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1

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

2

Head Start Teachers’ Views of Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research indicates that pre-kindergarten programs have not fully closed the gap between low-income and middle-income\\u000a children regarding phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge, two key predictors of later reading success. The current\\u000a study examined Head Start teachers’ views of and challenges in implementing instruction to improve children’s sound and word\\u000a skills. Teachers’ descriptions of their instructional strategies emphasized more planning

Patrick M. O’Leary; Mary K. Cockburn; Douglas R. Powell; Karen E. Diamond

2010-01-01

3

Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children. PMID:22057983

Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

4

The Comprehensive Language Approach to Early Literacy: The Interrelationships Among Vocabulary, Phonological Sensitivity, and Print Knowledge Among Preschool-Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes 2 points of view about the relationship between oral-language and literacy skills: The phonological sensitivity approach posits that vocabulary provides the basis for phonological sensitivity, which then is the key language ability supporting reading, and the comprehensive language approach (CLA) posits that varied language skills interact with literacy knowledge and continue to play a vital role in

David K. Dickinson; Allyssa McCabe; Louisa Anastasopoulos; Ellen S. Peisner-Feinberg; Michele D. Poe

2003-01-01

5

Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of…

Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

2012-01-01

6

Development of Bilingual Phonological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Roles of Vocabulary, Letter Knowledge, and Prior Phonological Awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories concerning the development of phonological awareness place special emphasis on lexical and orthographic knowledge. Given the large degree of variability in preschool classrooms that house Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELL), this study controlled for classroom effects by removing classroom means and covariances based on 158 children from 40 classrooms. Path analyses of the child-level covariance matrices tested the extent

Jason L. Anthony; Emily J. Solari; Jeffrey M. Williams; Kimberly D. Schoger; Zhou Zhang; Lee Branum-Martin; David J. Francis

2009-01-01

7

The Nature of Preschool Phonological Processing Abilities and Their Relations to Vocabulary, General Cognitive Abilities, and Print Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities represents an important developmental milestone in the process of learning to read. In this cross-sectional study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of phonological processing abilities in 129 younger preschoolers (M = 40.88 months, SD = 4.65) and 304…

Lonigan, Christopher J.; Anthony, Jason L.; Phillips, Beth M.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; McQueen, Jessica D.

2009-01-01

8

Phonological short-term memory and vocabulary development: further evidence on the nature of the relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The nature and generality of the developmental association between phonological short-term memory and vocabulary knowledge was explored in two studies. Study 1 investigated whether the link between vocabulary and verbal memory arises from the requirement to articulate memory items at recall or from earlier processes involved in the encoding and storage of the verbal material. Four-year-old children were tested

Susan E. Gathercole; Elisabet Service; Graham J. Hitch; Anne-Marie Adams; Amanda J. Martin

1999-01-01

9

Phonological working memory: A critical building block for reading development and vocabulary acquisition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we review findings from a recent longitudinal study of the contribution of phonological working memory to\\u000a vocabulary acquisition and reading development. A total of 80 children were tested initially at school entry at the age of\\u000a four years, and were tested in three further waves at ages 5, 6, and 8 years. The results indicate that phonological

Susan E. Gathercole; Alan D. Baddeley

1993-01-01

10

Individual Differences in the Influence of Phonological Characteristics on Expressive Vocabulary Development by Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study attempts to differentiate effects of phonotactic probability (i.e. the likelihood of occurrence of a sound sequence), neighbourhood density (i.e. the number of phonologically similar words), word frequency, and word length on expressive vocabulary development by young children. Naturalistic conversational samples for three…

Maekawa, Junko; Storkel, Holly L.

2006-01-01

11

Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS). The ILTS includes 1,045 twin pairs from the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia aged 5 to 8 years. We applied the DeFries-Fulker regression method to determine whether problems in PM and vocabulary tend to co-occur because of overlapping genes, overlapping environmental risk factors, or both. Results Among children with isolated PM deficits, we found significant bivariate heritability of PM and vocabulary weaknesses both within and across time. However, when probands were selected for a vocabulary deficit, there was no evidence for bivariate heritability. In this case, the PM-vocabulary relationship appeared to owe to common shared environmental experiences. Conclusions The findings are consistent with previous research on the heritability of specific language impairment and suggest that there are etiologic subgroups of children with poor vocabulary for different reasons, one more influenced by genes and another more influenced by environment. PMID:23275423

Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

2012-01-01

12

Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…

Carrier, Sarah J.

2013-01-01

13

The Roles of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Working Memory in L2 Grammar and Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…

Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.

2012-01-01

14

Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in J Res Sci Teach 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn academic English. Teachers must have a clear understanding of science vocabulary in order to communicate and evaluate these understandings with students. The present study measured preservice teachers' vocabulary knowledge during a science methods course and documented their use of science vocabulary during peer teaching. The data indicate that the course positively impacted the preservice teachers' knowledge of select elementary science vocabulary; however, use of science terms was inconsistent in microteaching lessons. Recommendations include providing multiple vocabulary instruction strategies in teacher preparation.

Carrier, Sarah J.

2013-03-01

15

Orthographic Influences, Vocabulary Development, and Phonological Awareness in Deaf Children Who Use Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study, we explore the influence of orthographic knowledge on phonological awareness in children with cochlear implants and compare developmental associations to those found for hearing children matched for word reading level or chronological age. We show an influence of orthographic knowledge on syllable and phoneme awareness in…

James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha

2009-01-01

16

Using Knowledge Networks to Develop Preschoolers' Content Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that children accrue vocabulary knowledge by understanding relationships between new words and their connected concepts. This article describes three research-based principles that preschool teachers can use to design shared book reading lessons that accelerate content vocabulary knowledge by helping young children to talk about…

Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Simmons, Deborah C.; Davis, Matthew J.; Simmons, Leslie; Nava-Walichowski, Miranda

2012-01-01

17

Knowledge of Storybooks as a Predictor of Young Children's Vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shared book reading provides a rich source of linguistic stimulation for young children. The authors examined whether variations in knowledge of storybooks (assumed to index factors such as frequency of shared reading) were related to vocabulary scores for 3- to 6-year-olds. In Experiment 1, parents' knowledge of storybooks explained unique variance in children's receptive vocabulary scores after controlling for children's

Monique Sénéchal; Jo-Anne LeFevre; Ernie Hudson; E. Penelope Lawson

1996-01-01

18

The Relationship Among Vocabulary Knowledge, Syntactic Awareness And Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship among vocabulary knowledge, syntactic awareness and reading comprehension in 155 English-speaking undergraduate and graduate students. Confirmatory factor analysis analyses show syntactic awareness is highly correlated with reading comprehension; there is strong positive correlation between vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness; the same high correlation holds for the relationship between syntactic awareness and reading comprehension. Structural equation

Ying Guo

2006-01-01

19

Promoting Vocabulary, Phonological Awareness and Concept about Print among Children at Risk for Learning Disability: Can E-Books Help?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the…

Shamir, Adina; Korat, Ofra; Fellah, Renat

2012-01-01

20

Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness, print awareness, and early reading abilities. Phonological awareness, the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, is a precursor to reading. Phonological awareness…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

21

Phonological Memory and Children's Second Language Grammar Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…

French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena

2008-01-01

22

Promoting vocabulary, phonological awareness and concept about print among children at risk for learning disability: can e-books help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), as\\u000a compared with adult reading of the printed version of the same book, on the vocabulary, phonological awareness as well as\\u000a concept about print of preschool children at risk for learning disabilities. The study involved the participation of 110 children\\u000a aged

Adina Shamir; Ofra Korat; Renat Fellah

23

The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

2014-01-01

24

The Link between Vocabulary Knowledge and Spoken L2 Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of the vast numbers of articles devoted to vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language, few studies address the contribution of lexical knowledge to spoken fluency. The present article begins with basic definitions of the temporal characteristics of oral fluency, summarizing L1 research over several decades, and then presents fluency…

Hilton, Heather

2008-01-01

25

Phonological Awareness Development of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

E-print Network

minimum of 18 months (CI group) and 26 normal hearing peers (NH group) were enrolled in this study. Children's phonological awareness, speech perception, speech production, general language, receptive vocabulary, and print knowledge abilities were assessed...

Ambrose, Sophie Eva

2009-12-04

26

Wordplay games: three game modules to improve student vocabulary knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Wordplay Games, a project involving two iterations of a two-game educational module. Each module, composed of the games Code Invaders and Cipher Force, is meant to supplement traditional classroom practices and improve middle-grade student vocabulary knowledge. The original version of the Wordplay Games module uses commonly encountered academic words and is meant for in-class play using Nintendo

Jay Bachhuber; Tobi Saulnier

2012-01-01

27

Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

Zhang, Dongbo

2012-01-01

28

Semantic representation of CDC-PHIN vocabulary using Simple Knowledge Organization System.  

PubMed

PHIN Vocabulary Access and Distribution System (VADS) promotes the use of standards based vocabulary within CDC information systems. However, the current PHIN vocabulary representation hinders its wide adoption. Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a W3C draft specification to support the formal representation of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) within the framework of the Semantic Web. We present a method of adopting SKOS to represent PHIN vocabulary in order to enable automated information sharing and integration. PMID:18999292

Zhu, Min; Mirhaji, Parsa

2008-01-01

29

A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Foreign-Language Vocabulary Learning Enhanced by Phonological Rehearsal: The Role of the Right Cerebellum and Left Fusiform Gyrus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological research suggests that foreign-language vocabulary acquisition recruits the phonological loop for verbal working memory. To depict the neural underpinnings and shed light on the process of foreign language learning, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging of Japanese participants without previous exposure to the Uzbek…

Makita, Kai; Yamazaki, Mika; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Koike, Takahiko; Kochiyama, Takanori; Yokokawa, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Haruyo; Sadato, Norihiro

2013-01-01

30

Reading teachers’ knowledge of children’s literature and English phonology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated relationships among elementary teachers’ reading-related content knowledge (knowledge of literature and phonology),\\u000a their philosophical orientation toward reading instruction, their classroom practice, and their students’ learning. Correlations\\u000a showed little relationship between instructional philosophy and content knowledge, and little relationship between instructional\\u000a philosophy and classroom practice. However, relationships emerged between content knowledge and instruction, and between kindergarten\\u000a teachers’ phonological knowledge

Deborah McCutchen; Dawn R. Harry; Susanne Cox; Susan Sidman; Amy E. Covill; Anne E. Cunningham

2002-01-01

31

Building Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary in Science in the Intermediate Grades: Creating Hooks for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is a salient factor influencing success both in and out of school. The specialized vocabulary knowledge in science represents the concept-laden hooks on which learning is hung and enables students to build prior knowledge through the expansion of these conceptual hooks. We have identified four levels of learners--struggling…

Rupley, William H.; Slough, Scott

2010-01-01

32

Listeners' knowledge of phonological universals: Evidence from nasal clusters  

PubMed Central

Optimality Theory explains typological markedness implications by proposing that all speakers possess universal constraints penalizing marked structure, irrespective of the evidence provided by their language (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). An account of phonological perception sketched here entails that markedness constraints reveal their presence by inducing perceptual ‘repairs’ to structures ungrammatical in the hearer’s language. As onset clusters of falling sonority are typologically marked relative to those of rising sonority (Greenberg, 1978), we examine English speakers’ perception of nasal-initial clusters—lacking in English. We find greater accuracy for rising-sonority clusters, evidencing knowledge of markedness constraints favoring such onset clusters. The misperception of sonority falls cannot be accounted for by stimulus artifacts (the materials are perceived accurately by speakers of Russian—a language allowing nasal-initial clusters) nor by phonetic failure (English speakers misperceive falls even with printed materials) nor by putative relations of such onsets to the statistics of the English lexicon. PMID:21874095

Berent, Iris; Lennertz, Tracy; Smolensky, Paul; Vaknin, Vered

2009-01-01

33

Teachers' Perceptions and Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Phonological Awareness, Phonics, and Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2011, a small Midwestern school district referred an increasing number of 2nd-4th grade students, with reading problems due to phonetic and phonological awareness deficits, to the district's intervention team. Framed in Shulman's pedagogical content knowledge model and the International Dyslexia Association's phonological deficit…

Williams, Jennifer S.

2012-01-01

34

Enhancing vocabulary, print awareness and phonological awareness through shared storybook reading with low-income preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study compares the effects of two shared storybook reading (SSR) interventions on language and emergent literacy skills of low-income preschoolers. The control intervention targeted language and print awareness, skills for which there is strong evidence of the effect of SSR. The experimental intervention added a focus on phonological awareness, a skill for which there is less evidence of

Pascal Lefebvre; Natacha Trudeau; Ann Sutton

2011-01-01

35

Enhancing Vocabulary, Print Awareness and Phonological Awareness through Shared Storybook Reading with Low-Income Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study compares the effects of two shared storybook reading (SSR) interventions on language and emergent literacy skills of low-income preschoolers. The control intervention targeted language and print awareness, skills for which there is strong evidence of the effect of SSR. The experimental intervention added a focus on phonological

Lefebvre, Pascal; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

2011-01-01

36

Does Meaning Matter For Reading Achievement? Untangling the Role of Phonological Recoding and Morphological Awareness in Predicting Word Decoding, Reading Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Achievement for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the unique contributions of morphological awareness and phonological recoding to word decoding, reading comprehension, and reading vocabulary for 197 Spanish-speaking English language learners enrolled in the fifth grade. The study also explored the contribution of phonological recoding, measured by accuracy on a pseudo-word decoding task, to the prediction of the same components of reading achievement. Specifically the

Amanda P. Goodwin

2010-01-01

37

Contrasting Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge on Temporal and Parietal Brain Structure across Lifespan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using behavioral, structural, and functional imaging techniques, we demonstrate contrasting effects of vocabulary knowledge on temporal and parietal brain structure in 47 healthy volunteers who ranged in age from 7 to 73 years. In the left posterior supramarginal gyrus, vocabulary knowledge was positively correlated with gray matter density in…

Richardson, Fiona M.; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Filippi, Roberto; Harth, Helen; Price, Cathy J.

2010-01-01

38

Lexical Inference in L2: Predictive Roles of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skill beyond Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…

Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami

2014-01-01

39

Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36 to 60 months, participated. Children’s print knowledge, phonological awareness, language, speech production, and speech perception abilities were assessed. Results For phonological awareness, the CI group’s mean score fell within 1 standard deviation of the TOPEL’s normative sample mean but was more than 1 standard deviation below our NH group mean. The CI group’s performance did not differ significantly from that of the NH group for print knowledge. For the CI group, phonological awareness and print knowledge were significantly correlated with language, speech production, and speech perception. Together, these predictor variables accounted for 34% of variance in the CI group’s phonological awareness but no significant variance in their print knowledge. Conclusions Children with CIs have the potential to develop age-appropriate early literacy skills by preschool-age but are likely to lag behind their NH peers in phonological awareness. Intervention programs serving these children should target these skills with instruction and by facilitating speech and language development. PMID:22223887

Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

2012-01-01

40

Self-reported reading as a predictor of vocabulary knowledge.  

PubMed

25 engineering students in India, who were highly motivated to improve their English, filled out a questionnaire about their reading habits in English and took a demanding vocabulary test based on words taken from preparation books for the Graduate Records Examination. The correlation between reading habits and vocabulary was substantial (r = .78). PMID:24611248

Pratheeba, N; Krashen, S

2013-10-01

41

Self-efficacy, word reading, and vocabulary knowledge in English language learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

English language learners (ELLs) are dramatically behind in the number of English vocabulary words they have acquired when they enter kindergarten. Research that has been conducted on early reading skills and vocabulary knowledge in ELLs focuses almost exclusively on instruction despite the fact that student characteristics such as self-efficacy play a significant role in academic outcomes. The aim of this

Tricia Florence Mase

2011-01-01

42

Enhancing the Vocabulary Knowledge of First-Grade Children with Supplemental Booster Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of instructional intensity on the acquisition of storybook vocabulary in first graders who were at risk of early reading failure. It also measured whether the intervention was effective for closing the vocabulary knowledge gap between students who were at risk and their average-achieving peers. A total of 66…

Puhalla, Eve M.

2011-01-01

43

Vocabularies, Knowledge and Social Action in Citizenship Education: The Highlander Example.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the history and vocabularies of the Highlander Folk School (Tennessee), an adult education school emphasizing decision-making, critical thinking, and active citizen participation. Encourages social studies teachers to become aware of their vocabularies, using the Highlander example in the discourse about the nature of knowledge and the…

Oldendorf, Sandra Brenneman

1989-01-01

44

Estimating Guessing Effects on the Vocabulary Levels Test for Differing Degrees of Word Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-choice tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) are often viewed as a preferable estimator of vocabulary knowledge when compared to yes/no checklists, because self-reporting tests introduce the possibility of students overreporting or underreporting scores. However, multiple-choice tests have their own unique disadvantages. It has…

Stewart, Jeffrey; White, David A.

2011-01-01

45

Enhancing Phonological Awareness and Letter Knowledge in Preschool Children with Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of a phonological awareness intervention for 4?year?old children with Down syndrome. Seven children with Down syndrome who attended an early intervention centre participated in the intervention. Their performance on measures of phonological awareness (initial phoneme identity), letter name and sound knowledge, and print concepts pre?intervention and post?intervention, was compared with that of a randomly selected

Anne K. van Bysterveldt; Gail T. Gillon; Catherine Moran

2006-01-01

46

Assessing the Role of Depth and Breadth of Vocabulary Knowledge in Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the extent to which scores on depth and breadth of vocabulary knowledge as two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge would contribute to predicting the EFL learners' reading performance with a minimum vocabulary size of 3000 word families and also to find out the difference, if any, between the reading…

Rashidi, Nasser; Khosravi, Negar

2010-01-01

47

Morphological Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Literacy Development in Korean and English: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighty-one Korean children were tested once a year across Grades 4, 5, and 6 on Korean phonological and morphological awareness, speeded-naming, Hangul word recognition, Hangul spelling, and English word reading. With age, gender, and Korean vocabulary knowledge statistically controlled, both phonological awareness and speeded-naming were uniquely…

Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2011-01-01

48

Teachers' Knowledge and Skills in Phonological Awareness in United Arab Emirates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' knowledge and skills in phonological awareness (PA). The sample included 145 teachers teaching first to 3rd grade elementary public schools in United Arab Emirates (UAE). A valid and reliable instrument was developed together the data. The instrument included to major sections; knowledge and…

Tibi, Sana

2005-01-01

49

Investigating Deaf Children's Vocabulary Knowledge in British Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores different aspects of the mapping between phonological form and meaning of signs in British Sign Language (BSL) by means of four tasks to measure meaning recognition, form recognition, form recall, and meaning recall. The aim was to investigate whether there is a hierarchy of difficulty for these tasks and, therefore, whether…

Mann, Wolfgang; Marshall, Chloe

2012-01-01

50

Improving the Knowledge and Application of Vocabulary within Content Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research paper depicts the teacher-developed instructional strategies to enhance vocabulary instruction among school-age students in the public school setting. The selected population spans across three school districts and includes a third grade classroom, a fifth grade classroom, as well as a select fourth and fifth grade students…

Austermuehle, Dana; Kautz, Tabitha; Sprenzel, Jennifer

2007-01-01

51

Vocabulary knowledge and growth in immersion and regular language-learning programmes in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate vocabulary knowledge and growth across two different language-learning programmes in Hong Kong. The two programmes compared were English immersion programmes (IM) and regular English second-language programmes (RL2). While previous research has identified an overall advantage to IM with respect to language development, comparatively little research on vocabulary development in IM has examined

Yuen Yi Lo; Victoria A. Murphy

2010-01-01

52

Perceptual Recovery from Consonant-Cluster Simplification in Korean Using Language-Specific Phonological Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined whether perceptual recovery from Korean consonant-cluster simplification is based on language-specific phonological knowledge. In tri-consonantal C1C2C3 sequences such as /lkt/ and /lpt/ in Seoul Korean, either C1 or C2 can be completely deleted. Seoul Koreans monitored for C2 targets (/p/ or /k/, deleted or preserved) in…

Cho, Taehong; McQueen, James M.

2011-01-01

53

Phonological Awareness and Print Knowledge of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether preschool-age children with cochlear implants have age-appropriate phonological awareness and print knowledge and to examine the relationships of these skills with related speech and language abilities. Method: The sample comprised 24 children with cochlear implants (CIs) and 23 peers with normal hearing (NH), ages 36…

Ambrose, Sophie E.; Fey, Marc E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

2012-01-01

54

The relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the reading and science achievement of fifth-grade students. Models were developed and tested using multiple linear regression (MLR) to determine whether vocabulary knowledge is a statistically significant predictor of reading and science. A model was tested for reading achievement, and a model was tested for science achievement. Other independent variables in the models included socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, status as an English-language learner, status as a special education student, classification as gifted/talented, history of retention, and migrant status. Archival data from fifth-grade students in a large, urban public school district were used in the analyses. Both models were found to be statistically significant (p < .001). Findings indicated that reading vocabulary was a statistically significant predictor for both reading achievement (B = .571, p < .001) and science achievement (B = .241, p < .001). The significance of vocabulary to reading achievement confirmed past research. The role of reading vocabulary in science achievement revealed a significant, if modest, relationship. In addition, findings pointed out the significance of variables such as history of retention, gender, and status as an English-language learner. Conclusions from the study, pedagogical implications, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Montgomery, Jennifer Dawn

55

Vocabulary Knowledge and Growth in Immersion and Regular Language-Learning Programmes in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate vocabulary knowledge and growth across two different language-learning programmes in Hong Kong. The two programmes compared were English immersion programmes (IM) and regular English second-language programmes (RL2). While previous research has identified an overall advantage to IM with respect to language…

Lo, Yuen Yi; Murphy, Victoria A.

2010-01-01

56

Jump-Start Your Middle School Students' Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in the…

Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara

2012-01-01

57

The Simple View of Reading Redux: Vocabulary Knowledge and the Independent Components Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the hypothesis that the contributions of oral language comprehension ("C") and word recognition ("D") to reading comprehension ("R") in the simple view of reading (SVR) are not independent because a component of "C" (vocabulary knowledge) directly contributes to the variance in "D." Three analysis procedures (hierarchical…

Tunmer, William E.; Chapman, James W.

2012-01-01

58

The Relation between Test Formats and Kindergarteners' Expressions of Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested how 53 kindergarteners' expressions of depth of vocabulary knowledge and use in novel contexts were related to in-context and out-of-context test formats for 16 target words. Applying multilevel, multi-categorical Logit to all 1,696 test item responses, the authors found that kindergarteners were more likely to express deep…

Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming; Currie, Ashelin; Cipielewski, James

2014-01-01

59

The Effects of Receptive and Productive Learning of Word Pairs on Vocabulary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

English as a foreign language students in Japan learned target words in word pairs receptively and productively. Five aspects of vocabulary knowledge--orthography, association, syntax, grammatical functions, and meaning and form--were each measured by receptive and productive tests. The study uses an innovative methodology in that each target word…

Webb, Stuart

2009-01-01

60

Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding. Students might be able to formally recite a definition for a term without actually having understood the meaning of the term and its connection to other terms or to related concepts. Researchers (Cassels & Johnstone, 1983; Gabel, 1999;

Peggy Labrosse

2007-01-01

61

The simple view of reading redux: vocabulary knowledge and the independent components hypothesis.  

PubMed

This study investigated the hypothesis that the contributions of oral language comprehension (C) and word recognition (D) to reading comprehension (R) in the simple view of reading (SVR) are not independent because a component of C (vocabulary knowledge) directly contributes to the variance in D. Three analysis procedures (hierarchical regression analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling) were used to analyze data obtained from a sample (N = 122) of 7-year-old students who were administered tests of vocabulary knowledge, nonword reading, word recognition (two standardized tests), and parallel forms of listening and reading comprehension. Results from the regression analysis indicated that vocabulary made a contribution to R beyond that made by word recognition and listening comprehension; results from the exploratory factor analysis showed that two factors (Decoding and Linguistic Comprehension) were extracted, with vocabulary and listening comprehension loading highly on the Linguistic Comprehension factor; and results from structural equation modeling revealed that the latent construct, C, influenced R not only directly but also indirectly through the latent construct, D. PMID:22293683

Tunmer, William E; Chapman, James W

2012-01-01

62

L2 Vocabulary Learning from Reading: Explicit and Tacit Lexical Knowledge and the Role of Learner and Item Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates acquisition of second language (L2) vocabulary from reading a connected authentic text. Advanced and upper-intermediate L2 (English) participants read a long expository text for general understanding, with embedded critical vocabulary items (pseudowords). Explicit knowledge of the critical items was examined using a meaning…

Elgort, Irina; Warren, Paul

2014-01-01

63

The Impact of General and Specific Vocabulary Knowledge on Reading and Listening Comprehension: A Case of Iranian EFL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was carried out to determine the effect of general vocabulary knowledge and gaining familiarity with the specific vocabulary content of a reading or listening comprehension test on a group of Iranian EFL learners' reading and listening comprehension ability. Two groups of male and female English majors (N = 58) participated in…

Mehrpour, Saeed; Rahimi, Mohammad

2010-01-01

64

Reading Vocabulary Influences in Phonological Recoding during the Development of Reading Skill: A Re-Examination of Theory and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's skill at recoding graphemes to phonemes is widely understood as the driver of their progress in acquiring reading vocabulary. This recoding skill is usually assessed by children's reading of pseudowords (e.g., "yeep") that represent "new words." This study re-examined the extent to which pseudoword reading is, itself, influenced by…

McKay, Michael F.; Thompson, G. Brian

2009-01-01

65

Letter Knowledge, Phonological Processing, and Print Knowledge: Skill Development in Nonreading Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development of reading skills was examined in 4-year-old children from low-income homes attending a prekindergarten program. Fall to spring gains in letter identification were examined and compared with skills in phonological processing, rhyme detection, and environmental print, and with performance on a screening tool ("Get Ready to Read"). It…

Molfese, Victoria J.; Modglin, Arlene A.; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Neamon, Jessica D.; Berg, Shelby A.; Berg, C. Jeffrey; Molnar, Andrew

2006-01-01

66

The Contributions of Vocabulary and Letter Writing Automaticity to Word Reading and Spelling for Kindergartners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study we examined the relation between alphabet knowledge fluency (letter names and sounds) and letter writing automaticity, and unique relations of letter writing automaticity and semantic knowledge (i.e., vocabulary) to word reading and spelling over and above code-related skills such as phonological awareness and alphabet…

Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Gruelich, Luana

2014-01-01

67

Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding. Students might be able to formally recite a definition for a term without actually having understood the meaning of the term and its connection to other terms or to related concepts. Researchers (Cassels & Johnstone, 1983; Gabel, 1999; Johnstone, 1991) have been studying the difficulty students have in learning science, particularly chemistry. Gabel (1999) suggests that, "while research into misconceptions (also known as alternative conceptions) and problem-solving has dominated the field for the past 25 years, we are no closer to a solution that would improve the teaching and learning of chemistry" (P. 549). Gabel (1999) relates the difficulty in learning chemistry to use of language. She refers to student difficulty both with words that have more than one meaning in English and with words that are used to mean one idea in chemistry and another idea in every day language. The Frayer Model, a research-based teaching strategy, is a graphic organizer which students use to create meaningful definitions for terms in context (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969). It was used as the treatment---the specific vocabulary instruction---in this research study. The researcher collected and analyzed data to answer three research questions that focused on the effect of using the Frayer model (a graphic organizer) on high school students' knowledge and understanding of academic language used in chemistry. The research took place in a New England high school. Four intact chemistry classes provided the student participants; two classes were assigned to the treatment group (TG) and two classes were assigned to the control group (CG). The TG received vocabulary instruction on 14 chosen terms using the Frayer Model. The CG received traditional vocabulary instruction with no special attention to the 14 terms selected for this study. The vocabulary knowledge was examined by means of multiple-choice pre- and post-tests which were administered to all student participants. The choices included a scientific synonym, an everyday synonym, and a synonym based on a common misconception related to the term. Student understanding of the chemistry content was examined using chemistry content understanding pre- and post-tests comprised of four probes based on the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) and linked to common student misconceptions which were administered to all student participants. Vocabulary knowledge effect scores were compared between the TG and CG using a t-test. Only a slight gain in vocabulary knowledge mean effect scores was found in the TG compared to the CG; however, it was not statistically significant. Chemistry content understanding effect scores were compared between the TG and CG using Chi-square analysis. The results of the chemistry content understanding effect scores in the TG compared to the CG showed that the student participants in the CG did significantly better. Chemistry content understanding effect scores and vocabulary knowledge effect scores were compared using a t-test. Chapter V provides explanations for the results which do not corroborate those found by other researchers. The researcher contends that the use of the Frayer model for specific terms in content across the curriculum is worth further study.

