 5 and 15 years of age were tested; 21 had been implanted at around 2.5 years of age (Early CI group), and 22 had been…

Johnson, Carol; Goswami, Usha

2010-01-01

5

Depth of academic vocabulary knowledge 19 Depth of academic vocabulary knowledge  

E-print Network

as Second Language Learning, language minority, lexicon, vocabulary learning Introduction Language depth of academic vocabulary knowledge among language-minority community college students Maricel G study was carried out with a sample of 10 language minority students enrolled in either advanced ESL

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

6

The Roles of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Working Memory in L2 Grammar and Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…

Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.

2012-01-01

7

Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.

Carrier, Sarah J.

2013-03-01

8

Phonological Knowledge in Typical and Atypical Speech-Sound Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses 4 types of phonological knowledge: knowledge of the acoustic and perceptual characteristics of speech sounds (perceptual knowledge), knowledge of the articulatory characteristics of speech sounds (articulatory knowledge), higher level knowledge of the ways that words can be divided into sounds and related phonotactic…

Munson, Benjamin; Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

2005-01-01

9

Vocabulary Knowledge of Deaf and Hearing Postsecondary Students  

PubMed Central

Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates to other aspects of academic achievement. This study used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test to examine the vocabulary knowledge of DHH and hearing postsecondary students as well as their awareness (predictions) of that knowledge. Relationships between vocabulary knowledge and print exposure, communication backgrounds, and reading and verbal abilities also were examined. Consistent with studies of children, hearing college students demonstrated significantly larger vocabularies than DHH students both with and without cochlear implants. DHH students were more likely to overestimate their vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary scores were positively related to reading and verbal abilities but negatively related to sign language abilities. Among DHH students they also were positively related to measures of spoken language ability. Results are discussed in terms of related cognitive abilities, language fluency, and academic achievement of DHH students and implications for postsecondary education.

Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard

2014-01-01

10

The Relationship between Phonological Memory, Receptive Vocabulary, and Fast Mapping in Young Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study assessed the fast mapping performance of children with specific language impairment (SLI) across the preschool to kindergarten age span in relation to their phonological memory and vocabulary development. Method: Fifty-three children diagnosed with SLI and 53 children with normal language (NL) matched for age and gender (30…

Gray, Shelley

2006-01-01

11

Promoting Vocabulary, Phonological Awareness and Concept about Print among Children at Risk for Learning Disability: Can E-Books Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the…

Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra; Fellah, Renat

2012-01-01

12

Assessing the Roles of Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge in Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the relationships between depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension in English as a Second Language. Results support the hypotheses that scores on vocabulary size, depth of vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension are highly and positively correlated; and scores on depth of vocabulary knowledge can make a…

Qian, David D.

1999-01-01

13

The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

2014-01-01

14

An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study of EFL College Students' Vocabulary Knowledge, Syntactic Knowledge and Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Success in reading comprehension is usually seen as fundamental to the academic success of foreign language learners. Many language factors affect second language learners' reading comprehension, such as vocabulary, and syntactic or grammatical knowledge. In practice, vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge can not be discussed separately with…

Chen, Kuang Yu

2009-01-01

15

Differentiating the effects of phonotactic probability and neighborhood density on vocabulary comprehension and production: A comparison of preschool children with versus without phonological delays  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to differentiate the effect of phonotactic probability from that of neighborhood density on a vocabulary probe administered to preschool children with or without a phonological delay. Method Twenty preschool children with functional phonological delays and 34 preschool children with typical language development completed a 121 item vocabulary probe in both an expressive and receptive response format. Words on the vocabulary probe orthogonally varied on phonotactic probability and neighborhood density but were matched on age-of-acquisition, word frequency, word length, semantic set size, concreteness, familiarity, and imagability. Results Results showed an interaction between phonotactic probability and neighborhood density with variation across groups. Specifically, the optimal conditions for typically developing children were rare phonotactic probability with sparse neighborhoods and common phonotactic probability with dense neighborhoods. In contrast, only rare phonotactic probability with sparse neighborhoods was optimal for children with phonological delays. Conclusions Rare sound sequences and sparse neighborhoods may facilitate triggering of word learning for typically developing children and children with phonological delays. In contrast, common sound sequences and dense neighborhoods may facilitate configuration and engagement for typically developing children but not children with phonological delays due to their weaker phonological and/or lexical representations. PMID:20543024

Storkel, Holly L.; Maekawa, Junko; Hoover, Jill R.

2009-01-01

16

Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

Zhang, Dongbo

2012-01-01

17

Phonological Awareness Development of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

E-print Network

minimum of 18 months (CI group) and 26 normal hearing peers (NH group) were enrolled in this study. Children's phonological awareness, speech perception, speech production, general language, receptive vocabulary, and print knowledge abilities were assessed...

Ambrose, Sophie Eva

2009-12-04

18

Semantic representation of CDC-PHIN vocabulary using Simple Knowledge Organization System.  

PubMed

PHIN Vocabulary Access and Distribution System (VADS) promotes the use of standards based vocabulary within CDC information systems. However, the current PHIN vocabulary representation hinders its wide adoption. Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a W3C draft specification to support the formal representation of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) within the framework of the Semantic Web. We present a method of adopting SKOS to represent PHIN vocabulary in order to enable automated information sharing and integration. PMID:18999292

Zhu, Min; Mirhaji, Parsa

2008-01-01

19

The Relationship between Prosodic Perception, Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary in Emergent Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have begun to focus on what skills contribute to the development of phonological awareness, an important predictor of reading attainment. One of these skills is the perception of prosody, which is the rhythm, tempo and stress of a language. To examine whether prosodic perception contributes to phonological awareness prior to reading…

Beattie, Rachel L.; Manis, Franklin R.

2014-01-01

20

A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Foreign-Language Vocabulary Learning Enhanced by Phonological Rehearsal: The Role of the Right Cerebellum and Left Fusiform Gyrus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological research suggests that foreign-language vocabulary acquisition recruits the phonological loop for verbal working memory. To depict the neural underpinnings and shed light on the process of foreign language learning, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging of Japanese participants without previous exposure to the Uzbek…

Makita, Kai; Yamazaki, Mika; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Koike, Takahiko; Kochiyama, Takanori; Yokokawa, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Haruyo; Sadato, Norihiro

2013-01-01

21

Building Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary in Science in the Intermediate Grades: Creating Hooks for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is a salient factor influencing success both in and out of school. The specialized vocabulary knowledge in science represents the concept-laden hooks on which learning is hung and enables students to build prior knowledge through the expansion of these conceptual hooks. We have identified four levels of learners--struggling…

Rupley, William H.; Slough, Scott

2010-01-01

22

Building Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary in Science in the Intermediate Grades: Creating Hooks for Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary knowledge is a salient factor influencing success both in and out of school. The specialized vocabulary knowledge in science represents the concept-laden hooks on which learning is hung and enables students to build prior knowledge through the expansion of these conceptual hooks. We have identified four levels of learners—struggling readers (SR), English Language Learners (ELL), breakthrough learners (BL), and

William H. Rupley; Scott Slough

2010-01-01

23

Enhancing Vocabulary, Print Awareness and Phonological Awareness through Shared Storybook Reading with Low-Income Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study compares the effects of two shared storybook reading (SSR) interventions on language and emergent literacy skills of low-income preschoolers. The control intervention targeted language and print awareness, skills for which there is strong evidence of the effect of SSR. The experimental intervention added a focus on phonological

Lefebvre, Pascal; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

2011-01-01

24

Teachers' Perceptions and Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Phonological Awareness, Phonics, and Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2011, a small Midwestern school district referred an increasing number of 2nd-4th grade students, with reading problems due to phonetic and phonological awareness deficits, to the district's intervention team. Framed in Shulman's pedagogical content knowledge model and the International Dyslexia Association's phonological deficit…

Williams, Jennifer S.

2012-01-01

25

Changing Models across Cultures: Associations of Phonological Awareness and Morphological Structure Awareness with Vocabulary and Word Recognition in Second Graders from Beijing, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data provided by approximately 100 second graders each from Beijing, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States, we investigated relations among phonological awareness, morphological structure awareness, vocabulary, and word recognition. Our results indicate that across languages, phonological awareness and morphological structure awareness are…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Liu, Hongyun; Wagner, Richard K.; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Cheuk, Cecilia S-M.; Muse, Andrea

2005-01-01

26

Changes in Letter Sound Knowledge Are Associated with Development of Phonological Awareness in Pre-School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Letter sound knowledge, which, together with phonological awareness, is highly predictive of pre-school children's reading acquisition, derives from children's knowledge of their associated letter names and the phonological patterns of those names. In this study of 66 monolingual pre-school children we examined whether phonological patterns…

Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia

2006-01-01

27

Knowledge of Words, Knowledge about Words: Dimensions of Vocabulary in First and Second Language Learners in Sixth Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite acknowledging the complex nature of vocabulary knowledge, researchers have rarely investigated the dimensionality of this construct empirically. This study was designed to test a multi-dimensional model of English vocabulary knowledge for sixth-grade students from linguistically diverse backgrounds (n = 584). Participants included language…

Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2012-01-01

28

Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: a latent change score modeling study.  

PubMed

The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, Mage  = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension to test for the presence of leading and lagging influences. Univariate models indicated growth in vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension was determined by two parts: constant yearly change and change proportional to the previous level of the variable. Bivariate models indicated previous levels of vocabulary knowledge acted as leading indicators of reading comprehension growth, but the reverse relation was not found. Implications for theories of developmental relations between vocabulary and reading comprehension are discussed. PMID:25201552

Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

2015-01-01

29

Harvesting Wiki Consensus: Using Wikipedia Entries as Vocabulary for Knowledge Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabularies that provide unique identifiers for conceptual elements of a domain can improve precision and recall in knowledge-management applications. Although creating and maintaining such vocabularies is generally hard, wiki users easily manage to develop comprehensive, informal definitions of terms, each one identified by a URI. Here, the authors show that the URIs of Wikipedia entries are reliable identifiers for conceptual

Martin Hepp; Katharina Siorpaes; Daniel Bachlechner

2007-01-01

30

Nonword Repetition and Levels of Abstraction in Phonological Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Susan Gathercole's Keynote Article (2006) is an impressive summary of the literature on nonword repetition and its relationship to word learning and vocabulary size. When considering research by Mary Beckman, Jan Edwards, and myself, Gathercole speculates that our finding of a stronger relationship between vocabulary measures and repetition…

Munson, Benjamin

2006-01-01

31

Assessing the Role of Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge in Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the extent to which scores on depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge as two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge would contribute to predicting the EFL learners' reading performance with a minimum vocabulary size of 3000 word families and also to find out the difference, if any, between the reading…

Rashidi, Nasser; Khosravi, Negar

2010-01-01

32

Morphological Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Literacy Development in Korean and English: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighty-one Korean children were tested once a year across Grades 4, 5, and 6 on Korean phonological and morphological awareness, speeded-naming, Hangul word recognition, Hangul spelling, and English word reading. With age, gender, and Korean vocabulary knowledge statistically controlled, both phonological awareness and speeded-naming were uniquely…

Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2011-01-01

33

Processing voiceless vowels in Japanese: Effects of language-specific phonological knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been little research on processing allophonic variation in the field of psycholinguistics. This study focuses on processing the voiced/voiceless allophonic alternation of high vowels in Japanese. Three perception experiments were conducted to explore how listeners parse out vowels with the voicing alternation from other segments in the speech stream and how the different voicing statuses of the vowel affect listeners' word recognition process. The results from the three experiments show that listeners use phonological knowledge of their native language for phoneme processing and for word recognition. However, interactions of the phonological and acoustic effects are observed to be different in each process. The facilitatory phonological effect and the inhibitory acoustic effect cancel out one another in phoneme processing; while in word recognition, the facilitatory phonological effect overrides the inhibitory acoustic effect.

Ogasawara, Naomi

2005-04-01

34

Linking vocabulary to imagery: Improving science knowledge through multimedia design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study looked at the vocabulary development of four urban sixth-grade students as they used laser disk and computer technologies to view images and then connect those images to textual definitions through multimedia design. Focusing on three science content areas (the water cycle, the rock cycle, and the web of life), students worked in pairs to create their own

Tracy R. Adler

2000-01-01

35

Improving the Knowledge and Application of Vocabulary within Content Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research paper depicts the teacher-developed instructional strategies to enhance vocabulary instruction among school-age students in the public school setting. The selected population spans across three school districts and includes a third grade classroom, a fifth grade classroom, as well as a select fourth and fifth grade students…

Austermuehle, Dana; Kautz, Tabitha; Sprenzel, Jennifer

2007-01-01

36

The contributions of vocabulary and letter writing automaticity to word reading and spelling for kindergartners  

PubMed Central

In the present study we examined the relation between alphabet knowledge fluency (letter names and sounds) and letter writing automaticity, and unique relations of letter writing automaticity and semantic knowledge (i.e., vocabulary) to word reading and spelling over and above code-related skills such as phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge. These questions were addressed using data from 242 English-speaking kindergartners and employing structural equation modeling. Results showed letter writing automaticity was moderately related to and a separate construct from alphabet knowledge fluency, and marginally (p = .06) related to spelling after accounting for phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge fluency, and vocabulary. Furthermore, vocabulary was positively and uniquely related to word reading and spelling after accounting for phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge fluency, and letter writing automaticity. PMID:24982590

Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Gruelich, Luana

2013-01-01

37

Phonological Awareness, Letter Knowledge, and Literacy Development in Indonesian Beginner Readers and Spellers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to investigate the grain size predominantly used by children learning to read and spell in Indonesian. Indonesian is an orthographically transparent language, and the syllable is a salient unit. Tasks assessing various levels of phonological awareness as well as letter knowledge, reading familiar words and…

Winskel, Heather; Widjaja, Vivilia

2007-01-01

38

Perceptual Recovery from Consonant-Cluster Simplification in Korean Using Language-Specific Phonological Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined whether perceptual recovery from Korean consonant-cluster simplification is based on language-specific phonological knowledge. In tri-consonantal C1C2C3 sequences such as /lkt/ and /lpt/ in Seoul Korean, either C1 or C2 can be completely deleted. Seoul Koreans monitored for C2 targets (/p/ or /k/, deleted or preserved) in…

Cho, Taehong; McQueen, James M.

2011-01-01

39

Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method: The sample comprised 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36…

Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

2012-01-01

40

Learning to read new words in individuals with Down syndrome: testing the role of phonological knowledge.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of word level phonological knowledge on learning to read new words in Down syndrome compared to typical development. Children were taught to read 12 nonwords, 6 of which were pre-trained on their phonology. The 16 individuals with Down syndrome aged 8-17 years were compared first to a group of 30 typically developing children aged 5-7 years matched for word reading and then to a subgroup of these children matched for decoding. There was a marginally significant effect for individuals with Down syndrome to benefit more from phonological pre-training than typically developing children matched for word reading but when compared to the decoding-matched subgroup, the two groups benefitted equally. We explain these findings in terms of partial decoding attempts being resolved by word level phonological knowledge and conclude that being familiar with the spoken form of a new word may help children when they attempt to read it. This may be particularly important for children with Down syndrome and other groups of children with weak decoding skills. PMID:24582853

Mengoni, Silvana E; Nash, Hannah M; Hulme, Charles

2014-05-01

41

Jump-Start Your Middle School Students' Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in the…

Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara

2012-01-01

42

Tracking the unique effects of print exposure in children: Associations with vocabulary, general knowledge, and spelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the construct validity of a recently introduced measure of children's exposure to print, the Title Recognition Test (TRT). In samples of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children, the TRT demonstrated significant correlations with spelling, vocabulary, verbal fluency, word knowledge, and general information. Most important, it accounted for variance in these criterion variables when differences in both general ability

Anne E. Cunningham; Keith E. Stanovich

1991-01-01

43

Bilingual Vocabulary Knowledge and Arrival Age among Japanese Heritage Language Students at "Hoshuukoo"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines bilingual vocabulary knowledge in relation to arrival age among first language (L1) Japanese students attending "hoshuukoo" (i.e., supplementary academic schools for Japanese-speaking children) in the United States. It also examines the relationship between L1 Japanese and English as a second language (L2), as…

Mori, Yoshiko; Calder, Toshiko M.

2013-01-01

44

The Impact of CLIL on L2 Vocabulary Development and Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines whether students involved in CLIL are able to learn content through the medium of L2 and simultaneously exhibit significant gains in L2 vocabulary knowledge. Two experiments were set up in two public primary schools. Two groups of 6th grade students participated in each experiment. The first group was taught three 80-minute…

Xanthou, Maria

2011-01-01

45

Changing Relations between Phonological Processing Abilities and Word-Level Reading as Children Develop from Beginning to Skilled Readers: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's phonological processing abilities, reading skills, and vocabulary were assessed annually from kindergarten through grade four. Found that individual differences in phonological awareness were related to subsequent differences in word-level reading, and that individual differences in letter-name knowledge were related to subsequent…

Wagner, Richard K.; And Others

1997-01-01

46

The Role of Depth versus Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge in Success and Ease in L2 Lexical Inferencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determines whether breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are related to L2 ease and success in lexical inferencing. To this end, two tests measuring vocabulary breadth and depth were administered to 50 participants. Two weeks later, all participants received an inferencing task and rated the degree of perceived ease in inferencing…

Hatami, Sarvenaz; Tavakoli, Mansoor

2012-01-01

47

The Impact of General and Specific Vocabulary Knowledge on Reading and Listening Comprehension: A Case of Iranian EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was carried out to determine the effect of general vocabulary knowledge and gaining familiarity with the specific vocabulary content of a reading or listening comprehension test on a group of Iranian EFL learners' reading and listening comprehension ability. Two groups of male and female English majors (N = 58) participated in…

Mehrpour, Saeed; Rahimi, Mohammad

2010-01-01

48

The Contributions of Vocabulary and Letter Writing Automaticity to Word Reading and Spelling for Kindergartners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study we examined the relation between alphabet knowledge fluency (letter names and sounds) and letter writing automaticity, and unique relations of letter writing automaticity and semantic knowledge (i.e., vocabulary) to word reading and spelling over and above code-related skills such as phonological awareness and alphabet…

Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Gruelich, Luana

2014-01-01

49

Re-Examining the Content Validation of a Grammar Test: The (Im)Possibility of Distinguishing Vocabulary and Structural Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Vocabulary and structural knowledge" (Grabe, 1991, p. 379) appears to be a key component of reading ability. However, is this component to be taken as a unitary one or is structural knowledge a separate factor that can therefore also be tested in isolation in, say, a test of syntax? If syntax can be singled out (e.g. in order to…

Alderson, J. Charles; Kremmel, Benjamin

2013-01-01

50

En peril. Un jeu de vocabulaire et de connaissance generale = Jeopardy. A Game of Vocabulary and General Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"En peril," a variation of the television game show "Jeopardy," is a team or individual quiz game designed for use in the French language classroom. The game calls for a knowledge of thematic or topical vocabulary, drills a wide range of interrogative constructions, tests general knowledge and cultural information about the target country or…

Terry, Robert M.

51

The Relation of Morphological Awareness and Syntactic Awareness to Adults' Reading Comprehension: Is Vocabulary Knowledge a Mediating Variable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors' goal was to examine the structural relationships among vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension in English-speaking adults. Structural equation analysis of data collected from 151 participants revealed that morphological awareness affected reading comprehension directly. Syntactic…

Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.; Williams, Rihana S.

2011-01-01

52

The Role of Vocabulary Knowledge, Syntactic Awareness and Metacognitive Awareness in Reading Comprehension of Adult English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of vocabulary knowledge, syntactic awareness and metacognitive awareness in reading comprehension has been established in the first language research. By contrast, fewer studies have documented the role of these components in the reading comprehension of English language learners (ELLs) in the field of second language (L2) research. The proposed study specifically focused on an L2-only model to examine

Ying Guo

2008-01-01

53

Semantic Competitor Priming within and across Languages: The Interplay of Vocabulary Knowledge, Learning Experience and Working Memory Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports three studies of bilingual lexical processing, using the semantic competitor priming (SCP) method of Lee and Williams (2001). Study 1 found a trend of within-language SCP effect for Chinese-English bilinguals with both higher and lower levels of vocabulary knowledge. There was also a cross-language SCP effect, but this was…

Hong, Li; MacWhinney, Brian

2011-01-01

54

The Importance of Letter Knowledge in the Relationship between Phonological Awareness and Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous correlational and experimental research has found a positive association between phonological awareness and reading skills. This paper provides an overview of studies in this area and shows that many studies have neglected to control for extraneous variables such as ability, phonological memory, pre-existing reading skills and letter…

Blaiklock, Ken E.

2004-01-01

55

Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: An 8-year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

2014-01-01

56

Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

2015-01-01

57

Middle School Students Increase Their Vocabulary Knowledge Using Learning Style Preferences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study compared students’ individual learning style preferences on vocabulary achievement in grade seven of communication arts classes by investigating those factors that contribute to intermediate school students' vocabulary achievement. The results of this study throw into question the educational benefit that has been promoted in previous learning style research.

Vivian Nespoli Koppleman

2002-01-01

58

Phonology, reading acquisition, and dyslexia: Insights from connectionist models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of reading skill and bases of developmental dyslexia were explored using con- nectionist models. Four issues were examined: the acquisition of phonological knowledge prior to reading, how this knowledge facilitates learning to read, phonological and non phonological bases of dyslexia, and effects of literacy on phonological representation. Compared with simple feedforward networks, representing phonological knowledge in an attractor

Michael W. Harm; Mark S. Seidenberg

1999-01-01

59

First Grade Teachers' Knowledge of Phonological Awareness and Code Concepts: Examining Gains from an Intensive Form of Professional Development and Corresponding Teacher Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the efficacy of an intensive form of professional development (PD) for building the knowledge of first-grade teachers in the areas of phonological awareness and phonics. The PD featured frequent in-class support from highly knowledgeable mentors for one school year, in addition to an introductory two-day summer institute and…

Brady, Susan; Gillis, Margie; Smith, Tara; Lavalette, MaryEllen; Liss-Bronstein, Linda; Lowe, Evelyn; North, Wendy; Russo, Evelyn; Wilder, T. Diane

2009-01-01

60

Inferring Gender From Name Phonology  

Microsoft Academic Search

English male and female names have different phonological properties. This article examines 3 questions about this phenomenon: How informative is phonology about gender? Have English speakers learned this information? Does this knowledge affect name usage? Results from a connectionist model indicate that English phonology predicts name gender quite well. Experiments found that English speakers have learned these cues. For example,

Kimberly Wright Cassidy; Michael H. Kelly; Lee'at J. Sharoni

1999-01-01

61

Children's Phonological Neighborhoods: Half Empty of Half Full?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, phonological similarity neighborhood sizes were calculated for expressive lexicon derived from 2 vocabulary lists representative of children aged 1;3 to 3;0. Over 80% of the words in these early lexicons had at least one phonological neighbor; nearly 20% had six or more phonological neighbors. (Contains 29 references.)

Dollaghan, Christine A.

1994-01-01

62

Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

2013-01-01

63

Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

2007-01-01

64

Content Area Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2014-01-01

65

Effects of Robust Vocabulary Instruction and Multicultural Text on the Development of Word Knowledge among African American Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine the effect of a systematic vocabulary instructional technique in African American 2nd-grade children with below average vocabulary skills. An additional goal was to examine the role of book type in the retention of novel vocabulary words. Method: Using an adapted alternating treatments design, storybooks were used as a source…

Lovelace, Sherri; Stewart, Sharon R.

2009-01-01

66

Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity  

PubMed Central

Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

2014-01-01

67

How Word Decoding, Vocabulary and Prior Topic Knowledge Predict Reading Comprehension. A Study of Language-Minority Students in Norwegian Fifth Grade Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global…

Rydland, Veslemoy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover; Fulland, Helene

2012-01-01

68

Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

2012-01-01

69

A Vocabulary-Added Reading Intervention for English Learners At-Risk of Reading Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the added value of a vocabulary plus phonological awareness (vocab+) intervention against a phonological awareness (PA only) intervention only. The vocabulary intervention built networks among words through attention to morphological and semantic relationships. This supplementary classroom instruction augmented existing…

Filippini, Alexis L.; Gerber, Michael M.; Leafstedt, Jill M.

2012-01-01

70

PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT?  

E-print Network

PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT? Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet, Michele Miozzo dyslexia. In languages like English or French, in which orthog- raphy allows only an imperfect realisation of phonology, patients with surface dyslexia fail more frequently with words that have an irregular orthography

71

Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

2014-01-01

72

Vocabulary Notebook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're looking for a fine way to get your vocabulary up to speed, you should definitely check out Vocabulary Notebook. Teachers can use the program to study words with their students in the classroom and individuals can use it to craft their own personalized vocabulary lists for reviewing while on the go. This version is compatible with all operating systems.

2014-02-13

73

Character Trait Vocabulary: A Schoolwide Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has documented the large differences in young children's vocabulary knowledge. In light of the strong relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension, this gap is particularly worrisome and points to the critical need for well-articulated vocabulary instruction across the grades. The author describes character trait…

Manyak, Patrick

2007-01-01

74

The State of Vocabulary Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

2011-01-01

75

Learning with sublexical information from emerging reading vocabularies in exceptionally early and normal reading development.  

