O'Leary, Patrick M.; Cockburn, Mary K.; Powell, Douglas R.; Diamond, Karen E.
Prior research indicates that pre-kindergarten programs have not fully closed the gap between low-income and middle-income children regarding phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge, two key predictors of later reading success. The current study examined Head Start teachers' views of and challenges in implementing instruction to improve…
Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang
This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…
Muench, Kristin L.; Creel, Sarah C.
Learners frequently experience phonologically inconsistent input, such as exposure to multiple accents. Yet, little is known about the consequences of phonological inconsistency for language learning. The current study examines vocabulary acquisition with different degrees of phonological inconsistency, ranging from no inconsistency (e.g., both…
Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.
In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of…
Anthony, Jason L.; Solari, Emily J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Schoger, Kimberly D.; Zhang, Zhou; Branum-Martin, Lee; Francis, David J.
Theories concerning the development of phonological awareness place special emphasis on lexical and orthographic knowledge. Given the large degree of variability in preschool classrooms that house Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELL), this study controlled for classroom effects by removing classroom means and covariances based on 158…
Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie
This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…
Gorman, Brenda K.
Purpose: The goals of this study were to evaluate the impact of short-term phonological awareness (PA) instruction presented in children's first language (L1; Spanish) on gains in their L1 and second language (L2; English) and to determine whether relationships exist between vocabulary size, verbal working memory, and PA in Spanish-speaking…
Johnson, Carol; Goswami, Usha
Purpose: To explore the phonological awareness skills of deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) and relationships with vocabulary and reading development. Method: Forty-three deaf children with implants who were between 5 and 15 years of age were tested; 21 had been implanted at around 2.5 years of age (Early CI group), and 22 had been…
McDougall, Patricia; Borowsky, Ron; MacKinnon, G. E.; Hymel, Shelley
Recent research on developmental dyslexia has suggested a phonological core deficit hypothesis (e.g., Manis, Seidenberg, Doi, McBride-Chang, & Peterson, 1996; Stanovich, Siegel, & Gottardo, 1997) whereby pure cases of developmental phonological dyslexia (dysfunctional phonetic decoding processing but normal sight vocabulary processing) can exist,…
Flanigan, Kevin; Templeton, Shane; Hayes, Latisha
The role of vocabulary knowledge in supporting students' comprehension and understanding of their content-area reading is critical. This article explores how content-area teachers can help students become aware of, understand, and apply generative knowledge about English words to grow and develop their vocabularies. Generative vocabulary…
Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.
This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…
Carrier, Sarah J.
Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…
Clark, Martyn K.; Ishida, Saori
This study investigated differences in vocabulary knowledge as a potential explanation for perceived differences between placed and promoted students in a university EAP reading course. Students in an advanced reading course (N=59) were tested on their vocabulary knowledge using the Vocabulary Levels Test Form B [Nation, I. S. P. (2001). "Learning…
This study is an attempt to explore the correlation between direct and indirect vocabulary learning strategies along with the depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, a sample of 145 low proficiency students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) completed a questionnaire concerning vocabulary learning strategy use.…
Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; de Chambrier, Anne-Françoise
Our study investigated if phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge were predictors of reading progress in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) with unspecified etiology. An academic achievement test was administered to 129 children with mild or moderate ID when they were 6-8 years old, as well as one and two school years later. Findings indicated that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age predicted progress in word and non-word reading after one school year and two school years after controlling for IQ, age, expressive vocabulary, spoken language, and type of placement. Phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge at 6-8 years of age also predicted progress in reading comprehension after one school year and two school years. These findings suggest that training phonological awareness skills combined with explicit phonics instruction is important to foster reading progress in children with mild and moderate ID with unspecified etiology. PMID:25965277
Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard
Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates…
Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K.; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Bishop, M. Denise
We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary…
James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha
In the current study, we explore the influence of orthographic knowledge on phonological awareness in children with cochlear implants and compare developmental associations to those found for hearing children matched for word reading level or chronological age. We show an influence of orthographic knowledge on syllable and phoneme awareness in…
An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of…
Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Davis, Matthew J.; Simmons, Leslie; Nava-Walichowski, Miranda
Research shows that children accrue vocabulary knowledge by understanding relationships between new words and their connected concepts. This article describes three research-based principles that preschool teachers can use to design shared book reading lessons that accelerate content vocabulary knowledge by helping young children to talk about…
Sarchet, Thomastine; Marschark, Marc; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Sapere, Patricia; Dirmyer, Richard
Deaf children generally are found to have smaller English vocabularies than hearing peers, although studies involving children with cochlear implants have suggested that the gap may decrease or disappear with age. Less is known about the vocabularies of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) postsecondary students or how their vocabulary knowledge relates to other aspects of academic achievement. This study used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test to examine the vocabulary knowledge of DHH and hearing postsecondary students as well as their awareness (predictions) of that knowledge. Relationships between vocabulary knowledge and print exposure, communication backgrounds, and reading and verbal abilities also were examined. Consistent with studies of children, hearing college students demonstrated significantly larger vocabularies than DHH students both with and without cochlear implants. DHH students were more likely to overestimate their vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary scores were positively related to reading and verbal abilities but negatively related to sign language abilities. Among DHH students they also were positively related to measures of spoken language ability. Results are discussed in terms of related cognitive abilities, language fluency, and academic achievement of DHH students and implications for postsecondary education. PMID:25558473
San Francisco, Andrea Rolla; Carlo, Maria; August, Diane; Snow, Catherine E.
This study explores influences on bilingual children's phonological awareness (PA) performance in English, examining the role of language of instruction and vocabulary. English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual kindergartners and first graders receiving either English or Spanish literacy instruction were assessed in English PA and in…
Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra; Fellah, Renat
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the…
The purpose of the present study is twofold. The first goal is to examine the effects of phonological input on students' vocabulary learning. The second is to discuss how different pre-listening activities affect students' second language listening comprehension. The participants were first-year students at a Japanese university. There were two…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2006
"Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness, print awareness, and early reading abilities. Phonological awareness, the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, is a precursor to reading. Phonological awareness…
Examines effective ways of building vocabulary among learners of English as a Second Language. Discusses using word cards, studying word parts, and using a dictionary and highlights the keyword approach. (Author/VWL)
Kennedy, Michael J.; Driver, Melissa K.; Pullen, Paige C.; Ely, Emily; Cole, Mira T.
Knowledge of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach students to develop PA is an important component of teacher preparation given its role in learning to read. We believe multimedia can play a key role in improving how educators acquire, master, and prepare to implement evidence-based reading instruction in any nation. One multimedia-based…
Cervetti, Gina N.; Tilson, Jennifer L.; Castek, Jill; Bravo, Marco A.; Trainin, Guy
This study traces the development of a vocabulary measure designed to assess multiple types of word knowledge. The assessment, which was administered in conjunction with a science unit about weather and the water cycle for third-and-fourth graders, included items for six knowledge types--recognition, definition, classification/example, context,…
Chen, Kuang Yu
Success in reading comprehension is usually seen as fundamental to the academic success of foreign language learners. Many language factors affect second language learners' reading comprehension, such as vocabulary, and syntactic or grammatical knowledge. In practice, vocabulary breadth and depth knowledge can not be discussed separately with…
Storkel, Holly L.; Maekawa, Junko; Hoover, Jill R.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to differentiate the effect of phonotactic probability from that of neighborhood density on a vocabulary probe administered to preschool children with or without a phonological delay. Method Twenty preschool children with functional phonological delays and 34 preschool children with typical language development completed a 121 item vocabulary probe in both an expressive and receptive response format. Words on the vocabulary probe orthogonally varied on phonotactic probability and neighborhood density but were matched on age-of-acquisition, word frequency, word length, semantic set size, concreteness, familiarity, and imagability. Results Results showed an interaction between phonotactic probability and neighborhood density with variation across groups. Specifically, the optimal conditions for typically developing children were rare phonotactic probability with sparse neighborhoods and common phonotactic probability with dense neighborhoods. In contrast, only rare phonotactic probability with sparse neighborhoods was optimal for children with phonological delays. Conclusions Rare sound sequences and sparse neighborhoods may facilitate triggering of word learning for typically developing children and children with phonological delays. In contrast, common sound sequences and dense neighborhoods may facilitate configuration and engagement for typically developing children but not children with phonological delays due to their weaker phonological and/or lexical representations. PMID:20543024
Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita
Purpose The current study examined the impact of environmental factors (SES, the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children’s vocabulary skills. Method We measured vocabulary skills of 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5 and 7 who spoke Spanish as their native language and English as their second language. Data related to language environment in the home, specifically the percent of language exposure to each language and SES, were obtained from primary caregiver interviews. Primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge was measured directly using expressive and receptive vocabulary assessments in both languages. Results Multiple regression analyses indicated that primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge, the child’s percent exposure to each language, and SES were robust predictors of children’s English, but not Spanish, vocabulary skills. Conclusions These findings indicate that in the early school age, primary caregiver vocabulary skills have a stronger impact on bilingual children’s second-language than native-language vocabulary. PMID:24824882
Does knowledge of language consist of symbolic rules? How do children learn and use their linguistic knowledge? To elucidate these questions, we present a computational model that acquires phonological knowledge from a ...
Direct vocabulary instruction is 1 critical component of reading instruction. Although most students in the elementary grades need to continue building their vocabulary knowledge, students with reading difficulties are at the greatest risk of falling further behind each year in vocabulary and concept knowledge without effective instruction. This…
Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…
Staehr, Lars Stenius
This article presents an empirical study that investigates the role of vocabulary knowledge in listening comprehension with 115 advanced Danish learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). The dimensions of depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge (measured by the Vocabulary Levels Test and the Word Associates Test) were found to be…
Venegas, Annette Michè le
in that the relationship between reading comprehension and vocabulary has been well established (Beck, McKeown, & Omanson, 1987; Nagy & Herman, 1987). In elementary science, word concepts can be 2... CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Vocabulary knowledge is important for reading comprehension (Biemiller, 2003; Stahl & Nagy, 2006). Students’ knowledge of vocabulary influences...
Beattie, Rachel L.; Manis, Franklin R.
Studies have begun to focus on what skills contribute to the development of phonological awareness, an important predictor of reading attainment. One of these skills is the perception of prosody, which is the rhythm, tempo and stress of a language. To examine whether prosodic perception contributes to phonological awareness prior to reading…
There are normally two major research reasons for assessing second and foreign language (L2) knowledge: either to gauge a participant's actual level of competence/proficiency or to assess language development over a period of time. In testing, the corresponding contrasts are typically referred to as proficiency tests on the one hand and…
James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha
The phonological awareness (PA), vocabulary, and word reading abilities of 19 children with cochlear implants (CI) were assessed. Nine children had an implant early (between 2 and 3.6 years) and 10 had an implant later (between 5 and 7 years). Participants were tested twice over a 12-month period on syllable, rhyme, and phoneme awareness (see…
Makita, Kai; Yamazaki, Mika; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Koike, Takahiko; Kochiyama, Takanori; Yokokawa, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Haruyo; Sadato, Norihiro
Psychological research suggests that foreign-language vocabulary acquisition recruits the phonological loop for verbal working memory. To depict the neural underpinnings and shed light on the process of foreign language learning, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging of Japanese participants without previous exposure to the Uzbek…
Mokhtari, Kouider; Niederhauser, Dale S.
In this study, we examined 5th grade students' levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary…
Williams, Jennifer S.
In 2011, a small Midwestern school district referred an increasing number of 2nd-4th grade students, with reading problems due to phonetic and phonological awareness deficits, to the district's intervention team. Framed in Shulman's pedagogical content knowledge model and the International Dyslexia Association's phonological deficit…
Lefebvre, Pascal; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann
The current study compares the effects of two shared storybook reading (SSR) interventions on language and emergent literacy skills of low-income preschoolers. The control intervention targeted language and print awareness, skills for which there is strong evidence of the effect of SSR. The experimental intervention added a focus on phonological…
Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Filippi, Roberto; Harth, Helen; Price, Cathy J.
Using behavioral, structural, and functional imaging techniques, we demonstrate contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure in 47 healthy volunteers who ranged in age from 7 to 73 years. In the left posterior supramarginal gyrus, vocabulary knowledge was positively correlated with gray matter density in…
Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle
The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, M[subscript age] = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and…
Alghazo, Emad M.; Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.
A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom…
Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Dye, Matthew W. G.; Hauser, Peter; Supalla, Ted R.; Bavelier, Daphne
While reading is challenging for many deaf individuals, some become proficient readers. Little is known about the component processes that support reading comprehension in these individuals. Speech-based phonological knowledge is one of the strongest predictors of reading comprehension in hearing individuals, yet its role in deaf readers is controversial. This could reflect the highly varied language backgrounds among deaf readers as well as the difficulty of disentangling the relative contribution of phonological versus orthographic knowledge of spoken language, in our case ‘English,’ in this population. Here we assessed the impact of language experience on reading comprehension in deaf readers by recruiting oral deaf individuals, who use spoken English as their primary mode of communication, and deaf native signers of American Sign Language. First, to address the contribution of spoken English phonological knowledge in deaf readers, we present novel tasks that evaluate phonological versus orthographic knowledge. Second, the impact of this knowledge, as well as memory measures that rely differentially on phonological (serial recall) and semantic (free recall) processing, on reading comprehension was evaluated. The best predictor of reading comprehension differed as a function of language experience, with free recall being a better predictor in deaf native signers than in oral deaf. In contrast, the measures of English phonological knowledge, independent of orthographic knowledge, best predicted reading comprehension in oral deaf individuals. These results suggest successful reading strategies differ across deaf readers as a function of their language experience, and highlight a possible alternative route to literacy in deaf native signers. Highlights: 1. Deaf individuals vary in their orthographic and phonological knowledge of English as a function of their language experience. 2. Reading comprehension was best predicted by different factors in oral deaf and deaf native signers. 3. Free recall memory (primacy effect) better predicted reading comprehension in deaf native signers as compared to oral deaf or hearing individuals. 4. Language experience should be taken into account when considering cognitive processes that mediate reading in deaf individuals. PMID:26379566
Rashidi, Nasser; Khosravi, Negar
This study was conducted to investigate the extent to which scores on depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge as two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge would contribute to predicting the EFL learners' reading performance with a minimum vocabulary size of 3000 word families and also to find out the difference, if any, between the reading…
, of performance in the non- word repetition task, of novel word form learning, and of the relationship between all 28 July 2009 Available online 26 September 2009 Keywords: Nonword repetition Vocabulary learning t The relationship between nonword repetition ability and vocabulary size and vocabulary learning has been a topic
This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique…
Mann, Wolfgang; Marshall, Chloe
This study explores different aspects of the mapping between phonological form and meaning of signs in British Sign Language (BSL) by means of four tasks to measure meaning recognition, form recognition, form recall, and meaning recall. The aim was to investigate whether there is a hierarchy of difficulty for these tasks and, therefore, whether…
Cho, Taehong; McQueen, James M.
Two experiments examined whether perceptual recovery from Korean consonant-cluster simplification is based on language-specific phonological knowledge. In tri-consonantal C1C2C3 sequences such as /lkt/ and /lpt/ in Seoul Korean, either C1 or C2 can be completely deleted. Seoul Koreans monitored for C2 targets (/p/ or /k/, deleted or preserved) in…
Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.
Purpose: To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method: The sample comprised 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36…
Nakayama, Masataka; Tanida, Yuki; Saito, Satoru
Serial ordering mechanisms have been investigated extensively in psychology and psycholinguistics. It has also been demonstrated repeatedly that long-term phonological knowledge contributes to serial ordering. However, the mechanisms that contribute to serial ordering have yet to be fully understood. To understand these mechanisms, we demonstrate…
Austermuehle, Dana; Kautz, Tabitha; Sprenzel, Jennifer
This action research paper depicts the teacher-developed instructional strategies to enhance vocabulary instruction among school-age students in the public school setting. The selected population spans across three school districts and includes a third grade classroom, a fifth grade classroom, as well as a select fourth and fifth grade students…
Balch, William R.
In a classroom experiment during the first week of an introductory psychology course, randomly assigned students received a pretest and then a brief training on the definitions of general-vocabulary words either related (e.g., "facilitation") or unrelated (e.g., "rendition") to 16 technical terms (e.g., "social…
Laws, Glynis; Briscoe, Josie; Ang, Su-Yin; Brown, Heather; Hermena, Ehab; Kapikian, Anna
Receptive vocabulary and associated semantic knowledge were compared within and between groups of children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing children. To overcome the potential confounding effects of speech or language difficulties on verbal tests of semantic knowledge, a novel task was devised based on picture-based semantic association tests used to assess adult patients with semantic dementia. Receptive vocabulary, measured by word-picture matching, of children with SLI was weak relative to chronological age and to nonverbal mental age but their semantic knowledge, probed across the same lexical items, did not differ significantly from that of vocabulary-matched typically developing children. By contrast, although receptive vocabulary of children with DS was a relative strength compared to nonverbal cognitive abilities (p < .0001), DS was associated with a significant deficit in semantic knowledge (p < .0001) indicative of dissociation between word-picture matching vocabulary and depth of semantic knowledge. Overall, these data challenge the integrity of semantic-conceptual development in DS and imply that contemporary theories of semantic cognition should also seek to incorporate evidence from atypical conceptual development. PMID:24830646
Montgomery, Jennifer Dawn
The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students. Models were developed and tested using multiple linear regression (MLR) to determine whether vocabulary knowledge is a statistically significant predictor of reading and science. A model was tested for reading achievement, and a model was tested for science achievement. Other independent variables in the models included socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, status as an English-language learner, status as a special education student, classification as gifted/talented, history of retention, and migrant status. Archival data from fifth-grade students in a large, urban public school district were used in the analyses. Both models were found to be statistically significant (p < .001). Findings indicated that reading vocabulary was a statistically significant predictor for both reading achievement (B = .571, p < .001) and science achievement (B = .241, p < .001). The significance of vocabulary to reading achievement confirmed past research. The role of reading vocabulary in science achievement revealed a significant, if modest, relationship. In addition, findings pointed out the significance of variables such as history of retention, gender, and status as an English-language learner. Conclusions from the study, pedagogical implications, and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming; Currie, Ashelin; Cipielewski, James
This study tested how 53 kindergarteners' expressions of depth of vocabulary knowledge and use in novel contexts were related to in-context and out-of-context test formats for 16 target words. Applying multilevel, multi-categorical Logit to all 1,696 test item responses, the authors found that kindergarteners were more likely to express deep…
Mori, Yoshiko; Calder, Toshiko M.
This study examines bilingual vocabulary knowledge in relation to arrival age among first language (L1) Japanese students attending "hoshuukoo" (i.e., supplementary academic schools for Japanese-speaking children) in the United States. It also examines the relationship between L1 Japanese and English as a second language (L2), as…
Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara
One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in the…
Lo, Yuen Yi; Murphy, Victoria A.