Labrosse, Peggy

68

Reading vocabulary influences in phonological recoding during the development of reading skill: a re-examination of theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children’s skill at recoding graphemes to phonemes is widely understood as the driver of their progress in acquiring reading\\u000a vocabulary. This recoding skill is usually assessed by children’s reading of pseudowords (e.g., yeep) that represent “new words.” This study re-examined the extent to which pseudoword reading is, itself, influenced by orthographic\\u000a rimes (e.g., eep) of words of the child’s reading

Michael F. McKay; G. Brian Thompson

2009-01-01

69

Cognitive abilities underlying second-language vocabulary acquisition in an early second-language immersion education context: a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

First-language (L1) and second-language (L2) lexical development has been found to be strongly associated with phonological processing abilities such as phonological short-term memory (STM), phonological awareness, and speech perception. Lexical development also seems to be linked to attentional and executive skills such as auditory attention, flexibility, and response inhibition. The aim of this four-wave longitudinal study was to determine to what extent L2 vocabulary acquired through the particular school context of early L2 immersion education is linked to the same cognitive abilities. A total of 61 French-speaking 5-year-old kindergartners who had just been enrolled in English immersion classes were administered a battery of tasks assessing these three phonological processing abilities and three attentional/executive skills. Their English vocabulary knowledge was measured 1, 2, and 3 school years later. Multiple regression analyses showed that, among the assessed phonological processing abilities, phonological STM and speech perception, but not phonological awareness, appeared to underlie L2 vocabulary acquisition in this context of an early L2 immersion school program, at least during the first steps of acquisition. Similarly, among the assessed attentional/executive skills, auditory attention and flexibility, but not response inhibition, appeared to be involved during the first steps of L2 vocabulary acquisition in such an immersion school context. PMID:23708731

Nicolay, Anne-Catherine; Poncelet, Martine

2013-08-01

70

Phonemes, Rimes, Vocabulary, and Grammatical Skills as Foundations of Early Reading Development: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present the results of a 2-year longitudinal study of 90 British children beginning at school entry when they were 4 years 9 months old (range = 4 years 2 months to 5 years 2 months). The relationships among early phonological skills, letter knowledge, grammatical skills, and vocabulary knowledge were investigated as predictors of word recognition and reading comprehension.

Valerie Muter; Charles Hulme; Margaret J. Snowling; Jim Stevenson

2004-01-01

71

Lexical learning in bilingual adults: The relative importance of short-term memory for serial order and phonological knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of monolingual speakers have shown a strong association between lexical learning and short-term memory (STM) capacity, especially STM for serial order information. At the same time, studies of bilingual speakers suggest that phonological knowledge is the main factor that drives lexical learning. This study tested these two hypotheses simultaneously in participants with variable levels of English–French bilingual proficiency. A

Steve Majerus; Martine Poncelet; Martial Van der Linden; Brendan S. Weekes

2008-01-01

72

Re-Examining the Content Validation of a Grammar Test: The (Im)Possibility of Distinguishing Vocabulary and Structural Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Vocabulary and structural knowledge" (Grabe, 1991, p. 379) appears to be a key component of reading ability. However, is this component to be taken as a unitary one or is structural knowledge a separate factor that can therefore also be tested in isolation in, say, a test of syntax? If syntax can be singled out (e.g. in order to…

Alderson, J. Charles; Kremmel, Benjamin

2013-01-01

73

The Contributions of Phonological Awareness and Letter-Name Knowledge to Letter-Sound Acquisition--A Cross-Classified Multilevel Model Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we investigated critical factors in letter-sound acquisition (i.e., letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness) with data from 653 English-speaking kindergartners in the beginning of the year. We examined (a) the contribution of phonological awareness to facilitating letter-sound acquisition from letter names and (b)…

Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara R.; Zhou, Chengfu

2010-01-01

74

Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Program on Word Knowledge and Passage Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A cluster randomized trial estimated the effects of a supplemental vocabulary program, Elements of Reading[R]: vocabulary on student vocabulary and passage comprehension in moderate- to high-poverty elementary schools. Forty-four schools participated over a period spanning 2 consecutive school years. At baseline, 1,057 teachers and 16,471 students…

Apthorp, Helen; Randel, Bruce; Cherasaro, Trudy; Clark, Tedra; McKeown, Margaret; Beck, Isabel

2012-01-01

75

Enhancing Phonological Awareness and Letter Knowledge in Preschool Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of a phonological awareness intervention for 4-year-old children with Down syndrome. Seven children with Down syndrome who attended an early intervention centre participated in the intervention. Their performance on measures of phonological awareness (initial phoneme identity), letter name and sound…

van Bysterveldt, Anne K.; Gillon, Gail T.; Moran, Catherine

2006-01-01

76

"I Know the Word, but..." Korean-English Late Bilinguals' Vocabulary Knowledge in the L1 and L2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bilinguals sometimes report on difficulties in finding words while speaking in the first language (L1) or the second language (L2), which is frequently attributed to the negative influence of one language onto the other. This paper addresses this issue by investigating the relationship between L1 and L2 vocabulary knowledge of Korean-English…

Kim, Sun Hee Ok

2005-01-01

77

The Accuracy of Parent and Teacher Reports in Assessing the Vocabulary Knowledge of Chinese Children with Hearing Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate (a) the accuracy of adult reports in assessing the vocabulary knowledge of Cantonese-speaking children with hearing impairment (HI) and (b) the factors that are associated with the accuracy of those reports. Method: The first participant group consisted of 47 children and their mothers. The second group…

Lee, Kathy; Chiu, Sung Nok; van Hasselt, C. A.; Tong, Michael

2009-01-01

78

Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Program on Word Knowledge and Passage Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cluster randomized trial estimated the effects of a supplemental vocabulary program, Elements of Reading®: vocabulary on student vocabulary and passage comprehension in moderate- to high-poverty elementary schools. Forty-four schools participated over a period spanning 2 consecutive school years. At baseline, 1,057 teachers and 16,471 students from kindergarten, first, third, and fourth grade participated. The schools were randomly assigned to

Helen Apthorp; Bruce Randel; Trudy Cherasaro; Tedra Clark; Margaret McKeown; Isabel Beck

2012-01-01

79

Middle School Students Increase Their Vocabulary Knowledge Using Learning Style Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared students' individual learning style preferences on vocabulary achievement in grade seven of communication arts classes by investigating those factors that contribute to intermediate school students' vocabulary achievement. The Dunn and Dunn Model of Learning Styles preferences (1989) served as a frame- work to analyze the interconnections among auditory, visual, tactile, and kinesthetic learning modalities and its effect

Vivian Nespoli Koppleman

80

The Relationship between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer…

Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Pae, Hye K.

2014-01-01

81

CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Declarative Knowledge): Students will demonstrate knowledge and mastery of key vocabulary, theories, and concepts specific to  

E-print Network

CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Declarative Knowledge): Students will demonstrate knowledge and mastery their mastery of these items through their responses to written question sets. All student homework sets sample of student question sets written in the context of LIN 3010. Students' knowledge and mastery

Fernandez, Eduardo

82

Extracting phonological patterns for l2 word learning: the effect of poor phonological awareness.  

PubMed

An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning. PMID:24043509

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2014-10-01

83

Modeling the Early Paths of Phonological Awareness and Factors Supporting its Development in Children With and Without Familial Risk of Dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of phonological awareness (PA) before school age was modeled in association with the development of vocabulary and letter knowledge, home literacy environment (HLE), children's reading interest, and beginning reading skill in children with and without familial risk of dyslexia. A total of 186 children were followed from birth to the age of 6.5 years. Of these children, about

Minna Torppa; Anna-Maija Poikkeus; Marja-Leena Laakso; Asko Tolvanen; Esko Leskinen; Paavo H. T. Leppanen; Anne Puolakanaho; Heikki Lyytinen

2007-01-01

84

Long-Term Outcome of Oral Language and Phonological Awareness Intervention with Socially Disadvantaged Preschoolers: The Impact on Language and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early intervention aims to prevent poor literacy outcomes associated with social disadvantage. This study examined whether the short-term positive effect of a preschool classroom-based oral language and phonological awareness (PA) programme was maintained and transferred to literacy 2 years later. The vocabulary knowledge, grammatical skill,…

Henning, Caroline; McIntosh, Beth; Arnott, Wendy; Dodd, Barbara

2010-01-01

85

Modeling the Early Paths of Phonological Awareness and Factors Supporting Its Development in Children with and without Familial Risk of Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of phonological awareness (PA) before school age was modeled in association with the development of vocabulary and letter knowledge, home literacy environment (HLE), children's reading interest, and beginning reading skill in children with and without familial risk of dyslexia. A total of 186 children were followed from birth to…

Torppa, Minna; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Leskinen, Esko; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Puolakanaho, Anne; Lyytinen, Heikki

2007-01-01

86

First Grade Teachers' Knowledge of Phonological Awareness and Code Concepts: Examining Gains from an Intensive Form of Professional Development and Corresponding Teacher Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the efficacy of an intensive form of professional development (PD) for building the knowledge of first-grade teachers in the areas of phonological awareness and phonics. The PD featured frequent in-class support from highly knowledgeable mentors for one school year, in addition to an introductory two-day summer institute and…

Brady, Susan; Gillis, Margie; Smith, Tara; Lavalette, MaryEllen; Liss-Bronstein, Linda; Lowe, Evelyn; North, Wendy; Russo, Evelyn; Wilder, T. Diane

2009-01-01

87

Toddlers learn words in a foreign language: The role of native vocabulary knowledge  

PubMed Central

The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers’ (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English and secondly, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the Dutch condition; however, children with high native vocabularies successfully selected the target object for terms trained in fluent Dutch. Furthermore, children with higher vocabularies did not indicate their comprehension of Dutch terms when subsequently tested by an English speaker whereas children with low vocabulary scores responded at chance levels to both the original Dutch speaker and the second English speaker. These findings demonstrate that monolingual toddlers with proficiency in their native language are capable of learning words outside of their conventional system and may be sensitive to the boundaries that exist between language systems. PMID:22310327

Koenig, Melissa A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

2013-01-01

88

Toddlers learn words in a foreign language: the role of native vocabulary knowledge.  

PubMed

The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers' (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English, and second, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the Dutch condition; however, children with high native vocabularies successfully selected the target object for terms trained in fluent Dutch. Furthermore, children with higher vocabularies did not indicate their comprehension of Dutch terms when subsequently tested by an English speaker whereas children with low vocabulary scores responded at chance levels to both the original Dutch speaker and the second English speaker. These findings demonstrate that monolingual toddlers with proficiency in their native language are capable of learning words outside of their conventional system and may be sensitive to the boundaries that exist between language systems. PMID:22310327

Koenig, Melissa; Woodward, Amanda L

2012-03-01

89

Rhyming and Vocabulary: Effects of Lexical Restructuring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of lexical restructuring on children's phonological awareness. Thirty-three preschool children were assessed for vocabulary skills and ability to detect rhyme. Results supported the lexical restructuring theory because expressive vocabulary abilities were correlated with rhyming…

Stadler, Marie A.; Watson, Maggie; Skahan, Sarah

2007-01-01

90

Morphological Awareness, Orthographic Knowledge, and Spelling Errors: Keys to Understanding Early Chinese Literacy Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 1-year longitudinal study examined the extent to which morphological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness, along with speeded naming, uniquely explained word recognition, dictation (i.e., spelling), and reading comprehension among 171 young Hong Kong Chinese children. With age and vocabulary knowledge statistically…

Tong, Xiuli; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Wong, Anita M-Y.

2009-01-01

91

Exploring Two-Wave Reciprocal Structural Relations among Orthographic Knowledge, Phonological Sensitivity, and Reading and Spelling of English Words by Chinese Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a 2-wave study of a cohort of 108 Chinese students (10- to 11-year-olds) learning English as a second language, the authors examined the relative effects of three Time 1 latent constructs--orthographic knowledge, phonological sensitivity, and word identification (reading and spelling of regular and exception words)--on the respective Time 2…

Leong, Che Kan; Hau, Kit Tai; Cheng, Pui Wan; Tan, Li Hai

2005-01-01

92

First grade teachers’ knowledge of phonological awareness and code concepts: Examining gains from an intensive form of professional development and corresponding teacher attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the efficacy of an intensive form of professional development (PD) for building the knowledge of first-grade\\u000a teachers in the areas of phonological awareness and phonics. The PD featured frequent in-class support from highly knowledgeable\\u000a mentors for one school year, in addition to an introductory two-day summer institute and monthly workshops. Pre- and post-assessment\\u000a of participants on a

Susan Brady; Margie Gillis; Tara Smith; MaryEllen Lavalette; Linda Liss-Bronstein; Evelyn Lowe; Wendy North; Evelyn Russo; T. Diane Wilder

2009-01-01

93

Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Intervention on the Word Knowledge of Kindergarten Students at Risk for Language and Literacy Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a vocabulary intervention designed to supplement research-based classroom vocabulary instruction, implemented with students who may be at risk for language and learning difficulties. Participants included 43 kindergarten students who received research-based classroom vocabulary

Loftus, Susan M.; Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Zipoli, Richard; Pullen, Paige C.

2010-01-01

94

Vocabulary: Five Common Misconceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When young readers encounter texts that contain too many unfamiliar words, their comprehension suffers. Reading becomes slow, laborious, and frustrating, impeding their learning. That's why vocabulary knowledge is a key element in reading comprehension. To comprehend fully and learn well, all students need regular vocabulary exploration.…

Padak, Nancy; Bromley, Karen; Rasinski, Tim; Newton, Evangeline

2012-01-01

95

Second Language Vocabulary Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vocabulary knowledge of 166 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners in Taiwan was measured annually over a five year period using a bilingual version of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT) (Nation, 1983, 1990; Schmitt, Schmitt, and Clapham, 2001). The five years of data collection involved English language instruction in high school and…

Webb, Stuart Alexander; Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang

2012-01-01

96

Development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension: receptive vocabulary and conceptual knowledge.  

PubMed

Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy are common in our daily communication. This is one of the first studies to investigate metaphor and metonymy comprehension using a developmental approach. Forty-five typically developing individuals participated in a metaphor-metonymy verbal comprehension task incorporating 20 short picture-stories. Cross-sectional trajectory analyses linking task performance to either chronological age or receptive vocabulary (mental age, MA) were used to compare the development of metaphor and metonymy. Results showed that development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension is strongly linked with chronological and MA, but metaphor comprehension develops at a slower rate compared to metonymy. It was also found that participants, across all ages, consistently showed around 21% better performance on metonymy. The relationship between metaphor and metonymy comprehension is discussed in terms of linguistic and cognitive models of figurative language comprehension arguing that metonymy is cognitively more basic than metaphor. PMID:20849033

Rundblad, Gabriella; Annaz, Dagmara

2010-09-01

97

Child Characteristics by Science Instruction Interactions in Second and Third Grade and Their Relation to Students' Content-Area Knowledge, Vocabulary, and Reading Skill Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The associations among second- and third-grade students' content-area knowledge, vocabulary, and reading gains and the science instruction they received were examined in this exploratory longitudinal study. We also asked whether there were child characteristics x instruction interaction effects on students' content-area literacy. Second graders (n…

Connor, Carol McDonald; Rice, Diana C.; Canto, Angela I.; Southerland, Sherry A.; Underwood, Phyllis; Kaya, Sibel; Fishman, Barry; Morrison, Frederick J.

2012-01-01

98

The Effects of Individualized, Online Vocabulary Instruction on Picture Vocabulary Scores: An Efficacy Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is of fundamental importance to reading comprehension, and many students lack the vocabulary knowledge necessary to facilitate learning to read. A study was conducted to determine the effects of an individualized, online vocabulary program on picture vocabulary test scores. Elementary summer school students (N = 43), entering…

Fehr, Charles N.; Davison, Mark L.; Graves, Michael F.; Sales, Gregory C.; Seipel, Ben; Sekhran-Sharma, Sarah

2012-01-01

99

PUS in turbulent times II - A shifting vocabulary that brokers inter-disciplinary knowledge.  

PubMed

To reflect further on 20 years of the journal, we present a lexicographic and bibliometric study of all papers published in Public Understanding of Science (PUS). Lexicographical analysis of the vocabulary of 465 abstracts shows five classes of associated concepts in two periods, 1992-2001 and 2002-2010. The concern for public attitudes and mass media coverage remains on the card; while language has shifted from 'public understanding' to 'public engagement' and environmental concerns have waned then waxed. The bibliometric analysis traces the position of PUS in the inter-citation network of 165 related journals (ISI Web of Science citation database), grouped into 10 disciplines for the purpose of this analysis. Indicators derived from network logic show that the established position of PUS has been stable since 1997. PUS serves a varied brokerage role as gatekeeper into and liaison maker between disciplines. Its inter-citation network position allows PUS to perform inter-disciplinary boundary spanning work that offers a safe space for experimentation with ideas. PMID:23832881

Suerdem, Ahmet; Bauer, Martin W; Howard, Susan; Ruby, Luke

2013-01-01

100

The impact of using student-dictated oral review stories on science vocabulary, content knowledge, and non-fiction writing skills of first grade students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine if using an intervention called Student Dictated Oral Review Stories (SDORS) had an effect on science vocabulary usage and content knowledge for ninety-three students in six first grade classrooms and the subgroup of economically disadvantaged students in a mid-sized north Texas school district. The five science units involved in the study were written incorporating the strand of physical science. Data from pre- and posttests from each unit and an end-of-study assessment were compiled and analyzed. This study also looked at integration of science with literacy through analysis of students' science journal writings. Journal writings were analyzed for vocabulary usage and non-fiction writing skills of capitalization and punctuation. Average sentence length was also analyzed for Units 1--5 of the treatment group. It was anticipated that the outcomes of this study would allow school districts and curriculum writers to determine how to best integrate key concepts and important vocabulary with literacy particularly in the area of science. Results from the study showed significant differences in the end-of-study assessment, vocabulary usage as evidenced in journal writings, and average sentence length. Although there was gain over time for every student in the study in vocabulary and content knowledge, these gains could not be attributed to the intervention. This study also hoped to establish whether students were using science vocabulary routinely in their discussions and their writings and were building and continually assessing their own schemas about scientific concepts through using Student Dictated Oral Review Stories.

Bishoff, Sandra Wells

101

Programmed Course in Modern Literary Arabic Phonology and Script.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three sets of instructional materials for the teaching of Arabic phonology and script have been prepared on the basis of studies of (1) the phonologies of American English and Modern Literary Arabic (MLA), (2) the MLA writing system, and (3) the vocabularies of 11 Arabic textbooks used in the United States. The effectiveness of these materials was…

McCarus, Ernest; Rammuny, Raji

102

Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

2014-01-01

103

Effects of Pre-Service Teachers' Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge on Their Interactive Read-Alouds with Elementary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are individual differences in the amount and type of vocabulary that adults produce to young children in the home environment before the children enter school. How many words a mother knows is a significant predictor of a child's vocabulary. The current study addressed the question of whether there were individual differences in the amount…

Corrigan, Roberta

2011-01-01

104

Parents' reading-related knowledge and children's reading acquisition.  

PubMed

Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related knowledge, print exposure, storybook reading, and general cultural knowledge. Children were tested on measures of letter-word knowledge, sound awareness, receptive vocabulary, oral expression, and mathematical skill. Parent reading-related knowledge showed significant positive links with child letter-word knowledge and sound awareness, but showed no correlations with child measures of mathematical skill or vocabulary. Furthermore, parent reading-related knowledge was not associated with parents' own print exposure or cultural knowledge, indicating that knowledge about English word structure may be separate from other cognitive skills. Implications are discussed in terms of improving parent reading-related knowledge to promote child literacy. PMID:21678121

Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

2011-12-01

105

German Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses in general terms derivational aspects of English vocabulary. Citing examples of Anglo-Saxon origin, the author provides a glimpse into the nature of the interrelatedness of English, German, and French vocabulary. (RL)

Coombs, Virginia M.

106

The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention  

E-print Network

Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary...

Kong, Na Young

2013-05-31

107

Vocabulary Acquisition and Reading Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lexical acquisition ability for aurally taught words was studied in fourth- grade children. Reading ability, intelligence,\\u000a and working memory were evaluated as predictor factors in vocabulary learning. Reading ability was found to predict facility\\u000a at learning the novel phonological sequences, while intelligence was the only factor which accounted for performance level\\u000a for the semantic content of the words. The working

Linda Aguiar; Susan Brady

108

What Is Most Important to Know about Vocabulary?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes use of Perfetti's Lexical Quality Hypothesis as a perspective for thinking about vocabulary instruction in terms of semantics (meaning), phonology (pronunciation), orthography (spelling), morphology (meaningful word parts), and syntax (how words function in sentences). Examples are presented of how these aspects of vocabulary

Kucan, Linda

2012-01-01

109

Teaching Vocabulary in Storybooks: Embedding Explicit Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary instruction is a critical component of early language and literacy programs. Vocabulary skills in the early elementary school years are strong predictors of later reading achievement and there is a correlation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Children who have limited vocabulary in kindergarten are at high risk of…

Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth

2012-01-01

110

Character Trait Vocabulary: A Schoolwide Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has documented the large differences in young children's vocabulary knowledge. In light of the strong relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension, this gap is particularly worrisome and points to the critical need for well-articulated vocabulary instruction across the grades. The author describes character trait…

Manyak, Patrick

2007-01-01

111

Large Vocabulary, Multilingual Speech Recognition: Session Overview  

E-print Network

Large Vocabulary, Multilingual Speech Recognition: Session Overview Lori LAMEL, Yoshinori SAGISAKA developed for a given language provide cruical input to speech recognition technology world-wide. However associate knowledge on speaker-independent, large vocabulary, continuous speech recognition technology among

112

The State of Vocabulary Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-four studies were included in this systematic review of vocabulary research literature. The review corroborates the findings of past studies that several strategies have emerged that increase students' vocabulary knowledge. Findings further reinforce the National Reading Panel's recommendations regarding the context and magnitude of studies…

Hairrell, Angela; Rupley, William; Simmons, Deborah

2011-01-01

113

Developing Low-Income Preschoolers' Social Studies and Science Vocabulary Knowledge through Content-Focused Shared Book Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effects of integrating science and social studies vocabulary instruction into shared book reading with low-income preschool children. Twenty-one preschool teachers and 148 children from their classrooms were randomly assigned at the class level to either the Words of Oral Reading and Language Development (WORLD)…

Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Simmons, Deborah C.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Davis, Matthew J.; Kim, Minjun; Simmons, Leslie

2011-01-01

114

Vocabulary Knowledge Is a Critical Determinant of the Difference in Reading Comprehension Growth between First and Second Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examines the role of decoding and vocabulary skills as longitudinal predictors of reading comprehension in young first (L1) and second (L2) language learners. Methods: Two-group latent growth models were used to assess differences in growth and predictions of growth between the 198 L1 and 90 L2 language learners. Results: L1…

Lervag, Arne; Aukrust, Vibeke Grover

2010-01-01

115

A Hybrid Method for Determining Technical Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of technical vocabulary has become increasingly important over the last few decades along with the advances in various subject disciplines. ESP teachers and book authors need to know what words are considered technical vocabulary when creating ESP learning materials. LSP lexicographers need to know how to determine technical vocabulary

Kwary, Deny Arnos

2011-01-01

116

How word decoding, vocabulary and prior topic knowledge predict reading comprehension. A study of language-minority students in Norwegian fifth grade classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the contribution of word decoding, first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) vocabulary and prior topic\\u000a knowledge to L2 reading comprehension. For measuring reading comprehension we employed two different reading tasks: Woodcock\\u000a Passage Comprehension and a researcher-developed content-area reading assignment (the Global Warming Test) consisting of multiple\\u000a lengthy texts. The sample included 67 language-minority students (native Urdu or native

Veslemøy Rydland; Vibeke Grøver Aukrust; Helene Fulland

117

Developing Low-Income Preschoolers’ Social Studies and Science Vocabulary Knowledge Through Content-Focused Shared Book Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of integrating science and social studies vocabulary instruction into shared book reading with low-income preschool children. Twenty-one preschool teachers and 148 children from their classrooms were randomly assigned at the class level to either the Words of Oral Reading and Language Development (WORLD) intervention or a practice-as-usual condition. Children were screened and selected to approximate

Jorge E. Gonzalez; Sharolyn Pollard-Durodola; Deborah C. Simmons; Aaron B. Taylor; Matthew J. Davis; Minjun Kim; Leslie Simmons

2010-01-01

118

Math Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page has suggestions for ways to make effective use of word walls, including making it interactive and setting expectations with students. Several activities are described. Links to supporting workbooks and vocabulary cards are provided.

2013-01-01

119

Speaking up for vocabulary: reading skill differences in young adults.  

PubMed

This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (a) Does the simple view of reading capture all nonrandom variation in reading comprehension? (b) Does orally assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the lexical quality hypothesis? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, and experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly played an important role in reading comprehension. The simple view of reading gave a reasonable fit to the data, although it did not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captured unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill were accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215

Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P; Mencl, W Einar

2007-01-01

120

Speaking up for Vocabulary: Reading Skill Differences in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study is part of a broader project that has the goal of developing cognitive and neuro-cognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. The study explores relationships among reading related abilities in participants aged 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (1) Does the Simple View of Reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986) capture all non-random variation in reading comprehension? (2) Does orally-assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002)? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly plays an important role in reading comprehension. Gough and Tunmer’s Simple View of Reading gives a reasonable fit to the data, though it does not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captures unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill are accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings. PMID:17518215

Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald; Mencl, Einar

2010-01-01

121

VOCABULARY: NEEDED IF MORE CHILDREN ARE TO READ WELL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary has long been recognized as a strong determinant of reading success. Despite the importance of vocabulary knowledge, very little information is available about effective strategies for vocabulary instruction in elementary grades and there is a paucity of data on the relative merits of the different programs that are designed to promote vocabulary growth in elementary children. Available information indicates

ANDREW BIEMILLER

2003-01-01

122

Phonological and Phonetic Biases in Speech Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates how knowledge of phonological generalizations influences speech perception, with a particular focus on evidence that phonological processing is autonomous from (rather than interactive with) auditory processing. A model is proposed in which auditory cue constraints and markedness constraints interact to determine a…

Key, Michael Parrish

2012-01-01

123

Learning Phonologically Specific New Words Fosters Rhyme Awareness in Dutch Preliterate Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do children use phonological knowledge about spoken language in acquiring literacy? Phonological precursors of literacy include phonological awareness, speech decoding skill, and lexical specificity (i.e., the richness of phonological representations in the mental lexicon). An intervention study investigated whether early literacy skills can…

van Goch, Merel M.; McQueen, James M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2014-01-01

124

PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT?  