PubMed

Predictions from theories of the processes of word reading acquisition have rarely been tested against evidence from exceptionally early readers. The theories of Ehri, Share, and Byrne, and an alternative, Knowledge Sources theory, were so tested. The former three theories postulate that full development of context-free letter sounds and awareness of phonemes are required for normal acquisition, while the claim of the alternative is that with or without such, children can use sublexical information from their emerging reading vocabularies to acquire word reading. Results from two independent samples of children aged 3-5, and 5years, with mean word reading levels of 7 and 9years respectively, showed underdevelopment of their context-free letter sounds and phoneme awareness, relative to their word reading levels and normal comparison samples. Despite such underdevelopment, these exceptional readers engaged in a form of phonological recoding that enabled pseudoword reading, at the level of older-age normal controls matched on word reading level. Moreover, in the 5-year-old sample further experiments showed that, relative to normal controls, they had a bias toward use of sublexical information from their reading vocabularies for phonological recoding of heterophonic pseudowords with irregular consistent spelling, and were superior in accessing word meanings independently of phonology, although only if the readers were without exposure to explicit phonics. The three theories were less satisfactory than the alternative theory in accounting for the learning of the exceptionally early readers. PMID:25498743

Thompson, G Brian; Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M; Wilson, Kathryn J; McKay, Michael F; Margrain, Valerie G

2015-03-01

76

Vocabulary Instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the web site Doing What Works, this section describes research-based practices to promote vocabulary development in middle and high school. It includes a multimedia overview of the importance of providing explicit vocabulary instruction, video clips, links to research, and other resources. Content area teachers and strategies for use in content areas like science are specifically addressed in the recommendations.

2008-01-01

77

A Hybrid Method for Determining Technical Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of technical vocabulary has become increasingly important over the last few decades along with the advances in various subject disciplines. ESP teachers and book authors need to know what words are considered technical vocabulary when creating ESP learning materials. LSP lexicographers need to know how to determine technical vocabulary

Kwary, Deny Arnos

2011-01-01

78

Developing Low-Income Preschoolers' Social Studies and Science Vocabulary Knowledge through Content-Focused Shared Book Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effects of integrating science and social studies vocabulary instruction into shared book reading with low-income preschool children. Twenty-one preschool teachers and 148 children from their classrooms were randomly assigned at the class level to either the Words of Oral Reading and Language Development (WORLD)…

Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Kim, Minjun; Simmons, Leslie

2011-01-01

79

Speaking up for Vocabulary: Reading Skill Differences in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study is part of a broader project that has the goal of developing cognitive and neuro-cognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. The study explores relationships among reading related abilities in participants aged 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (1) Does the Simple View of Reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986) capture all non-random variation in reading comprehension? (2) Does orally-assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002)? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly plays an important role in reading comprehension. Gough and Tunmer’s Simple View of Reading gives a reasonable fit to the data, though it does not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captures unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill are accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215

Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald; Mencl, Einar

2010-01-01

80

Error-Related Negativities During Spelling Judgments Expose Orthographic Knowledge  

PubMed Central

In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects’ spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. PMID:24389506

Harris, Lindsay N.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Benjamin

2014-01-01

81

Phonological iconicity  

PubMed Central

The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062

Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2014-01-01

82

Orthography facilitates vocabulary learning for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).  

PubMed

This study investigated the extent to which children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can use orthography to facilitate vocabulary learning, as is the case for typically developing (TD) children. Forty-one children aged 7-12 years, 20 with a formal diagnosis of ASD and 21 TD peers, were taught 16 low-frequency concrete science words, such as "breccia". Half of the stimuli had the written word presented alongside a picture of the target item (orthography present: OP) while the remaining items were taught with orthography absent (OA). During the learning phase, eye movements were recorded; there were no group differences in the time spent fixating the written form. Production, comprehension, and recognition of orthographic forms of new words were assessed immediately after learning and again after a 24-hour delay. The vocabulary learning of both groups was facilitated by the presence of orthography. Overall, the groups did not differ in comprehension of new words or recognition of new orthographic forms, although the children with ASD demonstrated superior phonological learning (as measured by a picture naming task) relative to TD peers. Additionally, both groups retained or increased new knowledge after 24 hours. The results suggest that presenting the written form during oral vocabulary teaching will enhance learning and provide a mechanism for children with ASD to increase word knowledge despite potential limitations in social learning. PMID:24313313

Lucas, Rebecca; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

2014-01-01

83

The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills in the Adult Basic Education Population.  

PubMed

The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In this study, phonological decoding was a unique predictor of spelling ability, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension. We also found that morphological awareness was a unique predictor of spelling ability, vocabulary, and listening comprehension. Morphological awareness indirectly contributed to reading comprehension through vocabulary. These findings suggest the need for morphological interventions for this group of learners. PMID:24935886

Fracasso, Lucille E; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S

2014-06-16

84

Review Article: Instructed Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article overviews current research on second language vocabulary learning. It concludes that a large vocabulary is necessary to function in English: 8000-9000 word families for reading, and perhaps as many as 5000-7000 families for oral discourse. In addition, a number of word knowledge aspects need to be learned about each lexical item.…

Schmitt, Norbert

2008-01-01

85

Intensive Vocabulary Learning: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a single-subject study of vocabulary acquisition. The subject, an L1 English speaker, was required to learn 300 vocabulary items in Arabic at a rate of 15 new words a day over a period of 20 days. The learning period was followed by immediate and delayed tests of receptive and productive knowledge of target items. The…

Fitzpatrick, Tess; Al-Qarni, Ibrahim; Meara, Paul

2008-01-01

86

Promoting Vocabulary Learning for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge, which is key to the reading comprehension of English learners (ELs), must be a focus for every teacher in today's increasingly diverse schools, including those in the mainstream classroom. This article strives to increase awareness of the five characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction as well as demonstrate how such…

Wessels, Stephanie

2011-01-01

87

Development of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…

Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2012-01-01

88

Patterns of Independent Reading, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Literacy Skills among English- Only, Limited-English Proficient, and Fluent-English Proficient Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined independent reading behaviors and contextual factors that contributed to growth in vocabulary and literacy of fourth grade English-only (EO), limited English proficient (LEP), and fluent English proficient (FEP) children. Participants were given pre-post measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary, word reading, decoding,…

Hansen, Laurie E.

2011-01-01

89

Vocabulary Size Matters: The Assimilation of Second-Language Australian English Vowels to First-Language Japanese Vowel Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult second-language (L2) learners' perception of L2 phonetic segments is influenced by first-language phonological and phonetic properties. It was recently proposed that L2 vocabulary size in adult learners is related to changes in L2 perception (perceptual assimilation model), analogous to the emergence of first-language phonological function…

Bundgaard-Nielsen, Rikke L.; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.

2011-01-01

90

Language proficiency, home-language status, and English vocabulary development: A longitudinal follow-up of the Word Generation program  

E-print Network

students from language-minority homes learn academic vocabulary, but also how well they maintain vocabulary knowledge in their second language.students. In addition to increasing our understanding of how children learn academic vocabulary in a second language,

Lawrence, Joshua Fahey; Capotosto, Lauren; Branum-Martin, Lee; White, Claire; Snow, Catherine E

2012-01-01

91

Effects of a Phonological Awareness Program on English Reading and Spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction…

Yeung, Susanna S. S.; Siegel, Linda S.; Chan, Carol K. K.

2013-01-01

92

The Challenge of Validation: Assessing the Performance of a Test of Productive Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the performance of a vocabulary test designed to measure second language productive vocabulary knowledge.The test, Lex30, uses a word association task to elicit vocabulary, and uses word frequency data to measure the vocabulary produced. Here we report firstly on the reliability of the test as measured by a test-retest study, a…

Fitzpatrick, Tess; Clenton, Jon

2010-01-01

93

Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their collaborators using SISSvoc3, including: * geologic timescale (multiple versions) * soils classification * definitions from OGC standards * geosciml vocabularies * mining commodities * hyperspectral scalars Several other agencies in Australia have adopted SISSvoc3 for their vocabularies. SISSvoc3 differs from other SKOS-based vocabulary-access APIs such as GEMET [3] and NVS [4] in that (a) the service is decoupled from the content store, (b) the service URI is independent of the content URIs This means that a SISSvoc3 interface can be deployed over any SKOS vocabulary which is available at a SPARQL endpoint. As an example, a SISSvoc3 query and presentation interface has been deployed over the NERC vocabulary service hosted by the BODC, providing a search interface which is not available natively. We use vocabulary services to populate menus in user interfaces, to support data validation, and to configure data conversion routines. Related services built on LDA have also been used as a generic registry interface, and extended for serving gazetteer information. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The CSIRO SISSvoc3 implementation is built using the Epimorphics ELDA platform http://code.google.com/p/elda/. We thank Jacqui Githaiga and Terry Rankine for their contributions to SISSvoc design and implementation. REFERENCES 1. SISSvoc3 Specification https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/Siss/SISSvoc30Specification 2. Linked Data API http://code.google.com/p/linked-data-api/wiki/Specification 3. GEMET https://svn.eionet.europa.eu/projects/Zope/wiki/GEMETWebServiceAPI 4. NVS 2.0 http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/

Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

2013-04-01

94

Research Article Phonological Dyslexia  

E-print Network

Research Article Phonological Dyslexia A Test Case for Reading Models Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet,1 words, a type of deficit referred to as phonological dyslexia. We report on 2 individuals with Alzheimer's disease who show phonological dyslexia. Although highly accurate in reading familiar words aloud (even

95

Analysis of reading strategies in deaf adults as a function of their language and meta-phonological skills.  

PubMed

The first aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms used in reading sentences by deaf adults who had completed secondary or higher education. Previous data allowed us to hypothesize that they used the key word strategy, consisting of identifying (some of) the frequent content words, and deriving an overall representation of the sentence's meaning ignoring the function words. The results supported the hypothesis. The second aim was to establish the relationships between this strategy and the linguistic and phonological abilities of deaf participants. The results show that vocabulary increased with reading level, but syntax, evaluated with the use of function words, did not. This suggests that using the key word strategy during long periods of time increases knowledge of content words but not syntax, probably because function words are neglected by this strategy. The results also showed that the deaf participants had a fairly large orthographical lexicon. This implies that the extensive use of the key word strategy allows them to store lexical information. The next question was whether the written word representations of the deaf participants were memorized as mere logograms, or if they had been stored in connection with the phonological representations of the corresponding words. The metaphonological tasks conducted produced evidence indicating that deaf participants used both orthographic and phonological representations. A factor analysis of the metaphonological tasks together with reading and spelling confirmed that both factors were necessary to explain the whole variance in the deaf group. PMID:24751906

Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; Pérez, Maria Del Mar; Alegría, Jesus

2014-07-01

96

Name Writing but not Environmental Print Recognition Is Related to Letter-Sound Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Pre-Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a study exploring the associations between measures of two levels of phonological representation: recognition (epi-linguistic) and production (meta-linguistic) tasks, and very early reading and writing skills. Thirty-eight pre-reading Ottawa-area children, aged 4-5 years, named environmental print (EP), wrote their own name,…

Blair, Rebecca; Savage, Robert

2006-01-01

97

Contributions of Morphology Beyond Phonology to Literacy Outcomes of Upper Elementary and Middle-School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using structural equation modeling the authors evaluated the contribution of morphological awareness, phonological memory, and phonological decoding to reading comprehension, reading vocabulary, spelling, and accuracy and rate of decoding morphologically complex words for 182 4th- and 5th-grade students, 218 6th- and 7th-grade students, and 207 8th- and 9th-grade students in a suburban school district. Morphological awareness made a significant unique

William Nagy; Virginia W. Berninger; Robert D. Abbott

2006-01-01

98

PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN THE LAST 50 YEARS Peter Ladefoged  

E-print Network

1 PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN THE LAST 50 YEARS Peter Ladefoged Dept. Linguistics, UCLA, Los Angeles Communication, MIT, 11-13 June 2004.] ABSTRACT In the last 50 years there have been steady gains in phonetic knowledge and punctuated equilibrium in phononological theories. Phonetics and phonology meet most obviously

Port, Robert

99

Phonological Awareness and Reading Proficiency in Adults with Profound Deafness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…

Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.

2014-01-01

100

The evolution of vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human language is unique among the communication systems of the natural world. The vocabulary of human language is unique in being both culturally transmitted and symbolic. In this paper I present an investigation into the factors involved in the evolution of such vocabulary systems. I investigate both the cultural evolution of vocabulary systems and the biological evolution of learning rules

Kenny Smith

2004-01-01

101

What Is Academic Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…

Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.

2010-01-01

102

It Is More than Knowledge Seeking: Examining the Effects of OpenCourseWare Lectures on Vocabulary Acquisition in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

OpenCourseWare (OCW) has received increasing attention over the past few years in higher education. These courses provide appealing opportunities to view classes taught in well-established universities worldwide. The current study aims to examine how OCW lectures can serve as authentic learning materials to facilitate vocabulary acquisition for…

Yang, Hui-Chi; Sun, Yu-Chih

2013-01-01

103

Phonological and orthographic spelling in high-functioning adult dyslexics.  

PubMed

Despite a history of reading or spelling difficulties, some adults attain age-appropriate spelling skills and succeed at university. We compared the spelling of 29 such high-functioning dyslexics with that of 28 typical students, matched on general spelling ability, and controlling for vocabulary and non-verbal intelligence. Participants wrote derived real and pseudo words, whose spelling relationship to their base forms was categorized as phonologically simple (apt-aptly), orthographically simple (deceit-deceitful), phonologically complex (ash-ashen), or orthographically complex (plenty-plentiful). Dyslexic participants spelled all word and pseudoword categories more poorly than controls. Both groups spelled simple phonological words best. Dyslexics were particularly poor at spelling simple orthographic words, whose letter patterns and rules must likely be memorized. In contrast, dyslexics wrote more plausible spellings of orthographic than phonological pseudowords, but this might be an artefact of their more variable spelling attempts. These results suggest that high-functioning dyslexics make some use of phonological skills to spell familiar words, but they have difficulty in memorizing orthographic patterns, which makes it difficult to spell unfamiliar words consistently in the absence of sufficient phonological cues or orthographic rules. PMID:18489012

Kemp, Nenagh; Parrila, Rauno K; Kirby, John R

2009-05-01

104

Improving Vocabulary Skills of Kindergarten Students through a Multi-Tier Instructional Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing need for the inclusion of direct, explicit vocabulary instruction in the early elementary grades. Young children are entering school with a wide range of early literacy experiences, including vocabulary knowledge. Those students who are limited in their vocabulary knowledge are at a greater risk for later language and reading…

Cuticelli, Mari; Coyne, Michael D.; Ware, Sharon M.; Oldham, Ashley; Loftus Rattan, Susan

2015-01-01

105

Phonological coding during reading.  

PubMed

The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679

Leinenger, Mallorie

2014-11-01

106

What's Meaning Got to Do With It: The Role of Vocabulary in Word Reading and Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is at present no clear consensus as to the nature of the relations between oral vocabulary and specific literacy skills. The present study distinguished between vocabulary breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge to better explain the role of oral vocabulary in various reading skills. A sample of 60 typically developing Grade 4 students was assessed on measures of receptive

Gene P. Ouellette

2006-01-01

107

Gradient Weight in Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

Ryan, Kevin Michael

2011-01-01

108

Cell Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to cells, organelles, and the plasma membrane. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

109

Genetics Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing genetics vocabulary. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

110

The Benefit of Orthographic Support for Oral Vocabulary Learning in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Down syndrome typically have weaknesses in oral language, but it has been suggested that this domain may benefit from learning to read. Amongst oral language skills, vocabulary is a relative strength, although there is some evidence of difficulties in learning the phonological form of spoken words. This study investigated the effect…

Mengoni, Sylvana E.; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

2013-01-01

111

Evidence for Preserved Novel Word Learning in Down Syndrome Suggests Multiple Routes to Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to…

Mosse, Emma K.; Jarrold, Christopher

2011-01-01

112

Semantic and Phonological Skills in Predicting Reading Development: From 3-16 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present longitudinal study investigated the relationship between pre-school semantic skills (vocabulary, comprehension and sentence construction), phonological awareness and later word decoding and reading comprehension skills. More than 200 Danish children were followed from a speech therapist screening at the age of three, through a…

Frost, Jorgen; Madsbjerg, Sigrid; Niedersoe, Jan; Olofsson, Ake; Sorensen, Peer Moller

2005-01-01

113

Development of phonological constancy: 19-month-olds, but not 15-month-olds, identify words in a non-native regional accent  

PubMed Central

By 12 months, children grasp that a phonetic change to a word can change its identity (phonological distinctiveness). However, they must also grasp that some phonetic changes do not (phonological constancy). To test development of phonological constancy, 16 15-month-olds and 16 19-month-olds completed an eye-tracking task that tracked their gaze to named versus unnamed images for familiar words spoken in their native (Australian) and an unfamiliar non-native (Jamaican) regional accent of English. Both groups looked longer at named than unnamed images for Australian pronunciations, but only 19-month-olds did so for Jamaican pronunciations, indicating that phonological constancy emerges by 19 months. Vocabulary size predicted 15-month-olds' identifications for the Jamaican pronunciations, suggesting vocabulary growth is a viable predictor for phonological constancy development. PMID:23521607

Mulak, Karen E.; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.; Kitamura, Christine; Irwin, Julia R.

2014-01-01

114

Interactive Frames for Vocabulary Growth and Word Consciousness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited vocabulary knowledge has been cited as a key factor in the literacy achievement gap, particularly for students with learning disabilities, students of color, and English-language learners. Recent authorities have recommended multipronged approaches to assist vocabulary growth in classrooms. In addition, authorities have called for…

Winters, Rod

2009-01-01

115

Vocabulary Strategies that Work: Do This-Not that!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Update your vocabulary practices to meet the Common Core and improve students' word knowledge! This new, clearly-structured guide shows you how. It's packed with engaging, research-based, classroom-ready strategies for teaching vocabulary. Topics include: (1) Selecting meaningful words for direct instruction; (2) Strategies for engaging students…

Wilfong, Lori

2013-01-01

116

Effects of nonfiction guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds on fourth grader's depth of content area science vocabulary knowledge and comprehension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of nonfiction guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds as a supplement to basal science textbooks on three vocabulary measures, definitions, examples, and characteristics, and one multiple-choice comprehension measure were assessed for 127 fourth graders over three time periods: pretest, posttest, and a 2-week delayed posttest. Two of three fourth-grade elementary science teachers implemented a series of 12 content-enhanced guided interactive scripted lessons. Two of these teachers implemented two treatments each. The first condition employed basal science textbooks as the text for guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds while the second treatment employed basal science textbooks in conjunction with nonfiction text sets as the texts for guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds. The third teacher, guided by traditional lesson plans, provided students with silent independent reading instruction using basal science textbooks. Multivariate analyses of variance and analyses of variance tests showed that mean scores for both treatment groups significantly improved on definitions and characteristics measures at posttest and either stabilized or slightly declined at delayed posttest. The treatment-plus group lost considerably on the examples posttest measure. The treatment group improved mean scores on the examples posttest measure, outperforming the treatment-plus group and the control group. Alternately, the control group significantly improved on the delayed posttest examples measure. Additionally, the two groups implementing guided interactive read-alouds and think-alouds performed better than the independent reading group on multiple-choice comprehension measures at posttest and sustained those gains 2 weeks later on delayed posttests. Findings maintain the incremental nature of vocabulary acquisition and development research and emphasize the roles of listening and speaking as critical features for integrating vocabulary into long-term memory.

Hanna, Tania Tamara

117

Math Vocabulary Bingo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"This lesson provides students an opportunity to assess their understanding of mathematical vocabulary as they relate to key concepts from the five content areas. Through the use of a familiar game format, Bingo, students will identify numbers 0-75 that correspond to mathematical descriptions from math vocabulary clue cards" from NCTM's Illuminations).

NCTM

2010-06-03

118

Phonological awareness of Cantonese-speaking pre-school children with cochlear implants.  

PubMed

The study investigated the phonological awareness abilities of Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. Participants were 15 Cantonese-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) aged 3.08-6.10, chronological-age-matched with 15 children with normal hearing. Each participant performed 10 tasks evaluating different levels of phonological awareness abilities and phonological knowledge. The results showed that pre-schoolers with cochlear implants and their normal hearing peers had similar levels of syllable awareness, phoneme awareness and rhyme awareness. However, cochlear implant users showed significantly poorer performance on tone awareness and phonological knowledge tasks than their normal hearing peers. Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants were able to develop phonological awareness. However, the cochlear implants might not provide enough tonal information for children with hearing impairment for tonal lexical comprehension. Incomplete speech and language stimulation may affect phonological knowledge development in Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. PMID:22257071

Tse, Wing Ting; So, Lydia K H

2012-02-01

119

Fundamental Vocabulary Selection Based on Word Familiarity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new method for selecting fundamental vocabulary. We are presently constructing the Fundamental Vocabulary Knowledge-base of Japanese that contains integrated information on syntax, semantics and pragmatics, for the purposes of advanced natural language processing. This database mainly consists of a lexicon and a treebank: Lexeed (a Japanese Semantic Lexicon) and the Hinoki Treebank. Fundamental vocabulary selection is the first step in the construction of Lexeed. The vocabulary should include sufficient words to describe general concepts for self-expandability, and should not be prohibitively large to construct and maintain. There are two conventional methods for selecting fundamental vocabulary. The first is intuition-based selection by experts. This is the traditional method for making dictionaries. A weak point of this method is that the selection strongly depends on personal intuition. The second is corpus-based selection. This method is superior in objectivity to intuition-based selection, however, it is difficult to compile a sufficiently balanced corpora. We propose a psychologically-motivated selection method that adopts word familiarity as the selection criterion. Word familiarity is a rating that represents the familiarity of a word as a real number ranging from 1 (least familiar) to 7 (most familiar). We determined the word familiarity ratings statistically based on psychological experiments over 32 subjects. We selected about 30,000 words as the fundamental vocabulary, based on a minimum word familiarity threshold of 5. We also evaluated the vocabulary by comparing its word coverage with conventional intuition-based and corpus-based selection over dictionary definition sentences and novels, and demonstrated the superior coverage of our lexicon. Based on this, we conclude that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods for fundamental vocabulary selection.

Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Kaname; Kanasugi, Tomoko; Amano, Shigeaki

120

Successful Learning of Frequent Vocabulary through CALL also Benefits Reading Comprehension and Speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of direct vocabulary learning using Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on vocabulary knowledge, reading comprehension, and speed of word recognition. It found that students who used Tutorial CALL to learn highly frequent vocabulary did learn a significantly larger number of words than those in a control group. They decreased their reaction time for frequent word

Anjel Tozcu; James Coady

2004-01-01

121

Successful Learning of Frequent Vocabulary through CALL Also Benefits Reading Comprehension and Speed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of direct vocabulary learning using Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on vocabulary knowledge, reading comprehension, and speed of word recognition. It found that students who used Tutorial CALL to learn highly frequent vocabulary did learn a significantly larger number of words than those in a control…

Tozcu, Anjel; Coady, James

2004-01-01

122

The legacy of diglossia in English vocabulary: what learners need to know  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past two decades, vocabulary researchers have determined the number of word families that an undergraduate needs to know in order to read effectively in English, and further work has examined vocabulary size among Indonesian university students. What this research has so far not considered, however, is the distinction in the learner's vocabulary knowledge between words of Germanic origin

Ronald Boyle

2009-01-01

123

Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

Kugelmass, Rachel

124

Vocabulary Intervention for School-age Children with Language Impairment: A Review of Evidence and Good Practice  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence to support direct vocabulary intervention practices for primary school-age children with language impairment (LI). A rationale for providing direct vocabulary intervention for children with LI is outlined by reviewing typical and atypical vocabulary acquisition, evidence of instructional strategies from research in mainstream and special education is summarised, and suggestions for vocabulary intervention activities that facilitate deep word knowledge are provided. Suggestions for choosing appropriate vocabulary, using strategies during direct intervention, and conducting activities that increase depth of vocabulary knowledge are included. PMID:25104872

Steele, Sara C.; Mills, Monique T.

2014-01-01

125

A two-study investigation of research on vocabulary strategies and their implementation in fourth grade social studies classrooms  

E-print Network

Among the multiple dimensions of reading, vocabulary knowledge and strategies are essential to skilled reading. As a result, this two-part dissertation (a) systematically examines the vocabulary intervention research, in both content and methodology...

Hairrell, Angela R.

2009-05-15

126

Geospatial Revolution: GIS Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive based on Penn State Public Broadcasting’s Geospatial Revolution project, learn vocabulary that has developed with the growth of GIS, watch relevant videos and check your understanding of those words using the embedded assessment.

Wpsu

2010-10-12

127

The Structure of Phonological Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…

Samuels, Bridget D.

2009-01-01

128

Demonstrating the effects of phonological similarity and frequency on item and order memory in Down syndrome using process dissociation.  

PubMed

It is important to distinguish between memory for item information and memory for order information when considering the nature of verbal short-term memory (vSTM) performance. Although other researchers have attempted to make this distinction between item and order memory in children, none has done so using process dissociation. This study shows that such an approach can be particularly useful and informative. Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to experience a vSTM deficit. These two experiments explored whether phonological similarity (Experiment 1) and item frequency (Experiment 2) affected vSTM for item and order information in a group of individuals with DS compared with typically developing (TD) vocabulary-matched children. Process dissociation was used to obtain measures of item and order memory via Nairne and Kelley's procedure (Journal of Memory and Language, 50 (2004) 113-133). Those with DS were poorer than the matched TD group for recall of both item and order information. However, in both populations, phonologically similar items reduced order memory but enhanced item memory, whereas high-frequency items resulted in improvements in both item and order memory-effects that are in line with previous research in the adult literature. These results indicate that, despite poorer vSTM performance in DS, individuals experience phonological coding of verbal input and a contribution of long-term memory knowledge to recall. These findings inform routes for interventions for those with DS, highlighting the need to enhance both item and order memory. Moreover, this work demonstrates that process dissociation is applicable and informative for studying special populations and children. PMID:25089885

Smith, Elizabeth; Jarrold, Christopher

2014-12-01

129

Language evolution: syntax before phonology?  

PubMed Central

Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364

Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.