The aim of this study was to investigate vocabulary knowledge and growth across two different language-learning programmes in Hong Kong. The two programmes compared were English immersion programmes (IM) and regular English second-language programmes (RL2). While previous research has identified an overall advantage to IM with respect to language…
Keuleers, Emmanuel; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Pawe?; Brysbaert, Marc
We use the results of a large online experiment on word knowledge in Dutch to investigate variables influencing vocabulary size in a large population and to examine the effect of word prevalence-the percentage of a population knowing a word-as a measure of word occurrence. Nearly 300,000 participants were presented with about 70 word stimuli (selected from a list of 53,000 words) in an adapted lexical decision task. We identify age, education, and multilingualism as the most important factors influencing vocabulary size. The results suggest that the accumulation of vocabulary throughout life and in multiple languages mirrors the logarithmic growth of number of types with number of tokens observed in text corpora (Herdan's law). Moreover, the vocabulary that multilinguals acquire in related languages seems to increase their first language (L1) vocabulary size and outweighs the loss caused by decreased exposure to L1. In addition, we show that corpus word frequency and prevalence are complementary measures of word occurrence covering a broad range of language experiences. Prevalence is shown to be the strongest independent predictor of word processing times in the Dutch Lexicon Project, making it an important variable for psycholinguistic research. PMID:25715025
Mehrpour, Saeed; Rahimi, Mohammad
The present study was carried out to determine the effect of general vocabulary knowledge and gaining familiarity with the specific vocabulary content of a reading or listening comprehension test on a group of Iranian EFL learners' reading and listening comprehension ability. Two groups of male and female English majors (N = 58) participated in…
Elgort, Irina; Warren, Paul
This study investigates acquisition of second language (L2) vocabulary from reading a connected authentic text. Advanced and upper-intermediate L2 (English) participants read a long expository text for general understanding, with embedded critical vocabulary items (pseudowords). Explicit knowledge of the critical items was examined using a meaning…
Hatami, Sarvenaz; Tavakoli, Mansoor
This study determines whether breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge are related to L2 ease and success in lexical inferencing. To this end, two tests measuring vocabulary breadth and depth were administered to 50 participants. Two weeks later, all participants received an inferencing task and rated the degree of perceived ease in inferencing…
Molfese, Victoria J.; Modglin, Arlene A.; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Neamon, Jessica D.; Berg, Shelby A.; Berg, C. Jeffrey; Molnar, Andrew
Development of reading skills was examined in 4-year-old children from low-income homes attending a prekindergarten program. Fall to spring gains in letter identification were examined and compared with skills in phonological processing, rhyme detection, and environmental print, and with performance on a screening tool ("Get Ready to Read"). It…
Interlanguage Speech Intelligibility Benefit for Mandarin: Is it from shared phonological knowledge in interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit (ISIB) did not separate the effects of shared knowledge of L1 by comparing perception accuracy of Mandarin-accented English words among Mandarin listeners, English listeners
van Zeeland, Hilde
The vast majority of second language (L2) vocabulary research focuses on learners' knowledge of isolated word forms. However, it is unclear to what extent this knowledge can be used as an indicator of knowledge in context (i.e. reading and listening). This study aims to shed light on this issue by comparing ESL learners' knowledge of the meaning…
Nicolay, Anne-Catherine; Poncelet, Martine
First-language (L1) and second-language (L2) lexical development has been found to be strongly associated with phonological processing abilities such as phonological short-term memory (STM), phonological awareness, and speech perception. Lexical development also seems to be linked to attentional and executive skills such as auditory attention, flexibility, and response inhibition. The aim of this four-wave longitudinal study was to determine to what extent L2 vocabulary acquired through the particular school context of early L2 immersion education is linked to the same cognitive abilities. A total of 61 French-speaking 5-year-old kindergartners who had just been enrolled in English immersion classes were administered a battery of tasks assessing these three phonological processing abilities and three attentional/executive skills. Their English vocabulary knowledge was measured 1, 2, and 3 school years later. Multiple regression analyses showed that, among the assessed phonological processing abilities, phonological STM and speech perception, but not phonological awareness, appeared to underlie L2 vocabulary acquisition in this context of an early L2 immersion school program, at least during the first steps of acquisition. Similarly, among the assessed attentional/executive skills, auditory attention and flexibility, but not response inhibition, appeared to be involved during the first steps of L2 vocabulary acquisition in such an immersion school context. PMID:23708731
learning to read and write in English must process information from the writing system at different levels, namely, phonological, morphological, semantic and syntactic levels (e.g., Nagy, Berninger & Abbot, 2006). The role of phonological awareness (PA...
Wise, Justin C; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, Maryann; Morris, Robin D
Word and nonword identification skills were examined in a sample of 80 elementary school age students with mild intellectual disabilities and mixed etiologies who were described as struggling to learn to read by their teachers. Performance on measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary, measures of phonological awareness, and measures of word and nonword identification were included for analyses. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for chronological age and vocabulary knowledge, phonological processing accounted for a large and significant amount of unique variance of both word and nonword identification. In addition, the pattern of results found in this study is similar to that obtained with typically developing learners. As with typically developing children, measures of phonological awareness were significantly correlated with measures of both reading achievement and vocabulary knowledge. PMID:20846821
Nakayama, Masataka; Tanida, Yuki; Saito, Satoru
Serial ordering mechanisms have been investigated extensively in psychology and psycholinguistics. It has also been demonstrated repeatedly that long-term phonological knowledge contributes to serial ordering. However, the mechanisms that contribute to serial ordering have yet to be fully understood. To understand these mechanisms, we demonstrate 2 effects using triples of Japanese nonwords in immediate serial recall. One, a type of bielement frequency effect, is a retrograde compatibility effect. Bielement frequency effects are well-established phenomena whereby a 2-element sequence (e.g., "ka-re") that frequently appears in a language instantiates better recall of any sequence that includes this element (e.g., "ka-re-su-mo"). We demonstrate that bielement frequency affected both the first (e.g., "ka" for "ka-re"; retrograde compatibility effect) and second part of a sequence, indicating the existence of minicontext representations of 2-element sequences. The other effects are the position-element(s) frequency effects, whereby an element (e.g., the mora "ka") that more frequently appears in 1 position of a sequence (e.g., in the first mora of a word) than in other positions facilitates better recall of that element (i.e., the first mora). The effects demonstrated in this article indicate the long-term associations of position representations and elements. These effects are discussed in terms of the extensive learning hypothesis, which assumes that phonological structures are learned gradually. Implications for computational models are also discussed. PMID:25730304
Muter, Valerie; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.; Stevenson, Jim
The authors present the results of a 2-year longitudinal study of 90 British children beginning at school entry when they were 4 years 9 months old (range = 4 years 2 months to 5 years 2 months). The relationships among early phonological skills, letter knowledge, grammatical skills, and vocabulary knowledge were investigated as predictors of word…
Quam, Carolyn; Swingley, Daniel
Phonology provides a system by which a limited number of types of phonetic variation can signal communicative intentions at multiple levels of linguistic analysis. Because phonologies vary from language to language, acquiring the phonology of a language demands learning to attribute phonetic variation appropriately. Here, we studied the case of pitch-contour variation. In English, pitch contour does not differentiate words, but serves other functions, like marking yes/no questions and conveying emotions. We show that, in accordance with their phonology, English-speaking adults and two-year-olds do not interpret salient pitch contours as inherent to novel words. We taught participants a new word with consistent segmental and pitch characteristics, and then tested word recognition for trained and deviant pronunciations using an eyegaze-based procedure. Vowel-quality mispronunciations impaired recognition, but large changes in pitch contour did not. By age two, children already apply their knowledge of English phonology to interpret phonetic consistencies in their experience with words. PMID:20161601
Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu
In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…
Terry, Robert M.
"En peril," a variation of the television game show "Jeopardy," is a team or individual quiz game designed for use in the French language classroom. The game calls for a knowledge of thematic or topical vocabulary, drills a wide range of interrogative constructions, tests general knowledge and cultural information about the target country or…
This study investigated the longitudinal development of L2 vocabulary by 17 individual adult L2 learners in an English as a second language (ESL) instructed context over one academic year, combining a longitudinal case study design with two cross-sectional comparisons in order to enhance (a) detailed documentation addressing the idiosyncrasy of L2…
Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua
In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559
Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.; Williams, Rihana S.
The authors' goal was to examine the structural relationships among vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension in English-speaking adults. Structural equation analysis of data collected from 151 participants revealed that morphological awareness affected reading comprehension directly. Syntactic…
Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Pae, Hye K.
This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer…
Barrow, J.; Nakanishi, Y.; Ishino, H.
Aimed to determine the basic English words Japanese students are not familiar with and to develop a reliable and easy-to-use vocabulary survey. Investigated the relationship between familiarity and second language and first-language recall to judge the amount students overestimate their vocabulary when using a self-checking familiarity survey.…
Axelsson, Emma L; Perry, Lynn K; Scott, Emilly J; Horst, Jessica S
The current study investigated the role of spatial distance in word learning. Two-year-old children saw three novel objects named while the objects were either in close proximity to each other or spatially separated. Children were then tested on their retention for the name-object associations. Keeping the objects spatially separated from each other during naming was associated with increased retention for children with larger vocabularies. Children with a lower vocabulary size demonstrated better retention if they saw objects in close proximity to each other during naming. This demonstrates that keeping a clear view of objects during naming improves word learning for children who have already learned many words, but keeping objects within close proximal range is better for children at earlier stages of vocabulary acquisition. The effect of distance is therefore not equal across varying vocabulary sizes. The influences of visual crowding, cognitive load, and vocabulary size on word learning are discussed. PMID:26629672
An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning. PMID:24043509
Driver, Melissa K.; Pullen, Paige C.; Kennedy, Michael J.; Williams, Mira Cole; Ely, Emily
Teacher understanding of phonological awareness (PA) and how to teach PA is related to student outcomes; however, many teachers have an inadequate understanding of PA. The purpose of this study is to describe an intervention intended to improve preservice teachers' understanding of PA, using an example of instructional technology called…
Walker, Joanne; Hauerwas, Laura Boynton
This study was designed to simultaneously investigate the influence of phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness skills on the ability to spell inflected verbs in structured spelling tasks. Children in grades 1, 2, and 3 (n = 103) spelled inflected past and progressive tense verbs and completed awareness tasks. Developmental changes…
Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn
This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…
Koenig, Melissa A.; Woodward, Amanda L.
The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers’ (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English and secondly, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the Dutch condition; however, children with high native vocabularies successfully selected the target object for terms trained in fluent Dutch. Furthermore, children with higher vocabularies did not indicate their comprehension of Dutch terms when subsequently tested by an English speaker whereas children with low vocabulary scores responded at chance levels to both the original Dutch speaker and the second English speaker. These findings demonstrate that monolingual toddlers with proficiency in their native language are capable of learning words outside of their conventional system and may be sensitive to the boundaries that exist between language systems. PMID:22310327
Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…
! At the Gebbie Clinic, we are committed to the development of emergent literacy skills that support a child's ability to learn to read. Children who attend camp will practice phonological awareness skills while participating in listening and rhyming games, vocabulary activities, songs, crafts, and story time in a fun
Cox, Robyn; O'Brien, Katherine; Walsh, Maureen; West, Helen
This paper reports on a 10 week vocabulary focused intervention based on the Word Generation program (Snow, 2002, 2010; SERP, 2011) in primary and secondary schools, which demonstrated clear improvements, particularly with students who are EAL/D learners. Teachers across English, Science, Maths and Social Sciences developed professional learning…
Neuman, Susan B.; Dwyer, Julie
The purpose of this design experiment was to research, test, and iteratively derive principles of word learning and word organization that could help to theoretically advance our understanding of vocabulary development for low-income preschoolers. Six Head Start teachers in morning and afternoon programs and their children (N = 89) were selected…
Munro, Natalie; Lee, Kerrie; Baker, Elise
Background & Aims: Preschool and early school-aged children with specific language impairment not only have spoken language difficulties, but also are at risk of future literacy problems. Effective interventions targeting both spoken language and emergent literacy skills for this population are limited. This paper reports a feasibility study of a…
Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie
Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709
Padak, Nancy; Bromley, Karen; Rasinski, Tim; Newton, Evangeline
When young readers encounter texts that contain too many unfamiliar words, their comprehension suffers. Reading becomes slow, laborious, and frustrating, impeding their learning. That's why vocabulary knowledge is a key element in reading comprehension. To comprehend fully and learn well, all students need regular vocabulary exploration.…
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…
Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha
We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…
Rydland, Veslemoy; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover; Fulland, Helene
This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global…
Connor, Carol McDonald; Rice, Diana C.; Canto, Angela I.; Southerland, Sherry A.; Underwood, Phyllis; Kaya, Sibel; Fishman, Barry; Morrison, Frederick J.
The associations among second- and third-grade students' content-area knowledge, vocabulary, and reading gains and the science instruction they received were examined in this exploratory longitudinal study. We also asked whether there were child characteristics x instruction interaction effects on students' content-area literacy. Second graders (n…
Suerdem, Ahmet; Bauer, Martin W; Howard, Susan; Ruby, Luke
To reflect further on 20 years of the journal, we present a lexicographic and bibliometric study of all papers published in Public Understanding of Science (PUS). Lexicographical analysis of the vocabulary of 465 abstracts shows five classes of associated concepts in two periods, 1992-2001 and 2002-2010. The concern for public attitudes and mass media coverage remains on the card; while language has shifted from 'public understanding' to 'public engagement' and environmental concerns have waned then waxed. The bibliometric analysis traces the position of PUS in the inter-citation network of 165 related journals (ISI Web of Science citation database), grouped into 10 disciplines for the purpose of this analysis. Indicators derived from network logic show that the established position of PUS has been stable since 1997. PUS serves a varied brokerage role as gatekeeper into and liaison maker between disciplines. Its inter-citation network position allows PUS to perform inter-disciplinary boundary spanning work that offers a safe space for experimentation with ideas. PMID:23832881
Kong, Na Young
Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary...
The article discusses models of synchronic and diachronic phonology and suggests changes in them. The basic generative model of phonology is outlined with the author's reinterpretations. The systematic phonemic level is questioned in terms of its unreality with respect to linguistic performance and its lack of validity with respect to historical…
There are individual differences in the amount and type of vocabulary that adults produce to young children in the home environment before the children enter school. How many words a mother knows is a significant predictor of a child's vocabulary. The current study addressed the question of whether there were individual differences in the amount…
Trostle, Susan; Hicks, Sandy Jean
Compares effects of storytelling versus story reading on comprehension and vocabulary development of 32 British primary children. States one group listened to stories in storytelling style, the other group listened to stories read by a student teacher. Finds children who witnessed storytelling scored higher on comprehension/vocabulary measures…
Golkar, Maryam; Yamini, Mortaza
This study set out to empirically determine the reliability and validity of the Vocabulary Levels Tests, both the passive and productive versions. Furthermore, attempt was made to investigate the nature of the students' vocabulary knowledge with regard to their passive and active knowledge of the L2 words as a whole and at different word frequency…
This article makes use of Perfetti's Lexical Quality Hypothesis as a perspective for thinking about vocabulary instruction in terms of semantics (meaning), phonology (pronunciation), orthography (spelling), morphology (meaningful word parts), and syntax (how words function in sentences). Examples are presented of how these aspects of vocabulary…
The first report of a connection between vocabulary learning and phonological short-term memory was published in 1988 (Baddeley, Papagno, & Vallar, 1988). At that time, both Susan Gathercole and I were involved in longitudinal studies, investigating the relation between nonword repetition and language learning. We both found a connection. Now,…
Ahangar, Abbas Ali; Izadi, Mehri
The internet has developed into an important source of knowledge in recent times. It is used not just for engaging and entertaining users, but also for promoting language learning, especially for English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL and EFL) learners spending long hours using internet, 85% of all web pages are in English. This experimental…
Large Vocabulary, Multilingual Speech Recognition: Session Overview Lori LAMEL, Yoshinori SAGISAKA developed for a given language provide cruical input to speech recognition technology world-wide. However associate knowledge on speaker-independent, large vocabulary, continuous speech recognition technology among
Scarpino, Shelley E; Lawrence, Frank R; Davison, Megan D; Hammer, Carol S
This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish-English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children's 2 years in Head Start for a total of four measurement occasions. Phonological awareness was assessed during the spring of children's kindergarten year. Results indicated that English receptive vocabulary at the end of preschool predicted English phonological awareness abilities in kindergarten, whereas Spanish vocabulary was observed to have a negative predictive relationship with children's English phonological awareness abilities. However, after controlling for English vocabulary, Spanish vocabulary no longer had an effect on English phonological awareness. Broad receptive language abilities in English and Spanish did not predict later English phonological awareness skills. PMID:23258945
Swanson, H Lee; Rosston, Kelly; Gerber, Michael; Solari, Emily
The purpose of this study was to assess the roles of oral language and phonological awareness on reading performance in grade 3 bilingual students. Several hierarchical models assessed the best predictors of third grade English and Spanish word attack, word identification and reading comprehension. Predictor variables were measures of phonological awareness, expressive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary, and syntax in both English and Spanish. The results showed that within language contributions of expressive vocabulary and syntax best predicted literacy when compared to phonological awareness measures. PMID:19083366
This study aims to obtain more insight regarding the effect of multimedia learning on third grade of Thai primary pupils' achievement in Size and Depth Vocabulary of English. A quasi-experiment is applied using "one group pretest-posttest design" combined with "time series design," as well as data triangulation. The sample…
This study compared and contrasted 64 Taiwanese college freshmen's perceptions of and attitudes toward three online vocabulary flashcard websites, Quizlet, Study Stack, and Flashcard Exchange. Four types of data were collected in two freshmen English classes in a university in Taiwan from February to April 2013. Data included online flashcard…
Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Kim, Minjun; Simmons, Leslie
This study evaluated the effects of integrating science and social studies vocabulary instruction into shared book reading with low-income preschool children. Twenty-one preschool teachers and 148 children from their classrooms were randomly assigned at the class level to either the Words of Oral Reading and Language Development (WORLD)…
Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P; Mencl, W Einar
This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (a) Does the simple view of reading capture all nonrandom variation in reading comprehension? (b) Does orally assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the lexical quality hypothesis? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, and experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly played an important role in reading comprehension. The simple view of reading gave a reasonable fit to the data, although it did not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captured unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill were accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215
Holliman, Andrew J.; Wood, Clare; Sheehy, Kieron
This study considered whether sensitivity to speech rhythm can predict concurrent variance in reading attainment after individual differences in age, vocabulary, and phonological awareness have been controlled. Five- to six-year-old English-speaking children completed a battery of phonological processing assessments and reading assessments, along…
Harris, Lindsay N.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Benjamin
In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects’ spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. PMID:24389506
Schmidtke, David S; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M
The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062
Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.
The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062
Lucas, Rebecca; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier
This study investigated the extent to which children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can use orthography to facilitate vocabulary learning, as is the case for typically developing (TD) children. Forty-one children aged 7-12 years, 20 with a formal diagnosis of ASD and 21 TD peers, were taught 16 low-frequency concrete science words, such as "breccia". Half of the stimuli had the written word presented alongside a picture of the target item (orthography present: OP) while the remaining items were taught with orthography absent (OA). During the learning phase, eye movements were recorded; there were no group differences in the time spent fixating the written form. Production, comprehension, and recognition of orthographic forms of new words were assessed immediately after learning and again after a 24-hour delay. The vocabulary learning of both groups was facilitated by the presence of orthography. Overall, the groups did not differ in comprehension of new words or recognition of new orthographic forms, although the children with ASD demonstrated superior phonological learning (as measured by a picture naming task) relative to TD peers. Additionally, both groups retained or increased new knowledge after 24 hours. The results suggest that presenting the written form during oral vocabulary teaching will enhance learning and provide a mechanism for children with ASD to increase word knowledge despite potential limitations in social learning. PMID:24313313
Anvari, Sima H; Trainor, Laurel J; Woodside, Jennifer; Levy, Betty Ann
We examined the relations among phonological awareness, music perception skills, and early reading skills in a population of 100 4- and 5-year-old children. Music skills were found to correlate significantly with both phonological awareness and reading development. Regression analyses indicated that music perception skills contributed unique variance in predicting reading ability, even when variance due to phonological awareness and other cognitive abilities (math, digit span, and vocabulary) had been accounted for. Thus, music perception appears to tap auditory mechanisms related to reading that only partially overlap with those related to phonological awareness, suggesting that both linguistic and nonlinguistic general auditory mechanisms are involved in reading. PMID:12408958
Parra, Marisol; Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia
The relation of phonological memory to language experience and development was investigated in 41 Spanish-English bilingual first language learners. The children's relative exposure to English and Spanish and their phonological memory for English- and Spanish-like nonwords were assessed at 22 months of age, and their productive vocabulary and grammar in both languages were assessed at 25 months of age. Phonological memory for English-like nonwords was highly correlated with that for Spanish-like nonwords, and each was related to vocabulary and grammar in both languages, suggesting a language-general component to phonological memory skill. In addition, there was evidence of language-specific benefits of language exposure to phonological memory skill and of language-specific benefits of phonological memory skill to language development. PMID:20828710
A systematic analysis of the distribution of Nancowry phonological and morphological elements at word level is presented. Included is a systematically transcribed vocabulary which is ordered according to the word roots. In the section devoted to word phonology, included topics are syllabic structure, stress placement, vowel length and nasality,…
Parra, Marisol; Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia
The relation of phonological memory to language experience and development was investigated in 41 Spanish-English bilingual first language learners. The children's relative exposure to English and Spanish and their phonological memory for English- and Spanish-like nonwords were assessed at 22 months of age, and their productive vocabulary and…
Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther
Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…
Most vocabulary teaching literature advises learners to keep vocabulary notebooks to help promote vocabulary acquisition as well as learner autonomy. Yet, there have been few studies of the vocabulary notebooks kept by students studying English as a foreign language. This study examined the vocabulary notebooks kept by 124 first year English…
Investigates the interactive development of short-term memory, phonological processing and reading. Reports that phonological skills promote the acquisition of letter knowledge and that these two abilities, together with visual short term memory, lead the development of reading. (MG)
Vocabulary knowledge, which is key to the reading comprehension of English learners (ELs), must be a focus for every teacher in today's increasingly diverse schools, including those in the mainstream classroom. This article strives to increase awareness of the five characteristics of effective vocabulary instruction as well as demonstrate how such…
Manyak, Patrick C.; Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau
In this column Manyak and Bauer summarize key research addressing the English vocabulary development of English learners (ELs) and distill implications for instructional practice. First, the authors discuss several key studies that demonstrate the limitation of many ELs' English vocabulary knowledge and the negative impact of this limitation on…
Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.
Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…
Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca
To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…
Students' knowledge of morphology can play a critical role in vocabulary development, and by extension, reading comprehension and writing. This reflection describes the nature of this knowledge and how it may be developed through the examination of generative vocabulary knowledge and the role of the spelling system in developing this knowledge. In…
Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline
Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…
Stegall, Joanna Burns
Vocabulary is vital for success in secondary content area curricula and students with learning disabilities often have limited vocabulary knowledge which inhibits their success in secondary-level content area classes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an explicit algebra vocabulary intervention with graphic…
Kong, Na Young
Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary that supplements the Tier 1 core curriculum in language. Recent findings from research developing a…
Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.
Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…
This paper presents an approximate replication of Milton's (2007) study on lexical profiles and learning style. Milton investigated the assumption that more frequent words are acquired before less frequent ones. Using a vocabulary recognition test ("X-Lex") to measure vocabulary size, Milton found that L2 English group profiles show…
Shiotsu, Toshihiko; Weir, Cyril J.
In the componential approach to modelling reading ability, a number of contributory factors have been empirically validated. However, research on their relative contribution to explaining performance on second language reading tests is limited. Furthermore, the contribution of knowledge of syntax has been largely ignored in comparison with the…
Nimbkar, Jai; Berntsen, Maxine
This book is part of a set of elementary and intermediate Marathi teaching materials. It consists of three parts: a classified vocabulary, a Marathi-English vocabulary, and an English-Marathi vocabulary. The classified vocabulary presents lists of words the student needs in talking about the natural world and the material culture. The…
Fitzpatrick, Tess; Clenton, Jon
This paper assesses the performance of a vocabulary test designed to measure second language productive vocabulary knowledge.The test, Lex30, uses a word association task to elicit vocabulary, and uses word frequency data to measure the vocabulary produced. Here we report firstly on the reliability of the test as measured by a test-retest study, a…
Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K; Jost, Lea B; Raith, Margit; Maurer, Urs
During reading acquisition children learn to recognize orthographic stimuli and link them to phonology and semantics. The present study investigated neurocognitive processes of learning to read after one year of schooling. We aimed to elucidate the cognitive processes underlying neural tuning for print that has been shown to play an important role for reading and dyslexia. A 128-channel EEG was recorded while 68 (Swiss-)German monolingual first grade children (mean age: 7.6) performed a one-back task with different types of letter and false-font strings. Print tuning was indexed by the N1 difference in the ERPs between German words and false-font strings, while the N1 lexicality effect was indexed by the difference between German words and pseudowords. In addition, we measured reading fluency, rapid automatized naming, phonological awareness, auditory memory span, and vocabulary. After one year of formal reading instruction N1 print tuning was clearly present at the group level, and could be detected at the individual level in almost 90% of the children. The N1 lexicality effect, however, could not be reliably found. On the cognitive level, next to word-reading fluency, vocabulary was also associated with N1 print tuning, but not measures reflecting phonological processing. These results demonstrate the presence of print tuning in the first year of reading acquisition and its development at the individual level. Moreover, individual differences in print tuning are not only related to word-reading fluency, but also to semantic knowledge, indicating that at early stages of learning to read the top-down modulation of print tuning is semantic rather than phonological in nature. PMID:24863157
Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence
Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3  accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) , which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their collaborators using SISSvoc3, including: * geologic timescale (multiple versions) * soils classification * definitions from OGC standards * geosciml vocabularies * mining commodities * hyperspectral scalars Several other agencies in Australia have adopted SISSvoc3 for their vocabularies. SISSvoc3 differs from other SKOS-based vocabulary-access APIs such as GEMET  and NVS  in that (a) the service is decoupled from the content store, (b) the service URI is independent of the content URIs This means that a SISSvoc3 interface can be deployed over any SKOS vocabulary which is available at a SPARQL endpoint. As an example, a SISSvoc3 query and presentation interface has been deployed over the NERC vocabulary service hosted by the BODC, providing a search interface which is not available natively. We use vocabulary services to populate menus in user interfaces, to support data validation, and to configure data conversion routines. Related services built on LDA have also been used as a generic registry interface, and extended for serving gazetteer information. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The CSIRO SISSvoc3 implementation is built using the Epimorphics ELDA platform http://code.google.com/p/elda/. We thank Jacqui Githaiga and Terry Rankine for their contributions to SISSvoc design and implementation. REFERENCES 1. SISSvoc3 Specification https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/wiki/Siss/SISSvoc30Specification 2. Linked Data API http://code.google.com/p/linked-data-api/wiki/Specification 3. GEMET https://svn.eionet.europa.eu/projects/Zope/wiki/GEMETWebServiceAPI 4. NVS 2.0 http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/
Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.
This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…
Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.; Fu, L.; West, P.; Ma, X.
The Linked Vocabulary API is a specification for publishing RESTful APIs of vocabularies represented in the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) as Linked Data on the web. This work began as part of the Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Vocabularies (CMSPV) project in response to the need for a standard manner for agencies to publish and consume hierarchical vocabularies on the web. The RESTful architecture of the API provides a simple mechanism for consumption of full vocabularies, single vocabulary terms, related terms, and searches on terms. The Linked Data nature of the API promotes interoperability by exposing vocabulary resources as resolvable URIs that may be referenced from other vocabularies or sources of Linked Data and by allowing the published vocabulary to contain references as links to terms from other vocabularies. The Linked Vocabulary API is formally defined in a Linked Data API specification and may be deployed using standard implementations of the Linked Data API such as the Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA). Recent presentations of work done with the Linked Vocabulary API as part of the CMSPV project have resulted in the API receiving growing interest from the broader scientific community. In this contribution we present the Linked Vocabulary API design and deployment process.
The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679
Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W.
How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et…
Moskowitz, Arlene I.
This paper deals with methods and models appropriate to the systematic linguistic study of the child's acquisiton of phonology. Sections I through IV present a review of previous studies in the field, discuss the usefulness of the concept of "innateness," discriminate between phonetic and phonological ability, and discuss the concept of discrete…
Ryan, Kevin Michael
Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…
Punch, Marion; Robinson, Maureen
Suggests mnemonic tricks to help elementary students learn social studies vocabulary. Argues that traditional vocabulary teaching methods using list, definition, and oral and written use provides only a momentary link with the vocabulary. Lists 20 words with definitions and strategies for remembering both words and definitions. (DK)
Baumann, James F.; Graves, Michael F.
In this article, the authors address the construct of "academic vocabulary." First, they attempt to bring some clarity to a constellation of terms surrounding academic vocabulary. Second, they compare and contrast definitions of academic vocabulary. Third, they review typologies that researchers and writers have proposed to organize academic…
Fehr, Charles Norman
Learning to read requires knowledge of word meanings for those words most commonly encountered in basic reading materials. Many young students lack the basic vocabulary knowledge needed to facilitate learning to read. Two randomized studies were conducted to test the effects of an online, computer-adaptive vocabulary instruction program designed…
Yang, Hui-Chi; Sun, Yu-Chih
OpenCourseWare (OCW) has received increasing attention over the past few years in higher education. These courses provide appealing opportunities to view classes taught in well-established universities worldwide. The current study aims to examine how OCW lectures can serve as authentic learning materials to facilitate vocabulary acquisition for…
Puolakanaho, Anne; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Eklund, Kenneth; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Tolvanen, Asko; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki
Background: Analyses from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia project show that the key childhood predictors (phonological awareness, short-term memory, rapid naming, expressive vocabulary, pseudoword repetition, and letter naming) of dyslexia differentiate the group with reading disability (n = 46) and the group without reading problems…
Wong, Richard Kwok-Shing; MacWhinney, Brian
This paper highlights the crucial role of phonological instruction in early second language English learning. Although older learners can acquire grammar and vocabulary efficiently, younger learners appear to have a greater facility with the learning of sounds. Thus, it makes good sense to focus on articulatory skills for these early learners. By…
Mulak, Karen E.; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.; Kitamura, Christine; Irwin, Julia R.
By 12 months, children grasp that a phonetic change to a word can change its identity (phonological distinctiveness). However, they must also grasp that some phonetic changes do not (phonological constancy). To test development of phonological constancy, 16 15-month-olds and 16 19-month-olds completed an eye-tracking task that tracked their gaze to named versus unnamed images for familiar words spoken in their native (Australian) and an unfamiliar non-native (Jamaican) regional accent of English. Both groups looked longer at named than unnamed images for Australian pronunciations, but only 19-month-olds did so for Jamaican pronunciations, indicating that phonological constancy emerges by 19 months. Vocabulary size predicted 15-month-olds' identifications for the Jamaican pronunciations, suggesting vocabulary growth is a viable predictor for phonological constancy development. PMID:23521607
Davidson, Lisa S.; Geers, Ann E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.
Objectives A Novel Word Learning (NWL) paradigm was used to explore underlying phonological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for delayed vocabulary level in children with cochlear implants (CIs). Methods 101 children using CIs, 6–12 years old, were tested along with 47 children with normal hearing (NH). Tests of NWL, receptive vocabulary, and speech perception at 2 loudness levels were administered to children with CIs. Those with NH completed the NWL task and a receptive vocabulary test. CI participants with good audibility (GA) versus poor audibility (PA) were compared on all measures. Analysis of variance was used to compare performance across the children with NH and the two groups of children with CIs. Multiple regression analysis was employed to identify independent predictors of vocabulary outcomes. Results Children with CIs in the GA group scored higher in receptive vocabulary and NWL than children in the PA group, although they did not reach NH levels. CI-Aided PTA and performance on the NWL task predicted independent variance in vocabulary after accounting for other known predictors. Discussion Acquiring spoken vocabulary is facilitated by good audibility with a CI and phonological learning and memory skills. Children with CIs did not learn novel words at the same rate or achieve the same receptive vocabulary levels as their NH peers. Maximizing audibility for the perception of speech and direct instruction of new vocabulary may be necessary for children with CIs to reach levels seen in peers with NH. PMID:23998324
Tattersall, Patricia J.; Nelson, Nickola Wolf; Tyler, Ann A.
Prior research has shown possible relations among nonword repetition (NWR), vocabulary, and phonological processing skills in children with and without language impairment. This study was designed to investigate whether relationships would differ for students with primary language impairment (PLI) and typical language (TL) and whether they would…
Mengoni, Sylvana E.; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles
Children with Down syndrome typically have weaknesses in oral language, but it has been suggested that this domain may benefit from learning to read. Amongst oral language skills, vocabulary is a relative strength, although there is some evidence of difficulties in learning the phonological form of spoken words. This study investigated the effect…
Mosse, Emma K.; Jarrold, Christopher
Purpose: Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to…
McDowell, Kimberly D.; Carroll, Jeri
The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the relations between speech sound accuracy, vocabulary, and phonological awareness, and (2) to examine the effect of word properties of neighborhood density and phonotactic probability on word learning within a storybook context, for children with and without speech sound inaccuracies. Fifty…
The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.
Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria; Flynn, Lindsay J.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.
This article describes the efforts of a U.S. History teacher to directly teach word meanings using the "robust vocabulary instruction" (RVI) approach, because research supports this method as a way to improve vocabulary knowledge for a range of students, including adolescents reading below grade level (i.e., struggling readers) and…
Although vocabulary development is an important part of the social studies curriculum, vocabulary activities are often inadequate, leaving students with cursory knowledge of terms. Worse still is the fact that many of the most critical words demarcating the field are not included in those activities. Therefore, a transformation from viewing…
Ferris, Todd A; Podchiyska, Tanya
Self-service cohort discovery tools strive to provide intuitive interfaces to large Clinical Data Warehouses that contain extensive historic information. In those tools, controlled vocabulary (e.g., ICD-9-CM, CPT) coded clinical information is often the main search criteria used because of its ubiquity in billing processes. These tools generally require a researcher to pick specific terms from the controlled vocabulary. However, controlled vocabularies evolve over time as medical knowledge changes and can even be replaced with new versions (e.g., ICD-9 to ICD-10). These tools generally only display the current version of the controlled vocabulary. Researchers should not be expected to understand the underlying controlled vocabulary versioning issues. We propose a computable controlled vocabulary versioning system that allows cohort discovery tools to automatically expand queries to account for terminology changes. PMID:26262383
Crevecoeur, Yvel C.; Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy
We examined data from an 18-week kindergarten vocabulary intervention study to determine whether treatment outcomes had differential effects that favored English language learners (ELLs) or English-only learners (EOLs) and whether the relationship between initial English general receptive vocabulary knowledge and response to vocabulary…
Dalton, Bridget; Grisham, Dana L.
Vocabulary knowledge is key to comprehension and expression. For students in the intermediate grades, the need for breadth and depth of vocabulary accelerates as they encounter more challenging academic texts in print and on the Internet. Drawing on research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning, this article presents…
Samuels, Bridget D.
This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…
Jackson, Jeanne R.; Dizney, Henry
This study evaluated effects of a year-long intensive vocabulary program on the reading achievement of 12th-grade college-preparatory English students. A control class followed the regular course of study, and an experimental class supplemented it with completion of the "Harbrace Vocabulary Workshop" workbook, study of the use of footnotes and the…
Williamson, Leon E.
Most college vocabulary books lack the sophistication of a complex. Rather, they reflect the characteristics of congeries or disparate objects grouped together without any logical basis. Vocabulary study in college should focus on the process of concept formation in all its complexity, with emphasis on the relationship between the specific and…
Berntsen, Maxine; Nimbkar, Jai
Part of a set of Marathi teaching materials, this book is designed to help the student learn vocabulary through the association of printed words and pictures. The book represents more than 400 basic vocabulary items in pictorial form. It includes sketches of the natural world, the human body, clothing, house and furnishings, town and village,…
Fillmer, H. Thompson
Describes the use of Georgi Lozanov's technique using rhythm, breathing, music, and meditation to bring about hypermnesia, or supermemory, to teach vocabulary to 15 university students. Reviews students' vocabulary gains, as seen in pre- and post-test scores, and describes how some students implemented superlearning techniques with their own…
Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas
The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791
Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas
The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791
This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.
Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.
Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364
Hairrell, Angela R.
Among the multiple dimensions of reading, vocabulary knowledge and strategies are essential to skilled reading. As a result, this two-part dissertation (a) systematically examines the vocabulary intervention research, in ...
Townsend, Dianna; Kiernan, Darl
The purpose of this teaching tip is to share a new tool for identifying high-utility academic words from instructional texts. The Word and Phrase Tool, when paired with teacher knowledge about students and objectives, can help teachers promote the academic vocabulary development of their students.
Cohen, Marisa T.
A major component of literacy is "vocabulary," or the words employed by a language or in a field of knowledge. Understanding novel words and concepts is important for young students as they are confronted with a great deal of new terminology in the passages they read, especially in content areas such as science. Science is a discipline that relies…
Elliott, Deborah A.; Formhals, Marilyn A.; Wheat, Jon G.
This research addressed vocabulary knowledge, which refers to the understanding of words, the overall ideas and concepts being communicated, and the ability to use those words in the appropriate context. The targeted population consisted of students in kindergarten, first grade, and fourth grade. An analysis of School Improvement Plans revealed a…
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Driscoll, Kimberly; Phillips, Beth M.; Cantor, Brenlee G.; Anthony, Jason L.; Goldstein, Howard
A study evaluated the use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to provide training in phonological sensitivity skills to 45 preschool children at-risk for reading problems. Children exposed to CAI made significantly greater gains on rhyming and elision skills compared to controls. Expressive vocabulary scores were predictive of pre- to posttest…
Wise, Justin C.; Sevcik, Rose A.; Romski, MaryAnn; Morris, Robin D.
Word and nonword identification skills were examined in a sample of 80 elementary school age students with mild intellectual disabilities and mixed etiologies who were described as struggling to learn to read by their teachers. Performance on measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary, measures of phonological awareness, and measures of word…
Rvachew, Susan; Nowak, Michele; Cloutier, Genevieve
Children with expressive phonological delays often possess poor underlying perceptual knowledge of the sound system and show delayed development of segmental organization of that system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of a perceptual approach to the treatment of expressive phonological delay. Thirty-four preschoolers with moderate or severe expressive phonological delays received 16 treatment sessions in addition to their regular speech-language therapy. The experimental group received training in phonemic perception, letter recognition, letter-sound association, and onset-rime matching. The control group listened to computerized books. The experimental group showed greater improvements in phonemic perception and articulatory accuracy but not in phonological awareness in comparison with the control group. PMID:15339234
Gafos, Adamantios I.; Benus, Stefan
A fundamental problem in spoken language is the duality between the continuous aspects of phonetic performance and the discrete aspects of phonological competence. We study 2 instances of this problem from the phenomenon of voicing neutralization and vowel harmony. In each case, we present a model where the experimentally observed continuous…
Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris
This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…
Gillon, Gail T.
This unique resource provides a comprehensive review of current knowledge about phonological awareness, together with practical guidance for helping preschoolers to adolescents acquire needed skills. Up-to-date findings are synthesized on the development of phonological awareness; its role in literacy learning; and how it can be enhanced in…
Kjeldsen, A.-C.; Niemi, P.; Olofsson, A.
Findings from a study of 108 Swedish-speaking Finnish kindergarten children show that the benefits of phonological training on reading skills can be obtained even in less favorable conditions with a smaller dose of training than that studies by I. Lundberg and others (1988) when the kindergarten culture is full of knowledge of phonological…
Kjeldsen, Ann-Christina; Kärnä, Antti; Niemi, Pekka; Olofsson, Åke; Witting, Katarina
The effects of a kindergarten training program in phonological awareness with 209 Swedish-speaking children were followed up until the end of Grade 9. Initial levels of letter knowledge and phonological awareness were positively associated with the level of decoding skill in Grade 3 but not with its growth afterward. The intervention group…
Mayer, Connie; Trezek, Beverly J.
A quarter century ago, Hanson (1989) asked, "Is reading different for deaf individuals?" (p. 85). Appealing to evidence available at the time, she argued that skilled deaf readers, like their hearing counterparts, relied on their knowledge of English structure, including phonological information. This perspective on the role phonology…
Huettig, Falk; McQueen, James M.
Experiments 1 and 2 examined the time-course of retrieval of phonological, visual-shape and semantic knowledge as Dutch participants listened to sentences and looked at displays of four pictures. Given a sentence with "beker," "beaker," for example, the display contained phonological (a beaver, "bever"), shape (a bobbin, "klos"), and semantic (a…
Henderson, Lisa; Weighall, Anna; Gaskell, Gareth
Research suggests that word learning is an extended process, with offline consolidation crucial for the strengthening of new lexical representations and their integration with existing lexical knowledge (as measured by engagement in lexical competition). This supports a dual memory systems account, in which new information is initially sparsely encoded separately from existing knowledge and integrated with long-term memory over time. However, previous studies of this type exploited unnatural learning contexts, involving fictitious words in the absence of word meaning. In this study, 5- to 9-year-old children learned real science words (e.g., hippocampus) with or without semantic information. Children in both groups were slower to detect pauses in familiar competitor words (e.g., hippopotamus) relative to control words 24h after training but not immediately, confirming that offline consolidation is required before new words are integrated with the lexicon and engage in lexical competition. Children recalled more new words 24h after training than immediately (with similar improvements shown for the recall and recognition of new word meanings); however, children who were exposed to the meanings during training showed further improvements in recall after 1 week and outperformed children who were not exposed to meanings. These findings support the dual memory systems account of vocabulary acquisition and suggest that the association of a new phonological form with semantic information is critical for the development of stable lexical representations. PMID:23981272
Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl
We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of . However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF . Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.
will also address the marriage of thesauri and other knowledge organization systems with dictionariesEnriched thesauri as networked knowledge bases for people and machines Paper presented at the CENDI - differentiated relationships that allow an extension of thesauri to include precise representation of large
Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua
In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…
Walters, JoDee; Bozkurt, Neval
Vocabulary notebooks are frequently advocated as a way for students to take control of their vocabulary learning (Fowle, 2002), with the added benefit of improvements in vocabulary learning (Schmitt and Schmitt, 1995; Laufer and Nation, 1999). The study described in this article attempts to lend empirical support to these claims, by investigating…
Ghabanchi, Zargham; Anbarestani, Mojgan
Foreign language learning is a challenging task, involving mastering a new sound system, phonological and syntactical forms, vocabulary, and sometimes a new writing system. For the adult second language learner, one of the most frustrating aspects is having an inadequate vocabulary for expressing complex ideas that are so easy to relate in one's…
Kim, Scott Sungki
The present research study investigated the effects of 8 versions of a computer-based vocabulary learning program on receptive and productive knowledge levels of college students. The participants were 106 male and 103 female Korean EFL students from Kyungsung University and Kwandong University in Korea. Students who participated in versions of…
Biemiller, Andrew; Rosenstein, Mark; Sparks, Randall; Landauer, Thomas K.; Foltz, Peter W.
Determining word meanings that ought to be taught or introduced is important for educators. A sequence for vocabulary growth can be inferred from many sources, including testing children's knowledge of word meanings at various ages, predicting from print frequency, or adult-recalled Age of Acquisition. A new approach, Word Maturity, is based…
Taveggia, Diane Elizabeth
Vocabulary, both the number of words and the knowledge about each word, are important in the comprehension of academic text in post-secondary education, and adult English language learners often have vocabularies of low quantity (number of words) and quality (knowledge about words). Research points to the effectiveness of teaching independent…
Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean
When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…
Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane
Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X?XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal. PMID:24959158
Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.
