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1

Upper aerodigestive tract disorders and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of symptoms and diseases of the upper aerodigestive tract are associated to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). These disorders comprise a large variety of conditions such as asthma, chronic otitis media and sinusitis, chronic cough, and laryngeal disorders including paroxysmal laryngospasm. Laryngo-pharyngeal reflux disease is an extraoesophageal variant of GORD that can affect the larynx and pharynx. Despite numerous research efforts, the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux often remains elusive, unproven and controversial, and its treatment is then still empiric. Aim of this paper is to review the current literature on upper aerodigestive tract disorders in relation to pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux, focusing in particular on the pathophysiology base and results of the surgical treatment of GORD. PMID:25685756

Ciorba, Andrea; Bianchini, Chiara; Zuolo, Michele; Feo, Carlo Vittorio

2015-01-01

2

Upper aerodigestive tract disorders and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.  

PubMed

A wide variety of symptoms and diseases of the upper aerodigestive tract are associated to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). These disorders comprise a large variety of conditions such as asthma, chronic otitis media and sinusitis, chronic cough, and laryngeal disorders including paroxysmal laryngospasm. Laryngo-pharyngeal reflux disease is an extraoesophageal variant of GORD that can affect the larynx and pharynx. Despite numerous research efforts, the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux often remains elusive, unproven and controversial, and its treatment is then still empiric. Aim of this paper is to review the current literature on upper aerodigestive tract disorders in relation to pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux, focusing in particular on the pathophysiology base and results of the surgical treatment of GORD. PMID:25685756

Ciorba, Andrea; Bianchini, Chiara; Zuolo, Michele; Feo, Carlo Vittorio

2015-02-16

3

Aerodigestive Tract Burn from Ingestion of Microwaved Food  

PubMed Central

Aerodigestive tract burns represent a rare but potentially devastating injury pattern throughout the world. Although the majority of these injuries do not require intervention, these burns have the potential for poor outcomes. Traditionally this disease has been caused by superheated gases found in explosions or fire-related injury. However, as technology advances, it brings novel methods for injury that require physician awareness of potential hazards. We describe a case of laryngeal and esophageal thermal burn caused by a microwave heated food bolus. PMID:23606998

Silberman, Michael

2013-01-01

4

Creating voiD Descriptions for Web-scale Data Christoph Bohm1  

E-print Network

Creating voiD Descriptions for Web-scale Data Christoph B¨ohm1 , Johannes Lorey1 , Dandy Fenz2. The Vocabulary of Interlinked Data (voiD) has been proposed as a means to annotate sets of RDF resources in order to facilitate human understand- ing. In this work, we introduce automatic generation of voiD descriptions which

Weske, Mathias

5

Alcohol and tobacco misuse: Reducing aerodigestive cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Significant concerns over the health, social and economic burdens of the two most common, and frequently co-misused drugs of abuse, alcohol and tobacco, has encouraged focused but separate health promotion and disease prevention policies. However, this separation of focus means that while individuals who present with alcohol-related problems are increasingly supported to attain and maintain abstinence from alcohol they are not routinely assisted to refrain from smoking. This is tragically inopportune as alcohol and tobacco have an established “synergistic” effect on aerodigestive cancer risk. Moreover, even when patients successfully tackle their alcohol problems they remain at increased risk for developing these cancers, especially if they continue to smoke. A case series is presented together with a discussion on how service provision for co-misuse could be improved to obviate aerodigestive cancer risk. Given the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use in the United Kingdom, these observations may have far reaching implications for the individual, health provider(s) and wider society. PMID:24023985

Wright, Gavin; Morgan, Marsha Y

2013-01-01

6

prsente L'ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE PARIS  

E-print Network

THESE présentée à L'ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE PARIS par Pierre CARPENTIER en vue de l an s cette étude un ens emble de méthod e s e t d e techniques pour l a r é s olut i on du pr oblème de l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

7

Palliation of malignant aerodigestive fistulae with self-expanding metallic stents.  

PubMed

Malignant aerodigestive fistulae are rare but devastating sequelae of thoracic cancers, most commonly associated with esophageal cancer. Survival following development of a malignant aerodigestive fistula is measured in weeks. Palliation is the primary goal of therapy and to this end, we report the use of self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) as treatment. Between May 1999 and January 2004, 12 patients were treated for malignant aerodigestive fistulae. The underlying diagnosis was esophageal cancer for 10 patients, and non-small cell lung cancer for two others. All patients were symptomatic and fistulae were diagnosed by esophagoscopy in seven, bronchoscopy in two, and esophagram in three. Seven covered Wallstents (seven esophageal) and eight covered Ultraflex (five tracheal and three esophageal) were used. A single stent was placed in eight patients (seven esophageal and one tracheal). Three patients required esophageal and tracheal stents and one patient needed two tracheal stents. General anesthesia was required in 50% of the patients. There were no procedure-related complications. Symptoms were palliated in 100% of patients and oral intake was reinstituted in 42% (5/12). All the patients were discharged from hospital after SEMS placement and one patient returned for an uneventful tracheal stent replacement secondary to mucus impaction 2 months later. SEMS placement is an effective strategy to palliate malignant aerodigestive fistulae. Complications are rare and symptoms are alleviated in most patients. PMID:17760651

Murthy, S; Gonzalez-Stawinski, G V; Rozas, M S; Gildea, T R; Dumot, J A

2007-01-01

8

Feasibility of volume-of-interest (VOI) scanning technique in cone beam breast CT—a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

This work is to demonstrate that high quality cone beam CT images can be generated for a volume of interest (VOI) and to investigate the exposure reduction effect, dose saving, and scatter reduction with the VOI scanning technique. The VOI scanning technique involves inserting a filtering mask between the x-ray source and the breast during image acquisition. The mask has an opening to allow full x-ray exposure to be delivered to a preselected VOI and a lower, filtered exposure to the region outside the VOI. To investigate the effects of increased noise due to reduced exposure outside the VOI on the reconstructed VOI image, we directly extracted the projection data inside the VOI from the full-field projection data and added additional data to the projection outside the VOI to simulate the relative noise increase due to reduced exposure. The nonuniform reference images were simulated in an identical manner to normalize the projection images and measure the x-ray attenuation factor for the object. Regular Feldkamp–Davis–Kress filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct the 3D images. The noise level inside the VOI was evaluated and compared with that of the full-field higher exposure image. Calcifications phantom and low contrast phantom were imaged. Dose reduction was investigated by estimating the dose distribution in a cylindrical water phantom using Monte Carlo simulation based Geant4 package. Scatter reduction at the detector input was also studied. Our results show that with the exposure level reduced by the VOI mask, the dose levels were significantly reduced both inside and outside the VOI without compromising the accuracy of image reconstruction, allowing for the VOI to be imaged with more clarity and helping to reduce the breast dose. The contrast-to-noise ratio inside the VOI was improved. The VOI images were not adversely affected by noisier projection data outside the VOI. Scatter intensities at the detector input were also shown to decrease significantly both inside and outside the VOI in the projection images, indicating potential improvement of image quality inside the VOI and contribution to dose reduction both inside and outside the VOI. PMID:18777908

Chen, Lingyun; Shaw, Chris C.; Altunbas, Mustafa C.; Lai, Chao-Jen; Liu, Xinming; Han, Tao; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Whitman, Gary J.

2008-01-01

9

Usefulness of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for supportive therapy of advanced aerodigestive cancer  

PubMed Central

Aerodigestive cancer, like esophageal cancer or head and neck cancer, is well known to have a poor prognosis. It is often diagnosed in the late stages, with dysphagia being the major symptom. Insufficient nutrition and lack of stimulation of the intestinal mucosa may worsen immune compromise due to toxic side effects. A poor nutritional status is a significant prognostic factor for increased mortality. Therefore, it is most important to optimize enteral nutrition in patients with aerodigestive cancer before and during treatment, as well as during palliative treatment. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) may be useful for nutritional support. However, PEG tube placement is limited by digestive tract stenosis and is an invasive endoscopic procedure with a risk of complications. There are three PEG techniques. The pull/push and introducer methods have been established as standard techniques for PEG tube placement. The modified introducer method, namely the direct method, allows for direct placement of a larger button-bumper-type catheter device. PEG tube placement using the introducer method or the direct method may be a much safer alternative than the pull/push method. PEG may be recommended in patients with aerodigestive cancer because of the improved complication rate. PMID:24244880

Ogino, Haruei; Akiho, Hirotada

2013-01-01

10

ErbB receptors in the biology and pathology of the aerodigestive tract  

SciTech Connect

The most common sites of malignancies in the aerodigestive tract include the lung, head and neck and the esophagus. Esophageal adenocarcinomas (EA), esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC), and squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) are the primary focus of this review. Traditional treatment for aerodigestive tract cancers includes primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) or surgical resection followed by radiation (or CRT). Recent developments in treatment have focused increasingly on molecular targeting strategies including cetuximab (a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)). Cetuximab was FDA approved in 2006 for treatment of SCCHN, underscoring the importance of understanding the biology of these malignancies. EGFR is a member of the ErbB family of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases. The major pathways activated by ErbB receptors include Ras/Raf/MAPK; PI3K/AKT; PLC{gamma} and STATs, all of which lead to the transcription of target genes that may contribute to aerodigestive tumor progression. This review explores the expression of ErbB receptors in EA, ESCC and SCCHN and the signaling pathways of EGFR in SCCHN.

Morgan, Sarah [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 200 Lothrop Street (United States); Suite 500, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Grandis, Jennifer R. [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 200 Lothrop Street (United States); Suite 500, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)], E-mail: jgrandis@pitt.edu

2009-02-15

11

Usefulness of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for supportive therapy of advanced aerodigestive cancer.  

PubMed

Aerodigestive cancer, like esophageal cancer or head and neck cancer, is well known to have a poor prognosis. It is often diagnosed in the late stages, with dysphagia being the major symptom. Insufficient nutrition and lack of stimulation of the intestinal mucosa may worsen immune compromise due to toxic side effects. A poor nutritional status is a significant prognostic factor for increased mortality. Therefore, it is most important to optimize enteral nutrition in patients with aerodigestive cancer before and during treatment, as well as during palliative treatment. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) may be useful for nutritional support. However, PEG tube placement is limited by digestive tract stenosis and is an invasive endoscopic procedure with a risk of complications. There are three PEG techniques. The pull/push and introducer methods have been established as standard techniques for PEG tube placement. The modified introducer method, namely the direct method, allows for direct placement of a larger button-bumper-type catheter device. PEG tube placement using the introducer method or the direct method may be a much safer alternative than the pull/push method. PEG may be recommended in patients with aerodigestive cancer because of the improved complication rate. PMID:24244880

Ogino, Haruei; Akiho, Hirotada

2013-11-15

12

Aerodigestive Foreign Bodies in Adult Ethiopian Patients: A Prospective Study at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Foreign bodies (FBs) in the aerodigestive tract are important causes of morbidity and mortality and pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The best method of removal of an esophageal and tracheobronchial FB is endoscopic guided extraction. Objective. To present our experience of the removal of aerodigestive FBs in adult Ethiopian patients using rigid endoscopes. Methods. A hospital-based prospective study, at Tikur Anbessa Referral and Teaching Hospital, from January 2011 to December 2012 (over two years). Results. A total of 32 patients (18 males and 14 females) with a mean age of 28.0 ± 12.74 years were treated for FB ingestion and aspiration at Tikur Anbessa Hospital. The FBs were impacted at the esophagus in 18 (56.2%) patients, at the pharynx in 7 (21.8%), and at the air way in 7 (21.8%) patients. Pieces of bones were the commonest objects found in the esophagus (17/18 of the cases) and the pharynx (4/7), while fractured tracheostomy tubes and needles were frequently seen in the air way (3/7 cases each). The foreign bodies were visible in plain radiographs of 26 (81.2%) patients. Successful extraction of FBs was achieved by using Mc gill forceps in 11 cases, rigid esophagoscopes in 9 patients, and bronchoscopes in 4 cases. Four cases required open surgery to remove the foreign bodies. Two complications (one pneumothorax and one esophageal perforation) occurred. All patients were discharged cured. Discussion and Recommendations. Aerodigestive FBs are not so rare in the hospital and timely diagnosis and removal of accidentally ingested and aspirated foreign body should be performed so as to avoid the potentially lethal complications associated. Rigid esophagoscopy requires general anesthesia and is associated with its own complications, but our experience and outcome of its use are encouraging. PMID:24834074

Bekele, Abebe

2014-01-01

13

L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius L.) III. Voies intrapinales de conduction  

E-print Network

; bipolar neurons were seen in the distal and proximal pineal. At the level of the subcommissural organL'organe pinéal du Brochet (Esox lucius L.) III. Voies intrapinéales de conduction des messages organ of the pike (Esox lucius, L.). II1. lntrapineal pathways for conduction of photosensory messages

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

14

Cat'egories triangul'ees sup'erieures Georges MALTSINIOTIS  

E-print Network

Cat'egories triangul'ees sup'erieures Georges MALTSINIOTIS F'evrier 2006 Le but de ce texte est de d'ecrire la structure d'efinie sur la cat'egorie d'eriv'ee d'une cat'egorie ab'elienne (ou d'une cat une notion de cat'egorie n­triangul'ee (avec eventuellement n = 1, dans quel cas on dit qu'elle est

Maltsiniotis, Georges - Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu, Université Paris 7

15

Dose saving and scatter reduction in volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam CT: work in progress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated the magnitude of scattered radiation and beam quality on the low contrast performance in cone beam breast CT imaging with applying volume-of-interest (VOI) imaging technique. For experiments, we used our bench-top cone beam CT (CBCT) system with a flat-panel digital detector. A cylindrical polycarbonate phantom of 11 cm in diameter was used to simulate breasts to measure radiation dose, scatter-to-primary-ratio (SPR), and contrast-to-noise ratio. To implement the VOI scanning technique, a lead filter with a rectangular opening was placed between the x-ray source and the breast phantom. The x-ray tube voltage setting was 80 kVp. The breast phantom was imaged without and with the VOI filter for open filed and VOI field, respectively. Dose measurement was performed using TLD dosimeters. Slot scanning technique with varying slot width was used to measure SPR values. The image quality assessment was performed based on figure of merit (FOM). The results showed that dose can be reduced by a factor of 3 or more outside the VOI and by a factor of 1.6 at the center of the phantom. The SPR value could be reduced by a factor of 9 inside the VOI, and the FOM was improved by a factor of 1.8 at the center of the phantom.

Lai, Chao-Jen; Shaw, Chris C.; Chen, Lingyun; Liu, Xinming; Han, Tao; Wang, Tianpeng

2008-03-01

16

A Volume of Interest (VOI) Atlas for the Analysis of Neurophysiological Image Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and precise neuroanatomical descriptions are essential for the meaningful quantification of Positron Emission Tomographic (PET) images of the human brain. This task is difficult since the radio-tracer distribution imaged by PET does not neccessarily reflect structure. A two-dimensional brain atlas that features the use of a deformable Region-of-Interest (ROI) template has previously been shown to be an effective method for integrating anatomical (Magnetic Resonance Imaging - MRI) images and physiological (PET) data, with an observed reduction in the coefficient of variation amongst observers from 8.1% to 3.4% 1. This method has been adopted for routine MRI image correlation and PET image analysis at our centre. The atlas is most effective when used in studies in which PET and MRI images are acquired in planes parallel to those of the original brain atlas. To allow arbitrary image/atlas orientation, we have implemented a Volume of Interest (VOI) atlas that extends the ROI methodology to three dimensions. The major advantage is that, given adequate axial sampling, arbitrary orientations of PET and MRI scans can be matched to the VOI atlas with no loss in structural recovery. In addition, the VOI atlas can be employed in the quantification of metabolic parameters directly from volumetric PET studies rather than performing the analysis on a slice by slice basis.

Marrett, Sean; Evans, Alan C.; Collins, D. L.; Peters, Terence M.