2014-01-01

130

Phonology and Lexicon in a Cross-Linguistic Perspective: The Importance of Phonetics--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her interesting article, Stoel-Gammon (this issue) reviews studies concerning the interactions between lexical and phonological development. While the focus of the review is on vocabulary production from children acquiring American English, she also suggests that cross-linguistic research be undertaken to examine how universal and…

Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lum, Jarrad; Vach, Werner

2011-01-01

131

Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

2013-12-01

132

Phonetics and Phonology. Occasional Papers, No. 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is devoted to phonetics and phonology. It consists of the following papers: (1) "Generative Phonology, Dependency Phonology and Southern French," by J. Durand, which discusses aspects of a regional pronunciation of French, the status of syllables in generative phonology, and concepts of dependency phonology; (2) "On the Role of…

Essex Univ., Colchester (England). Dept. of Language and Linguistics.

133

Learning Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…

Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris

2009-01-01

134

Gains from Training in Phonological Awareness in Kindergarten Predict Reading Comprehension in Grade 9  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of a kindergarten training program in phonological awareness with 209 Swedish-speaking children were followed up until the end of Grade 9. Initial levels of letter knowledge and phonological awareness were positively associated with the level of decoding skill in Grade 3 but not with its growth afterward. The intervention group…

Kjeldsen, Ann-Christina; Kärnä, Antti; Niemi, Pekka; Olofsson, Åke; Witting, Katarina

2014-01-01

135

Pushing the Positive: Encouraging Phonological Transfer from L2 to L3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared to monolinguals, multilingual learners possess a larger repertoire of phonetic-phonological parameters, have a higher degree of language and meta-linguistic awareness, and have developed increased phonological knowledge. This, combined with the increased cognitive flexibility that accompanies experienced learners, supports their…

Marx, Nicole; Mehlhorn, Grit

2010-01-01

136

The Tug of War between Phonological, Semantic and Shape Information in Language-Mediated Visual Search  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments 1 and 2 examined the time-course of retrieval of phonological, visual-shape and semantic knowledge as Dutch participants listened to sentences and looked at displays of four pictures. Given a sentence with "beker," "beaker," for example, the display contained phonological (a beaver, "bever"), shape (a bobbin, "klos"), and semantic (a…

Huettig, Falk; McQueen, James M.

2007-01-01

137

Deficits in phonology and past-tense morphology: Whats the connection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological dissociations between regular and irregular past tense verb processing have been explained in two ways: (a) separate mechanisms of a rule-governed process for regular verbs and a lexical-associative process for irregular verbs; (b) a single system drawing on phonological and semantic knowledge. The latter account invokes phonological impairment as the basis of poorer performance for regular than irregular past

Helen Bird; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph; Mark S. Seidenberg; James L. McClelland; Karalyn Pattersona

138

Effectiveness of an Integrated Phonological Awareness Approach for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness approach for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Change in speech, phonological awareness, letter knowledge, word decoding, and spelling skills were examined. A controlled multiple single-subject design was employed. Twelve children aged 4-7 years with…

McNeill, Brigid C.; Gillon, Gail T.; Dodd, Barbara

2009-01-01

139

Research report Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: Cognitive  

E-print Network

Research report Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: Cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates Jordan Grafman Published online 5 June 2008 Keywords: Phonological dyslexia/dysgraphia Perisylvian cortex the neuropsychological mechanisms and lesion correlates of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia, we studied written

140

Adapting a Vocabulary Notebook Strategy to the Needs of Community College English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary, both the number of words and the knowledge about each word, are important in the comprehension of academic text in post-secondary education, and adult English language learners often have vocabularies of low quantity (number of words) and quality (knowledge about words). Research points to the effectiveness of teaching independent…

Taveggia, Diane Elizabeth

2013-01-01

141

Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

142

Supporting Math Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing appropriate language support is important for all students and essential to the success of English Language Learners (ELLs), struggling readers, and students with learning disabilities. In a mathematics classroom, the support includes the ongoing development of everyday vocabulary--such as names of fruit and actions such as skipping--and…

Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.; Livers, Stefanie

2009-01-01

143

"Word Power" (Vocabulary Development).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…

Voorhees, Roxy

144

The Electric Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

Sheils, James

2012-01-01

145

Phonological Distance Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Phonological distance can be measured computationally using formally specified algorithms. This work investigates two such measures, one developed by Nerbonne and Heeringa (1997) based on Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1965) and the other an adaptation of Dunning’s (1994) language classifier that uses maximum,likelihood distance. These two measures are compared against na¨?ve transcriptions of the speech of pediatric cochlear implant users.

Nathan C. Sanders; Steven B. Chin

2009-01-01

146

Spelling in oral deaf and hearing dyslexic children: A comparison of phonologically plausible errors.  

PubMed

A written single word spelling to dictation test and a single word reading test were given to 68 severe-profoundly oral deaf 10-11-year-old children and 20 hearing children with a diagnosis of dyslexia. The literacy scores of the deaf children and the hearing children with dyslexia were lower than expected for children of their age and did not differ from each other. Three quarters of the spelling errors of hearing children with dyslexia compared with just over half the errors of the oral deaf group were phonologically plausible. Expressive vocabulary and speech intelligibility predicted the percentage of phonologically plausible errors in the deaf group only. Implications of findings for the phonological decoding self-teaching model and for supporting literacy development are discussed. PMID:25462488

Roy, P; Shergold, Z; Kyle, F E; Herman, R

2014-11-01

147

Concrete and relational vocabulary: Comparison between Williams and Smith-Magenis syndromes.  

PubMed

We compared the performance of two clinical groups, Williams syndrome (WS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), in terms of concrete and relational vocabulary. We analyzed (a) whether the WS group had an advantage in concrete vocabulary when compared to the SMS group, as good concrete vocabulary knowledge is considered a hallmark of WS; (b) if spatial processing difficulties in WS would be reflected specifically in their knowledge of relational spatial vocabulary; (c) if a specific vocabulary profile could be outlined for SMS. Our results show similar performances on receptive concrete and relational vocabulary in both groups. However, and as anticipated, performance on relational space concepts was significantly lower in the WS group. PMID:25194511

Garayzábal Heinze, Elena; Osório, Ana; Lens, María; Sampaio, Adriana

2014-12-01

148

Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule  

PubMed Central

Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X?XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal. PMID:24959158

Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

2014-01-01

149

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

150

Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.

2009-01-01

151

The effect of phonological analysis training on naming performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children who are poor readers have difficulty naming pictured objects. Previous research has shown that while poor readers have the same amount of tacit phonological knowledge about words they cannot retrieve as good readers, they cannot use this initial phoneme and rhyme information to produce these words. In this study, thirdgrade good and poor readers participated in a training session

Hyla Rubin; Terry Rotella; Lisa Schwartz; Susan Bernstein

1991-01-01

152

The relationship between vocabulary and short-term memory measures in monolingual and bilingual speakers  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may influence the efficiency of lexical access in adults. The goals of this research were (1) to compare bilingual and monolingual adults on their native-language vocabulary performance, and (2) to examine the relationship between short-term memory skills and vocabulary performance in monolinguals and bilinguals. In Experiment 1, English-speaking monolingual adults and simultaneous English–Spanish bilingual adults were administered measures of receptive English vocabulary and of phonological short-term memory. In Experiment 2, monolingual adults were compared to sequential English–Spanish bilinguals, and were administered the same measures as in Experiment 1, as well as a measure of expressive English vocabulary. Analyses revealed comparable levels of performance on the vocabulary and the short-term memory measures in the monolingual and the bilingual groups across both experiments. There was a stronger effect of digit-span in the bilingual group than in the monolingual group, with high-span bilinguals outperforming low-span bilinguals on vocabulary measures. Findings indicate that bilingual speakers may rely on short-term memory resources to support word retrieval in their native language more than monolingual speakers. PMID:22518091

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

2012-01-01

153

The effect of different types of hypertext annotations on vocabulary recall, text comprehension, and knowledge transfer in learning from scientific texts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The instructional uses of hypertext and multimedia are widespread but there are still many questions about how to maximize learning from these technologies. The purpose of this research was to determine whether providing learners with a basic science text in addition to hypertext annotations, designed to support the cognitive processes of selection, organization, and integration (Mayer, 1997), would result in different types of learning. Learning was measured using instruments designed to measure learning corresponding to each of the three processes. For the purposes of this study, selection-level learning was defined analogous to Bloom's (Bloom, 1956) knowledge level of learning and was measured with a recognition test. Organization-level learning was defined analogous to Bloom's (1956) comprehension-level of learning and was measured with a short-answer recall test. Integration-level learning was defined analogous to Bloom's (1956) levels of analysis and synthesis and was measured with a transfer test. In experiment one, participants read a text describing how cell phones work and viewed either no annotations (control), or annotations designed to support the selection, organization, or integration of information. As predicted, participants who viewed the selection-level annotations did significantly better than control participants on the recognition test. Results indicate that, for this group of novice learners, lower-level annotations were the most helpful for all levels of learning. In experiment two, participants read the text and viewed either no annotations (control) or combinations of annotations including selection and organization, organization and integration, or selection and integration. No significant differences were found between groups in these experiments. The results are discussed in terms of both multimedia learning theory and text comprehension theory and a new visualization of the generative theory of multimedia learning is offered.

Wallen, Erik Stanley

154

Phonological Distance Measures.  

PubMed

Phonological distance can be measured computationally using formally specified algorithms. This work investigates two such measures, one developed by Nerbonne and Heeringa (1997) based on Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1965) and the other an adaptation of Dunning's (1994) language classifier that uses maximum likelihood distance. These two measures are compared against naïve transcriptions of the speech of pediatric cochlear implant users. The new measure, maximum likelihood distance, correlates highly with Levenshtein distance and naïve transcriptions; results from this corpus are easier to obtain since cochlear implant speech has a lower intelligibility than the usually high intelligibility of the speech of a different dialect. PMID:20407614

Sanders, Nathan C; Chin, Steven B

2009-02-01

155

Conceptually Based Vocabulary Intervention: Second Graders' Development of Vocabulary Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instructional strategy was investigated that addressed the needs of deaf and hard of hearing students through a conceptually based sign language vocabulary intervention. A single-subject multiple-baseline design was used to determine the effects of the vocabulary intervention on word recognition, production, and comprehension. Six students took…

Dimling, Lisa M.

2010-01-01

156

The Effect of Questioning Style during Storybook Reading on Novel Vocabulary Acquisition of Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of adult questioning on children's novel word acquisition during storybook reading were investigated. Three-year-olds were assigned to one of three conditions: vocabulary eliciting questions, noneliciting questions, and no questions (control). General vocabulary comprehension and novel word knowledge were equivalent across the groups…

Walsh, Bridget A.; Blewitt, Pamela

2006-01-01

157

Reading Vocabulary in Children with and without Hearing Loss: The Roles of Task and Word Type  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To address the problem of low reading comprehension scores among children with hearing impairment, it is necessary to have a better understanding of their reading vocabulary. In this study, the authors investigated whether task and word type differentiate the reading vocabulary knowledge of children with and without severe hearing loss.…

Coppens, Karien M.; Tellings, Agnes; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

2013-01-01

158

Scoring Yes-No Vocabulary Tests: Reaction Time vs. Nonword Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a number of research studies investigating the Yes-No vocabulary test format, one main question remains unanswered: What is the best scoring procedure to adjust for testee overestimation of vocabulary knowledge? Different scoring methodologies have been proposed based on the inclusion and selection of nonwords in the test. However, there…

Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana; Schmitt, Norbert

2012-01-01

159

A Descriptive Study on the Use of Materials in Vocabulary Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is important because it is highly correlated with content area learning. Strategies for vocabulary instruction recommend using new words in multiple contexts as key to learning. To date, the term "multiple contexts" emphasizes written contexts, not three-dimensional concrete material contexts. This article describes the…

Holmes, Kerry; Holmes, Stacy V.; Watts, Karley

2012-01-01

160

Aspects of Validity of a Test of Productive Vocabulary: Lex30  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates aspects of validity of an alternative measure of productive vocabulary. Lex30, developed by Meara and Fitzpatrick, is a word association task that claims to give an indication of productive vocabulary knowledge. Previous studies of Lex30 have assessed test-retest reliability, performance against native speaker norms,…

Walters, JoDee

2012-01-01

161

A Vocabulary Flood: Making Words "Sticky" with Computer-Response Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's literature is a primary source for introducing young children to new words at home and at school, and children's early vocabulary knowledge is a key component of oral language, which is essential for comprehension. This column is focused on children from low socioeconomic backgrounds who frequently find themselves in a vocabulary

Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary S.; Ryan, Tammy

2007-01-01

162

Longer Term Effects of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the longer term effectiveness of a standard protocol, Tier 2 supplemental vocabulary intervention for kindergarten English learners, designed to develop root word vocabulary knowledge and reinforce beginning word reading skills. Participating students in the original study ("n" = 93 treatment, 92 control) received 20 weeks of…

Vadasy, Patricia F.; Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

163

Making Connections in Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary teaching and learning constitute a major problem for EFL instructors and students. The pretest showed that freshman students at COLT have difficulty in pronouncing, recognizing the meaning of, using and spelling English words. In their first semester, freshman students are required to take a vocabulary course that consists of 50 lessons…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2006-01-01

164

Vocabulary Development Using Visual Displays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kindergarten teachers use a variety of strategies that focus on vocabulary development. A common and effective practice to introduce new vocabulary to kindergarteners is reading storybooks to children, what is commonly known as "read-alouds" (Bus, van Ijzendoorn, & Pelligrini, 1995; Christ & Wang, 2010; Newton, Padak &…

McKenzie, Ellen

2014-01-01

165

Fall 2012 Phonetics and Phonology  

E-print Network

80282 Fall 2012 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will learn to make phonetic transcriptions of raw data from unfamiliar

Spirtes, Peter

166

Aspects of the Phonology-Syntax Interface in Akan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the phonology-syntax interface in Akan, a language spoken in Ghana and the Cote d'Ivoire, describing a medium of exchange between phonology and syntax. Studies in lexical phonology have distinguished two levels in phonology--lexical and post-lexical--based on how and where phonological rules apply, although some phonological

Marfo, Charles Ofosu

167

Mapping Opthalmic Terms to a Standardized Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes work by the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) to expand the standardized vocabulary, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), to accommodate a definitive ophthalmic standardized vocabulary. Mapped a practice-based clinical ophthalmic vocabulary to SNOMED and other vocabularies in the Metathesaurus of the Unified Medical…

Patrick, Timothy B.; Reid, John C.; Sievert, MaryEllen; Popescu, Mihail; Gigantelli, James W.; Shelton, Mark E.; Schiffman, Jade S.

2000-01-01

168

Phonological Awareness Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children with Mild to Moderate Phonological Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized and nonstandardized assessments of phonological awareness skills were administered to two groups of 6-year-old children. Group 1 passed a language screening but exhibited mild or moderate phonological impairments on the "Assessment of Phonological Processes--Revised." Group 2 passed a language screening and exhibited no phonological

Gernand, Keri Leigh; Moran, Michael J.

2007-01-01

169

The importance of phonological awareness for the development of early English reading skills among bilingual Singaporean kindergartners  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and English word-level reading among a multilingual sample, a random sample of 297 Singaporean kindergartners, stratified by ethnicity (169 Chinese, 65 Malay, and 63 Indian), were tested on their PA, receptive vocabulary, and word-level reading skills. Singaporean kindergartners are all bilingual or early second-language (L2) learners of English and learn English reading

L. Quentin Dixon

2010-01-01

170

Molecular Biology Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to molecular biology, including DNA and RNA structure and function, transcription and translation. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

171

A model of L2 vocabulary learning and retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary is an essential component of language. It is central to reading ability, writing ability and listening ability, and the most important aspect of second-language (L2) knowledge for academic achievement. The aim of this paper is to investigate quantitatively some of the factors that make some L2 words more difficult to learn and retain over time than others. It builds

Martin Willis; Yoshie Ohashi

2012-01-01

172

The Relationship between Vocabulary and Writing Quality in Three Genres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocabulary in writing across three genres. Fifth graders (N = 105) wrote three compositions: story, persuasive, and informative. Each composition revolved around the topic of outer space to control for background knowledge. Written compositions were scored for holistic writing quality and…

Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Wilson, Joshua

2013-01-01

173

Tracking the Changes: Vocabulary Acquisition in the Study Abroad Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical evidence suggests that the study abroad experience accelerates growth in global vocabulary knowledge. The exact nature of this growth is rarely reported, however, and there is little documented evidence to indicate whether it is linear or uneven, whether the speed of growth is constant or changing, or whether the study abroad context…

Fitzpatrick, Tess

2012-01-01

174

Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological  

E-print Network

Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological evidence from Tashlhiyt Berber* Rachid Ridouane syllables do exist in Tashlhiyt, both at the phonetic and phonological levels. Acoustic, fibrescopic due to subject consultants for their participation to the phonetic experiments. Any errors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

175

Phonology, working memory, and foreign-language learning.  

PubMed

Three tasks were used to predict English learning by Finnish children over a three-year period. In the pseudoword repetition task the pupils had to repeat aloud tape-recorded pseudowords sounding like Finnish or English. In the pseudoword copying task the pupils saw strings of letters resembling Finnish or English words and copied them when they had disappeared from view. When comparing syntactic-semantic structures, the pupils had to find the syntactically matching pairs from two sets of Finnish sentences. Repetition and copying accuracy and the ability to compare syntactic-semantic structures predicted English learning. Intercorrelations between test scores and English and mathematics grades suggest that repetition and copying accuracy were specifically related to language learning. It is concluded that the ability to represent unfamiliar phonological material in working memory underlies the acquisition of new vocabulary items in foreign-language learning. PMID:1636010

Service, E

1992-07-01

176

Smart subtitles for vocabulary learning  

E-print Network

Language learners often use subtitled videos to help them learn. However, standard subtitles are geared more towards comprehension than vocabulary learning, as translations are nonliteral and are provided only for phrases, ...

Kovacs, Geza

177

Development of Young Readers' Phonological Processing Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a cross-sectional study of 95 kindergartners and 89 second graders, confirmatory factor analysis of a battery of phonological and control tasks was used to compare models of young readers' phonological processing abilities. Results suggest that phonological abilities are best conceptualized as relatively stable and coherent individual…

Wagner, Richard K.; And Others

1993-01-01

178

fMRI evidence for the interaction between orthography and phonology in reading Chinese compound words  

PubMed Central

Compound words make up a major part of modern Chinese vocabulary. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that access to lexical semantics of compound words is driven by the interaction between orthographic and phonological information. However, little is known about the neural underpinnings of compound word processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we asked participants to perform lexical decisions to pseudohomophones, which were constructed by replacing one or both constituents of two-character compound words with orthographically dissimilar homophonic characters. Mixed pseudohomophones, which shared the first constituent with the base words, were more difficult to reject than non-pseudohomophone non-words. This effect was accompanied by the increased activation of bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and left angular gyrus. The pure pseudohomophones, which shared no constituent with their base words, were rejected as quickly as non-word controls and did not elicit any significant neural activation. The effective connectivity of a phonological pathway from left IPL to left IFG was enhanced for the mixed pseudohomophones but not for pure pseudohomophones. These findings demonstrated that phonological activation alone, as in the case of the pure pseudohomophones, is not sufficient to drive access to lexical representations of compound words, and that orthographic information interacts with phonology, playing a gating role in the recognition of Chinese compound words. PMID:24319418

Zhan, Jiayu; Yu, Hongbo; Zhou, Xiaolin

2013-01-01

179

The benefit of orthographic support for oral vocabulary learning in children with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Children with Down syndrome typically have weaknesses in oral language, but it has been suggested that this domain may benefit from learning to read. Amongst oral language skills, vocabulary is a relative strength, although there is some evidence of difficulties in learning the phonological form of spoken words. This study investigated the effect of orthographic support on spoken word learning with seventeen children with Down syndrome aged seven to sixteen years and twenty-seven typically developing children aged five to seven years matched for reading ability. Ten spoken nonwords were paired with novel pictures; for half the nonwords the written form was also present. The spoken word learning of both groups did not differ and benefited to the same extent from the presence of the written word. This suggests that compared to reading-matched typically developing children, children with Down syndrome are not specifically impaired in phonological learning and benefit equally from orthographic support. PMID:23217296

Mengoni, Silvana E; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

2013-01-01

180

Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

181

Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Phonological Awareness Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning. Phonological awareness is a precursor to reading. "Phonological Awareness Training" can involve various…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

182

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

183

Phonetics and Phonology Course goals  

E-print Network

80282 Fall 2013 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course picks up where Nature of Language leaves off in the investigation of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will practice reading and producing phonetic transcriptions of data from natural languages

Spirtes, Peter

184

Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

2012-01-01

185

GENERATIVE RULES FOR ITALIAN PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TWO MODELS OF DESCRIPTION, GENERATIVE AND NONGENERATIVE, ARE APPLIED TO THE PHONOLOGY OF ITALIAN TO DETERMINE WHICH OF THE TWO OFFERS A SIMPLER YET MORE COMPREHENSIVE STATEMENT. THE NONGENERATIVE MODEL IS GIVEN IN A LISTING OF PHONEMES AND A BRIEF STATEMENT OF THE PHONOTACTICS AND ALLOPHONICS. THE GENERATIVE MODEL STATES THE FACTS IN 11 REWRITE…

DI PIETRO, ROBERT J.

186

The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

2013-01-01

187

How Do Vocabulary Interventions Affect Young At-Risk Children's Word Learning: A Meta-Analytic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis is designed to build on the existing knowledge base by examining vocabulary interventions specifically for factors associated with child outcomes for at-risk children. Specifically, the authors addressed the following questions: (1) To what extent are vocabulary interventions an effective method for at-risk children prior to…

Marulis, Loren M.; Neuman, Susan B.

2011-01-01

188

The interface between morphology and phonology: exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production.  

PubMed

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment-these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-05-01

189

The interface between morphology and phonology: Exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production  

PubMed Central

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment—these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

190

The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2012-01-01

191

Teaching Vocabulary Expeditiously: Three Keys to Improving Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating vocabulary games and activities more often into the structure of the day, Thomas B. Smith establishes a word-rich environment for high school students to experiment with unfamiliar words in varying, playful contexts. Smith asserts that giving frequent opportunities for hearing, speaking, and writing in the typical context of the day is…

Smith, Thomas B.

2008-01-01

192

Assessing Vocabulary Learning in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is widespread agreement with in the field of early childhood education that vocabulary is important to literacy achievement and that reading aloud can support vocabulary growth. However, there are unexplored and significant problems with the ways we assess young children's vocabulary learning from read-alouds. This paper critically…

Hoffman, Jessica L.; Teale, William H.; Paciga, Kathleen A.

2014-01-01

193

Enhancing Vocabulary Development in Multiple Classroom Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes ways teachers can enhance students' vocabulary development through multiple contexts available in typical middle school classroom settings. Addresses questions about vocabulary learning and offers suggestions for enhancing vocabulary with narrative and expository texts that involve multiple classroom contexts. Considers the Vocab-o-gram…

Harmon, Janis M.; Staton, Denise G.

1999-01-01

194

Improving Online Reading and Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to find ways to improve online reading and vocabulary learning. Various new types of online reading comprehension and vocabulary development programs and tests were compared in this study to consider how useful they may be for guiding individual or classroom L2 vocabulary instruction. It explored how these programs seek…

Loucky, John Paul

2007-01-01

195

Influence of Contexts on Vocabulary Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In vocabulary testing, whether to adopt context is a heat-debated topic. In the article, an experiment is designed to investigate what is the effect of zero context and sentence context on the vocabulary testing? And how do the different kinds of context in vocabulary affect the subjects' performance? The experimental result demonstrates that…

Gao, Chun-mei

2007-01-01

196

Computer Assisted Vocabulary Learning: Design and Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the design and evaluation of the computer-assisted vocabulary learning (CAVL) software WUFUN. It draws on the current research findings of vocabulary acquisition and CALL, aiming to help Chinese university students to improve their learning of English vocabulary, particularly that with which they experience most difficulty.…

Ma, Qing; Kelly, Peter

2006-01-01

197

A summary of the vocabulary research with students who are deaf or hard of hearing.  

PubMed

Vocabulary is essential for communicating, reading, thinking, and learning. In comparison to typical hearing peers, students who are deaf or hard of hearing demonstrate vocabulary knowledge that is quantitatively reduced. The authors review and summarize research studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1967 and 2008 focusing on vocabulary and students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Forty-one studies are examined. A summary of each study is presented in a table, and potential educational implications are described. The authors note the paucity of research to guide instruction and provide suggestions for future research. PMID:20503907

Luckner, John L; Cooke, Christine

2010-01-01

198

Earth Science Vocabulary Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of activities lets students test their knowledge of hundreds of random geologic terms. The activities include games such as hangman (several varieties), flash cards, guessing words or definitions, and matching terms with definitions. Topics include rocks and minerals, Earth dynamics, Earth history, surface processes, weather, and astronomy.

199

Phonological Awareness Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia and the Phonological Representations Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The claim that the well-documented difficulties shown by dyslexic children in phonological awareness tasks may arise from deficits in the accuracy and the segmental organization of the phonological representations of words in their mental lexicons is receiving increasing interest from researchers. In this experiment, two versions of the phonological representations hypothesis were investigated by using a picture naming task and

Denise Swan; Usha Goswami

1997-01-01

200

English phonology and linguistic theory: an introduction to issues, and to ‘Issues in English Phonology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the phonology of English has been crucial in the development of phonological and sociophonological theory throughout its recent past. If we had not had English to investigate, we claim, with both its unique and its widely-shared phonological phenomena, linguistic theory might have developed quite differently. In this article, we document some of the ways in which particular English

Philip Carr; Patrick Honeybone

2007-01-01

201

Treating Children with Expressive Phonological Disorders: Does Phonological Awareness Therapy Work in the Clinic?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent research has shown that phonological awareness therapy can improve speech production in children with expressive phonological disorders. This approach may be appealing to clinicians as the therapy may also benefit the children's general phonological abilities and lead to gains in their literacy skills. Aims: To examine the…

Denne, M.; Langdown, N.; Pring, T.; Roy, P.