E-print Network

between nonword reading deficits and phonological impairment. Following focal brain lesions, not only may routes to derive the sound of written words (see Figure 1). Following the initial processing of the visual characteristics of a word, along one route a word's sound is retrieved from the lexicon by first

125

Phonological iconicity  

PubMed Central

The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062

Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2014-01-01

126

What phonological deficit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a series of experiments aimed at understanding the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia. These experiments investigate input and output phonological representations, phonological grammar, foreign speech perception and production, and unconscious speech processing and lexical access. Our results converge on the observation that the phonological representations of people with dyslexia may be intact, and that the

Franck Ramus; Gayaneh Szenkovits

2008-01-01

127

BIBLIOGRAPHY Text-to-speech in Vocabulary Acquisition and Student  

E-print Network

BIBLIOGRAPHY Text-to-speech in Vocabulary Acquisition and Student Knowledge Models: a Classroom comprehension." Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Spoken Language Processing. Pittsburgh, U-assisted vocabulary acquisition in the ESL class

128

Word Finding Difficulties: Differentiated Vocabulary Instruction in the Speech and Language Room  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considered the efficacy of a differentiated approach to vocabulary instruction for learners with word-finding difficulties (WFD) in the speech and language pathologist’s room. Using a pretest–posttest design to study treatment outcomes, 10 second graders with WFD received first semantic-based vocabulary instruction (S) and then semantic- and phonological-based vocabulary instruction (S & P). The S instruction focused on teaching

Diane J. German; Jan Heath Schwanke; Ruth Ravid

2012-01-01

129

Internal and External Influences on Vocabulary Development in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…

Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther

2013-01-01

130

Vocabulary Size Matters: The Assimilation of Second-Language Australian English Vowels to First-Language Japanese Vowel Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult second-language (L2) learners' perception of L2 phonetic segments is influenced by first-language phonological and phonetic properties. It was recently proposed that L2 vocabulary size in adult learners is related to changes in L2 perception (perceptual assimilation model), analogous to the emergence of first-language phonological function…

Bundgaard-Nielsen, Rikke L.; Best, Catherine T.; Tyler, Michael D.

2011-01-01

131

Development of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…

Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2012-01-01

132

Vocabulary Acquisition: Implications for Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding a text requires more than the ability to read individual words: it depends greatly on vocabulary knowledge. This important book brings together leading literacy scholars to synthesize cutting-edge research on vocabulary development and its connections to reading comprehension. The volume also reviews an array of approaches to…

Wagner, Richard K., Ed.; Muse, Andrea E., Ed.; Tannenbaum, Kendra R., Ed.

2006-01-01

133

Remove Limits to Learning with Systematic Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is a pivotal component of a student's background knowledge, and the research indicates that vocabulary instruction can be an effective means for increasing it. This booklet describes the positive outcomes that result when a school- or district-wide vocabulary program is strategically developed and intentionally implemented. The…

Stone, Bj; Urquhart, Vicki

2008-01-01

134

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

135

Research Article Phonological Dyslexia  

E-print Network

Research Article Phonological Dyslexia A Test Case for Reading Models Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet,1 words, a type of deficit referred to as phonological dyslexia. We report on 2 individuals with Alzheimer's disease who show phonological dyslexia. Although highly accurate in reading familiar words aloud (even

136

On Government in Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monik Charette's "Condition on Phonological Government" is reviewed. It is the first book-length study written in the framework of Government Phonology (GP), a theory that makes a dramatic break with the classical generative approaches to phonology. (Contains 10 references.) (LB)

Gussmann, Edmund

1992-01-01

137

The Role of Vocabulary Size in Predicting Performance on TOEFL Reading Item Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to examine a) whether vocabulary knowledge, captured in the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), is related to the performance on the five types of reading comprehension items tested in TOEFL, i.e., Guessing Vocabulary, Main Idea, Inference, Reference, and Stated Detail; and b) whether EFL learners with different levels of vocabulary

Alavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Akbarian, Is'haaq

2012-01-01

138

Online study of frequency list vocabulary with the WordChamp website  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intentional study of vocabulary is an effective way for learners to increase their vocabulary in the target language. Word frequency lists help learners determine the most useful words to study. In order to systematically study vocabulary, learners may first take a test to determine their vocabulary knowledge, then drill the appropriate words. However, to date, classroom teachers and researchers

John Spiri

139

Name Writing but not Environmental Print Recognition Is Related to Letter-Sound Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Pre-Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a study exploring the associations between measures of two levels of phonological representation: recognition (epi-linguistic) and production (meta-linguistic) tasks, and very early reading and writing skills. Thirty-eight pre-reading Ottawa-area children, aged 4-5 years, named environmental print (EP), wrote their own name,…

Blair, Rebecca; Savage, Robert

2006-01-01

140

Analysis of reading strategies in deaf adults as a function of their language and meta-phonological skills.  

PubMed

The first aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms used in reading sentences by deaf adults who had completed secondary or higher education. Previous data allowed us to hypothesize that they used the key word strategy, consisting of identifying (some of) the frequent content words, and deriving an overall representation of the sentence's meaning ignoring the function words. The results supported the hypothesis. The second aim was to establish the relationships between this strategy and the linguistic and phonological abilities of deaf participants. The results show that vocabulary increased with reading level, but syntax, evaluated with the use of function words, did not. This suggests that using the key word strategy during long periods of time increases knowledge of content words but not syntax, probably because function words are neglected by this strategy. The results also showed that the deaf participants had a fairly large orthographical lexicon. This implies that the extensive use of the key word strategy allows them to store lexical information. The next question was whether the written word representations of the deaf participants were memorized as mere logograms, or if they had been stored in connection with the phonological representations of the corresponding words. The metaphonological tasks conducted produced evidence indicating that deaf participants used both orthographic and phonological representations. A factor analysis of the metaphonological tasks together with reading and spelling confirmed that both factors were necessary to explain the whole variance in the deaf group. PMID:24751906

Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; Pérez, Maria Del Mar; Alegría, Jesus

2014-07-01

141

Effects of Four Vocabulary Exercises on Facilitating Learning Vocabulary Meaning, Form, and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims to answer the questions concerning whether composition tasks or blank-filling tasks better facilitate vocabulary learning, which aspect of vocabulary knowledge is enhanced, whether the benefits can be retained over two weeks, and which task is more suitable to foreign language classrooms facing the challenge of time…

Lu, Minhui

2013-01-01

142

The Vocabulary-Rich Classroom: Modeling Sophisticated Word Use to Promote Word Consciousness and Vocabulary Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is a critical contributor to reading, especially reading comprehension. A word-rich classroom environment maximizes students' opportunities to learn new words. The teacher's use of language provides an important model for children's vocabulary development. By modeling the use of sophisticated words, teachers can promote…

Lane, Holly B.; Allen, Stephanie Arriaza

2010-01-01

143

Verbal short-term memory deficits in Down syndrome: phonological, semantic, or both?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the phonological and semantic contributions to the verbal short-term memory (VSTM) deficit in Down\\u000a syndrome (DS) by experimentally manipulating the phonological and semantic demands of VSTM tasks. The performance of 18 individuals\\u000a with DS (ages 11–25) and 18 typically developing children (ages 3–10) matched pairwise on receptive vocabulary and gender\\u000a was compared on four VSTM tasks,

Nancy Raitano Lee; Bruce F. Pennington; Janice M. Keenan

2010-01-01

144

Phonological Awareness and Reading Proficiency in Adults with Profound Deafness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…

Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.

2014-01-01

145

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development.  

PubMed

Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge, but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and reading continued for word recognition and decoding through grade 4, but genetic and environmental correlations between vocabulary and reading comprehension approached unity by grade 4, when vocabulary and word recognition accounted for all of the genetic and shared environment influences on reading comprehension. PMID:21132077

Olson, Richard K; Keenan, Janice M; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik G; Defries, John C; Pennington, Bruce F; Hulslander, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

146

Name writing but not environmental print recognition is related to letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness in pre-readers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a study exploring the associations between measures of two levels of phonological representation: recognition (epi-linguistic) and production (meta-linguistic) tasks, and very early reading and writing skills. Thirty-eight pre-reading Ottawa-area children, aged 4–5 years, named environmental print (EP), wrote their own name, identified correct names and EP words amongst foils and detected foil letters within EP and names. Results

Rebecca Blair; Robert Savage

2006-01-01

147

Direct and Extended Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten: Investigating Transfer Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an 18-week program of direct and extended vocabulary instruction with kindergarten students on both proximal measures of target word knowledge and transfer measures of generalized language and literacy. A second purpose was to examine whether treatment effects would be moderated by initial receptive vocabulary knowledge measured at pretest. In

Michael D. Coyne; D. Betsy McCoach; Susan Loftus; Richard Zipoli Jr; Maureen Ruby; Yvel C. Crevecoeur; Sharon Kapp

2010-01-01

148

Japanese Vocabulary Acquisition by Learners in Three Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an investigation of the development of vocabulary knowledge during study abroad (SA), intensive domestic immersion (IM) and academic-year formal classroom (AY) learning. Its focus was the growth of vocabulary knowledge in Japanese--a language where little SA research has been conducted to date. Unlike most studies addressing…

Dewey, Dan P.

2008-01-01

149

Phonological coding during reading.  

PubMed

The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25150679

Leinenger, Mallorie

2014-11-01

150

Relationships of General Vocabulary, Science Vocabulary, and Student Questioning with Science Comprehension in Students with Varying Levels of English Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the influence of general vocabulary knowledge, science vocabulary knowledge, and text based questioning on the science reading comprehension of three types of students who varied in their English language proficiency. Specifically, grade 5 English-Only speakers, English Language Learners in the United States, and students…

Taboada, Ana

2012-01-01

151

What's Meaning Got to Do With It: The Role of Vocabulary in Word Reading and Reading Comprehension  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is at present no clear consensus as to the nature of the relations between oral vocabulary and specific literacy skills. The present study distinguished between vocabulary breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge to better explain the role of oral vocabulary in various reading skills. A sample of 60 typically developing Grade 4 students was assessed on measures of receptive

Gene P. Ouellette

2006-01-01

152

Integrating Teaching Practice with Developmental Norms: The Case of Phonological Teaching in L2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the crucial role of phonological instruction in early second language English learning. Although older learners can acquire grammar and vocabulary efficiently, younger learners appear to have a greater facility with the learning of sounds. Thus, it makes good sense to focus on articulatory skills for these early learners. By…

Wong, Richard Kwok-Shing; MacWhinney, Brian

2009-01-01

153

Academic vocabulary and middle school English learners: an intervention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this experimental intervention study was to determine if evidence-based instructional strategies for general vocabulary\\u000a words are effective with middle school English learner (EL) students and academic vocabulary words. Participants showed significantly\\u000a more growth in their knowledge of academic vocabulary during the treatment condition than during the control condition. A\\u000a secondary goal of this study was to examine

Dianna Townsend; Penny Collins

2009-01-01

154

Manipulating Word Properties: Targeting Vocabulary Learning for Children with and without Speech Sound Inaccuracies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the relations between speech sound accuracy, vocabulary, and phonological awareness, and (2) to examine the effect of word properties of neighborhood density and phonotactic probability on word learning within a storybook context, for children with and without speech sound inaccuracies. Fifty…

McDowell, Kimberly D.; Carroll, Jeri

2012-01-01

155

Evidence for Preserved Novel Word Learning in Down Syndrome Suggests Multiple Routes to Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Three studies investigated novel word learning, some requiring phonological production, each involving between 11 and 17 individuals with Down syndrome, and between 15 and 24 typically developing individuals matched for receptive vocabulary. The effect of stimuli wordlikeness and incidental procedure-based memory demands were examined to…

Mosse, Emma K.; Jarrold, Christopher

2011-01-01

156

The Benefit of Orthographic Support for Oral Vocabulary Learning in Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Down syndrome typically have weaknesses in oral language, but it has been suggested that this domain may benefit from learning to read. Amongst oral language skills, vocabulary is a relative strength, although there is some evidence of difficulties in learning the phonological form of spoken words. This study investigated the effect…

Mengoni, Sylvana E.; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

2013-01-01

157

Development of phonological constancy: 19-month-olds, but not 15-month-olds, identify words in a non-native regional accent.  

PubMed

By 12 months, children grasp that a phonetic change to a word can change its identity (phonological distinctiveness). However, they must also grasp that some phonetic changes do not (phonological constancy). To test development of phonological constancy, sixteen 15-month-olds and sixteen 19-month-olds completed an eye-tracking task that tracked their gaze to named versus unnamed images for familiar words spoken in their native (Australian) and an unfamiliar non-native (Jamaican) regional accent of English. Both groups looked longer at named than unnamed images for Australian pronunciations, but only 19-month-olds did so for Jamaican pronunciations, indicating that phonological constancy emerges by 19 months. Vocabulary size predicted 15-month-olds' identifications for the Jamaican pronunciations, suggesting vocabulary growth is a viable predictor for phonological constancy development. PMID:23521607

Mulak, Karen E; Best, Catherine T; Tyler, Michael D; Kitamura, Christine; Irwin, Julia R

2013-01-01

158

Cell Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to cells, organelles, and the plasma membrane. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

159

NASA thesaurus aeronautics vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The controlled vocabulary used by the NASA Scientific and Technical Information effort to index documents in the area of aeronautics is presented. The terms comprise a subset of the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus and its supplements issued through the end of 1990. The Aeronautics Vocabulary contains over 4700 terms presented in a hierarchical display format. In addition to aeronautics per se, the vocabulary covers supporting terminology from areas such as fluid dynamics, propulsion engineering, and test facilities and instrumentation.

1991-01-01

160

The dorsal stream contribution to phonological retrieval in object naming  

PubMed Central

Meaningful speech, as exemplified in object naming, calls on knowledge of the mappings between word meanings and phonological forms. Phonological errors in naming (e.g. GHOST named as ‘goath’) are commonly seen in persisting post-stroke aphasia and are thought to signal impairment in retrieval of phonological form information. We performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis of 1718 phonological naming errors collected from 106 individuals with diverse profiles of aphasia. Voxels in which lesion status correlated with phonological error rates localized to dorsal stream areas, in keeping with classical and contemporary brain-language models. Within the dorsal stream, the critical voxels were concentrated in premotor cortex, pre- and postcentral gyri and supramarginal gyrus with minimal extension into auditory-related posterior temporal and temporo-parietal cortices. This challenges the popular notion that error-free phonological retrieval requires guidance from sensory traces stored in posterior auditory regions and points instead to sensory-motor processes located further anterior in the dorsal stream. In a separate analysis, we compared the lesion maps for phonological and semantic errors and determined that there was no spatial overlap, demonstrating that the brain segregates phonological and semantic retrieval operations in word production. PMID:23171662

Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Kim, Junghoon; Coslett, H. Branch

2012-01-01

161

Vocabulary Strategies that Work: Do This-Not that!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Update your vocabulary practices to meet the Common Core and improve students' word knowledge! This new, clearly-structured guide shows you how. It's packed with engaging, research-based, classroom-ready strategies for teaching vocabulary. Topics include: (1) Selecting meaningful words for direct instruction; (2) Strategies for engaging students…

Wilfong, Lori

2013-01-01

162

Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition. The Cambridge Applied Linguistics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of essays on second language vocabulary learning includes: "Historical Trends in Second Language Vocabulary Instruction" (Cheryl Boyd Zimmerman); "The Lexical Plight in Second Language Reading: Words You Don't Know, Words You Think You Know, and Words You Can't Guess" (Batia Laufer); "Orthographic Knowledge in L2 Lexical Processing: A…

Coady, James, Ed.; Huckin, Thomas, Ed.

163

The Critical Role of Vocabulary Development for English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

English language learners (ELLs) who experience slow vocabulary development are less able to comprehend text at grade level than their English-only peers. Such students are likely to perform poorly on assessments in these areas and are at risk of being diagnosed as learning disabled. In this article, we review the research on methods to develop the vocabulary knowledge of ELLs

Diane August; Maria Carlo; Cheryl Dressler; Catherine Snow

2005-01-01

164

Interactive Frames for Vocabulary Growth and Word Consciousness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited vocabulary knowledge has been cited as a key factor in the literacy achievement gap, particularly for students with learning disabilities, students of color, and English-language learners. Recent authorities have recommended multipronged approaches to assist vocabulary growth in classrooms. In addition, authorities have called for…

Winters, Rod

2009-01-01

165

tagging, communities, vocabulary, evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tagging community's vocabulary of tags forms the basis for social navigation and shared expression. We present a user-centric model of vocabulary evolution in tagging com- munities based on community influence and personal ten- dency. We evaluate our model in an emergent tagging sys- tem by introducing tagging features into the MovieLens rec- ommender system. We explore four tag selection

Shilad Sen; Shyong K. Lam; Al Mamunur Rashid; Dan Cosley; Dan Frankowski; Jeremy Osterhouse; F. Maxwell Harper; John Riedl

2006-01-01

166

Building Mathematics Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although mathematics is visual language of symbols and numbers it is also expressed and explained through written and spoken words. For students to excel in mathematics, they must recognize, comprehend and apply the requisite vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary instruction is as critical in content areas as it is in language arts. It is especially…

Kovarik, Madeline

2010-01-01

167

Vocabularies in the VO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are multiple vocabularies and thesauri within astronomy, of which the best known are the 1993 IAU Thesaurus and the keyword list maintained by A&A, ApJ and MNRAS. The IVOA has agreed on a standard for publishing vocabularies, based on the W3C skos standard, to allow greater automated interaction with them, in particular on the Web. This allows links with the Semantic Web and looks forward to richer applications using the technologies of that domain. Vocabulary-aware applications can benefit from improvements in both precision and recall when searching for bibliographic or science data, and lightweight intelligent filtering for services such as VOEvent streams. In this paper we present two applications, the Vocabulary Explorer and its companion the Mapping Editor, which have been developed to support the use of vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory. These combine Semantic Web and Information Retrieval technologies to illustrate the way in which formal vocabularies might be used in a practical application, provide an online service which will allow astronomers to explore and relate existing vocabularies, and provide a service which translates free text user queries into vocabulary terms.

Gray, A. J. G.; Gray, N.; Ounis, I.

2009-09-01

168

Math Vocabulary Bingo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"This lesson provides students an opportunity to assess their understanding of mathematical vocabulary as they relate to key concepts from the five content areas. Through the use of a familiar game format, Bingo, students will identify numbers 0-75 that correspond to mathematical descriptions from math vocabulary clue cards" from NCTM's Illuminations).

Nctm

2010-06-03

169

Student-Centered Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A teacher initiates and successfully develops a new method for increasing the vocabulary of eighth grade students. The new method abandons rote-memory techniques for a method which allows the students to choose the words they will learn while participating in the teaching of the new vocabulary. (LF)

Kahle, David J.

1972-01-01

170

Vocabulary Extension through Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the notion that teaching vocabulary extension in isolation makes little impact on students, a three-part exercise, designed to develop students' vocabulary through poetry while providing meaningful enjoyment, uses the poem "The Hawk" by A. C. Benson. In the first class period, students are introduced to both the exercise and the poem and…

Surajlal, K. C.

1986-01-01

171

The Superlearning of Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of Georgi Lozanov's technique using rhythm, breathing, music, and meditation to bring about hypermnesia, or supermemory, to teach vocabulary to 15 university students. Reviews students' vocabulary gains, as seen in pre- and post-test scores, and describes how some students implemented superlearning techniques with their own…

Fillmer, H. Thompson

1983-01-01

172

Invited Commentary: Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While formal research into the effect various technologies have on vocabulary acquisition is still in its infancy, it is clear that--intentionally or incidentally--students have used various electronic media to learn new words for some time now. Moreover, although it is still far from clear exactly how one acquires vocabulary in a second language…

Martinez, Ron; Schmitt, Norbert

2010-01-01

173

eVoc Strategies: 10 Ways to Use Technology to Build Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is key to comprehension and expression. For students in the intermediate grades, the need for breadth and depth of vocabulary accelerates as they encounter more challenging academic texts in print and on the Internet. Drawing on research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning, this article presents…

Dalton, Bridget; Grisham, Dana L.

2011-01-01

174

Does Discussion Make a Difference in Vocabulary Learning from Expository Text Read Alouds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of discussion on vocabulary learning from expository text read alouds. This study used a pre-/post within-subjects design to investigate whether discussion contributed to improved vocabulary knowledge from expository text read alouds and whether the placement of discussion makes a difference in vocabulary

Zelinke, Sarah Beall

2011-01-01

175

Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

Kugelmass, Rachel

176

The influence of speech perception, oral language ability, the home literacy environment, and pre-reading knowledge on the growth of phonological sensitivity: A one-year longitudinal investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in phonologicalsensitivity are among the most powerfulpredictors of early word decoding ability and adeficit in phonological sensitivity is thoughtto be the primary stumbling block for thosechildren who have difficulty learning to read. However, only recently have researchers begunto search for the potential causes andcorrelates in phonological sensitivitydevelopment. In the present one-yearlongitudinal study, the influences of speechperception, oral language

Stephen R. Burgess

2002-01-01

177

Developing Science Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This wiki page explores best practices in vocabulary development for middle school science teachers. Science, like other disciplines, has a specialized vocabulary, encompassing both terms that represent scientific concepts and those that describe process skills. Although science education focuses on inquiry and hands-on experiences, current research shows that teachers must also help students develop vocabulary to be successful in both the content and methods of science.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2009-07-01

178

Flooding Vocabulary Gaps to Accelerate Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students entering school with limited vocabularies are at a disadvantage compared to classmates with robust knowledge of words and meanings. Teaching a few unrelated words at a time is insufficient for catching these students up with peers and preparing them to comprehend texts they will encounter across the grades. This article presents…

Brabham, Edna; Buskist, Connie; Henderson, Shannon Coman; Paleologos, Timon; Baugh, Nikki

2012-01-01

179

Demonstrating the effects of phonological similarity and frequency on item and order memory in Down syndrome using process dissociation.  

PubMed

It is important to distinguish between memory for item information and memory for order information when considering the nature of verbal short-term memory (vSTM) performance. Although other researchers have attempted to make this distinction between item and order memory in children, none has done so using process dissociation. This study shows that such an approach can be particularly useful and informative. Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to experience a vSTM deficit. These two experiments explored whether phonological similarity (Experiment 1) and item frequency (Experiment 2) affected vSTM for item and order information in a group of individuals with DS compared with typically developing (TD) vocabulary-matched children. Process dissociation was used to obtain measures of item and order memory via Nairne and Kelley's procedure (Journal of Memory and Language, 50 (2004) 113-133). Those with DS were poorer than the matched TD group for recall of both item and order information. However, in both populations, phonologically similar items reduced order memory but enhanced item memory, whereas high-frequency items resulted in improvements in both item and order memory-effects that are in line with previous research in the adult literature. These results indicate that, despite poorer vSTM performance in DS, individuals experience phonological coding of verbal input and a contribution of long-term memory knowledge to recall. These findings inform routes for interventions for those with DS, highlighting the need to enhance both item and order memory. Moreover, this work demonstrates that process dissociation is applicable and informative for studying special populations and children. PMID:25089885

Smith, Elizabeth; Jarrold, Christopher

2014-12-01

180

Playing Games: Vocabulary Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finding ways to keep students active and engaged in the classroom is not easy. Introducing a game like Vocabulary Survival in which students are allowed to compete while also learning moral concepts can create a fun and successful learning environment.

Dea, Sara

2011-02-01

181

Geospatial Revolution: GIS Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive based on Penn State Public Broadcasting’s Geospatial Revolution project, learn vocabulary that has developed with the growth of GIS, watch relevant videos and check your understanding of those words using the embedded assessment.

Wpsu

2010-10-12

182

Language evolution: syntax before phonology?  

PubMed

Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364

Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P; Manser, Marta B; Townsend, Simon W

2014-08-01

183

Language evolution: syntax before phonology?  

PubMed Central

Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364

Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.

2014-01-01

184

Math Vocabulary Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These math vocabulary cards are available as both an iOS app and as a web app. Each card features three sections: a math term, a representative example or model, and a concise definition. The user can choose which of the three they want to be visible and which they would like students to identify. The teacher can choose which vocabulary terms the students will view based on grade, math topic, and even specific word selection from the given list.

Innovations, Clarity

2014-01-01

185

The Importance of Phonological Awareness for the Development of Early English Reading Skills among Bilingual Singaporean Kindergartners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the relationship between phonological awareness (PA) and English word-level reading among a multilingual sample, a random sample of 297 Singaporean kindergartners, stratified by ethnicity (169 Chinese, 65 Malay, and 63 Indian), were tested on their PA, receptive vocabulary, and word-level reading skills. Singaporean kindergartners are…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2010-01-01

186

Learning Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…

Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris

2009-01-01

187

Phonological Awareness: From Research to Practice. Challenges in Language and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unique resource provides a comprehensive review of current knowledge about phonological awareness, together with practical guidance for helping preschoolers to adolescents acquire needed skills. Up-to-date findings are synthesized on the development of phonological awareness; its role in literacy learning; and how it can be enhanced in…

Gillon, Gail T.

2007-01-01

188

Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background & Aims: The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among…

Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

2013-01-01

189

Effectiveness of an Integrated Phonological Awareness Approach for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness approach for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Change in speech, phonological awareness, letter knowledge, word decoding, and spelling skills were examined. A controlled multiple single-subject design was employed. Twelve children aged 4-7 years with…

McNeill, Brigid C.; Gillon, Gail T.; Dodd, Barbara

2009-01-01

190

New Directions in Vocabulary Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been great strides made in research on vocabulary in the last 30 years. However, there has been relatively little progress in the development of new vocabulary tests. This may be due in some degree to the impressive contributions made by tests such as the Vocabulary Levels Test (Nation, 1983; Schmitt et al., 2001) and the Word…

Webb, Stuart A.; Sasao, Yosuke

2013-01-01

191

Models of Vocabulary Acquisition: Direct Tests and Text-Derived Simulations of Vocabulary Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determining word meanings that ought to be taught or introduced is important for educators. A sequence for vocabulary growth can be inferred from many sources, including testing children's knowledge of word meanings at various ages, predicting from print frequency, or adult-recalled Age of Acquisition. A new approach, Word Maturity, is based…

Biemiller, Andrew; Rosenstein, Mark; Sparks, Randall; Landauer, Thomas K.; Foltz, Peter W.