The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…
Stemberger, Joseph Paul
It has been shown that the processing of irregular past-tense forms is affected by phonological factors that are inherent in the relationship of the past-tense forms to other words in the lexicon (rhyming families of irregulars) or to their base forms (vowel dominance effects). This paper addresses more ephemeral phonological effects. In a…
Webb, Stuart A.; Sasao, Yosuke
There have been great strides made in research on vocabulary in the last 30 years. However, there has been relatively little progress in the development of new vocabulary tests. This may be due in some degree to the impressive contributions made by tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (Nation, 1983; Schmitt et al., 2001) and the Word…
Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…
Containing numerous vocabulary-building activities and exercises, this guidebook is designed to help elementary students learn to manipulate language as they gain concrete experiences with words, increase their "word power," and have fun. The activities described involve dictionary games, synonyms, "saidonyms" (alternatives for the overused word…
Gottardo, Alexandra; Collins, Penny; Baciu, Iuliana; Gebotys, Robert
We examined the components of first (L1) and second language (L2) phonological processing that are related to L2 word reading and vocabulary. Spanish-speaking English learners (EL) were classified as average or low readers in grades 1 and 2. A large number of children who started out as poor readers in first grade became average readers in second…
Ziolkowski, Robyn A.; Goldstein, Howard
Efficacy of an explicit phonological awareness intervention embedded within repeated shared book reading with preschool children from low-income backgrounds with language delays was investigated. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors assessed the effects of phonological awareness training on rhyme and letter-sound knowledge with 13 preschool…
This paper examines several research assumptions and procedures of two recent studies of interlanguage (IL) phonology that use 'syllable structure' as a primary variable, but make opposing claims about 'open' and 'closed' IL syllable structure...
Do, Young Ah
What is the initial state of the grammar when children begin to figure out patterns of phonological alternations? This thesis documents the developmental stages of children acquiring Korean verb and noun paradigms, and ...
REFERRAL FORM PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS CLINIC Concerns regarding communication Please return this form to: Clinical Administrator Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Department of Communication Ethnicity: Referred by: Relationship: Address: Postal code: GP name: Practice: Parents/Caregivers name
Marfo, Charles Ofosu
This paper discusses the phonology-syntax interface in Akan, a language spoken in Ghana and the Cote d'Ivoire, describing a medium of exchange between phonology and syntax. Studies in lexical phonology have distinguished two levels in phonology--lexical and post-lexical--based on how and where phonological rules apply, although some phonological…
Vadasy, Patricia F.; Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.
This study examines the longer term effectiveness of a standard protocol, Tier 2 supplemental vocabulary intervention for kindergarten English learners, designed to develop root word vocabulary knowledge and reinforce beginning word reading skills. Participating students in the original study ("n" = 93 treatment, 92 control) received 20 weeks of…
Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary S.; Ryan, Tammy
Children's literature is a primary source for introducing young children to new words at home and at school, and children's early vocabulary knowledge is a key component of oral language, which is essential for comprehension. This column is focused on children from low socioeconomic backgrounds who frequently find themselves in a vocabulary…
Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana; Schmitt, Norbert
Despite a number of research studies investigating the Yes-No vocabulary test format, one main question remains unanswered: What is the best scoring procedure to adjust for testee overestimation of vocabulary knowledge? Different scoring methodologies have been proposed based on the inclusion and selection of nonwords in the test. However, there…
Holmes, Kerry; Holmes, Stacy V.; Watts, Karley
Vocabulary knowledge is important because it is highly correlated with content area learning. Strategies for vocabulary instruction recommend using new words in multiple contexts as key to learning. To date, the term "multiple contexts" emphasizes written contexts, not three-dimensional concrete material contexts. This article describes the…
Coppens, Karien M.; Tellings, Agnes; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert
Purpose: To address the problem of low reading comprehension scores among children with hearing impairment, it is necessary to have a better understanding of their reading vocabulary. In this study, the authors investigated whether task and word type differentiate the reading vocabulary knowledge of children with and without severe hearing loss.…
Ford-Connors, Evelyn; Paratore, Jeanne R.
Increasing the vocabulary knowledge of young adolescent and adolescent students has been a focal point of educational research and many teacher professional development initiatives. Yet many teachers continue to use traditional, but generally ineffective, methods of classroom-based vocabulary instruction. Synthesizing the literature around the…
Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C.; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep
Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly…
Turner, Haley; Williams, Robert L.
Scores on a vocabulary test given at the beginning of two semesters in a large entry-level course predicted performance on multiple-choice exams more strongly than pre-course knowledge and critical thinking. Words on the vocabulary instrument were derived from multiple-choice exam items in the course. Although commonly used in the course, these…
This study investigates aspects of validity of an alternative measure of productive vocabulary. Lex30, developed by Meara and Fitzpatrick, is a word association task that claims to give an indication of productive vocabulary knowledge. Previous studies of Lex30 have assessed test-retest reliability, performance against native speaker norms,…
Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda
Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…
-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to studies of monolingual phonological processing, phonotactic probability, the likelihood of occurrence of a sound sequence, influences both word recognition...
Claessen, Mary; Leitão, Suze; Kane, Robert; Williams, Cori
In order to provide effective intervention for children with specific language impairment (SLI), it is crucial that there is an understanding of the underlying deficit in SLI. This study utilized a battery of phonological processing tasks to compare the phonological processing skills of children with SLI to typically-developing peers matched for age or language. The children with SLI had significantly poorer performance than age-matched peers on measures of phonological representations, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, phonological short-term memory, and one measure of working memory. Of particular significance, the SLI group also demonstrated significantly weaker performance than language-matched peers on one measure of phonological representations, and one measure of working memory. The findings provide some support for a phonological processing account of SLI and highlight the utility of using tasks that draw on a comprehensive model of speech processing to profile and consider children's phonological processing skills in detail. PMID:23327452
Sullivan, Emilie Paul
A study investigated the effect of using read-along materials on the acquisition of incidental sight reading vocabulary for prereaders and beginning readers. Specifically, the study examined whether such readers acquired sight vocabulary words from exposure to read-along materials and the types of words that were learned more readily than others.…
Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.
This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…
Vocabulary teaching and learning constitute a major problem for EFL instructors and students. The pretest showed that freshman students at COLT have difficulty in pronouncing, recognizing the meaning of, using and spelling English words. In their first semester, freshman students are required to take a vocabulary course that consists of 50 lessons…
Kindergarten teachers use a variety of strategies that focus on vocabulary development. A common and effective practice to introduce new vocabulary to kindergarteners is reading storybooks to children, what is commonly known as "read-alouds" (Bus, van Ijzendoorn, & Pelligrini, 1995; Christ & Wang, 2010; Newton, Padak &…
Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy Kar-Man; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Au, Terry Kit-fong
Phonological processing skills predict early reading development, but what underlies developing phonological processing skills? Phonological representations of 140 native Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (age 4-10) were assessed with speech gating, mispronunciation detection, and nonword repetition tasks; their nonverbal IQ, reading, and…
A fundamental concept of generative phonology stating that related morphemes have unique phonological representations is criticized. It is argued that more morphologization of phonological rules is needed to explain morphophonemic changes. (Available from North-Holland Publishing Co., P. O. Box 211, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.) (CHK)
White, James Clifford
Understanding how people learn the phonological patterns of their language is a major challenge facing the field of phonology. In this dissertation, I approach the issue of phonological learning by focusing on "saltatory" alternations, which occur when two alternating sounds "leap over" an intermediate, invariant sound (e.g.,…
A DISCOVERY PROCEDURE FOR CERTAIN PHONOLOGICAL RULES Mark Johnson Linguistics, UCSD. ABSTRACT Acquisition of phonological systems can be insightfully studied in terms of discovery procedures. This paper describes a discovery procedure, implemented in Lisp, capable of deter- mining a set of ordered phonological
Wheeler, Max W.
Examines some of the rules of atomic phonology so as to elucidate just what the theory is and is not capable of. The theory of atomic phonology maintains that all linguistic variation requiring distinctly varied formulations of phonological rules is predictable from a set of "atomic rules" and universal principles of grammar. (SED)
Pittman, Ramona Trinette
Given the importance of the role of spelling in literacy, it is important to have knowledge of the linguistic features that allow students to be successful spellers. Having phonological, morphological, and orthographic ...
Bigham, Vicki Smith
Answers common questions about the Internet, i.e., what it is, its components, and the definitions of its various features. Questions include what Web pages and browsers are, and the definitions of URLs, ISPs, home pages, search engines, and hyperlinks. (GR)
Baharudin, Harun; Ismail, Zawawi
Vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size are among the main factors that help determine how students learn second language vocabulary. The present study was an attempt to exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and Arabic vocabulary size of 742 pre-university in "Religious High School" (SMKA) and…
Patrick, Timothy B.; Reid, John C.; Sievert, MaryEllen; Popescu, Mihail; Gigantelli, James W.; Shelton, Mark E.; Schiffman, Jade S.
Describes work by the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) to expand the standardized vocabulary, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), to accommodate a definitive ophthalmic standardized vocabulary. Mapped a practice-based clinical ophthalmic vocabulary to SNOMED and other vocabularies in the Metathesaurus of the Unified Medical…
Tomblin, J. Bruce; Catts, Hugh
Purpose Individual differences in vocabulary development may affect academic or social opportunities. It has been proposed that individual differences in word reading could affect the rate of vocabulary growth, mediated by the amount of reading experience, a process referred to as a Matthew effect (Stanovich, 1986). Method In the current study, assessments of written word–reading skills in the 4th grade and oral vocabulary knowledge collected in kindergarten and in the 4th, 8th, and 10th grades from a large epidemiologically based sample (n = 485) allowed a test of the relationship of early word-reading skills and the subsequent rate of vocabulary growth. Results Consistent with the hypothesis, multilevel modeling revealed the rate of vocabulary growth after the 4th grade to be significantly related to 4th-grade word reading after controlling for kindergarten vocabulary level, that is, above average readers experienced a higher rate of vocabulary growth than did average readers. Conclusions Vocabulary growth rate differences accumulated over time such that the effect on vocabulary size was large. PMID:25812175
Arikan, Yuksel Deniz; Ozen, Sevil Orhan
This study focuses on the process of developing a learning environment that uses tablets and Quick Response (QR) codes to enhance participants' English language vocabulary knowledge. The author employed the concurrent triangulation strategy, a mixed research design. The study was conducted at a private school in Izmir, Turkey during the 2012-2013…
Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Wilson, Joshua
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocabulary in writing across three genres. Fifth graders (N = 105) wrote three compositions: story, persuasive, and informative. Each composition revolved around the topic of outer space to control for background knowledge. Written compositions were scored for holistic writing quality and…
The knowledge and beliefs that teachers hold are an important determiner of what happens in the classroom. Ideally teacher cognition should be informed by research and theory about effective language learning. This paper examines the beliefs related to vocabulary teaching held by a cohort of 60 Malaysian pre-service teachers engaged in a…
Despite being one of our most important and most often used modalities, listening is an area of language instruction that is often overlooked by teachers and researchers alike as fertile ground for the enhancement of students' vocabulary knowledge. For low-level learners, especially those not in full control of the first 2000 most-frequent words…
Willis, Martin; Ohashi, Yoshie
Vocabulary is an essential component of language. It is central to reading ability, writing ability and listening ability, and the most important aspect of second-language (L2) knowledge for academic achievement. The aim of this paper is to investigate quantitatively some of the factors that make some L2 words more difficult to learn and retain…
Pryle, Marilyn Bogusch
Argues that regular homophone practice enhances vocabulary knowledge, spelling skills, pronunciation ability, and overall reading proficiency. Describes how card games played with decks of homophones helped to accomplish these things. Notes particular benefits of homophone games to English-as-a-second-language students, and outlines key advantages…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2006
"Phonological Awareness Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning. Phonological awareness is a precursor to reading. "Phonological Awareness Training" can involve various…
Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya
Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…
DI PIETRO, ROBERT J.
TWO MODELS OF DESCRIPTION, GENERATIVE AND NONGENERATIVE, ARE APPLIED TO THE PHONOLOGY OF ITALIAN TO DETERMINE WHICH OF THE TWO OFFERS A SIMPLER YET MORE COMPREHENSIVE STATEMENT. THE NONGENERATIVE MODEL IS GIVEN IN A LISTING OF PHONEMES AND A BRIEF STATEMENT OF THE PHONOTACTICS AND ALLOPHONICS. THE GENERATIVE MODEL STATES THE FACTS IN 11 REWRITE…
Suleiman, Saleh M.
Linguistic borrowing from English to Jordanian Arabic at the lexical level is described, focusing on phonology and the extent to which Jordanian Arabic has affected the phonetic structure of English loans assimilated partially or completely into it. Conspicuous distinctive sound features in the two languages that may affect non-native speakers'…
Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee
Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…
Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda
Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment-these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641
Language learners often use subtitled videos to help them learn. However, standard subtitles are geared more towards comprehension than vocabulary learning, as translations are nonliteral and are provided only for phrases, ...
Puolakanaho, Anne; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Eklund, Kenneth; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Tolvanen, Asko; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki
The authors examined second grade reading accuracy and fluency and their associations via letter knowledge to phonological and language predictors assessed at 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 years in children in the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. Structural equation modeling showed that a developmentally highly stable factor (early phonological and…
McAllister, Tara Kathleen
Child phonological processes that lack counterparts in adult phonological typology have long posed a problem for formal modeling of phonological acquisition. This dissertation investigates child-specific processes with a ...
Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.
The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were…
Gray, Audra; McCutchen, Deborah
In this study, we explored the relationship between beginning readers' phonological awareness and other aspects of phonological processing, specifically as manifested in short-term memory and comprehension tasks. The theoretical questions underlying the study were (a) what roles phonological processes play in children's beginning reading, from…
Henry, Maya L; Wilson, Stephen M; Babiak, Miranda C; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Beeson, Pelagie M; Miller, Zachary A; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa
Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) show selective breakdown in regions within the proposed dorsal (articulatory-phonological) and ventral (lexical-semantic) pathways involved in language processing. Phonological STM impairment, which has been attributed to selective damage to dorsal pathway structures, is considered to be a distinctive feature of the logopenic variant of PPA. By contrast, phonological abilities are considered to be relatively spared in the semantic variant and are largely unexplored in the nonfluent/agrammatic variant. Comprehensive assessment of phonological ability in the three variants of PPA has not been undertaken. We investigated phonological processing skills in a group of participants with PPA as well as healthy controls, with the goal of identifying whether patterns of performance support the dorsal versus ventral functional-anatomical framework and to discern whether phonological ability differs among PPA subtypes. We also explored the neural bases of phonological performance using voxel-based morphometry. Phonological performance was impaired in patients with damage to dorsal pathway structures (nonfluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants), with logopenic participants demonstrating particular difficulty on tasks involving nonwords. Binary logistic regression revealed that select phonological tasks predicted diagnostic group membership in the less fluent variants of PPA with a high degree of accuracy, particularly in conjunction with a motor speech measure. Brain-behavior correlations indicated a significant association between the integrity of gray matter in frontal and temporoparietal regions of the left hemisphere and phonological skill. Findings confirm the critical role of dorsal stream structures in phonological processing and demonstrate unique patterns of impaired phonological processing in logopenic and nonfluent/agrammatic variants of PPA. PMID:26544920
Marulis, Loren M.; Neuman, Susan B.
This meta-analysis is designed to build on the existing knowledge base by examining vocabulary interventions specifically for factors associated with child outcomes for at-risk children. Specifically, the authors addressed the following questions: (1) To what extent are vocabulary interventions an effective method for at-risk children prior to…
O'Brien, Lisa M.; Paratore, Jeanne R.; Leighton, Christine M.; Cassano, Christina M.; Krol-Sinclair, Barbara; Green, Jennifer Greif
Many English language learners (ELLs) and children living in poverty begin school with substantially less English vocabulary knowledge than their monolingual, economically advantaged peers. Without effective intervention, these vocabulary gaps are likely to contribute to long-term reading failure. This quasi-experimental study examined the extent…
Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith
This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…
Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda
Research using online comprehension measures with monolingual children shows that speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition are correlated with lexical development. Here we examined speech processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary development in bilingual children learning both Spanish and English (n=26; 2;6 yrs). Between-language associations were weak: vocabulary size in Spanish was uncorrelated with vocabulary in English, and children’s facility in online comprehension in Spanish was unrelated to their facility in English. Instead, efficiency of online processing in one language was significantly related to vocabulary size in that language, after controlling for processing speed and vocabulary size in the other language. These links between efficiency of lexical access and vocabulary knowledge in bilinguals parallel those previously reported for Spanish and English monolinguals, suggesting that children’s ability to abstract information from the input in building a working lexicon relates fundamentally to mechanisms underlying the construction of language. PMID:19726000
Cardin, Velia; Orfanidou, Eleni; Kästner, Lena; Rönnberg, Jerker; Woll, Bencie; Capek, Cheryl M; Rudner, Mary
The study of signed languages allows the dissociation of sensorimotor and cognitive neural components of the language signal. Here we investigated the neurocognitive processes underlying the monitoring of two phonological parameters of sign languages: handshape and location. Our goal was to determine if brain regions processing sensorimotor characteristics of different phonological parameters of sign languages were also involved in phonological processing, with their activity being modulated by the linguistic content of manual actions. We conducted an fMRI experiment using manual actions varying in phonological structure and semantics: (1) signs of a familiar sign language (British Sign Language), (2) signs of an unfamiliar sign language (Swedish Sign Language), and (3) invented nonsigns that violate the phonological rules of British Sign Language and Swedish Sign Language or consist of nonoccurring combinations of phonological parameters. Three groups of participants were tested: deaf native signers, deaf nonsigners, and hearing nonsigners. Results show that the linguistic processing of different phonological parameters of sign language is independent of the sensorimotor characteristics of the language signal. Handshape and location were processed by different perceptual and task-related brain networks but recruited the same language areas. The semantic content of the stimuli did not influence this process, but phonological structure did, with nonsigns being associated with longer RTs and stronger activations in an action observation network in all participants and in the supramarginal gyrus exclusively in deaf signers. These results suggest higher processing demands for stimuli that contravene the phonological rules of a signed language, independently of previous knowledge of signed languages. We suggest that the phonological characteristics of a language may arise as a consequence of more efficient neural processing for its perception and production. PMID:26351993
Vohr, Betty R.; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen C.; Ment, Laura R.
BACKGROUND: Very preterm adolescents display persistent deficits in neuropsychological functions. OBJECTIVE: To compare cognitive and language outcomes at 16 years and cognitive and receptive vocabulary trajectories throughout school years between very preterm and term children and to determine child and family factors associated with better developmental trajectories. DESIGN AND METHODS: At 8, 12, and 16 years, 322 very preterm children with birth weights of 1250 g or less and 41 term children had cognitive and language testing. Hierarchical growth-curve modeling was used to delineate the differences in cognitive and receptive vocabulary development between participants. Cluster analyses allowed for the characterization of very preterm children with different patterns of cognitive and receptive vocabulary development. RESULTS: At 16 years, very preterm adolescents had deficits in general cognition and higher-order language skills (phonological awareness and phonemic decoding) compared with term peers. Although the between-group difference in cognitive scores remained stable from 8 to 16 years, very preterm children demonstrated catch-up gains in receptive vocabulary during the same period. Moreover, subgroups of very preterm children displayed developmental trajectories in cognition similar to term children (55% on the vocabulary and 46% on the block-design subtests). These children had lower rates of neurosensory impairment and mothers with higher education and were from an ethnic nonminority. CONCLUSIONS: Significant catch-up in receptive vocabulary is observed by the age of 16 years among very preterm children compared to term peers. The absence of neurosensory impairment and residing in a favorable socioeconomic milieu are associated with the most optimal developmental trajectories. PMID:21768322
Loucky, John Paul
The aim of this study was to find ways to improve online reading and vocabulary learning. Various new types of online reading comprehension and vocabulary development programs and tests were compared in this study to consider how useful they may be for guiding individual or classroom L2 vocabulary instruction. It explored how these programs seek…
Hoffman, Jessica L.; Teale, William H.; Paciga, Kathleen A.
There is widespread agreement with in the field of early childhood education that vocabulary is important to literacy achievement and that reading aloud can support vocabulary growth. However, there are unexplored and significant problems with the ways we assess young children's vocabulary learning from read-alouds. This paper critically…
In vocabulary testing, whether to adopt context is a heat-debated topic. In the article, an experiment is designed to investigate what is the effect of zero context and sentence context on the vocabulary testing? And how do the different kinds of context in vocabulary affect the subjects' performance? The experimental result demonstrates that…
Vocabulary development is essential for a student to become a good reader. By learning new words in terms of meaning and use, the student can increase his/her listening, speaking, reading, and writing vocabularies. A student may increase vocabulary development when communicating informally with others or formally within a classroom setting. This…
Nattinger, James R.