2005-01-01

202

Defining Context Within Vocabulary Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a clear-cut definition of context within vocabulary acquisition based on the differentiation between verbal and nonverbal context. To prove the feasibility of this definition, it is applied to examples taken from German teaching material within the university environment. (Author/VWL)

Engelbart, Silke Maria; Theuerkauf, Beate

1999-01-01

203

A New Academic Vocabulary List  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…

Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

2014-01-01

204

Phonological Priming in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological

Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

2012-01-01

205

Phonological Skills in English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the English phonological skills of English language learners (ELLs) over 5 time points. Method: Sound class accuracy, whole-word accuracy, percentage of occurrence of phonological patterns, and sociolinguistic correlational analyses were investigated in 19 ELLs ranging in age from 5;0…

Morrow, Alyse; Goldstein, Brian A.; Gilhool, Amanda; Paradis, Johanne

2014-01-01

206

Phonology in Language Learning and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at absorbing the pronunciation teachers task and how much phonology should teachers know. Teachers and future teachers need a well-rounded concept of the phonology of the language they are going to teach and the native language of learners. Emphasis must be placed on the understanding of language as a system of rules and as a…

Jarrah, Ali Saleh

2012-01-01

207

Orthographic vs. Phonologic Syllables in Handwriting Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

French children program the words they write syllable by syllable. We examined whether the syllable the children use to segment words is determined phonologically (i.e., is derived from speech production processes) or orthographically. Third, 4th and 5th graders wrote on a digitiser words that were mono-syllables phonologically (e.g. "barque" =…

Kandel, Sonia; Herault, Lucie; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Lambert, Eric; Fayol, Michel

2009-01-01

208

The Phonological-Distributional Coherence Hypothesis: Cross-Linguistic Evidence in Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several phonological and prosodic properties of words have been shown to relate to differences between grammatical categories. Distributional information about grammatical categories is also a rich source in the child's language environment. In this paper we hypothesise that such cues operate in tandem for developing the child's knowledge about…

Monaghan, Padraic; Christiansen, Morten H.; Chater, Nick

2007-01-01

209

Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming…

Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

2012-01-01

210

Dynamic and Static Assessment of Phonological Awareness in Preschool: A Behavior-Genetic Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The genetic and environmental overlap between static and dynamic measures of preschool phonological awareness (PA) and their relation to preschool letter knowledge (LK) and kindergarten reading were examined using monozygotic and dizygotic twin children (maximum N = 1,988). The static tests were those typically used to assess a child's current…

Coventry, William L.; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Corley, Robin; Samuelsson, Stefan

2011-01-01

211

Probed Serial Recall in Williams Syndrome: Lexical Influences on Phonological Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Williams syndrome is a genetic disorder that, it has been claimed, results in an unusual pattern of linguistic strengths and weaknesses. The current study investigated the hypothesis that there is a reduced influence of lexical knowledge on phonological short-term memory in Williams syndrome. Fourteen children with Williams syndrome and 2…

Brock, Jan; McCormack, Teresa; Boucher, Jill

2005-01-01

212

Adaptive vocabularies for transcribing multilingual broadcast news  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most prevailing problems of large-vocabulary speech recognition systems is the large number of out-of-vocabulary words. This is especially the case for automatically transcribing broadcast news in languages other than English, that have a large number of inflections and compound words. We introduce a set of techniques to decrease the number of out-of-vocabulary words during recognition by using

P. Geutner; M. Finke; P. Scheytt

1998-01-01

213

Using Automated Questions to Assess Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary, and  

E-print Network

Using Automated Questions to Assess Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary, and Effects of Tutorial, reading comprehension, vocabulary, multiple-choice cloze tests, embedded experiment, within on automatically generating questions to estimate children's reading comprehension and vocabulary for two purposes

Mostow, Jack

214

The Impact of Academic Vocabulary Instruction on Reading Performance of Sophomore Students on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test from 2008 and 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the change in sophomore reading scores on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test after the implementation of an academic vocabulary program and the change in teacher knowledge and professional practice after a program of staff development in academic vocabulary. The purpose was to determine if the impact of the…

McMillen, Margaret

2009-01-01

215

A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

Labrie, Gilles

2000-01-01

216

Studies Find Vocabulary Instruction Is Falling Short  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary

Sparks, Sarah D.

2013-01-01

217

Modality of Input and Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of input modality (video, audio, and captions, i.e., on-screen text in the same language as audio) on (a) the learning of written and aural word forms, (b) overall vocabulary gains, (c) attention to input, and (d) vocabulary learning strategies of beginning L2 learners. Twenty-six second-semester learners of Russian…

Sydorenko, Tetyana

2010-01-01

218

Redirective Labels and Early Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents' object labels can be distinguished by whether the child is already attending to the object (follow-in) or not (lead-in). Lead-in labels have been found to be associated with low vocabulary. The current study examines whether the relation between lead-in labels and child vocabulary is influenced by whether the child's attention is…

Shimpi, Priya Mariana; Huttenlocher, Janellen

2007-01-01

219

Effects of Multimedia Annotations on Vocabulary Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses studies of German students using "CyberBuch," a hypermedia application for reading German texts that contains annotations for words in the form of text, pictures, and video. The article examines incidental vocabulary learning, the effectiveness of different types of annotations for vocabulary acquisition, and the effect of look-up…

Chun, Dorothy M.; Plass, Jan L.

1996-01-01

220

Teaching Vocabulary To Improve Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the best available research, this publication describes the most effective methods of vocabulary instruction for the improvement of reading comprehension. Examples of useful approaches to vocabulary instruction aimed at students past the initial stages of reading are presented for use or adaptation by classroom teachers. The publication's…

Nagy, William E.

221

Promoting Vocabulary Development in Your Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After reviewing the literature, this paper seeks to show the importance and significance of direct vocabulary instruction on students' critical literacy skills; specifically, reading comprehension. Although some may suggest that the greatest amount of vocabulary growth occurs through incidental word learning in wide reading, research indicates…

Long, Nicole Amber

222

Building Academic Vocabulary Student Notebook, Revised Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We've changed our BAV (Building Academic Vocabulary) student materials to a sturdy bound notebook to give you a lower price and a more durable format. Instead of using loose-leaf pages, teachers can now give each student this colorful notebook that follows the 6-step method for teaching academic vocabulary. There is space for more terms, and…

Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra

2008-01-01

223

Vocabulary Strategies for a Fourth Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…

Howell, Gina

2012-01-01

224

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes  

MedlinePLUS

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech sound disorders ? Can adults have speech sound disorders ? What ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...

225

Pakistani English: Some Phonological and Phonetic Features.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the phonological and phonetic features of English as spoken in Pakistan and shows such distinctive patterns as anglicized, acrolectal, mesolectal, and basilectal varieties of Pakistani English. (45 references) (CB)

Rahman, Tariq

1991-01-01

226

Speech synthesis by phonological structure matching.   

E-print Network

This paper presents a new technique for speech synthesis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonological trees, and using a selection algorithm which ...

Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W

1999-01-01

227

Community structure in the phonological network.  

PubMed

Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language. PMID:23986735

Siew, Cynthia S Q

2013-01-01

228

Community structure in the phonological network  

PubMed Central

Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language. PMID:23986735

Siew, Cynthia S. Q.

2013-01-01

229

Is Phonology Going Haywire in Dying Languages? Phonological Variations in Chipewyan and Sarcee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of phonological data from two Athapaskan languages demonstrated that underlying the apparent degeneration of their phonological systems was an orderly progression which could be viewed as a retarded process of language acquisition, indicating that dying languages mirror the successive stages of ontogenesis. (35 references) (Author/CB)

Cook, Eung-Do

1989-01-01

230

Anatomical coupling among distributed cortical regions in youth varies as a function of individual differences in vocabulary abilities.  

PubMed

Patient lesion and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided convincing evidence that a distributed brain network subserves word knowledge. However, little is known about the structural correlates of this network within the context of typical development and whether anatomical coupling in linguistically relevant regions of cortex varies as a function of vocabulary skill. Here we investigate the association between vocabulary and anatomical coupling in 235 typically developing youth (ages 6-19 years) using structural MRI. The study's primary aim was to evaluate whether higher vocabulary performance was associated with greater vertex-level cortical thickness covariation in distributed regions of cortex known to be associated with word knowledge. Results indicate that better vocabulary skills are associated with greater anatomical coupling in several linguistically relevant regions of cortex, including the left inferior parietal (temporal-parietal junction), inferior temporal, middle frontal, and superior frontal gyri and the right inferior frontal and precentral gyri. Furthermore, in high vocabulary scorers, stronger coupling is found among these regions. Thus, complementing patient and fMRI studies, this is the first investigation to highlight the relevance of anatomical covariance within the cortex to vocabulary skills in typically developing youth, further elucidating the distributed nature of neural systems subserving word knowledge. PMID:23728856

Lee, Nancy Raitano; Raznahan, Armin; Wallace, Gregory L; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron; Clasen, Liv S; Lerch, Jason P; Giedd, Jay N

2014-05-01

231

Dare to Differentiate: Vocabulary Strategies for All Students. Teaching Practices that Work Series. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This highly practical resource for K-6 teachers is packed with 25 classroom-tested, step-by-step strategies for developing word knowledge. The emphasis throughout is not only on teaching new words, but also on strengthening students' comprehension and long-term vocabulary acquisition. Especially valuable are guidelines for how to differentiate…

Brassell, Danny

2010-01-01

232

Indigenizing Vocabulary Teaching: An Example of Multiliteracies Pedagogy from Unamen Shipu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a community-based pedagogical initiative for teaching vocabulary. The research took place in the Innu community of Unamen Shipu in northern Quebec. The study introduced a teaching method grounded in Indigenous knowledge theory that exemplified the multiliteracies pedagogy principles. This exploratory study used participatory…

Lavoie, Constance; Mark, Marie-Paul; Jenniss, Brigitte

2014-01-01

233

Variables Predicting Foreign Language Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Linear Hypermedia Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors predicting vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of advanced language learners of English in a linear multimedia text were investigated in the current study. Predictor variables of interest were multimedia type, reading proficiency, learning styles, topic interest and background knowledge about the topic. The outcome variables of…

Akbulut, Yavuz

2007-01-01

234

The Effects of Long-Term Vocabulary Instruction on Reading Comprehension: A Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study that investigated the relationship between vocabulary instruction and reading comprehension was replicated and extended. The original study showed substantial gains in accuracy of word knowledge and speed of lexical access, but only marginal gains in comprehension. This latter result was attributable to methodological problems, and thus the comprehension measure was revised. In the present study, fourth graders were

Margaret G. McKeown; Isabel L. Beck; Richard C. Omanson; Charles A. Perfetti

1983-01-01

235

Cybertext Redux: Using Digital Game-Based Learning to Teach L2 Vocabulary, Reading, and Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essay reports on a mixed-methods study using an interactive fiction (IF) game to teach German vocabulary, reading, and culture to university students. The study measured knowledge retention and transfer, and evaluated the attitudes of students toward the game. The results tentatively indicate that contextualized, immersive role play may have…

Neville, David O.; Shelton, Brett E.; McInnis, Brian

2009-01-01

236

Word Travelers: Using Digital Tools to Explore Vocabulary and Develop Independent Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internet is full of tools for vocabulary development, but the quality and usefulness for teachers and students vary greatly. With a traditionalist's respect for word knowledge and an adventurer's spirit for discovering new routes to learning, Lee Ann Tysseling shares an exciting array of technology-assisted resources that can boost students'…

Tysseling, Lee Ann

2012-01-01

237

Resolving Controlled Vocabulary in DITA Markup: A Case Example in Agroforestry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to address the issue of matching controlled vocabulary on agroforestry from knowledge organization systems (KOS) and incorporating these terms in DITA markup. The paper has been selected for an extended version from MTSR'11. Design/methodology/approach: After a general description of the steps taken to harmonize controlled…

Zschocke, Thomas

2012-01-01

238

Latin Revived: Source-Based Vocabulary Lessons Courtesy of Harry Potter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers can build on students' familiarity with and respect for the Harry Potter books to create source-based vocabulary lessons. The idea is to work with the Latin roots that J. K. Rowling uses to create original names for places, people, and magical charms and then to extend students' knowledge through exploration of additional English words…

Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

2006-01-01

239

The Shakespeare in All of Us: A Monumental, Multitudinous, Premeditated Approach to Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shakespeare, who worked actively with words through punning, playing, and inventing, serves as the model for students to experience a deepening knowledge of vocabulary and love of words. Through instructional activities aimed at increasing word play, word exposure, and word consciousness, students gain the verbal capacity needed to understand…

Savino, Jennifer Ann

2011-01-01

240

Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Animated Tutor for Language and Vocabulary Learning  

E-print Network

Development and Evaluation of a Computer-Animated Tutor for Language and Vocabulary Learning of Psychology University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, CA. 95064 U.S.A. E-mail: massaro@fuzzy knowledge is positively correlated with both listening and reading comprehension (Anderson & Freebody, 1981

Massaro, Dominic

241

The Effects of Semantic Mapping on Vocabulary Growth in Grade Four.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effectiveness of semantic mapping instruction as a technique for increasing vocabulary. Subjects, 38 fourth grade students in two classrooms, were divided into experimental and control groups. Both groups were pretested for their knowledge of selected words taken from the Scott, Foresman Reading Program, Grade Four. The…

Pikula, Joan

242

Tonguetwisting and dyslexia: Investigating the phonological deficit hypothesis   

E-print Network

There is growing agreement that people with dyslexia have difficulty processing speech sounds. Proponents of the phonological deficit hypothesis argue that the core difficulty in dyslexia lies with phonological processing itself, either in encoding...

Fraser, Catriona

2012-06-27

243

Phonological mediation in visual masked priming: Evidence from phonotactic repair  

E-print Network

). Another line of evidence for phonological code activation from presumably subliminal print is provided" the letter that matches best with the word's phonological code. Importantly, subliminal primes and/or targets

Boyer, Edmond

244

Detection of Phonological Features in Continuous Speech using Neural Networks   

E-print Network

We report work on the first component of a two stage speech recognition architecture based on phonological features rather than phones. The paper reports experimentson three phonological feature systems: 1) the Sound Pattern ...

King, Simon; Taylor, Paul

245

Assessment and Instruction in Phonological Awareness. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to help Florida teachers incorporate assessment and instruction of phonological awareness into their pre-reading and reading curriculum. The first section describes what phonological awareness is and how it is related to reading instruction. It summarizes research evidence on the role of phonological awareness in reading…

Torgesen, Joseph K.; Mathes, Patricia G.

246

Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

2013-01-01

247

Quality of Phonological Representations: A Window into the Lexicon?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a great deal of evidence to support the robust relationship between phonological awareness and literacy development. Researchers are beginning to understand the relationship between the accuracy and distinctiveness of stored phonological representations and performance on phonological awareness tasks. However, many of the…

Claessen, Mary; Heath, Steve; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John; Leitao, Suze

2009-01-01

248

Cognition, 42 (1992) 261-286 Disorders of phonological encoding*  

E-print Network

Cognition, 42 (1992) 261-286 Disorders of phonological encoding* Brian Butterworth Department. Disorders of phonological encoding. Cognition, 42: 261-286. Studies of phonological disturbances in aphasic vary from 1.6 errors per 1000words (Shallice & Butterworth, 1977) down to 62 (segment errors

Butterworth, Brian

249

The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article challenges educators to rethink reading instruction practices for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors begin with a discussion of the role of phonology in reading, then summarize the evidence of phonological coding among skilled deaf readers and investigate alternative routes for acquiring phonologically related skills…

Wang, Ye; Trezek, Beverly J.; Luckner, John L.; Paul, Peter V.

2008-01-01

250

A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.

Prevost, Jill K.

251

Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Acquisition: The CSLU Vocabulary Tutor in Oral-Deaf Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the acquisition of everyday vocabulary of 16 children (ages 8-14) with deafness in an auditory/oral program using specially designed computer-based vocabulary applications. On average, children learned 70 words for everyday objects from immediate use of the lessons and remembered nearly 39 after more than 4 weeks. (Contains…

Barker, Lecia J.

2003-01-01

252

ESL Learners' Vocabulary Use in Writing and the Effects of Explicit Vocabulary Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated vocabulary use in the writing of 65 secondary school multi-grade and multi first language intermediate English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners at a Greater Vancouver public secondary school. Proposes systematic vocabulary instruction based on teacher-directed interaction and negotiation and psycholinguistic principles of word…

Lee, Siok H.

2003-01-01

253

Phonological Planning during Sentence Production: Beyond the Verb  

PubMed Central

The current study addresses the extent of phonological planning during spontaneous sentence production. Previous work shows that at articulation, phonological encoding occurs for entire phrases, but encoding beyond the initial phrase may be due to the syntactic relevance of the verb in planning the utterance. I conducted three experiments to investigate whether phonological planning crosses multiple grammatical phrase boundaries (as defined by the number of lexical heads of phrase) within a single phonological phrase. Using the picture–word interference paradigm, I found in two separate experiments a significant phonological facilitation effect to both the verb and noun of sentences like “He opens the gate.” I also altered the frequency of the direct object and found longer utterance initiation times for sentences ending with a low-frequency vs. high-frequency object offering further support that the direct object was phonologically encoded at the time of utterance initiation. That phonological information for post-verbal elements was activated suggests that the grammatical importance of the verb does not restrict the extent of phonological planning. These results suggest that the phonological phrase is unit of planning, where all elements within a phonological phrase are encoded before articulation. Thus, consistent with other action sequencing behavior, there is significant phonological planning ahead in sentence production. PMID:22069396

Schnur, Tatiana T.

2011-01-01

254

Grammatical constraints on phonological encoding in speech production.  

PubMed

To better understand the influence of grammatical encoding on the retrieval and encoding of phonological word-form information during speech production, we examine how grammatical class constraints influence the activation of phonological neighbors (words phonologically related to the target--e.g., MOON, TWO for target TUNE). Specifically, we compare how neighbors that share a target's grammatical category (here, nouns) influence its planning and retrieval, assessed by picture naming latencies, and phonetic encoding, assessed by word productions in picture names, when grammatical constraints are strong (in sentence contexts) versus weak (bare naming). Within-category (noun) neighbors influenced planning time and phonetic encoding more strongly in sentence contexts. This suggests that grammatical encoding constrains phonological processing; the influence of phonological neighbors is grammatically dependent. Moreover, effects on planning times could not fully account for phonetic effects, suggesting that phonological interaction affects articulation after speech onset. These results support production theories integrating grammatical, phonological, and phonetic processes. PMID:24687733

Heller, Jordana R; Goldrick, Matthew

2014-12-01

255

Exploring the nature of the phonological deficit in dyslexia: are phonological representations impaired?   

E-print Network

Developmental dyslexia is widely believed to be caused either mainly or in part by an impairment of phonological representations. Although this hypothesis predicts that individuals with dyslexia should show deficits in ...

Dickie, Catherine Elizabeth

2009-07-03

256

Beyond Zebra: Preschoolers' Knowledge about Letters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that an important type of child knowledge about letters is knowledge of the phonological structure of the letters' names in English. Concludes that learning the alphabet forms the basis for generalizations about the structure of letter names. (22 references) (Author/CK)

Treiman, Rebecca; Richmond-Welty, E. Daylene; Tincoff, Ruth

1997-01-01

257

THE GBAYA LANGUAGE, GRAMMAR, TEXTS, AND VOCABULARIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A DESCRIPTION OF THE GBAYA PEOPLES LIVING IN THE DISTRICT OF BOSSANGOA IN THE NORTHWESTERN PART OF THE CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC IS PRESENTED IN THE INTRODUCTION TO THIS COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF THE GBAYA LANGUAGE. (THE LANGUAGE IS SPELLED VARIOUSLY BEA, GBEA, AND GBAYA.) IN THREE SECTIONS, THE FIRST PART OF THE TEXT DEALS WITH THE PHONOLOGY AND…

SAMARIN, WILLIAM J.

258

Regular Models of Phonological Rule Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a set of mathematical and computational tools for manipulating and reasoning about regular languages and regular relations and argues that they provide a solid basis for computational phonology. It shows in detail how this framework applies to ordered sets of context-sensitive rewriting rules and also to grammars in Koskenniemi's two-level formalism. This analysis provides a common representation

Ronald M. Kaplan; Martin Kay

1994-01-01

259

Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2010-01-01

260

Stuttering, Cluttering, and Phonological Complexity: Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonological complexity of dysfluencies in those who clutter and/or stutter may help us better understand phonetic factors in these two types of fluency disorders. In this preliminary investigation, cases were three 14-year-old males, diagnosed as a Stutterer, a Clutterer, and a Stutterer-Clutterer. Spontaneous speech samples were transcribed,…

LaSalle, Lisa R.; Wolk, Lesley

2011-01-01

261

Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

2014-01-01

262

Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

Rubrecht, August Weston

263

Rational Transductions for Phonetic Conversion and Phonology  

E-print Network

Rational Transductions for Phonetic Conversion and Phonology Eric Laporte Institut Gaspard-Monge France laporte@univ-mlv.fr August 1995 Abstract Phonetic conversion, and other conversion problems related to phonetics, can be performed by nite-state tools. We present a nite-state conversion system, Bi

Boyer, Edmond

264

The Phonology and Phonetics of Tone Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…

Ramadoss, Deepti

2012-01-01

265

Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…

Lee, Su-Yeon

2011-01-01

266

Topics in Mocho' Phonology and Morphology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a grammatical description of several features of the morphology and phonology of the Mocho' language. Mocho' (Motozintleco) is a moribund Mayan language spoken in the Chiapas region of Mexico near the border of Guatemala. This dissertation, based on data collected during several field trips and supplemented with unpublished…

Palosaari, Naomi Elizabeth

2011-01-01

267

A Comparative Sketch of Pueblo Languages: Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to determine some of the shared phonological traits among Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest, this paper compares the sound systems of Pueblo languages. The languages within the scope of this research are Zuni, Keresan (Acoma and Santa Ana), and Tanoan (Sandia, Taos, Jemez, and Santa Clara). It is noted that Pueblo Indians have…

Yumitani, Yukihiro

268

Speech synthesis by phonological structure matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new technique for speech synthe- sis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonolog- ical trees, and using a selection algorithm which finds the largest parts of trees in the database which match parts of the target tree. The technique avoids many of the errors made by

Paul Taylor; Alan W. Black

1999-01-01

269

Use of Orthographic Knowledge in Reading by Chinese-English Bi-Scriptal Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested Chinese-English bi-scriptal fourth-graders on reading aloud and comprehension in Chinese and English and their understanding of some structural principles underlying Chinese orthography. These principles concern phonological and semantic representation in written Chinese. Regressions showed that knowledge about phonological

Cheung, Him; Chan, Miranda; Chong, Karen

2007-01-01

270

SECONDARY CLASSROOM VOCABULARY: DATA FROM TYPICALLY DEVELOPING STUDENTS  

E-print Network

Students who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) need access to specific vocabulary to participate fully in general education classrooms. To date, there is no research on the vocabulary used in secondary ...

McKim Thomas, Sarah Summer

2012-05-31

271

To Kindle a Flame: Teaching Vocabulary in College Composition Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a vocabulary activity the author uses in first-year composition classes which is effective, interesting, and fun for students who write an ongoing serialized short story with required vocabulary words chosen weekly from assigned student readings. (SR)

McDonald, Jean

1998-01-01

272

Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the IdentifiedObject individuals are linked to the ChEBI ontology for definitions of chemical substances.. Second, to allow compatibility with SKOS-based tools and to ensure the vocabulary does not violate the meta-modelling constraints of the OWL-DL profile, the relevant classes in QUDT are declared to be subclasses of SKOS Concept and a shadow SKOS view of ChEBI was generated (as ChEBI models all elements and substances as OWL classes). The provenance of each SKOS concept shadowing an OWL class is recorded using the PROV-O ontology. Some aspects of these processing steps can be automated through SPARQL queries, while other aspects must be done manually. For maintenance and provenance purposes, the complete vocabulary and ontologies are persisted in around 20 separate RDF files (in addition to the QUDT and ChEBI sources), each of which constitutes a separate RDF graph and reflects the various aspects of above steps. The vocabularies are published in multiple ways: - For download as files from the ontology URI - At a SPARQL endpoint - Through a URI-based SKOS API (SISSvoc) - Through search UIs built on top of the SPARQL endpoint or SISSvoc service

Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

2013-12-01

273

Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing  

PubMed Central

We compared three phonological processing components (phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and phonological memory), verbal working memory, and attention control in terms of how well they predict the various aspects of reading: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8–12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley’s model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Lee, Sylvia E.; Dyer, Sarah M.

2014-01-01

274

Controlled Vocabularies Boost International Participation and Normalization of Searches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) science staff set out to document Earth science data and provide a mechanism for it's discovery in fulfillment of a commitment to NASA's Earth Science progam and to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites' (CEOS) International Directory Network (IDN.) At the time, whether to offer a controlled vocabulary search or a free-text search was resolved with a decision to support both. The feedback from the user community indicated that being asked to independently determine the appropriate 'English" words through a free-text search would be very difficult. The preference was to be 'prompted' for relevant keywords through the use of a hierarchy of well-designed science keywords. The controlled keywords serve to 'normalize' the search through knowledgeable input by metadata providers. Earth science keyword taxonomies were developed, rules for additions, deletions, and modifications were created. Secondary sets of controlled vocabularies for related descriptors such as projects, data centers, instruments, platforms, related data set link types, and locations, along with free-text searches assist users in further refining their search results. Through this robust 'search and refine' capability in the GCMD users are directed to the data and services they seek. The next step in guiding users more directly to the resources they desire is to build a 'reasoning' capability for search through the use of ontologies. Incorporating twelve sets of Earth science keyword taxonomies has boosted the GCMD S ability to help users define and more directly retrieve data of choice.