1989-05-01

17

Investigation of a Broad-Spectrum PCR Assay for Human Papillomaviruses in Screening Benign Lesions of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A variety of different human papillomavirus (HPV) types can be found in benign and malignant lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Therefore a broad-spectrum assay is needed for screening reasons. Methods: A PCR system with degenerate consensus primers originating from a very conserved region (e.g. L1) of the HPV genome was applied. The sensitivity level was improved by combining

Markus Fischer

2005-01-01

18

A Model for Predicting Gastrostomy Tube Placement in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Upper Aerodigestive Tract Lesions  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Identifying high-risk patients in the preoperative period can allow physicians to optimize nutritional status early for better outcomes after head and neck cancer resections. OBJECTIVE To develop a model to predict preoperatively the need for gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement in patients undergoing surgery of the upper aerodigestive tract. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This retrospective medical record review included all adult patients diagnosed with head and neck cancers who underwent tumor resection from 2007 through 2012 at Wake Forest Baptist Health, a level 1 tertiary care center. Records were screened for patient demographics, tumor characteristics, surgical treatment type, and postoperative placement of G-tube. A total of 743 patients underwent resection of head and neck tumors. Of these, 203 were excluded for prior G-tube placement, prior head and neck resection, G-tube placement for chemoradiotherapy, and resection for solely nodal disease, leaving 540 patients for analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Placement of postoperative G-tube. RESULTS Of the 540 included patients, 23% required G-tube placement. The following variables were significant and independent predictors of G-tube placement: preoperative irradiation (odds ratio [OR], 4.1; 95% CI, 2.4–6.9; P < .001), supracricoid laryngectomy (OR, 26.0; 95% CI, 4.9–142.9; P < .001), tracheostomy tube placement (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5–4.4; P < .001), clinical node stage N0 vs N2 (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4–4.2; P = .01), clinical node stage N1 vs N2 (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P = .01), preoperative weight loss (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2–3.2; P = .004), dysphagia (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2–3.2; P = .005), reconstruction type (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9; P = .02), and tumor stage (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9; P = .03). A predictive model was developed based on these variables. In the validation analysis, we found that the average predicted score for patients who received G-tubes was statistically different than the score for the patients who did not receive G-tubes (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We present a validated and comprehensive model for preoperatively predicting the need for G-tube placement in patients undergoing surgery of the upper aerodigestive tract. Early enteral access in high-risk patients may prevent complications in postoperative healing and improve overall outcomes, including quality of life. PMID:25321077

Mays, Ashley C.; Moustafa, Farah; Worley, Mitch; Waltonen, Joshua D.; D'Agostino, Ralph

2015-01-01

19

Site Specific Effect of Tobacco Addiction in Upper Aerodigestive Tract Tumors: A Retrospective Clinicopathological Study  

PubMed Central

An institutional study was carried out in 102 patients to investigate the site specific effect of addictions, that is, tobacco smoking and tobacco chewing (smokeless), both independently and synergistically in development of malignancies in upper aerodigestive tract through retrograde questionnaire. The histopathologically proven cases were interviewed regarding different forms of addictions followed by clinical examination and investigations for grading (according to Modified Broadmann's method) and TNM staging (according to UICC) according to the tumor site. Statistical analysis was done by Pearson test. Out of all proven cases of cancers, 29.4% were only tobacco chewers (smokeless), 25.5% were only smokers, 42.2% were having both types of tobacco addictions (smoke and smokeless), and only 2.9% were having no addiction. Out of only tobacco chewers (smokeless), 83.3% were of oral cavity cancers, 6.7% were of oro- and hypopharynx and the rest were of others. Among only smokers, 69.2% cases were of laryngeal and oro- and hypopharynx as compared to 11.5% of oral cavity cancers (nearly 6 times). Tobacco (smokeless) chewing is associated with oral cancers whereas tobacco smoking is associated with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco act in synergy with each other. PMID:25431788

Kumar, Ashok; Ahlawat, Babita

2014-01-01

20

Investigation on PI-line selecting method base on GPU accelerated back-projection filtered VOI reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstruction algorithms based on PI-line or Chord are active subject in CBCT. Among them back-projection filtered (BPF) reconstruction algorithm has obvious influence for its exact reconstruction results and less computations especially in selected volume of interesting (VOI) regions. However, the selecting and sampling method of PI-line segment can directly affect the quality of reconstructed images. In this paper, we proposed a general PI-line selecting scheme to reconstruct VOI regions by using BPF algorithm, which mainly based on the relationship between reconstructed coordinate and PI-line coordinate. The proposed scheme is applicable for GPU accelerated back-projection filtered reconstruction.

Zheng, Han; Yu, Yanyan; Kang, Yan; Liu, Jiren

2010-04-01

21

Asymptomatic myocardial metastasis from cancers of upper aero-digestive tract detected on FDG PET/CT: a series of 4 cases  

PubMed Central

Metastatic involvement of the heart is a rare occurrence and remains undiagnosed until autopsy. In some instances, patients may have cardiac symptoms, leading to ante-mortem diagnosis. Although most primary cancers have been documented to metastasize to heart, the existing literature on cancers of upper aero-digestive tract is an exception, with only a few reports. We report four cases of upper aero-digestive tract cancers, three of which arise from oral cavity, one from lower esophagus, metastasising to the myocardium, detected on 18?F – Fluoro-deoxy-glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG PET/CT) study , in the absence of related symptoms. PMID:25608865

2014-01-01

22

A Genome-Wide Association Study of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers Conducted within the INHANCE Consortium  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p?5×10?7). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p?=?1×10?8) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p?=?2×10?8) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p?=?5×10?8; rs1229984-ADH1B, p?=?7×10?9; and rs698-ADH1C, p?=?0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility. PMID:21437268

McKay, James D.; Truong, Therese; Gaborieau, Valerie; Chabrier, Amelie; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Byrnes, Graham; Zaridze, David; Shangina, Oxana; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Bucur, Alexandru; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Janout, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Talamini, Renato; Barzan, Luigi; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Macfarlane, Gary J.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Lowry, Ray; Conway, David I.; McKinney, Patricia A.; Healy, Claire M.; Toner, Mary E.; Znaor, Ariana; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Neto, José Eluf; Garrote, Leticia Fernández; Boccia, Stefania; Cadoni, Gabriella; Arzani, Dario; Olshan, Andrew F.; Weissler, Mark C.; Funkhouser, William K.; Luo, Jingchun; Lubi?ski, Jan; Trubicka, Joanna; Lener, Marcin; Oszutowska, Dorota; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Chen, Chu; Fish, Sherianne; Doody, David R.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lazarus, Philip; Gallagher, Carla J.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M.; Wang, Li-E; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Kelsey, Karl T.; McClean, Michael D.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Nelson, Heather H.; Romkes, Marjorie; Buch, Shama; Nukui, Tomoko; Zhong, Shilong; Lacko, Martin; Manni, Johannes J.; Peters, Wilbert H. M.; Hung, Rayjean J.; McLaughlin, John; Vatten, Lars; Njølstad, Inger; Goodman, Gary E.; Field, John K.; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Vineis, Paolo; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; González, Carlos A.; Quirós, J. Ramón; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Hallmans, Göran; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Kumle, Merethe; Riboli, Elio; Välk, Kristjan; Voodern, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Zelenika, Diana; Boland, Anne; Delepine, Marc; Foglio, Mario; Lechner, Doris; Blanché, Hélène; Gut, Ivo G.; Galan, Pilar; Heath, Simon; Hashibe, Mia; Hayes, Richard B.; Boffetta, Paolo; Lathrop, Mark; Brennan, Paul

2011-01-01

23

A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ? 5 × 10??). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p?=?1×10??) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10??) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10??); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10??; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility. PMID:21437268

McKay, James D; Truong, Therese; Gaborieau, Valerie; Chabrier, Amelie; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Byrnes, Graham; Zaridze, David; Shangina, Oxana; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Bucur, Alexandru; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Janout, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Talamini, Renato; Barzan, Luigi; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Macfarlane, Gary J; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Lowry, Ray; Conway, David I; McKinney, Patricia A; Healy, Claire M; Toner, Mary E; Znaor, Ariana; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Neto, José Eluf; Garrote, Leticia Fernández; Boccia, Stefania; Cadoni, Gabriella; Arzani, Dario; Olshan, Andrew F; Weissler, Mark C; Funkhouser, William K; Luo, Jingchun; Lubi?ski, Jan; Trubicka, Joanna; Lener, Marcin; Oszutowska, Dorota; Schwartz, Stephen M; Chen, Chu; Fish, Sherianne; Doody, David R; Muscat, Joshua E; Lazarus, Philip; Gallagher, Carla J; Chang, Shen-Chih; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M; Wang, Li-E; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Kelsey, Karl T; McClean, Michael D; Marsit, Carmen J; Nelson, Heather H; Romkes, Marjorie; Buch, Shama; Nukui, Tomoko; Zhong, Shilong; Lacko, Martin; Manni, Johannes J; Peters, Wilbert H M; Hung, Rayjean J; McLaughlin, John; Vatten, Lars; Njølstad, Inger; Goodman, Gary E; Field, John K; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Vineis, Paolo; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; González, Carlos A; Quirós, J Ramón; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Hallmans, Göran; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Kumle, Merethe; Riboli, Elio; Välk, Kristjan; Vooder, Tõnu; Voodern, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Zelenika, Diana; Boland, Anne; Delepine, Marc; Foglio, Mario; Lechner, Doris; Blanché, Hélène; Gut, Ivo G; Galan, Pilar; Heath, Simon; Hashibe, Mia; Hayes, Richard B; Boffetta, Paolo; Lathrop, Mark; Brennan, Paul

2011-03-01

24

Effect of Aging on Hypopharyngeal Safe Volume and the Aerodigestive Reflexes Protecting the Airways  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis Studies on young volunteers have shown that aerodigestive reflexes are triggered before the maximum volume of fluid that can safely collect in the hypopharynx before spilling into the larynx is exceeded (hypopharyngeal safe volume [HPSV]). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of aging on HPSV and pharyngoglottal closure reflex (PGCR), pharyngo-UES contractile reflex (PUCR), and reflexive pharyngeal swallow (RPS). Study Design Comparison between two groups of different age ranges. Methods Ten young (25 ±3 standard deviation [SD] years) and 10 elderly (77 ±3 SD years) subjects were studied. PGCR, PUCR, and RPS were elicited by perfusing water into the pharynx rapidly and slowly. HPSV was determined by abolishing RPS with pharyngeal anesthesia. Results Frequency–elicitation of PGCR and PUCR were significantly lower in the elderly compared to the young during slow water perfusion (47% vs. 97% and 40% vs. 90%, respectively, P <.001). RPS was absent in five of the 30 (17%) slow injections in the elderly group. In these elderly subjects, HPSV was exceeded and laryngeal penetration of the water was seen. The threshold volume to elicit PGCR, PUCR, and RPS was significantly lower than the HPSV during rapid injections. Except for RPS, these volumes were also significantly lower than HPSV during slow injections. Conclusions PGCR, PUCR, and RPS reflexes are triggered at a threshold volume significantly lower than the HPSV in both young and elderly subjects. Lower frequency–elicitation of PGCR, PUCR, and RPS in the elderly can predispose them to the risks of aspiration. PMID:24281906

Dua, Kulwinder S.; Surapaneni, Sri Naveen; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Hafeezullah, Mohammed; Shaker, Reza

2014-01-01

25

VOI.UME 1, NUMBER 2 WINTER 1994 THE FRIENDS OF MOSS LANDING' MARINE CABORATOR1ES  

E-print Network

VOI.UME 1, NUMBER 2 WINTER 1994 ·THE FRIENDS OF MOSS LANDING' MARINE CABORATOR1ES The· . . . . ' MLML 'WELCoMES 'NEW DIRECTOR GR'EENE'" INSIDE Dr. ··H. G;ry Greene, "-new director of the Moss, Landing Marine Laboratories . , Dr, H. Gary .Greene.officialiy took. office as "new Director 'of Moss Landing

McPhee-Shaw, Erika

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Investigation on PI-line selecting method base on GPU accelerated back-projection filtered VOI reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction algorithms based on PI-line or Chord are active subject in CBCT. Among them back-projection filtered (BPF) reconstruction algorithm has obvious influence for its exact reconstruction results and less computations especially in selected volume of interesting (VOI) regions. However, the selecting and sampling method of PI-line segment can directly affect the quality of reconstructed images. In this paper, we proposed

Han Zheng; Yanyan Yu; Yan Kang; Jiren Liu

2010-01-01

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Multimodality Neurological Data Visualization with Multi-VOI Based DTI Fiber Dynamic Integration.  

PubMed

Brain lesions are usually located adjacent to critical spinal structures, so it will be a challenging task for neurosurgeons to precisely plan a surgical procedure without damaging healthy tissues and nerves. The advancement of medical imaging technologies produces a large amount of neurological data, which are capable of showing a wide variety of brain properties. Advanced algorithms of medical data computing and visualization are critically helpful in efficiently utilizing the acquired data for disease diagnosis and brain function and structure exploration, which will be helpful to treatment planning. In this paper, we describe new algorithms and a software framework for multiple volume of interest (VOI) specified diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber dynamic visualization. The displayed results have been integrated with a volume rendering pipeline for multimodality neurological data exploration. A depth texture indexing algorithm is used to detect DTI fiber tracts in graphics process units (GPUs), which makes fibers to be displayed and interactively manipulated with brain data acquired from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), T1- and T2- weighted anatomic imaging, and angiographic imaging. The developed software platform is built on an object-oriented structure, which is transparent and extensible. It provides a comprehensive human-computer interface for data exploration and information extraction. The GPU-accelerated high-performance computing kernels have been implemented to enable our software to dynamically visualize neurological data. The developed techniques will be useful in computer-aided neurological disease diagnosis, brain structure exploration, and general cognitive neuroscience. PMID:25376048

Zhang, Qi; Alexander, Murray; Ryner, Lawrence

2014-11-01

28

Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract: the prospective EPIC-study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies suggest that a high intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased risk of cancers of\\u000a the upper aero-digestive tract. We studied data from 345,904 subjects of the prospective European Investigation into Cancer\\u000a and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited in seven European countries, who had completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992–1998. During\\u000a 2,182,560 person years of observation 352 histologically

Heiner Boeing; Thomas Dietrich; Kurt Hoffmann; Tobias Pischon; Pietro Ferrari; Petra H. Lahmann; Marie Christine Boutron-Ruault; Francoise Clavel-Chapelon; Naomi Allen; Tim Key; Guri Skeie; Eiliv Lund; Anja Olsen; Anne Tjonneland; Kim Overvad; Majken K. Jensen; Sabine Rohrmann; Jakob Linseisen; Antonia Trichopoulou; Christina Bamia; Theodora Psaltopoulou; Lars Weinehall; Ingegerd Johansson; Maria-José Sánchez; Paula Jakszyn; Eva Ardanaz; Pilar Amiano; Maria Dolores Chirlaque; J. Ramón Quirós; Elisabet Wirfalt; Göran Berglund; Petra H. Peeters; Carla H. van Gils; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Frederike L. Büchner; Franco Berrino; Domenico Palli; Carlotta Sacerdote; Rosario Tumino; Salvatore Panico; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nadia Slimani; Teresa Norat; Mazda Jenab; Elio Riboli

2006-01-01

29

[Diseases of the aerodigestive tract and of the soft tissues of the neck. Comparison of MRI and CT].  

PubMed

CT and MRT are compared with each other in examinations of the aerodigestive tract in 250 patients. MRT was found to be the method of highest sensitivity and specificity after intravenous administration of the contrast medium Gd-DTPA. Magnetic resonance tomography was found to be clearly superior to computed tomography on account of the 3-dimensional imaging possibilities, improved contrasting of soft parts, and freedom from artifacts. In space-occupying growths of the nasopharynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx, the primary use of MRT must be considered mandatory in diagnostic strategy planning. CT occupies the second rank and can be used for optimised visualisation of small osseous lesions and for digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The latter plays an important role in the analysis of selective vascular supply and in diagnosis before intraarterial chemotherapy. In respect of processed in the soft tissues of the neck, pathological lesions of the lymph nodes, vessels, soft parts and cervical processes are differentiated (n = 139). For the diagnosis of the entire neck region, magnetic resonance tomography with the additional use of the contrast medium Gd-DTPA proves to be the method with the highest rate of accuracy. In processes of the soft tissues, sonography can also be employed as a primary diagnostic tool. However, in certain localisations and lesions this method can only be used with certain restrictions. According to the present state of the art, computed tomography must be considered as a secondary procedure in the diagnosis of the neck region. PMID:2756304

Vogl, T

1989-05-01

30

Risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in a case-cohort study of autoworkers exposed to metalworking fluids  

PubMed Central

Aims: To re-examine aerodigestive cancer risk in a cohort of autoworkers exposed to metal working fluids (MWF), using improved case definition and more recently diagnosed cases. Methods: The autoworker cohort included 31 100 hourly workers alive on 1 January 1985 who worked at three automobile plants in Michigan. A case-cohort design was carried out that included incident cases of cancers of the larynx, oesophagus, and stomach, and a 10% sample of the cohort. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate MWF exposure effects. The smoothing method of penalised splines was used to explore the shape of the underlying exposure-response curves. Results: The most important finding was the association between larynx cancer incidence and cumulative straight MWF exposure. The results for oesophageal cancer were less consistent. For stomach cancer there was no evidence of excess risk. Conclusion: This association between larynx cancer and straight MWF exposures was consistent with a previous finding in this cohort, providing further support for a causal relation. PMID:15090663

Zeka, A; Eisen, E; Kriebel, D; Gore, R; Wegman, D

2004-01-01

31

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 209 VoI. IV, No. 14. Washington, D.C. July 30, 1884.  