The position this paper assumes views vocabulary not as single words but as phrases, sentences, and sometimes entire segments of discourse that act as single words. This view of vocabulary would be helpful in: (1) bringing the vocabulary aspect of instruction in English as a second language (ESL) closer to current research in language performance,…
Advocates concept-related vocabulary instruction, in which students link individual words with larger literature concepts. Outlines four steps to creating a concept-related vocabulary lesson. Offers examples of how concept-related vocabulary lessons can be conducted while reading, before reading, and after reading. Outlines web, weave, and…
Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw
It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…
The author expressed the following opinions on vocabulary development: (1) The concept of core vocabulary should be rethought due to the rapid change in our language and society. (2) A formalized, structured vocabulary development program is highly desirable. (3) Despite many existing information media, it is necessary to reintroduce students to…
In recent years, a more sophisticated vocabulary has emerged in the field of higher education. Categories such as" socially relevant research"; "knowledge mobilization"; "research impact"; "innovation"; and "university priorities" have appeared. At first glance, these words may appear neutral,…
This article describes seven teacher knowledge frameworks and relates these frameworks to the teaching and assessment of elementary teacher's mathematics knowledge. The frameworks classify teachers' knowledge and provide a vocabulary and common language through which knowledge can be discussed and assessed. These frameworks are categorized into…
Mitterer, Holger; Russell, Kevin
In speech production, high-frequency words are more likely than low-frequency words to be phonologically reduced. We tested in an eye-tracking experiment whether listeners can make use of this correlation between lexical frequency and phonological realization of words. Participants heard prefixed verbs in which the prefix was either fully produced…
Lewis, Barbara A.
This study examined 87 pedigrees of individuals with histories of preschool phonology disorders. Significantly more family members with dyslexia and learning disabilities, but not stuttering or hearing impairment, were found in pedigrees of individuals with phonology disorders than in pedigrees of nondisabled individuals. (Author/JDD)
This study examines whether two frequently reported causes of dyslexia, phonological processing problems and verbal memory impairments, represent a double-deficit or whether they are two expressions of the same deficit. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven Dutch children aged 10-14 with dyslexia completed a list-learning task and several phonological…
Kandel, Sonia; Herault, Lucie; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Lambert, Eric; Fayol, Michel
French children program the words they write syllable by syllable. We examined whether the syllable the children use to segment words is determined phonologically (i.e., is derived from speech production processes) or orthographically. Third, 4th and 5th graders wrote on a digitiser words that were mono-syllables phonologically (e.g. "barque" =…
Jarrah, Ali Saleh
This article aims at absorbing the pronunciation teachers task and how much phonology should teachers know. Teachers and future teachers need a well-rounded concept of the phonology of the language they are going to teach and the native language of learners. Emphasis must be placed on the understanding of language as a system of rules and as a…
Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.
The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological…
This work is an English translation of the author's classic "Kindersprache, Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze," first published in 1941. It is considered the most representative and comprehensive of the author's phonological writings, dealing not only with phonological typology but related problems of language acquisition and phonemic regression…
Morrow, Alyse; Goldstein, Brian A.; Gilhool, Amanda; Paradis, Johanne
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the English phonological skills of English language learners (ELLs) over 5 time points. Method: Sound class accuracy, whole-word accuracy, percentage of occurrence of phonological patterns, and sociolinguistic correlational analyses were investigated in 19 ELLs ranging in age from 5;0…
Bürki, Audrey; Laganaro, Marina; Alario, F.-Xavier
Speakers usually produce words in connected speech. In such contexts, the form in which many words are uttered is influenced by the phonological properties of neighboring words. The current article examines the representations and processes underlying the production of phonologically constrained word form variations. For this purpose, we consider…
Kehoe, Margaret M.
This study examined lexical-phonological interactions in the first 50 words of a group of monolingual German- and Spanish-speaking children and bilingual German--Spanish children. The phonological characteristics of the earliest target word forms and output patterns of these children were analyzed to determine whether bilingual children select…
Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan
Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…
Smith, Thomas B.
Integrating vocabulary games and activities more often into the structure of the day, Thomas B. Smith establishes a word-rich environment for high school students to experiment with unfamiliar words in varying, playful contexts. Smith asserts that giving frequent opportunities for hearing, speaking, and writing in the typical context of the day is…
A study investigated and compared the vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs) of five non-native English-speaking and six native English-speaking (NES) graduate students of theology in a core course. The students of English as a Second Language (ESL) were all native speakers of Cantonese or Mandarin Chinese. Specifically, the research explored (1)…
Samuels, Bridget D.
A number of recent studies have revealed correspondences between song- and language-related neural structures, pathways, and gene expression in humans and songbirds. Analyses of vocal learning, song structure, and the distribution of song elements have similarly revealed a remarkable number of shared characteristics with human speech. This article reviews recent developments in the understanding of these issues with reference to the phonological phenomena observed in human language. This investigation suggests that birds possess a host of abilities necessary for human phonological computation, as evidenced by behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular genetic studies. Vocal-learning birds therefore present an excellent model for studying some areas of human phonology, though differences in the primitives of song and language as well as the absence of a human-like morphosyntax make human phonology differ from birdsong phonology in crucial ways. PMID:26284006
Core, Cynthia; Scarpelli, Chiara
This article reviews recent research on bilingual phonological development and describes the nature of bilingual phonology, focusing on characteristics of cross-linguistic influence on bilingual phonological abilities. There is evidence of positive and negative transfer (acceleration and deceleration) on children's phonological abilities. Several methodological issues limit the ability to generalize findings from previous research to larger groups of bilingual children (e.g., small sample size, lack of consideration of age of acquisition of each language, and language abilities of the participants). Sources of heterogeneity in language development are presented and discussed. Phonological abilities are related to language abilities in bilingual first language learners of English and Spanish. Empirical evidence from research in our laboratory supports this claim. We discuss implications of research findings and limitations for future research and clinical practice. We provide specific recommendations for bilingual research and for clinical assessment of young bilingual children. PMID:25922995
Hall, Kathleen Currie
This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2012
Phonological awareness, or the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, has been identified as a key early literacy skill and precursor to reading. For the purposes of this review, "phonological awareness training" refers to any practice targeting young children's phonological awareness abilities. "Phonological…
Leong, Victoria; Goswami, Usha
When acquiring language, young children may use acoustic spectro-temporal patterns in speech to derive phonological units in spoken language (e.g., prosodic stress patterns, syllables, phonemes). Children appear to learn acoustic-phonological mappings rapidly, without direct instruction, yet the underlying developmental mechanisms remain unclear. Across different languages, a relationship between amplitude envelope sensitivity and phonological development has been found, suggesting that children may make use of amplitude modulation (AM) patterns within the envelope to develop a phonological system. Here we present the Spectral Amplitude Modulation Phase Hierarchy (S-AMPH) model, a set of algorithms for deriving the dominant AM patterns in child-directed speech (CDS). Using Principal Components Analysis, we show that rhythmic CDS contains an AM hierarchy comprising 3 core modulation timescales. These timescales correspond to key phonological units: prosodic stress (Stress AM, ~2 Hz), syllables (Syllable AM, ~5 Hz) and onset-rime units (Phoneme AM, ~20 Hz). We argue that these AM patterns could in principle be used by naïve listeners to compute acoustic-phonological mappings without lexical knowledge. We then demonstrate that the modulation statistics within this AM hierarchy indeed parse the speech signal into a primitive hierarchically-organised phonological system comprising stress feet (proto-words), syllables and onset-rime units. We apply the S-AMPH model to two other CDS corpora, one spontaneous and one deliberately-timed. The model accurately identified 72–82% (freely-read CDS) and 90–98% (rhythmically-regular CDS) stress patterns, syllables and onset-rime units. This in-principle demonstration that primitive phonology can be extracted from speech AMs is termed Acoustic-Emergent Phonology (AEP) theory. AEP theory provides a set of methods for examining how early phonological development is shaped by the temporal modulation structure of speech across languages. The S-AMPH model reveals a crucial developmental role for stress feet (AMs ~2 Hz). Stress feet underpin different linguistic rhythm typologies, and speech rhythm underpins language acquisition by infants in all languages. PMID:26641472
Leong, Victoria; Goswami, Usha
When acquiring language, young children may use acoustic spectro-temporal patterns in speech to derive phonological units in spoken language (e.g., prosodic stress patterns, syllables, phonemes). Children appear to learn acoustic-phonological mappings rapidly, without direct instruction, yet the underlying developmental mechanisms remain unclear. Across different languages, a relationship between amplitude envelope sensitivity and phonological development has been found, suggesting that children may make use of amplitude modulation (AM) patterns within the envelope to develop a phonological system. Here we present the Spectral Amplitude Modulation Phase Hierarchy (S-AMPH) model, a set of algorithms for deriving the dominant AM patterns in child-directed speech (CDS). Using Principal Components Analysis, we show that rhythmic CDS contains an AM hierarchy comprising 3 core modulation timescales. These timescales correspond to key phonological units: prosodic stress (Stress AM, ~2 Hz), syllables (Syllable AM, ~5 Hz) and onset-rime units (Phoneme AM, ~20 Hz). We argue that these AM patterns could in principle be used by naïve listeners to compute acoustic-phonological mappings without lexical knowledge. We then demonstrate that the modulation statistics within this AM hierarchy indeed parse the speech signal into a primitive hierarchically-organised phonological system comprising stress feet (proto-words), syllables and onset-rime units. We apply the S-AMPH model to two other CDS corpora, one spontaneous and one deliberately-timed. The model accurately identified 72-82% (freely-read CDS) and 90-98% (rhythmically-regular CDS) stress patterns, syllables and onset-rime units. This in-principle demonstration that primitive phonology can be extracted from speech AMs is termed Acoustic-Emergent Phonology (AEP) theory. AEP theory provides a set of methods for examining how early phonological development is shaped by the temporal modulation structure of speech across languages. The S-AMPH model reveals a crucial developmental role for stress feet (AMs ~2 Hz). Stress feet underpin different linguistic rhythm typologies, and speech rhythm underpins language acquisition by infants in all languages. PMID:26641472
Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark
This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…
Umbel, Vivian M.; And Others
Hispanic first graders who spoke only Spanish at home (OSH) and those who spoke English and Spanish at home (ESH) performed near the mean on a Spanish adaptation of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R). The ESH children scored higher than OSH children on the PPVT-R. (BC)
Chandrasekharan, N.; And Others
Demonstrates the use of a directed graph model as a tool for finding desirable minimum vocabularies to be used in indexing and information retrieval. The basic algorithm is outlined, possible enhancements to the model are discussed, and further research questions are suggested. (Author/CLB)
Aspen Institute, 2012
The College and Career Ready Standards of the CCSS articulate a range of expectations regarding what students should be able to do with regards to academic vocabulary: (1) Interpret technical, connotative, and figurative meanings of words and phrases; (2) Analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone; (3) Determine or clarify the meaning…
Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea
Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds…
Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia
The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…
Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer Lauren
The Phonological Permeability Hypothesis (PPH, Cabrelli Amaro & Rothman, 2010) attempts to reconcile evidence suggesting some L2 learners, however rare, attain native-like L2 phonological systems with the observation that most do not. Considering existing L2 phonology research, it is not clear that phonological differences between early and…
GIERUT, JUDITH A.; MORRISETTE, MICHELE L.
The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were taught using stimulus words that varied orthogonally in neighborhood density and word frequency as the independent variables. Generalization was the dependent variable, defined as production accuracy of treated and untreated (erred) sounds. Blocked comparisons showed that dense neighborhoods triggered greater generalization, but frequency did not have a clear differential effect. Orthogonal comparisons revealed graded effects, with frequent words from dense neighborhoods being optimal for generalization. The results contrast with prior literature, which has reported a sparse neighborhood advantage for children with phonological delay. There is a suggestion that children with phonological delay require greater than usual cue redundancy and convergence to prompt expressive phonological learning. PMID:22182669
Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.
Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161
Huber, Jeffrey T.; Gillaspy, Mary L.
The body of knowledge associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents complexity not present in any other disease. A controlled vocabulary and classification structure used to organize the body of knowledge associated with HIV/AIDS is discussed. (Author/AEF)
Albro, Daniel M.
This report describes a computational system with which phonologists may describe a natural language in terms of autosegmental phonology, currently the most advanced theory pertaining to the sound systems of human ...
Shriberg, L D
Evidence for subgroups among developmental phonological disorders based on etiological origins, as opposed to the alternative linguistic view of childhood phonological disorders as a learning problem of unknown origin, is presented. A three-parameter framework that arranges relevant individual differences (mechanism, cognitive-linguistic, and psychosocial) is proposed for study and classification of the phonological disorders. The disorders are studied in relation to developmental correlates and speech-sound normalization. This permits study of these variables in relation to severity and forms of expression and interaction. Subgroups of "speech delay," each of which reflects phonological consequences, are suggested. Residual articulation errors are classified based on causal origins, possibly influenced by the developmental context in which precise articulation is an acquired skill and differentiated from genetic origins posited for speech delays and those related to specific hearing, motor-speech, and psychosocial origins. Exploration of causal origins provides advantages for both assessment and intervention as well as prevention. PMID:8019550
Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W
This paper presents a new technique for speech synthesis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonological trees, and using a selection algorithm which ...
... phonological disorders in children (article abstract) What do SLPs do when working with individuals with speech sound ... describe the typical clinical process followed by an SLP in these areas. Typical Speech and Language Development ...
Schiller, Niels O
This study investigated the orthographic and phonological contribution of visually masked primes to reading aloud in Dutch. Although there is a relatively clear mapping between the spelling and sound of words in Dutch, words starting with the letter c are ambiguous as to whether they begin with the phoneme /s/ (e.g., citroen, "lemon") or with the phoneme /k/ (e.g., complot, "conspiracy"). Therefore, using words of this type, one can tease apart the contributions of orthographic and phonological activation in reading aloud. Dutch participants read aloud bisyllabic c-initial target words, which were preceded by visually masked, bisyllabic prime words that either shared the initial phoneme with the target (phonologically related) or the first grapheme (orthographically related) or both (phonologically and orthographically related). Unrelated primes did not share the first segment with the target. Response latencies in the phonologically related conditions were shorter than those in the unrelated condition. However, primes that were orthographically related did not speed up responses. One may conclude that the nature of the onset effect in reading aloud is phonological and not orthographic. PMID:17874588
Moore, Wendy; Hammond, Lorraine; Fetherston, Tony
Vocabulary knowledge is an important predictor of literacy and broader academic outcomes, and children's literature is a rich source of sophisticated vocabulary. This study investigated the effect of providing instruction in word meanings as an adjunct to story-book read-aloud sessions in Grade One classrooms. The main intervention programme…
Leung, Cynthia B.; Silverman, Rebecca; Nandakumar, Ratna; Qian, Xiaoyu; Hines, Sara
The present study investigated preschoolers' knowledge of vocabulary that appears in first grade basal readers by applying Rasch modeling to data from a researcher-developed receptive picture vocabulary assessment administered to 238 children. Levels of word difficulty for dual language learners (DLLs) and monolingual English learners (MELs) were…
Farrant, Brad M.; Zubrick, Stephen R.
Vocabulary knowledge is a critical component of school readiness. The current study investigated the extent to which low levels of joint attention in infancy and parent-child book reading across early childhood increase the risk of children having poor vocabulary around the time of school entry. Relevant data from the Longitudinal Study of…
Ranalli, James M.
The focus of this dissertation is a web-based, second language (L2) instructional resource called VVT (Virtual Vocabulary Trainer) designed to teach integrated vocabulary depth of knowledge and dictionary referencing skills to tertiary-level learners of English as a Second Language (ESL). In addition to evaluating the potential of online resources…
Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles
This study examined the speech of 54 young Spanish-speaking (Puerto Rican dialect) children with phonological disorders. It described the mean percentage-of-occurrence and standard deviation of phonological processes and the number and type of nontargeted process errors. Specific patterns characterizing the speech of these children were…
Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf
Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…
Miyakoda, Haruko; Imatomi, Setsuko
Phonological awareness has been claimed to play an important role in the development of language skills, and it is essential that the child's phonological skills be assessed accurately in order to predict and to take early measures to help those that may encounter problems. Although the mora has attracted much attention in the discussion of…
de Jong, Peter F.
The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…
The year-long Introduction to Phonology reviews at the graduate level fundamental notions of phonological analysis and introduces students to current debates, research and analytical techniques. The Fall term reviews issues ...
Two experiments were completed investigating orthographic neighborhood size in the context of phonological neighborhood size and priming, at various SOAs. Experiment 1 exhibited that words from larger phonological neighborhoods were processed more...
Cox, Simon; Yu, Jonathan; Williams, Megan; Giabardo, Fabrizio; Lowe, Dominic
Shared vocabularies are a key element in geoscience data interoperability. Many organizations curate vocabularies, with most Geologic Surveys having a long history of development of lexicons and authority tables. However, their mode of publication is heterogeneous, ranging from PDFs and HTML web pages, spreadsheets and CSV, through various user-interfaces, and public and private APIs. Content maintenance ranges from tightly-governed and externally opaque, through various community processes, all the way to crowd-sourcing ('folksonomies'). Meanwhile, there is an increasing expectation of greater harmonization and vocabulary re-use, which create requirements for standardized content formalization and APIs, along with transparent content maintenance and versioning. We have been trialling a combination of processes and software dealing with vocabulary formalization, registration, search and linking. We use the Simplified Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) to provide a generic interface to content. SKOS is an RDF technology for multi-lingual, hierarchical vocabularies, oriented around 'concepts' denoted by URIs, and thus consistent with Linked Open Data. SKOS may be mixed in with classes and properties from specialized ontologies which provide a more specific interface when required. We have developed a suite of practices and techniques for conversion of content from the source technologies and styles into SKOS, largely based on spreadsheet manipulation before RDF conversion, and SPARQL afterwards. The workflow for each vocabulary must be adapted to match the specific inputs. In linked data applications, two requirements are paramount for user confidence: (i) the URI that denotes a vocabulary item is persistent, and should be dereferenceable indefinitely; (ii) the history and status of the resource denoted by a URI must be available. This is implemented by the Linked Data Registry (LDR), originally developed for the World Meteorological Organization and the UK Environment Agency, and now adapted and enhanced for deployment by CSIRO and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The LDR applies a standard content registration paradigm to RDF data, also including a delegation mode that enables a system to register (endorse) externally managed content. The locally managed RDF is exposed on a SPARQL endpoint. The registry implementation enables a flexible interaction pattern to support various specific content publication workflows, with the key feature of making the content externally accessible through a standard interface alongside its history, previous versions, and status. SPARQL is the standard low-level API for RDF including SKOS. On top of this we have developed SISSvoc, a SKOS-based RESTful API. This has been used it to deploy a number of vocabularies on behalf of the IUGS, ICS, NERC, OGC, the Australian Government, and CSIRO projects. Applications like SISSvoc Search provide a simple search UI on top of one or more SISSvoc sources. Together, these components provide a powerful and flexible system for providing earth science vocabularies for the community, consistent with semantic web and linked-data principles.
Sparks, Sarah D.
Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary…
Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra
We've changed our BAV (Building Academic Vocabulary) student materials to a sturdy bound notebook to give you a lower price and a more durable format. Instead of using loose-leaf pages, teachers can now give each student this colorful notebook that follows the 6-step method for teaching academic vocabulary. There is space for more terms, and…
In attempting to assess the effects of humor on vocabulary instruction, an intervention strategy was implemented which sought to compare the results of such instruction with those produced from vocabulary instruction delivered in a traditional, non-humorous vein. To this end, the intervention proceeded thus: an experimental group of seventh-grade…
Hand Gesture Vocabulary Design: A Multicriteria Optimization * Helman I. Stern Department. Abstract - A global approach to hand gesture vocabulary (GV) design is proposed which includes human believe this is the first conceptualization of the optimal hand gesture design problem in analytical form
Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane Rae
This article discusses second language vocabulary learning strategies and includes an analysis and classification of possible strategies and the report of a study conducted among second language learners in Japan. Research on vocabulary learning strategies is synthesized into two lists of strategies: 14 methods for initial learning of a new word's…
Gu, Yongqi; Johnson, Robert Keith
Discusses an attempt to establish the vocabulary learning strategies used by Chinese university learners of English in Beijing and the relationship between their strategies and outcomes in learning English. Findings reveal that two metacognitive strategies emerged as positive predictors of vocabulary test scores and that visual repetition of new…
Klingbiel, Paul H.
The role of formal, controlled vocabularies for indexing and retrieval is contrasted with the use of natural language for these activities. The following credo is advanced for large central information processors as appropriate to the 1970's (1) Highly structured controlled vocabularies are obsolete for indexing and retrieval; (2) The natural…
For this project I worked with twelve of my fourth grade students from a local school in the southwestern part of Stokes County, North Carolina on increasing their vocabulary skills through the development and implementation of seven vocabulary strategies. During the Literature Review I came across the following seven strategies: Prediction;…
This fascinating presentation of current research undoes numerous myths about how we most effectively learn new words in a second language. In clear, reader-friendly text, the author details the successful approach of IBI vocabulary instruction, which emphasizes the presentation of target vocabulary as input early on and the incremental (gradual)…
As an attempt to follow through on the claims made by proponents of intentional vocabulary learning, the present study set out to examine whether and how digital flashcards can be incorporated into a university course to promote the vocabulary learning of English language learners. The overall research findings underscore the value of learning…
Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.
This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…
For second language learners vocabulary growth is of major importance, and for many learners commercially published coursebooks will be the source of this vocabulary learning. In this preliminary study, input from three levels of the coursebook series "New English File" (Oxenden and Latham-Koenig, 2006; Oxenden, Latham-Koenig, and Seligson, 2004,…
Smith, William P.; Chappell, Alan R.; Corley, Courtney D.