Olsen, Lola M.

2006-01-01

275

A Comparison of Two Measures of Receptive Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of the Picture Vocabulary subtest of the Test of Language Development--Primary (TOLD-P-PV) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Revised (PPVT-R) with first- through third-graders (N=48) revealed a strong correlation between the two receptive vocabulary measures. (CB)

Friend, Tressa J.; Channell, Ron W.

1987-01-01

276

Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

Cimino, James J.

1995-01-01

277

Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

2013-01-01

278

Reliability Assessment for Two Versions of Vocabulary Levels Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a reliability study of two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test at the 5000 word level. This study was motivated by a finding from an ongoing longitudinal study of vocabulary acquisition that Version A and Version B of Vocabulary Levels Test at the 5000 word level were not parallel. In order to investigate this issue,…

Xing, Peiling; Fulcher, Glenn

2007-01-01

279

Hoerspiele: A Comparative Study of Appropriate Reading Vocabularies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates the use of Hoerspiele (radio plays) in intermediate German college courses to facilitate the transition from spoken vocabulary to reading vocabulary. A statistical comparison is given between the vocabularies of spoken language, Hoerspiele, modern short stories and newspapers, showing that Hoerspiele have more words in common with spoken…

Sommer, Harold M.

1976-01-01

280

Enhancing Access to Situational Vocabulary by Leveraging Geographic Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Users of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aids could benefit from novel methods for accelerating access to contextually relevant vocabulary. This paper describes our initial efforts toward improving access to situational vocabulary through the use of geographic context to predict vocabulary. A corpus of spoken data produced by one…

Patel, Rupal; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv

2007-01-01

281

Using Lemony Snicket to Bring Smiles to Your Vocabulary Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary instruction is addressed on two levels in this article: 1) the importance of direct teaching and 2) using the books of a popular children's series as examples to support these vocabulary lessons. Also addressed are specific methods of turning classrooms into places where vocabulary instruction is effective and enjoyable. Elements of…

Arter, Lisa Maxwell; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

2009-01-01

282

Phonological processing in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological assessment.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits that cause functional impairments across several domains, including language. There is experimental evidence that basal ganglia and frontostriatal circuits are implicated in phonological processing, which leads to the hypothesis that a dysfunction of these circuits could be expressed behaviorally as phonological deficiencies in patients with PD. Using neuropsychological assessments, the present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities of patients in the initial stages of PD while controlling for other cognitive processes. The results showed lower scores in patients with PD on phonological tests with respect to a control group and these differences were independent of processes such as attention/working memory, long-term memory, thinking, and verbal language comprehension. However, there was an association between phonological skills and reading comprehension abilities. This finding implies a specific phonological deficit in terms of word reading. PMID:23963326

Elorriaga-Santiago, Sergio; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Carrasco-Vargas, Humberto

2013-10-23

283

Phonological development and prosodic units: evidence from metathesis errors.  

PubMed

There is general agreement in the literature that the ability to recognize that words are made up of "smaller phonological units" within the phonological hierarchy is a prerequisite for reading, however, there is still much debate as to which specific units are important. Many studies dealing with Japanese phonological development have been conducted, but most deal mainly with the mora unit, and few actually focus on other prosodic levels. In this paper, we will focus on the prosodic development of Japanese, with particular attention to the relationship of the different prosodic levels, namely, that of the foot, syllable and mora. The result of the reversal tasks seems to imply that the relationship between the foot and syllable units plays a role in the phonological processing of Japanese, implying the importance of focusing on phonological units other than the mora in order to correctly assess a child's phonological processing ability. PMID:24093159

Miyakoda, Haruko

2014-04-01

284

General Academic or Domain-Specific Vocabulary?: The Impact of Word Selection in High School Biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of learning various types of words in biology on students' reading comprehension, vocabulary performance, and science content knowledge. The study involved 315 ninth grade biology students who were placed in one of four groups and spent two weeks for ten minutes per day working on independent vocabulary packets in which they practiced a set of 15 words. Group one's list was a combination of domain-specific and general academic words, group two's list was a set of general academic words, and group three's list was a set of domain-specific words. The fourth group, the control group, did no formal vocabulary work but instead completed lessons involving the ecology content. In this quasi-experiment, the independent variable was the instructional group assignment, and the dependent variables were the students' performances on the reading comprehension, vocabulary (broken into various categories), and content assessments. Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) found the differences to be statistically significant. The individual dependent variables were analyzed and found two question types on the vocabulary test, the domainspecific and general academic, to be significant in the test of between-subjects effects. Further, instructional group assignment did not have an effect on reading comprehension and content Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) found the differences to be statistically significant. The individual dependent variables were analyzed and found two question types on the vocabulary test, the domainspecific and general academic, to be significant in the test of between-subjects effects. Further, instructional group assignment did not have an effect on reading comprehension and content

Birmingham, Elizabeth A.

285

S'COOL Lesson Plan 57: Vocabulary Art Using Art as a Vocabulary Strategy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this lesson plan students focus on a predetermined vocabulary list, then use the words, definitions, or familiar context to draw (either by hand or on the computer) a picture that depicts that word. Detailed Procedure and Materials, Vocabulary linked to an on-line glossary, and Teacher Notes are provided. This activity is related to the Students' Cloud Observations Online (S’COOL) project.

2009-01-01

286

Word Learning in Children with Vocabulary Deficits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word learning in 16 children with specific language impairment (SU) was compared with that of chronological-age controls (CAC) and vocabulary-age controls (VAC), to examine the extent and nature of word-learning deficits in the children with SLI. The children were exposed to novel words in a story and an explicit teaching context. Five tasks…

Nash, Marysia; Donaldson, Morag L.

2005-01-01

287

Vocabulary Support: Constructing (Not Obstructing) Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language that students are learning in mathematics classrooms is intimately tied to the mathematics they are learning. The goal for any lesson or unit is for all students to be able to understand the mathematics they read or hear and be able to speak and write about that mathematics. Structured vocabulary placement can support that dual…

Livers, Stefanie D.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

2014-01-01

288

A Computer-Adaptive Vocabulary Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical competence is considered to be an essential step in the development and consolidation of a student's linguistic ability, and thus the reliable assessment of such competence turns out to be a fundamental aspect in this process. The design and construction of vocabulary tests has become an area of special interest, as it may provide teachers…

Molina, Maria Teresa Lopez-Mezquita

2009-01-01

289

Inferring New Vocabulary Using Online Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through small-scale sampling of relevant specialized texts to craft hands-on inferential vocabulary tasks, both students and teachers can benefit from corpus linguistic information. By discovering ways to collect and access real data, second-language teachers can create topic-specific corpora and use software to sort and highlight the data to…

Stvan, Laurel Smith

2005-01-01

290

Hand Gesture Vocabulary Design: A Multicriteria Optimization *  

E-print Network

, a new analytical method for GV design is proffered. The method considers both human and machine basedHand Gesture Vocabulary Design: A Multicriteria Optimization * Helman I. Stern Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Ben Gurion University of the Negev Be'er-Sheva 84105, Israel helman@bgu.ac

Wachs, Juan

291

The Cognitive Vocabulary Approach to Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English teachers face myriad demands every day that include not only helping students read literature in interesting and engaging ways but also attending to the needs of students challenged by the demands of more complex and sophisticated texts. Vocabulary learning is at the heart of this struggle for many students, especially for English language…

Harmon, Janis M.; Buckelew-Martin, Elizabeth; Wood, Karen D.

2010-01-01

292

Metaphor and Vocabulary Teaching in ESP Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case is made for basing vocabulary teaching to English for special purposes economics students on lexis that reflects important underlying metaphors of the subject. These are identified with reference to high frequency lexis in "The Economist" magazine, and an explanation is offered of their metaphorical basis. (Author/VWL)

Charteris-Black, Jonathan

2000-01-01

293

In-Depth Study of Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development is a crucial aspect of literacy. It is our duty as teachers to enrich the language of our students to better prepare them for a successful lifetime of communication. This paper offers several methods to enhance levels of speech in the classroom. Some of the techniques included are the use of repetitive reading, reading…

Mixan, Marisa

2013-01-01

294

Standardizing "HyperVocabulary": A Proposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary used to describe things that are "hyper" is very confusing. This paper discusses four factor which contribute to the confusion: the same idea is often described using different terms; even though people sometimes use the same terms, quite often they are referring to different ideas; people tend to confuse "hyperdocuments" with…

Chen, Der-Thanq

295

Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

Lu, M.

2008-01-01

296

Issues in Large Vocabulary, Multilingual Speech Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on our activities in multilingual, sp eaker- independent, large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. The multilingual aspect of this work is of particular importanc e in Eu- rope, where each country has its own national language. Our exist- ing recognizer for American English and French, has been ported to British English and German. It has been

Lori Lamel; Martine Adda-Decker; Jean-Luc Gauvain

1995-01-01

297

Phonological Defici~ncies: Effective Predictors of Future  

E-print Network

, rather than "phonologically deviant." In many different countries, certain spoken language skills. They have examined children's reading behavior (Mann, 1984: Shankweiler & Libennan, 1972) and spelling

298

Impaired phonological reading in primary degenerative dementia.  

PubMed

This case study reports the profile of preserved and impaired capacities in a left-handed patient suffering from primary degenerative dementia of unknown aetiology. She was remarkable because her relatively preserved object naming and semantic categorization abilities contrasted with severe deficits in speech fluency, oral reading, inability to execute spoken and written commands, and severely impaired auditory-verbal short-term memory. Her reading disorder could be characterized as a disturbance of assembled phonology. She had great difficulty reading pronounceable nonwords, but she could correctly read irregular words. She showed effects of word imageability or concreteness (more than word frequency). She also showed effects of part-of-speech, where nouns and adjectives were read more easily than inflected verbs. She had difficulty reading function words. The syntactic category effects could be proven (by hierarchical log-linear analysis) not to be an artefact of imageability differences between verbs, adjectives and nouns. In reading aloud she made visual and morphological errors, but no semantic errors. This interesting pattern of preserved semantic information and disrupted phonological processing is unusual in dementia and contrasts with the severe dysnomia of patients with surface dyslexia who are able to read by the indirect, assembly-of-phonology route and show better reading of nonwords than irregular words. Her reading by a direct visual-semantic route appeared to be associated with relatively intact object naming, concrete word reading, and irregular word reading. This selective impairment of phonological reading in the context of partly preserved semantic abilities was interpreted as confirmation of the dissociability of language functions in primary degenerative dementia. PMID:1884170

Diesfeldt, H F

1991-08-01

299

THE PHONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF SIGN LANGUAGES  

PubMed Central

Visually perceivable and movable parts of the body – the hands, facial features, head, and upper body – are the articulators of sign language. It is through these articulators that that words are formed, constrained, and contrasted with one another, and that prosody is conveyed. This article provides an overview of the way in which phonology is organized in the alternative modality of sign language. PMID:23539295

SANDLER, WENDY

2013-01-01

300

A Quantile Regression Approach to Understanding the Relations Among Morphological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in adult basic education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at multiple points (quantiles) along the continuous distribution of reading comprehension. To demonstrate the efficacy of our multiple quantile regression analysis, we compared and contrasted our results with a traditional multiple regression analytic approach. Our results indicated that morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge accounted for a large portion of the variance (82%-95%) in reading comprehension skills across all quantiles. Morphological awareness exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at lower levels of reading comprehension whereas vocabulary knowledge exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at higher levels of reading comprehension. These results indicate the utility of using multiple quantile regression to assess trajectories of component skills across multiple levels of reading comprehension. The implications of our findings for ABE programs are discussed. PMID:25351773

Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

2014-10-28

301

The Effect of Morphological Instruction in Improving the Spelling, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension of High School English Language Learners (ELLs)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if Morphological Instruction (knowledge of the Germanic, Latin, and Greek words, roots, and affixes of English) was an effective instructional approach towards accelerating the acquisition of spelling, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and closing at least a 6,000 word gap between English language…

Diaz, Ivan

2010-01-01

302

Hypertext Annotation: Effects of Presentation Formats and Learner Proficiency on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in Foreign Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends current knowledge by exploring the effect of different annotation formats, namely in-text annotation, glossary annotation, and pop-up annotation, on hypertext reading comprehension in a foreign language and vocabulary acquisition across student proficiencies. User attitudes toward the annotation presentation were also…

Chen, I-Jung; Yen, Jung-Chuan

2013-01-01

303

The Role of Knowledge in Visual Shape Representation  

E-print Network

This report shows how knowledge about the visual world can be built into a shape representation in the form of a descriptive vocabulary making explicit the important geometrical relationships comprising objects' shapes. ...

Saund, Eric

1988-10-01

304

Attentional Blink Is Hierarchically Modulated by Phonological, Morphological, Semantic and Lexical Connections between Two Chinese Characters  

PubMed Central

The ability to identify the second of two targets (T2) is impaired if that target is presented less than ?500 ms after the first (T1). This transient deficit is known as attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have suggested that the magnitude of the AB effect can be modulated by manipulating the allocation of attentional resources to T1 or T2. However, few experiments have used Chinese characters and words to explore this phenomenon. The existence of lexical, semantic, phonological and morphological connections between Chinese characters has been well established, and understanding these connections may improve our knowledge of reading Chinese. In this study, we employed varying connections between T1 and T2 and examined how these connections modulate the AB effect. We found that the strongest AB was observed when the two Chinese characters were completely unrelated, while the AB was reduced when T1 and T2 were phonologically, orthographically or semantically related and was almost completely eliminated when T1 and T2 were united in a lexical phrase. The order of activation between Chinese characters was identified as follows: (a) lexical phrases, (b) semantic connection, (c) morphological connection, (d) phonological connection and (e) unrelated words. PMID:25101959

Cao, Hong-Wen; Jin, Kai-Bin; Li, Chao-Yi; Yan, Hong-Mei

2014-01-01

305

Controlling the vocabulary for anatomy.  

PubMed Central

When confronted with the representation of human anatomy, natural language processing (NLP) system designers are facing an unsolved and frequent problem: the lack of a suitable global reference. The available sources in electronic format are numerous, but none fits adequately all the constraints and needs of language analysis. These sources are usually incomplete, difficult to use or tailored to specific needs. The anatomist's or ontologist's view does not necessarily match that of the linguist. The purpose of this paper is to review most recognized sources of knowledge in anatomy usable for linguistic analysis. Their potential and limits are emphasized according to this point of view. Focus is given on the role of the consensus work of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) giving the Terminologia Anatomica. PMID:12463780

Baud, R. H.; Lovis, C.; Rassinoux, A. M.; Ruch, P.; Geissbuhler, A.

2002-01-01

306

Phonology in syntax: The Somali optional agreement rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would

Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum

1983-01-01

307

Phonological Mediation in Visual Masked Priming: Evidence from Phonotactic Repair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of 4 experiments, the authors show that phonological repair mechanisms, known to operate in the auditory modality, are directly translated in the visual modality. This holds with the provision that printed stimuli are presented for a very brief duration and that the effect of phonological repair is tested after a delay of some 100 ms…

Halle, Pierre A.; Dominguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; Segui, Juan

2008-01-01

308

Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2012-01-01

309

Phonological Typicality Does Not Influence Fixation Durations in Normal Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a word-by-word self-paced reading paradigm, T. A. Farmer, M. H. Christiansen, and P. Monaghan (2006) reported faster reading times for words that are phonologically typical for their syntactic category (i.e., noun or verb) than for words that are phonologically atypical. This result has been taken to suggest that language users are sensitive…

Staub, Adrian; Grant, Margaret; Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Rayner, Keith

2009-01-01

310

Integration of Phonological Information in Obstruent Consonant Identification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech perception requires the integration of information from multiple phonetic and phonological dimensions. Numerous studies have investigated the mapping between multiple acoustic-phonetic dimensions and single phonological dimensions (e.g., spectral and temporal properties of stop consonants in voicing contrasts). Many fewer studies have…

Silbert, Noah H.

2009-01-01

311

Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

Proctor, Michael Ian

2009-01-01

312

Learning Morphological and Phonological Spelling Rules: An Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We looked at the effects of teaching 7- and 8-year-old children morphological and phonological distinctions. Some of those given morphological training and some of those given phonological training were also taught how to represent these distinctions in writing. All 4 intervention groups did better than the control group in a standardized test of…

Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Olsson, Jenny

2003-01-01

313

The Selective Impairment of Phonological Processing in Speech Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the naming performance of a patient (DM) with a fluent progressive aphasia who made phonological errors in all language production tasks. The pattern of errors in naming was strikingly clear: DM made very many phonological errors that resulted almost always in nonword responses. The complete absence of semantic errors and the very low ratio of formal errors relative

Alfonso Caramazza; Costanza Papagno; Wheeler Ruml

2000-01-01

314

Hyphenation can improve reading in acquired phonological dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We describe JD, a person with severe phonological dyslexia. JD is good at reading words yet is extremely poor at reading nonwords. She shows no effect of word regularity on her reading performance. However, she has only a very mild general phonological deficit. Although it is known that teaching grapheme–phoneme correspondence rules and learning bigraph syllables can improve dyslexic

Trevor A. Harley; David A. OMara

2006-01-01

315

Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia—a developmental analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper presents data from seven developmental dyslexics who exhibit the profile of abilities which can be described as “phonological” dyslexia. Three of the cases, all children, were of low reading age; four cases, one of which was an adult, had reading ages above ten years. Tests of reading, spelling and auditory processing revealed a range of phonological deficits

Maggie Snowling; Joy Stackhouse; John Rack

1986-01-01

316

Speech Perception Deficits by Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…

Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang

2009-01-01

317

Phonological and Surface Subtypes among University Students with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological

Wolff, Ulrika

2009-01-01

318

Disfluency Patterns and Phonological Skills Near Stuttering Onset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are…

Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

2012-01-01

319

THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE*  

E-print Network

THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE* SÃ?NIA FROTA1 , MARIAPAOLA D, 5 Universidade do Minho Abstract This paper examines the phonetics and phonology of intonational rise (H) and sustained pitch (!H). A detailed analysis of the phonetics of the H boundary tone, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Assessment of Phonological Awareness in Low-Progress Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of phonological awareness (PA) can serve several purposes, including providing a useful diagnostic function in the management of low-progress readers. This paper discusses various aspects of phonological awareness that have implications for literacy teaching at three different points in children's school career: the point of school…

Neilson, Roslyn

2009-01-01

321

Quantifying Phonological Representation Abilities in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed three important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

Anthony, Jason L.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Solari, Emily J.; Dunkelberger, Martha J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Liang, Lan

2011-01-01

322

Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

2012-01-01

323

Semantic and Phonological Activation in First and Second Language Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No consensus has been reached on whether phonological information is activated in reading Chinese. Further, semantic activation has not been well-studied in the context of orthographic depth. To contribute to these issues, this dissertation investigated semantic and phonological activation in reading Chinese and English. This dissertation also…

Cheng, Hui-Wen

2012-01-01

324

On Rejecting Emotional Lures Created by Phonological Neighborhood Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors conducted 2 experiments to assess how phonologically related lures are rejected in a false memory paradigm. Some phonological lures were emotional (i.e., taboo) words, and others were not. The authors manipulated the presence of taboo items on the study list and reduced the ability to use controlled rejection strategies by dividing…

Starns, Jeffrey J.; Cook, Gabriel I.; Hicks, Jason L.; Marsh, Richard L.

2006-01-01

325

Delivering Phonological and Phonics Training within Whole-Class Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Early, intensive phonological awareness and phonics training is widely held to be beneficial for children with poor phonological awareness. However, most studies have delivered this training separately from children's normal whole-class reading lessons. Aims: We examined whether integrating this training into whole class, mixed-ability…

Shapiro, Laura R.; Solity, Jonathan

2008-01-01

326

Phonological and Orthographic Cues in Reading Disabled Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Besides phonological information, printed words also contain visual, semantic, orthographic and often also syntactic cues. Skilled readers have acquired the command of this variety of cues incidentally, as a consequence of language development. Two naming task experiments assessed the effect of congruent versus incongruent phonological or…

Assink, Egbert; Kattenberg, Goran

327

The Effect of Phonological Neighborhood Density on Vowel Articulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent literature suggests that phonological neighborhood density and word frequency can affect speech production, in addition to the well-documented effects that they have on speech perception. This article describes 2 experiments that examined how phonological neighborhood density influences the durations and formant frequencies of adults'…

Munson, Benjamin; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

2004-01-01

328

The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process, but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic, and phonological abilities. The present article reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of…

Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

2011-01-01

329

The relationship between motor control and phonology in dyslexic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the automaticity\\/cerebellar theory of dyslexia. We tested phonological skills and cerebellar function in a group of dyslexic 8-12 year old children and their matched controls. Tests administered included the Phonological Assessment Battery, postural stability, bead threading, finger to thumb and time estimation. Results: Dyslexic children were found to be significantly poorer

Franck Ramus; Elizabeth Pidgeon; Uta Frith

2003-01-01

330

Detection of phonological features in continuous speech using neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report work on the first component of a two stage speech recognition architecture based on phonological features rather than phones. The paper reports experiments on three phonological feature systems: 1) the Sound Pattern of English (SPE) system which uses binary features, 2) a multi valued (MV) feature system which uses tradi- tional phonetic categories such as manner, place etc,

Simon King; Paul Taylor

2000-01-01

331

Phonological Similarity, Markedness, and Rate of L2 Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the interrelationship of several factors--phonological similarity between L1 and L2, transfer, and markedness as they relate to the acquisition of two English vowel phonemes by native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Phonetic and phonological similarity between L1 and L2 appear to be important factors. (LMO)

Major, Roy C.

1987-01-01

332

Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Acquisition: The CSLU Vocabulary Tutor in Oral-Deaf Education.  

PubMed

Deficits in vocabulary have a negative impact on literacy and interpersonal interaction for deaf children. As part of an evaluation, an outcomes assessment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a computer-based vocabulary tutor in an elementary auditory/oral program. Participants were 19 children, 16 profoundly deaf and 3 hearing. The vocabulary tutor displays line drawings or photographs of the words to be learned while a computer-generated avatar of a "talking head" provides synthesized audiovisual speech driven from text. The computer system also generates printed words corresponding to the imaged items. Through audiovisual reception, children memorized up to 218 new words for everyday household items. After 4 weeks, their receptive vocabulary was tested, using the avatar to speak the name of each item. Most of the students retained more than half of the new words. The freely available vocabulary tutor, whose characteristics can be tailored to individual need, can provide a language-intensive, independent learning environment to supplement classroom teaching in content areas. PMID:15448067

Barker, Lecia J.

2003-01-01

333

Morphological awareness: Just “more phonological”? The roles of morphological and phonological awareness in reading development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the morphophonemic nature of the English orthography, surprisingly few studies have examined the roles of morphological and phonological awareness in reading. This 4-year longitudinal study (Grades 2-5) compared these two factors in three aspects of reading development: pseudoword reading, reading comprehension, and single word reading. Morphological awareness contributed significantly to pseudoword reading and reading comprehension, after controlling prior measures

S. HÉLÈNE DEACON; JOHN R. KIRBY

2004-01-01

334

Effects of Onset Density in Preschool Children: Implications for Development of Phonological Awareness and Phonological Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neighborhood density influences adult performance on several word processing tasks. Some studies show age-related effects of density on children's performance, reflecting a developmental restructuring of the mental lexicon from holistic into segmental representations that may play a role in phonological awareness. To further investigate density…

Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia A.

2009-01-01

335

Reading and Phonological Skills in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome.  

PubMed

Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in standardized assessments of reading and phonological skills. Phonological skills were impaired in FXS, while reading was on-par with that of controls. Phonological awareness predicted reading ability and ASD severity predicted poorer phonological abilities in FXS. Boys with FXS are capable of attaining reading skills that are commensurate with developmental level and phonological awareness skills may play a critical role in reading achievement in FXS. PMID:25448919

Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W; Mirrett, Penny L; Hatton, Deborah D; Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Jane E; Bailey, Donald B

2014-12-01

336

Risk Factors for Low Receptive Vocabulary Abilities in the Preschool and Early School Years in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children  

PubMed Central

Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4–8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4–8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well-fitted multivariate model featuring risks of substantive magnitude does not do particularly well in predicting low receptive vocabulary ability from 4–8 years. PMID:24988308

Christensen, Daniel; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L.

2014-01-01

337

The role of phonological awareness in mediating between reading and listening to speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that phonological awareness correlates with children's reading aloud and also adults' literacy experience. More recent research has further suggested that phonological awareness is associated with the processing of spoken language, which is a correlate of reading comprehension. In this paper, I argue that phonological awareness, reading, and spoken language are intercorrelated because phonological awareness mediates between

Him Cheung

2007-01-01

338

From Sound to Syntax: Phonological Constraints on Children's Lexical Categorization of New Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined the role of phonological cues in the lexical categorization of new words when children could also rely on learning by exclusion and whether the role of phonology depends on extensive experience with a language. Phonological cues were assessed via phonological typicality--an aggregate measure of the relationship between the…

Fitneva, Stanka A.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Monaghan, Padraic

2009-01-01

339

The Structure of Phonological Processing and Its Relationship to Basic Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated various structural models of phonological processing and the relationship of phonological processing abilities to basic reading. Data were collected on 116 kindergarten and first grade students. The specific ability model, which included phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming as separate…

Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will; Denis, Daniel

2012-01-01

340

Phonological Processing and Emergent Literacy in Spanish-speaking Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness (PA), phonological memory (PM), and phonological access to lexical storage (also known as RAN), play important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological processing abilities (PPAs) in 147 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children whose native language was…

Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M., McDonald, Renee; Corbitt-Shindler, Deborah , Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.

2006-01-01

341

Phonological Processing and Emergent Literacy in Younger and Older Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness, phonological memory, and phonological access to lexical storage play important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological processing abilities (PPA) in 389 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of each…

Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; McDonald, Renee; Francis, David J.