2014-01-01

192

The Role of Home and School Factors in Predicting English Vocabulary among Bilingual Kindergarten Children in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in monolingual populations indicate that vocabulary knowledge is essential to reading achievement, but how vocabulary develops in bilingual children has been understudied. The current study investigated the role of home and school factors in predicting English vocabulary among 284 bilingual kindergartners (168 Chinese, 65 Malay, 51…

Dixon, L. Quentin

2011-01-01

193

Examining Listening Previewing as a Classwide Strategy to Promote Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classwide instructional strategies to improve not only reading fluency but also comprehension and vocabulary knowledge are essential for student reading success. The current study examined the immediate effects of two classwide listening previewing strategies on reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. Twenty-one, fourth-grade general…

Hawkins, Renee O.; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Hale, Andrea D.; McGuire, Shannon; Hailley, Jennifer

2010-01-01

194

The Electric Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1600s, the developments in the understanding of electrical phenomena have frequently altered the models and metaphors used by physicists to describe and explain their experiments. However, to this day, certain relics of past theories still drench the vocabulary of the subject, serving as distracting fog for future students. This article…

Sheils, James

2012-01-01

195

Supporting Math Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing appropriate language support is important for all students and essential to the success of English Language Learners (ELLs), struggling readers, and students with learning disabilities. In a mathematics classroom, the support includes the ongoing development of everyday vocabulary--such as names of fruit and actions such as skipping--and…

Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.; Livers, Stefanie

2009-01-01

196

EFL Vocabulary Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains a set of experimental English language vocabulary tests designed to be used with learners of English as a Second Language (ESL). The tests are graded into 6 levels of difficulty and there are 20 tests at each level. Teachers can use the tests to provide a rough lexical profile of individual students, or to monitor the progress…

Meara, Paul

197

Emotion Vocabulary in Interlanguage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines five factors that may impact the use of second language emotion vocabulary. Considers the impact of language proficiency, gender, and extroversion on the use of emotion words in the advanced French interlanguage of 29 native Dutch speakers, and examines influence of sociocultural competence, gender, and type of linguistic material on use…

Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Pavlenko, Aneta

2002-01-01

198

Global Rules and Phonological Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is asserted that the treatment of intonation within the framework of generative grammar has not shown whether surface syntactic structure is sufficient for formulation of phonological rules. An attempt is made to demonstrate that within English phonology reference to deep structure is necessary. (Available from: See FL 508 214). (RM)

Gussmann, Edmund

1973-01-01

199

Effect Size in Clinical Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2011-01-01

200

Divergence of verbal expression and embodied knowledge: Evidence from speech and gesture in children with speciéc language impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that phonological working memory serves to link speech comprehension to production. We suggest further that impairments in phonological working memory may inèuence the way in which children represent and express their knowledge about the world around them. In particular, children with severe phonological working memory deécits may have diféculty retaining stable representations of phonological forms, which

Julia L. Evans; Martha W. Alibali; Nicole M. McNeil

2001-01-01

201

Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.

2009-01-01

202

Phonology: Its Role in the Second Dialect Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher working with second-dialect students requires knowledge of the phonology used by his students to deal, not primarily with their pronunciation problems, but, with their reading and writing problems. In language classrooms, priority should be given to the aspects of language used by children that identify them as nonstandard speakers.…

Hoffman, Melvin J.

203

The relation of linguistic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first grade students participating in Response to Intervention  

PubMed Central

Purpose We examined the relations of phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness and vocabulary to word reading and spelling for first grade children who were receiving differentiated instruction in a Response to Intervention (RTI) model of instruction (N = 304). Method First grade children were assessed on their phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, word reading, and spelling. Year-end word reading and spelling were outcome variables while phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness, expressive vocabulary, and RTI status (Tiers 1, 2, & 3) were predictor variables assessed in the middle of the school year. Results The three linguistic awareness skills were unique predictors of word reading and phonological and orthographic awareness were unique predictors of spelling. The contributions these linguistic awareness skills and vocabulary made to word reading and spelling did not differ by children's RTI tier status. Conclusion These results, in conjunction with previous studies, suggest that even beginning readers and spellers draw on multiple linguistic awareness skills for their word reading and spelling regardless of their level of literacy skills. Educational implications are discussed. PMID:23833281

Kim, Young-Suk; Apel, Kenn; Otaiba, Stephanie Al

2013-01-01

204

Effects of an Embedded Phonological Awareness Intervention during Repeated Book Reading on Preschool Children with Language Delays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efficacy of an explicit phonological awareness intervention embedded within repeated shared book reading with preschool children from low-income backgrounds with language delays was investigated. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors assessed the effects of phonological awareness training on rhyme and letter-sound knowledge with 13 preschool…

Ziolkowski, Robyn A.; Goldstein, Howard

2008-01-01

205

Biased learning of phonological alternations  

E-print Network

What is the initial state of the grammar when children begin to figure out patterns of phonological alternations? This thesis documents the developmental stages of children acquiring Korean verb and noun paradigms, and ...

Do, Young Ah

2013-01-01

206

Phonological Complexity and Language Learnability  

PubMed Central

Purpose To extend formal models of language learnability to applications in clinical treatment of children with functional phonological delays. Method The focus of the narrative review is on phonological complexity. This follows from learnability theory, whereby complexity in the linguistic input to children has been shown to trigger language learning. Drawing from the literature, phonological complexity is defined from epistemic, ontological, and functional perspectives, with specific emphasis on the application of language universals in the selection of target sounds for treatment. Results The cascading effects of phonological complexity on children’s generalization learning are illustrated, and frequently asked questions about complexity in treatment are addressed. Conclusion The role of complexity in cognitive development is introduced to demonstrate the apparent robustness of effects. PMID:17329671

Gierut, Judith A.

2008-01-01

207

Ojitlan Chinantec Phonology and Morphology  

E-print Network

This paper provides a preliminary sketch of Ojitlan Chinantec phonology and parts of its verbal morphology. Most Chinantec monomorphemic words are monosyllabic, and inflected words are often monosyllabic as well. There are numerous potential...

Macaulay, Monica

1999-01-01

208

The Effectiveness of a Model of Language-Focused Classroom Instruction on the Vocabulary and Narrative Development of Kindergarten Children  

E-print Network

of vocabulary knowledge, they found that children who entered school with a low level of vocabulary knowledge made greater gains in classrooms where they engaged in "Teacher/Child Managed" (TCM) meaning-based activities (e.g., interactions with books...The Effectiveness of a Model of Language-Focused Classroom Instruction on the Vocabulary and Narrative Development of Kindergarten Children DIANE CORCORAN NIELSEN, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS, LISA DINNER FRIESEN, NORTH KANSAS CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS, AND JUDY...

Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Friesen, Lisa Dinner; Fink, Judy

2012-01-01

209

A Descriptive Study on the Use of Materials in Vocabulary Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is important because it is highly correlated with content area learning. Strategies for vocabulary instruction recommend using new words in multiple contexts as key to learning. To date, the term "multiple contexts" emphasizes written contexts, not three-dimensional concrete material contexts. This article describes the…

Holmes, Kerry; Holmes, Stacy V.; Watts, Karley

2012-01-01

210

Aspects of Validity of a Test of Productive Vocabulary: Lex30  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates aspects of validity of an alternative measure of productive vocabulary. Lex30, developed by Meara and Fitzpatrick, is a word association task that claims to give an indication of productive vocabulary knowledge. Previous studies of Lex30 have assessed test-retest reliability, performance against native speaker norms,…

Walters, JoDee

2012-01-01

211

Longer Term Effects of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention for English Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the longer term effectiveness of a standard protocol, Tier 2 supplemental vocabulary intervention for kindergarten English learners, designed to develop root word vocabulary knowledge and reinforce beginning word reading skills. Participating students in the original study ("n" = 93 treatment, 92 control) received 20 weeks of…

Vadasy, Patricia F.; Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

212

A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary

Jill K. Prevost

2010-01-01

213

The Quality and Frequency of Encounters with Vocabulary in an English for Academic Purposes Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal case study tracks an adult second-language (L2) learner's quality and quantity of encounters with 20 vocabulary items in an English for Academic Purposes course over 3 months. The learner completed pretest and posttest vocabulary knowledge interviews, submitted course materials and notes for analysis, and was observed during…

Joe, Angela

2010-01-01

214

A Summary of the Vocabulary Research with Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is essential for communicating, reading, thinking, and learning. In comparison to typical hearing peers, students who are deaf or hard of hearing demonstrate vocabulary knowledge that is quantitatively reduced. The authors review and summarize research studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1967 and 2008 focusing on…

Luckner, John L.; Cooke, Christine

2010-01-01

215

PROVIDING CONTROLLED EXPOSURE TO TARGET VOCABULARY THROUGH THE SCREENING AND ARRANGING OF TEXTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the problem of how to bring foreign language students with a limited vocabulary knowledge, consisting mainly of high-frequency words, to the point where they are able to adequately comprehend authentic texts in a target domain or genre. It proposes bridging the vocabulary gap by first determining whic h word families account for 95% of the target domain's

Sina Ghadirian

2002-01-01

216

Vocabulary Development Using Visual Displays  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kindergarten teachers use a variety of strategies that focus on vocabulary development. A common and effective practice to introduce new vocabulary to kindergarteners is reading storybooks to children, what is commonly known as "read-alouds" (Bus, van Ijzendoorn, & Pelligrini, 1995; Christ & Wang, 2010; Newton, Padak &…

McKenzie, Ellen

2014-01-01

217

Making Connections in Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary teaching and learning constitute a major problem for EFL instructors and students. The pretest showed that freshman students at COLT have difficulty in pronouncing, recognizing the meaning of, using and spelling English words. In their first semester, freshman students are required to take a vocabulary course that consists of 50 lessons…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2006-01-01

218

Vocabulary Demands of Television Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…

Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

2009-01-01

219

The Interface between Morphology and Phonology: Exploring a Morpho-Phonological Deficit in Spoken Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

220

A Phonologically Based Analysis of Misspellings by Third Graders with Disordered-Phonology Histories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misspellings evidenced by 69 3rd graders in a battery containing 25 words and 20 nonsense syllable items were analyzed phonologically. Children with histories of disordered phonologies (n=29) showed more phonologically based deviations in their misspellings, relied more on less productive spelling strategies, and showed poorer phonological

Clarke-Klein, Susan; Hodson, Barbara Williams

1995-01-01

221

Phonological Awareness Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children with Mild to Moderate Phonological Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized and nonstandardized assessments of phonological awareness skills were administered to two groups of 6-year-old children. Group 1 passed a language screening but exhibited mild or moderate phonological impairments on the "Assessment of Phonological Processes--Revised." Group 2 passed a language screening and exhibited no phonological

Gernand, Keri Leigh; Moran, Michael J.

2007-01-01

222

A Tiered Intervention Model for Early Vocabulary Instruction: The Effects of Tiered Instruction for Young Students at Risk for Reading Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge at school entry is a robust predictor of later reading achievement. Many children begin formal reading instruction at a significant disadvantage due to low levels of vocabulary. Until recently, relatively few research studies examined the efficacy of vocabulary interventions for children in the early primary grades (e.g.,…

Pullen, Paige C.; Tuckwiller, Elizabeth D.; Konold, Timothy R.; Maynard, Katrina L.; Coyne, Michael D.

2010-01-01

223

Phonological processing skills in specific language impairment.  

PubMed

In order to provide effective intervention for children with specific language impairment (SLI), it is crucial that there is an understanding of the underlying deficit in SLI. This study utilized a battery of phonological processing tasks to compare the phonological processing skills of children with SLI to typically-developing peers matched for age or language. The children with SLI had significantly poorer performance than age-matched peers on measures of phonological representations, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, phonological short-term memory, and one measure of working memory. Of particular significance, the SLI group also demonstrated significantly weaker performance than language-matched peers on one measure of phonological representations, and one measure of working memory. The findings provide some support for a phonological processing account of SLI and highlight the utility of using tasks that draw on a comprehensive model of speech processing to profile and consider children's phonological processing skills in detail. PMID:23327452

Claessen, Mary; Leitão, Suze; Kane, Robert; Williams, Cori

2013-10-01

224

A not-so-simple view of reading: how oral vocabulary and visual-word recognition complicate the story  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study sought to clarify the relations amongst serial decoding, irregular word recognition, listening comprehension,\\u000a facets of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension in two cohorts of children differing in reading level. In the process,\\u000a the components of the simple view of reading were evaluated. Students in grades 1 (n = 67) and 6 (n = 56) were assessed on measures of phonological awareness,

Gene Ouellette; Ashley Beers

2010-01-01

225

Extension and integration of the gene ontology (GO): combining GO vocabularies with external vocabularies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured vocabulary development enhances the management of information in biological databases. As information grows, handling the complexity of vocabularies becomes difficult. Defined methods are needed to manipulate, expand and integrate complex vocabularies. The Gene Ontology (GO) project provides the scientific community with a set of structured vocabularies to describe domains of molecular biology. The vocabularies are used for annotation of

D. P. Hill; J A Blake; J E Richardson; M Ringwald

2002-01-01

226

Vocabularies and Vocabulary Structure: A New Approach Linking Categories, Practices, and Institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational scholars have long used vocabularies, and with the rise of research on language this work has grown. Yet the research drawing on vocabularies is wide-ranging and not integrated. We review work on vocabularies from literatures on rhetoric, culture, cognition, and coordination. We integrate and extend this work on vocabularies, introducing the new concept of vocabulary structure to capture different

Jeffrey Loewenstein; William Ocasio; Candace Jones

2012-01-01

227

Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 14 essays on reading and vocabulary learning in second language acquisition. Chapters include: "Research on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: Putting It in Context" (James Coady); "Implications for L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Instruction From L1 Vocabulary Research" (Fredricka Stoller and William Grabe); "Patterns and Perils of…

Huckin, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

228

On Some Claims of Atomic Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines some of the rules of atomic phonology so as to elucidate just what the theory is and is not capable of. The theory of atomic phonology maintains that all linguistic variation requiring distinctly varied formulations of phonological rules is predictable from a set of "atomic rules" and universal principles of grammar. (SED)

Wheeler, Max W.

1985-01-01

229

Phonological Working Memory in Very Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to establish whether phonological working memory skills could be assessed in children below 4 years of age. A group of 2- and 3-year-old children were tested on 3 phonological memory measures (digit span, nonword repetition, and word repetition) and were also given tasks that tapped other cognitive skills. Scores on the 3 phonological memory tasks were

Susan E. Gathercole; Anne-Marie Adams

1993-01-01

230

Phonological Awareness in Children with Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined phonological awareness in 17 children with Down syndrome (ages 9-14). Children demonstrated measurable levels of phonological awareness. Significant positive correlations were found among phonological awareness and reading and spelling competence, and ability to spell non-words and non-verbal measures. (Contains references.)…

Fletcher, Helen; Buckley, Sue

2002-01-01

231

Phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of phonological awareness has mainly focused on the nature of the relationship between reading ability and awareness of phonemes. However, a recent study of phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome questioned the existence of any neces- sary relationship (Cossu, Rossini & Marshall, 1993). This paper describes a study of phonological awareness in children with Down

Helen Fletcher; Sue Buckley

2002-01-01

232

On Phonological Representations, Rules, and Opacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fundamental concept of generative phonology stating that related morphemes have unique phonological representations is criticized. It is argued that more morphologization of phonological rules is needed to explain morphophonemic changes. (Available from North-Holland Publishing Co., P. O. Box 211, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.) (CHK)

Barkai, Malachi

1975-01-01

233

Molecular Biology Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to molecular biology, including DNA and RNA structure and function, transcription and translation. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

234

The Relationship between Vocabulary and Writing Quality in Three Genres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocabulary in writing across three genres. Fifth graders (N = 105) wrote three compositions: story, persuasive, and informative. Each composition revolved around the topic of outer space to control for background knowledge. Written compositions were scored for holistic writing quality and…

Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Wilson, Joshua

2013-01-01

235

Connectives: Fitting Another Piece of the Vocabulary Instruction Puzzle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connectives (e.g., although, consequently, in contrast) are often considered the "signposts" of texts. In this article we argue that connectives represent a special kind of vocabulary knowledge that students need to develop both in order to read challenging, academic texts with understanding and to produce academic writing. Yet tapping…

Crosson, Amy C.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2013-01-01

236

Peek, Peak, Pique: Using Homophones to Teach Vocabulary (and Spelling!).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that regular homophone practice enhances vocabulary knowledge, spelling skills, pronunciation ability, and overall reading proficiency. Describes how card games played with decks of homophones helped to accomplish these things. Notes particular benefits of homophone games to English-as-a-second-language students, and outlines key advantages…

Pryle, Marilyn Bogusch

2000-01-01

237

A virtual vocabulary speech recognizer  

E-print Network

A system for the automatic recognition of human speech is described. A commercially available speech recognizer sees its recognition vocabulary increased through the use of virtual memory management techniques. central to ...

Pathe, Peter D

1983-01-01

238

Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

239

fMRI evidence for the interaction between orthography and phonology in reading Chinese compound words.  

PubMed

Compound words make up a major part of modern Chinese vocabulary. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that access to lexical semantics of compound words is driven by the interaction between orthographic and phonological information. However, little is known about the neural underpinnings of compound word processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we asked participants to perform lexical decisions to pseudohomophones, which were constructed by replacing one or both constituents of two-character compound words with orthographically dissimilar homophonic characters. Mixed pseudohomophones, which shared the first constituent with the base words, were more difficult to reject than non-pseudohomophone non-words. This effect was accompanied by the increased activation of bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and left angular gyrus. The pure pseudohomophones, which shared no constituent with their base words, were rejected as quickly as non-word controls and did not elicit any significant neural activation. The effective connectivity of a phonological pathway from left IPL to left IFG was enhanced for the mixed pseudohomophones but not for pure pseudohomophones. These findings demonstrated that phonological activation alone, as in the case of the pure pseudohomophones, is not sufficient to drive access to lexical representations of compound words, and that orthographic information interacts with phonology, playing a gating role in the recognition of Chinese compound words. PMID:24319418

Zhan, Jiayu; Yu, Hongbo; Zhou, Xiaolin

2013-01-01

240

Phonological Perception of Early Words.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study consisting of two experiments attempted to further adapt the visual preference procedure for determining children's meaningful phonological perception. In the first experiment, 1-year-olds were presented with auditory stimuli (words) and screens containing paired color photographs of the object described by each word and of an unusual…

Pollock, Karen E.; Schwartz, Richard G.

241

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

242

The consequences of progressive phonological impairment for reading aloud.  

PubMed

The 'primary systems' view of reading disorders proposes that there are no neural regions devoted exclusively to reading, and therefore that acquired dyslexias should reliably co-occur with deficits in more general underlying capacities. This perspective predicted that surface dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading aloud 'exception' words (those with atypical spelling-sound characteristics), should be a consistent feature of semantic dementia, a progressive disorder of conceptual knowledge, and just such a pattern has been observed in previous research. In a similar vein, one might expect the gradual deterioration of phonological processing seen in the nonfluent forms of progressive aphasia to be accompanied by phonological dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading of unfamiliar letter strings, i.e., nonwords. The present study, reporting a case-series consideration of reading-aloud data from 16 progressive nonfluent aphasic patients, revealed a pattern in which both low-frequency exception word and nonword reading were comparably compromised. The severity of the reading disorder was predicted by scores on the expressive language task of picture naming but not the receptive task of spoken word-to-picture matching. Our hypothesis that a phonological deficit underpins diminished performance for both naming and reading was supported by the finding that reading-aloud performance was predicted specifically by the rate of phonological errors in picture naming. Moreover, the strength of this relationship was similar for low-frequency exception words and nonwords, suggesting that reading deficits for these two types of items in this disorder shared a common cause: a progressive impairment of phonological processing. PMID:23000132

Woollams, Anna M; Patterson, Karalyn

2012-12-01

243

The interface between morphology and phonology: exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production.  

PubMed

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment-these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-05-01

244

The interface between morphology and phonology: Exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production  

PubMed Central

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment—these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

245

"It takes a village" to support the vocabulary development of children with multiple risk factors.  

PubMed

Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly associated with language stimulation and learning materials in all families regardless of risk status. Maternal warmth and responsiveness supported vocabulary competence in families of low economic status only when maternal depressive symptoms were low. In families with the highest levels of risk, that is, with depression and economic distress jointly present, support by the extended family and neighbors for caring for the child protected children's vocabulary development against these adverse conditions. The empirical evidence on the positive contribution of extrafamilial support to young children's receptive vocabulary under adverse conditions allows an expansion of our current theorizing about influences on language development. PMID:24188041

Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

2014-04-01

246

Developmental Links of Very Early Phonological and Language Skills to Second Grade Reading Outcomes: Strong to Accuracy but Only Minor to Fluency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined second grade reading accuracy and fluency and their associations via letter knowledge to phonological and language predictors assessed at 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 years in children in the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. Structural equation modeling showed that a developmentally highly stable factor (early phonological and…

Puolakanaho, Anne; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Eklund, Kenneth; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Tolvanen, Asko; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki

2008-01-01

247

Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word derivations from other languages;…

Lamb, Barbara

248

Clinical Phonology: The Explanation and Treatment of Speech Sound Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author considers problems in the conceptualization of children's speech sound disorders and terminology changes related to use of "articulation" and "phonology." He suggests that clinical phonology must use scientific methods to explain phonological disorders. (CL)

Locke, John L.

1983-01-01

249

The articulatory basis of positional asymmetries in phonological acquisition  

E-print Network

Child phonological processes that lack counterparts in adult phonological typology have long posed a problem for formal modeling of phonological acquisition. This dissertation investigates child-specific processes with a ...

McAllister, Tara Kathleen

2009-01-01

250

Planned NLM/AHCPR large-scale vocabulary test: using UMLS technology to determine the extent to which controlled vocabularies cover terminology needed for health care and public health.  

PubMed

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) are sponsoring a test to determine the extent to which a combination of existing health-related terminologies covers vocabulary needed in health information systems. The test vocabularies are the 30 that are fully or partially represented in the 1996 edition of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, plus three planned additions: the portions of SNOMED International not in the 1996 Metathesaurus Read Clinical Classification, and the Logical Observations Identifiers, Names, and Codes (LOINC) system. These vocabularies are available to testers through a special interface to the Internet-based UMLS Knowledge Source Server. The test will determine the ability of the test vocabularies to serve as a source of controlled vocabulary for health data systems and applications. It should provide the basis for realistic resource estimates for developing and maintaining a comprehensive "standard" health vocabulary that is based on existing terminologies. PMID:8816351

Humphreys, B L; Hole, W T; McCray, A T; Fitzmaurice, J M

1996-01-01

251

The Relationship Between Phonological Memory, Phonological Sensitivity, and Incidental Word Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the cognitive abilities needed to succeed at incidental word learning, specifically by examining the\\u000a role of phonological memory and phonological sensitivity in novel word learning by 4-year-olds who were typically developing.\\u000a Forty 4-year-olds were administered a test of nonword repetition (to investigate phonological memory), rhyming and phoneme\\u000a alliteration tasks (to investigate phonological sensitivity), and an incidental word

Vijayachandra Ramachandra; Lynne E. Hewitt; Tim Brackenbury

2011-01-01

252

How Do Vocabulary Interventions Affect Young At-Risk Children's Word Learning: A Meta-Analytic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-analysis is designed to build on the existing knowledge base by examining vocabulary interventions specifically for factors associated with child outcomes for at-risk children. Specifically, the authors addressed the following questions: (1) To what extent are vocabulary interventions an effective method for at-risk children prior to…

Marulis, Loren M.; Neuman, Susan B.

2011-01-01

253

The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

2013-01-01

254

Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill  

PubMed Central

This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D.

2012-01-01

255

How vocabulary size in two languages relates to efficiency in spoken word recognition by young Spanish-English bilinguals  

PubMed Central

Research using online comprehension measures with monolingual children shows that speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition are correlated with lexical development. Here we examined speech processing efficiency in relation to vocabulary development in bilingual children learning both Spanish and English (n=26; 2;6 yrs). Between-language associations were weak: vocabulary size in Spanish was uncorrelated with vocabulary in English, and children’s facility in online comprehension in Spanish was unrelated to their facility in English. Instead, efficiency of online processing in one language was significantly related to vocabulary size in that language, after controlling for processing speed and vocabulary size in the other language. These links between efficiency of lexical access and vocabulary knowledge in bilinguals parallel those previously reported for Spanish and English monolinguals, suggesting that children’s ability to abstract information from the input in building a working lexicon relates fundamentally to mechanisms underlying the construction of language. PMID:19726000

Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne; Hurtado, Nereyda

2010-01-01

256

Phonological Working Memory, Phonological Awareness and Language in Literacy Difficulties in Brazilian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most usual flaws that lead to literacy disability regards cognitive difficulties and alterations some children present in the literacy process. Many studies have found alterations in phonological processing, more specifically in phonological working memory (PWM) and phonological awareness (PA). Therefore, our aim was to identify…

Barbosa, Thais; Miranda, Monica Carolina; Santos, Ruth F.; Bueno, Orlando Francisco A.

2009-01-01

257

Early Contribution of Phonological Awareness and Later Influence of Phonological Memory throughout Reading Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acquisition of reading skills is known to rely on early phonological abilities, but only a few studies have investigated the independent contribution of the different steps involved in phonological processing. This 1-year longitudinal study, spanning the initial year of reading instruction, aimed at specifying the development of phonological

Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle; Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Leybaert, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

258

Phonological Awareness Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia and the Phonological Representations Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The claim that the well-documented difficulties shown by dyslexic children in phonological awareness tasks may arise from deficits in the accuracy and the segmental organization of the phonological representations of words in their mental lexicons is receiving increasing interest from researchers. In this experiment, two versions of the phonological representations hypothesis were investigated by using a picture naming task and

Denise Swan; Usha Goswami

1997-01-01

259

Assessment of individual differences in phonological representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the\\u000a development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement\\u000a of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the dimensionality of phonological\\u000a representation abilities. Second, we empirically compared how well typical measures index various

Jason L. Anthony; Jeffrey M. Williams; Rachel G. Aghara; Martha Dunkelberger; Barbara Novak; Anuja Divatia Mukherjee

2010-01-01

260

Exploring and Developing Consumer Health Vocabularies  

PubMed Central

Laypersons (“consumers”) often have difficulty finding, understanding, and acting on health information due to gaps in their domain knowledge. Ideally, consumer health vocabularies (CHVs) would reflect the different ways consumers express and think about health topics, helping to bridge this vocabulary gap. However, despite the recent research on mismatches between consumer and professional language (e.g., lexical, semantic, and explanatory), there have been few systematic efforts to develop and evaluate CHVs. This paper presents the point of view that CHV development is practical and necessary for extending research on informatics-based tools to facilitate consumer health information seeking, retrieval, and understanding. In support of the view, we briefly describe a distributed, bottom-up approach for (1) exploring the relationship between common consumer health expressions and professional concepts and (2) developing an open-access, preliminary (draft) “first-generation” CHV. While recognizing the limitations of the approach (e.g., not addressing psychosocial and cultural factors), we suggest that such exploratory research and development will yield insights into the nature of consumer health expressions and assist developers in creating tools and applications to support consumer health information seeking. PMID:16221948

Zeng, Qing T.; Tse, Tony

2006-01-01

261

Depth of academic vocabulary knowledge 19 Depth of academic vocabulary knowledge  

E-print Network

study was carried out with a sample of 10 language minority students enrolled in either advanced ESL Institute of International Education2 , students from Asian countries accounted for roughly 60% of the overall international student population at U.S. colleges and universities in 2009. Recent research also

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

262

The Pace of Vocabulary Growth Helps Predict Later Vocabulary Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES],…

Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

2012-01-01

263

Teaching Vocabulary Expeditiously: Three Keys to Improving Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating vocabulary games and activities more often into the structure of the day, Thomas B. Smith establishes a word-rich environment for high school students to experiment with unfamiliar words in varying, playful contexts. Smith asserts that giving frequent opportunities for hearing, speaking, and writing in the typical context of the day is…

Smith, Thomas B.