E-print Network

of these just below the weir that the fish pass is placed. The ladder ( d e )has parallel sides (f),and a level;210 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. floor of the ladder. The ladder rests on strongbeams (7BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 209 VoI. IV, No. 14. Washington, D.C. July 30, 1884

32

Zgkt23,1991 VoI. 22, NO.34 754: Outside of D.C./Baltimore Areas THE GAY WEEKLY O F THE NATION'S CAPITAL  

E-print Network

Zgkt23,1991 VoI. 22, NO.34 754: Outside of D.C./Baltimore Areas THE GAY WEEKLY O F THE NATION'S CAPITAL . . . I I Soviet Gays sprang to action to help resist coup Printed and distributed Yeltsin's call for resistance by Lou Chibbaro Jr. Soviet Gay activists, realizing they had one of the few working laser printers

Brody, James P.

33

Voies molculaires dans le cancer du rein : de la biologie aux traitements de demain Signalling pathways in renal cell carcinoma: from the molecular biology to the futur  

E-print Network

1 Voies moléculaires dans le cancer du rein : de la biologie aux traitements de demain Signalling pathways in renal cell carcinoma: from the molecular biology to the futur therapy Julien Edeline (1 Manuscrit auteur, publié dans "Bulletin du cancer 2010;97:5-15" DOI : 10.1684/bdc.2010.1066 #12;2 Résumé

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

34

Smoking addiction and the risk of upper-aerodigestive-tract cancer in a multicenter case-control study.  

PubMed

Although previous studies on tobacco and alcohol and the risk of upper-aerodigestive-tract (UADT) cancers have clearly shown dose-response relations with the frequency and duration of tobacco and alcohol, studies on addiction to tobacco smoking itself as a risk factor for UADT cancer have not been published, to our knowledge. The aim of this report is to assess whether smoking addiction is an independent risk factor or a refinement to smoking variables (intensity and duration) for UADT squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) risk in the multicenter case-control study (ARCAGE) in Western Europe. The analyses included 1,586 ever smoking UADT SCC cases and 1,260 ever smoking controls. Addiction was measured by a modified Fagerström score (first cigarette after waking up, difficulty refraining from smoking in places where it is forbidden and cigarettes per day). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for UADT cancers with addiction variables were estimated with unconditional logistic regression. Among current smokers, the participants who smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of waking up were two times more likely to develop UADT SCC than those who smoked 60 min after waking up. Greater tobacco smoking addiction was associated with an increased risk of UADT SCC among current smokers (OR = 3.83, 95% CI: 2.56-5.73 for score of 3-7 vs. 0) but not among former smokers. These results may be consistent with a residual effect of smoking that was not captured by the questionnaire responses (smoking intensity and smoking duration) alone, suggesting addiction a refinement to smoking variables. PMID:23719996

Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Zugna, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Merletti, Franco; Marron, Manuela; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsague, Xavier; Betka, Jaroslav; Holcatova, Ivana; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Macfarlane, Gary J; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Talamini, Renato; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Simonato, Lorenzo; Conway, David I; McKinney, Patricia A; Thomson, Peter; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M; McCartan, Bernard E; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Hashibe, Mia

2013-12-01

35

Genetic variants in DNA repair pathways and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers: combined analysis of data from two genome-wide association studies in European populations.  

PubMed

DNA repair pathways are good candidates for upper aerodigestive tract cancer susceptibility because of their critical role in maintaining genome integrity. We have selected 13 pathways involved in DNA repair representing 212 autosomal genes. To assess the role of these pathways and their associated genes, two European data sets from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium were pooled, totaling 1954 cases and 3121 controls, with documented demographic, lifetime alcohol and tobacco consumption information. We applied an innovative approach that tests single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-sets within DNA repair pathways and then within genes belonging to the significant pathways. We showed an association between the polymerase pathway and oral cavity/pharynx cancers (P-corrected = 4.45 × 10(-) (2)), explained entirely by the association with one SNP, rs1494961 (P = 2.65 × 10(-) (4)), a missense mutation V306I in the second exon of HELQ gene. We also found an association between the cell cycle regulation pathway and esophagus cancer (P-corrected = 1.48 × 10(-) (2)), explained by three SNPs located within or near CSNK1E gene: rs1534891 (P = 1.27 × 10(-) (4)), rs7289981 (P = 3.37 × 10(-) (3)) and rs13054361 (P = 4.09 × 10(-) (3)). As a first attempt to investigate pathway-level associations, our results suggest a role of specific DNA repair genes/pathways in specific upper aerodigestive tract cancer sites. PMID:24658182

Babron, Marie-Claude; Kazma, Rémi; Gaborieau, Valérie; McKay, James; Brennan, Paul; Sarasin, Alain; Benhamou, Simone

2014-07-01

36

Improved longitudinal [(18)F]-AV45 amyloid PET by white matter reference and VOI-based partial volume effect correction.  

PubMed

Amyloid positron-emission-tomography (PET) offers an important research and diagnostic tool for investigating Alzheimer's disease (AD). The majority of amyloid PET studies have used the cerebellum as a reference region, and clinical studies have not accounted for atrophy-based partial volume effects (PVE). Longitudinal studies using cerebellum as reference tissue have revealed only small mean increases and high inter-subject variability in amyloid binding. We aimed to test the effects of different reference regions and PVE-correction (PVEC) on the discriminatory power and longitudinal performance of amyloid PET. We analyzed [(18)F]-AV45 PET and T1-weighted MRI data of 962 subjects at baseline and two-year follow-up data of 258 subjects. Cortical composite volume-of-interest (VOI) values (COMP) for tracer uptake were generated using either full brain atlas VOIs, gray matter segmented VOIs or gray matter segmented VOIs after VOI-based PVEC. Standard-uptake-value ratios (SUVR) were calculated by scaling the COMP values to uptake in cerebellum (SUVRCBL), brainstem (SUVRBST) or white matter (SUVRWM). Mean SUV, SUVR, and changes after PVEC were compared at baseline between diagnostic groups of healthy controls (HC; N=316), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=483) and AD (N=163). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were calculated for the discriminations between HC, MCI and AD, and expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Finally, the longitudinal [(18)F]-AV45-PET data were used to analyze the impact of quantitation procedures on apparent changes in amyloid load over time. Reference region SUV was most constant between diagnosis groups for the white matter. PVEC led to decreases of COMP-SUV in HC (-18%) and MCI (-10%), but increases in AD (+7%). Highest AUCs were found when using PVEC with white matter scaling for the contrast between HC/AD (0.907) or with brainstem scaling for the contrast between HC/MCI (0.658). Longitudinal increases were greatest in all diagnosis groups with application of PVEC, and inter-subject variability was lowest for the white matter reference. Thus, discriminatory power of [(18)F]-AV45-PET was improved by use of a VOI-based PVEC and white matter or brainstem rather than cerebellum reference region. Detection of longitudinal amyloid increases was optimized with PVEC and white matter reference tissue. PMID:25482269

Brendel, Matthias; Högenauer, Marcus; Delker, Andreas; Sauerbeck, Julia; Bartenstein, Peter; Seibyl, John; Rominger, Axel

2015-03-01

37

Genetic Polymorphisms of Alcohol Dehydrogense-1B and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2, Alcohol Flushing, Mean Corpuscular Volume, and Aerodigestive Tract Neoplasia in Japanese Drinkers.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) modulate exposure levels to ethanol/acetaldehyde. Endoscopic screening of 6,014 Japanese alcoholics yielded high detection rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 4.1 %) and head and neck SCC (1.0 %). The risks of upper aerodigestive tract SCC/dysplasia, especially of multiple SCC/dysplasia, were increased in a multiplicative fashion by the presence of a combination of slow-metabolizing ADH1B*1/*1 and inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 because of prolonged exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol/acetaldehyde. A questionnaire asking about current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass (??180 mL) of beer is a reliable tool for detecting the presence of inactive ALDH2. We invented a health-risk appraisal (HRA) model including the flushing questionnaire and drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. Esophageal SCC was detected at a high rate by endoscopic mass-screening in high HRA score persons. A total of 5.0 % of 4,879 alcoholics had a history of (4.0 %) or newly diagnosed (1.0 %) gastric cancer. Their high frequency of a history of gastric cancer is partly explained by gastrectomy being a risk factor for alcoholism because of altered ethanol metabolism, e.g., by blood ethanol level overshooting. The combination of H. pylori-associated atrophic gastritis and ALDH2*1/*2 showed the greatest risk of gastric cancer in alcoholics. High detection rates of advanced colorectal adenoma/carcinoma were found in alcoholics, 15.7 % of 744 immunochemical fecal occult blood test (IFOBT)-negative alcoholics and 31.5 % of the 393 IFOBT-positive alcoholics. Macrocytosis with an MCV???106 fl increased the risk of neoplasia in the entire aerodigestive tract of alcoholics, suggesting that poor nutrition as well as ethanol/acetaldehyde exposure plays an important role in neoplasia. PMID:25427912

Yokoyama, Akira; Mizukami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

2015-01-01

38

Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.  

PubMed

Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

39

Radiotherapy in the treatment of mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: Analysis of 74 cases. A Rare Cancer Network study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To retrospectively analyze a series of mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract to determine the prognostic factors and contribute to understanding the role of radiotherapy in the therapeutic strategy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients were analyzed. The most frequent locations were nasal and oral, in 31 patients (41.9%) and 12 patients (16.2%), respectively. Sixty-three patients (85.1%) were in Stage I, 5 (6.8%) in Stage II, and 6 (8.1%) in Stage III. Treatment consisted of surgery in 17 patients (23.0%), surgery and radiotherapy in 42 (56.8%), radiotherapy in 11 (14.9%), and chemo-immunotherapy in 4 (5.4%). Median follow-up was 20 months. Results: Local control at 3 years was 57% after surgery alone and 71% after surgery and radiotherapy. Overall and disease-free survival rates, respectively, were 41% and 31% at 3 years and 14% and 22% at 10 years. After univariate analysis, female gender, melanosis, tumor size {<=}3 cm, Stage I, postoperative radiotherapy, and complete remission were favorable prognostic factors. Stage I and melanosis were confirmed by multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Local control was improved by postoperative radiotherapy, despite survival being as poor as in other published series. Stage I and melanosis at diagnosis were the most favorable prognostic factors.

Krengli, Marco [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy)]. E-mail: krengli@tera.it; Masini, Laura [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); Kaanders, Johannes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maingon, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre G. F. Leclerc, Dijon (France); Oei, Swan Bing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Instituut, Tilburg (Netherlands); Zouhair, Abderrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ozyar, Enis [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara (Turkey); Roelandts, Martine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Bruxelles (Belgium); Amichetti, Maurizio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ospedale Oncologico A. Businco, Cagliari (Italy); Bosset, Mathieu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besancon, Besancon (France); Mirimanoff, Rene-Olivier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2006-07-01

40

Analysis of functional results and quality of life following free jejunal flaps for reconstruction after upper aerodigestive neoplastic resection: the St James's experience.  

PubMed

Surgical treatment of hypopharyngeal cancers with extension to the postcricoid region generally requires a circumferential pharyngolaryngoesphagectomy followed by reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract. Many techniques have been described in order to achieve a safe and functional reconstruction. Interposition of the jejunal free flap (JFF) is a well-established technique and is the flap of choice in our unit. This is a retrospective review of all patients who required a JFF following pharyngolaryngoesphagectomy over an 9-year period. We studied medical charts, histological reports, and speech and language therapy assessments. Eight of the nine surviving patients completed a quality of life questionnaire. Analysis was carried out on patient demographics, flap survival, patient survival and quality of life including swallow function and speech restoration. A total of 23 patients had 24 jejunal free flaps. There were four perioperative deaths. Two flaps failed, and were salvaged with a second JFF in one case and a gastric pull-up in the second. Functioning swallow was established in 74% of patients with four patients complaining of dysphagia. Speech was restored using an electrolarynx or Blom Singer valve in 70% of patients. Most patients required radiotherapy as part of their adjuvant treatment. In our hands the JFF for reconstruction following pharyngolaryngoesophageal resection allows restoration of function following major ablative surgery. PMID:17485043

Hanson, R P; Chow, T K; Feehan, E; Eadie, P A; Timon, C T; Keogh, S

2007-01-01

41

Diffusional homogenization of light REE in garnet from the Day Nui Con Voi Massif in N-Vietnam: Implications for SmNd geochronology and timing of metamorphism in  

E-print Network

Diffusional homogenization of light REE in garnet from the Day Nui Con Voi Massif in N Keywords: Sm­Nd Lu­Hf Garnet dating Trace elements Diffusion Vietnam High-grade migmatitic and mylonitic diffusional profiles in garnet. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of trace elements indicate that REE and Hf

Demouchy, Sylvie

42

Risk factors for developing a second upper aerodigestive cancer after radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancers: An exploratory outcomes analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The objective was to assess the influence of treatment-related and patient-related factors on the risk of developing a second primary tumor (SPT) of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) in patients with locoregionally advanced nonmetastatic carcinomas of the head-and-neck region. Methods and Materials: The data of 521 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were pooled: 224 patients from the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK) 10/94 trial, treated with 1.2 Gy b.i.d. to 74.4 Gy, and randomized to receive or not to receive simultaneous chemotherapy with cisplatin (excluding nasopharyngeal and maxillary sinus carcinomas); and 297 patients from Geneva, all treated with accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant boost to 69.9 Gy and predominantly cisplatin-based concomitant chemotherapy in 33% of patients (including 21 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas). An exploratory analysis using competing risk methodology was performed. Results: A total of 65 SPT of the UADT were observed after a median observation time of 4.7 years. The overall risk of experiencing an SPT of the UADT at 10 years in the presence of all other possible events was estimated to be 33%. There were no SPTs after treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, there was no difference in occurrence of SPT at 3 years with respect to the administration of chemotherapy (p = 0.31), age (p 0.62), performance status (p = 0.61), gender (p = 0.27), presence of nodal disease (p = 0.51), or T stage (p = 0.72). However, patients treated with concomitant boost had fewer SPTs (p = 0.0093). Conclusions: Our data do not suggest that addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy influences the incidence of second cancers in patients with head-and-neck cancer. The difference in the incidence of SPT between the two radiotherapy schedule groups merits further exploration.

Taussky, Daniel [Division of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: daniel.taussky.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca; Rufibach, Kaspar M.Sc. [Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAAK), Berne (Switzerland); Huguenin, Pia [Division of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Allal, Abdelkarim S. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

2005-07-01

43

Cancer screening of upper aerodigestive tract in Japanese alcoholics with reference to drinking and smoking habits and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype.  

PubMed

In this study, 1,000 Japanese male alcoholics were consecutively screened by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with esophageal iodine staining. Associations among cancer-detection rates, drinking and smoking habits, and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genotypes were evaluated. A total of 53 patients (5.3%) had histologically confirmed cancer. Esophageal cancer was diagnosed in 36, gastric cancer in 17, and oropharyngolaryngeal cancer in 9 patients: 8 of the esophageal-cancer patients were multiple-cancer patients, with additional cancer(s) in the stomach and/or oropharyngolaryngeal region. Multiple logistic regression revealed that use of stronger alcoholic beverages (whisky or shochu) in contrast with lighter beverages (sake or beer) and smoking of 50 pack-years or more increased the risks for esophageal (odds ratio 3.2 and 2.8 respectively), oropharyngolaryngeal (4.8 and 5.1 respectively) and multiple cancer (10.5 and 11.8 respectively). The inactive form of ALDH2, encoded by the gene ALDH2*1/2*2 prevalent in Orientals, exposes them to higher blood levels of acetaldehyde, a recognized animal carcinogen, after drinking. This inactive ALDH2 was detected in 19/36 (52.8%) patients with esophageal cancer, in 5/9 (55.6%) patients with oropharyngolaryngeal cancer, and in 7/8 (87.5%) patients with multiple cancer. All of these gene frequencies far exceeded that in a large alcoholic cohort (80/655, 12.2%). The triple combination of the risk factors of the inactive ALDH2, stronger alcoholic beverages and heavy smoking was more commonly associated with multiple-cancer patients than with patients with esophageal cancer alone (62.5% vs. 7.1%). These results show that the 3 risk factors are important for the development of upper-aerodigestive-tract cancer in Japanese alcoholics. For these high-risk drinkers, regimented screening appears to be indicated. PMID:8903472

Yokoyama, A; Ohmori, T; Muramatsu, T; Higuchi, S; Yokoyama, T; Matsushita, S; Matsumoto, M; Maruyama, K; Hayashida, M; Ishii, H

1996-11-01

44

Tobacco Smoking, NBS1 Polymorphisms, and Survival in Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers with Semi-Bayes Adjustment for Hazard-ratio Variation  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NBS1 have been associated with susceptibility to lung and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers, their relations to cancer survival and measures of effect are largely unknown. Methods Using follow-up data from 611 lung-cancer cases and 601 UADT-cancer cases from a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles, we prospectively evaluated associations of tobacco smoking and 5 NBS1 SNPs with all-cause mortality. Mortality data were obtained from the Social Security Death Index. We used Cox regression to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for main effects and ratios of hazard ratios (RHR) derived from product terms to assess hazard-ratio variations by each SNP. Bayesian methods were used to account for multiple comparisons. Results We observed 406 (66%) deaths in lung-cancer cases and 247 (41%) deaths in UADT-cancer cases with median survival of 1.43 and 1.72 years, respectively. Ever tobacco smoking was positively associated with mortality for both cancers. We observed an upward dose-response association between smoking pack-years and mortality in UADT squamous cell carcinoma. The adjusted HR relating smoking to mortality in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was greater for cases with the GG genotype of NBS1 rs1061302 than for cases with AA/AG genotypes (semi-Bayes adjusted RHR = 1.97; 95% limits = 1.14, 3.41). Conclusions A history of tobacco smoking at cancer diagnosis was associated with mortality among patients with lung cancer or UADT squamous cell carcinoma. The HR relating smoking to mortality appeared to vary with the NBS1 rs1061302 genotype among NSCLC cases. PMID:24166361

Yang, Tingting; Chang, Po-Yin; Park, Sungshim Lani; Bastani, Delara; Chang, Shen-Chih; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald P.; Mao, Jenny T.; Papp, Jeanette C.; Rao, Jian-Yu; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas M.; Greenland, Sander; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

2013-01-01

45

All Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Publications  

Cancer.gov

Berg AK, Allen Ziegler K, Harmsen WS, Green EM, McGovern RM, Szabo E, Ames MM, Boring D, Mandrekar SJ, Limburg PJ, Reid JM. Population pharmacokinetic model for cancer chemoprevention with sulindac in healthy subjects.