2007-01-01

342

The Word Complexity Measure: Description and Application to Developmental Phonology and Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miccio's work included a number of articles on the assessment of phonology in children with phonological disorders, typically using measures of correct articulation, using the PCC, or analyses of errors, using the framework of phonological processes. This paper introduces an approach to assessing phonology by examining the phonetic complexity of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2010-01-01

343

The Effects of Embedded Phonological Awareness Training on the Reading and Spelling Skills of Kindergarten Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness is the ability to attend to and recognize the sound structure of a language. This skill is known to be important for learning to spell and read and a lack of phonological awareness skills is linked with reading difficulties. Previous research has shown phonological awareness training improves phonological awareness skills,…

Robinson, Sarah

2010-01-01

344

Phonological Segmentation Assessment Is Not Enough: A Comparison of Three Phonological Awareness Tests with First and Second Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite extensive research on phonological awareness and reading, there has been little effort to study practical questions that would assist practitioners regarding the choice and interpretation of the phonological awareness tests available to them. This study examined the relationship between decoding (real and pseudowords) and three…

Kilpatrick, David A.

2012-01-01

345

The Effects of an Adapted Interactive Writing Intervention on Kindergarten Children's Phonological Awareness, Spelling, and Early Reading Development: A Contextualized Approach to Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a pretest-posttest comparison-group design, this 16-week study investigated the effects of 2 instructional approaches on the phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and early reading of kindergarten children. The primary goal was to compare a form of contextualized instruction based on an adapted interactive writing program with a…

Craig, Sharon A.

2006-01-01

346

Science Sampler: Using direct instruction to teach content vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The magnitude of vocabulary students need to know in the middle school science curriculum is vast and can be daunting. As educators, it is our job to efficiently and effectively teach students so that they are not only able to apply the new vocabulary to that year's curriculum, but to store it in their memory for future use in high school and college. This article describes a direct instruction approach to teaching vocabulary that provides students with the ability to interact with the vocabulary verbally, visually, spatially, and intrapersonally.

Dougherty, Laura A.; Leno, Lisa C.

2007-09-01

347

The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to the marine environmental sciences domain since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for • metadata mark-up with verifiable content • populating dynamic drop down lists • semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata • so-called smart search • and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium Web Processing Services in projects including: the NERC Data Grid; SeaDataNet; Geo-Seas; and the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model and following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes in this standard. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". The latest version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: • the removal of the potential for multiple Uniform Resource Names for the same concept to ensure consistent identification of concepts • the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content • the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS • the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base • a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier • and support for multiple human languages to increase the user base of the NVS Version 2 of the NVS underpins the semantic layer for the Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR) project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. Here we present the results of upgrading the NVS from version 1 to 2 and show applications which have been built on top of the NVS using its Application Programming Interface, including a demonstration version of a SPARQL interface.

Leadbetter, A.; Lowry, R.; Clements, O.

2012-04-01

348

Orthography facilitates vocabulary learning for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)  

E-print Network

Orthography facilitates vocabulary learning for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD Orthography facilitates vocabulary learning for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) Total word count (ASD) can use orthography to facilitate vocabulary learning, as is the case for typically developing

Royal Holloway, University of London

349

Phonological Codes as Early Sources of Constraint in Chinese Word Identification: A Review of Current Discoveries and Theoretical Accounts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers specific aspects of phonological and orthographic processing in Chinese that may differ from those in English. Emphasizes that early phonological processes and phonological mediation are two different questions in the identification-with-phonology hypothesis. Shows that "mediation" and "prelexical phonology," two very important concepts…

Perfetti, Charles A.; Tan, Li-Hai

1998-01-01

350

Phonological Recoding in Error Detection: A Cross-sectional Study in Beginning Readers of Dutch  

PubMed Central

The present cross-sectional study investigated the development of phonological recoding in beginning readers of Dutch, using a proofreading task with pseudohomophones and control misspellings. In Experiment 1, children in grades 1 to 3 rejected fewer pseudohomophones (e.g., wein, sounding like wijn ‘wine’) as spelling errors than control misspellings (e.g., wijg). The size of this pseudohomophone effect was larger in grade 1 than in grade 2 and did not differ between grades 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, we replicated the pseudohomophone effect in beginning readers and we tested how orthographic knowledge may modulate this effect. Children in grades 2 to 4 again detected fewer pseudohomophones than control misspellings and this effect decreased between grades 2 and 3 and between grades 3 and 4. The magnitude of the pseudohomophone effect was modulated by the development of orthographic knowledge: its magnitude decreased much more between grades 2 and 3 for more advanced spellers, than for less advanced spellers. The persistence of the pseudohomophone effect across all grades illustrates the importance of phonological recoding in Dutch readers. At the same time, the decreasing pseudohomophone effect across grades indicates the increasing influence of orthographic knowledge as reading develops. PMID:24386453

Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

2013-01-01

351

Cerebellar-parietal connections underpin phonological storage.  

PubMed

Previous research has accumulated convincing evidence to show that the human cerebellum contributes to the short-term storage of verbal information, but its specific role in brain networks involved in phonological storage remains uncertain. In a randomized, crossover and sham-controlled design, we here combined transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), applied to the right cerebellum, with fMRI to investigate systematically the contribution of the human cerebellum to encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of verbal information. After anodal, but not cathodal, tDCS, we found a reduced item recognition capacity together with an attenuated neural signal from the right cerebellar lobule VIIb, specifically during the late encoding phase. Within this phase, tDCS furthermore affected task-associated functional connections between right cerebellar lobule VIIb and the posterior parietal cortex. These findings suggest that the right cerebellar lobule VIIb interacts with the posterior parietal cortex, specifically during the late stages of verbal encoding, when verbal information enters phonological storage. PMID:24695720

Macher, Katja; Böhringer, Andreas; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

2014-04-01

352

Hispanic Families' Perspectives on Using a Bilingual Vocabulary Kit to Enhance Their Prekindergarten Children's Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine Hispanic families' perspectives on using a prepared kit to enhance their preschoolers' vocabulary development at home. Families enrolled in a public prekindergarten program were provided with a bilingual (English/Spanish) home literacy kit that included ways in which to engage their children in activities…

Query, Rebecca Robinson; Ceglowski, Deborah; Clark, Patricia; Li, Yongmei

2011-01-01

353

Learning to read as the formation of a dynamic system: evidence for dynamic stability in phonological recoding  

PubMed Central

Two aspects of dynamic systems approaches that are pertinent to developmental models of reading are the emergence of a system with self-organizing characteristics, and its evolution over time to a stable state that is not easily modified or perturbed. The effects of dynamic stability may be seen in the differences obtained in the processing of print by beginner readers taught by different approaches to reading (phonics and text-centered), and more long-term effects on adults, consistent with these differences. However, there is little direct evidence collected over time for the same participants. In this study, lexicalized (implicit) phonological processing, and explicit phonological and letter-sound skills are further examined in a precocious reader whose early development at 3 and 5 years has been extensively described (Cognition, 2000, 2004). At ages 10 and 14 years, comparisons were made with these earlier reports and skilled adult readers, using the same tasks for evidence of changes in reading processes. The results showed that along with an increase of reading accuracy and speed, her pattern of lexicalized phonological responses for reading did not change over time. Neither did her pattern of explicit phonological and letter-sound skills, aspects of which were inferior to her lexicalized phonological processing, and word reading. These results suggest dynamic stability of the word reading system. The early emergence of this system with minimal explicit skill development calls into question developmental reading theories that require such skills for learning to read. Currently, only the Knowledge Sources theory of reading acquisition can account for such findings. Consideration of these aspects of dynamic systems raise theoretical issues that could result in a paradigm shift with regard to best practice and intervention. PMID:25071635

Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.

2014-01-01

354

Vocabulary Is an Appropriate Measure of Premorbid Intelligence in a Sample with Heterogeneous Educational Level in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Crystallized intelligence refers to one's knowledge base and can be measured by vocabulary tests. Fluid intelligence is related to nonverbal aspects of intelligence, depends very little on previously acquired knowledge, and can be measured by tests such as Block Design (BD) and Raven Colored Matrices (RCM). Premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) refers to one's intellectual ability level previous to the onset of disorders like mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it is important to estimate disease severity. The objective was to compare performance in tests that measure crystallized and fluid intelligence in healthy subjects and patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD. One hundred forty-four participants (aMCI (n = 38), AD (n = 45), and healthy controls (n = 61)) were submitted to neuropsychological tests (WAIS-III vocabulary, BD, and RCM). There were significant among groups, except for vocabulary, indicating a relative stability of crystallized intelligence in the continuum from normal to pathological cognitive decline. Vocabulary seems to be stable during the progression of the disease and useful as a measure of premorbid intelligence, that is, to estimate previous function in relation to the level of education and, as a collateral measure of cognition in people with low education. PMID:24803737

de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Nitrini, Ricardo; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

2014-01-01

355

Ontology-Assisted Analysis of Web Queries to Determine the Knowledge Radiologists Seek  

E-print Network

Ontology-Assisted Analysis of Web Queries to Determine the Knowledge Radiologists Seek Daniel L: Ontologies, terminologies, vocabularies, RadLex, software tools, controlled vocabulary, natural language this question. Computer analysis of query logs could be an approach to this problem; however, com- puter

Rubin, Daniel L.

356

Towards a Reconceptualisation of "Word" for High Frequency Word Generation in Word Knowledge Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper derives from a PhD study investigating the nexus between Grade 4 textbook vocabulary demands and Grade 3 isiXhosa-speaking learners' knowledge of that vocabulary to enable them to read to learn in Grade 4. The paper challenges the efficacy of the four current definitions of "word" for generating high frequency…

Sibanda, Jabulani; Baxen, Jean

2014-01-01

357

Transformation of Traditional Vocabulary Exercises into Collaborative Writing Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the reading course, especially the so-called intensive reading course or integrative English reading course, there are some vocabulary exercises which intend to consolidate the active vocabulary emerging in the reading passages. Mostly, these exercises are in the form of blank-filling or rewriting sentences with the words given. The problem…

Zheng, Jian-feng

2010-01-01

358

French Vocabulary in "Encore Tricolore": Do Pupils Have a Chance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

British learners acquire very little vocabulary in their foreign languages, compared to pupils elsewhere in Europe, particularly learners of English as a foreign language. Could the materials used for teaching help explain this difference? An analysis of the vocabulary loading of a textbook for French as a foreign language commonly used in…

Tschichold, Cornelia

2012-01-01

359

A Context-Based Strategy for Teaching Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in Deanna L. Nelson's high school classroom study vocabulary gradually over a period of time. Students begin by collecting words from readings and listing them on a designated whiteboard. They prepare practice quizzes to exchange with peers and engage in frequent vocabulary discussions that emphasize recognition of context clues and other…

Nelson, Deanna L.

2008-01-01

360

Shyness, Vocabulary and Children's Reticence in Saudi Arabian Preschools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…

Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma

2009-01-01

361

Impacts of Vocabulary Acquisition Techniques Instruction on Students' Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study were to determine how the selected vocabulary acquisition techniques affected the vocabulary ability of 35 students who took EN 111 and investigate their attitudes towards the techniques instruction. The research study was one-group pretest and post-test design. The instruments employed were in-class exercises…

Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

2011-01-01

362

Service Learning: Flooding Students with Vocabulary through Read Alouds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spirit of the Steven Stahl 600 Book Kid Challenge, 90 preservice teachers engaged children in 36 read-aloud sessions for a vocabulary improvement service learning project. This article describes how the preservice teachers used narrative and informational books as a vehicle for rare-word vocabulary exposure for children ages 8-12.

Holmes, Kerry; Thompson, Judith

2014-01-01

363

Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

2013-01-01

364

A Study: The Relationship of Personality Type to Vocabulary Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the hypothesis that aspects of one's personality are associated with expansion of his or her vocabulary, a study focused on thirteen students of various ages who constituted a vocabulary development class. Students were taught techniques for discovering meaning through context or extracting meaning through word structure. Considerable time…

Covner, Thelma Crockin

365

The Effect of Vocabulary on Introductory Microbiology Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English, a process referred to as Anglicization, on student learning in the context of introductory microbiology instruction. Data from Anglicized and Classical-vocabulary lab sections were collected. Data included exam scores as well as pre and…

Richter, Emily

2011-01-01

366

Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

2011-01-01

367

Motivate Students to Engage in Word Study Using Vocabulary Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary instruction across the content areas aids reading comprehension, making it time well spent in the classroom. Although students with learning disabilities (LD) need many practice opportunities to learn new words, engaging them in vocabulary instruction may prove challenging. Due to their past difficulties in acquiring reading skills,…

Wells, Jenny C.; Narkon, Drue E.

2011-01-01

368

Successful Techniques of Vocabulary. ERIC Topical Bibliography and Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each teacher has a style of teaching that provides the most effective way to help students grasp the desired learning concepts. One point teachers agree on is that teaching vocabulary to children needs to be an active process that engages students in entertaining activities and helps them build a bridge between already known vocabulary and the new…

Smith, Carl B., Ed.

369

Effects of Mathematical Vocabulary Instruction on Fourth Grade Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the effects of two models of vocabulary instruction: (1) the integrated graphic organizer/discussion model; and (2) the definition-only model on the mathematical vocabulary use of fourth grade students. The integrated model combines a modified Concept of Definition (CD) graphic organizer with the Frayer discussion model. The…

Monroe, Eula Ewing; Pendergrass, Michelle R.

370

Developing Productive Vocabulary Using the "Ask and Answer" Technique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "ask and answer" speaking technique, designed as a follow-up to reading, aims to capitalize on opportunities for incidental vocabulary learning. This article describes the technique and examines the vocabulary use of a group of young English-as-a-Second-Language learners engaged in "ask and answer" tasks. Suggestions for teachers are offered.…

Simcock, Moina

1993-01-01

371

Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition in French as a Foreign Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Third semester college students of French viewed part of a film, read part, and then were given a surprise vocabulary test with colloquial words from the text. Their performance, compared to a control group, suggests that incidental vocabulary acquisition is possible in a foreign language situation. The test is appended. (Contains eight…

Dupuy, Beatrice; Krashen, Stephen D.

1993-01-01

372

Students' Approaches to Vocabulary Learning and Their Relationship to Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' approaches to vocabulary learning were surveyed in two distinct learning environments: one in which English was studied as a second language (ESL), and another where it was a foreign language (EFL). A questionnaire was administered to 47 ESL and 43 EFL students about their vocabulary-learning activities. Cluster analysis identified eight…

Kojic-Sabo, Izabella; Lightbown, Patsy M.

1999-01-01

373

VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…

KRIPPNER, STANLEY

374

Vocabulary as an index of learning in a second language  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two forms of a French vocabulary test, Dictionary Forms A and B, were compiled by systematic selections of words representative of the kinds and proportions of all words in Heath's French and English Dictionary. From the scores, estimates of total French vocabulary can be made. Items are arranged in the order of increasing difficulty, so that a level of ability

Einar R. Ryden

1948-01-01

375

Early Vocabularies and Dictionary Development: A Cautionary Note.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early vocabularies of a language can help indigenous communities retrieve lost or forgotten vocabulary. Currently, there are very few fluent speakers of Tuscarora. As in other native communities, efforts are underway to reverse the decline in native language usage. One advantage the Tuscaroras have is that, since 1700, numerous researchers have…

Rudes, Blair A.

376

Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different grades. The results showed significant progress on…

Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; Vermeer, Anne

2011-01-01

377

Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Young English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined whether English-only vocabulary instruction or English vocabulary instruction enhanced with Spanish bridging produced greater word learning in young Spanish-speaking children learning English during a storybook reading intervention while considering individual language characteristics. Method: Twenty-two…

Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.; Jackson, Carla Wood; Goldstein, Howard

2010-01-01

378

The Word on Vocabulary Instruction: Understanding the Kindergarten Teacher's Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates the importance of vocabulary development in kindergarten. The purpose of this qualitative case study design was to explore and describe how kindergarten teachers in 1 Midwestern U.S. suburban school district perceive and value the task of teaching vocabulary. The results were based on data collected from 2 focus…

Hall, Cherise E. I.

2010-01-01

379

Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals  

PubMed Central

This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals’ expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task. PMID:24761135

Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

2014-01-01

380

Controlled Vocabularies, Mini Ontologies and Interoperability (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interoperability has been an elusive goal, but in recent years advances have been made using controlled vocabularies, mini-ontologies and a lot of collaboration. This has led to increased interoperability between disciplines in the U.S. and between international projects. We discuss the successful pattern followed by SPASE, IVOA and IPDA to achieve this new level of international interoperability. A key aspect of the pattern is open standards and open participation with interoperability achieved with shared services, public APIs, standard formats and open access to data. Many of these standards are expressed as controlled vocabularies and mini ontologies. To illustrate the pattern we look at SPASE related efforts and participation of North America's Heliophysics Data Environment and CDPP; Europe's Cluster Active Archive, IMPEx, EuroPlanet, ESPAS and HELIO; and Japan's magnetospheric missions. Each participating project has its own life cycle and successful standards development must always take this into account. A major challenge for sustained collaboration and interoperability is the limited lifespan of many of the participating projects. Innovative approaches and new tools and frameworks are often developed as competitively selected, limited term projects, but for sustainable interoperability successful approaches need to become part of a long term infrastructure. This is being encouraged and achieved in many domains and we are entering a golden age of interoperability.

King, T. A.; Walker, R. J.; Roberts, D.; Thieman, J.; Ritschel, B.; Cecconi, B.; Genot, V. N.

2013-12-01

381

Does "reading" develop "phonological awareness" in Down's syndrome?  

E-print Network

casual relationship for alphabetic scripts. Results discussed in this paper do not support this view as far as reading ability and phonological awareness go in Down's syndrome. The present study compared a sample of children with Down's syndrome (N=10...

Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

2007-01-01

382

Learning General Phonological Rules From Distributional Information: A Computational Model.  

PubMed

Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony (Peperkamp, Le Calvez, Nadal, & Dupoux, 2006). This paper extends the model to account for learning of a broader set of phonological alternations and the formalization of these alternations as general rules. In Experiment 1, we apply the original model to new data in Dutch and demonstrate its limitations in learning nonallophonic rules. In Experiment 2, we extend the model to allow it to learn general rules for alternations that apply to a class of segments. In Experiment 3, the model is further extended to allow for generalization by context; we argue that this generalization must be constrained by linguistic principles. PMID:25227261

Calamaro, Shira; Jarosz, Gaja

2014-09-16

383

INCORPORATING EXPERT TERMINOLOGY AND DISEASE RISK FACTORS INTO CONSUMER HEALTH VOCABULARIES  

PubMed Central

It is well-known that the general health information seeking lay-person, regardless of his/her education, cultural background, and economic status, is not as familiar with—or comfortable using—the technical terms commonly used by healthcare professionals. One of the primary reasons for this is due to the differences in perspectives and understanding of the vocabulary used by patients and providers even when referring to the same health concept. To bridge this “knowledge gap,” consumer health vocabularies are presented as a solution. In this study, we introduce the Mayo Consumer Health Vocabulary (MCV)—a taxonomy of approximately 5,000 consumer health terms and concepts—and develop text-mining techniques to expand its coverage by integrating disease concepts (from UMLS) as well as non-genetic (from deCODEme) and genetic (from GeneWiki+ and PharmGKB) risk factors to diseases. These steps led to adding at least one synonym for 97% of MCV concepts with an average of 43 consumer friendly terms per concept. We were also able to associate risk factors to 38 common diseases, as well as establish 5,361 Disease:Gene pairings. The expanded MCV provides a robust resource for facilitating online health information searching and retrieval as well as building consumer-oriented healthcare applications. PMID:23424146

Seedor, Michael; Peterson, Kevin J.; Nelsen, Laurie A.; Cocos, Cristian; McCormick, Jennifer B.; Chute, Christopher G.; Pathak, Jyotishman

2013-01-01

384

The Exploring Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition and Common Main Gaps in the Current Studies of Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary can be a key factor for success, central to a language, and paramount to a language learner. In such situation, the lexicon may be the most important component for learners (Grass and Selinker, 1994), and mastering of vocabulary is an essential component of second/foreign language teaching and learning that has been repeatedly…

Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

2012-01-01

385

Vocabulary Acquisition in Children with Typically Developing Language and Low Language Skills: Comparing Embedded and Explicit Vocabulary Instructional Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who enter kindergarten with low oral language skills are at great risk for reading problems, especially in the areas of vocabulary and comprehension. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional vocabulary methods of storybook reading with children who exhibit typically developing language skills and…

Capellini, Cara S.

2010-01-01

386

A Matter of Vocabulary II: Low-Income African American Children's Performance on the Expressive Vocabulary Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Expressive Vocabulary Test" (EVT) has recently been found culturally fair for an economically mixed sample of African American children, and others have argued that it is fairer for such participants than the "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III" (PPVT-III). In this study, the authors sought to replicate these findings with an exclusively…

McCabe, Allyssa; Champion, Tempii B.

2010-01-01

387

Realising Personalised Vocabulary Learning in the Hong Kong Context via a Personalised Curriculum Featuring "Student-Selected Vocabulary"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a personalised instructional strategy, "student-selected vocabulary," to facilitate secondary school students' vocabulary building. It then reports how this personalised instructional strategy was implemented and evaluated through a teacher-led intervention study of 57 low-achieving Hong Kong secondary school…

Choi, Mui Lan; Ma, Qing

2015-01-01

388

Receptive Vocabulary, Expressive Vocabulary, and Speech Production of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boys with fragile X syndrome with (n = 49) and without (n = 33) characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (39), and typically developing boys (n = 41) were compared on standardized measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech administered annually over 4 years. Three major findings emerged. Boys…

Roberts, Joanne; Price, Johanna; Barnes, Elizabeth; Nelson, Lauren; Burchinal, Margaret; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Edwards, Anne; Malkin, Cheryl; Anderson, Kathleen; Misenheimer, Jan; Hooper, Stephen R.

2007-01-01

389

A multidimensional view of gradient change in velar acquisition in three-year-olds receiving phonological treatment.  

PubMed

The acquisition of phonemes does not occur in an "all or nothing" manner; instead, children gradually acquire dimensions of phonological knowledge. This gradual acquisition of phonemes is explored in the present study by comparing three types of measures taken from speech samples of three preschool-aged girls with a Speech Sound Disorder. The process of acquisition of velar stops was measured during 16 weeks of Cycles based speech treatment. Three types of measures were used to study the gradual acquisition of velar stops: acoustic analyses using voice onset time (VOT) for initial consonants and vowel duration for final consonants, speech adaptability using the Glaspey Dynamic Assessment of Phonology, and phonetic accuracy based on phonetic transcription. The children were assessed prior-to, after 8, and after 16 sessions of treatment based on a modified Cycles approach. At the onset of the study, the children had begun the process of acquiring velar stops. Differences on acoustic measures and speech adaptability measures were observed for velars that were not reflected in the phonetic transcription. The acoustic analyses and the speech adaptability measures were more sensitive and incremental in showing change over time when compared to phonetic transcription, with fewer ceiling and floor effects across the children. Although the individual profiles of gradient change were not simple, the acoustic and adaptability measures provided additional information regarding gradient change, and support our argument that a necessary approach is one that describes multiple dimensions of a child's phonological knowledge. PMID:24588471

MacLeod, Andrea A N; Glaspey, Amy M

2014-09-01

390

Language Deficits in Dyslexic Children: Speech Perception, Phonology, and Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between dyslexia and three aspects of language: speech perception, phonology, and morphology. Reading and language tasks were administered to dyslexics aged 8–9 years and to two normal reader groups (age-matched and reading-level matched). Three dyslexic groups were identified: phonological dyslexics (PD), developmentally language impaired (LI), and globally delayed (delay-type dyslexics). The LI and PD groups exhibited

Marc F. Joanisse; Franklin R. Manis; Patricia Keating; Mark S. Seidenberg

2000-01-01

391

Phonological awareness for american sign language.  

PubMed

This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers exposed to ASL from infancy perform better than deaf signers exposed to ASL later in life and that this relationship remains even after controlling for the number of years of experience with a signed language. For a subset of participants, we examine the relationship between PA for ASL and performance on a PA test of English and report a positive correlation between ASL PA and English PA in native signers. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to the development of reading skills in deaf children. PMID:25149961

Corina, David P; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

2014-10-01

392

Developmental dyslexia and phonological processing in European portuguese orthography.  

PubMed

This study analysed the performance of phonological processing, the diagnostic accuracy and the influence on reading in children who were native speakers of an orthography of intermediate depth. Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia (DD; N?=?24; aged 10-12?years), chronological age (CA)-matched controls (N?=?24; aged 10-12?years) and reading level (RL)-matched controls (N?=?24; aged 7-9?years) were tested on measures of phonological processing (phonological awareness, naming speed and verbal short-term memory) and reading. The results indicated that the children with DD performed significantly poorer in all measures compared with the CA and RL. Phonological awareness and naming speed showed a high accuracy (receiver operating characteristics curve analysis) for discriminating the children with DD from the CA and RL, whereas the presence of abnormally low scores in phonological awareness and naming speed was more frequent in the DD group than in the controls and the normative population. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that phonological awareness was the most important predictor of all reading accuracy measures, whereas naming speed was particularly related to text reading fluency. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25530196

Moura, Octávio; Moreno, Joana; Pereira, Marcelino; Simões, Mário R

2015-02-01

393

Second language phonology influences first language word naming.  