Available biomedical ontologies and knowledge bases currently lack formal and standards-based interconnections between disease, disease vector, and drug treatment vocabularies. The PNNL Medical Linked Dataset (PNNL-MLD) addresses this gap. This paper describes the PNNL-MLD, which provides a unified vocabulary and dataset of drug, disease, side effect, and vector transmission background information. Currently, the PNNL-MLD combines and curates data from the following research projects: DrugBank, DailyMed, Diseasome, DisGeNet, Wikipedia Infobox, Sider, and PharmGKB. The main outcomes of this effort are a dataset aligned to Schema.org, including a parsing framework, and extensible hooks ready for integration with selected medical ontologies. The PNNL-MLD enables researchers more quickly and easily to query distinct datasets. Future extensions to the PNNL-MLD will include Traditional Chinese Medicine, broader interlinks across genetic structures, a larger thesaurus of synonyms and hypernyms, explicit coding of diseases and drugs across research systems, and incorporating vector-borne transmission vocabularies.
Calamaro, Shira; Jarosz, Gaja
Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony…
Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim
Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…
Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun
The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…
Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F
In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443
Wester, Mirjam; Fosler-Lussier, Eric
This paper focuses on modeling pronunciation variation in two different ways: data-derived and knowledge-based. The knowledge-based approach consists of using phonological rules to generate variants. The data-derived ...
This article focuses on modeling pronunciation variation in two different ways: data-derived and knowledge-based. The knowledge-based approach consists of using phonological rules to generate variants. The data-derived ...
The greatest challenge inhibiting the ability of English-language learners (ELLs) to read at the appropriate grade level is perhaps a lack of sufficient vocabulary development. While extensive reading is beneficial, these students must acquire the necessary vocabulary in order to read extensively. Both vocabulary breadth and vocabulary depth are…
Green, Laura Chris
English language learners may bring linguistic knowledge in the area of cognates to their learning of new English words, but they also will have special vocabulary learning needs that English speakers will not. They need to learn basic, survival words that English speakers begin school knowing, words such as house, school, walk, and eat. They also…
Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo
We investigated effects of listening to single or multiple storybook readings versus testing with and without feedback on children's breadth (i.e., the number of words) and depth (i.e., the quality of word knowledge) of vocabulary learning. Kindergartners (n = 125) were divided into 3 intervention and 1 control conditions. Children in the control…
This highly practical resource for K-6 teachers is packed with 25 classroom-tested, step-by-step strategies for developing word knowledge. The emphasis throughout is not only on teaching new words, but also on strengthening students' comprehension and long-term vocabulary acquisition. Especially valuable are guidelines for how to differentiate…
Adams, Shirley J.
Presents study designed to investigate effects of statements designed to activate scripts on measures of unfamiliar vocabulary with American college students reading in French and in English. Study revealed importance of preparing readers for what they are about to read. Teachers should keep background and present knowledge of students in mind…
Underwood, Phyllis Swann
Accumulating research reveals that children's reading comprehension is influenced by a reader's experiences, knowledge, language structure, and vocabulary. Thus, this researcher investigated the construct, culturally-responsive practice, as a way to provide effective learning opportunities for children from non-mainstream cultures, including…
Spies, Tracy G.; Dema, Alexandra A.
A well-developed academic vocabulary is foundational for understanding academic texts used in elementary and secondary classrooms. In-depth word knowledge is critical to understanding the abstract concepts and complex language structures of text. Students with learning disabilities and English language learners both characteristically have limited…
Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.
Teachers can build on students' familiarity with and respect for the Harry Potter books to create source-based vocabulary lessons. The idea is to work with the Latin roots that J. K. Rowling uses to create original names for places, people, and magical charms and then to extend students' knowledge through exploration of additional English words…
Tysseling, Lee Ann
The Internet is full of tools for vocabulary development, but the quality and usefulness for teachers and students vary greatly. With a traditionalist's respect for word knowledge and an adventurer's spirit for discovering new routes to learning, Lee Ann Tysseling shares an exciting array of technology-assisted resources that can boost students'…
Shahrokni, Seyyed Abdollah
This empirical study investigates the effect of online textual, pictorial, and textual pictorial glosses on the incidental vocabulary learning of 90 adult elementary Iranian EFL learners. The participants were selected from a pool of 140 volunteers based on their performance on an English placement test as well as a knowledge test of the target…
The lexical bias effect refers to the fact that phonological errors result in real words more often than would be predicted by chance. It has also been observed that phonemes are more likely to be exchanged if they are ...
Dickie, Catherine Elizabeth
Developmental dyslexia is widely believed to be caused either mainly or in part by an impairment of phonological representations. Although this hypothesis predicts that individuals with dyslexia should show deficits in ...
Spoken term detection (STD) is a fundamental task for multimedia information retrieval. A major challenge faced by an STD system is the serious performance reduction when detecting out-of-vocabulary (OOV) terms. The ...
Rapaport, William J.
Contextual Vocabulary Acquisition as Computational Philosophy and as Philosophical Computation of Philosophy, Department of Linguistics, and Center for Cognitive Science email@example.com http withstand certain objections. 1 Computational Philosophy and Philosophical Computation Computer science
Dautriche, Isabelle; Swingley, Daniel; Christophe, Anne
Novel words (like tog) that sound like well-known words (dog) are hard for toddlers to learn, even though children can hear the difference between them (Swingley & Aslin, 2002, 2007). One possibility is that phonological competition alone is the problem. Another is that a broader set of probabilistic considerations is responsible: toddlers may resist considering tog as a novel object label because its neighbor dog is also an object. In three experiments, French 18-month-olds were taught novel words whose word forms were phonologically similar to familiar nouns (noun-neighbors), to familiar verbs (verb-neighbors) or to nothing (no-neighbors). Toddlers successfully learned the no-neighbors and verb-neighbors but failed to learn the noun-neighbors, although both novel neighbors had a familiar phonological neighbor in the toddlers' lexicon. We conclude that when creating a novel lexical entry, toddlers' evaluation of similarity in the lexicon is multidimensional, incorporating both phonological and semantic or syntactic features. PMID:26114905
Shibamoto, J. S.; Olmstead, D. L.
Looks at phonological development in lexical terms and extends the method of Ferguson and Farwell to consideration of syllables within words. The research is directed toward the question of whether children acqure a sound system by following "universal" orders of acquistion or by developing distinct strategies. (EJS)
Brooks, Patricia J.; MacWhinney, Brian
Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words were presented over headphones. Results indicate that priming effects reach a peak during a time when articulatory information is being…
Infants' phonological acquisition during the first 18 months of life has been studied within experimental psychology for some 30 years. Current research themes include statistical learning mechanisms, early lexical development, and models of phonetic category perception. So far, linguistic theories have hardly been taken into account. These…
Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…
Krauss, Michael E.
Central Siberian Yupik Eskimo is the language both of the natives of St. Lawrence Island and of the facing Siberian mainland, with few minor variations. A history of the language is given as it evolved in both countries, as well as a phonological analysis and orthographic developments on both sides. (SCC)
Reviews research studies that raise serious questions about phonological neutralization, that is, the merger of a contrast in certain contexts. Some findings cast doubt on the very existence of neutralization and the correctness of the theoretical principles that make assumptions based on neutralization. Reanalyzes neutralization in light of these…
Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan
This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…
Anderson, Stephen R.
Notes the parallels between N. Chomsky and M. Halle's "The Sound Pattern of English" and A. N. Whitehead and B. Russell's "Principia Mathematica." Uses these parallels to distinguish "formalist" v "substance-based" generative phonology. Suggests that a modification of the "formalist" program is ultimately more satisfactory than the…
Rubrecht, August Weston
Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…
In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…
WESCOTT, ROGER W.
A PHONOLOGY OF BINI GRAMMAR (A LANGUAGE OF WESTERN NIGERIA) HAS BEEN DESIGNED FOR A HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS AUDIENCE. THE VOLUME IS AIMED AT (1) AREA SPECIALISTS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE OR CULTURE STUDIES OF AFRICA, (2) ETHNOGRAPHERS FOCUSING ON THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES, (3) HISTORIANS WORKING ON THE BENIN PROJECT OF IBADAN…
Speech errors are generally said to accommodate to their new phonological context. This accommodation has been validated by several transcription studies. The transcription methodology is not the best choice for detecting errors at this level, however, as this type of error can be difficult to perceive. This paper presents an acoustic analysis of…
Palosaari, Naomi Elizabeth
This dissertation is a grammatical description of several features of the morphology and phonology of the Mocho' language. Mocho' (Motozintleco) is a moribund Mayan language spoken in the Chiapas region of Mexico near the border of Guatemala. This dissertation, based on data collected during several field trips and supplemented with unpublished…
The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.
The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains, 40,661 entries that give increased access to he hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.
The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains 40,738 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.
Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam
Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.
Prevost, Jill K.
In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.
Lee, HweeLing; Devlin, Joseph T; Shakeshaft, Clare; Stewart, Lauren H; Brennan, Amanda; Glensman, Jen; Pitcher, Katherine; Crinion, Jenny; Mechelli, Andrea; Frackowiak, Richard S J; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J
A surprising discovery in recent years is that the structure of the adult human brain changes when a new cognitive or motor skill is learned. This effect is seen as a change in local gray or white matter density that correlates with behavioral measures. Critically, however, the cognitive and anatomical mechanisms underlying these learning-related structural brain changes remain unknown. Here, we combined brain imaging, detailed behavioral analyses, and white matter tractography in English-speaking monolingual adolescents to show that a critical linguistic prerequisite (namely, knowledge of vocabulary) is proportionately related to relative gray matter density in bilateral posterior supramarginal gyri. The effect was specific to the number of words learned, regardless of verbal fluency or other cognitive abilities. The identified region was found to have direct connections to other inferior parietal areas that separately process either the sounds of words or their meanings, suggesting that the posterior supramarginal gyrus plays a role in linking the basic components of vocabulary knowledge. Together, these analyses highlight the cognitive and anatomical mechanisms that mediate an essential language skill. PMID:17267574
Goral, Mira; Verkuilen, Jay; Kempler, Daniel
Background Individuals with Broca’s aphasia show better performance on nouns than on verbs, but distinction between nouns and verbs is not always clear; some verbs are conceptually and/ or phonologically related to nouns, while others are not. Inconsistent results on effects of noun-verb relatedness on verb production have been reported in the literature. Aims We investigated (1) whether verb instrumentality (a conceptual relationship to nouns) or homonymy (a phonological relationship to nouns) would affect verb production in individuals with Broca’s aphasia and (2) whether conceptual/ phonological noun-verb relationship would affect responsiveness to aphasia therapy that focused on verb production. Methods & Procedures Three English speaking individuals with Broca’s aphasia produced 96 verbs in sentences in response to picture stimuli. The target verbs included those that use an instrument and those that do not (e.g., to hammer vs. to yawn) and verbs that are phonologically identical to a related noun (e.g., to comb – a comb), morpho-phonologically-related to a noun (e.g., to grind – a grinder), and verbs for which there is no phonologically similar noun (e.g., to lean). The participants’ verb retrieval ability was assessed before and after a 4-week period of aphasia therapy. Outcomes & Results The participants produced more accurate instrumental than non-instrumental verbs both pre- and post-treatment. They also produced more verbs correctly that are homonyms of nouns than verbs that are phonologically related or unrelated to nouns before treatment. However, the effect of homonymy was not observed following treatment. Conclusion Individuals with Broca’s aphasia were more accurate in their production of verbs that were conceptually and phonologically related to nouns than on verb that were not. The performance on verb production improved significantly after therapy. We interpret the results to indicate that whereas prior to treatment the participants relied on phonologically related nouns to retrieve the target verbs, this reliance on knowledge of nouns decreased following therapy that was designed to improve verb production. PMID:23914001
Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani; Pourshahian, Bahar
This research study aimed at exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size of 125 undergraduate English Language Teaching students at Eastern Mediterranean University. This research study was a correlational survey study of descriptive nature. The major findings of this study were as follows. First, the…
Moran, Melba Q.
This case study describes a project designed to improve science vocabulary and comprehension of migrant sixth-grade students in a rural farming-community middle school. The project combined intensive direct teaching of science vocabulary with the national unified curriculum implemented in 1984. The subjects of the project were migrant children…
Zarei, Abbas Ali; Baftani, Fahimeh Nasiri
To investigate the effects of different techniques of vocabulary portfolio including word map, word wizard, concept wheel, visual thesaurus, and word rose on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production, a sample of 75 female EFL learners of Kish Day Language Institute in Karaj, Iran were selected. They were in five groups and each group received…
Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane
The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…
Heming, Thomas A.; Nandagopal, Shobha
Objectives: Medical education requires student comprehension of both technical (scientific/medical) and non-technical (general) vocabulary. Our experience with “English as a second language” (ESL) Arab students suggested they often have problems comprehending scientific statements because of weaknesses in their understanding of non-scientific vocabulary. This study aimed to determine whether ESL students have difficulties with general vocabulary that could hinder their understanding of scientific/medical texts. Methods: A survey containing English text was given to ESL students in the premedical years of an English-medium medical school in an Arabic country. The survey consisted of sample questions from the Medical College Admission Test (USA). Students were instructed to identify all unknown words in the text. Results: ESL students commenced premedical studies with substantial deficiencies in English vocabulary. Students from English-medium secondary schools had a selective deficiency in scientific/medical terminology which disappeared with time. Students from Arabic-medium secondary schools had equal difficulty with general and scientific/medical vocabulary. Deficiencies in both areas diminished with time but remained even after three years of English-medium higher education. Conclusion: Typically, when teaching technical subjects to ESL students, attention is focused on subject-unique vocabulary and associated modifiers. This study highlights that ESL students also face difficulties with the general vocabulary used to construct statements employing technical words. Such students would benefit from increases in general vocabulary knowledge. PMID:23275846
Goldstein, B A
Phonological assessment of Hispanic/Latino children (many of whom are bilingual) is often difficult because of the limited information on appropriate assessment techniques. Without information on appropriate assessment strategies for these children, there may be a delay in their receiving diagnostic (and intervention) services and an inappropriate characterization of phonological skills in both typically developing children and children with phonological disorders. In order to assess the phonological skills of Hispanic/Latino children appropriately, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) must make modifications to the standard assessment protocol. To that end, SLPs must determine language of assessment, choose assessment tools, complete phonological analyses, and consider dialect in their assessment. The purpose of this article is to delineate the procedures for completing a thorough phonological assessment for Hispanic/Latino children. PMID:11302455
McGregor, Karla K.; Oleson, Jacob; Bahnsen, Alison; Duff, Dawna
Background Deficient vocabulary is a frequently reported symptom of developmental language impairment but the nature of the deficit and its developmental course are not well documented. Aims We aimed to describe the nature of the deficit in terms of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge and to determine whether the nature and the extent of the deficit change over the school years. Methods A total of 25,681 oral definitions produced by 177 children with developmental language impairment (LI) and 325 grade-mates with normally developing language (ND) in grades 2, 4, 8, and 10 were taken from an existing longitudinal database. We analyzed these for breadth by counting the number of words defined correctly and for depth by determining the amount of information in each correct definition. Via a linear mixed model, we determined whether breadth and depth varied with language diagnosis independent of nonverbal IQ, mothers’ education level, race, gender, income and (for depth only) word. Results Children with LI scored significantly lower than children with ND on breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in all grades. The extent of the deficit did not vary significantly across grades. Language diagnosis was an independent predictor of breadth and depth and as strong a predictor as maternal education. For the LI group, growth in depth relative to breadth was slower than for the ND group. Conclusions Compared to their grade-mates, children with LI have fewer words in their vocabularies and they have shallower knowledge of the words that are in their vocabularies. This deficit persists over developmental time. PMID:23650887
McKim Thomas, Sarah Summer
Students who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) need access to specific vocabulary to participate fully in general education classrooms. To date, there is no research on the vocabulary used in secondary ...
Bruck, M; Genesee, F
English-speaking children (N = 91) who were attending French schools (bilingual group) were given a battery of phonological awareness tests in kindergarten and in grade I. At the time of kindergarten testing the mean age of the children was 5:9. Their performance was compared to age-matched English-speaking children (N = 72) attending English schools (monolingual group). The bilingual children showed heightened levels of phonological awareness skills in kindergarten in the area of onset-rime awareness. By grade I, the pattern of group differences was more complex. The monolingual and bilingual children performed similarly on onset-rime segmentation tasks. The monolingual children had higher phoneme awareness scores than their French-schooled peers; this result is interpreted to reflect the role of literacy instruction on phoneme awareness development. In comparison, the bilingual children had higher syllable segmentation scores than their monolingual peers. This result is interperted to reflect the role of second language input on phonological awareness. PMID:8550725
Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle
Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related…
Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.
Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the IdentifiedObject individuals are linked to the ChEBI ontology for definitions of chemical substances.. Second, to allow compatibility with SKOS-based tools and to ensure the vocabulary does not violate the meta-modelling constraints of the OWL-DL profile, the relevant classes in QUDT are declared to be subclasses of SKOS Concept and a shadow SKOS view of ChEBI was generated (as ChEBI models all elements and substances as OWL classes). The provenance of each SKOS concept shadowing an OWL class is recorded using the PROV-O ontology. Some aspects of these processing steps can be automated through SPARQL queries, while other aspects must be done manually. For maintenance and provenance purposes, the complete vocabulary and ontologies are persisted in around 20 separate RDF files (in addition to the QUDT and ChEBI sources), each of which constitutes a separate RDF graph and reflects the various aspects of above steps. The vocabularies are published in multiple ways: - For download as files from the ontology URI - At a SPARQL endpoint - Through a URI-based SKOS API (SISSvoc) - Through search UIs built on top of the SPARQL endpoint or SISSvoc service
Olsen, Lola M.
The Global Change Master Directory's (GCMD) science staff set out to document Earth science data and provide a mechanism for it's discovery in fulfillment of a commitment to NASA's Earth Science progam and to the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites' (CEOS) International Directory Network (IDN.) At the time, whether to offer a controlled vocabulary search or a free-text search was resolved with a decision to support both. The feedback from the user community indicated that being asked to independently determine the appropriate 'English" words through a free-text search would be very difficult. The preference was to be 'prompted' for relevant keywords through the use of a hierarchy of well-designed science keywords. The controlled keywords serve to 'normalize' the search through knowledgeable input by metadata providers. Earth science keyword taxonomies were developed, rules for additions, deletions, and modifications were created. Secondary sets of controlled vocabularies for related descriptors such as projects, data centers, instruments, platforms, related data set link types, and locations, along with free-text searches assist users in further refining their search results. Through this robust 'search and refine' capability in the GCMD users are directed to the data and services they seek. The next step in guiding users more directly to the resources they desire is to build a 'reasoning' capability for search through the use of ontologies. Incorporating twelve sets of Earth science keyword taxonomies has boosted the GCMD S ability to help users define and more directly retrieve data of choice.
Harrington, Michael; Jiang, Wenying
This study examines the effect of recognition-based retrieval practice on vocabulary learning in a university Chinese class. Students (N=26) were given practice retrieving new vocabulary (single or two-character words) in a series of simple form recognition tests administered over four weeks. The test sets consisted of target vocabulary that…
STATUS STUDIES OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VOCABULARY SIZE AND THE EXTENT OF READING SUPPORT THE BELIEF THAT MORE AVID READERS HAVE RICHER VOCABULARIES. HOWEVER, STUDIES OF DIRECT EFFORTS TO INCREASE VOCABULARY THROUGH WIDE READING ALONE HAVE NOT YIELDED SATISFACTORY RESULTS. HENCE, WIDE READING COMBINED WITH DIRECT AND INDIRECT APPROACHES IS…
Alber, Sheila R.; Foil, Carolyn R.