46

Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Publications  

Cancer.gov

Chen J, Lam S, Pilon A, McWilliams A, MacAulay C, Szabo E. Higher levels of the anti-inflammatory protein CC10 are associated with improvement in bronchial dysplasia and sputum cytometric assessment in individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res.

47

ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE CACHAN  

E-print Network

people. SEM, SMEREP, LMDE Sécurité sociale étudiante student health insurances SDS Service des Sports.................................................................... 6 HEALTH INSURANCE ................................................................. 17 THE SPORTS ASSOCIATIONS (AS) OF ENS CACHAN ................................................. 19

48

The nature of the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone: Constraints from structural, microstructural and fabric analyses of metamorphic rocks from the Diancang Shan, Ailao Shan and Day Nui Con Voi massifs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural geology, timing of shearing, and tectonic implications of the ASRR shear zone, one of the most striking lineaments in Southeast Asia, have been the topics of extensive studies over the past few decades. The Xuelong Shan (XLS), Diancang Shan (DCS), Ailao Shan (ALS) and Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) metamorphic massifs along the shear zone have preserved important information on its structural and tectonic evolution. Our field structural analysis, detailed microstructural and fabric analysis, as well as the quartz, sillimanite and garnet fabric studies of the sheared rocks from the massifs demonstrate the dominant roles of three deformation episodes during Cenozoic tectonic evolution in the shear zone. Among the contrasting structural and microstructural associations in the shear zone, D2 structures, which were formed at the brittle to ductile transition during large-scale left-lateral shearing in the second deformation episode, predominate over the structural styles of the other two deformation episodes. Discrete micro-shear zones with intensive grain size reduction compose the characteristic structural style of D2 deformation. In addition, several types of folds (early shearing folds, F21, and late-shearing folds, F22) were formed in the sheared rocks, including discrete to distributed mylonitic foliation, stretching lineation and shear fabrics (e.g., mica fish, domino structures, as well as sigma and delta fabrics). A sequence of microstructures from syn-kinematic magmatic flow, high-temperature solid-state deformation, to brittle-ductile shearing is well-preserved in the syn-kinematic leucocratic intrusions. Deformation structures from the first episode (D1) are characterized by F1 folds and distributed foliations (S1) in rocks due to pure shearing at high temperatures. They are preserved in weakly sheared (D2) rocks along the eastern margin of the ALS belt or in certain low-strain tectonic enclaves within the shear zone. Furthermore, semi-brittle deformation structures, such as hot striae and discrete retrogression zones, are attributed to normal-slip shearing in the third deformation episode (D3), which was probably locally active, along the eastern flank of the DCS range, for example. There are four quartz c-axis fabric patterns in the mylonitic rocks, including type A point maxima, type B Y point maxima with crossed girdles superimposition, type C quadrant maxima, as well as type D point and quadrant maxima combination. They are consistent with microscopic observations of microstructures of high-temperature pure shearing, low-temperature simple shearing and their superimposition. Integrated microstructural analysis and fabric thermometer studies provide information on both high temperature (up to 750 °C) and dominant low-temperature (300-600 °C) deformations of quartz grains in different rock types. Sillimanite and garnet fabrics, especially the latter, were primarily formed at the peak metamorphism during high-temperature pure shearing. The above structural, microstructural and fabric associations were generated in the tectonic framework of the Indian-Eurasian collision. The low-temperature microstructures and fabrics are attributed to left-lateral shearing along the ASRR shear zone from 27 to 21 Ma during the southeastward extrusion of the Indochina block, which postdated high-temperature deformation at the peak metamorphism during the collision.

Liu, Junlai; Tang, Yuan; Tran, My-Dung; Cao, Shuyun; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Zhaochong; Zhao, Zhidan; Chen, Wen

2012-03-01

49

ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DEPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE  

E-print Network

th`ese, nous poursuivons notre ´etude en incluant les effets sur les oscillations de courant d propri´et´es ´electro-optiques, notamment l'´echelle d'´etats de Wannier-Stark dans sa forme de Wannier-Stark et excitoniques. Tous les param`etres mis en jeu dans le ph´enom`ene des

50

ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DEPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE  

E-print Network

´eress´e `a l'avancement de notre travail, et a r´epondu avec gentillesse `a mes questions sur le r´egime coh'^etre occup´e des virus de mon PC !) et `a Christine Martinet pour les ´echantillons de bo^ites quantiques

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

Stem cells and cancer in the aerodigestive tract.  

PubMed

Recently, there have been significant advances in our knowledge of stem cells found in epithelial tissues. In particular, novel stem cell markers have been identified that for the first time identify multipotential cells; a required characteristic of a stem cell. The scarcity of cancer stem cells has been questioned. Current dogma states that they are rare, but novel research has suggested that this may not be the case. Here I review the latest literature on stem cells, particularly so-called cancer stem cells present in tumours of the respiratory tract and colorectum. I discuss current thinking on how stem cells develop into cancer stem cells, how they protect themselves from doing so, and whether cancer stem cells express unique markers that can be used to detect them. Finally, I attempt to put into perspective these latest advances in cancer stem cell biology from the viewpoint of perhaps more effective cancer therapies. PMID:19775616

Alison, Malcolm R

2009-09-01

52

Departement de Physique Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain Ecole Normale Superieure  

E-print Network

and Electronic structure of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes 4 1.1 The Two-dimensional Graphene Layer to Coulomb Blockade Oscillations of Conductance . . . . 34 3.4 How to Move Carbon Nanotubes with AFM Tips

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

DEPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE DE L'ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.2.2 Assembly, pump down and bake out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3 Laser systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.3.1 Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.3.2 Diode lasers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.4.3 Coil assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.4.4 Optics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

Universite de Lyon -CNRS Ecole normale superieure de Lyon  

E-print Network

´e de M. Viatcheslav Kharlamov M. Fran¸cois Lalonde M. Dietmar Salamon M. Jean-Claude Sikorav M. Claude Viterbo Mme. Claire Voisin apr`es avis de M. Yakov Eliashberg M. Fran¸cois Lalonde M. Claude Viterbo #12

Maume-Deschamps, Véronique

55

Extensive HPV-related carcinoma in situ of the upper aerodigestive tract with 'nonkeratinizing' histologic features.  

PubMed

Over the past several decades, it has become clear that human papillomavirus (HPV) is important for the development and progression of many head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, particularly those arising in the oropharyngeal tonsillar crypts. Yet, our understanding of HPV's role in premalignant squamous lesions remains relatively poor. This is in part because premalignant lesions of the oropharyngeal tonsillar crypt tissue, where most HPV-related carcinomas arise, are difficult if not impossible to identify. Recent evidence does suggest a role for HPV in a subset of premalignant lesions of the surface epithelium, especially the oral cavity, despite the rarity of HPV-related invasive squamous cell carcinomas at this site. Furthermore, these HPV-related oral cavity dysplasias appear to have unique, bowenoid histologic features described as 'basaloid' with full-thickness loss of squamous maturation, mitotic figures and apoptosis throughout. Here, we present a unique case of an HPV-related premalignant lesion (squamous cell carcinoma in situ) extensively involving the surface epithelium of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx that had 'nonkeratinizing' histologic features typical of HPV-related invasive squamous cell carcinoma. This case was strongly p16 positive by immunohistochemistry and harbored transcriptionally active HPV as demonstrated by E6/E7 RNA in situ hybridization. Furthermore, the patient had an excellent response to radiation treatment. PMID:24151062

Chernock, Rebecca D; Nussenbaum, Brian; Thorstad, Wade L; Luo, Yuling; Ma, Xiao-Jun; El-Mofty, Samir K; Lewis, James S

2014-09-01

56

Spindle basaloid squamous carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: immunohistochemical and clinicopathological study of three cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of three spindle (sarcomatoid) basaloid squamous carcinomas in three men aged 73, 69, and 59 years with a history of tobacco and alcohol abuse. Two tumors were located in the hypopharynx and one was located in the nasal cavity. The three tumors have a pedunculated polypoid appearance. Histologically, they were composed of conventional

Basel Altrabulsi; Fernando Carrizo; Mario A. Luna

2006-01-01

57

Enrichment for a CD26hi SIRP- subset in lymph dendritic cells from the upper aero-digestive tract.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DC) have been reported to migrate in afferent lymph in the steady state. However, it is unknown whether DC traffic is modulated by the nature of the drained tissue. To analyze the influence of mucosal versus cutaneous microenvironments on the constitutive DC release, we exploited a novel technique of lymph cannulation in sheep, which allowed a comparison of afferent lymph DC migrating from the head mucosae [cervical DC (CerDC)] with DC migrating from skin [prescapular DC (PresDC)]. The migration rate was lower for CerDC than for PresDC. Compared with PresDC, CerDC contained a higher proportion of the CD26hi signal regulatory protein (SIRP)- DC subset. It is interesting that cytoplasmic apoptotic DNA as well as cytokeratin-positive inclusions were primarily detected among CD26hi SIRP- DC, an observation similar to that made in rats, which leads to the suggestion that this subset was involved in self-antigen presentation and tolerance induction. After the inoculation of cholera toxin (CT) onto the oro-nasal mucosae, migration of CD26hi SIRP- and CD26lo SIRP+ DC was accelerated in lymph, indicating that the effect of CT on DC mobilization is not subset-specific. Our results show that a mucosal environment influences DC output and the relative DC subset representation in lymph. This modulation of DC traffic to lymph nodes by mucosal surfaces is likely to affect the bias of the mucosal immune responses. PMID:15197234

Epardaud, Mathieu; Bonneau, Michel; Payot, Fabrice; Cordier, Corinne; Mégret, Jérôme; Howard, Chris; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

2004-09-01

58

L'enseignement superieur tunisien: Enjeux et avenir (Higher Education in Tunisia: Challenges and Opportunities).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings of a study of higher education in Tunisia. It finds that higher education in Tunisia is a largely effective and well-performing system. However, it notes an expected doubling of enrollment over the next 10 years which will create obstacles that prevent it from playing the role expected of it by a society and economy…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

59

ECOLE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT ETIENNE N d'ordre : 361 GI  

E-print Network

synchronisation de leursflux. Nous nous intéressons dans ce mémoire à une relation particulière entre clients etfournisseurs, celle fondée sur le principe de livraisons cycliques, selon lequel le fournisseur s'engage à synchroniser leurs flux de production à ceux de livraisons, les entreprises adoptent la production cyclique. L

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

Izzet Burak Yildiz, Ph.D. Group for Neural Theory, Ecole Normale Superieure  

E-print Network

, Paris, France Phone:+33 7 81 480977, Email: izzet.burak.yildiz@gmail.com Current Position Group for Neural Theory, Ecole Normale Sup´erieure Paris, France Postdoctoral researcher developing novel, Turkey Bachelor of Science in Mathematics 2000-2004 Minor degree in Physics Computer Skills Matlab, C

Gutkin, Boris

61

UNIVERSITE DE NICE -SOPHIA ANTIPOLIS INSTITUT SUPERIEUR D'ECONOMIE ET DE MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

reconnaissance à Edward Lorenz pour le soutien qu'il m'a apporté dans toutes mes démarches de recherches. Il m'université n'entend donner aucune approbation ni improbation aux opinions émises dans les thèses : ces opinions terrain. Mes études de cas n'auraient pu avoir lieu sans le concours de nombreuses personnes. Je remercie

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

Le francais fonde sur la competence, Superieur (Competency Based French, Superior).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide in French is intended for training Peace Corps volunteers serving in the Central African Republic. It includes 35 topical units at the superior level, each consisting of briefly stated competency objectives and a number of brief, related situational texts. Unit topics include: explaining how to do something; explaining…

Dimanche, Maurice

63

presentee pour obtenir le grade de Docteur de l'Ecole Nationale Superieure  

E-print Network

´elisation de canal pour les syst`emes de communications multi-antennes Th`ese soutenue le 8 Juillet 2005 for their love, care and educa- tion, which shaped my mind in many ways. #12;ii Acknowledgements #12;Abstract iii

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

G\\\\'eom\\\\'etrie de contact: de la dimension trois vers les dimensions sup\\\\'erieures  

Microsoft Academic Search

On d\\\\'ecrit ici des relations entre la g\\\\'eom\\\\'etrie globale des vari\\\\'et\\\\'es de contact closes et celle de certaines vari\\\\'et\\\\'es symplectiques, \\\\`a savoir les vari\\\\'et\\\\'es de Stein compactes. L'origine de ces relations est l'existence de livres ouverts adapt\\\\'es aux structures de contact. We discuss relations between the global geometry of closed contact manifolds and the geometry of compact symplectic Stein manifolds

Emmanuel Giroux

2003-01-01

65

presentee `a L'ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE PARIS  

E-print Network

leurs avis judicieux en nonlin´eaire, Monsieur Pierre Carpentier pour m'avoir beaucoup aid´e en in`ere condition que nous proposons est fond´ee sur la technique de fonctions de gain. Elle repose sur la notion Sp technique de Lyapunov. Cette condition dite GUEC quantifie une sorte de distance et nous permet de pren

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

66

UNIVERSITE MONTPELLIER II CENTRE INTERNATIONAL D'ETUDES SUPERIEURES EN SCIENCES  

E-print Network

Remerciements 1 Préambule 3 Chapitre 1 : Introduction 7 1.1. L'espèce cultivée : Hevea brasiliensis 9 1.4. Méthodes 32 1.4.1. Caractérisation de l'interaction Hevea / Microcyclus 32 1.4.1.1. Inoculations en.3.6. Génétique d'association 89 Chapitre 4 : Structuration de la diversité dans les populations sauvages d'Hevea

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, Voi. 20 (1) 2011 31 The association between sexual costs and sexuai satisfaction in  

E-print Network

Sexual satisfaction has been defined as "an affective well-being to be considered clinically relevant and sexuai satisfaction in women: An exploration of tiie Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction In women and whether this indirect effect was dependent on adult attachment anxiety. We found a significant

Meston, Cindy

68

Directed polymer in random media in two dimensions: Numerical study of the aging dynamics Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de l'Ecole Normale Superieure, Unite Propre du CNRS, Associee a` l'Ecole Normale Superieure  

E-print Network

for the simulations of a three- dimensional spin glass model 12 . It is analyzed along the lines of a scenario similar to quantum-mechanical problems in a time- dependent random potential 3 , or the very topical problem . In finite dimensions (d 1, with d transverse dimen- sions , the existence of a phase transition has been

Barrat, Alain

69

[The value of extemporaneous study of the surgical margins of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract. Apropos of 129 cases of oral and oropharyngeal tumors].  