2008-01-01

264

Teachers' Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…

Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

2010-01-01

265

Phonological processing among good and poor readers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many researchers believe that a connection exists between phonological processing skills and reading ability, and phonological deficits have often been cited as possible explanation for reading disability among both children and adults. This study will present research findings on phonological processing of various speech sounds among school-aged children who were classified as good and poor readers by standardized tests. These subjects will be administered speech discrimination tests using a variety of speech stimuli. Results of their performance on these tasks will be presented and a relationship between their reading and phonological processing abilities will be discussed.

Wayland, Ratree

2001-05-01

266

Improving Reading Comprehension through Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An action research project described an implementation of vocabulary strategies designed to increase reading comprehension. The targeted population consisted of inner city elementary students located in central Illinois. Research shows that some children from low-income environments have below average reading abilities. Analysis of probable cause…

Berg, Andy; Cressman, Kelley Shea; Pfanz, Tomi

267

Trainable Mentally Handicapped: Protective Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 21 materials for teaching protective vocabulary to trainable mentally handicapped students. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and include…

National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

268

Multisensory Strategies for Science Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seeing, touching, smelling, hearing, and learning! The authors observed that their English Language Learner (ELL) students achieved a deeper understanding of the properties of matter, as well as enhanced vocabulary development, when they were guided through inquiry-based, multisensory explorations that repeatedly exposed them to words and…

Husty, Sandra; Jackson, Julie

2008-01-01

269

A New Academic Vocabulary List  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents our new Academic Vocabulary List (AVL), derived from a 120-million-word academic subcorpus of the 425-million-word Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA; Davies 2012). We first explore reasons why a new academic core list is warranted, and why such a list is still needed in English language education. We also provide…

Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

2014-01-01

270

Is the Phonological Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia Related to Impaired Phonological Representations and to Universal Phonological Grammar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia is still debated. We concur with possible impairments in the representations of the universal phonological constraints that universally govern how phonemes co-occur as a source of this deficit. We were interested in whether-and how-dyslexic children have sensitivity to…

Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Taki, Yasuyuki; Yokoyama, Satoru; Magnan, Annie; Takahashi, Kei; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ecalle, Jean; Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-01-01

271

Incremental Phonological Encoding during Unscripted Sentence Production  

PubMed Central

We investigate phonological encoding during unscripted sentence production, focusing on the effect of phonological overlap on phonological encoding. Previous work on this question has almost exclusively employed isolated word production or highly scripted multi-word production. These studies have led to conflicting results: some studies found that phonological overlap between two words facilitates phonological encoding, while others found inhibitory effects. One worry with many of these paradigms is that they involve processes that are not typical to everyday language use, which calls into question to what extent their findings speak to the architectures and mechanisms underlying language production. We present a paradigm to investigate the consequences of phonological overlap between words in a sentence while leaving speakers much of the lexical and structural choices typical in everyday language use. Adult native speakers of English described events in short video clips. We annotated the presence of disfluencies and the speech rate at various points throughout the sentence, as well as the constituent order. We find that phonological overlap has an inhibitory effect on phonological encoding. Specifically, if adjacent content words share their phonological onset (e.g., hand the hammer), they are preceded by production difficulty, as reflected in fluency and speech rate. We also find that this production difficulty affects speakers’ constituent order preferences during grammatical encoding. We discuss our results and previous works to isolate the properties of other paradigms that resulted in facilitatory or inhibitory results. The data from our paradigm also speak to questions about the scope of phonological planning in unscripted speech and as to whether phonological and grammatical encoding interact. PMID:23162515

Jaeger, T. Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin

2012-01-01

272

Knowledge Growth and Maintenance across the Lifespan: The Role of Print Exposure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the effects of print exposure on growth of declarative knowledge and vocabulary in 133 college students and 49 elderly adults. Compared groups on two general knowledge tasks, vocabulary, working memory, syllogistic reasoning, and print exposure. Found that exposure to print was a significant predictor of declarative and vocabulary

Stanowich, Keith E.; And Others

1995-01-01

273

Depth of Teachers' Knowledge: Frameworks for Teachers' Knowledge of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes seven teacher knowledge frameworks and relates these frameworks to the teaching and assessment of elementary teacher's mathematics knowledge. The frameworks classify teachers' knowledge and provide a vocabulary and common language through which knowledge can be discussed and assessed. These frameworks are categorized into…

Holmes, Vicki-Lynn

2012-01-01

274

Evaluating the Relationship Between General Health Vocabulary and Student Achievement in Pharmacology  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine whether achievement in pharmacology is related to students’ general health vocabulary knowledge. Methods. Students registered for the pharmacology modules in the second (n=117), third (n=54), and fourth (n=41) years of the bachelor of pharmacy degree program completed a general health vocabulary assessment. Results of the vocabulary assessments in Pharmacology 3 and Pharmacology 4 were used to determine the effects of academic progression. Grades in the summative Pharmacology 2 examination served as indicators of achievement in pharmacology. Focus group sessions were held with a convenience sample of Pharmacology 2 (n=12), Pharmacology 3 (n=10), and Pharmacology 4 (n=5) students. Results. A significant, positive correlation between Pharmacology 2 grades and vocabulary assessment scores was demonstrated. Student perceptions revealed during focus group interviews were that poor pharmacy-related vocabulary knowledge impacted their ability to learn pharmacology. Conclusion. Achievement in pharmacology correlated positively with vocabulary knowledge (p=0.031) among a South African, multilingual student cohort in a setting where English is used in teaching and thus is imperative for learning. PMID:25147394

Webb, Paul

2014-01-01

275

Verbal Memory and Phonological Processing in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether two frequently reported causes of dyslexia, phonological processing problems and verbal memory impairments, represent a double-deficit or whether they are two expressions of the same deficit. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven Dutch children aged 10-14 with dyslexia completed a list-learning task and several phonological

Tijms, Jurgen

2004-01-01

276

PROGRAMMED INTRODUCTION TO ARABIC SCRIPT AND PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PRESENT PROGRESS REPORT DESCRIBES INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE TEACHING OF ARABIC WRITING AND PHONOLOGY, BASED ON THE RESULTS OF (1) A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHONOLOGIES OF AMERICAN ENGLISH AND MODERN LITERARY ARABIC, (2) AN ANALYSIS OF MODERN LITERARY ARABIC WRITING, AND (3) A WORD STUDY OF 11 ELEMENTARY ARABIC TEXTBOOKS. (FOR A…

MCCARUS, ERNEST; RAMMUNY, RAJI

277

Chile Language Aphasia and Phonological Universals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work is an English translation of the author's classic "Kindersprache, Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze," first published in 1941. It is considered the most representative and comprehensive of the author's phonological writings, dealing not only with phonological typology but related problems of language acquisition and phonemic regression…

Jakobson, Roman

278

Phonological Assimilation and Visual Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are the visual word-processing tasks of naming and lexical decision sensitive to systematic phonological properties that may or may not be specified in the spelling? Two experiments with Hangul, the alphabetic orthography of Korea, were directed at the effects of the phonological process of assimilation whereby one articulation changes to conform to a neighboring articulation. Disyllabic words were responded to

Yang Lee; Miguel A. Moreno; Claudia Carello; Michael T. Turvey

2006-01-01

279

Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness, or the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, has been identified as a key early literacy skill and precursor to reading. For the purposes of this review, "phonological awareness training" refers to any practice targeting young children's phonological awareness abilities. "Phonological

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

280

A Probabilistic Model of Phonological Relationships from Contrast to Allophony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…

Hall, Kathleen Currie

2009-01-01

281

A Treatment Sequence for Phonological Alexia/Agraphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Damage to left perisylvian cortex often results in impaired phonological processing abilities with written language profiles consistent with phonological alexia and phonological agraphia. The purpose of this article was to examine a behavioral treatment sequence for such individuals intended to strengthen phonological processing and links…

Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rising, Kindle; Kim, Esther S.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

2010-01-01

282

Prediction of Boston Naming Test performance from vocabulary scores: preliminary guidelines for interpretation.  

PubMed

Patients with limited education or underdeveloped vocabulary skills may perform below the normal range on the Boston Naming Test when compared to the original published norms, even in the absence of brain damage. To reduce the frequency of false positive dysnomic classifications of patients with limited vocabulary skills, we developed a score adjustment to account for the significant shared variance between scores on this test and the WAIS-R Vocabulary subtest. Vocabulary significantly predicted performance on the Boston Naming Test (r = .65, p < .0001) in a sample of 62 outpatients who had no objective evidence of brain damage. Linear regression was used to derive expected performance on the Boston Naming Test from Vocabulary scaled scores. Relative to the original published norms, scores based on the Vocabulary subtest cut-offs produced fewer false positives and more accurately classified group membership for patients with and without objectively verified brain damage. These performance predictions are offered as tentative guidelines to assist clinicians in evaluating the presence of naming deficits by controlling for the variance associated with knowledge of vocabulary. PMID:10544434

Killgore, W D; Adams, R L

1999-08-01

283

Letter Names and Phonological Awareness Help Children to Learn Letter-Sound Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experimental training studies with Portuguese-speaking preschoolers in Brazil were conducted to investigate whether children benefit from letter name knowledge and phonological awareness in learning letter-sound relations. In Experiment 1, two groups of children were compared. The experimental group was taught the names of letters whose sounds…

Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Mesquita, Tereza Cristina Lara; Ehri, Linnea

2011-01-01

284

Letter-Name Letter-Sound and Phonological Awareness: Evidence from Greek-Speaking Kindergarten Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of letter-sound and letter-name knowledge and their relation to each other and to various aspects of phonological awareness in a sample of Greek kindergarten children who did not know how to read. One hundred twenty children aged 58-69 months were assessed on letter-sound and…

Manolitsis, George; Tafa, Eufimia

2011-01-01

285

Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming…

Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

2012-01-01

286

Multisensory Strategies for Science Vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Seeing, touching, smelling, hearing, and learning! The authors observed that their English Language Learner (ELL) students achieved a deeper understanding of the properties of matter, as well as enhanced vocabulary development, when they were guided through inquiry-based, multisensory explorations that repeatedly exposed them to words and definitions in context. In this article, they describe their experiences using a multisensory approach with a group of third-grade students who are classified as ELL.

Jackson, Julie; Husty, Sandra

2008-12-01

287

Semantic memory impairment does not impact on phonological and orthographic processing in a case of developmental hyperlexia.  

PubMed

Recent evidence from patients with progressive language disorders and dementia has been used to suggest that phonological and orthographic processing depend on intact semantic memory. These claims challenge the traditional view that there are functionally separate modules in the language system. The effect of a severe, but nonprogressive, semantic impairment on phonological and orthographic processing was evaluated in LA, a mentally retarded child with hyperlexia. Knowledge of a word's meaning did not affect LA's word repetition, a measure of phonological processing, or his acquisition and retention of orthographic patterns for writing to dictation low-frequency words with exceptional spellings. These findings support the assertion that both orthographic and phonological whole-word representations can be acquired, stored, and retrieved in the absence of a functional link to semantic memory. PMID:9027372

Glosser, G; Grugan, P; Friedman, R B

1997-02-01

288

Learning Strategies for Vocabulary Development 105 Learning Strategies for  

E-print Network

Learning Strategies for Vocabulary Development 105 Learning Strategies for Vocabulary Development of changes in vocabulary learning strategies and how these changes are related to vocabulary development. One in Singapore answered a vocabulary learning questionnaire at the beginning and end of the programme

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

289

Social Constructs and Disease: Implications for a Controlled Vocabulary for HIV/AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The body of knowledge associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents complexity not present in any other disease. A controlled vocabulary and classification structure used to organize the body of knowledge associated with HIV/AIDS is discussed. (Author/AEF)

Huber, Jeffrey T.; Gillaspy, Mary L.

1998-01-01

290

Application of Automatic Thesaurus Extraction for Computer Generation of Vocabulary Questions  

E-print Network

WordNet [3] as a preexisting lexical knowledge base for generating various multiple-choice questions to computer-generated related word vocabulary questions. These questions assess and provide practice for an aspect of word knowledge found to be important for language learning. Automatic generation

Eskenazi, Maxine

291

Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia.  

PubMed

Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E; Hogan, Tiffany P

2014-01-01

292

Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

2014-01-01

293

Phonologically driven variability: The case of determiners.  

PubMed

Speakers usually produce words in connected speech. In such contexts, the form in which many words are uttered is influenced by the phonological properties of neighboring words. The current article examines the representations and processes underlying the production of phonologically constrained word form variations. For this purpose, we consider determiners whose form is sensitive to phonological context (e.g., in English: a car vs. an animal; in French: le chien 'the dog' vs. l'âne 'the donkey'). Two hypotheses have been proposed regarding how these words are processed. Determiners either are thought to have different representations for each of their surface forms, or they are thought to have only 1 representation while other forms are generated online after selection through a rule-based process. We tested the predictions derived from these 2 views in 3 picture naming experiments. Participants named pictures using determiner-adjective-noun phrases (e.g., la nouvelle table 'the new table'). Phonologically consistent or inconsistent conditions were contrasted, based on the phonological onsets of the adjective and the noun. Results revealed shorter naming latencies for consistent than for inconsistent sequences (i.e., a phonological consistency effect) for all the determiner types tested. Our interpretation of these findings converges on the assumption that determiners with varying surface forms are represented in memory with multiple phonological-lexical representations. This conclusion is discussed in relation to models of determiner processing and models of lexical variability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24797443

Bürki, Audrey; Laganaro, Marina; Alario, F-Xavier

2014-09-01

294

Documenting the Vocabulary of Astronomy Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning astronomy can be a life-long process, with the seeds of knowledge planted in K-12 classes blossoming in elective college courses to create adults who actively acquire astronomy content. One of the goals of many astronomy 101 courses is to prepare students to be intelligent consumers of mainstream astronomy content, including magazine articles, popular books, and online news. To meet this goal, astronomy educators need to understand what content is being presented in the media and what level vocabulary is being used. The most simplistic way to address this problem is to examine the topics covered and vocabulary used in mainstream astronomy blogs and news feeds. In this study we looked at a selection of prominent blogs and news feeds and we present a statistical study of the frequency different scientific terms are used and topics are addressed. To make this study possible, software to read in RSS feeds was created. This software had to meet the following design specifications: runs in a reasonable amount of time, removes all XML and HTML code from text, sees words with different capitalizations as the same word, ignores end of sentence or phrase punctuation without ignoring hyphens, and has an editable list of "common English words.” This code will be available after the conference at http://www.starstryder.com. Results of this study find that many of the primary topics of Astronomy 101 classes, such as the HR Diagram, are rarely mentioned in blogs and online news, while often de-emphasized topics, such as extra solar planets, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics, show up regularly.

Miller, Scott; Parrish, M.; Gay, P. L.

2008-05-01

295

Extracting Enterprise Vocabularies Using Linked Open Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common vocabulary is vital to smooth business operation, yet codifying and maintaining an enterprise vocabulary is an arduous,\\u000a manual task. We describe a process to automatically extract a domain specific vocabulary (terms and types) from unstructured\\u000a data in the enterprise guided by term definitions in Linked Open Data (LOD). We validate our techniques by applying them to\\u000a the IT

Julian Dolby; Achille Fokoue; Aditya Kalyanpur; Edith Schonberg; Kavitha Srinivas

2009-01-01

296

Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to mitosis, meiosis and fertilization. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

297

GRAMMATICAL)CONSTRAINTS)ON)PHONOLOGICAL)ENCODING) )))1) Grammatical)constraints)on)phonological)encoding)in)speech)production)  

E-print Network

,)Mitchum,)Haendiges,)&)Sandson,)1997).)In)nonQerrorful)speech,)phonological) similarity)between)words)in)sentences)can)affect)word)choice)Rd) Evanston,)IL)60208) jordana@u.northwestern.edu,)mattQgoldrick@northwestern.edu) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Word)influence)of)grammatical)encoding)on)the)retrieval)and)encoding) of)phonological)wordQform)information)during)speech)production,)we)examine)how) grammatical)class)constraints)influence)the)activation)of)phonological)neighbors)(words

Bustamante, Fabián E.

298

Perseus Greek and Latin Vocabulary Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Perseus Digital Library of Tufts University (first discussed in the October 17, 1997 Scout Report) has just introduced the Perseus Vocabulary Tool, intended to help users of texts in the Perseus Digital Library build word lists based on those texts. The tool shows the frequency of words used by specific authors or in specific texts, and identifies key terms for building vocabulary lists. For each vocabulary word, a pop-up window containing the definition, part of speech, and word gender, plus links are given. It's a good idea to check out the help page before embarking on a journey through the Perseus Vocabulary Tool.

2001-01-01

299

THE SHARED KNOWLEDGE OF READING AND WRITING  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the magnitude and nature of the reading?writing relationship. Particular attention is given to those theories that postulate identicality of knowledge use. Four reading measures (comprehension, cloze, vocabulary, phonics) and eight writing measures (three measures of spelling, vocabulary diversity, syntactic complexity, three story grammar measures of organization) were administered to 256 second graders and 251 fifth graders. These

Timothy Shanahan

1987-01-01

300

Effects of Noun-Verb Conceptual/ Phonological Relatedness on Verb Production Changes in Broca's Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with Broca’s aphasia show better performance on nouns than on verbs, but distinction between nouns and verbs is not always clear; some verbs are conceptually and/ or phonologically related to nouns, while others are not. Inconsistent results on effects of noun-verb relatedness on verb production have been reported in the literature. Aims We investigated (1) whether verb instrumentality (a conceptual relationship to nouns) or homonymy (a phonological relationship to nouns) would affect verb production in individuals with Broca’s aphasia and (2) whether conceptual/ phonological noun-verb relationship would affect responsiveness to aphasia therapy that focused on verb production. Methods & Procedures Three English speaking individuals with Broca’s aphasia produced 96 verbs in sentences in response to picture stimuli. The target verbs included those that use an instrument and those that do not (e.g., to hammer vs. to yawn) and verbs that are phonologically identical to a related noun (e.g., to comb – a comb), morpho-phonologically-related to a noun (e.g., to grind – a grinder), and verbs for which there is no phonologically similar noun (e.g., to lean). The participants’ verb retrieval ability was assessed before and after a 4-week period of aphasia therapy. Outcomes & Results The participants produced more accurate instrumental than non-instrumental verbs both pre- and post-treatment. They also produced more verbs correctly that are homonyms of nouns than verbs that are phonologically related or unrelated to nouns before treatment. However, the effect of homonymy was not observed following treatment. Conclusion Individuals with Broca’s aphasia were more accurate in their production of verbs that were conceptually and phonologically related to nouns than on verb that were not. The performance on verb production improved significantly after therapy. We interpret the results to indicate that whereas prior to treatment the participants relied on phonologically related nouns to retrieve the target verbs, this reliance on knowledge of nouns decreased following therapy that was designed to improve verb production. PMID:23914001

Goral, Mira; Verkuilen, Jay; Kempler, Daniel

2013-01-01

301

Facilitating Vocabulary Acquisition of Young English Language Learners.  

E-print Network

?? A vocabulary intervention during shared storybook reading was implemented with 22 Spanish-English bilingual children. One intervention consisted of English expansions of vocabulary words and… (more)

Lugo-Neris, Mirza J.

2007-01-01

302

The rationale, development, and standardization of a basic word vocabulary test.  

PubMed

The results of the studies to date indicate that the Basic Word Vocabulary Test provides a range of items in terms of item difficulty levels useful in printed form from about the third grade to the highest educational levels. Since pictorial and orally given vocabulary tests are used from about ages 2 to 8 years, further work should be done to extend the scale downward so that a single comprehensive vocabulary scale ranging from age 2 years to the highest level of verbal development is available for general use. Validation studies should also be conducted with other well-known intelligence tests so that scores can be compared. Alternate forms need to be developed to allow for longitudinal studies of growth and development. The use of a single standard of measurement of vocabulary development, suitable over a wide range of age and ability levels, by different investigators should materially aid in comparing results across studies and samples and lead to more consistent findings, advances in knowledge, and wider application of findings in practical circumstances, The findings presented in this report indicate that the Basic Word Vocabulary Test adequately measures basic word knowledge acquisition and development. The BWVT is suitable for evaluation of individuals and for use in making group comparisons in levels of basic word knowledge attainment, growth, and development. PMID:25102343

Dupuy, H J

1974-04-01

303

Subgrouping children with familial phonologic disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial aggregation of speech and language disorders was examined as a basis of subgrouping children with phonologic disorders. Fifty-nine children with phonologic disorders were subgrouped according to whether or not other nuclear family members reported a history of speech\\/language disorders. Thirty-four subjects (58%) reported at least one other nuclear family member affected and 25 subjects (42%) reported no other nuclear

Barbara A Lewis; Lisa Freebairn

1997-01-01

304

The Impact of Academic Vocabulary Instruction on Reading Performance of Sophomore Students on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test from 2008 and 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the change in sophomore reading scores on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test after the implementation of an academic vocabulary program and the change in teacher knowledge and professional practice after a program of staff development in academic vocabulary. The purpose was to determine if the impact of the…

McMillen, Margaret

2009-01-01

305

Is Form-Focused Vocabulary Instruction Worthwhile?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hearing stories can result in considerable incidental vocabulary development, for both first and second language acquisition (e.g. Elley 1992; Robbins and Ehri 1994; Senechal, LeFevre, Hudson and Lawson 1996). It has also been claimed, however, that direct instruction is more effective than incidental vocabulary acquisition and that combining both…

Mason, Beniko; Krashen, Stephen

2004-01-01

306

Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

Nisbet, Deanna L.

2010-01-01

307

Studies Find Vocabulary Instruction Is Falling Short  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who enter kindergarten with a small vocabulary don't get taught enough words--particularly, sophisticated academic words--to close the gap, according to the latest in a series of studies by Michigan early-learning experts. The findings suggest many districts could be at a disadvantage in meeting the increased requirements for vocabulary

Sparks, Sarah D.

2013-01-01

308

Morphological Analysis and Vocabulary Development: Critical Criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological Analysis as a vocabulary acquisition strategy has both its advocates and antagonists. Criticism from opponents is often warranted when programs omit one or more of the three critical criteria that establish the framework behind a successful curriculum. The intent behind this paper is to disseminate and explicate these three criteria, along with the methodology employed in a vocabulary acquisition

Tom S. Bellomo

2009-01-01

309

Hypermedia and Vocabulary Acquisition for Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of multimedia as a delivery tool for enhancing vocabulary in second-language classrooms. The mixed method design focused on specific techniques to help students acquire Spanish vocabulary and communication skills. The theoretical framework for this study consisted of second language theories…

Meli, Rocio

2009-01-01

310

Evaluation of CALL: Initial Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary learning theory suggests that productive recall should strengthen learning of new vocabulary items (Nation, 2001). CALL can provide both the opportunities for productive recall and the feedback to motivate repeated efforts to reproduce new items. The latter capability appears to give CALL some advantages over paper-based exercises, in…

Allum, Paul

2004-01-01

311

The Teacher's Mediation in Students' Vocabulary Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three stages of teaching second language vocabulary are examined using examples of typical situations for Poles learning English. A basic assumption is that the vocabulary of any two languages, especially Indo-European languages, exhibits both ethnological and accidental similarity. The first stage is to make the phonic, or graphic, or both forms,…

Krakowian, Bogdan

312

Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary

Feezell, Greg

2012-01-01

313

A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

Labrie, Gilles

2000-01-01

314

Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

2012-01-01

315

Adapted Vocabularies for Generic Visual Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several state-of-the-art Generic Visual Categorization (GVC) systems are built around a vocabulary of visual terms and char- acterize images with one histogram of visual word counts. We propose a novel and practical approach to GVC based on a universal vocabu- lary, which describes the content of all the considered classes of images, and class vocabularies obtained through the adaptation of

Florent Perronnin; Christopher R. Dance; Gabriela Csurka; Marco Bressan

2006-01-01

316

Phonology and orthography in reading aloud.  

PubMed

This study investigated the orthographic and phonological contribution of visually masked primes to reading aloud in Dutch. Although there is a relatively clear mapping between the spelling and sound of words in Dutch, words starting with the letter c are ambiguous as to whether they begin with the phoneme /s/ (e.g., citroen, "lemon") or with the phoneme /k/ (e.g., complot, "conspiracy"). Therefore, using words of this type, one can tease apart the contributions of orthographic and phonological activation in reading aloud. Dutch participants read aloud bisyllabic c-initial target words, which were preceded by visually masked, bisyllabic prime words that either shared the initial phoneme with the target (phonologically related) or the first grapheme (orthographically related) or both (phonologically and orthographically related). Unrelated primes did not share the first segment with the target. Response latencies in the phonologically related conditions were shorter than those in the unrelated condition. However, primes that were orthographically related did not speed up responses. One may conclude that the nature of the onset effect in reading aloud is phonological and not orthographic. PMID:17874588

Schiller, Niels O

2007-06-01

317

Development of Phonological Representations and Phonological Awareness in Children with Speech Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with speech impairment are more likely to have difficulty learning to read compared with children with typical speech development. Researchers have hypothesized that a difficulty in accessing good-quality phonological representations of words stored in the memory may constrain these children's performance on phonological

Sutherland, Dean; Gillon, Gail T.

2007-01-01

318

Phonological Awareness and the Use of Phonological Similarity in Letter-Sound Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…

de Jong, Peter F.

2007-01-01

319

What models of verbal working memory can learn from phonological theory: Decomposing the phonological similarity effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying types and levels of similarity in their onset

Judith Schweppe; Martine Grice; Ralf Rummer

2011-01-01

320

Effects of Phonological Complexity on Error Production and Pseudoword Training in Acquired Phonological Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with their corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Several studies have attempted to improve reading in this population by training letter-to-sound correspondence, general phonological skills, or a combination of these approaches; however,…

Riley, Ellyn Anne

2011-01-01

321

What Models of Verbal Working Memory Can Learn from Phonological Theory: Decomposing the Phonological Similarity Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…

Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf

2011-01-01

322

Evaluation of Core Vocabulary Intervention for Treatment of Inconsistent Phonological Disorder: Three Treatment Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with unintelligible speech differ in severity, underlying deficit, type of surface error patterns and response to treatment. Detailed treatment case studies, evaluating specific intervention protocols for particular diagnostic groups, can identify best practice for children with speech disorder. Three treatment case studies evaluated the…

McIntosh, Beth; Dodd, Barbara

2009-01-01

323

Evaluation of Core Vocabulary Intervention for Treatment of Inconsistent Phonological Disorder: Three Treatment Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with unintelligible speech differ in severity, underlying deficit, type of surface error patterns and response to treatment. Detailed treatment case studies, evaluating specific intervention protocols for particular diagnostic groups, can identify best practice for children with speech disorder. Three treatment case studies evaluated the…

McIntosh, Beth; Dodd, Barbara

2008-01-01

324

Developmental implications of nonlinear phonological theory.  