This article suggests using drama activities to teach target vocabulary words to students with limited vocabulary development. It presents specific drama activities to implement when introducing new vocabulary, conducting guided practice, facilitating cooperative learning groups, and assigning independent practice. Suggestions are also offered for…
Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…
Atay, Derin; Ozbulgan, Cengiz
In the last decades there has been an increasing interest in vocabulary learning strategies given that they are found to facilitate second/foreign language vocabulary learning and recall. As many learners do not develop sufficient mastery of the strategy repertoire, explicit instruction on vocabulary learning strategies may help them to become…
Patel, Rupal; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv
Users of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aids could benefit from novel methods for accelerating access to contextually relevant vocabulary. This paper describes our initial efforts toward improving access to situational vocabulary through the use of geographic context to predict vocabulary. A corpus of spoken data produced by one…
Song, Yanjie; Fox, Robert
Recent studies have explored English vocabulary learning in environments where students used mobile technologies for prescribed vocabulary learning tasks, or tested designed personalized learning systems to enhance student vocabulary learning for short periods of time in language related courses. Dictionary use via mobile devices has mostly been…
Sampalli, Tara; Shepherd, Michael; Duffy, Jack
Background: Research has shown that accurate and timely communication between multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of complex and chronic health conditions is often challenging. The domain knowledge for these conditions is heterogeneous, with poorly categorized, unstructured, and inconsistent clinical vocabulary. The potential of boundary object as a technique to bridge communication gaps is explored in this study. Methods: A standardized and controlled clinical vocabulary was developed as a boundary object in the domain of a complex and chronic health condition, namely, multiple chemical sensitivity, to improve communication among multidisciplinary clinicians. A convenience sample of 100 patients with a diagnosis of multiple chemical sensitivity, nine multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of patients with multiple chemical sensitivity, and 36 clinicians in the community participated in the study. Results: Eighty-two percent of the multidisciplinary and inconsistent vocabulary was standardized using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine – Clinical Terms (SNOMED® CT as a reference terminology. Over 80% of the multidisciplinary clinicians agreed on the overall usefulness of having a controlled vocabulary as a boundary object. Over 65% of clinicians in the community agreed on the overall usefulness of the vocabulary. Conclusion: The results from this study are promising and will be further evaluated in the domain of another complex chronic condition, ie, chronic pain. The study was conducted as a preliminary analysis for developing a boundary object in a heterogeneous domain of knowledge. PMID:21594060
Birmingham, Elizabeth A.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of learning various types of words in biology on students' reading comprehension, vocabulary performance, and science content knowledge. The study involved 315 ninth grade biology students who were placed in one of four groups and spent two weeks for ten minutes per day working on independent vocabulary packets in which they practiced a set of 15 words. Group one's list was a combination of domain-specific and general academic words, group two's list was a set of general academic words, and group three's list was a set of domain-specific words. The fourth group, the control group, did no formal vocabulary work but instead completed lessons involving the ecology content. In this quasi-experiment, the independent variable was the instructional group assignment, and the dependent variables were the students' performances on the reading comprehension, vocabulary (broken into various categories), and content assessments. Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) found the differences to be statistically significant. The individual dependent variables were analyzed and found two question types on the vocabulary test, the domainspecific and general academic, to be significant in the test of between-subjects effects. Further, instructional group assignment did not have an effect on reading comprehension and content Descriptive statistics for the majority of the vocabulary items and for the comprehension and content post-test measures revealed that the third group had the highest overall achievement. Throughout the two weeks of treatment, the third group worked only with domain-specific words related to ecology. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) found the differences to be statistically significant. The individual dependent variables were analyzed and found two question types on the vocabulary test, the domainspecific and general academic, to be significant in the test of between-subjects effects. Further, instructional group assignment did not have an effect on reading comprehension and content
Green, D.W.; Crinion, J.; Price, C. J.
Given that there are neural markers for the acquisition of a non-verbal skill, we review evidence of neural markers for the acquisition of vocabulary. Acquiring vocabulary is critical to learning one’s native language and to learning other languages. Acquisition requires the ability to link an object concept (meaning) to sound. Is there a region sensitive to vocabulary knowledge? For monolingual English speakers, increased vocabulary knowledge correlates with increased grey matter density in a region of the parietal cortex that is well-located to mediate an association between meaning and sound (the posterior supramarginal gyrus). Further this region also shows sensitivity to acquiring a second language. Relative to monolingual English speakers, Italian-English bilinguals show increased grey matter density in the same region. Differences as well as commonalities might exist in the neural markers for vocabulary where lexical distinctions are also signalled by tone. Relative to monolingual English, Chinese multilingual speakers, like European multilinguals, show increased grey matter density in the parietal region observed previously. However, irrespective of ethnicity, Chinese speakers (both Asian and European) also show highly significant increased grey matter density in two right hemisphere regions (the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus). They also show increased grey matter density in two left hemisphere regions (middle temporal and superior temporal gyrus). Such increases may reflect additional resources required to process tonal distinctions for lexical purposes or to store tonal differences in order to distinguish lexical items. We conclude with a discussion of future lines of enquiry. PMID:18418473
Fien, Hank; Santoro, Lana; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Chard, David J.; Williams, Susanna; Haria, Priti
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of small-group instruction on the vocabulary and comprehension of first-grade students identified with low language and low vocabulary skills. Overall, 102 first-grade students scoring below the 50th percentile on relational vocabulary were blocked by classroom, matched according to…
Shapiro, Jon; Gunderson, Lee
Study compares the vocabulary generated from writing samples of 52 first-grade children in two whole language classrooms with vocabulary contained in the basal reader program. Concludes that whole language instruction does not limit children's exposure to systematic repetition of important vocabulary. (MM)
The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological…
Mihai, Alina; Friesen, Amber; Butera, Gretchen; Horn, Eva; Lieber, Joan; Palmer, Susan
In this article, the authors focus on one important early literacy skill--phonological awareness--and describe how to support its development for all children by intentionally embedding it in storybook reading. Supporting the development of young children's phonological awareness is an important part of helping a child learn to read. Preschool…
Phonology, phonetics and the nondominant hand Wendy Sandler Many studies have shown, the behavior of the nondominant hand in the phonology and the prosody of sign language is analyzed. This articulator, anatomically identical to another articulator in the system (the dominant hand), has no parallel
Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.
Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…
Phonological neutralization from a generative viewpoint is examined, and the process of solving the problems of representing the products of neutralization is described. First, in generative phonological terms, the product must be morphologically irresoluble in order to be considered a true neutralization. This distinguishes neutralization from…
Proctor, Michael Ian
Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…
Gierut, Judith A.; Hulse, Lauren E.
This paper describes a matrix for clinical use in the selection of phonological treatment targets to induce generalization, and in the identification of probe sounds to monitor during the course of intervention. The matrix appeals to a set of factors that have been shown to promote phonological generalization in the research literature, including…
Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan
The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…
Silbert, Noah H.
Speech perception requires the integration of information from multiple phonetic and phonological dimensions. Numerous studies have investigated the mapping between multiple acoustic-phonetic dimensions and single phonological dimensions (e.g., spectral and temporal properties of stop consonants in voicing contrasts). Many fewer studies have…
Halle, Pierre A.; Dominguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; Segui, Juan
In a series of 4 experiments, the authors show that phonological repair mechanisms, known to operate in the auditory modality, are directly translated in the visual modality. This holds with the provision that printed stimuli are presented for a very brief duration and that the effect of phonological repair is tested after a delay of some 100 ms…
This article discusses phonological meanings and their realization in fiction texts and the problematics of their translations. The various views linguists appear to have about what phonological meanings are and how they are expressed linguistically are examined. Furthermore two linguistically oriented approaches on translation theory, Nida's and…
Glaspey, Amy M.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol
Dynamic assessment is applied to phonological disorders with the Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS). The SSS comprises a 21-point hierarchical scale of cues and linguistic environments. With the SSS, clinicians assess stimulability as a diagnostic indicator and use the measure to monitor progress across treatment. Unlike other phonological…
Vaden, Kenneth I.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Hickok, Gregory
Evidence has accumulated that posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is critically involved in phonological processing during speech perception, although there are conflicting accounts regarding the degree of lateralization. The current fMRI experiment aimed to identify phonological processing during speech perception through repetition-suppression effects. Repetition-suppression occurs when brain activity decreases from repetitive presentation of stimulus characteristics, in regions of cortex that process those characteristics. We manipulated the degree of phonological repetition among words in short lists to obtain systematic decreases in brain response, indicative of phonological processing. The fMRI experiment presented seventeen participants with recorded wordlists, of low, medium, or high phonological repetition, defined by how many phonemes were shared among words. Bilaterally, middle STS demonstrated activity differences consistent with our prediction of repetition-suppression, as responses decreased systematically with each increase in phonological repetition. Phonological repetition-suppression in bilateral STS converges with neuroimaging evidence for phonological processing, and word deafness resulting from bilateral superior temporal lesions. PMID:19651222
Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Ronnberg, Jerker
Acquired hearing impairment is associated with gradually declining phonological representations. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model, poorly defined representations lead to mismatch in phonologically challenging tasks. To resolve the mismatch, reliance on working memory capacity (WMC) increases. This study investigated…
Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel
Computational modeling and eye-tracking were used to investigate how phonological and semantic information interact to influence the time course of spoken word recognition. We extended our recent models (Chen & Mirman, 2012; Mirman, Britt, & Chen, 2013) to account for new evidence that competition among phonological neighbors influences…
De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart
The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact…
Examined phonological processes in spoken-word production, applying a form-preparation model to the question of whether phonological features could be preplanned to facilitate word production. Results are explained in terms of the WEAVER model of word-form encoding, which follows a serial encoding of segments with a parallel activation of…
Preston, Jonathan L.; Edwards, Mary Louise
Purpose: Research has shown that young children with speech sound disorders may have weaknesses in phonological processing. However, such skills have not been thoroughly examined in adolescents with residual speech sound errors. Therefore, this study compared the phonological processing abilities of adolescents with residual speech sound errors to…
Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud
There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are…
No consensus has been reached on whether phonological information is activated in reading Chinese. Further, semantic activation has not been well-studied in the context of orthographic depth. To contribute to these issues, this dissertation investigated semantic and phonological activation in reading Chinese and English. This dissertation also…
Marian, Viorica; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Boukrina, Olga V.
The influence of phonological similarity on bilingual language processing was examined within and across languages in three experiments. Phonological similarity was manipulated within a language by varying neighborhood density, and across languages by varying extent of cross-linguistic overlap between native and non-native languages. In Experiment…
This report shows how knowledge about the visual world can be built into a shape representation in the form of a descriptive vocabulary making explicit the important geometrical relationships comprising objects' shapes. ...
Blythe, Hazel I; Pagán, Ascensión; Dodd, Megan
In this experiment, the extent to which beginning readers process phonology during lexical identification in silent sentence reading was investigated. The eye movements of children aged seven to nine years and adults were recorded as they read sentences containing either a correctly spelled target word (e.g., girl), a pseudohomophone (e.g., gerl), or a spelling control (e.g., garl). Both children and adults showed a benefit from the valid phonology of the pseudohomophone, compared to the spelling control during reading. This indicates that children as young as seven years old exhibit relatively skilled phonological processing during reading, despite having moved past the use of overt phonological decoding strategies. In addition, in comparison to adults, children's lexical processing was more disrupted by the presence of spelling errors, suggesting a developmental change in the relative dependence upon phonological and orthographic processing in lexical identification during silent sentence reading. PMID:25528096
Miccio's work included a number of articles on the assessment of phonology in children with phonological disorders, typically using measures of correct articulation, using the PCC, or analyses of errors, using the framework of phonological processes. This paper introduces an approach to assessing phonology by examining the phonetic complexity of…
Sun, Kim Kyoung; Kemp, Coral
A review of research into the acquisition of phonological awareness skills in individuals with intellectual disabilities, the relationship between phonological awareness and reading in these individuals and the effect of phonological awareness training on the development of their phonological skills is presented. Research indicates that children…
Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois
The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…
Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…
Hsueh-Chao, Marcella Hu; Nation, Paul
Examines what percentage of coverage of text is needed for unassisted reading for pleasure, where learners are able to read without the interruption of looking up words. Looks at the effect of three densities of unknown vocabulary on two measures of reading comprehension, a multiple-choice test and a cued written recall test. (Author/VWL)
Huong, Le Pham Hoai
This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were observed in both…
Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…
thesauri Controlled vocabulary for a multilingual IR system Support for cross-language free-text searching Support for translation #12;Structure of multilingual thesauri Key issues Conceptual systems in different or German, respectively. Note: Most English-German dictionaries would have you believe that the German
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.
This vocabulary covering the field of environmental pollution was compiled by the staff of the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution. The view of the approach is to include an outline-classification all physical, life, and social science aspects of environmental pollution, trying to achieve a balance in the representation of each…
Vocabulary used to describe things that are "hyper" is very confusing. This paper discusses four factor which contribute to the confusion: the same idea is often described using different terms; even though people sometimes use the same terms, quite often they are referring to different ideas; people tend to confuse "hyperdocuments" with…
The controlled vocabulary method of reading instruction (popular in the 1950's and 60's in the Dick and Jane basic reading series) had many inherent and numerous strong points. As with all beginning reading instruction methods, including the Big Book, heterogeneous reading group, holism, phonics, library book, and constructivist methods,…
Livers, Stefanie D.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.
The language that students are learning in mathematics classrooms is intimately tied to the mathematics they are learning. The goal for any lesson or unit is for all students to be able to understand the mathematics they read or hear and be able to speak and write about that mathematics. Structured vocabulary placement can support that dual…
D'Alesio, Rosemary; Scalia, Maureen T.; Zabel, Renee M.
The purpose of this action research project was to improve student vocabulary acquisition through a multisensory, direct instructional approach. The study involved three teachers and a target population of 73 students in second and seventh grade classrooms. The intervention was implemented from September through December of 2006 and analyzed in…
A convenient education in Greek and Latin language would be highly suitable for a correct use of the medical vocabulary. The book La mémoire des mots en médecine, pharmacie et sciences is a first attempt for this goal. It presents about 4000 French and European words. PMID:7892745
The NASA Thesaurus -- Volume 2, Access Vocabulary -- contains an alphabetical listing of all Thesaurus terms (postable and nonpostable) and permutations of all multiword and pseudo-multiword terms. Also included are Other Words (non-Thesaurus terms) consisting of abbreviations, chemical symbols, etc. The permutations and Other Words provide 'access' to the appropriate postable entries in the Thesaurus.
Redd, Jennifer; Schmidt-Crawford, Denise
This study focused on the potential for building 25 high-school students' word knowledge by using a mobile learning device and gaming app. Using a game as an instructional tool is a portable way for students to engage with content. The amount of vocabulary mastered after using the app on the mobile device was examined in relation to a pre-test and…
Chen, Xi; Ramirez, Gloria; Luo, Yang C.; Geva, Esther; Ku, Yu-Min
This study evaluated the impact of two metalinguistic factors, English derivational awareness and English-Spanish cognate awareness, and the impact of two sociocultural factors, maternal education and children's length of residence in Canada, on English Language Learners (ELLs)' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study were 89…
Underwood, Paul; Myskow, Gordon; Hattori, Takahiko
This study investigated the effects of a six-month course in speed reading in three areas of reading proficiency development: 1) general reading comprehension, 2) knowledge of high-frequency vocabulary, and 3) reading-rate and accuracy. The participants (N = 105) were Japanese students studying English as a foreign language in Grade 10 at a…
Marshall, Dorothy; Christo, Catherine; Davis, John
This study examined the performance of reading disabled children on the two Phonological Awareness Subtests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). Participants performed significantly different on these two subtests with a poorer performance on the Elision subtest than Blending Words. In addition, the two subtests were not…
Goto, Takaaki; Kita, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kota; Koike, Toshihide; Inagaki, Masumi
Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7–12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right DLPFC, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages. PMID:26236223
Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith
We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065
Ramachandran, R.; Graves, S.; Raskin, R.
A common problem faced while developing metadata for scientific data archives is that of keywords. Although keywords are an effective way for searching the resource catalogs, data archive designers may select from one of many different controlled vocabularies to describe their holdings. For example, in Earth Science, Climate and Forecasting (CF Convention) is a controlled vocabulary commonly used within the Modeling community. Similarly, the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) keywords list is the convention used within the NASA Earth Science Program. The use of controlled vocabularies allows searches on the resource catalogs to be accurate and complete, but the burden of framing the precise query falls on the shoulders of the users. The user has to know the keyword before hand in order to perform a "free text" search. This might be perfectly acceptable in smaller projects where the users are specialized and have the required knowledge, but is impractical in larger projects where the users may have varied levels of domain knowledge. One solution to this problem is the use of an ontology, where the ontology contains higher level abstract concepts and the corresponding mapping to the different controlled vocabulary terms. This use of ontologies eliminates the barrier of entry based on domain knowledge and provides easy-to-use search capabilities to the users. In this presentation, we will describe an ontology designed and created to address this problem. However, this ontology required re-engineering of higher level ontologies, namely the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies, instead of the initial creation of an ontology. Since the traditional methodologies for creating an ontology do not account for reengineering and reuse of higher level ontologies, we propose a new modified methodology. This presentation will describe this methodology and also explore some of the issues and challenges involved in the construction of an ontology using this approach.
Christensen, Daniel; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L.
Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4–8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4–8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well-fitted multivariate model featuring risks of substantive magnitude does not do particularly well in predicting low receptive vocabulary ability from 4–8 years. PMID:24988308
Ji, P.; Lehnert, K. A.; Arko, R. A.; Song, L.; Hsu, L.; Carter, M. R.; Ferrini, V. L.; Ash, J.
Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) is a community-based facility that serves to support, sustain, and advance the geosciences by providing data services for observational geoscience data from the Ocean, Earth, and Polar Sciences. Many dedicated systems such as the Petrological Database (PetDB), Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS), System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR), Data Coordination Center for the U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP-DCC), etc., under the umbrella of the IEDA framework, were developed to support the preservation, discovery, retrieval, and analysis of a wide range of observational field and analytical data types from diverse communities. However, it is currently difficult to maintain consistency of indexing content within IEDA schema, and perform unified or precise searching of the data in these diverse systems as each system maintains separate vocabularies, hierarchies, authority files, or sub taxonomies. We present here the IEDA Thesaurus, a system, which combines existing separate controlled vocabularies from the different systems under the IEDA schema into a single master controlled vocabulary, also introducing some new top facets for future long-term use. The IEDA thesaurus contains structured terminology for petrology, geochemistry, sedimentology, oceanography, geochronology, and volcanology, and other general metadata fields. 18 top facets (also called 'top categories') are defined, including equipment, geographic gazetteer, geologic ages, geologic units, materials, etc. The terms of the thesaurus are cross validated with others popular geoscience vocabularies such as GeoRef Thesaurus, U.S. Geological Survey Library Classification System, Global Change Master Directory (GCMD), and Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies. The thesaurus is organized along with the ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005 Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies, and is published using Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) format. The IEDA thesaurus server provides classic web semantic features such as SPARQL, RESTful web services, and unique URI based on open source technologies.
Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol
The division of linguistic structure into a meaningless (phonological) level and a meaningful level of morphemes and words is considered a basic design feature of human language. Although established sign languages, like spoken languages, have been shown to be characterized by this bifurcation, no information has been available about the way in which such structure arises. We report here on a newly emerging sign language, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, which functions as a full language but in which a phonological level of structure has not yet emerged. Early indications of formal regularities provide clues to the way in which phonological structure may develop over time. PMID:22223927
Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.
Two aspects of dynamic systems approaches that are pertinent to developmental models of reading are the emergence of a system with self-organizing characteristics, and its evolution over time to a stable state that is not easily modified or perturbed. The effects of dynamic stability may be seen in the differences obtained in the processing of print by beginner readers taught by different approaches to reading (phonics and text-centered), and more long-term effects on adults, consistent with these differences. However, there is little direct evidence collected over time for the same participants. In this study, lexicalized (implicit) phonological processing, and explicit phonological and letter-sound skills are further examined in a precocious reader whose early development at 3 and 5 years has been extensively described (Cognition, 2000, 2004). At ages 10 and 14 years, comparisons were made with these earlier reports and skilled adult readers, using the same tasks for evidence of changes in reading processes. The results showed that along with an increase of reading accuracy and speed, her pattern of lexicalized phonological responses for reading did not change over time. Neither did her pattern of explicit phonological and letter-sound skills, aspects of which were inferior to her lexicalized phonological processing, and word reading. These results suggest dynamic stability of the word reading system. The early emergence of this system with minimal explicit skill development calls into question developmental reading theories that require such skills for learning to read. Currently, only the Knowledge Sources theory of reading acquisition can account for such findings. Consideration of these aspects of dynamic systems raise theoretical issues that could result in a paradigm shift with regard to best practice and intervention. PMID:25071635
Degé, Franziska; Schwarzer, Gudrun
The present experiment investigated the effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music program and a phonological skills program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys) were randomly assigned to a phonological skills program, a music program, and a control group that received sports training (from which no effect was expected). Preschoolers were trained for 10?min on a daily basis over a period of 20?weeks. In a pretest, no differences were found between the three groups in regard to age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and phonological awareness. Children in the phonological skills group and the music group showed significant increases in phonological awareness from pre- to post-test. The children in the sports group did not show a significant increase from pre- to post-test. The enhancement of phonological awareness was basically driven by positive effects of the music program and the phonological skills program on phonological awareness for large phonological units. The data suggests that phonological awareness can be trained with a phonological skills program as well as a music program. These results can be interpreted as evidence of a shared sound category learning mechanism for language and music at preschool age. PMID:21734895
Brady, Nancy C.; Anderson, Christa J.; Hahn, Laura J.; Obermeier, Sara M.; Kapa, Leah L.