PubMed

129 patients, who had oral cavity or oropharyngeal carcinoma underwent excision with intraoperative histopathologic examination. Thanks to this method, the number of satisfying resections has increased from 25% to 75%. Whatever the quality of the surgical excision may be, postoperative radiotherapy improves the prognosis. PMID:2047732

Barrellier, P; Dupin, P; Grimaux, B; Blanchet, F; Notari, A; Rame, J P; De Raucourt, D; Mandard, A M; De Ranieri, E; Compere, J F

1991-01-01

70

Nd'ordre 2005-12 ECOLE DOCTORALE 432 Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Arts et Metiers  

E-print Network

'ENSAM, Metz Co-Directeur de th`ese J. GOURNAY Senior Manager R.D. MEDTRONIC-SOFAMOR-DANEK Invit´e P. MAXY Senior Ing´enieur Recherche MEDTRONIC-SOFAMOR-DANEK Invit´e B. PRANDI Directeur de MEMOMETAL INDUSTRIE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES TELECOMMUNICATIONS Prsent en vue d'obtenir le grade de docteur de l'Ecole Nationale  

E-print Network

(INT Evry) Michel Diaz (LAAS CNRS) Vincent Roca (INIRA Rhones Alpes) Ahmed Serhrouchni (ENST Paris'abord à mon directeur de thèse Ahmed Serhrouchni pour avoir accepté de me diriger patiemment et pour son, Mejdi, Rana, Rami, Rani, Tarek, Tranh et Xiaouyn, qui ont contribué à rendre mon séjour et mes études

Boyer, Edmond

72

Programs and Projects  

Cancer.gov

Programs and Projects Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancers Research Group Research Portfolio Search the NCI-Funded Research Portfolio for projects supported by the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group. Use the Advanced Search to choose Division

73

2008 Research Highlights  

Cancer.gov

Alcohol, a known risk factor for upper aerodigestive cancers, is metabolized by several enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The genes in the ADH pathway are important candidate genes for aerodigestive cancers.

74

Les voies/voix de la vengeance l'opra au XIXe [...] ici chacun se venge , proclame Ruy Blas au dnouement, sanglant, du drame  

E-print Network

fois une approche dramaturgique ­ une charge spectaculaire auquel les enchantements lyriques, pas plus communication commune pour laisser entendre, stylisée ou métaphorisée par la musique vocale, la brutalité croisée, engageant la dramaturgie lyrique et l'écriture vocale, qu'il s'agit ici d'aborder, en resserrant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

GEOPHYSICS. VOI.. 51. NO. 7 (JULY 1986): P. 14X&1493, 18 FIGS., 2 TABLES Evaluation of the BGM-3 sea gravity meter system  

E-print Network

sea gravity meter system onboard R/V Conrad Robin E. Bell* and A. B. Watts* ABSTRACT The first Bell Aerospace BGM-3 Marine Gravity Meter System available for academic use was installed on R/V Rohrrt D. Conrad in February, 1984. The BGM-3 system consists of a forced feedback accelero- meter mounted on a gyrostabilized

Watts, A. B. "Tony"

76

Developmental Psychology Copyright 1990bythe American PsyeholosiealAssociation, Inc. 1990,Voi.26,No. I, 15-23 0012-1649/90/$00.75  

E-print Network

. I, 15-23 0012-1649/90/$00.75 Face-to-Face Interactions of Postpartum Depressed and Nondepressed University of Pittsburgh Depression'sinfluenceon mother-infant interactious at 2 months postpartum's development. Postpartum depression would be expected to interfere with optimal mothering

Cohn, Jeffrey F.

77

BULLETIN OF TEE UNITED STATES F18H COMMISSION. 25'7 VoI. 1x1,No. 17. Washington, D. C. Sept. 6, 1883,  

E-print Network

everywhere. NPMPHBACEB. WATEB-LILYFANILY. 7. Braseniapeltata, Pursh. Water-Shield. Carberry Meadowsbelow Eads-crop. Common everywhere. HALORAGE&. WATER-MI~FOILFAMILY. 17. Myriophyllum epicaturn,L. Water-Milfoil. Below anibiyens, Watson. [Iz. alisnztefoliw,Geyer.] Water- Plantain Spearwort. Eastern Branch marsh, D. 0.;a180

78

WindVOiCe, a Self-Reporting Survey: Adverse Health Effects, Industrial Wind Turbines, and the Need for Vigilance Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Industrial wind turbines have been operating in many parts of the globe. Anecdotal reports of perceived adverse health effects relating to industrial wind turbines have been published in the media and on the Internet. Based on these reports, indications were that some residents perceived they were experiencing adverse health effects. The purpose…

Krogh, Carmen M. E.; Gillis, Lorrie; Kouwen, Nicholas; Aramini, Jeff

2011-01-01

79

Conference on Numerical Methods in Fluid Mechanics, 4th, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Techniques Avancees, Paris, France, October 7-9, 1981, Proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the topics discussed during the present conference were turbulent flow structure effects on diffusion and premixed flame propagation, methods for solving airfoil and intake flow for Euler's equations, nonviscous three-dimensional rotational flow calculations in blade passages, a comparison of finite difference and spectral time integration for the nonlinear Burgers equation, and a comparison of nine calculation methods for a

H. Viviand

1982-01-01

80

Construction de la face superieure du Rubik's cube Toutes les figures de ce document representent le cube pose sur une table,  

E-print Network

Construction de la face sup´erieure du Rubik's cube Toutes les figures de ce document repr´esentent le cube pos´e sur une table, vu d'en haut. La seule face visible est donc la face sup´erieure, la'on voudrait enfoncer dans le cube. Appliquer, par exemple, la formule RU c'est faire tourner la face de droite

Deléglise, Marc

81

Higher Education and Social Origin in France: A Statistical Study of Inequalities Since 1965 = Enseignement Superieur Et Origine Sociale En France: Etude Statistique Des Inegalites Depuis 1965  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mass education has the goal of guaranteeing the same education to all in order to moderate differences between individuals and promote a kind of "equality of opportunity." Nonetheless, it seems clear that lower-class youths do not benefit as much from their degree or university experience as do those who come from more privileged backgrounds. The…

Jaoul, Magali

2004-01-01

82

Value of Information References  

DOE Data Explorer

This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

Morency, Christina

83

Value of Information References  

SciTech Connect

This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

Morency, Christina

2014-12-12

84

L'Evaluation du Rendement Scolaire. Etude Analytique des Instruments de Testing Employes pour Evaluer les Progres des Eleves aux cycles Intermediaire et Superieur. Cycles Intermediaire et Superieur. (The Evaluation of Scholastic Output. An Analytical Review of Test Instruments Used in Evaluating Pupil Achievement in the Intermediate and Senior Divisions. Intermediate and Senior Divisions).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted of achievement testing practices in the intermediate and senior divisions of French-language Ontario schools. Grades 7-8 and grades 9-10 were discussed separately. Department heads, administrators, and board of education members were interviewed concerning the availability and curricular validity of the French-language…

Desjarlais, Lionel

85

Model reliability for 3D electrical resistivity tomography: Application of the volume of investigation index to a time-lapse monitoring experiment  

E-print Network

Model reliability for 3D electrical resistivity tomography: Application of the volume such as electrical resistivity tomography ERT .We construct the volume of investigation index VOI as the sensitivity VOI that can be applied to electrical re- sistivity tomography ERT . The VOI is simple to compute

Barrash, Warren

86

VOIES NAVIGABLES ET DESSERTE PORTUAIRE Massifier les flux pour intégrer le transport fluvial dans les chaînes logistiques portuaires : étude des impacts économiques et environnementaux. Le cas du transport fluvial conteneurisé  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le programme de recherche partait de l'hypothèse que le transport fluvial combiné fleuveroute pour le transport de conteneurs pouvait s'imposer comme un mode de transport compétitif par rapport à la route à partir du moment où il jouait sur son principal atout qui était celui de la massification des flux. Grâce à nos travaux, nous avons pu mettre en évidence,

Antoine Frémont; Pierre Franc

2008-01-01

87

Contrast-to-noise ratio improvement in volume-of-interest cone beam breast CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we demonstrated the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) improvement in breast cone beam CT (CBCT) using the volume-of-interest (VOI) scanning technique. In VOI breast CBCT, the breast is first scanned at a low exposure level. A pre-selected VOI is then scanned at a higher exposure level with collimated x-rays. The two image sets are combined together to reconstruct high quality 3-D images of the VOI. A flat panel detector based system was built to demonstrate and investigate the CNR improvement in VOI breast CBCT. The CNRs of the 8 plastic cones (Teflon, Delrin, polycarbonate, Lucite, solid water, high density polystyrene, nylon and polystyrene) in a breast phantom were measured in images obtained with the VOI CBCT technique and compared to those measured in standard full field CBCT images. CNRs in VOI CBCT images were found to be higher than those in regular CBCT images in all plastic cones. The mean glandular doses (MGDs) from the combination of a high exposure VOI scan and a low exposure full-field scan was estimated to be similar to that from regular full-field scan at standard exposure level. The VOI CBCT technique allows a VOI to be imaged with enhanced image quality with an MGD similar to that from regular CBCT technique.

Shen, Youtao; Liu, Xinming; Lai, Chao-Jen; Zhong, Yuncheng; Yi, Ying; You, Zhicheng; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

2012-03-01

88

L'Evolution des Chances d'Acces a l'Enseignement Superieur en France (1962-1966). (The Development of Career Openings in Higher Education in France (1962-1966))  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to present the problem of the democratisation of higher education by reference to unambiguous data, the authors propose a simple principle for calculating the opportunities for entry to a given level of instruction, or into a given field, as a function of social origin and sex. (Editor)

Bourdieu, Pierre; And Others

1973-01-01

89

EDUCAFRICA, December 1986. Special Issue: Case Studies on Higher Education in Africa. Special Volume 1=EDUCAFRICA, Decembre 1986. Etudes de cas sur L'Enseignement Superieur en Afrique, Tome 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of the development of higher education in 17 African countries are presented. Eleven of the case studies are written in French, and six are in English. The country reports that are in English are as follows: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania. The country reports in French are: Benin, Burkina Faso,…

EDUCAFRICA, 1986

1986-01-01

90

Highlighting the Impacts of North-South Research Collaboration among Canadian and Southern Higher Education Partners (Principaux impacts des collaborations de recherche Nord-Sud entre les partenaires des etablissements d'enseignement superieur du Canada et du Sud)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) felt it was timely to create an academic forum in which university researchers have the opportunity to engage with their peers and relevant stakeholders and document the impacts of their North-South research collaboration in a peer-reviewed publication. The Association achieved this by…

Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2006

2006-01-01

91

Maine- ja valtuutusperustaisen luottamuksenhallinnan haasteet ja vahvuudet.  

E-print Network

??Tutkielmassa käsitellään luottamuksenhallintaa hajautetussa ympäristössä. Tietoturvan kannalta täysin suljettu järjestelmä on ainoa turvallinen vaihtoehto. Verkko ja yhteistoiminta verkossa edellyttävät kuitenkin avoimuutta, jotta yhteistoimintaa voi verkon… (more)

Piippo, Janne

2013-01-01

92

Android-sovellusten testaaminen.  

E-print Network

??Googlen kehittämä Android on noussut viime vuosina markkinaosuudeltaan suurimmaksi mobiililaitteiden käyttöjärjestelmäksi. Kuka tahansa voi kehittää Androidille sovelluksia, joiden kehittämiseen tarvittavat välineet ovat ilmaiseksi saatavilla. Erilaisia… (more)

Niemistö, Juho

2014-01-01

93

August 28-29, 2002 Questions/Comments  

Cancer.gov

POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN MODIFICATION: NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER PREVENTION WORKSHOP Questions/Comments For additional information or questions about the conference please contact: Thea Kalebic, MD, PhD Lung and Upper Aerodigestive

94

UNIVERSITE PARIS-SUD 11 COLE DOCTORALE : Cancrologie, Biologie, Mdecine, Sant  

E-print Network

......................................................................................... 14 I. Les dommages à l'ADN et leurs origines)..................................................................... 28 2.2.4. Les pontages de l'ADN................................. 30 III. Les différentes voies de réparation des dommages de l'ADN............... 32 1. Voies de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

Quantification of F-18 FDG PET Images in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients Using Probabilistic Brain Atlas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A probabilistic atlas of the human brain (Statistical Probabilistic Anatomical Maps: SPAM) was developed by the international consortium for brain mapping (ICBM). It is a good frame for calculating volume of interest (VOI) in many fields of brain images. After calculating the counts in VOI using the product of probability of SPAM images and counts in FDG images, asymmetric indices

Keon Wook Kang; Dong Soo Lee; Jae Hun Cho; Jae Sung Lee; Jeong Seok Yeo; Sang Kun Lee; June-Key Chung; Myung Chul Lee

2001-01-01

96

A bulk-flow model of angled injection Lomakin bearings  

E-print Network

Engineering i i i ABSTRACT A B u l k - F l o w Model of Angled Injection Lomakin Bearings. (December 2001) Thomas Antoine Theo Soulas, Engineering Diploma, Ecole Centrale de Lyon , France; M . S . , Ecole Nationale Superieure de l'Aeronautique et de l... Engineering i i i ABSTRACT A B u l k - F l o w Model of Angled Injection Lomakin Bearings. (December 2001) Thomas Antoine Theo Soulas, Engineering Diploma, Ecole Centrale de Lyon , France; M . S . , Ecole Nationale Superieure de l'Aeronautique et de l...

Soulas, Thomas Antoine Theo

2012-06-07

97

Dual resolution cone beam breast CT: A feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated the feasibility of a dual resolution volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam breast CT technique and compared two implementation approaches in terms of dose saving and scatter reduction. Methods: With this technique, a lead VOI mask with an opening is inserted between the x-ray source and the breast to deliver x-ray exposure to the VOI while blocking x rays outside the VOI. A CCD detector is used to collect the high resolution projection data of the VOI. Low resolution cone beam CT (CBCT) images of the entire breast, acquired with a flat panel (FP) detector, were used to calculate the projection data outside the VOI with the ray-tracing reprojection method. The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct the dual resolution 3D images. Breast phantoms with 180 {mu}m and smaller microcalcifications (MCs) were imaged with both FP and FP-CCD dual resolution CBCT systems, respectively. Two approaches of implementing the dual resolution technique, breast-centered approach and VOI-centered approach, were investigated and evaluated for dose saving and scatter reduction with Monte Carlo simulation using a GEANT4 package. Results: The results showed that the breast-centered approach saved more breast absorbed dose than did VOI-centered approach with similar scatter reduction. The MCs in fatty breast phantom, which were invisible with FP CBCT scan, became visible with the FP-CCD dual resolution CBCT scan. Conclusions: These results indicate potential improvement of the image quality inside the VOI with reduced breast dose both inside and outside the VOI.

Chen Lingyun; Shen Youtao; Lai, Chao-Jen; Han Tao; Zhong Yuncheng; Ge Shuaiping; Liu Xinming; Wang Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Whitman, Gary J.; Shaw, Chris C. [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States)

2009-09-15

98

Dual resolution cone beam breast CT: A feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated the feasibility of a dual resolution volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam breast CT technique and compared two implementation approaches in terms of dose saving and scatter reduction. Methods: With this technique, a lead VOI mask with an opening is inserted between the x-ray source and the breast to deliver x-ray exposure to the VOI while blocking x rays outside the VOI. A CCD detector is used to collect the high resolution projection data of the VOI. Low resolution cone beam CT (CBCT) images of the entire breast, acquired with a flat panel (FP) detector, were used to calculate the projection data outside the VOI with the ray-tracing reprojection method. The Feldkamp–Davis–Kress filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct the dual resolution 3D images. Breast phantoms with 180 ?m and smaller microcalcifications (MCs) were imaged with both FP and FP-CCD dual resolution CBCT systems, respectively. Two approaches of implementing the dual resolution technique, breast-centered approach and VOI-centered approach, were investigated and evaluated for dose saving and scatter reduction with Monte Carlo simulation using a GEANT4 package. Results: The results showed that the breast-centered approach saved more breast absorbed dose than did VOI-centered approach with similar scatter reduction. The MCs in fatty breast phantom, which were invisible with FP CBCT scan, became visible with the FP-CCD dual resolution CBCT scan. Conclusions: These results indicate potential improvement of the image quality inside the VOI with reduced breast dose both inside and outside the VOI. PMID:19810473

Chen, Lingyun; Shen, Youtao; Lai, Chao-Jen; Han, Tao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Liu, Xinming; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Whitman, Gary J.; Shaw, Chris C.

2009-01-01

99

Interactive annotation of textures in thoracic CT scans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes a system for interactive annotation of thoracic CT scans. Lung volumes in these scans are segmented and subdivided into roughly spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) with homogeneous texture using a clustering procedure. For each 3D VOI, 72 features are calculated. The observer inspects the scan to determine which textures are present and annotates, with mouse clicks, several VOIs of each texture. Based on these annotations, a k-nearest-neighbor classifier is trained, which classifies all remaining VOIs in the scan. The algorithm then presents a slice with suggested annotations to the user, in which the user can correct mistakes. The classifier is retrained, taking into account these new annotations, and the user is presented another slice for correction. This process continues until at least 50% of all lung voxels in the scan have been classified. The remaining VOIs are classified automatically. In this way, the entire lung volume is annotated. The system has been applied to scans of patients with usual and non-specific interstitial pneumonia. The results of interactive annotation are compared to a setup in which the user annotates all predefined VOIs manually. The interactive system is 3.7 times as fast as complete manual annotation of VOIs and differences between the methods are similar to interobserver variability. This is a first step towards precise volumetric quantitation of texture patterns in thoracic CT in clinical research and in clinical practice.

Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; de Jong, Pim A.; Gietema, Hester A.; Grutters, Jan C.; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

2010-03-01

100

The Acquisition of Stereochemical Knowledge by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work we evaluated the level of difficulty found in learning stereochemistry concepts, by students intending to teach physical sciences at the Ecole Normale Superieure (ENS) Kouba (Algeria). A paper and pencil questionnaire was administered to 170 students to evaluate: their familiarity with Newman representations; their ability of linking…

Boukhechem, Mohamed-Salah; Dumon, Alain; Zouikri, Mohamed

2011-01-01

101

Olivier Baudron 1 , Henri Gilbert 2 , Louis Granboulan 1 , Helena Handschuh 3 , Robert Harley 4 , Antoine Joux 5 , Phong Nguyen 1 , Fabrice Noilhan 6 , David  

E-print Network

, Guillaume Poupard 1 , Jacques Stern 1 , and Serge Vaudenay 1 1 Ecole Normale Sup'erieure -- CNRS 2 France, we describe how DFC may be subject to slight change in its key schedule in order to fix a minor an implementation of DFC on ARM which encrypts within 710 cycles (C language plus asm opcode) or 560 cycles

Stern, Jacques

102

Transparent Incremental State Saving in Time Warp Parallel Discrete Event Robert Rnngren, Michael Liljenstam Johan Montagnat  

E-print Network

Rönngren, Michael Liljenstam Johan Montagnat and Rassul Ayani Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan Email state resto- ration in case of roll back. Furthermore, it is often a requirement that this mechanism in case of roll- back. The implementation of the state saving and restoration mechanism is in many systems

Boyer, Edmond

103

des Humanismus Studien zum Nutzen des N euen  

E-print Network

in Dokumenten und Deutungen. Hamburg 1959; siehe auch Roy Strong, Art and Power - Renaissance Festivals 1450 doch die erhaltenen I So bei Jacob Burckhardt, Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien. Essen 1996'Etudes Humanistes du Centre d'Etudes Superieures de la Renaissance (Tours, 29 juin - 8 juillet 1989). Amsterdam 1993

Schubart, Christoph

104

UNIVERSIT MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE-BORDEAUX 3 ED 480 COLE DOCTORALE MONTAIGNE HUMANITES  

E-print Network

EN COTE D'IVOIRE (2000 ­ 2005).- NICI. ........................................................................................................................ 31 -INTERET DE L'INTEGRATION DES TIC DANS L'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR ET LA RECHERCHE EN COTE D'IVOIRE'�ducation en Afrique : Situation de l'enseignement supérieur en Côte d'Ivoire (2003-2005) Directeur de thèse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

This is an author-deposited version published in: http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID: 9049  

E-print Network

. 1 #12;1. Introduction When flying in the atmosphere, an aircraft generates two counter the Radar Signature of Raindrops in Aircraft Wake Vortices. (2013) Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic in Aircraft Wake Vortices Zhongxun Liu Institut Superieur de l'Aeronautique et de l'Espace, University

Mailhes, Corinne

106

Introducing Pierre Colmez Our first Emil-Artin-lecturer is Pierre Colmez, Directeur de recherche l'institut de mathmatiques  

E-print Network

Introducing Pierre Colmez Our first Emil-Artin-lecturer is Pierre Colmez, Directeur de recherche à Gabrielle Sand et Guido Triossi de l'Académie des Sciences and, moreover, he won the 2005-Fermat l'institut de mathématiques de Jussieu. He studied at Ecole Normale Superieure and obtained his

107

VOLUME 88, NUMBER 5 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 4 FEBRUARY 2002 Minimal Model for Sand Dunes  

E-print Network

for Sand Dunes Klaus Kroy,* Gerd Sauermann, and Hans J. Herrmann PMMH, Ã?cole Superieure de Physique et; published 16 January 2002) We propose a minimal model for aeolian sand dunes. It combines an analytical description of the turbulent wind velocity field above the dune with a continuum saltation model that allows

108

Light modulation with electro-optic polymer-based resonant grating  

E-print Network

Light modulation with electro-optic polymer-based resonant grating waveguide structures Tsvi Superieure de Cachan, 61av. du president Wilson, 94235 Cachan, France Abstract: A novel modulator design, with approximately 2nm spectral line width at 1.55m. An externally applied voltage modulates the refractive index

Friesem, Asher A.

109

28 CFR 91.50 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...In General § 91.50 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to inform grant recipients under the Violent Offender Incarceration and Truth-in-Sentencing Incentive (VOI/TIS) Formula Grant Program of OJP's procedures for complying with...

2013-07-01

110

28 CFR 91.50 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...In General § 91.50 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to inform grant recipients under the Violent Offender Incarceration and Truth-in-Sentencing Incentive (VOI/TIS) Formula Grant Program of OJP's procedures for complying with...

2010-07-01

111

28 CFR 91.50 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...In General § 91.50 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to inform grant recipients under the Violent Offender Incarceration and Truth-in-Sentencing Incentive (VOI/TIS) Formula Grant Program of OJP's procedures for complying with...

2011-07-01

112

28 CFR 91.50 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...In General § 91.50 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to inform grant recipients under the Violent Offender Incarceration and Truth-in-Sentencing Incentive (VOI/TIS) Formula Grant Program of OJP's procedures for complying with...

2014-07-01

113

28 CFR 91.50 - Purpose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...In General § 91.50 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to inform grant recipients under the Violent Offender Incarceration and Truth-in-Sentencing Incentive (VOI/TIS) Formula Grant Program of OJP's procedures for complying with...

2012-07-01

114

28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57...CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant...require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. Significant...

2011-07-01

115

28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57...CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant...require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. Significant...

2012-07-01

116

28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57...CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant...require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. Significant...

2010-07-01

117

28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57...CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant...require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. Significant...

2014-07-01

118

28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57...CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant...require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. Significant...

2013-07-01

119

UNIVERSIT SORBONNE NOUVELLE PARIS III COLE DOCTORALE 122  

E-print Network

. ....................................................................... 32 1.1.2. L'urbanisation d'Acapulco se dessine autour de l'espace de la foire. ....... 34 1 pour Manille. ........ 96 CHAPITRE II : SANTÃ?, VOIES DE COMMUNICATIONS ET ACTIVITÃ?S PORTUAIRES. ............................

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

120

28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91.62 Section...GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.62...

2010-07-01

121

28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91.62 Section...GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.62...

2011-07-01

122

28 CFR 91.63 - Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Impact Statement 91.63 Section...GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.63...

2014-07-01

123

28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91.62 Section...GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.62...

2012-07-01

124

28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91.62 Section...GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.62...

2014-07-01

125

28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91.62 Section...GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.62...

2013-07-01

126

DETERMINANTS PHYSIOLOGIQUES DES POTENTIELS EVOQUES RESPIRATOIRES - APPLICATION AU SYNDROME D'APNEES OBSTRUCTIVES DU SOMMEIL.  

E-print Network

??Les potentiels évoqués respiratoires (PER) correspondent aux projections corticales d'afférences mises en jeu lors d'occlusions inspiratoires brèves. Ils pourraient constituer un outil d'étude des voies… (more)

Donzel-Raynaud, Christine

2007-01-01

127

INGEGNERIA CLINICA WEARHAP: sistemi robotici  

E-print Network

vi permettano di toccare cose e persone a chilometri di distanza, ovunque voi siate. Pensate alla interagire e cooperare con cose e persone indipendentemente da dove esse si trovino. L'indossabilità è l

Siena, Università di

128

28 CFR 91.54 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...projects, such as construction or management activities located... (b) VOI/TIS construction grants subject to...from OJP that involve construction, expansion, renovation...facility planning, site selection,...

2010-07-01

129

Multidetector Computed Tomographic Angiography (MDCTA) for Penetrating Neck Injuries  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of patients after penetrating neck injury has evolved over time. Previously, location of injury and symptoms were used to determine management. The contemporary management of penetrating neck injuries relies on physical examination. Patients with hard signs of vascular or aerodigestive tract injury require immediate operation, regardless of location of injury. Those with no signs can be observed. For the remainder with soft signs, multidetector computed tomographic angiography (MDCTA) is a highly sensitive and specific screening modality for evaluating the vasculature and aerodigestive structures in the neck. Utilizing MDCTA, the patient can be safely directed towards operative intervention, observation, or further investigation. PMID:23908840

Pasley, Jason; Berg, Regan J.; Inaba, Kenji

2012-01-01

130

Review of Evaluative Mechanisms in the Departments of Advanced Education and Labour and Human Resources Development--New Brunswick = Examen des mecanismes d'evaluation au ministere de l'Enseignement superieur et du Travail et au ministere du Developpement des Ressources humaines du Nouveau-Brunswick.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evaluative mechanisms in the Department of Advanced Education and Labour and Department of Human Resources Development in the Canadian province of New Brunswick were reviewed. Data were gathered from the following: meetings with key staff in each department, briefing session for all key informants, 19 personal interviews, brief review of the…

New Brunswick Labour Force Development Board, Fredericton.

131

The power of neuroimaging biomarkers for screening frontotemporal dementia.  

PubMed

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease that can result from either frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. It is critical to establish statistically powerful biomarkers that can achieve substantial cost-savings and increase the feasibility of clinical trials. We assessed three broad categories of neuroimaging methods to screen underlying FTLD and AD pathology in a clinical FTD series: global measures (e.g., ventricular volume), anatomical volumes of interest (VOIs) (e.g., hippocampus) using a standard atlas, and data-driven VOIs using Eigenanatomy. We evaluated clinical FTD patients (N?=?93) with cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter (GM) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess whether they had underlying FTLD or AD pathology. Linear regression was performed to identify the optimal VOIs for each method in a training dataset and then we evaluated classification sensitivity and specificity in an independent test cohort. Power was evaluated by calculating minimum sample sizes required in the test classification analyses for each model. The data-driven VOI analysis using a multimodal combination of GM MRI and DTI achieved the greatest classification accuracy (89% sensitive and 89% specific) and required a lower minimum sample size (N?=?26) relative to anatomical VOI and global measures. We conclude that a data-driven VOI approach using Eigenanatomy provides more accurate classification, benefits from increased statistical power in unseen datasets, and therefore provides a robust method for screening underlying pathology in FTD patients for entry into clinical trials. PMID:24687814

McMillan, Corey T; Avants, Brian B; Cook, Philip; Ungar, Lyle; Trojanowski, John Q; Grossman, Murray

2014-09-01

132

Imaging of cervical lymphadenopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification and classification of cervical lymphadenopathy can be a challenging task for the general radiologist. Patients with a wide range of clinical presentation and disease states are often referred for imaging, although evaluation and staging of head and neck cancer is the most common indication. In addition to metastatic squamous carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract, the differential diagnosis

Arjun Vikram Kaji; Tamara Mohuchy; Joel D Swartz

1997-01-01

133

Relation between age and head and neck cancer recurrence after surgery: A multivariate analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports have described an increase in squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract in young adults. As the preponderance of epidemiologic data exists for the population between 50 and 70 years of age, controversy has developed regarding the clinical course of head and neck cancer in youth. Some authors advocate more aggressive management, calling attention to the lack

PETER G. VON DOERSTEN; RAUL M. CRUZ; BARRY M. RASGON; CHARLES P. QUESENBERRY; RAYMOND L. HILSINGER

1995-01-01

134

Organ Site-Specific SPOREs | Translational Research Program (TRP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Organ Site-Specific SPOREs By State By Organ Location Last Updated: 11/28/13 Thyroid SPOREs SPOREs in Head and Neck (H&N) cancer support translational research on cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract and on thyroid

135

Correlation between Initial and Early Follow-Up CT Perfusion Parameters with Endoscopic Tumor Response in Patients with Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Oropharynx Treated with Organ-Preservation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current organ-preservation regimens for upper aerodigestive tract squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) require endoscopic procedures under general anesthesia to evaluate the tumor response. The purpose of our study was to determine whether CT perfusion (CTP) parameters correlate with response to induction chemotherapy as assessed by endoscopy under general anesthesia. METHODS: Nine patients with advanced (stage 3 or 4)

D. Gandhi; D. B. Chepeha; T. Miller; R. C. Carlos; C. R. Bradford; R. Karamchandani; F. Worden; A. Eisbruch; T. N. Teknos; G. T. Wolf; S. K. Mukherji

136

Dietary Zinc Modulation of COX2 Expression and Lingual and Esophageal Carcinogenesis in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, includ- ing esophageal and tongue carcinomas, is a major cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Esophageal and tongue cancers have both been associated with dietary zinc deficiency (ZD), and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) is often overexpressed in these cancers. Using rat models, we examined whether zinc regu- lates COX-2 expression in these cancers. Method: Expression of

Louise Y. Y. Fong; Liang Zhang; Yubao Jiang; John L. Farber

2005-01-01

137

Morphologic and Functional Changes in the Temporomandibular Joint and Stomatognathic System after  

E-print Network

after Transmandibular Surgery in Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancers: Systematic Review Mohammed Al, temporomandibular joint O ral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are some of the most common cancers in the head and neck region.1 Treatment of upper aerodigestive tract cancers can involve surgical intervention and

Alberta, University of

138

ALCOHOL AND CANCER: CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF ACTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of epidemiological studies have indicated that long-term and excessive alcohol consumption is a significant risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers and liver cancer. High alcohol consumption also increases the risk for other types of cancer, such as colorectal, lung and breast. In...

139

Feeding & Motor Functioning: Start at the Hips to Get to the Lips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Swallowing is one of the most complex movement patterns that people must use accurately throughout the day and night from the time they are born. These movement patterns are very closely integrated with breathing and movement of food through the aerodigestive tract. Malalignment or dysfunction in any part of these integrated patterns and systems…

Donato, Jessica; Fox, Cathy; Mormon, Johnnie; Mormon, Mike

2008-01-01

140

Epidemiology of head and neck cancer: Magnitude of the problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head and neck cancer comprises squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. There are similarities in their natural history, epidemiology and control. For these cancers premalignant changes can be identified. Smoking and drinking are the major risk factors. The geographical variations in incidence and mortality are indicative of differences in the prevalence of risk factors between countries. The dramatic

Lajos Döbróssy

2005-01-01

141

A case study of nutrient intervention of oral precancerous lesions in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco chewing and\\/or smoking are strongly related to several cancers, mainly of the upper aerodigestive tract. Several studies on diet and cancer links suggest that micronutrients, particularly antioxidant vitamins and minerals, are risk modifiers of cancers of epithelial origin. This study looks at the impact of micronutrients such as vitamin A, riboflavin, zinc and selenium as intervention agents in subjects

K. Krishnaswamy; M. P. R. Prasad; T. P. Krishna; V. V. Annapurna; G. Amarendra Reddy

1995-01-01

142

A RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF AN INTERVENTION TO INCREASE FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INTAKE IN DURATIVELY TREATED PATIENTS WITH EARLY STAGE HEAD AND NECK CANCER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The leading cause of death in patients who have had curatively treated early stage head and neck (H&N) cancer is a second primary cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract(lung, esophagus, larynx, pharynx and oral cavity cancers). Low fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake has been associated with increased...

143

Caustic ingestion in adults: The role of endoscopic classification in predicting outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The ingestion of caustic substances induces an extensive spectrum of injuries to the aerodigestive tract which include extensive necrosis and perforation of the esophagus and stomach. The gold standard of safely assessing depth, extent of injury, and appropriate therapeutic regimen is esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The objective of this study was to report our clinical experience and to evaluate the role

Hao-Tsai Cheng; Chi-Liang Cheng; Cheng-Hui Lin; Jui-Hsiang Tang; Yin-Yi Chu; Nai-Jen Liu; Pang-Chi Chen

2008-01-01

144

‘Now you see it…now you don't.’ Carmoisine vital dye facilitates complete removal of cutaneous neoplasia by intraoperative visual enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients presenting for excision of squamous cell carcinomata, including Bowen's disease, in sun-damaged skin often present with poorly defined, morphoeic or multifocal neoplasms, the extent of which can be difficult to identify intraoperatively. Use of vital staining has been commonly used to aid identification and appropriate excision of squamous lesions of the oral cavity and upper aerodigestive tract but has

K. D. J Murphy; P. N Hall

2003-01-01

145

Specializations of the human upper respiratory and upper digestive systems as seen through comparative and developmental anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human upper respiratory, or aerodigestive, tract serves as the crossroads of our breathing, swallowing and vocalizing pathways. Accordingly, developmental or evolutionary change in any of these functions will, of necessity, affect the others. Our studies have shown that the position in the neck of the mammalian larynx is a major factor in determining function in this region. Most mammals,

Jeffrey T. Laitman; Joy S. Reidenberg

1993-01-01

146

Loss of HOP tumour suppressor expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

We report that homeodomain-only protein (HOP) is expressed in the suprabasal layer of normal upper aerodigestive tract epithelium and expression strongly decreases in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Interestingly, HOP has very recently been shown to be a tumour suppressor involved in differentiation, suggesting that HOP may have a similar role in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSSC). PMID:15213722

Lemaire, F; Millon, R; Muller, D; Rabouel, Y; Bracco, L; Abecassis, J; Wasylyk, B

2004-01-01

147

Phenylketonuria: brain phenylalanine concentrations relate inversely to cerebral protein synthesis.  