PubMed

For the past 20 years the field of linguistics has provided a basis for assessment and treatment methods for speech and language disorders. Since Goldsmiths (1976) dissertation showing tone as an independently functioning autosegment, new and robust phonological frameworks have become available, i.e. nonlinear phonological frameworks. This paper outlines major aspects of nonlinear phonology and its developmental implications. Based in generative phonology, nonlinear frameworks adhere to many of the tenets of the generative grammar tradition, such as markedness and autonomy of linguistic components. The major difference between classical and nonlinear generative phonology is the latters emphasis on representation rather than on rules or processes. This enriched representation is hierarchical and multitiered, rather than being strictly sequential as in classical generative phonology, and includes syllabic structure and segmental information. Phonological rules or processes result from, and are constrained by, principles of association between the various autonomous levels. If a child comes to the language-learning situation with a representional framework, a set of universal 'templates' are then available to utilize for decoding and encoding. The incorporation of both syllabic (prosodic level) and segmental information in representation suggests that the child will come to the language-learning process primed with expected syllable structure bases as well as with an expected segmental 'feature inventory'. The concept of autonomy implies possible independent learning for information on the various tiers, e.g. between the prosodic and segmental levels. The concept of hierarchy suggests that prominent system units in tree structure may have developmental precedence over deeply embedded units. These and other concepts are developed in the following pages. PMID:20670203

Bernhardt, B

1992-01-01

325

Vocabulary Is Important for Some, but Not All Reading Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for unique variance in exception word reading and reading

Jessie Ricketts; Kate Nation; Dorothy V. M. Bishop

2007-01-01

326

Quality of Phonological Representations: A Window into the Lexicon?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a great deal of evidence to support the robust relationship between phonological awareness and literacy development. Researchers are beginning to understand the relationship between the accuracy and distinctiveness of stored phonological representations and performance on phonological awareness tasks. However, many of the…

Claessen, Mary; Heath, Steve; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John; Leitao, Suze

2009-01-01

327

Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Representation in Dyslexic Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is now well-established that there is a causal connection between children's phonological skills and their acquisition of reading and spelling. Here we study low-level auditory processes that may underpin the development of phonological representations in children. Dyslexic and control children were given a battery of phonological tasks,…

Richardson, Ulla; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Scott, Sophie K.; Goswami, Usha

2004-01-01

328

Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

2006-01-01

329

Phonological and Articulation Therapy in Portuguese Children with Language Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

words) This study evaluates the effectiveness of two interventions (articulatory and phonological) for treatment of developmental phonological disorders in 14 pre-school Portuguese children with Language Impairment (LI) over 25 sessions. Results explored phonological ability pre- and post-intervention at single word and spontaneous speech level. The percentage consonant correct (PCC), the level of intelligibility of speech and percentage occurrence of several

Marisa Lousada; Luis M. T. Jesus; Victoria Joffe; Sylvie Capelas; Cláudia Margaça; David Simões

330

Phonological Awareness Intervention for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness intervention to improve the speech production, phonological awareness and printed word decoding skills for three children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) aged 7;3, 6;3 and 6;10. The three children presented with severely delayed phonological awareness skills…

Moriarty, Brigid C.; Gillon, Gail T.

2006-01-01

331

Cognition, 42 (1992) 261-286 Disorders of phonological encoding*  

E-print Network

Cognition, 42 (1992) 261-286 Disorders of phonological encoding* Brian Butterworth Department. Disorders of phonological encoding. Cognition, 42: 261-286. Studies of phonological disturbances in aphasic vary from 1.6 errors per 1000words (Shallice & Butterworth, 1977) down to 62 (segment errors

Butterworth, Brian

332

Phonological Processing and Reading in Children with Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergarten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological

Rvachew, Susan

2007-01-01

333

Phonological Awareness and Mathematical Difficulty: A Longitudinal Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present longitudinal study sought to investigate the impact of poor phonology on children's mathematical status. From a screening sample of 256 five-year-olds, 82 children were identified as either typically achieving (TA; N = 31), having comorbid poor phonology and mathematical difficulties (PDMD; N = 31), or having only poor phonology

Jordan, Julie-Ann; Wylie, Judith; Mulhern, Gerry

2010-01-01

334

The Effects of Semantic Mapping on Vocabulary Growth in Grade Four.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effectiveness of semantic mapping instruction as a technique for increasing vocabulary. Subjects, 38 fourth grade students in two classrooms, were divided into experimental and control groups. Both groups were pretested for their knowledge of selected words taken from the Scott, Foresman Reading Program, Grade Four. The…

Pikula, Joan

335

Beyond Word Meaning: Vocabulary Instruction for Students with Exceptional Language Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A well-developed academic vocabulary is foundational for understanding academic texts used in elementary and secondary classrooms. In-depth word knowledge is critical to understanding the abstract concepts and complex language structures of text. Students with learning disabilities and English language learners both characteristically have limited…

Spies, Tracy G.; Dema, Alexandra A.

2014-01-01

336

Evaluation of a Principled Approach to Vocabulary Learning in Mainstream Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that a significant number of children enter primary school with insufficient vocabulary knowledge. This study investigates whether a small group daily word learning programme delivered by the class teacher can improve word learning in young children. Eighteen children, aged five to six years, with English as an additional…

St. John, Pip; Vance, Maggie

2014-01-01

337

Dare to Differentiate: Vocabulary Strategies for All Students. Teaching Practices that Work Series. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This highly practical resource for K-6 teachers is packed with 25 classroom-tested, step-by-step strategies for developing word knowledge. The emphasis throughout is not only on teaching new words, but also on strengthening students' comprehension and long-term vocabulary acquisition. Especially valuable are guidelines for how to differentiate…

Brassell, Danny

2010-01-01

338

Word Travelers: Using Digital Tools to Explore Vocabulary and Develop Independent Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internet is full of tools for vocabulary development, but the quality and usefulness for teachers and students vary greatly. With a traditionalist's respect for word knowledge and an adventurer's spirit for discovering new routes to learning, Lee Ann Tysseling shares an exciting array of technology-assisted resources that can boost students'…

Tysseling, Lee Ann

2012-01-01

339

Indigenizing Vocabulary Teaching: An Example of Multiliteracies Pedagogy from Unamen Shipu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a community-based pedagogical initiative for teaching vocabulary. The research took place in the Innu community of Unamen Shipu in northern Quebec. The study introduced a teaching method grounded in Indigenous knowledge theory that exemplified the multiliteracies pedagogy principles. This exploratory study used participatory…

Lavoie, Constance; Mark, Marie-Paul; Jenniss, Brigitte

2014-01-01

340

Word Watching: Learning Vocabulary Becomes a Hobby.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method, developed to make vocabulary learning a creative challenge, that consists of a four-step learning process that makes the student responsible for selecting words to learn daily. (Author/AM)

Kramsch, Claire J.

1979-01-01

341

Utilizing OODB schema modeling for vocabulary management.  

PubMed Central

Comprehension of complex controlled vocabularies is often difficult. We present a method, facilitated by an object-oriented database, for depicting such a vocabulary (the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) from the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center) in a schematic way which uses a sparse inheritance network of area classes. The resulting Object Oriented Health Vocabulary repository (OOHVR) allows visualization of the 43,000 MED concepts as 90 area classes. This view has provided valuable information to those responsible with maintaining the MED. As a result, the MED organization has been improved and some previously-unrecognized errors and inconsistencies have been removed. We believe that this schematic approach allows improved comprehension of the gestalt of large controlled medical vocabulary. PMID:8947671

Gu, H.; Cimino, J. J.; Halper, M.; Geller, J.; Perl, Y.

1996-01-01

342

Phonological decoding involves left posterior fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

Aloud reading of novel words is achieved by phonological decoding, a process in which grapheme-to-phoneme conversion rules are applied to "sound out" a word's spoken representation. Numerous brain imaging studies have examined the neural bases of phonological decoding by contrasting pseudoword (pronounceable nonwords) to real word reading. However, only a few investigations have examined pseudoword reading under both aloud and silent conditions, task parameters that are likely to significantly alter the functional anatomy of phonological decoding. Subjects participated in an fMRI study of aloud pseudoword, aloud real word, silent pseudoword, and silent real word reading. Using this two-by-two design, we examined effects of word-type (real words vs. pseudowords) and response-modality (silent vs. aloud) and their interactions. We found 1) four regions to be invariantly active across the four reading conditions: the anterior aspect of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann's Area (BA) 6), and three areas within the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex; 2) a main effect of word-type (pseudowords > words) in left inferior frontal gyrus and left intraparietal sulcus; 3) a main effect of response-modality (aloud > silent) that included bilateral motor, auditory, and extrastriate cortex; and 4) a single left hemisphere extrastriate region showing a word-type by response-modality interaction effect. This region, within the posterior fusiform cortex at BA 19, was uniquely modulated by varying phonological processing demands. This result suggests that when reading, word forms are subject to phonological analysis at the point they are first recognized as alphabetic stimuli and BA 19 is involved in processing the phonological properties of words. PMID:15934062

Dietz, Nicole A E; Jones, Karen M; Gareau, Lynn; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Eden, Guinevere F

2005-10-01

343

NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The access vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The access vocabulary contains almost 42,000 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1988-01-01

344

NASA thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains 40,738 entries that give increased access to the hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1985-01-01

345

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Access Vocabulary, which is essentially a permuted index, provides access to any word or number in authorized postable and nonpostable terms. Additional entries include postable and nonpostable terms, other word entries, and pseudo-multiword terms that are permutations of words that contain words within words. The Access Vocabulary contains, 40,661 entries that give increased access to he hierarchies in Volume 1 - Hierarchical Listing.

1982-01-01

346

Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

2014-05-01

347

The Creation and Establishment of Moral Vocabularies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The moral vocabularies approach offers a way of examining and organizing the essential moral claims disseminated by a group\\u000a of claimsmakers. Moral claims and understandings are organized internally (in claims and the actions of moral entrepreneurs)\\u000a and externally (how internal moral vocabularies intersect with the larger societal dynamics). This framework seeks to strike\\u000a a theoretical balance between recognizing the essential

Brian M. Lowe

348

Time course analyses of orthographic and phonological priming effects during word recognition in a transparent orthography.  

PubMed

In opaque orthographies, the activation of orthographic and phonological codes follows distinct time courses during visual word recognition. However, it is unclear how orthography and phonology are accessed in more transparent orthographies. Therefore, we conducted time course analyses of masked priming effects in the transparent Dutch orthography. The first study used targets with small phonological differences between phonological and orthographic primes, which are typical in transparent orthographies. Results showed consistent orthographic priming effects, yet phonological priming effects were absent. The second study explicitly manipulated the strength of the phonological difference and revealed that both orthographic and phonological priming effects became identifiable when phonological differences were strong enough. This suggests that, similar to opaque orthographies, strong phonological differences are a prerequisite to separate orthographic and phonological priming effects in transparent orthographies. Orthographic and phonological priming appeared to follow distinct time courses, with orthographic codes being quickly translated into phonological codes and phonology dominating the remainder of the lexical access phase. PMID:24456311

Zeguers, M H T; Snellings, P; Huizenga, H M; van der Molen, M W

2014-10-01

349

A case study of a vocabulary strategy in a high school class of special education students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United States, almost 7000 students drop out of high school every day and the most common reason is academic failure. The economic, social, and emotional cost of dropping out of high school are enormous. Vocabulary knowledge is essential for students to grasp the concepts of a content area and there has been little research reported for scaffolding vocabulary learning in content classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a vocabulary instructional strategy in a high school biology class. The research questions focused on understanding the vocabulary instructional strategy and student perception of the strategy. This was an evaluative case study using a convenience sample of a college preparatory biology class of special education students. Participants included eight males and two females who were identified as having learning, emotional or health disabilities with average to low average intelligence. Informal interviews, observations, school records, student and teacher artifacts and rich description were used for data triangulation. Analysis involved coding and grouping data by category, and identification of relationships between categories. Three themes emerged from this study: Students believed the strategy helped them to learn vocabulary, the strategy gave direction to instruction, and the strategy can be difficult to implement. The skill level of our future work force and the health of our society is linked to our nation's high school graduation rate. Development of instructional strategies that result in student academic success will improve our high school graduation rate which will result in positive social change.

Prevost, Jill K.

350

EFL Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention: Reading plus Vocabulary Enhancement Activities and Narrow Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effectiveness of reading plus vocabulary-enhancement activities (RV) and narrow reading (NR)--repeated reading thematically related articles--on vocabulary acquisition and retention among English as a foreign language (EFL) secondary school students. Twenty-five third-year male…

Min, Hui-Tzu

2008-01-01

351

ESL Learners' Vocabulary Use in Writing and the Effects of Explicit Vocabulary Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated vocabulary use in the writing of 65 secondary school multi-grade and multi first language intermediate English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners at a Greater Vancouver public secondary school. Proposes systematic vocabulary instruction based on teacher-directed interaction and negotiation and psycholinguistic principles of word…

Lee, Siok H.

2003-01-01

352

An exploratory study of phonological awareness and working memory differences and literacy performance of people that use AAC.  

PubMed

Twelve cerebral palsied adolescents and young adults with complex communicative needs who used augmentative and alternative communication were studied. They were classified according to their working memory capacity (high vs. low) into two groups of 6 participants. They were also divided into two groups of 6 participants according to their high vs. low phonological skills. These groups were compared on their performance in reading tests -orthographic knowledge, a word test and a pseudoword reading test- and in the spelling of words, pseudowords and pictures' names. Statistical differences were found between high vs. low phonological skills groups, and between high and low working memory groups. High working memory capacity group scored significantly higher than low working memory group in the orthographic and word reading tests. The high phonological skills group outperformed the low phonological skills group in the word reading test and in the spelling of pseudowords and pictures' names. From a descriptive point of view, phonological skills and working memory, factors known to be highly predictive of literacy skills in people without disabilities, also hold as factors for the participants that used AAC in our study. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:20977006

Gómez Taibo, María Luisa; Vieiro Iglesias, Pilar; González Raposo, María del Salvador; Sotillo Méndez, María

2010-11-01

353

Phonological and visual processing deficits can dissociate  

E-print Network

disorder. Many data showing a strong link between phonological processing ability and learning to read manuscript, published in "Reading and Writing 16 (2003) 541-572" #12;2 To appear in Reading and Writing hal with developmental reading and writing impairments whose performance was compared to that of chronological age

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2010-01-01

355

Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

Rubrecht, August Weston

356

Phonological Priming in Children's Picture Naming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words were presented over headphones. Results indicate that priming effects reach a peak during a time when articulatory information is being…

Brooks, Patricia J.; MacWhinney, Brian

2000-01-01

357

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes  

MedlinePLUS

... of words, such as "nana" for "banana." The child may have an articulation disorder if these errors continue past the expected age. ... processes see Phonological Processes . How are speech sound ... and may use a formal articulation test to record sound errors. An oral mechanism ...

358

Longitudinal Predictors of Implicit Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal predictive relationships among variables that may contribute to poor phonological awareness skills in preschool-age children with speech-sound disorders. Method: Forty-seven children with speech-sound disorders were assessed during the spring of their prekindergarten year and again…

Rvachew, Susan

2006-01-01

359

Phonological Assimilation in Urban Jordanian Arabic  

E-print Network

This study reports patterns of phonological assimilation in consonant clusters in Urban Jordanian Arabic (UJA). We examine all possible C1C2 combinations across a word boundary as well as the concatenations of consonant-final prefixes //in/ and //il...

Zuraiq, Wael; Zhang, Jie

2006-01-01

360

On Some Theoretical Implications of Winnebago Phonology  

E-print Network

This paper is essentially a commentary on Steriade 1990, which deals i.a. with certain aspects of Winnebago phonology. The issues cluster around a much-discussed process known as Dorsey's Law (see Miner 1992 and references given there) which...

Miner, Kenneth L.

1993-01-01

361

Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…

Lee, Su-Yeon

2011-01-01

362

Notes on the Development of Phonological Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes the parallels between N. Chomsky and M. Halle's "The Sound Pattern of English" and A. N. Whitehead and B. Russell's "Principia Mathematica." Uses these parallels to distinguish "formalist" v "substance-based" generative phonology. Suggests that a modification of the "formalist" program is ultimately more satisfactory than the…

Anderson, Stephen R.

1980-01-01

363

Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

Suh, Yunju

2009-01-01

364

St. Lawrence Island Eskimo Phonology and Orthography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central Siberian Yupik Eskimo is the language both of the natives of St. Lawrence Island and of the facing Siberian mainland, with few minor variations. A history of the language is given as it evolved in both countries, as well as a phonological analysis and orthographic developments on both sides. (SCC)

Krauss, Michael E.

1975-01-01

365

Partitioning a vocabulary's IS-A hierarchy into trees.  

PubMed Central

Controlled medical vocabularies are useful in application areas such as medical information-systems and decision-support. However, such vocabularies are large and complex, and working with them can be daunting. It is important to provide a means for orienting users to the vocabulary's contents. This paper introduces a methodology for partitioning a vocabulary into small, meaningful pieces. The partitioning is done with respect to the vocabulary's IS-A hierarchy. The methodology, based on a set of rules for refining the IS-A hierarchy, is a process carried out by a user in conjunction with the computer. The methodology is demonstrated on a complex portion of a vocabulary. PMID:9357702

Gu, H.; Perl, Y.; Geller, J.; Halper, M.; Cimino, J. J.; Singh, M.

1997-01-01

366

Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition  

PubMed Central

Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task. PMID:21159322

Wilson, Lisa B.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E.; Rojas, Donald C.

2011-01-01

367

Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing  

PubMed Central

We compared three phonological processing components (phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and phonological memory), verbal working memory, and attention control in terms of how well they predict the various aspects of reading: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8–12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley’s model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Lee, Sylvia E.; Dyer, Sarah M.

2014-01-01

368

Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing.  

PubMed

WE COMPARED THREE PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING COMPONENTS (PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS, RAPID AUTOMATIZED NAMING AND PHONOLOGICAL MEMORY), VERBAL WORKING MEMORY, AND ATTENTION CONTROL IN TERMS OF HOW WELL THEY PREDICT THE VARIOUS ASPECTS OF READING: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8-12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley's model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081

Kibby, Michelle Y; Lee, Sylvia E; Dyer, Sarah M

2014-01-01

369

Comparative Difficulties with Non-Scientific General Vocabulary and Scientific/Medical Terminology in English as a Second Language (ESL) Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Medical education requires student comprehension of both technical (scientific/medical) and non-technical (general) vocabulary. Our experience with “English as a second language” (ESL) Arab students suggested they often have problems comprehending scientific statements because of weaknesses in their understanding of non-scientific vocabulary. This study aimed to determine whether ESL students have difficulties with general vocabulary that could hinder their understanding of scientific/medical texts. Methods: A survey containing English text was given to ESL students in the premedical years of an English-medium medical school in an Arabic country. The survey consisted of sample questions from the Medical College Admission Test (USA). Students were instructed to identify all unknown words in the text. Results: ESL students commenced premedical studies with substantial deficiencies in English vocabulary. Students from English-medium secondary schools had a selective deficiency in scientific/medical terminology which disappeared with time. Students from Arabic-medium secondary schools had equal difficulty with general and scientific/medical vocabulary. Deficiencies in both areas diminished with time but remained even after three years of English-medium higher education. Conclusion: Typically, when teaching technical subjects to ESL students, attention is focused on subject-unique vocabulary and associated modifiers. This study highlights that ESL students also face difficulties with the general vocabulary used to construct statements employing technical words. Such students would benefit from increases in general vocabulary knowledge. PMID:23275846

Heming, Thomas A.; Nandagopal, Shobha

2012-01-01

370

To Kindle a Flame: Teaching Vocabulary in College Composition Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a vocabulary activity the author uses in first-year composition classes which is effective, interesting, and fun for students who write an ongoing serialized short story with required vocabulary words chosen weekly from assigned student readings. (SR)

McDonald, Jean

1998-01-01

371

A web-based architecture for a medical vocabulary server.  

PubMed Central

For health care providers to share computing resources and medical application programs across different sites, those applications must share a common medical vocabulary. To construct a common vocabulary, researchers must have an architecture that supports collaborative, networked development. In this paper, we present a web-based server architecture for the collaborative development of a medical vocabulary: a system that provides network services in support of medical applications that need a common, controlled medical terminology. The server supports vocabulary browsing and editing and can respond to direct programmatic queries about vocabulary terms. We have tested the programmatic query-response capability of the vocabulary server with a medical application that determines when patients who have HIV infection may be eligible for certain clinical trials. Our emphasis in this paper is not on the content of the vocabulary, but rather on the communication protocol and the tools that enable collaborative improvement of the vocabulary by any network-connected user. PMID:8563284

Gennari, J. H.; Oliver, D. E.; Pratt, W.; Rice, J.; Musen, M. A.

1995-01-01

372

SECONDARY CLASSROOM VOCABULARY: DATA FROM TYPICALLY DEVELOPING STUDENTS  

E-print Network

Students who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) need access to specific vocabulary to participate fully in general education classrooms. To date, there is no research on the vocabulary used in secondary ...

McKim Thomas, Sarah Summer

2012-05-31

373

Children with Developmental Language Impairment Have Vocabulary Deficits Characterized by Limited Breadth and Depth  

PubMed Central

Background Deficient vocabulary is a frequently reported symptom of developmental language impairment but the nature of the deficit and its developmental course are not well documented. Aims We aimed to describe the nature of the deficit in terms of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge and to determine whether the nature and the extent of the deficit change over the school years. Methods A total of 25,681 oral definitions produced by 177 children with developmental language impairment (LI) and 325 grade-mates with normally developing language (ND) in grades 2, 4, 8, and 10 were taken from an existing longitudinal database. We analyzed these for breadth by counting the number of words defined correctly and for depth by determining the amount of information in each correct definition. Via a linear mixed model, we determined whether breadth and depth varied with language diagnosis independent of nonverbal IQ, mothers’ education level, race, gender, income and (for depth only) word. Results Children with LI scored significantly lower than children with ND on breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge in all grades. The extent of the deficit did not vary significantly across grades. Language diagnosis was an independent predictor of breadth and depth and as strong a predictor as maternal education. For the LI group, growth in depth relative to breadth was slower than for the ND group. Conclusions Compared to their grade-mates, children with LI have fewer words in their vocabularies and they have shallower knowledge of the words that are in their vocabularies. This deficit persists over developmental time. PMID:23650887

McGregor, Karla K.; Oleson, Jacob; Bahnsen, Alison; Duff, Dawna

2012-01-01

374

Phonological processing in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological assessment.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits that cause functional impairments across several domains, including language. There is experimental evidence that basal ganglia and frontostriatal circuits are implicated in phonological processing, which leads to the hypothesis that a dysfunction of these circuits could be expressed behaviorally as phonological deficiencies in patients with PD. Using neuropsychological assessments, the present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities of patients in the initial stages of PD while controlling for other cognitive processes. The results showed lower scores in patients with PD on phonological tests with respect to a control group and these differences were independent of processes such as attention/working memory, long-term memory, thinking, and verbal language comprehension. However, there was an association between phonological skills and reading comprehension abilities. This finding implies a specific phonological deficit in terms of word reading. PMID:23963326

Elorriaga-Santiago, Sergio; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Carrasco-Vargas, Humberto

2013-10-23

375

Phonological and morphological processing in adult students with learning/reading disabilities.  

PubMed

A target group of college students with learning/reading disabilities was compared with reading-level (RA) and chronological-age (CA) contrast groups on several phonological and morphological computerized information-processing tasks. Results confirm the importance of accurate and rapid processing of simple lexical items to the automatic level. The target students were less accurate and took longer reaction time, as compared with their CA controls, though not with the RA contrast group, in deciding if pseudohomophonics sounded like real words and if pairs of words with different rime conditions rhymed. The target students showed both quantitative and qualitative differences in processing morphological words and morphographic letter strings, in contrast to some earlier findings. The integration of phonological and morphological knowledge is emphasized in working with adult college students with learning/reading disabilities. PMID:15508242

Leong, C K

1999-01-01

376

Phonological Processing and Reading in Children With Speech Sound Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergar- ten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological processing skills (SSD-high PP), and 35 children with

Susan Rvachew

2007-01-01

377

Vocabulary and verbal fluency of bilingual and monolingual college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the English vocabulary and verbal fluency of college students who were either bilinguals who were born abroad and spoke English or monolingual speakers of English. We examined the relationship between age of arrival to the U.S. of bilinguals and their English vocabulary. The bilinguals’ performance on English vocabulary was in the average range. However, despite arriving to the

José S. Portocarrero; Richard G. Burright; Peter J. Donovick

2007-01-01

378

Using PDA for Undergraduate Student Incidental Vocabulary Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have explored English vocabulary learning in environments where students used mobile technologies for prescribed vocabulary learning tasks, or tested designed personalized learning systems to enhance student vocabulary learning for short periods of time in language related courses. Dictionary use via mobile devices has mostly been…

Song, Yanjie; Fox, Robert

2008-01-01

379

Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

2013-01-01

380

Spellings of Words: A Neglected Facilitator of Vocabulary Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary learning is central to reading ability and academic achievement. Vocabulary researchers and educators have viewed its essence as a process of associating the pronunciations and meanings of words in memory, and they have paid little attention to the contribution that spellings might make to vocabulary learning. We review theory and evidence showing that this is a serious oversight. Once

Linnea C. Ehri; Julie Rosenthal

2007-01-01

381

Focus on the Forms: Recognition Practice in Chinese Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effect of recognition-based retrieval practice on vocabulary learning in a university Chinese class. Students (N=26) were given practice retrieving new vocabulary (single or two-character words) in a series of simple form recognition tests administered over four weeks. The test sets consisted of target vocabulary that…

Harrington, Michael; Jiang, Wenying

2013-01-01

382

Phonological learning and lexicality of treated stimuli  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to evaluate the lexicality of treated stimuli relative to phonological learning by preschool children with functional phonological disorders. Four children were paired in a single-subject alternating treatments design that was overlaid on a multiple baseline across subjects design. Within each pair, one child was taught one sound in real words and a second sound in non-words; for the other child of the pair, lexicality was reversed and counterbalanced. The dependent variable was production accuracy of the treated sounds as measured during the session-by-session course of instruction. Results indicated that production accuracy of the treated sound was as good as or better using non-word as opposed to real word stimuli. The clinical implications are considered, along with potential accounts of the patterns of learning. PMID:20100042

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

383

Phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection.  

PubMed

Speakers produce words to convey meaning, but does meaning alone determine which words they say? We report three experiments that show independent semantic and phonological influences converging to determine word selection. Speakers named pictures (e.g., of a priest) following visually presented cloze sentences that primed either semantic competitors of the target object name ("The woman went to the convent to become a..."), homophones of the competitors ("I thought that there would still be some cookies left, but there were..."), or matched unrelated control object names. Primed semantic competitors (nun) were produced instead of picture names more often than primed unrelated control object names, showing the well-documented influence of semantic similarity on lexical selection. Surprisingly, primed homophone competitors (none) also substituted for picture names more often than control object names even though they only sounded like competitors. Thus, independent semantic and phonological influences can converge to affect word selection. PMID:12564760

Ferreira, Victor S; Griffin, Zenzi M

2003-01-01

384

THE PHONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF SIGN LANGUAGES  

PubMed Central

Visually perceivable and movable parts of the body – the hands, facial features, head, and upper body – are the articulators of sign language. It is through these articulators that that words are formed, constrained, and contrasted with one another, and that prosody is conveyed. This article provides an overview of the way in which phonology is organized in the alternative modality of sign language. PMID:23539295

SANDLER, WENDY

2013-01-01

385

Building Vocabulary to Build Literacy Skills: How to Help Children Build a Rich Vocabulary Day by Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language and vocabulary represent the very foundation of learning to read and write. Children who do not develop strong oral language skills and vocabulary in these early years will find it difficult to keep pace with their peers. Children use the natural medium of language for thinking. Those who acquire a substantial vocabulary are often able to…

Neuman, Susan B.