This study examined the utility of eye tracking research technology to measure speech comprehension in 14 young boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 15 developmentally matched boys with typical development. Using eye tracking research technology, children were tested on individualized sets of known and unknown words, identified based on their performance on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Children in both groups spent a significantly longer amount of time looking at the target picture when previous testing indicated the word was known (known condition). Children with ASD spent similar amounts of time looking at the target and non-target pictures when previous testing indicated the word was unknown (unknown condition). However, children with typical development looked longer at the target pictures in the unknown condition as well, potentially suggesting emergent vocabulary knowledge. PMID:24773020
Sibanda, Jabulani; Baxen, Jean
The present paper derives from a PhD study investigating the nexus between Grade 4 textbook vocabulary demands and Grade 3 isiXhosa-speaking learners' knowledge of that vocabulary to enable them to read to learn in Grade 4. The paper challenges the efficacy of the four current definitions of "word" for generating high frequency…
Ananian, C. Scott
Phonology Project Part II: Laryngeal Neutralization and Syllable Structure C. Scott Ananian Andrew Ira Nevins December 2000 Contents 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Laryngeal Neutralization Is the Syllable involved in Neutralization? 12 3.1 Linear Constraints in Klamath
Calamaro, Shira; Jarosz, Gaja
Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony (Peperkamp, Le Calvez, Nadal, & Dupoux, 2006). This paper extends the model to account for learning of a broader set of phonological alternations and the formalization of these alternations as general rules. In Experiment 1, we apply the original model to new data in Dutch and demonstrate its limitations in learning nonallophonic rules. In Experiment 2, we extend the model to allow it to learn general rules for alternations that apply to a class of segments. In Experiment 3, the model is further extended to allow for generalization by context; we argue that this generalization must be constrained by linguistic principles. PMID:25227261
Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.
Long-term auditory priming of words from dense neighborhoods has been posited as a learning mechanism that affects change in the phonological structure of children’s lexical representations. An apparent confound associated with the modality of priming responsible for structural change has been introduced in the literature, which challenges this proposal. Thus, our purpose was to evaluate prime modality in treatment of children with phonological delay. Nine children were assigned to auditory-visual, auditory or visual priming of words from dense neighborhoods prior to treatment of production as the independent variable. The dependent variable was phonological generalization. Results showed that auditory priming (with or without visual input) promoted greater generalization on an order of magnitude of 3:1. Findings support the theoretical significance of auditory priming for phonological learning and demonstrate the applied utility of priming in clinical treatment. PMID:25000373
Mishra, Ramesh Kumar
casual relationship for alphabetic scripts. Results discussed in this paper do not support this view as far as reading ability and phonological awareness go in Down's syndrome. The present study compared a sample of children with Down's syndrome (N=10...
Some of the earliest papers on Lexical Phonology claim that structure preservation applies throughout a Lexical derivation and may only he shut off by exiting the Lexicon. Work by Kellogg (1991) in Lakota attempts to uphold ...
Leonard, Laurence B.; And Others
Children exhibiting a referential orientation seem more likely to acquire new object names than nonreferentially oriented children. Also, children's selection of words may be influenced by the phonological structure of the words. (Author/RH)
King, Simon; Taylor, Paul
which uses binary features, 2) a multi valued (MV) feature system which uses traditional phonetic categories such as manner, place etc, and 3) Government Phonology (GP) which uses a set of structured primes. All experiments used recurrent neural networks...
Cimino, James J.
, translates the terminology into its controlled vocabulary of clinical features, generates a list of disorders a medical subspecialty) has appeal for comprehensive knowledge compilation and extraction of expert
Bornman, Juan; Bryen, Diane Nelson
The vocabulary needs of individuals who are unable to spell their messages continue to be of concern in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Social validation of vocabulary selection has been suggested as one way to improve the effectiveness and relevance of service delivery in AAC. Despite increased emphasis on stakeholder accountability, social validation is not frequently used in AAC research. This paper describes an investigation of the social validity of a vocabulary set identified in earlier research. A previous study used stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary that could be used by South African adults who use AAC to disclose their experiences as victims of crime or abuse. Another study used this vocabulary to create communication boards for use by adults with complex communication needs. In this current project, 12 South African adults with complex communication needs who use AAC systems used a 5-point Likert scale to score the importance of each of the previously identified 57 vocabulary items. This two-step process of first using stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary, and then having literate persons who use AAC provide information on social validity of the vocabulary on behalf of their peers who are illiterate, appears to hold promise as a culturally relevant vocabulary selection approach for sensitive topics such as crime and abuse. PMID:23641830
Pillay, Sara B.; Stengel, Benjamin C.; Humphries, Colin; Book, Diane S.; Binder, Jeffrey R.
Objective Computation of a pre-articulatory phonological representation (phonological access, or phonological retrieval) is an essential process in speech production whose neural localization is not clear. This study combined a specific behavioral measure of phonological access and multivariate voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) in a series of left hemisphere stroke patients to identify brain regions critical for this process. Methods Phonological access was assessed in 40 chronic ischemic stroke patients using a silent rhyming task to avoid confounds with motor planning and articulation deficits. Additional covariates were incorporated in the VLSM analysis to control for orthographic and working memory demands of the rhyming task, and for age, education, and total lesion volume. The resulting t-statistic maps were thresholded at voxel-wise p < .001 and cluster-corrected at a family-wise error of p < .05. Results Phonological access impairment was correlated with damage to a focal region of cortex and white matter caudal to the posterior sylvian fissure, which included the posterior supramarginal gyrus and adjacent anterior angular gyrus, planum temporale, and posterior superior temporal gyrus. No correlation was observed with Broca’s area, insula, or sensorimotor cortex. An additional VLSM showed no correlation between damage in this posterior perisylvian region and spoken word comprehension. Interpretation This is the first demonstration of a specific lesion correlate for phonological access impairment. Although this posterior perisylvian region overlaps with some versions of the classical Wernicke area, the present results demonstrate its involvement in pre-articulatory phonological production rather than speech perception or lexical-semantic processes. PMID:25164766
Dinnsen, Daniel A.; Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.; Rose, Darcy E.
This paper focuses on three seemingly unrelated error patterns in the sound system of a child with a phonological delay, Child 218 (male, age 4 years; 6 months) and ascribes those error patterns to a larger conspiracy to eliminate fricatives from the phonetic inventory. Employing Optimality Theory for its advantages in characterizing conspiracies, our analysis offers a unified account of the observed repairs. The contextual restrictions on those repairs are, moreover, attributed to early developmental prominence effects, which are independently manifested in another error pattern involving rhotic consonants. Comparisons are made with a published case study involving a different implementation of the same conspiracy, the intent being to disambiguate the force behind certain error patterns. The clinical implications of the account are also considered. PMID:25000372
Leadbetter, A.; Lowry, R.; Clements, O.
The NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to the marine environmental sciences domain since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for • metadata mark-up with verifiable content • populating dynamic drop down lists • semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata • so-called smart search • and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium Web Processing Services in projects including: the NERC Data Grid; SeaDataNet; Geo-Seas; and the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model and following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes in this standard. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". The latest version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: • the removal of the potential for multiple Uniform Resource Names for the same concept to ensure consistent identification of concepts • the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content • the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS • the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base • a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier • and support for multiple human languages to increase the user base of the NVS Version 2 of the NVS underpins the semantic layer for the Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR) project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. Here we present the results of upgrading the NVS from version 1 to 2 and show applications which have been built on top of the NVS using its Application Programming Interface, including a demonstration version of a SPARQL interface.
Fonseca-Mora, M C; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María
Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7-8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills. PMID:25852604
Fonseca-Mora, M. C.; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María
Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7–8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills. PMID:25852604
Timmer, Kalinka; Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Ceusters, Ilse; Schiller, Niels O
The Masked Onset Priming Effect (MOPE) has been reported in speakers' first languages (L1). The aims of the present study are to investigate whether second language (L2) phonology is active during L1 reading, and to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology in reading aloud. To this end, Dutch-English bilinguals read aloud L1 target words primed by L2 words, while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The onset of the primes was manipulated to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology (i.e. O+P+: kite - KUNST, 'art'; O+P-: knee - KUNST; O-P+: crime - KUNST; O-P-: mine - KUNST). Phonological but not orthographic overlap facilitated RTs. However, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed both orthographic and phonological priming starting 125 ms after target presentation. Taken together, we gained insights into the time course of cross-linguistic priming and demonstrated that L2 phonology is activated rapidly in an L1 environment. PMID:24735994
Studies on child phonology suggest that there exist phonological universals in the timing of phonological events and the ordering of phonological categories, but the acquisition of speech sounds is influenced by the language-specific aspects of the ambient language such as phonetics, phonology, and the frequency of the sound in child-directed speech. This study investigates a Korean child's phonological acquisition based on tape recordings of longitudinal data (from 2 months to 2 years, recorded in 1- to 2-week intervals). Special attention is given to the change in prosody and the acquisition of the Korean three-way manner contrast (fortis, aspirated, lenis). It is known that Korean fortis and aspirated obstruents trigger high pitch at vowel onset while lenis obstruents trigger low pitch [Jun (1993), (1998)]. Preliminary results suggest that fortis obstruents are acquired first, followed by aspirated, and then lenis. The segmental properties (e.g., voice onset time, breathy phonation) appropriate for the lenis category were acquired later than the pitch. In addition, unlike the universal tendencies, velar and labial consonants were acquired earlier than alveolar consonants. Factors affecting the order of acquisition, including frequency effect and perceptual salience, will be discussed.
Wang, Ye; Trezek, Beverly J; Luckner, John L; Paul, Peter V
The article challenges educators to rethink reading instruction practices for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors begin with a discussion of the role of phonology in reading, then summarize the evidence of phonological coding among skilled deaf readers and investigate alternative routes for acquiring phonologically related skills such as the use of speechreading, articulatory feedback, Visual Phonics, and Cued Speech. Finally, they present recent intervention studies and proposed procedures to employ phonics-based instruction with students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors conclude with the assertion that the teaching of phonologically related skills by means of instructional tools such as Visual Phonics and Cued Speech can and should be incorporated into reading instruction for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors recommend additional research in this important area. PMID:19146076
de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Nitrini, Ricardo; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi
Crystallized intelligence refers to one's knowledge base and can be measured by vocabulary tests. Fluid intelligence is related to nonverbal aspects of intelligence, depends very little on previously acquired knowledge, and can be measured by tests such as Block Design (BD) and Raven Colored Matrices (RCM). Premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) refers to one's intellectual ability level previous to the onset of disorders like mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it is important to estimate disease severity. The objective was to compare performance in tests that measure crystallized and fluid intelligence in healthy subjects and patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD. One hundred forty-four participants (aMCI (n = 38), AD (n = 45), and healthy controls (n = 61)) were submitted to neuropsychological tests (WAIS-III vocabulary, BD, and RCM). There were significant among groups, except for vocabulary, indicating a relative stability of crystallized intelligence in the continuum from normal to pathological cognitive decline. Vocabulary seems to be stable during the progression of the disease and useful as a measure of premorbid intelligence, that is, to estimate previous function in relation to the level of education and, as a collateral measure of cognition in people with low education. PMID:24803737
Endo, Yasuko Amy
This study examines the effects of topic interest on the vocabulary learning and retention in third grade students with and without learning disabilities. All students learned 12 unfamiliar vocabulary words in three different vocabulary learning conditions: High-interest topic vocabulary, low-interest topic vocabulary, and vocabulary words without…
Alharbi, Adel M.
This project investigated Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLSs) English Language Learners used; and strategies they thought were effective to them in terms of language proficiency. Using an online survey, 121 participants responded to statements regarding their usage of VLSs. Participants have been divided into two groups: (1) learners with low…
Query, Rebecca Robinson; Ceglowski, Deborah; Clark, Patricia; Li, Yongmei
The purpose of this study was to examine Hispanic families' perspectives on using a prepared kit to enhance their preschoolers' vocabulary development at home. Families enrolled in a public prekindergarten program were provided with a bilingual (English/Spanish) home literacy kit that included ways in which to engage their children in activities…
Sailor, Kevin M.
Several recent studies have explored the applicability of the preferential attachment principle to account for vocabulary growth. According to this principle, network growth can be described by a process in which existing nodes recruit new nodes with a probability that is an increasing function of their connectivity within the existing network.…
Horst, Marlise; Cobb, Tom; Nicolae, Ioana
University students used a set of existing and purpose-built on-line tools for vocabulary learning in an experimental ESL course. The resources included concordance, dictionary, cloze-builder, hypertext, and a database with interactive self-quizzing feature (all freely available at www.lextutor.ca). The vocabulary targeted for learning consisted…
Nisbet, Deanna L.; Tindall, Evie R.
Academic vocabulary development is critical to the success of all learners--particularly English language learners (ELLs). This article presents a framework for integrating explicit academic vocabulary instruction for ELLs into middle school classrooms. The framework embodies five research-based principles and serves as a vehicle for structuring…
In the current study, explicit vocabulary learning strategy instruction was integrated into an EFL curriculum to investigate its effects on learners' vocabulary acquisition. A total of 180 EFL learners enrolled in the freshmen English program at a university in Taiwan participated in the study. The participants were guided to explore and practice…
Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Francis, David J.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles
The current study evaluated the relation between Spanish and English vocabulary. Whereas previously reported correlations have revealed strong differences among types of vocabulary measures used and the ages of the students tested, no prior study had used a multilevel model to control for classroom-level differences. The current study used…
Large Vocabulary Recognition of Online Handwritten Cursive Words by Giovanni Seni A dissertation; Large Vocabulary Recognition of OnLine Handwritten Cursive Words by Giovanni Seni Abstract A critical collected online via a digitizing device, and classify it as one of a prespecified set of words (i
Sinatra, Richard; Zygouris-Coe, Vicky; Dasinger, Sheryl B.
This article discusses why early and sustained vocabulary development is important for listening and reading comprehension development and presents findings from 8 studies implemented with children of mostly low socioeconomic status in settings from day care to first grade. Program interventions were based on learning new vocabulary developed out…
British learners acquire very little vocabulary in their foreign languages, compared to pupils elsewhere in Europe, particularly learners of English as a foreign language. Could the materials used for teaching help explain this difference? An analysis of the vocabulary loading of a textbook for French as a foreign language commonly used in…
This article uses a conversation analysis methodology to examine how lexical Focus on Form is interactionally accomplished in teachers' vocabulary explanations in secondary Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms. Recent conversation-analytic work has focused on the interactional organisation of vocabulary explanations in…
Holmes, Kerry; Thompson, Judith
In the spirit of the Steven Stahl 600 Book Kid Challenge, 90 preservice teachers engaged children in 36 read-aloud sessions for a vocabulary improvement service learning project. This article describes how the preservice teachers used narrative and informational books as a vehicle for rare-word vocabulary exposure for children ages 8-12.
Ostovar-Namaghi, Seyd Ali; Rajaee, Mehdi
Sixty Iranian high school EFL learners between 14 and 16 males participated in this study were randomly divided into two groups; experimental, and control. As the study aimed to know whether vocabulary strategy training effects on vocabulary learning of Iranian students, at first the control and experimental group were given a writing per-test…
Covner, Thelma Crockin
To test the hypothesis that aspects of one's personality are associated with expansion of his or her vocabulary, a study focused on thirteen students of various ages who constituted a vocabulary development class. Students were taught techniques for discovering meaning through context or extracting meaning through word structure. Considerable time…
Kabel, Suzanne; De Hoog, Robert; Wielinga, Bob; Anjewierden, Anjo
In addition to the LOM standard and instructional design specifications, as well as domain specific indexing vocabularies, a structured indexing vocabulary for the more elementary learning objects is advisable in order to support retrieval tasks of developers. Furthermore, because semantic indexing is seen as a difficult task, three issues…
This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…
Asiyaban, Amir R.; Bagheri, Mohammad S.
This research was conducted to find out whether or not using "translation" technique in vocabulary teaching would have any positive effects on the "free active" vocabulary of Iranian learners of English. To carry out the research, eighty-eight intermediate male and female students were chosen. The participants were divided into four "male…
This study examines the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English, a process referred to as Anglicization, on student learning in the context of introductory microbiology instruction. Data from Anglicized and Classical-vocabulary lab sections were collected. Data included exam scores as well as pre and…
Vocabulary can no longer be said to be "a Cinderella topic", at least so far as its representation in other journals is concerned. Research articles on vocabulary learning and teaching now occur frequently and have been particularly well represented in recent issues of the North American research journal "Language Learning". While studies of…
The study enlightens the effectiveness of e-TLM in Learning Vocabulary in English at standard VI. Objectives of the study: 1. To find out the problems of conventional TLM in learning vocabulary in English. 2. To find out the significant difference in achievement mean score between the pre test of control group and the post test of control group.…
Crozier, W. Ray; Badawood, Asma
The aims of the present study are to examine whether preschool children's scores on a standardized test of vocabulary mediate or moderate the relation between shyness and reticence and to test whether any influence of vocabulary would be found for both teacher and parent assessments of shyness. Participants were 108 children (50 males), mean age,…
Nicolaidis, Katerina; Mattheoudakis, Marina
This paper proposes a new method for the combined teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary to learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). While there is commonly strong emphasis on the teaching of vocabulary, pronunciation teaching is frequently neglected in the EFL classroom. The proposed method aims to address such imbalance which may…
GENERATION OF ADAPTIVE VOCABULARY LEXICON FOR JAPANESE LVCSR Charles C.H. Jie Philips Innovation for the languages like Japanese, which has many inflections, compound words and loanwords. The OOV words vary adaptation. 1. INTRODUCTION No sooner had we created our first lexicon for Japanese large vocabulary
The objectives of this study were to determine how the selected vocabulary acquisition techniques affected the vocabulary ability of 35 students who took EN 111 and investigate their attitudes towards the techniques instruction. The research study was one-group pretest and post-test design. The instruments employed were in-class exercises…
Linebarger, Deborah L.; Moses, Annie; Garrity Liebeskind, Kara; McMenamin, Katie
Vocabulary acquisition associated with watching high-quality educational television has been documented in a number of studies. One lingering question is whether adding strategically placed onscreen print to a program can enhance vocabulary acquisition beyond those effects attributable to viewing educational content alone. The present study was…
A discussion of the ease or difficulty of learning vocabulary words in a second language looks at a variety of issues in second language instruction. Research on factors in vocabulary learning is discussed, focusing on such factors as similarity in form and morphology, deceptive morphological structure, different syntactic patterning in the native…
Because reading for meaning only can lead to low rates of second language (L2) vocabulary learning and because previous research has demonstrated the benefits of word retrieval opportunities for intentional L2 vocabulary learning (Barcroft, 2007; McNamara & Healy, 1995a, Experiment 2; Royer, 1973), the present study assessed the effect of…
Cousins, Shirley Anne
Investigation of retrieval performance of controlled vocabulary derived from natural language terms in tables of contents and book indexes assumed that controlled vocabulary representative of users' queries should adequately represent documents' contents. Queries were indexed using Library of Congress Subject Headings (LSCH), Dewey Decimal…
Language Identification via Large Vocabulary Speaker Independent Continuous Speech Recognition large vocabulary continuous speech recognition as an engine for automatically classifying utterances of as being separate from the problem of speech recognition. But in this paper, as in Dragon's earlier work
Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart
In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…
Crume, Peter K
The National Reading Panel emphasizes that spoken language phonological awareness (PA) developed at home and school can lead to improvements in reading performance in young children. However, research indicates that many deaf children are good readers even though they have limited spoken language PA. Is it possible that some deaf students benefit from teachers who promote sign language PA instead? The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine teachers' beliefs and instructional practices related to sign language PA. A thematic analysis is conducted on 10 participant interviews at an ASL/English bilingual school for the deaf to understand their views and instructional practices. The findings reveal that the participants had strong beliefs in developing students' structural knowledge of signs and used a variety of instructional strategies to build students' knowledge of sign structures in order to promote their language and literacy skills. PMID:23676530
Tyler, Lorraine K; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D
The double dissociation between the regular and irregular past tense in English has been explained in terms of dual and single mechanism accounts. In previous research we have argued that problems with the regular past tense in patients with left inferior frontal damage arise from morpho-phonological parsing difficulties [Trends in Cognitive Science 2 (1998) 428]. This claim has recently been challenged by a single mechanism connectionist account which argues that a general phonological processing deficit causes the poor performance on the regular past tense, with morphological factors playing no explicit role [Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96 (1999) 7592]. We used a speeded judgement task with four patients who have documented difficulties with the regular past tense to contrast the claims made by these different approaches. We compared patients' ability to detect the difference between the past tense and stem of regular (hugged/hug) and irregular (taught/teach) past tense verbs, as well as matched "pseudo" pairs (trade/tray and port/peach). These real word conditions were accompanied by matched sets of non-words (e.g. nugged/nug). Patients' latencies to the regular past tense real word-pairs were consistently slower than in any other condition. To test for a general phonological processing deficit, we conducted several tests of phonological processing ability. The results show that the patients had a range of difficulties in phonological processing, from very mild to severe. This did not correlate with their performance on the speeded judgement task. We interpret this pattern of results as support for a specialised morpho-phonological processing mechanism which can be dissociated from other phonological processes and which is used directly in the processing of the regular past tense in a dual-mechanism system. PMID:11931919
Only very few phonological processes are reported to be conditioned by stress. There are two major patterns of stress-sensitive processes: segments are lengthened under stress, and vowels become louder. Two other phonological ...
An fMRI study of multimodal semantic and phonological processing in reading disabled adolescents (visual only) phonological processing in reading disabled (RD) adolescents and non-impaired (NI) control