PubMed

In phenylketonuria, elevated plasma phenylalanine concentrations may disturb blood-to-brain large neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport and cerebral protein synthesis (CPS). We investigated the associations between these processes, using data obtained by positron emission tomography with l-[1-(11)C]-tyrosine ((11)C-Tyr) as a tracer. Blood-to-brain transport of non-Phe LNAAs was modeled by the rate constant for (11)C-Tyr transport from arterial plasma to brain tissue (K1), while CPS was modeled by the rate constant for (11)C-Tyr incorporation into cerebral protein (k3). Brain phenylalanine concentrations were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in three volumes of interest (VOIs): supraventricular brain tissue (VOI 1), ventricular brain tissue (VOI 2), and fluid-containing ventricular voxels (VOI 3). The associations between k3 and each predictor variable were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The rate constant k3 was inversely associated with brain phenylalanine concentrations in VOIs 2 and 3 (adjusted R(2)=0.826, F=19.936, P=0.021). Since brain phenylalanine concentrations in these VOIs highly correlated with each other, the specific associations of each predictor with k3 could not be determined. The associations between k3 and plasma phenylalanine concentration, K1, and brain phenylalanine concentrations in VOI 1 were nonsignificant. In conclusion, our study shows an inverse association between k3 and increased brain phenylalanine concentrations.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 29 October 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.183. PMID:25352046

de Groot, Martijn J; Sijens, Paul E; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Paans, Anne M; van Spronsen, Francjan J

2014-10-29

148

Approximation d'un nombre r'eel par des nombres alg'ebriques de degr'e donn'e  

E-print Network

Approximation d'un nombre r'eel par des nombres alg'ebriques de degr'e donn'e Yann Bugeaud'eressons `a l'approximation des nombres r'eels par des nombres alg'ebriques, et en parti­ culier par des entier et ¸ un nombre complexe. On note w n (¸) la borne sup'erieure des nombres r'eels w pour lesquels

Bugeaud, Yann

149

SubMIR - a submillimeter and IR observations database  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have built the first submillimeter and IR observations database of the Laboratoire de Radioastronomie-Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris-LERMA (Observatoire de Paris) which contains already more than 1000 submm\\/mm spectra and several IR maps of nearby galaxies (D<10Mpc) from Bayet et al. 2004, 2005a, 2005b, 2006; Gerin & Phillips 1998, 2000. It has been developed to gather, classify and make

E. Bayet; J. F. Rabasse; M. Gerin

2005-01-01

150

Completeness map evaluation demonstrated with candidate next-generation cardiac CT architectures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this report, the authors introduce the general concept of the completeness map, as a means to evaluate the completeness of data acquired by a given CT system design (architecture and scan mode). They illustrate the utility of completeness map by applying the completeness map concept to a number of candidate CT system designs, as part of a study to advance the state-of-the-art in cardiac CT. Methods: In order to optimally reconstruct a point within a volume of interest (VOI), the Radon transform on all possible planes through that point should be measured. The authors quantified the extent to which this ideal condition is satisfied for the entire image volume. They first determined a Radon completeness number for each point in the VOI, as the percentage of possible planes that is actually measured. A completeness map is then defined as a 3D matrix of the completeness numbers for the entire VOI. The authors proposed algorithms to analyze the projection datasets in Radon space and compute the completeness number for a fixed point and apply these algorithms to various architectures and scan modes that they are evaluating. In this report, the authors consider four selected candidate architectures, operating with different scan modes, for a total of five system design alternatives. Each of these alternatives is evaluated using completeness map. Results: If the detector size and cone angle are large enough to cover the entire cardiac VOI, a single-source circular scan can have {>=}99% completeness over the entire VOI. However, only the central z-slice can be exactly reconstructed, which corresponds to 100% completeness. For a typical single-source architecture, if the detector is limited to an axial dimension of 40 mm, a helical scan needs about five rotations to form an exact reconstruction region covering the cardiac VOI, while a triple-source helical scan only requires two rotations, leading to a 2.5x improvement in temporal resolution. If the source and detector of an inverse-geometry (IGCT) system have the same axial extent, and the spacing of source points in the axial and transaxial directions is sufficiently small, the IGCT can also form an exact reconstruction region for the cardiac VOI. If the VOI can be covered by the x-ray beam in any view, a composite-circling scan can generate an exact reconstruction region covering the VOI. Conclusions: The completeness map evaluation provides useful information for selecting the next-generation cardiac CT system design. The proposed completeness map method provides a practical tool for analyzing complex scanning trajectories, where the theoretical image quality for some complex system designs is impossible to predict, without yet-undeveloped reconstruction algorithms.

Liu Baodong; Bennett, James; Wang Ge; De Man, Bruno; Zeng Kai; Yin Zhye; Fitzgerald, Paul; Yu Hengyong [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiologic Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 27157 (United States) and Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States); Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States) and Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); CT Systems and Applications Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Department of Radiology, Division of Radiologic Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States) and Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States)

2012-05-15

151

Pulmonary airways tree segmentation from CT examinations using adaptive volume of interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airways tree segmentation is an important step in quantitatively assessing the severity of and changes in several lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis. It can also be used in guiding bronchoscopy. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated scheme for segmenting the airways tree structure depicted on chest CT examinations. After lung volume segmentation, the scheme defines the first cylinder-like volume of interest (VOI) using a series of images depicting the trachea. The scheme then iteratively defines and adds subsequent VOIs using a region growing algorithm combined with adaptively determined thresholds in order to trace possible sections of airways located inside the combined VOI in question. The airway tree segmentation process is automatically terminated after the scheme assesses all defined VOIs in the iteratively assembled VOI list. In this preliminary study, ten CT examinations with 1.25mm section thickness and two different CT image reconstruction kernels ("bone" and "standard") were selected and used to test the proposed airways tree segmentation scheme. The experiment results showed that (1) adopting this approach affectively prevented the scheme from infiltrating into the parenchyma, (2) the proposed method reasonably accurately segmented the airways trees with lower false positive identification rate as compared with other previously reported schemes that are based on 2-D image segmentation and data analyses, and (3) the proposed adaptive, iterative threshold selection method for the region growing step in each identified VOI enables the scheme to segment the airways trees reliably to the 4th generation in this limited dataset with successful segmentation up to the 5th generation in a fraction of the airways tree branches.

Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Won Pil; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph K.; Pu, Jiantao; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

2009-02-01

152

CBCT with specification of imaging dose and CNR by anatomical volume of interest  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A novel method has been developed for volume of interest (VOI) cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging using a 2.35 MV/Carbon target linac imaging beam line combined with dynamic multileaf collimator sequences. Methods: The authors demonstrate the concept of acquisition of multiple, separate imaging volumes, where volumes can be either completely separated or nested, and are associated with predetermined imaging dose and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) characteristics. Two individual MLC sequences were established in the planning system (Eclipse, Varian Medical) to collimate the beam according to a defined inner VOI (e.g., containing a target volume under image guidance) and an outer VOI (e.g., including surrounding landmarks or organs-at-risk). MLC sequences were interleaved as a function of gantry angle to produce a reconstructed CBCT image with nested VOIs. By controlling the ratio of inner-to-outer ratio of MLC segments (and thus Monitor Units) during acquisition, the relative dose and CNR in the two volumes can be controlled. Inner-to-outer ratios of 2:1 to 6:1 were examined. Results: The concept was explored using an anatomical head phantom to assess image quality. A geometric phantom was used to quantify absolute dose and CNR values for the various sequences. The authors found that the dose in the outer VOI decreased by a functional relationship dependent on the inner-to-outer sequence ratio, while the CNR varied by the square root of dose, as expected. Conclusions: In this study the authors demonstrate flexibility in VOI CBCT by tailoring the imaging dose and CNR distribution in separate volumes within the patient anatomy. This would allow for high quality imaging of a target volume for alignment purposes, with simultaneous low dose imaging of the surrounding anatomy (e.g., for coregistration)

Leary, Del, E-mail: dleary@dal.ca [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada); Robar, James L., E-mail: james.robar@cdha.nshealth.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada)

2014-01-15

153

Improved Regional Activity Quantitation in Nuclear Medicine using a New Approach to Correct for Tissue Partial Volume and Spillover Effects  

PubMed Central

We have developed a new method of compensating for effects of partial volume and spillover in dual-modality imaging. The approach requires segmentation of just a few tissue types within a small VOI surrounding a lesion; the algorithm estimates simultaneously, from projection data, the activity concentration within each segmented tissue inside the VOI. Measured emission projections were fitted to the sum of resolution-blurred projections of each such tissue, scaled by its unknown activity concentration, plus a global background contribution obtained by reprojection through the reconstructed image volume outside the VOI. The method was evaluated using multiple-pinhole ?SPECT data simulated for the MOBY mouse phantom containing two spherical lung tumors and one liver tumor, as well as using multiple-bead phantom data acquired on ?SPECT and ?CT scanners. Each VOI in the simulation study was 4.8 mm (12 voxels) cubed and, depending on location, contained up to four tissues (tumor, liver, heart, lung) with different values of relative 99mTc concentration. All tumor activity estimates achieved <3% bias after ~15 OSEM iterations (× 10 subsets), with better than 8% precision (?25% greater than the Cramer-Rao lower bound). The projection-based fitting approach also outperformed three SUV-like metrics, one of which was corrected for count spillover. In the bead phantom experiment, the mean ± standard deviation of the bias of VOI estimates of bead concentration were 0.9 ± 9.5%, comparable to those of a perturbation geometric transfer matrix (pGTM) approach (-5.4 ± 8.6%); however, VOI estimates were more stable with increasing iteration number than pGTM estimates, even in the presence of substantial axial misalignment between ?CT and ?SPECT image volumes. PMID:21965196

Moore, Stephen C.; Southekal, Sudeepti; Park, Mi-Ae; McQuaid, Sarah J.; Kijewski, Marie Foley; Müller, Stefan P.

2013-01-01

154

A Semi-Automated Technique Determining the Liver Standardized Uptake Value Reference for Tumor Delineation in FDG PET-CT  

PubMed Central

Background 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) has been an essential modality in oncology. We propose a semi-automated algorithm to objectively determine liver standardized uptake value (SUV), which is used as a threshold for tumor delineation. Methods A large spherical volume of interest (VOI) was placed manually to roughly enclose the right lobe (RL) of the liver. For each voxel in this VOI, a coefficient of variation of voxel values (CVv) was calculated for neighboring voxels within a radius of d/2. The voxel with the minimum CVv was then selected, where a 30-mm spherical VOI was placed at that voxel in accordance with PERCIST criteria. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently defined 30-mm VOIs manually on 124 studies in 62 patients to generate the standard values, against which the results from the new method were compared. Results The semi-automated method was successful in determining the liver SUV that was consistent between the two physicians in all the studies (d?=?80 mm). The liver SUV threshold (mean +3 SD within 30-mm VOI) determined by the new semi-automated method (3.12±0.61) was not statistically different from those determined by the manual method (Physician-1: 3.14±0.58, Physician-2: 3.15±0.58). The semi-automated method produced tumor volumes that were not statistically different from those by experts' manual operation. Furthermore, the volume change in the two sequential studies had no statistical difference between semi-automated and manual methods. Conclusions Our semi-automated method could define the liver SUV robustly as the threshold value used for tumor volume measurements according to PERCIST. The method could avoid possible subjective bias of manual liver VOI placement and is thus expected to improve clinical performance of volume-based parameters for prediction of cancer treatment response. PMID:25162396

Hirata, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Wong, Koon-Pong; Manabe, Osamu; Surmak, Andrew; Tamaki, Nagara; Huang, Sung-Cheng

2014-01-01

155

Volume of interest-based [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET discriminates MCI converting to Alzheimer's disease from healthy controls. A European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) study.  

PubMed

An emerging issue in neuroimaging is to assess the diagnostic reliability of PET and its application in clinical practice. We aimed at assessing the accuracy of brain FDG-PET in discriminating patients with MCI due to Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. Sixty-two patients with amnestic MCI and 109 healthy subjects recruited in five centers of the European AD Consortium were enrolled. Group analysis was performed by SPM8 to confirm metabolic differences. Discriminant analyses were then carried out using the mean FDG uptake values normalized to the cerebellum computed in 45 anatomical volumes of interest (VOIs) in each hemisphere (90 VOIs) as defined in the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) Atlas and on 12 meta-VOIs, bilaterally, obtained merging VOIs with similar anatomo-functional characteristics. Further, asymmetry indexes were calculated for both datasets. Accuracy of discrimination by a Support Vector Machine and the AAL VOIs was tested against a validated method (PALZ). At the voxel level SMP8 showed a relative hypometabolism in the bilateral precuneus, and posterior cingulate, temporo-parietal and frontal cortices. Discriminant analysis classified subjects with an accuracy ranging between .91 and .83 as a function of data organization. The best values were obtained from a subset of 6 meta-VOIs plus 6 asymmetry values reaching an area under the ROC curve of .947, significantly larger than the one obtained by the PALZ score. High accuracy in discriminating MCI converters from healthy controls was reached by a non-linear classifier based on SVM applied on predefined anatomo-functional regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetries. Data pre-processing was automated and simplified by an in-house created Matlab-based script encouraging its routine clinical use. Further validation toward nonconverter MCI patients with adequately long follow-up is needed. PMID:25610765

Pagani, M; De Carli, F; Morbelli, S; Öberg, J; Chincarini, A; Frisoni, G B; Galluzzi, S; Perneczky, R; Drzezga, A; van Berckel, B N M; Ossenkoppele, R; Didic, M; Guedj, E; Brugnolo, A; Picco, A; Arnaldi, D; Ferrara, M; Buschiazzo, A; Sambuceti, G; Nobili, F

2015-01-01

156

Volume of interest-based [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET discriminates MCI converting to Alzheimer's disease from healthy controls. A European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) study  

PubMed Central

An emerging issue in neuroimaging is to assess the diagnostic reliability of PET and its application in clinical practice. We aimed at assessing the accuracy of brain FDG-PET in discriminating patients with MCI due to Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. Sixty-two patients with amnestic MCI and 109 healthy subjects recruited in five centers of the European AD Consortium were enrolled. Group analysis was performed by SPM8 to confirm metabolic differences. Discriminant analyses were then carried out using the mean FDG uptake values normalized to the cerebellum computed in 45 anatomical volumes of interest (VOIs) in each hemisphere (90 VOIs) as defined in the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) Atlas and on 12 meta-VOIs, bilaterally, obtained merging VOIs with similar anatomo-functional characteristics. Further, asymmetry indexes were calculated for both datasets. Accuracy of discrimination by a Support Vector Machine and the AAL VOIs was tested against a validated method (PALZ). At the voxel level SMP8 showed a relative hypometabolism in the bilateral precuneus, and posterior cingulate, temporo-parietal and frontal cortices. Discriminant analysis classified subjects with an accuracy ranging between .91 and .83 as a function of data organization. The best values were obtained from a subset of 6 meta-VOIs plus 6 asymmetry values reaching an area under the ROC curve of .947, significantly larger than the one obtained by the PALZ score. High accuracy in discriminating MCI converters from healthy controls was reached by a non-linear classifier based on SVM applied on predefined anatomo-functional regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetries. Data pre-processing was automated and simplified by an in-house created Matlab-based script encouraging its routine clinical use. Further validation toward nonconverter MCI patients with adequately long follow-up is needed. PMID:25610765

Pagani, M.; De Carli, F.; Morbelli, S.; Öberg, J.; Chincarini, A.; Frisoni, G.B.; Galluzzi, S.; Perneczky, R.; Drzezga, A.; van Berckel, B.N.M.; Ossenkoppele, R.; Didic, M.; Guedj, E.; Brugnolo, A.; Picco, A.; Arnaldi, D.; Ferrara, M.; Buschiazzo, A.; Sambuceti, G.; Nobili, F.

2014-01-01

157

Gaze-contingent video resolution degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results are presented evaluating two wavelet- based gaze-contingent video resolution degradation methods under three foveal Region of Interest (ROI) placement strategies. ROI placement is described by the introduction of a novel visualization of viewers' scanpaths, termed Volumes of Interest (VOIs). VOIs represent foveal loci of gaze in 3D space-time. Three ROI placement strategies, ideal, preattentive, and aggregate, are used to determine the location of an unprocessed, dynamic spatial resolution region corresponding to the projected dimension of the fovea. Results indicate imperceptible degradation effects of both ideal and preattentive strategies under a visual tracking paradigm.