2006-01-01

386

Productive Oral Vocabulary Knowledge andProductive Oral Vocabulary Knowledge and Word Recognition: An Intervention Study Using  

E-print Network

: An Intervention Study Using Cellphone Games in Rural IndiaCellphone Games in Rural India Anuj Kumar1, Pooja Reddy ­ 101 million children cannot/do not attend school (36 million in South Asia and 39 million in Sub

Kam, Matthew

387

Semantic and phonological processing in illiteracy.  

PubMed

Researchers of cognitive processing in illiteracy have proposed that the acquisition of literacy modifies the functional organization of the brain. They have suggested that, while illiterate individuals have access only to innate semantic processing skills, those who have learned the correspondence between graphemes and phonemes have several mechanisms available to them through which to process oral language. We conducted 2 experiments to verify that suggestion with respect to language processing, and to elucidate further the differences between literate and illiterate individuals in the cognitive strategies used to process oral language, as well as hemispheric specialization for these processes. Our findings suggest that semantic processing strategies are qualitatively the same in literates and illiterates, despite the fact that overall performance is augmented by increased education. In contrast, explicit processing of oral information based on phonological characteristics appears to be qualitatively different between literates and illiterates: effective strategies in the processing of phonological information depend upon having had a formal education, regardless of the level of education. We also confirmed the differential abilities needed for the processing of semantic and phonological information and related them to hemisphere-specific processing. PMID:15637772

Kosmidis, Mary H; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Folia, Vasiliki; Vlahou, Christina H; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris

2004-10-01

388

S'COOL Lesson Plan 57: Vocabulary Art Using Art as a Vocabulary Strategy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through this lesson plan students focus on a predetermined vocabulary list, then use the words, definitions, or familiar context to draw (either by hand or on the computer) a picture that depicts that word. Detailed Procedure and Materials, Vocabulary linked to an on-line glossary, and Teacher Notes are provided. This activity is related to the Students' Cloud Observations Online (SâCOOL) project.

2009-01-01

389

Predicting Reading Vocabulary from Selected Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between two dummy variables representing school effect and five self-concept factors were evaluated to determine the effectiveness of these variables in predicting the reading vocabulary of 432 boys and 424 girls in grades three through six. Also, an effort was made to determine if the percentage of criterion variance accounted…

DeVito, Pasquale J.

390

Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

2014-01-01

391

Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

David, Annabelle

2008-01-01

392

Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

Lu, M.

2008-01-01

393

Standardizing "HyperVocabulary": A Proposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary used to describe things that are "hyper" is very confusing. This paper discusses four factor which contribute to the confusion: the same idea is often described using different terms; even though people sometimes use the same terms, quite often they are referring to different ideas; people tend to confuse "hyperdocuments" with…

Chen, Der-Thanq

394

Some Comments on Priorities in Vocabulary Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides suggestions for ways of exploring the varied contributions of the classical languages to our vocabulary, as well as advice for those who are involved in the area of classical teaching. Reviews several books, dealing with such topics as Latin and Greek prefixes and suffixes, word bases, and other parallel phenomena of the classical…

Dee, James H.

1984-01-01

395

NASA Thesaurus. Volume 2: Access vocabulary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Thesaurus -- Volume 2, Access Vocabulary -- contains an alphabetical listing of all Thesaurus terms (postable and nonpostable) and permutations of all multiword and pseudo-multiword terms. Also included are Other Words (non-Thesaurus terms) consisting of abbreviations, chemical symbols, etc. The permutations and Other Words provide 'access' to the appropriate postable entries in the Thesaurus.

1976-01-01

396

Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

2010-01-01

397

In-Depth Study of Vocabulary Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development is a crucial aspect of literacy. It is our duty as teachers to enrich the language of our students to better prepare them for a successful lifetime of communication. This paper offers several methods to enhance levels of speech in the classroom. Some of the techniques included are the use of repetitive reading, reading…

Mixan, Marisa

2013-01-01

398

Quantity, Quality, Children's Characteristics, and Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of literature shows that how often a child is read to is related to subsequent gains in vocabulary. Not only do adults differ in the frequency with which they read to children (quantity), they also vary in reading style (quality). Several studies have proposed that the cognitive demand level of questions children are asked may be…

Walsh, Bridget A.

2008-01-01

399

Shared Reading to Build Vocabulary and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents four approaches to shared reading that he used with first through third graders in a high-needs, urban elementary school with a large population of students from immigrant homes. Using sociocultural and cognitive constructivist principles, the author shows how these approaches built students' academic vocabulary and…

Kesler, Ted

2010-01-01

400

ACADEMIC VOCABULARY SERIES Verbs For Citing Sources  

E-print Network

ACADEMIC VOCABULARY SERIES Verbs For Citing Sources It is important that you learn how to cite level of motivation to succeed depends not only on factors in the home but also used in oral conversation but are not appropriate in formal academic writing. The following table

Boonstra, Rudy

401

Improving Vocabulary Acquisition with Multisensory Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this action research project was to improve student vocabulary acquisition through a multisensory, direct instructional approach. The study involved three teachers and a target population of 73 students in second and seventh grade classrooms. The intervention was implemented from September through December of 2006 and analyzed in…

D'Alesio, Rosemary; Scalia, Maureen T.; Zabel, Renee M.

2007-01-01

402

Vocabulary Support: Constructing (Not Obstructing) Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language that students are learning in mathematics classrooms is intimately tied to the mathematics they are learning. The goal for any lesson or unit is for all students to be able to understand the mathematics they read or hear and be able to speak and write about that mathematics. Structured vocabulary placement can support that dual…

Livers, Stefanie D.; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

2014-01-01

403

Adaptive Training for Large Vocabulary Continuous  

E-print Network

Adaptive Training for Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Kai Yu Hughes Hall College for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy #12;ii Summary In recent years, there has been a trend towards training is to train hidden Markov models (HMMs) on the whole data set as if all data comes from a single acoustic

Hain, Thomas

404

Vocabulary Questions on Informal Reading Inventories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the utility of informal reading inventories (IRI) and acknowledges four limitations of the research. Indicates that no validity-enhancing measures were implemented in conjunction with the three IRIs analyzed. Suggests that IRI vocabulary questions do not appear to be useful. (MG)

Duffelmeyer, Fredrick A.; And Others

1989-01-01

405

High Interest Low Vocabulary Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The annotated bibliography lists approximately 800 high interest-low vocabulary books available in a Missouri child service demonstration center school for learning reading disabled elementary students. Entries are arranged by topic area (e.g. adventure, cats, city life, humor, sea stories, etc.) and included information on reading level, call…

Casey, Joann, Comp.

406

Interactive Word Walls: Transforming Content Vocabulary Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word walls are designed to serve as visual scaffolds and are a common classroom tool used to support reading and language arts instruction. To support vocabulary development in science and support students who are ELLs, Husty and Jackson (2008) created interactive word walls that resemble semantic maps (Masters, Mori, and Mori 1993). Semantic maps…

Jackson, Julie; Tripp, Sherry; Cox, Kimberly

2011-01-01

407

Instant Mapping of American Regional Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When it is published in four or five years, the "Dictionary of American Regional English" (DARE) will be the official dictionary of the American Dialect Society. This dictionary will contain information concerning vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammatical forms which are restricted regionally or socially in American speech. One distinctive…

Hirshberg, Jeffrey

408

Clinical vocabulary as a boundary object in multidisciplinary care management of multiple chemical sensitivity, a complex and chronic condition  

PubMed Central

Background: Research has shown that accurate and timely communication between multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of complex and chronic health conditions is often challenging. The domain knowledge for these conditions is heterogeneous, with poorly categorized, unstructured, and inconsistent clinical vocabulary. The potential of boundary object as a technique to bridge communication gaps is explored in this study. Methods: A standardized and controlled clinical vocabulary was developed as a boundary object in the domain of a complex and chronic health condition, namely, multiple chemical sensitivity, to improve communication among multidisciplinary clinicians. A convenience sample of 100 patients with a diagnosis of multiple chemical sensitivity, nine multidisciplinary clinicians involved in the care of patients with multiple chemical sensitivity, and 36 clinicians in the community participated in the study. Results: Eighty-two percent of the multidisciplinary and inconsistent vocabulary was standardized using the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine – Clinical Terms (SNOMED® CT as a reference terminology. Over 80% of the multidisciplinary clinicians agreed on the overall usefulness of having a controlled vocabulary as a boundary object. Over 65% of clinicians in the community agreed on the overall usefulness of the vocabulary. Conclusion: The results from this study are promising and will be further evaluated in the domain of another complex chronic condition, ie, chronic pain. The study was conducted as a preliminary analysis for developing a boundary object in a heterogeneous domain of knowledge. PMID:21594060

Sampalli, Tara; Shepherd, Michael; Duffy, Jack

2011-01-01

409

Word Knowledge Influences on Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined the relationship between word knowledge and reading comprehension. Subjects were college undergraduates with high and low verbal abilities as indicated by a standardized verbal aptitude test. The first study involved a multiple choice vocabulary test from which words that both groups defined correctly were selected. The…

Curtis, Mary E.; And Others

410

Development of a change model for a controlled medical vocabulary.  

PubMed Central

Managing change in controlled medical vocabularies is labor intensive and costly, but change is inevitable if vocabularies are to be kept up to date. The changes that are appropriate for a controlled medical vocabulary depend on the data stored for that vocabulary, and those data in turn depend on the needs of users. The set of change operations is the change model; the data stored about concepts comprise the concept model. Because the change model depends directly on the concept model, a discussion of the former necessitates a discussion of the latter. In this paper, we first present a set of tasks that we believe controlled medical vocabularies should handle. Next, we describe our concept model for a controlled medical vocabulary. Then, we review the literature on changes in existing vocabulary systems. Finally, we present our change model. We call our system, which incorporates the concept model and change model, the General Online Dictionary of Medicine (GOLDMINE). PMID:9357697

Oliver, D. E.; Shahar, Y.

1997-01-01

411

The Role of Knowledge in Visual Shape Representation  

E-print Network

This report shows how knowledge about the visual world can be built into a shape representation in the form of a descriptive vocabulary making explicit the important geometrical relationships comprising objects' shapes. ...

Saund, Eric

1988-10-01

412

Phonological Underspecification and Mapping Mechanisms in the Speech Recognition Lexicon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of recognizing phonological variations in the speech input has triggered numerous treatments in speech processing models. Two areas of current controversy are the possibility of phonological underspecification in the mental lexicon and the nature of the mapping mechanism from the speech signal to the abstract lexical entry. We present…

Wheeldon, Linda; Waksler, Rachelle

2004-01-01

413

Phonological Skills and Disfluency Levels in Preschool Children Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation between stuttering and aspects of language, including phonology, has been investigated for many years. Whereas past literature reported that the incidence of phonological difficulties is higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, the suggestion of association between the two disorders also drew several…

Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

2007-01-01

414

Disfluency Patterns and Phonological Skills Near Stuttering Onset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are…

Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

2012-01-01

415

DISFLUENCY PATTERNS AND PHONOLOGICAL SKILLS NEAR STUTTERING ONSET  

PubMed Central

There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are relationships between phonological skills and the initial characteristics of stuttering. That is, close to the onset of stuttering, are there differences in specific stuttering patterns between children who exhibit minimal and moderate phonological deviations in terms of frequency of stuttering and length of stuttering events? Twenty-nine preschool children near the onset of stuttering, ranging in age from 29 to 49 months, with a mean of 39.17 months, were divided into two groups based on the level of phonological ability: minimal phonological deviations and moderate phonological deviations. The children’s level of stuttering-like disfluencies was examined. Results revealed no statistically significant differences in the stuttering characteristics of the two groups near onset, calling into the question the nature of the stuttering-phonology link. PMID:22939524

Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

2012-01-01

416

Assessment of Phonological Awareness in Low-Progress Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of phonological awareness (PA) can serve several purposes, including providing a useful diagnostic function in the management of low-progress readers. This paper discusses various aspects of phonological awareness that have implications for literacy teaching at three different points in children's school career: the point of school…

Neilson, Roslyn

2009-01-01

417

On the Nature of Phonological Assembly: Evidence from Backward Masking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used backward masking paradigm to investigate nature and time course of phonological assembly. Two experiments examined to what extent phonological assembly is a serial process. One showed recognition rates in a backward masking task varied as a function of the serial position of phonemes that were shared between backward masks and target words;…

Perry, Conrad; Ziegler, Johannes C.

2002-01-01

418

Phonological Processing and Arithmetic Fact Retrieval: Evidence from Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact…

De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart

2010-01-01

419

Working Memory Compensates for Hearing Related Phonological Processing Deficit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acquired hearing impairment is associated with gradually declining phonological representations. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model, poorly defined representations lead to mismatch in phonologically challenging tasks. To resolve the mismatch, reliance on working memory capacity (WMC) increases. This study investigated…

Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Ronnberg, Jerker

2013-01-01

420

Phonology in syntax: The Somali optional agreement rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would

Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum

1983-01-01

421

Evidence-Based Practice: A Matrix for Predicting Phonological Generalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a matrix for clinical use in the selection of phonological treatment targets to induce generalization, and in the identification of probe sounds to monitor during the course of intervention. The matrix appeals to a set of factors that have been shown to promote phonological generalization in the research literature, including…

Gierut, Judith A.; Hulse, Lauren E.

2010-01-01

422

Dynamic Assessment in Phonological Disorders: The Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dynamic assessment is applied to phonological disorders with the Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS). The SSS comprises a 21-point hierarchical scale of cues and linguistic environments. With the SSS, clinicians assess stimulability as a diagnostic indicator and use the measure to monitor progress across treatment. Unlike other phonological

Glaspey, Amy M.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2005-01-01

423

Role of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children With  

E-print Network

of articulation (e.g., /da/ or /8a/). Signif- icantly fewer children than adults experience this illusionRole of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children With Hearing Loss Purpose: This research assessed the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by children with hearing loss

O'Toole, Alice J.

424

ENHANCEMENT OF LEARNING FOR CHILDREN WITH PHONOLOGICAL DISORDERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with functional phonological disorders warrant clinical treatment to accelerate their acquisition of the sound system. In this paper, I focus on the linguistic factors that converge to enhance phonological learning in treatment, with specific reference to segmental, featural and syllabic levels of structure. The primary finding to emerge is that treatment of more complex linguistic structures yields the greatest

Judith A. Gierut

2004-01-01

425

Feature Analysis of Segmental Errors in Children with Phonological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the retention patterns obtained for children diagnosed with phonological disorders, 10 with developmental apraxia of speech and 10 with phonologically based speech areas. In both groups, in cases of sound substitutions, voicing was retained most frequently and place of articulation least frequently. An inverse relationship…

Forrest, Karen; Morrisette, Michele L.

1999-01-01

426

Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2012-01-01

427

Delivering Phonological and Phonics Training within Whole-Class Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Early, intensive phonological awareness and phonics training is widely held to be beneficial for children with poor phonological awareness. However, most studies have delivered this training separately from children's normal whole-class reading lessons. Aims: We examined whether integrating this training into whole class, mixed-ability…

Shapiro, Laura R.; Solity, Jonathan

2008-01-01

428

Training Phonological Awareness Skills in Children with Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the use of a phonological awareness intervention program with three children with Down syndrome (ages 7-8). The intervention focused on key skills of alliteration detection, phoneme isolation, spelling of orthographically regular words, and rhyme detection. Results indicate participants improved the phonological awareness skills…

Kennedy, Esther J.; Flynn, Mark C.

2003-01-01

429

Visual versus Phonological Abilities in Spanish Dyslexic Boys and Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological and visual theories propose different primary deficits as part of the explanation for dyslexia. Both theories were put to test in a sample of Spanish dyslexic readers. Twenty-one dyslexic and 22 typically-developing children matched on chronological age were administered phonological discrimination and awareness tasks and coherent…

Bednarek, Dorota; Saldana, David; Garcia, Isabel

2009-01-01

430

Phonological awareness predicts activation patterns for print and speech  

E-print Network

of print and speech in young readers from 6 to 10 years of age. Behavioral measures of PA were positivelyPhonological awareness predicts activation patterns for print and speech Stephen J. Frost & Nicole fMRI, we explored the relationship between phonological awareness (PA), a measure

431

Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

2012-01-01

432

Phonological Mediation in Visual Masked Priming: Evidence From Phonotactic Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of 4 experiments, the authors show that phonological repair mechanisms, known to operate in the auditory modality, are directly translated in the visual modality. This holds with the provision that printed stimuli are presented for a very brief duration and that the effect of phonological repair is tested after a delay of some 100 ms has elapsed

Pierre A. Hallé; Alberto Dominguez; Fernando Cuetos; Juan Segui

2008-01-01

433

Beginning To Read in Turkish: A Phonologically Transparent Orthography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates early literacy acquisition in Turkish with its phonologically transparent orthography and regular letter-sound correspondences. Findings reveal that such orthography fosters the early development of word recognition skills and that phonological awareness contributes to word recognition in the early stages of reading acquisition. (33…

Oney, Banu; Durgunoglu, Aydin Yucesan

1997-01-01

434

Otitis Media and Disordered Phonologies: Some Concerns and Cautions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews problems faced by researchers in the association between otitis media with effusion and phonological impairment and then summarizes currently established findings concerning otitis media and its effects on phonological acquisition. Professionals are cautioned to neither ignore nor exaggerate the possible influence of otitis…

Paden, Elaine Pagel

1994-01-01

435

Quantifying Phonological Representation Abilities in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed three important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

Anthony, Jason L.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Solari, Emily J.; Dunkelberger, Martha J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Liang, Lan

2011-01-01

436

Promoting phonological awareness skills of Egyptian kindergarteners through dialogic reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5–6), assigned to an experimental group (n?=?35) or a control group (n?=?32). Kindergarten Inventory of Phonological Awareness was

Randa Abdelaleem Elmonayer

2012-01-01

437

Phonological Mediation in Visual Masked Priming: Evidence from Phonotactic Repair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of 4 experiments, the authors show that phonological repair mechanisms, known to operate in the auditory modality, are directly translated in the visual modality. This holds with the provision that printed stimuli are presented for a very brief duration and that the effect of phonological repair is tested after a delay of some 100 ms…

Halle, Pierre A.; Dominguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; Segui, Juan

2008-01-01

438

Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia—a developmental analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper presents data from seven developmental dyslexics who exhibit the profile of abilities which can be described as “phonological” dyslexia. Three of the cases, all children, were of low reading age; four cases, one of which was an adult, had reading ages above ten years. Tests of reading, spelling and auditory processing revealed a range of phonological deficits

Maggie Snowling; Joy Stackhouse; John Rack

1986-01-01

439

Phonological and Surface Subtypes among University Students with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological

Wolff, Ulrika

2009-01-01

440

Speech Perception Deficits by Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…

Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang

2009-01-01

441

Phonology, Reading Development, and Dyslexia: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a theoretical overview at the cognitive level of the role of phonological awareness in reading development and developmental dyslexia across languages. It is argued that the primary deficit in developmental dyslexia in all languages lies in representing speech sounds: a deficit in phonological representation. (Contains…

Goswami, Usha

2002-01-01

442

Phonological but not auditory discrimination is impaired in dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficient phonological skills are considered to be a core problem in developmental dyslexia. Children with dyslexia often demonstrate poorer performance than non-impaired readers when categorizing speech-sounds. Using the automatic mismatch response, we show that in contrast to this deficit at the behavioural level, neurophysiological responding in dyslexic children indicates their ability to automatically discriminate syllables. Therefore, the phonological deficit is

Isabella Paul; Christof Bott; Sabine Heim; Christian Wienbruch; Thomas R. Elbert

2006-01-01

443

Hyphenation can improve reading in acquired phonological dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We describe JD, a person with severe phonological dyslexia. JD is good at reading words yet is extremely poor at reading nonwords. She shows no effect of word regularity on her reading performance. However, she has only a very mild general phonological deficit. Although it is known that teaching grapheme–phoneme correspondence rules and learning bigraph syllables can improve dyslexic

Trevor A. Harley; David A. OMara

2006-01-01

444

Specific Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia Revealed by Eyetracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…

Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.

2006-01-01

445

EFL Students' Vocabulary Learning in NS-NNS E-Mail Interactions: Do They Learn New Words by Imitation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated Japanese students' EFL vocabulary development through e-mail interactions with a native English speaker (NS), with primary focus on students' imitation of new words. According to sociocultural theory, learners can internalize new linguistic knowledge by imitating an expert's expressions to create his/her own…

Sasaki, Akihiko; Takeuchi, Osamu

2010-01-01

446

E-Word Wall: An Interactive Vocabulary Instruction Tool for Students with Learning Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary development for students with learning disability (LD) is affected by "differences in the amount of independent reading, lack of strategies to learn words from content, and diffuse word knowledge" (Jitendra, Edwards, Sacks, & Jacobson, 2004, p. 300). Generally, students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have relatively strong skills…

Narkon, Drue E.; Wells, Jenny C.; Segal, Lillian S.

2011-01-01

447

Enhancing Social Studies Vocabulary and Comprehension for 7th Grade English Language Learners: Findings from Two Experimental Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors identified instructional practices associated with improved outcomes for English language learners (ELLs): (1) research-based vocabulary and concept instruction, (2) the use of media to build comprehension and concept knowledge, (3) the use of graphic organizers, and (4) structured peer-pairings. The purpose of our two studies was to…

Vaughn, Sharon; Martinez, Leticia R.; Reutebuch, Colleen K.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Thompson, Sylvia L.; Franci, David J.

2010-01-01

448

The Effect of Morphological Instruction in Improving the Spelling, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension of High School English Language Learners (ELLs)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if Morphological Instruction (knowledge of the Germanic, Latin, and Greek words, roots, and affixes of English) was an effective instructional approach towards accelerating the acquisition of spelling, vocabulary, and reading comprehension and closing at least a 6,000 word gap between English language…

Diaz, Ivan

2010-01-01

449

Hypertext Annotation: Effects of Presentation Formats and Learner Proficiency on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in Foreign Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study extends current knowledge by exploring the effect of different annotation formats, namely in-text annotation, glossary annotation, and pop-up annotation, on hypertext reading comprehension in a foreign language and vocabulary acquisition across student proficiencies. User attitudes toward the annotation presentation were also…

Chen, I-Jung; Yen, Jung-Chuan

2013-01-01

450

Cross-linguistic comparison of speech errors produced by English- and French-speaking preschool-age children with developmental phonological disorders.  

PubMed

Twenty-four French-speaking children with developmental phonological disorders (DPD) were matched on percentage of consonants correct (PCC)-conversation, age, and receptive vocabulary measures to English-speaking children with DPD in order to describe how speech errors are manifested differently in these two languages. The participants' productions of consonants on a single-word test of articulation were compared in terms of feature-match ratios for the production of target consonants, and type of errors produced. Results revealed that the French-speaking children had significantly lower match ratios for the major sound class features [+ consonantal] and [+ sonorant]. The French-speaking children also obtained significantly lower match ratios for [+ voice]. The most frequent type of errors produced by the French-speaking children was syllable structure errors, followed by segment errors, and a few distortion errors. On the other hand, the English-speaking children made more segment than syllable structure and distortion errors. The results of the study highlight the need to use test instruments with French-speaking children that reflect the phonological characteristics of French at multiple levels of the phonological hierarchy. PMID:23829437

Brosseau-Lapré, Françoise; Rvachew, Susan

2014-04-01

451

Effects of Onset Density in Preschool Children: Implications for Development of Phonological Awareness and Phonological Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neighborhood density influences adult performance on several word processing tasks. Some studies show age-related effects of density on children's performance, reflecting a developmental restructuring of the mental lexicon from holistic into segmental representations that may play a role in phonological awareness. To further investigate density…

Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia A.

2009-01-01

452

Language and phonological skills in children at high risk of reading difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dyslexia is now generally acknowledged to involve difficulties in phonological processing. However, the links between reading difficulties and speech difficulties remain unclear. Method: In the present study, 17 children with speech difficulties between the ages of four and six were compared to children with a family history of dyslexia and normally developing controls on phonological processing, phonological learning, phonological

Julia M. Carroll; Margaret J. Snowling

2004-01-01

453

The Word Complexity Measure: Description and Application to Developmental Phonology and Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miccio's work included a number of articles on the assessment of phonology in children with phonological disorders, typically using measures of correct articulation, using the PCC, or analyses of errors, using the framework of phonological processes. This paper introduces an approach to assessing phonology by examining the phonetic complexity of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2010-01-01

454

The Effects of Embedded Phonological Awareness Training on the Reading and Spelling Skills of Kindergarten Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness is the ability to attend to and recognize the sound structure of a language. This skill is known to be important for learning to spell and read and a lack of phonological awareness skills is linked with reading difficulties. Previous research has shown phonological awareness training improves phonological awareness skills,…

Robinson, Sarah

2010-01-01

455

Unlocking the Nature of the Phonological-Deep Dyslexia Continuum: The Keys to Reading Aloud Are in Phonology and Semantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that normal reading and acquired dyslexias reflect the role of three underlying primary systems (phonology, semantics, and vision) rather than neural mech- anisms dedicated to reading. This proposal is potentially consistent with the suggestion that phonological and deep dyslexia represent variants of a single reading disorder rather than two separate entities. The current study explored this

Jenni Crisp; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

2006-01-01

456

Use of standard vocabulary services in validation of water resources data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ontology repositories are increasingly being exposed through vocabulary and concept services. Primarily this is in support of resource discovery. Thesaurus functionality and even more sophisticated reasoning offers the possibility of overcoming the limitations of simple text-matching and tagging which is the basis of most search. However, controlled vocabularies have other important roles in distributed systems: in particular in constraining content validity. A national water information system established by the Australian Bureau of Meterorology ('the Bureau') has deployed a system for ingestion of data from multiple providers. This uses a http interface onto separately maintained vocabulary services as part of the quality assurance chain. With over 200 data providers potentially transferring data to the Bureau, a standard XML-based Water Data Transfer Format (WDTF) was developed for receipt of data into an integrated national water information system. The WDTF schema was built upon standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The structure and syntax specified by a W3C XML Schema is complemented by additional constraints described using Schematron. These implement important content requirements and business rules including: • Restricted cardinality: where optional elements and attributes inherited from the base standards become mandatory in the application, or repeatable elements or attributes are limited to one or omitted. For example, the sampledFeature element from O&M is optional but is mandatory for a samplingPoint element in WDTF. • Vocabulary checking: WDTF data use seventeen vocabularies or code lists derived from Regulations under the Commonwealth Water Act 2007. Examples of codelists are the Australian Water Regulations list, observed property vocabulary, and units of measures. • Contextual constraints: in many places, the permissible value is dependent on the value of another field. For example, within observations the unit of measure must be commensurate with the observed property type Validation of data submitted in WDTF uses a two-pass approach. First, syntax and structural validation is performed by standard XML Schema validation tools. Second, validation of contextual constraints and code list checking is performed using a hybrid method combining context-sensitive rule-based validation (allowing the rules to be expressed within a given context) and semantic vocabulary services. Schematron allows rules to incorporate assertions of XPath expressions to access and constrain element content, therefore enabling contextual constraints. Schematron is also used to perform element cardinality checking. The vocabularies or code lists are formalized in SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organization System), an RDF-based language. SKOS provides mechanisms to define concepts, associate them with (multi-lingual) labels or terms, and record thesaurus-like relationships between them. The vocabularies are managed in a RDF database or semantic triple store. Querying is implemented as a semantic vocabulary service, with an http-based API that allows queries to be issued from rules written in Schematron. WDTF has required development and deployment of some ontologies whose scope is much more general than this application, in particular covering 'observed properties' and 'units of measure', which also have to be related to each other and consistent with the dimensional analysis. Separation of the two validation passes reflects the separate governance and stability of the structural and content rules, and allows an organisation's business rules to be moved out of the XML schema definition and the XML schema to be reused by other businesses with their own specific rules. With the general approach proven, harmonization opportunities with more generic services are being explored, such as the GEMET API for SKOS, developed by the European Environment Agency. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the AUSCOPE team for their development and support provided of the vocabulary services.