PubMed

The Masked Onset Priming Effect (MOPE) has been reported in speakers' first languages (L1). The aims of the present study are to investigate whether second language (L2) phonology is active during L1 reading, and to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology in reading aloud. To this end, Dutch-English bilinguals read aloud L1 target words primed by L2 words, while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The onset of the primes was manipulated to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology (i.e. O+P+: kite - KUNST, 'art'; O+P-: knee - KUNST; O-P+: crime - KUNST; O-P-: mine - KUNST). Phonological but not orthographic overlap facilitated RTs. However, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed both orthographic and phonological priming starting 125 ms after target presentation. Taken together, we gained insights into the time course of cross-linguistic priming and demonstrated that L2 phonology is activated rapidly in an L1 environment. PMID:24735994

Timmer, Kalinka; Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Ceusters, Ilse; Schiller, Niels O

2014-06-01

394

Predicting ELL Students' Beginning First Grade English Oral Reading Fluency from Initial Kindergarten Vocabulary, Letter Naming, and Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The precursors of early English reading success have been widely studied for native English-speaking students, and those findings have been generalized to the English language learner (ELL) student population. However, the development of English language acquisition may be different for ELL students. The purpose of this study was to investigate…

Yesil-Dagli, Ummuhan

2011-01-01

395

Shyness and Chinese and English Vocabulary Skills in Hong Kong Kindergartners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: This study examined relations between parent-rated shyness and children's vocabulary skills in 54 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners who learned English as a foreign language at school. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary were assessed both in Chinese and in English. Parent-rated shyness was uniquely associated with children's receptive vocabulary skills in both English and Chinese even after parents' education

Xiuli Tong; Ka-Tsun Ting; Catherine McBride-Chang

2011-01-01

396

Teaching Vocabulary Awareness with "Observing Stars"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a reading strategy guide in a series of guides that utilizes articles from the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) program. These strategy guides provide teachers of middle school students with a reading strategy (in this case, Teaching Vocabulary Awareness) and supplemental resources, background information on that strategy, connections to standards, classroom implementation techniques, tips for utilizing this strategy with students with dyslexia, and a two-page reading based on a particular space science concept. The reading incorporated into this strategy guide, "Observing Stars," describes the process scientists use to observe and collect evidence about the life cycle of a star. Students will encounter the following challenging terms in this article: remnants, nebula, nebulae, supernova, and neutron star. This strategy guide is also mapped to the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts Literacy in Science & Technical Subjects, Grades 6-8.

2014-06-13

397

Student and Teacher Perceptions of a Mobile-Based Biology Vocabulary Study Tool for English Language Learners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

English language learners studying biology face a dual challenge of mastering both content and language. Teaching ELLs how to engage in scientific discourse using appropriate language to ask, answer, explain, and make predictions about science requires a foundational knowledge of content-specific vocabulary. This study used qualitative interviews with intermediate-level ELLs at an American high school to learn how a supplemental iPod-based vocabulary review tool influenced their perceptions of learning biology vocabulary outside of classroom hours. Interviews with their biology teacher were also used to complement student testimony from the point of view of an educational professional with ELL teaching experience. Past studies in the area of mobile learning have primarily employed questionnaires to gather feedback from participants. This research study adds greater participant voice to the body of literature that encompasses mobile language learning, second language acquisition, and science education by presenting nuanced opinions from both students and teachers. This dissertation concludes with a discussion on the influence that this study could have on further research in the fields of mobile learning, academic vocabulary, and student learning behaviors.

Cruz, Maria B.

398

The Relation between Exposure to Sophisticated and Complex Language and Early-Adolescent English-Only and Language Minority Learners' Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relation between teachers' (N = 22) use of sophisticated and complex language in urban middle-school classrooms and their students' (mean age at pretest = 11.51 years; N = 782; 568 language minority and 247 English only) vocabulary knowledge. Using videotaped classroom observations, teachers' speech was transcribed and…

Gamez, Perla B.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2012-01-01

399

Assessing Students' Acquisition of Basic Geographical Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the findings of a survey conducted to investigate students' knowledge of geography, such as an accurate understanding of the basic vocabulary and essential concepts associated with the representative geographic locations, described here as "spatial landmarks". The factors that influence their learning, and how their perceived…

Dal, Burckin

2008-01-01

400

Geoscientific Vocabularies and Linked Data at The British Geological Survey - progress and pragmatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The British Geological Survey makes extensive use of controlled vocabularies to promote standardisation and interoperability between its databases and other digital information systems. Many of our vocabularies are published and searchable at http://www.bgs.ac.uk/data/vocabularies/home.html/. There is a movement to ';open up' government data in both the US and UK. In the UK this is promoted by data.gov.uk. Some view linked data as the best way to share and connect disparate data, information and knowledge, in order to develop a ';Web of Data'. Linked data facilitate connections between data sets, and lower the barriers to accessing data that must otherwise be discovered and exploited using other methods. Recently there has been a rapid increase in the rate of publication of linked data, this increase currently being estimated at 300% per year. In the past 2 years we have undertaken a pilot study to publish some of our authoritative vocabularies as linked data. This study has focussed primarily on publishing BGS' 1:625 000 scale geologic map data for the UK, supported by development of linked data sets for: Earth materials - based on the BGS Rock Classification Scheme; lithostratigraphy - based on the BGS Lexicon of Named Rock Units; and geochronology - based on the International Commission on Stratigraphy. The BGS linked data sets are published at data.bgs.ac.uk. We have learned a number of lessons about the potential and limitations of linked data and associated technologies. We do not envisage SPARQL endpoints being the primary route for public access to linked data because the user would require technical knowledge of the data structure, and because it can be a security threat. Rather, SPARQL may lie behind a user-friendly API. Federated SPARQL queries that can interrogate distributed data sources are in reality too slow, and in practise the data sets would likely be combined in a single store. The data sets in our pilot study are all reasonably static and we solve performance and security issues by serving the linked data as pre-generated static files in a range of formats rather than using a triple-store. This also allows the data to be indexed by search engines. Wherever possible it is good practice to use predicates from well-known published sources, for example RDFS, SKOS, or Dublin Core, in preference to inventing new ones. This promotes re-use of the linked data by as many potential users as possible. Linked data do not directly address logical inference, which is supposed to be one of the aims of the ';Semantic Web'. This sort of ';calculating with knowledge' must be implemented using additional, possibly human-based rather than mechanical, reasoning. Linked data come with all the same issues surrounding provenance and authority of the data that any web resource is subject to. There are issues surrounding versioning and permanence of URIs. Our work on publishing BGS' vocabularies as linked data is proceeding in parallel with our work with the Commission of Geoscience Information (CGI) Geoscience Terminology Working Group which is jointly developing multilingual vocabularies in range of knowledge domains.

McCormick, T.; Heaven, R.

2013-12-01

401

Use of controlled vocabularies to improve biomedical information retrieval tasks.  

PubMed

The high heterogeneity of biomedical vocabulary is a major obstacle for information retrieval in large biomedical collections. Therefore, using biomedical controlled vocabularies is crucial for managing these contents. We investigate the impact of query expansion based on controlled vocabularies to improve the effectiveness of two search engines. Our strategy relies on the enrichment of users' queries with additional terms, directly derived from such vocabularies applied to infectious diseases and chemical patents. We observed that query expansion based on pathogen names resulted in improvements of the top-precision of our first search engine, while the normalization of diseases degraded the top-precision. The expansion of chemical entities, which was performed on the second search engine, positively affected the mean average precision. We have shown that query expansion of some types of biomedical entities has a great potential to improve search effectiveness; therefore a fine-tuning of query expansion strategies could help improving the performances of search engines. PMID:23920842

Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Vishnyakova, Dina; Ruch, Patrick; Lovis, Christian

2013-01-01

402

The Treatment of Technical Vocabulary in Textbooks of Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an analysis of six secondary level biology texts to determine how they dealt with terminology. Concluded that technical vocabulary would be used more effectively if synonyms were eliminated and terms were explained at first appearance. (MLH)

Evans, J. Daryll

1976-01-01

403

Vocabulary in Action: Strategies for Turning Students into Wordsmiths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school teacher Amy R. Hardwick-Ivey loves teaching vocabulary. She describes numerous activities that increase students' understanding of the nuances of language and their confidence in using language well.

Hardwick-Ivey, Amy R.

2008-01-01

404

Segregating Semantic from Phonological Processes during Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of previous functional neuroimaging studies have linked activation of the left inferior frontal gyms with semantic processing, yet damage to the frontal lobes does not critically impair semantic knowledge. This study distinguishes between semantic knowledge and the strategic processes required to make verbal decisions. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we identify the neural correlates of semantic knowledge by

C. J. Price; C. J. Moore; G. W. Humphreys; R. J. S. Wise

1997-01-01

405

Orthographically Influenced Abstract Phonological Representation: Evidence from Non-Rhotic Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is typically assumed that when orthography is translated silently into phonology (i.e., when reading silently), the phonological representation is equivalent to the spoken form or, at least, the surface phonemic form. The research presented here demonstrates that the phonological representation is likely to be more abstract than this, and is…

Taft, Marcus

2006-01-01

406

Phonological and Morphological Consistency in the Acquisition of Vowel Duration Spelling in Dutch and German  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Dutch, vowel duration spelling is phonologically consistent but morphologically inconsistent (e.g., "paar--paren"). In German, it is phonologically inconsistent but morphologically consistent (e.g., "Paar--Paare"). Contrasting the two orthographies allowed us to examine the role of phonological and morphological consistency in the acquisition…

Landerl, Karin; Reitsma, Pieter

2005-01-01

407

The Role of Phonological Representation in Decoding Skills of Young Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness reflects the strength of a child's ability to represent linguistic information cognitively at the phonological level. Although the role of phonological awareness in early reading decoding has been well documented, its relationship to other factors affecting reading decoding has yet to be fully examined. In this study, the…

Hester, E.; Hodson, B. W.

2004-01-01

408

Dynamics: the non-derivational alternative to modeling phonetics-phonology  

E-print Network

Dynamics: the non-derivational alternative to modeling phonetics-phonology Adamantios I. Gafos. Introduction The derivational view of phonetics-phonology (Ladd, this volume) expresses an intuition that seems of phonetics-phonology. Incomplete neutralization (Ernestus and Baayen, this volume) and other phenomena like

409

Edinburgh Research Explorer Vowel reduction in Russian: No phonetics in phonology  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Vowel reduction in Russian: No phonetics in phonology Citation for published version: Iosad, P 2012, 'Vowel reduction in Russian: No phonetics in phonology' Journal: © Cambridge University Press 2012. Iosad, P. Nov 2012, "Vowel reduction in Russian: No phonetics in phonology

Millar, Andrew J.

410

A Comparison between Word and Nonword Reading in Down Syndrome: The Role of Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine whether any observed relationship between phonological awareness and reading ability in Down syndrome reflects the typical use of a phonologically based approach to reading, 12 children and young adults with Down syndrome were assessed for reading and phonological awareness skills. They were compared to a control group of 14…

Roch, Maja; Jarrold, Christopher

2008-01-01

411

Phonology and Reading: A Response to Wang, Trezek, Luckner, and Paul  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four critical responses to an article, "The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing" (Wang, Trezek, Luckner, & Paul, 2008), are presented. Issue is taken with the conclusions of the article by Wang and colleagues regarding the "necessary" condition of phonological

Allen, Thomas E.; Clark, M. Diane; del Giudice, Alex; Koo, Daniel; Lieberman, Amy; Mayberry, Rachel; Millerd, Paul

2009-01-01

412

The Effect of Dialect Experience on Chinese Children's Mandarin Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most studies on bilingual phonological awareness suggested that children who were able to speak a second language performed better in phonological awareness tasks; some studies however found different results. This study revisited the issue by investigating the effect of Min dialect experience on Chinese children's Mandarin phonological

Chen, Sumei; Li, Rongbao; Li, Guangze; Wang, Youkun; Wu, Liqiong

2013-01-01

413

The Effects of Phonological Neighborhoods on Pronunciation Variation in Conversational Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates the effects of phonological neighborhoods on pronunciation variation in conversational speech. Phonological neighbors are defined as words that are different in one and only one phoneme by addition, deletion and substitution. Phonological neighborhood density refers to the number of neighbors a certain word has. …

Yao, Yao

2011-01-01

414

The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to marine environmental sciences since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for - metadata mark-up with verifiable content - populating dynamic drop down lists - semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata - so-called smart search - and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Services in the NERC Data Grid and the European Commission SeaDataNet, Geo-Seas, and European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) projects. The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". Following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes. This version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: - the removal of the potential for multiple identifiers for the same concept to ensure consistent addressing of concepts - the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content - the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS - the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base - a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier - and support for multiple human languages to increase the user base of the NVS Version 2 of the NVS (NVS2.0) underpins the semantic layer for the Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR) project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. Within NETMAR, NVS2.0 has been used for: - semantic validation of inputs to chained OGC Web Processing Services - smart discovery of data and services - integration of data from distributed nodes of the International Coastal Atlas Network Since its deployment, NVS2.0 has been adopted within the European SeaDataNet community's software products which has significantly increased the usage of the NVS2.0 Application Programming Interace (API), as illustrated in Table 1. Here we present the results of upgrading the NVS to version 2 and show applications which have been built on top of the NVS2.0 API, including a SPARQL endpoint and a hierarchical catalogue of oceanographic hardware.Table 1. NVS2.0 API usage by month from 467 unique IP addressest;

Leadbetter, A. M.; Lowry, R. K.

2012-12-01

415

Phonological typicality does not influence fixation durations in normal reading.  

PubMed

Using a word-by-word self-paced reading paradigm, T. A. Farmer, M. H. Christiansen, and P. Monaghan (2006) reported faster reading times for words that are phonologically typical for their syntactic category (i.e., noun or verb) than for words that are phonologically atypical. This result has been taken to suggest that language users are sensitive to subtle relationships between sound and syntactic function and that they make rapid use of this information in comprehension. The present article reports attempts to replicate this result using both eyetracking during normal reading (Experiment 1) and word-by-word self-paced reading (Experiment 2). No hint of a phonological typicality effect emerged on any reading-time measure in Experiment 1, nor did Experiment 2 replicate Farmer et al.'s finding from self-paced reading. Indeed, the differences between condition means were not consistently in the predicted direction, as phonologically atypical verbs were read more quickly than phonologically typical verbs, on most measures. Implications for research on visual word recognition are discussed. PMID:19379050

Staub, Adrian; Grant, Margaret; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith

2009-05-01

416

Towards a Repository of Common Programming Technologies Knowledge  

E-print Network

Towards a Repository of Common Programming Technologies Knowledge Daniel Ratiu, Martin Feilkas Repository Contains common sense, basic knowledge that is known by every programmer, e.g. Dialogs important GUI concepts? Defining a common technological vocabulary in projects Semantically rich IDE

Jurjens, Jan

417

Raspberry, not a car: context predictability and a phonological advantage in early and late learners’ processing of speech in noise  

PubMed Central

Second language learners perform worse than native speakers under adverse listening conditions, such as speech in noise (SPIN). No data are available on heritage language speakers’ (early naturalistic interrupted learners’) ability to perceive SPIN. The current study fills this gap and investigates the perception of Russian speech in multi-talker babble noise by the matched groups of high- and low-proficiency heritage speakers (HSs) and late second language learners of Russian who were native speakers of English. The study includes a control group of Russian native speakers. It manipulates the noise level (high and low), and context cloze probability (high and low). The results of the SPIN task are compared to the tasks testing the control of phonology, AXB discrimination and picture-word discrimination, and lexical knowledge, a word translation task, in the same participants. The increased phonological sensitivity of HSs interacted with their ability to rely on top–down processing in sentence integration, use contextual cues, and build expectancies in the high-noise/high-context condition in a bootstrapping fashion. HSs outperformed oral proficiency-matched late second language learners on SPIN task and two tests of phonological sensitivity. The outcomes of the SPIN experiment support both the early naturalistic advantage and the role of proficiency in HSs. HSs’ ability to take advantage of the high-predictability context in the high-noise condition was mitigated by their level of proficiency. Only high-proficiency HSs, but not any other non-native group, took advantage of the high-predictability context that became available with better phonological processing skills in high-noise. The study thus confirms high-proficiency (but not low-proficiency) HSs’ nativelike ability to combine bottom–up and top–down cues in processing SPIN. PMID:25566130

Gor, Kira

2014-01-01

418

The role of assembled phonology in reading comprehension.  

PubMed

The contribution of assembled phonology to phonological effects in reading comprehension was assessed. In Experiment 1, subjects judged the acceptability of sentences with regular, exception, and nonword homophone substitutions and orthographic controls. Significantly more errors occurred to sentences with regular-word homophones than to exception words, and error rates for nonword homophones were low and not significant. Experiment 2 showed that this was not due to differences in the sentence frames. In Experiment 3, the subjects judged as unacceptable those sentences containing an exception word that sounded correct when read according to spelling-to-sound rules. Significantly higher error rates occurred only for low-frequency exception words. Experiment 4 showed that task conditions affect semantic-categorization error rates for nonword homophones. These results indicate that both assembled and addressed phonology contribute to sentence and word comprehension, but the low error rate for nonwords suggests that an early lexical check may be applied. PMID:1895949

Coltheart, V; Avons, S E; Masterson, J; Laxon, V J

1991-07-01

419

The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural.  

PubMed

The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic and phonological abilities. The present paper reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of plural forms for both production and comprehension. In Experiments 1 and 2 plural productions were elicited from eighty two-year-old children for nouns with codas with varying phonological properties. The results provide evidence that production of the plural morpheme is partly governed by the complexity of the coda and its sonority. Experiments 3 and 4 show that these constraints on codas also hold for comprehension as well, suggesting this effect is not simply articulatory, but also impacts the morphophonology of the plural. PMID:22544999

Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

2011-09-01

420

Syllable and Letter Knowledge in Early Korean Hangul Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the development of Korean consonant-vowel (CV) syllable identification, consonant and vowel letter knowledge, and their relationships to phonological awareness and the reading of regular Hangul words among Korean kindergartners as a 6-month longitudinal study. Results showed that Korean children identified CV syllables better…

Cho, Jeung-Ryeul

2009-01-01

421

Orthographic and phonological neighborhood effects within a priming context  

E-print Network

(FM), a group of adults with dyslexia, and a group of normal readers in a divided visual field paradigm. FM had been diagnosed with developmental dyslexia at age 8. This type of dyslexia is marked by a deficient usage of phonological encoding... by the group with dyslexia--even though the effect was not as strong. No effect of orthography was found with the controls. Lavidor et al. argue that FM and the dyslexic individuals are more sensitive to orthographic cues because the phonological system...

Fugett-Fuller, April

2008-01-01

422

The Search for the Phonological Store: From Loop to Convolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract & The phonological,loop system,of Baddeley and colleagues’ Working,Memory,model,is a major,accomplishment,of the modern,era of cognitive psychology. It was,one,of the first information,processing models,to make,an explicit attempt,to accommodate,both traditional behavioral data and the results of neuropsychological case studies in an integrated theoretical framework. In the early and middle 1990s, the purview of the phonological,loop was expanded,to include the emerging,field of functional brain

Bradley R. Buchsbaum; Mark D'esposito

2008-01-01

423

The development of phonological rules and visual strategies in average and poor spellers.  

PubMed

To investigate the development of phonological and visual skills used in spelling, 420 children between the ages of 6 and 16 completed the spelling dictation test of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised. The misspellings were scored for phonological as well as visual accuracy using a constrained (inclusion of position cues) and an unconstrained system. Poor spellers made fewer phonologically accurate and fewer visual matches than age-matched average spellers. Poor spellers produced significantly more misspellings that were close visual matches to the target word and fewer phonologically unconstrained misspellings than spelling grade-matched average spellers. The groups did not differ in their production of phonologically constrained misspellings. Average spellers used a phonological approach more frequently than a visual approach, while the reverse pattern was true for poor spellers. When phonological rules are less well developed, then individuals are more likely to use orthographic skills. PMID:8683185

Lennox, C; Siegel, L S

1996-06-01

424

The Relations between Phonological Processing Abilities and Emerging Individual Differences in Mathematical Computation Skills: A Longitudinal Study from Second to Fifth Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relations between phonological processing and emerging individual differences in math computation skills. Found that phonological memory, access rate to phonological codes in memory, and phonological awareness were uniquely associated with growth in number of computation procedures mastered from 92.5 to 134.8 months. Phonological

Hecht, Steven A.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Wagner, Richard K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

2001-01-01

425

Early vocabulary development in Mandarin (Putonghua) and Cantonese.  

PubMed

Parent report instruments adapted from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) examined vocabulary development in children aged 0 ; 8 to 2 ; 6 for two Chinese languages, Mandarin (n=1694) and Cantonese (n=1625). Parental reports suggested higher overall scores for Mandarin- than for Cantonese-speaking children from approximately 1 ; 4 onward. Factors relevant to the difference were only-child status, monolingual households and caregiver education. In addition to the comparison of vocabulary scores overall, the development of noun classifiers, grammatical function words common to the two languages, was assessed both in terms of the age and the vocabulary size at which these terms are acquired. Whereas age-based developmental trajectories again showed an advantage for Beijing children, Hong Kong children used classifiers when they had smaller vocabularies, reflecting the higher frequencies and greater precision of classifier use in adult Cantonese. The data speak to the importance of using not just age, but also vocabulary size, as a metric by which the acquisition of particular linguistic elements can be examined across languages. PMID:19435545

Tardif, Twila; Fletcher, Paul; Liang, Weilan; Kaciroti, Niko

2009-11-01

426

On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

2012-01-01

427

Phonological Processing of Words in Right- and Left-Handers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is commonly accepted that phonology is the exclusive domain of the left hemisphere. However, this pattern of lateralization, which posits a right visual field advantage, has been questioned by several studies. In fact, certain factors such as characteristics of the stimuli and subjects' handedness can modulate the right visual field advantage.…

Tremblay, Tania; Monetta, Laura; Joanette, Yves

2004-01-01

428

Promoting Phonological Awareness Skills of Egyptian Kindergarteners through Dialogic Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5-6), assigned to an experimental group…

Elmonayer, Randa Abdelaleem

2013-01-01

429

Phonological Acquisition in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…

Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.

2010-01-01

430

Interaction in Bilingual Phonological Acquisition: Evidence from Phonetic Inventories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine how interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual children in order to determine what constitutes typical development of bilingual speech sound inventories. Method: Twenty-four children, ages 3-4, were included: eight bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children, eight monolingual Spanish speakers, and eight…

Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Barlow, Jessica A.

2010-01-01

431

Suprasegmental Phonology Development and Reading Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…

Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia

2015-01-01

432

Consequences of a phonological coding deficit on sentence processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sentence processing abilities of EA, a conduction aphasic with a documented phonological coding deficit, were investigated in tests of sentence comprehension, production, and repetition. EA showed a syntactic comprehension deficit, relying heavily on word order information to make grammatical role assignments. Production tests revealed a generally intact ability to generate a variety of sentence constructions, although there were frequent

Frances J. Friedrich; Randi Martin; Susan J. Kemper

1985-01-01

433

Prosodic Phonological Representations Early in Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the nature of the phonological representations used during visual word recognition. We tested whether a minimality constraint (R. Frost, 1998) limits the complexity of early representations to a simple string of phonemes. Alternatively, readers might activate elaborated representations that include prosodic syllable…

Ashby, Jane; Martin, Andrea E.

2008-01-01

434

Phonological and Semantic Priming in Children with Reading Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lexical priming was assessed in children with reading disability (RD) and in age-matched controls (M= 11.5 years), in visual and auditory lexical decision tasks. In the visual task, children with RD were found to have deficits in semantic (SHIP-BOAT), phonological/graphemic (GOAT-BOAT), and combined (FLOAT-BOAT) priming. The same pattern of…

Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.

2008-01-01

435

Early Mathematics and Phonological Awareness in Two Child Care Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum development during early childhood is informed through an understanding of the cognitive skills that develop concurrently in the earliest years. Extending previous work, this study examined the relationship between early mathematics and phonological awareness (PA) skills for 37 children (14 girls; overall mean age?=?47.6 months,…

Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; Lokteff, Maegan

2013-01-01

436

Exploring Hypotheses about Phonological Awareness, Memory, and Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading-related skills were tested in adults with and without reading disabilities (RD) or with profound hearing impairment (PHI). Both RD and PHI groups demonstrated low levels of phonological awareness but the RD group also exhibited deficits in verbal short-term memory, morphological awareness, speeded written naming, reading comprehension, and…

Tractenberg, Rochelle E.

2002-01-01

437

Lexical Representation of Phonological Variation in Spoken Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been a number of mechanisms proposed to account for recognition of phonological variation in spoken language. Five of these mechanisms were considered here, including underspecification, inference, feature parsing, tolerance, and a frequency-based representational account. A corpus analysis and five experiments using the nasal flap…

Ranbom, Larissa J.; Connine, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

438

The Role of Vocal Practice in Constructing Phonological Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors looked for effects of vocal practice on phonological working memory. Method: A longitudinal design was used, combining both naturalistic observations and a nonword repetition test. Fifteen 26-month-olds (12 of whom were followed from age 11 months) were administered a nonword test including real words,…

Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Vihman, Marilyn M.; DePaolis, Rory A.; Whitaker, Chris J.; Williams, Nicola M.

2010-01-01

439

Concept-to-Speech Synthesis by Phonological Structure Matching  

E-print Network

gen- eration problem in a concept-to-speech system. Off-line, a database of recorded speech Speech Text-to-Speech Concept-to-Speech speech generation Database Query Figure 1. Text to speechConcept-to-Speech Synthesis by Phonological Structure Matching BY P A TAYLOR Centre for Speech

Edinburgh, University of

440

ConcepttoSpeech Synthesis by Phonological Structure Matching  

E-print Network

gen­ eration problem in a concept­to­speech system. Off­line, a database of recorded speech generation waveform Speech Text­to­Speech Concept­to­Speech speech generation Database Query Figure 1. TextConcept­to­Speech Synthesis by Phonological Structure Matching BY P A TAYLOR Centre for Speech

Edinburgh, University of

441

Phonological Processes in Kannada-Speaking Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…

Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.