Yu, Jonathan; Cox, Simon; Ratcliffe, David

2010-05-01

457

Type-specific proactive interference in patients with semantic and phonological STM deficits.  

PubMed

Prior neuropsychological evidence suggests that semantic and phonological components of short-term memory (STM) are functionally and neurologically distinct. The current paper examines proactive interference (PI) from semantic and phonological information in two STM-impaired patients, DS (semantic STM deficit) and AK (phonological STM deficit). In Experiment 1 probe recognition tasks with open and closed sets of stimuli were used. Phonological PI was assessed using nonword items, and semantic and phonological PI was assessed using words. In Experiment 2 phonological and semantic PI was elicited by an item recognition probe test with stimuli that bore phonological and semantic relations to the probes. The data suggested heightened phonological PI for the semantic STM patient, and exaggerated effects of semantic PI in the phonological STM case. The findings are consistent with an account of extremely rapid decay of activated type-specific representations in cases of severely impaired phonological and semantic STM. PMID:24295224

Harris, Lara; Olson, Andrew; Humphreys, Glyn

2014-11-01

458

Controlling the vocabulary for anatomy.  

PubMed Central

When confronted with the representation of human anatomy, natural language processing (NLP) system designers are facing an unsolved and frequent problem: the lack of a suitable global reference. The available sources in electronic format are numerous, but none fits adequately all the constraints and needs of language analysis. These sources are usually incomplete, difficult to use or tailored to specific needs. The anatomist's or ontologist's view does not necessarily match that of the linguist. The purpose of this paper is to review most recognized sources of knowledge in anatomy usable for linguistic analysis. Their potential and limits are emphasized according to this point of view. Focus is given on the role of the consensus work of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) giving the Terminologia Anatomica. PMID:12463780

Baud, R. H.; Lovis, C.; Rassinoux, A. M.; Ruch, P.; Geissbuhler, A.

2002-01-01

459

Sign iconicity and receptive vocabulary testing.  

PubMed

Development of valid receptive sign vocabulary tests and the influence of sign iconicity on test performance were investigated. Forty items were taken from the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (Lloyd M. Dunn & Leota M. Dunn, 1982). For each target item, three alternative distractor items were developed to draw nonsigning participants away from a perceptual matching strategy. The sample comprised 34 deaf signing undergraduates and 36 hearing nonsigning undergraduates. Deaf students outperformed hearing students on both sets of items. Hearing students' scores on the original items were significantly higher than on the manipulated items, but both exceeded chance level (25%), indicating that many of the items were iconic for this sample. Complete elimination of iconicity is difficult for sophisticated participants. Recommendations for development of tests for signing deaf students include involvement of nonsigning hearing participants to reduce the effects of iconicity in obtaining valid results. PMID:18488532

Miller, Margery

2008-01-01

460

Development of a Controlled Vocabulary for Hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent emergence of a number of Environmental Observing systems calls the for the need of a nationwide geoscience cyberinfrastructure. One of the problems that need to be overcome when building a nationwide CI is the vexing problem of disparate and incompatible metadata descriptions that exist due to the use of different standards (if at all) and also the use of different vocabularies to describe the same thing or multiple use of a single word to describe different things leading to interoperability problems. To avoid syntactic interoperability problems many data clearinghouses (UK's Gigateway, Canada's GeoConnections, Australian Spatial Data Directory, US NSDI etc.) are migrating to ISO 19115 metadata standard. While the adoption of a standard is a first step towards solving the syntactic interoperability problem to some extent semantic difference remain because the ISO 19115 does not provide any controlled vocabulary for scientific terminology. In this study our aim is to develop a thesaurus for hydraulic science (as it is a central subject of all environmental observing systems) and engineering keywords that consists of several thousand entries which will help solving homonym, synonym problems as well as allowing discovery of more specific terms when a broader term was searched for. Development methods allow multi-lingual controlled vocabulary as in ISO standard since the relations (classification, narrower term, broader term, synonym etc.) between the terms in the thesaurus are independent of the language used. Human readable vocabulary may be attached to concepts as labels with a "language" identifier such that an entry of e.g. n0231 returns "rain" in English while "pluie" in French.

Beran, B.; Piasecki, M.; Choi, Y.

2005-12-01

461

Ontology Re-engineering Use Case: Extending SWEET to map Climate and Forecasting Vocabulary Terms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common problem faced while developing metadata for scientific data archives is that of keywords. Although keywords are an effective way for searching the resource catalogs, data archive designers may select from one of many different controlled vocabularies to describe their holdings. For example, in Earth Science, Climate and Forecasting (CF Convention) is a controlled vocabulary commonly used within the Modeling community. Similarly, the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) keywords list is the convention used within the NASA Earth Science Program. The use of controlled vocabularies allows searches on the resource catalogs to be accurate and complete, but the burden of framing the precise query falls on the shoulders of the users. The user has to know the keyword before hand in order to perform a "free text" search. This might be perfectly acceptable in smaller projects where the users are specialized and have the required knowledge, but is impractical in larger projects where the users may have varied levels of domain knowledge. One solution to this problem is the use of an ontology, where the ontology contains higher level abstract concepts and the corresponding mapping to the different controlled vocabulary terms. This use of ontologies eliminates the barrier of entry based on domain knowledge and provides easy-to-use search capabilities to the users. In this presentation, we will describe an ontology designed and created to address this problem. However, this ontology required re-engineering of higher level ontologies, namely the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies, instead of the initial creation of an ontology. Since the traditional methodologies for creating an ontology do not account for reengineering and reuse of higher level ontologies, we propose a new modified methodology. This presentation will describe this methodology and also explore some of the issues and challenges involved in the construction of an ontology using this approach.

Ramachandran, R.; Graves, S.; Raskin, R.

2006-05-01

462

Training phonological awareness: A study with inner-city kindergarten children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale, longitudinal, phonological awareness training study with inner-city kindergarten children was conducted in\\u000a four classrooms. The central goals of the study were the creation and evaluation of a phonological awareness training program\\u000a and a preliminary look at the consequence of that training on basic phonological processes.\\u000a \\u000a Assessment of phonological awareness and basic phonological processes was carried out in the

Susan Brady; Anne Fowler; Brenda Stone; Nancy Winbury

1994-01-01

463

Some Techniques for Teaching Vocabulary. ERIC Focus Reports on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Number 27.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of techniques for teaching vocabulary in language programs centers on five major areas: (1) "knowing" the word, (2) selection of vocabulary, (3) grading vocabulary for presentation, (4) teaching methods, and (5) vocabulary expansion in advanced levels. Theory of vocabulary instruction is largely supported by writings of Nelson Brooks,…

Michel, Joseph; Patin, Paul

464

Do Pseudoword False Alarm Rates and Overestimation Rates in Yes/No Vocabulary Tests Change with Japanese University Students' English Ability Levels?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Pseudowords", or non-real words, were introduced to the Yes/No (YN) vocabulary test format to provide a means of checking for overestimation of word knowledge by test takers. The purpose of this study is to assess the assumption that more pseudoword checks (false alarms) indicate more instances of overestimation of word knowledge in YN tests.…

Stubbe, Raymond

2012-01-01

465

The effect of shared book reading on the acquisition of expressive vocabulary of a 7 year old who uses AAC.  

PubMed

Children who have poor expressive vocabularies are at risk of further language delays and reading comprehension difficulties, which will significantly impact their educational achievement. The role of shared book reading in supporting vocabulary growth continues to receive empirical attention in the field of communication disorders. This single-subject study analyzes the effect of an intervention program based on shared book reading in a girl with no functional speech who used augmentative and alternative communication. The study included three literacy activities, a prereading activity to stimulate the girl's prior knowledge about the topic, a shared reading activity, and a postreading activity to assess and support language comprehension. Our findings suggest that the activities and elicitation techniques used by the clinician had a positive effect on the participant's expressive vocabulary. PMID:18645915

Soto, Gloria; Dukhovny, Elena

2008-05-01

466

Phonological and orthographic demands in the production of handwriting.  

PubMed

In an experimental handwriting task, with two parts, we varied the phonological and orthographic complexity of visually presented nonwords. Twelve adult subjects had to write these nonwords in shorthand as well as in Latin script. Phonological complexity was varied by presenting a nonword which included two identical vowel characters. These were either phonologically similar (simple condition) or phonologically different (complex condition). Orthographic complexity was varied by using nonwords which either have a graphemic format for shorthand that corresponds with the graphemic format that is applied for Latin script (simple condition) or a graphemic format for shorthand which is discrepant from the Latin script format (complex condition). It appeared that a higher degree of phonological and orthographic complexity led to a slower and less fluent performance in graphemes that preceded the actual locus of complexity of the nonword. Furthermore, complexity effects were by far the strongest under the production of shorthand. The results are interpreted from the point of view of a psychomotor theory of handwriting, which assumes that the spelling process of visually presented nonwords may follow a phonological or an orthographic (sublexical) route. The finding that orthographic complexity interferes with the production of a phonologically oriented task such as shorthand is interpreted as evidence in favour of an interactive transmission of information between these two processing routes. PMID:8475769

Portier, S J; van Galen, G P; Thomassen, A J

1993-03-01

467

Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children.  

PubMed

Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

2013-12-01

468

Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children  

PubMed Central

Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

2013-01-01

469

Cerebellar-parietal connections underpin phonological storage.  

PubMed

Previous research has accumulated convincing evidence to show that the human cerebellum contributes to the short-term storage of verbal information, but its specific role in brain networks involved in phonological storage remains uncertain. In a randomized, crossover and sham-controlled design, we here combined transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), applied to the right cerebellum, with fMRI to investigate systematically the contribution of the human cerebellum to encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of verbal information. After anodal, but not cathodal, tDCS, we found a reduced item recognition capacity together with an attenuated neural signal from the right cerebellar lobule VIIb, specifically during the late encoding phase. Within this phase, tDCS furthermore affected task-associated functional connections between right cerebellar lobule VIIb and the posterior parietal cortex. These findings suggest that the right cerebellar lobule VIIb interacts with the posterior parietal cortex, specifically during the late stages of verbal encoding, when verbal information enters phonological storage. PMID:24695720

Macher, Katja; Böhringer, Andreas; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

2014-04-01

470

Science Sampler: Using direct instruction to teach content vocabulary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The magnitude of vocabulary students need to know in the middle school science curriculum is vast and can be daunting. As educators, it is our job to efficiently and effectively teach students so that they are not only able to apply the new vocabulary to that year's curriculum, but to store it in their memory for future use in high school and college. This article describes a direct instruction approach to teaching vocabulary that provides students with the ability to interact with the vocabulary verbally, visually, spatially, and intrapersonally.

Dougherty, Laura A.; Leno, Lisa C.

2007-09-01

471

Learning to read as the formation of a dynamic system: evidence for dynamic stability in phonological recoding  

PubMed Central

Two aspects of dynamic systems approaches that are pertinent to developmental models of reading are the emergence of a system with self-organizing characteristics, and its evolution over time to a stable state that is not easily modified or perturbed. The effects of dynamic stability may be seen in the differences obtained in the processing of print by beginner readers taught by different approaches to reading (phonics and text-centered), and more long-term effects on adults, consistent with these differences. However, there is little direct evidence collected over time for the same participants. In this study, lexicalized (implicit) phonological processing, and explicit phonological and letter-sound skills are further examined in a precocious reader whose early development at 3 and 5 years has been extensively described (Cognition, 2000, 2004). At ages 10 and 14 years, comparisons were made with these earlier reports and skilled adult readers, using the same tasks for evidence of changes in reading processes. The results showed that along with an increase of reading accuracy and speed, her pattern of lexicalized phonological responses for reading did not change over time. Neither did her pattern of explicit phonological and letter-sound skills, aspects of which were inferior to her lexicalized phonological processing, and word reading. These results suggest dynamic stability of the word reading system. The early emergence of this system with minimal explicit skill development calls into question developmental reading theories that require such skills for learning to read. Currently, only the Knowledge Sources theory of reading acquisition can account for such findings. Consideration of these aspects of dynamic systems raise theoretical issues that could result in a paradigm shift with regard to best practice and intervention. PMID:25071635

Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.

2014-01-01

472

The gradual emergence of phonological form in a new language  

PubMed Central

The division of linguistic structure into a meaningless (phonological) level and a meaningful level of morphemes and words is considered a basic design feature of human language. Although established sign languages, like spoken languages, have been shown to be characterized by this bifurcation, no information has been available about the way in which such structure arises. We report here on a newly emerging sign language, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, which functions as a full language but in which a phonological level of structure has not yet emerged. Early indications of formal regularities provide clues to the way in which phonological structure may develop over time. PMID:22223927

Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol

2011-01-01

473

Phonological changes after the application of therapy approach based on distinctive features in the treatment of phonological disorder.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the phonological changes due to the application of a speech therapy approach based on distinctive features, using two types of target sounds (the ones which emphasize the contrast, and others which reinforce the distinctive features) in the treatment of phonological disorder. The sample was constituted by seven children with phonological disorder (four boys and three girls), with ages between 3 years and 10 months and 6 years and 9 months. The children were classified according to the severity of the phonological disorder and then underwent treatment based on the Modified Maximal Oppositions Model. Two subjects were grouped for each degree; one subject was treated by "contrast" and the other one by "reinforcement" of the distinctive features in which they showed difficulties. The moderate-severe degree was the only one to include only one subject. After 20 therapy sessions, the phonological changes before and after the treatment were analyzed, considering the type of stimulus presented ("contrast" or "reinforcement"). All subjects, either treated by "contrast" or "reinforcement", showed an increase in their Percentage of Consonants Correct (PCC), in the number of acquired sounds and of generalizations in their phonological inventories. It was verified that both groups presented changes in their phonological inventories. On the comparative analysis between the groups, it was observed that both groups, treated by "contrast" and by "reinforcement", demonstrated differences regarding the types of generalizations studied. PMID:23128178

Bagetti, Tatiana; Ceron, Marizete Ilha; Mota, Helena Bolli; Keske-Soares, Márcia

2012-01-01

474

The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to the marine environmental sciences domain since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for • metadata mark-up with verifiable content • populating dynamic drop down lists • semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata • so-called smart search • and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium Web Processing Services in projects including: the NERC Data Grid; SeaDataNet; Geo-Seas; and the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model and following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes in this standard. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". The latest version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: • the removal of the potential for multiple Uniform Resource Names for the same concept to ensure consistent identification of concepts • the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content • the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS • the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base • a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier • and support for multiple human languages to increase the user base of the NVS Version 2 of the NVS underpins the semantic layer for the Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR) project, funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. Here we present the results of upgrading the NVS from version 1 to 2 and show applications which have been built on top of the NVS using its Application Programming Interface, including a demonstration version of a SPARQL interface.

Leadbetter, A.; Lowry, R.; Clements, O.

2012-04-01

475

Knowledge | Replication Knowledg owledge | Replication Knowledge | R  

E-print Network

Knowledge | Replication Knowledg owledge | Replication Knowledge | R wledge | ReplicationKnowledge | Re dge | ReplicationKnowledge | Repl e | ReplicationKnowledge | Replica | ReplicationKnowledge | Replicatio Replication Knowledge | Replication ication Knowledge | Replication ationKnowledge | Replication

Shull, Kenneth R.

476

Closing the Vocabulary Gap?: A Review of Research on Early Childhood Vocabulary Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our qualitative literature review of 31 published studies found that (a) three major approaches are used in early childhood classrooms to support children's vocabulary learning--exposing children to advanced words, providing direct word-meaning instruction, and employing mixed-method interventions; (b) these practices support children's learning…

Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine

2011-01-01

477

Groundwork for a Better Vocabulary. Second Edition. Instructor's Edition. Townsend Press Vocabulary Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's edition of a vocabulary textbook for college students, who read at the fifth to eighth grade level, features 25 chapters and teaches 250 basic words. The first and third chapters in each unit contain word-part practices. The second and fourth chapters in each unit contain synonym-antonym practices. The book's last chapter in each…

Smith, R. Kent; Johnson, Beth; Mohr, Carole

478

The Conceptual Nature of Gain in Vocabulary Research: An Analysis of Vocabulary Data from Schoolchildren  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two ways of measuring change are presented and compared: A conventional "change score", defined as the difference between scores before and after an interim period, and a process-oriented approach focusing on detailed analysis of conceptually defined response patterns. The validity of the two approaches was investigated. Vocabulary

Frost, Jørgen; Ottem, Ernst; Snow, Catherine E.; Hagtvet, Bente E.; Lyster, Solveig Alma Helaas; White, Claire

2014-01-01

479

Grabbed Early by Vocabulary: Nation's Ongoing Contributions to Vocabulary and Reading in a Foreign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"I was grabbed early [by vocabulary] and never let go. That's why it's difficult to explain why I enjoy working in this area. I just love doing it," said Paul Nation (in Coxhead, 2005, p. 46). How many people get grabbed by an area of research, teaching, and learning that continues to engage interest and cause excitement after 30 years? In this…

Coxhead, Averil

2010-01-01

480

Towards a Reconceptualisation of "Word" for High Frequency Word Generation in Word Knowledge Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper derives from a PhD study investigating the nexus between Grade 4 textbook vocabulary demands and Grade 3 isiXhosa-speaking learners' knowledge of that vocabulary to enable them to read to learn in Grade 4. The paper challenges the efficacy of the four current definitions of "word" for generating high frequency…

Sibanda, Jabulani; Baxen, Jean

2014-01-01

481

Phonological Encoding in Aided Augmentative and Alternative Communication  

E-print Network

Working memory and phonological awareness as predictors of progress towards early learningWorking Memory: The Digit Digit-Span. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning,working memory (WM), is considered a key marker of early word learning (

Dukhovny, Elena

2011-01-01

482

Does "reading" develop "phonological awareness" in Down's syndrome?  

E-print Network

casual relationship for alphabetic scripts. Results discussed in this paper do not support this view as far as reading ability and phonological awareness go in Down's syndrome. The present study compared a sample of children with Down's syndrome (N=10...

Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

2007-01-01

483

SHORT-TERM MEMORY, PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING AND READING ABILITY*  

E-print Network

SHORT-TERM MEMORY, PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING AND READING ABILITY* Susan Bradyt Abstract. Verbal short-term, 1973; Vellutino, Pruzek, Steger, & Meshoulam, 1973). The repeated finding that short-term memory in verbal short-term memory. We have sup

484

Vocabulary is an appropriate measure of premorbid intelligence in a sample with heterogeneous educational level in Brazil.  

PubMed

Crystallized intelligence refers to one's knowledge base and can be measured by vocabulary tests. Fluid intelligence is related to nonverbal aspects of intelligence, depends very little on previously acquired knowledge, and can be measured by tests such as Block Design (BD) and Raven Colored Matrices (RCM). Premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) refers to one's intellectual ability level previous to the onset of disorders like mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it is important to estimate disease severity. The objective was to compare performance in tests that measure crystallized and fluid intelligence in healthy subjects and patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD. One hundred forty-four participants (aMCI (n = 38), AD (n = 45), and healthy controls (n = 61)) were submitted to neuropsychological tests (WAIS-III vocabulary, BD, and RCM). There were significant among groups, except for vocabulary, indicating a relative stability of crystallized intelligence in the continuum from normal to pathological cognitive decline. Vocabulary seems to be stable during the progression of the disease and useful as a measure of premorbid intelligence, that is, to estimate previous function in relation to the level of education and, as a collateral measure of cognition in people with low education. PMID:24803737

de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Nitrini, Ricardo; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

2014-01-01

485

Vocabulary Is an Appropriate Measure of Premorbid Intelligence in a Sample with Heterogeneous Educational Level in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Crystallized intelligence refers to one's knowledge base and can be measured by vocabulary tests. Fluid intelligence is related to nonverbal aspects of intelligence, depends very little on previously acquired knowledge, and can be measured by tests such as Block Design (BD) and Raven Colored Matrices (RCM). Premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) refers to one's intellectual ability level previous to the onset of disorders like mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it is important to estimate disease severity. The objective was to compare performance in tests that measure crystallized and fluid intelligence in healthy subjects and patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD. One hundred forty-four participants (aMCI (n = 38), AD (n = 45), and healthy controls (n = 61)) were submitted to neuropsychological tests (WAIS-III vocabulary, BD, and RCM). There were significant among groups, except for vocabulary, indicating a relative stability of crystallized intelligence in the continuum from normal to pathological cognitive decline. Vocabulary seems to be stable during the progression of the disease and useful as a measure of premorbid intelligence, that is, to estimate previous function in relation to the level of education and, as a collateral measure of cognition in people with low education. PMID:24803737

de Oliveira, Maira Okada; Nitrini, Ricardo; Yassuda, Monica Sanches; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

2014-01-01

486

Phonological Development in Hearing Children of Deaf Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological development in hearing children of deaf parents Dr. Diane Lillo-Martin 5\\/9\\/2010 The researcher wishes to determine the significance of a unique linguistic environment on the effects of phonological development. The research examines whether 3 hearing children of deaf parents, hereafter referred to as CODAs, have inconsistencies, as compared to children in a typical linguistic environment, in their syllable structure,

Erin N. Toohey

2010-01-01

487

Morphological processing with deficient phonological short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the processing of Hebrew derivational morphology in an individual (S.E.) with deficient phonological short-term memory. In comparison to 10 age- and education-matched men, S.E. was impaired on digit span tasks and demonstrated no recency effect in word list recall. S.E. had low word retention span, but he exhibited phonological similarity and word length effects. His ability to

Gitit Kavé; Hagit Bar Zeev; Anita Lev

2007-01-01

488

The phonological deficit hypothesis in Chinese developmental dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phonological deficit hypothesis in developmental dyslexia wasexamined with readers in Chinese, a nonalphabetic script. Fifty-sixChinese children with dyslexia (23 of whom had reading and writingdifficulties and 33 had reading problems only) were compared withaverage readers of the same age (CA controls) and average readers of thesame reading-level (RL controls) in phonological awareness andphonological memory skills. The results showed that

Connie Suk-Han Ho; Teresa Pui-Sze Law; Penny Man Ng

2000-01-01

489

Helping Children Learn Vocabulary during Computer-Assisted Oral Reading  

E-print Network

Helping Children Learn Vocabulary during Computer-Assisted Oral Reading Gregory Aist December 12 component: helping children learn to read by using computer-assisted oral reading to help children learn vocabulary. We build on Project LISTEN's Reading Tutor, a computer program that adapts automatic speech

Eskenazi, Maxine

490

Sex Differences in Expressive Vocabulary of Head Start Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test was administered to 56 males and 52 females from 45 to 80 months of age to investigate sex differences in the expressive vocabulary of Head Start children. Data indicated no significant sex differences. (Author/PN)

Stoner, Sue B.; Spencer, W. Boyd

1983-01-01

491

Improving Vocabulary Skills through Assistive Technology: Rick's Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examines the use of two assistive technologies, the Franklin Language Master 6000b and Microsoft PowerPoint 2003, as visual support systems to aid in the vocabulary acquisition skills of a student with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention used children's literature and best practices in teaching vocabulary skills in…

Lindsey-Glenn, Pam F.; Gentry, James E.

2008-01-01

492

VOCABULARY CONCERNS IN THE MASTERY OF MATHEMATICS: COLLEGE ALGEBRA  

E-print Network

VOCABULARY CONCERNS IN THE MASTERY OF MATHEMATICS: COLLEGE ALGEBRA Richard L. Francis 1 comprehension that may have an adverse effect on College Algebra mastery. Thus, such a study exam- ines, derivations, and tests (both diagnostic and achievement). Thus, vocabulary mastery goes beyond the memorizing

Baldwin, John T.

493

The PRO-VOC Method: Combining Pronunciation and Vocabulary Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a new method for the combined teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary to learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). While there is commonly strong emphasis on the teaching of vocabulary, pronunciation teaching is frequently neglected in the EFL classroom. The proposed method aims to address such imbalance which may…

Nicolaidis, Katerina; Mattheoudakis, Marina

2012-01-01

494

Using Objects To Teach Vocabulary Words with Multiple Meanings. Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared outcomes of traditional direct instruction and pictorial worksheets with that of a hands-on approach using objects, word cards, and definition cards to teach vocabulary words with multiple meanings to public school third graders. Found that the hands-on students made significantly greater vocabulary progress than direct instruction…

Rule, Audrey C.; Barrera, Manuel T., III

2003-01-01

495

Vocabulary Teaching: A Way To Improve Learners' Fluency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A classroom research project in English-as-a-Second-Language vocabulary development, conducted in an English language school in Brazil, is described. The study had two major aims: to help students build a large lexicon for future use, and to encourage students to be responsible for their own learning by teaching strategies for learning vocabulary.…

Vianna, Jane Mello

496

To Push or Not to Push: A Vocabulary Research Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experiment, 122 university students in 4 intact classes learned 10 new vocabulary words via three different methods representing strong theoretical perspectives on second language vocabulary acquisition; extensive reading (Input- Hypothesis), activity-based (Task-based learning), and writing words in original sentences (Pushed Output Theory and Depth of Processing Theory). Results indicate that regardless of the language level of the learner,

Charles Browne

497

HIGH INTEREST-LOW VOCABULARY READING MATERIALS. 1967 SUPPLEMENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

APPROXIMATELY 900 TITLES PUBLISHED BETWEEN 1959 AND 1966 ARE GRADED BY VOCABULARY LEVEL (RANGING FROM GRADE 1 TO GRADE 7 AND UP) AND INTEREST LEVEL (RANGING FROM KINDERGARTEN TO GRADE 12). EASY VOCABULARY, HIGH INTEREST LEVEL BOOKS ARE INCLUDED. THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION IS PRESENTED FOR EACH BOOK--(1) TITLE, (2) AUTHOR, (3) PUBLISHER, (4)…

CULLITON, THOMAS E., JR.; TOLMAN, LORRAINE E.

498

Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

Gao, Xuesong

2012-01-01

499

Explicit Programming: Improving the Design Vocabulary of Your Program  

E-print Network

to introduce project- specific design vocabulary into existing general-purpose languages. Using explicit programming(EP), present ELIDE (Extension Language for Incremental Design Encoding), which supports Explicit extend a general-purpose programming language with such vocabulary. In explicit programming, new

De Volder, Kris

500

Mass Communication Thesauri and Controlled Vocabularies: An Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a basis for determining how the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) should proceed to meet its controlled vocabulary needs, this paper analyzes and evaluates the major published controlled vocabularies and thesauri used for the retrieval of mass communication literature. Following brief definitions of…

Brunning, Dennis R.