2010-01-01

442

A longitudinal case study of developmental phonological dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a four-year follow-up study of JM, a developmental phonological dyslexic previously described by Snowling, Stackhouse, and Rack (1986). JM has made some progress in reading and spelling although these skills remain severely impaired. His reading and spelling skills are consistent with arrest in the logographic phase of literacy development as described by Frith (1985); reading errors are primarily

Maggie Snowling; Charles Hulme

1989-01-01

443

Longitudinal Stability of Phonological and Surface Subtypes of Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited evidence supports the external validity of the distinction between developmental phonological and surface dyslexia. We previously identified children ages 8 to 13 meeting criteria for these subtypes (Peterson, Pennington, & Olson, 2013) and now report on their reading and related skills approximately 5 years later. Longitudinal…

Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Olson, Richard K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

2014-01-01

444

Learner-Generated Drawing for Phonological and Orthographic Dyslexic Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an examination of learner-generated drawing for different reading comprehension subtypes of dyslexic students and control students. The participants were 22 phonological dyslexic students, 20 orthographic dyslexic students, 21 double-deficit dyslexic students, and 45 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched control students. The major…

Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming; Tasi, Hung-Ju; Chan, Shih-Yi

2013-01-01

445

A Brief Critique of Chomsky's Challenge to Classical Phonemic Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonemic phonology became important because it provided a descriptive account of dialects and languages that had never been transcribed before, and it derives its greatest strength from its practical orientation, which has proved beneficial to language teaching and learning. Noam Chomsky's criticisms of it are largely unjust because he has not…

Liu, Ngar-Fun

1994-01-01

446

Phonological Awareness Development of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose. The primary purpose of this study was to assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant enabled children with severe to profound hearing loss to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities during their preschool years. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether preschoolage…

Ambrose, Sophie E.

2009-01-01

447

Remediation of Common Phonological Processes: Four Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach incorporating conceptualization training, short sessions of "auditory bombardment," and a phonemic contrast method proved effective in reducing the frequency of targeted speech problems in four kindergarteners with moderate/severe phonological disorders. Generalization was noted in untrained words. (CL)

Monahan, Dana

1986-01-01

448

Measuring Phonological Awareness Through the Invented Spellings of Kindergarten Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some children spontaneously invent spellings for words before they can read. Discusses two experiments which explore the possibility that the preconventional spelling skills of kindergarten children can serve as a measure of phonological awareness and thereby predict first-grade reading ability. (Author/NH)

Mann, Virginia A.; And Others

1987-01-01

449

Phonological Awareness and Reading in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic,…

Adlof, Suzanne M.; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Robinson, Marissa L.; Roberts, Jane E.

2015-01-01

450

Neuroimaging sheds new light on the phonological deficit in dyslexia.  

PubMed

A new study reports that activations of superior temporal regions for speech are normal in dyslexia, although being less well connected to downstream frontal regions. These findings support the hypothesis of a deficit in the access to phonological representations rather than in the representations themselves. PMID:24568928

Ramus, Franck

2014-06-01

451

Phonological Therapy in Jargon Aphasia: Effects on Naming and Neologisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…

Bose, Arpita

2013-01-01

452

Time Pressure and Phonological Advance Planning in Spoken Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current accounts of spoken production debate the extent to which speakers plan ahead. Here, we investigated whether the scope of phonological planning is influenced by changes in time pressure constraints. The first experiment used a picture-word interference task and showed that picture naming latencies were shorter when word distractors shared…

Damian, Markus F.; Dumay, Nicolas

2007-01-01

453

Phonological Memory and Implications for the Second Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is mounting evidence that phonological memory (PM), a sub-component of working memory, is closely related to various aspects of second language (L2) learning in a variety of populations, suggesting that PM may be an essential cognitive mechanism underlying successful L2 acquisition. This article provides a brief critical review of the role…

Hummel, Kirsten M.; French, Leif M.

2010-01-01

454

Phonological Phrase Boundaries Constrain Lexical Access II. Infant Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both…

Gout, A.; Christophe, A.; Morgan, J. L.

2004-01-01

455

A Balanced Literacy Approach Incorporating Phonological Awareness in Kindergarten.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acquiring literacy is one of the most important elements in building a foundation for success in education and life. This study describes a program that was implemented from January through May, 2001, for improvement in phonological awareness, alphabetic awareness and reading readiness skills through explicit instruction of phonemic awareness with…

Hawley, Melissa A.

456

Neural Correlates of Sublexical Processing in Phonological Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural…

McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; Eisner, Frank; Marshall, Chloe R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Scott, Sophie K.

2011-01-01

457

Sex Differences in Phonological Awareness and Reading Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to measure possible sex differences in phonological awareness and reading ability among children in early primary school. A subset of the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) was administered to 140 children in kindergarten through to second grade (mean ages five to seven years). Independent…

Chipere, Ngoni

2014-01-01

458

Dialect Boundaries and Phonological Change in Upstate New York  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eastern half of New York State is a dialectologically diverse region around which several dialect regions converge--the Inland North, New York City, Western New England, and Canada. These regions differ with respect to major parameters of North American English phonological variation; and therefore the interface between them is of interest…

Dinkin, Aaron Joshua

2009-01-01

459

Phonologic Processing in Adults Who Stutter: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), judgment accuracy, and reaction times (RTs) were obtained for 11 adults who stutter and 11 normally fluent speakers as they performed a rhyme judgment task of visually presented word pairs. Half of the word pairs (i.e., prime and target) were phonologically and orthographically congruent across words. That…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Spruill, John E., III; Smith, Anne

2004-01-01

460

Phonological Universals Constrain the Processing of Nonspeech Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Domain-specific systems are hypothetically specialized with respect to the outputs they compute and the inputs they allow (Fodor, 1983). Here, we examine whether these 2 conditions for specialization are dissociable. An initial experiment suggests that English speakers could extend a putatively universal phonological restriction to inputs…

Berent, Iris; Balaban, Evan; Lennertz, Tracy; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

2010-01-01

461

Development of Phonological Awareness in Bilingual Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the phonological awareness of 219 first, second, and fourth grade Cantonese-speaking children from the south of China, who received immersion Mandarin instruction beginning in the first grade. Children received onset, rime and tone awareness tasks in Cantonese and Mandarin. Children performed better on the Cantonese onset…

Chen, Xi; Ku, Yu-Min; Koyama, Emiko; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling

2008-01-01

462

Phonological Processing in Adults with Deficits in Musical Pitch Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We identified individuals with deficits in musical pitch recognition by screening a large random population using the Distorted Tunes Test (DTT), and enrolled individuals who had DTT scores in the lowest 10th percentile, classified as tune deaf. We examined phonological processing abilities in 35 tune deaf and 34 normal control individuals. Eight…

Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis

2009-01-01

463

Basal Readers: The Lost Opportunity To Build the Knowledge that Propels Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three examples of how basal reading programs miss opportunities to build word and world knowledge: lack of focus on systematically building essential knowledge and vocabulary during teacher read-alouds and discussions aimed at building background knowledge; wasting time by including too many lessons on formal reading comprehension skills;…

Walsh, Kate

2003-01-01

464

Beginning literacy: links among teacher knowledge, teacher practice, and student learning.  

PubMed

Although the importance of phonological awareness has been discussed widely in the research literature, the concept is not well understood by many classroom teachers. In the study described here, we worked with groups of kindergarten and first-grade teachers (the experimental group) during a 2-week summer institute and throughout the school year. We shared with them research about learning disabilities and effective instruction, stressing the importance of explicit instruction in phonological and orthographic awareness. We followed the experimental group and a control group into their classrooms for a year, assessing teachers' classroom practices and their students' (n = 779) learning. The study yielded three major findings: We can deepen teachers' own knowledge of the role of phonological and orthographic information in literacy instruction; teachers can use that knowledge to change classroom practice; and changes in teacher knowledge and classroom practice can improve student learning. PMID:15490901

McCutchen, Deborah; Abbott, Robert D; Green, Laura B; Beretvas, S Natasha; Cox, Susanne; Potter, Nina S; Quiroga, Teresa; Gray, Audra L

2002-01-01

465

Selecting, Presenting, and Practicing Vocabulary in a Culturally-Authentic Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criteria for the selection and presentation of vocabulary in current teaching materials are discussed, and alternative strategies are suggested that more closely reflect the goals of communicative criteria. Sample vocabulary exercises are included. (25 references) (Author/LB)

Spinelli, Emily; Siskin, H. Jay

1992-01-01

466

Phonological facilitation of object naming in agrammatic and logopenic primary progressive aphasia (PPA)  

PubMed Central

Phonological processing deficits are characteristic of both the agrammatic and logopenic subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L). However, it is an open question which substages of phonological processing (i.e., phonological word form retrieval, phonological encoding) are impaired in these subtypes of PPA, as well as how phonological processing deficits contribute to anomia. In the present study, participants with PPA-G (n=7), PPA-L (n=7), and unimpaired controls (n=17) named objects as interfering written words (phonologically related/unrelated) were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 0, +100, +300, and +500 ms. Phonological facilitation (PF) effects (faster naming times with phonologically related interfering words) were found for the controls and PPA-L group only at SOA=0 and +100 ms. However, the PPA-G group exhibited protracted PF effects (PF at SOA=0, +100, and +300 ms). These results may reflect deficits in phonological encoding in PPA-G, but not in PPA-L, supporting the neuropsychological reality of this substage of phonological processing and the distinction between these two PPA subtypes. PMID:24070176

Mack, Jennifer E.; Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Kloet, James D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2013-01-01

467

Science and Literacy: Incorporating Vocabulary, Reading Comprehension, Research Methods, and Writing into the Science Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part of preparing the next generation of STEM researchers requires arming these students with the requisite literacy and research skills they will need. In a unique collaboration, the departments of Physics (ECE) and Psychology at the University of Houston have teamed up with NASA in a grant to develop a supplemental curriculum for elementary (G3-5) and middle school (G6-8) science teachers called Mars Rover. During this six week project, students work in teams to research the solar system, the planet Mars, design a research mission to Mars, and create a model Mars Rover to carry out this mission. Targeted Language Arts skills are embedded in each lesson so that students acquire the requisite academic vocabulary and research skills to enable them to successfully design their Mars Rover. Students learn academic and scientific vocabulary using scientifically based reading research. They receive direct instruction in research techniques, note-taking, summarizing, writing and other important language skills. The interdisciplinary collaboration empowers students as readers, writers and scientists. After the curriculum is completed, a culminating Mars Rover event is held at a local university, bringing students teams in contact with real-life scientists who critique their work, ask questions, and generate excite about STEM careers. Students have the opportunity to showcase their Mars Rover and to orally demonstrate their knowledge of Mars. Students discover the excitement of scientific research, STEM careers, important research and writing tools in a practical, real-life setting.

Nieser, K.; Carlson, C.; Bering, E. A.; Slagle, E.

2012-12-01

468

Controlled vocabularies and ontologies in proteomics: overview, principles and practice.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the use of controlled vocabularies (CVs) and ontologies especially in the area of proteomics, primarily related to the work of the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI). It describes the relevant proteomics standard formats and the ontologies used within them. Software and tools for working with these ontology files are also discussed. The article also examines the "mapping files" used to ensure correct controlled vocabulary terms that are placed within PSI standards and the fulfillment of the MIAPE (Minimum Information about a Proteomics Experiment) requirements. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan. PMID:23429179

Mayer, Gerhard; Jones, Andrew R; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Deutsch, Eric W; Orchard, Sandra; Montecchi-Palazzi, Luisa; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Hermjakob, Henning; Oveillero, David; Julian, Randall; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E; Eisenacher, Martin

2014-01-01

469

Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children with Language and Reading Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…

Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne

2012-01-01

470

Vocabulary Development in Italian Children: A Longitudinal Evaluation of Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development of a sample of 42 Italian children was evaluated through monthly administration of the Italian version of the CDI. Data collection started at age one for 32 children and a few moths later for the remaining subjects and continued until children's vocabulary reached 200 words. At fixed stages of vocabulary size, individual…

D'Odorico, Laura; Carubbi, Stefania; Salerni, Nicoletta; Calvo, Vicenzo

2001-01-01

471

Inquiring into Familiar Objects: An Inquiry-Based Approach to Introduce Scientific Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning science vocabulary is an often tedious but important component of many curricula. Frequently, students are expected to learn science vocabulary indirectly, but this method can hinder the success of lower-performing students (Carlisle, Fleming, and Gudbrandsen 2000). We have developed an inquiry-based vocabulary activity wherein students…

Hicks Pries, Caitlin; Hughes, Julie

2012-01-01

472

More than Teachable Moments: Enhancing Oral Vocabulary Instruction in Your Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes both the benefits and the challenges of using "teachable moments" as a primary strategy for oral vocabulary instruction. It argues that children will need more intentional oral vocabulary instruction, right from the very beginning, if they are to develop the academic and content-rich vocabulary necessary to be successful in…

Neuman, Susan B.; Roskos, Kathleen

2012-01-01

473

Effects of training black preschool children in vocabulary versus sentence construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assigned 36 male and 36 black lower-class preschoolers to vocabulary training, sentence training, and control groups. Each s was tested before and after a 6-wk training period with the peabody picture vocabulary test (ppvt), a sentence imitation test (sit), and a picture interview (pi). Vocabulary training involved practice in recognizing and applying words from the ppvt and the pi. Sentence

Paul R. Ammon; Mary S. Ammon

1971-01-01

474

A New Twist on Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities in Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An essential element of science instruction is content literacy. In order to improve literacy specific to science, vocabulary must be addressed. As Jitendra et al. (2004) pointed out, "because learning vocabulary during independent reading is very inefficient for students with reading difficulties, vocabulary and word learning skills must be…

Grillo, Kelly J.; Dieker, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

475

Development of Vocabulary in Spanish-Speaking and Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…

Uchikoshi, Yuuko

2014-01-01

476

Developing Reading Comprehension and Academic Vocabulary for English Language Learners Through Science Content: A Formative Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This formative experiment explored the extent to which two instructional frameworks that varied in the explicitness of academic vocabulary instruction, comprehension strategy instruction, and supports for student autonomy influenced reading comprehension, vocabulary acquisition, perceptions of autonomy supports, and reading engagement in fourth-grade English-language learners (ELLs). In the contextualized vocabulary instruction (CVI) framework, four reading comprehension strategies were integrated with two

Ana Taboada; Vanessa Rutherford

2011-01-01

477

Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary in the Elementary and Intermediate Italian Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses strategies for enhancing vocabulary acquisition in first- and second-year Italian courses. The first part reviews the research on vocabulary acquisition; the second incorporates the implications of Danesi's model of neurological bimodality; the third part focuses on techniques for vocabulary elicitation; and the fourth presents examples…

Nuessel, Frank; Cicogna, Caterina

1994-01-01

478

A Comparison of Two Vocabulary Development Approaches on Intermediate Grade Menominee Indian Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated two approaches to vocabulary development with intermediate grade Menominee Indian children. Specifically, the differences in reading comprehension, writing vocabulary, reading vocabulary, and attitudes toward reading of students were examined. The two methods compared were (1) the Native American Culturally-Oriented…

Battle, Edwina Larry

479

Software Application for Computer Aided Vocabulary Learning in a Blended Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the effect of computer-aided vocabulary learning software called "ArabCAVL" on students' vocabulary acquisition. It was hypothesized that students who use the ArabCAVL software in blended learning environment will surpass students who use traditional vocabulary learning strategies in face-to-face learning environment even…

Essam, Rasha

2010-01-01

480

I Need Directions! Where am I in the Universe? Vocabulary Lesson  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an introductory lesson in vocabulary for a unit of study on space. It is designed to assist students with understanding the vocabulary in an engaging game while students and teacher can easily track student thinking and understanding of these vocabulary terms specific to the space content and standards.

Magdaleno, Maribel

2012-07-18

481

Context-dependent phonetic Markov models for large vocabulary speech recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

One approach to large vocabulary speech recognition, is to build phonetic Markov models, and to concatenate them to obtain word models. In previous work, we already designed a recognizer based on 40 phonetic Markov machines, which accepts a 10,000 words vocabulary ([3]), and recently 200,000 words vocabulary ([5]). Since there is one machine per phoneme, these models obviously do not

A.-M. Derouault

1987-01-01

482

Lexical Characteristics of Expressive Vocabulary in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Vocabulary is a domain of particular challenge for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent research has drawn attention to ways in which lexical characteristics relate to vocabulary acquisition. The current study tested the hypothesis that lexical characteristics account for variability in vocabulary size of young…

Kover, Sara T.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

2014-01-01

483

E-Book as Facilitator of Vocabulary Acquisition: Support of Adults, Dynamic Dictionary and Static Dictionary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the effects of three facilitators: adults' support, dynamic visual vocabulary support and static visual vocabulary support on vocabulary acquisition in the context of e-book reading. Participants were 144 Israeli Hebrew-speaking preschoolers (aged 4-6) from middle SES neighborhoods. The entire sample read the e-book without a…

Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Atishkin, Shifra; Turgeman, Merav

2014-01-01

484

Toward Vocabulary Domain Specifications for Health Level 7—coded Data Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “vocabulary problem” has long plagued the developers, implementers, and users of computer-based systems. The authors review selected activities of the Health Level 7 (HL7) Vocabulary Technical Committee that are related to vocabulary domain specification for HL7 coded data elements. These activities include: 1) the development of two sets of principles to provide guidance to terminology stakeholders, including organizations seeking

Suzanne Bakken; Keith E Campbell; James J Cimino; Stanley M Huff; W Ed Hammond

2000-01-01

485

Use of a Mnemonic Technique to Teach Young Children Foreign Language Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children 3 to 6 years of age learned simple Spanish vocabulary items using an adaptation of the keyword method of foreign language vocabulary learning. Children who used the keyword method remembered more vocabulary translations than children who were not instructed in keyword method usage. (Author/RD)

Pressley, Michael; And Others

1981-01-01

486

Vocabulary Comprehension of Evaluation Form: Its Influence on Student Rating of Faculty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of vocabulary comprehension on underprepared freshman student responses and their rating of faculty teaching performances at Delaware State University. Learning Skills Center students have weak vocabulary comprehension that might hinder their ability to accurately rate instructors. A vocabulary quiz was given to…

Dujari, Anuradha

487

Reading comprehension in adolescents with ADHD: Exploring the poor comprehender profile and individual differences in vocabulary and executive functions.  

PubMed

The overall objective of this study was to investigate reading comprehension in youth with and without a prior diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The first goal was to determine whether youth with and without ADHD matched in word reading ability exhibited differences in reading comprehension proficiency. The next goal was to determine whether good and poor comprehenders within the ADHD subgroup differed from each other on language and academic achievement measures. The third objective was to examine whether word recognition or oral vocabulary knowledge mediated the effect of ADHD symptoms on reading comprehension performance. Youth with ADHD scored significantly lower than the comparison youth on a standardized measure of reading comprehension. Relative to good comprehenders with ADHD, poor comprehenders with ADHD exhibited weaknesses in expressive vocabulary, mathematical reasoning, written expression, and exhibited more executive function (EF) difficulties as reported by the teacher. Expressive vocabulary and word reading, but not teacher EF ratings, accounted for unique variance in reading comprehension performance and mediated the relationship between ADHD symptoms and reading comprehension. Implications for further research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:25589478

Martinussen, Rhonda; Mackenzie, Genevieve

2015-03-01

488

A Model of Phonological Processing, Language, and Reading for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-aged children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using structural equation modeling. Phonological processing consisted of two distinct but correlated latent abilities: phonological awareness and naming speed. Phonological awareness had strong relationships with expressive and receptive language and reading skills. Naming speed had moderate relationships with these variables. Results suggest that children with ID bring the same skills to the task of learning to read as children with typical development, highlighting that phonologically based reading instruction should be considered a viable approach. PMID:24245730

Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn

2013-01-01

489

Once upon a time, there was a fabulous funambulist…: what children learn about the "high-level" vocabulary they encounter while listening to stories.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that listening to stories supports vocabulary growth in preschool and school-aged children and that lexical entries for even very difficult or rare words can be established if these are defined when they are first introduced. However, little is known about the nature of the lexical representations children form for the words they encounter while listening to stories, or whether these are sufficiently robust to support the child's own use of such "high-level" vocabulary. This study explored these questions by administering multiple assessments of children's knowledge about a set of newly-acquired vocabulary. Four- and six-year-old children were introduced to nine difficult new words (including nouns, verbs and adjectives) through three exposures to a story read by their class teacher. The story included a definition of each new word at its first encounter. Learning of the target vocabulary was assessed by means of two tests of semantic understanding-a forced choice picture-selection task and a definition production task-and a grammaticality judgment task, which asked children to choose between a syntactically-appropriate and syntactically-inappropriate usage of the word. Children in both age groups selected the correct pictorial representation and provided an appropriate definition for the target words in all three word classes significantly more often than they did for a matched set of non-exposed control words. However, only the older group was able to identify the syntactically-appropriate sentence frames in the grammaticality judgment task. Further analyses elucidate some of the components of the lexical representations children lay down when they hear difficult new vocabulary in stories and how different tests of word knowledge might overlap in their assessment of these components. PMID:24570670

Houston-Price, Carmel; Howe, Jodie A; Lintern, Natalie J

2014-01-01

490

Once upon a time, there was a fabulous funambulist…: what children learn about the “high-level” vocabulary they encounter while listening to stories  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that listening to stories supports vocabulary growth in preschool and school-aged children and that lexical entries for even very difficult or rare words can be established if these are defined when they are first introduced. However, little is known about the nature of the lexical representations children form for the words they encounter while listening to stories, or whether these are sufficiently robust to support the child's own use of such “high-level” vocabulary. This study explored these questions by administering multiple assessments of children's knowledge about a set of newly-acquired vocabulary. Four- and six-year-old children were introduced to nine difficult new words (including nouns, verbs and adjectives) through three exposures to a story read by their class teacher. The story included a definition of each new word at its first encounter. Learning of the target vocabulary was assessed by means of two tests of semantic understanding—a forced choice picture-selection task and a definition production task—and a grammaticality judgment task, which asked children to choose between a syntactically-appropriate and syntactically-inappropriate usage of the word. Children in both age groups selected the correct pictorial representation and provided an appropriate definition for the target words in all three word classes significantly more often than they did for a matched set of non-exposed control words. However, only the older group was able to identify the syntactically-appropriate sentence frames in the grammaticality judgment task. Further analyses elucidate some of the components of the lexical representations children lay down when they hear difficult new vocabulary in stories and how different tests of word knowledge might overlap in their assessment of these components. PMID:24570670

Houston-Price, Carmel; Howe, Jodie A.; Lintern, Natalie J.

2013-01-01

491

RATEOFSPEECH MODELING FOR LARGE VOCABULARY CONVERSATIONAL SPEECH RECOGNITION  

E-print Network

by speech rate, such as delta and delta delta features, and that some pronunciation phenomenaRATE­OF­SPEECH MODELING FOR LARGE VOCABULARY CONVERSATIONAL SPEECH RECOGNITION Jing Zheng, Horacio, USA {zj, hef, stolcke}@speech.sri.com ABSTRACT Variations in rate of speech (ROS) produce changes

Stolcke, Andreas

492

Shared Understanding and Idiosyncratic Expression in Early Vocabularies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To what extent do toddlers have shared vocabularies? We examined CDI data collected from 14,607 infants and toddlers in five countries and measured the amount of variability between individual lexicons during development for both comprehension and production. Early lexicons are highly overlapping. However, beyond 100 words, toddlers share more…

Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

2014-01-01

493

Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

2010-01-01

494

What's the Big Deal about Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes techniques for teaching mathematics terminology that allow adolescents to expand their abstract reasoning ability and move beyond operations into problem solving. Mathematics vocabulary instruction is particularly important in the middle grades because this is when "the serious development of the language of mathematics…

Dunston, Pamela J.; Tyminski, Andrew M.

2013-01-01

495

Fuzzy Reasoning over RDF Data Using OWL Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose fuzzy pD ? semantics which generalizes pD ? semantics to reason over fuzzy RDF data using OWL vocabulary. We first define the notions of fuzzy RDF graph and fuzzy pD ? interpretation. We then present a set of fuzzy pD ? entailment rules and define the Best Degree Bound (BDB) of a triple derived from

Chang Liu; Guilin Qi; Haofen Wang; Yong Yu

2011-01-01

496

Enhancing ESL Vocabulary Development through the Use of Mobile Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applications, or apps, that are available for both smart phones and tablets can be an effective tool for promoting vocabulary development among adult learners in English as a second language programs. An app is a software program for a mobile phone or computer operating system. Examples of such apps are provided along with practical…

Nisbet, Deanna; Austin, Dayna

2013-01-01

497

Using Corpus Tools To Highlight Academic Vocabulary in SCLT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how corpus tools can be used for identifying and integrating useful English for academic vocabulary instruction and can offer sustained-content language teaching (CSLT) a balanced approach for preparing students for the linguistic demands of regular classes. Advocates using techniques from corpus linguistics as a tool for highlighting…

Donley, Kate M.; Reppen, Randi

2001-01-01

498

Effect of Screen Size on Multimedia Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of three different screen sizes (small, medium and large) and two types of multimedia instruction (text only and text with pictorial annotation) on vocabulary learning. One hundred thirty-five Korean middle school students learning English as a foreign language were randomly distributed…

Kim, Daesang; Kim, Dong-Joong

2012-01-01

499

Deliberate Learning and Vocabulary Acquisition in a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates outcomes of deliberate learning on vocabulary acquisition in a second language (L2). Acquisition of 48 pseudowords was measured using the lexical decision task with visually presented stimuli. The experiments drew on form priming, masked repetition priming, and automatic semantic priming procedures. Data analyses revealed a…

Elgort, Irina

2011-01-01

500

Using Phone Durations in Finnish Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition  

E-print Network

Using Phone Durations in Finnish Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Janne Pylkkönen of the languages where phone durations dis­ criminate between words. They therefore have significant meaning, an extension of an existing speech recognition system to include models for discriminatively important phone

Kurimo, Mikko