Duchowski, Andrew T.; McCormick, Bruce H.

1998-07-01

158

UNIVERSIT GRENOBLE 1 -JOSEPH FOURIER U.F.R. de Mdecine  

E-print Network

et HSP22 dans les voies de la réparation de l'ADN : approche structurale et fonctionnelle Thèse tableaux Liste des abréviations Chapitre I I- Introduction : les voies de la réparation de l'ADN p 1 I.1- L'ADN I.1.1- L'ADN : cible privilégiée I.1.2- Les mutations et les lésions de l'ADN I.2- Approche

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

Processing sequence for non-destructive inspection based on 3D terahertz images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an innovative data and image processing sequence to perform non-destructive inspection from 3D terahertz (THz) images. We develop all the steps starting from a 3D tomographic reconstruction of a sample from its radiographs acquired with a monochromatic millimetre wave imaging system. Thus an automated segmentation provides the different volumes of interest (VOI) composing the sample. Then a 3D visualization and dimensional measurements are performed on these VOI, separately, in order to provide an accurate nondestructive testing (NDT) of the studied sample. This sequence is implemented onto an unique software and validated through the analysis of different objects

Balacey, H.; Perraud, Jean-Baptiste; Bou Sleiman, J.; Guillet, Jean-Paul; Recur, B.; Mounaix, P.

2014-11-01

160

Cancers of the lung, head and neck on the rise: perspectives on the genotoxicity of air pollution  

PubMed Central

Outdoor air pollution has been recently classified as a class I human carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cumulative evidence from across the globe shows that polluted air is associated with increased risk of lung, head and neck, and nasopharyngeal cancers—all of which affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Importantly, these cancers have been previously linked to smoking. In this article, we review epidemiologic and experimental evidence of the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of air pollution on DNA, purportedly a key mechanism for cancer development. The alarming increase in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Asia suggests a need to focus government efforts and research on reducing air pollution, promoting clean energy, and investigating the carcinogenic effects of air pollution on humans. PMID:25011457

Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Ng, Yuen-Keng; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan

2014-01-01

161

Prognostic significance of wound infections following major head and neck cancer surgery: an open non-comparative prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe evaluated the incidence, risk factors and consequences of wound infection (WI) following major head and neck cancer surgery in an open non-comparative study.Patients and methodsThe study group, comprising 95 patients who underwent clean-contaminated procedures with opening of the upper aerodigestive tract for biopsy-proven squamous cell cancer, were studied over a 1-year period. Antibiotic prophylaxis was amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.

Nicolas Penel; Charles Fournier; Micheline Roussel-Delvallez; Danièle Lefebvre; Ahmed Kara; Yann Mallet; Jean-Charles Neu; Jean-Louis Lefebvre

2004-01-01

162

September 3-6, 2002: EDRN Steering Committee Meeting  

Cancer.gov

The Early Detection Research Network Steering Committee meeting is devoted to discuss and conduct reviews of the network's research, collaborations, data sharing and dissemination, the network infrastructure, management, enrolment of associate members. Specific discussions will be conducted by the network collaborative group meetings (Breast and Gynecologic Cancers; G.I. and Other Associated Cancers; Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancers; Prostate and Urologic Cancers) and the data management and coordination center.

163

January 29-31, 2003: 7th EDRN Steering Committee Meeting  

Cancer.gov

The Early Detection Research Network Steering Committee meeting is devoted to discuss and conduct reviews of the network's research, collaborations, data sharing and dissemination, the network infrastructure, management, enrolment of associate members. Specific discussions will be conducted by the network collaborative group meetings (Breast and Gynecologic Cancers; G.I. and Other Associated Cancers; Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancers; Prostate and Urologic Cancers) and the data management and coordination center. This meeting has a special emphasis on validation and discovery studies.

164

Lipoid proteinosis (Urbach-Wiethe disease) in two siblings  

PubMed Central

Lipoid proteinosis is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by deposition of hyaline material in the skin and the upper aerodigestive tract. Hoarseness of voice occurs very early in life and airway obstruction may occur. Characteristic skin lesions include multiple brown atrophic scars over face and distal extremities, beaded papules over the margins of the eyelids and verrucous nodules over the friction bearing areas (elbows, knees). The overall prognosis is good. There is no definitive treatment. PMID:25593816

Thaddanee, Rekha; Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar; Pandya, Purna; Chaturvedi, Mayank

2014-01-01

165

Lipoid proteinosis (Urbach-Wiethe disease) in two siblings.  

PubMed

Lipoid proteinosis is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by deposition of hyaline material in the skin and the upper aerodigestive tract. Hoarseness of voice occurs very early in life and airway obstruction may occur. Characteristic skin lesions include multiple brown atrophic scars over face and distal extremities, beaded papules over the margins of the eyelids and verrucous nodules over the friction bearing areas (elbows, knees). The overall prognosis is good. There is no definitive treatment. PMID:25593816

Thaddanee, Rekha; Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar; Pandya, Purna; Chaturvedi, Mayank

2014-12-01

166

DCTD Program Accomplishments 2010  

Cancer.gov

Barbara A. Conley, M.D., is the newly appointed Associate Director of the Cancer Diagnosis Program (CDP). She is an NCI veteran who has held previous positions at the Institute. From 1997 to 2004, she participated in several key programs within the NCI, including Senior Investigator in the Clinical Investigations Branch of CTEP and Chief of the CDP Diagnostics Research Branch, as well as Head, Aerodigestive Diseases, in the intramural medicine branch.

167

Esophageal reflexes modulate frontoparietal response in neonates: Novel application of concurrent NIRS and provocative esophageal manometry.  

PubMed

Central and peripheral neural regulation of swallowing and aerodigestive reflexes is unclear in human neonates. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method to measure changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD). Pharyngoesophageal manometry permits evaluation of aerodigestive reflexes. Modalities were combined to investigate feasibility and to test neonatal frontoparietal cortical changes during pharyngoesophageal (visceral) stimulation and/or swallowing. Ten neonates (45.6 ± 3.0 wk postmenstrual age, 4.1 ± 0.5 kg) underwent novel pharyngoesophageal manometry concurrent with NIRS. To examine esophagus-brain interactions, we analyzed cortical hemodynamic response (HDR) latency and durations during aerodigestive provocation and esophageal reflexes. Data are presented as means ± SE or percent. HDR rates were 8.84 times more likely with basal spontaneous deglutition compared with sham stimuli (P = 0.004). Of 182 visceral stimuli, 95% were analyzable for esophageal responses, 38% for HDR, and 36% for both. Of analyzable HDR (n = 70): 1) HbO concentration (?mol/l) baseline 1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 poststimulus was significant (P = 0.02), 2) HbD concentration (?mol/l) between baseline 0.1 ± 0.4 vs. poststimulus -0.5 ± 0.4 was not significant (P = 0.73), and 3) hemispheric lateralization was 21% left only, 29% right only, and 50% bilateral. During concurrent esophageal and NIRS responses (n = 66): 1) peristaltic reflexes were present in 74% and HDR in 61% and 2) HDR was 4.75 times more likely with deglutition reflex vs. secondary peristaltic reflex (P = 0.016). Concurrent NIRS with visceral stimulation is feasible in neonates, and frontoparietal cortical activation is recognized. Deglutition contrasting with secondary peristalsis is related to cortical activation, thus implicating higher hierarchical aerodigestive protective functional neural networks. PMID:24789204

Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Pakiraih, Joanna F; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Dar, Irfaan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Bates, D Gregory; Kashou, Nasser H

2014-07-01

168

CRCHD - CRCHD Research - Principal Investigator: Joseph Califano, M.D.  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Joseph Califano is a Professor in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Oncology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions in Baltimore, Maryland. He is an active head and neck surgeon who treats tumors of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, neck, skull base, salivary glands, thyroid cancer, premalignant conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract, unknown primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, advance skin cancer, and melanoma.

169

Lead article  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been detected in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the aerodigestive tract with varying frequency\\u000a of 10%-100% mainly due to detection methods and primer pairs used. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most sensitive and\\u000a Southern blot hybridization (SBH) the most specific detection method of HPV DNA. Both methods achieve the most reliable results.\\u000a 22 SCC DNA

M. Hoffmann; B. J. Folz; A. M. Niemann; S. Gottschlich; B. M. Lippert; C. G. Mahnke; J. A. Werner

1998-01-01

170

Lead article  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squamous cell carcinoma arising from upper aerodigestive tract carries with it a significant morbidity and mortality and,\\u000a over the last few decades, its incidence has steadily increased. The management of patients requires thorough investigation\\u000a to determine the local, regional, and distant extent of the disease, and treatment options include surgery, radiotherapy,\\u000a chemotherapy, or combinations of these.\\u000a \\u000a Despite the large number

Tarik Sapci; Fiisun Filizel; Ahmet Karavus; Ugur Günter Akbulut; Melda Karavus

1998-01-01

171

Sphenoid Sinus Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma Presenting as a Sellar Mass: Report a Case with Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a distinctive variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with more aggressive behavior.\\u000a It occurs preferentially in the upper aerodigestive tract. Sinonasal tract BSCC is uncommon, and only limited studies have\\u000a been reported in literature. In these studies, most BSCCs arose from the nasal mucosa with or without extension to the paranasal\\u000a sinuses. Rare reported

Xin Gu; Farzan Eskandari; Marjorie Fowler

2011-01-01

172

Respiratory Epithelial Adenomatoid Hamartoma: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (REAH) is an uncommon lesion of the upper aerodigestive tract first described\\u000a by Wenig and Heffner in 1995 as prominent glandular proliferations lined by ciliated respiratory epithelium originating from\\u000a the surface epithelium. The entity is seen most often in male adults. Clinically the lesion presents as a polypoid mass, often\\u000a in one or both nasal cavities,

Valerie A. Fitzhugh; Neena Mirani

2008-01-01

173

Best Supportive Care for Palliative Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Head and neck cancer includes epithelial ­malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract, including the skull base, paranasal\\u000a sinuses, nasal cavity, oral cavity, naso-, oro- and hypopharynx, larynx and salivary glands, squamous-cell carcinoma being\\u000a the most prevalent histopathological type. More than 2\\/3 of patients present at an advanced tumour-stage (III ?+ ?IV UICC)\\u000a at time of diagnosis. Although much effort has

Michaela Salzwimmer

174

[MIF in head and neck cancer: a new therapeutic target ?].  

PubMed

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a critical proinflammatory cytokine produced by cells of innate and adaptive immune system. MIF plays a key role in cell cycle regulation and in the pathogenesis of many cancers. Recently, MIF has been studied in the upper aerodigestive tract cancer for its involvement in tumor progression, invasion, proliferation and cell motility. In addition, MIF appears to be a mediator in angiogenesis and in the development of metastasis and locoregional lymph node, which are often associated with a poor prognosis. The mechanisms of action responsible for MIF involvement in tumor progression are not completely elucidated. However, the main effects of MIF are mediated by the CD74 receptor. MIF binding to its receptor is responsible for the activation of several signaling pathways (ERK1/2 - MAPK, JAB1 - CSN5, PI3K - Akt), the inhibition of p53 and the stimulation of angiogenic factors including VEGF and IL-8. The overexpression of MIF also causes a reduction of the anti-tumor activity of the immune system. Finally, MIF could be an interesting biomarker in the diagnosis and monitoring of upper aerodigestive tract cancers. In this paper, we assess the state of knowledge of MIF involvement in upper aero-digestive tract cancers and we analyze the therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24683815

Lechien, J R; Kindt, N; Costa, P de Araujo; Chantrain, G; Preillon, J; Laurent, G; Saussez, S

2013-01-01

175

Etude des sites d'infection du Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) Dennis chez le Larix decidua Miller  

E-print Network

Etude des sites d'infection du Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) Dennis chez le Larix decidua Miller. L'observation attentive de l'évolution de la maladie permet de préciser plusieurs sites possibles d maladie. Mot.s clés : Lachnellula willkommü, Larix decidua, chancre du mélèze, infection naturelle, voies

Boyer, Edmond

176

JOURNEES TECHNIQUES CDF DU 7 JUIN 1995  

E-print Network

explosions en mines, particulierement dans le contexte de travaux de creusement mecanise en cul de sac. Le voies en cul-de-sac par A.B.D. Dans le contexte de l'etude, une explosion de violence moyenne est une de Simulation du fonctionnement et de l'efficacite d'un ABD dans une galerie en cul-de-sac. Pour

Boyer, Edmond

177

The value of animal test information in environmental control decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Value of information (VOI) analytic techniques are used to evaluate the benefit of performing animal bioassays to provide information about the cancer potency of specific chemical compounds. These tools allow the identification of the conditions in which the cost of reducing uncertainty about potency, by performing a subchronic or chronic bioassay, is justified by the benefit of having improved information

Alison C. Taylor; John S. Evans; Thomas E. McKone

1993-01-01

178

VACCINATION OF YOUNG FOXES (VULPES VULPES, L.) AGAINST RABIES  

E-print Network

VACCINATION OF YOUNG FOXES (VULPES VULPES, L.) AGAINST RABIES: TRIALS WITH INACTIVATED VACCINE, Direction de la Qualité, Services Vétérinaires, BP 9, F 54220 Malz6ville, France. Résumé VACCINATION ANTIRABIQUE DE RENARDEAUX (VULPES VULPES, L.) A L'AIDE D'UN VACCIN INACTIV� ADMINISTR� PAR VOIES ORALE ET

Boyer, Edmond

179

Enquter sur la religion : curiosit malsaine ou ncessit scientifique ?  

E-print Network

les valeurs de l'Islam sont incompatibles avec celles de la République, 46% que l'immigration est la Redeker, professeur, écrit : « Haine et violence habitent le livre dans lequel tout musulman est éduqué, le Coran. Comme aux temps de la guerre froide, violence et intimidation sont les voies utilisées par

Boyer, Edmond

180

Improving initial polyp candidate extraction for CT colonography This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-print Network

Cancer Manag. Res. 1 1­13). At a by-polyp sensitivity of 0.90, these three methods generated the FP rate of colon cancer (Eddy 1990). As a potential minimally invasive screening technique, computed tomographic (or VOI extraction method) demonstrated improvements, in terms of having no undesirably merged true

181

Phallic Symbols in Tibet  

E-print Network

'bjects of the same sort in Ladakh (Antiquities of lndian Tibet, Calcutta, 1914, VO'I. I p. 61); and the red painted pillars in front of hO'uses there, recorded by William MO'O'rcroft in 1822, may have had similar associations (Trawls. in the Himalayan Provinces...

Richardson, Hugh Edward

1972-07-14

182

The magnitude of signal errors introduced by ISIS in quantitative 31P MRS.  

PubMed

It is well known that the quality of a quantitative 31P MRS measurement relies largely on the performance of the volume selection method, and that image selected in vivo spectroscopy (ISIS) suffers from contaminating signal caused mostly by T1 smearing. However, these signal errors and their magnitude are seldom addressed in clinical studies. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the magnitude of signal errors in 31P MRS when using ISIS. The results from the measurements with a homogeneous head phantom are as follows: at low TR/T1 ratios the contamination increases rapidly, especially for small (<27 cm3) VOI sizes; at TR/T1=1, the signal from a 27 cm3 VOI was 20% too high, and from an 8 cm3 VOI 150% too high. The signal obtained from different VOI positions varied between 80 and 127%. The signal varied linearly with the 31P concentration in the object. However, a too high signal was obtained when the concentration was lower in the region of interest (inner container) than in the rest of the phantom. The agreement between the simulations and measurements shows that the results of this study are generally applicable to the measurement geometry and the ISIS experiment order rather than being specific for the MR system studied. The errors obtained both experimentally and in computer simulations are too large to be ignored in clinical studies using the ISIS pulse sequence. PMID:11796250

Ljungberg, Maria; Starck, Göran; Vikhoff-Baaz, Barbro; Alpsten, Magne; Ekholm, Sven; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

2002-03-01

183

Anne acadmique 2011-2012 Horaire des tudiants de la matrise en pharmacie (1re anne) SECTION DES SCIENCES PHARMACEUTIQUES Semestre d'automne-1 semaine -du lundi 19 septembre 2011 au vendredi 23 septembre 2011  

E-print Network

Traitement de l'Hypertension Artérielle - CC TRAVAUX PRATIQUES AVANCES I TRAVAUX PRATIQUES AVANCES I 1S081 produits naturels: artefacts - PC 1S059, Sciences III Médicaments et maladies BPCO et syndrome Découverte et conception des médicaments A3 Production par modification des voies de biosynthèse - PC 1S059

Loewith, Robbie

184

BIOAVAILABILITY AND TISSUE ELIMINATION OF CHLORAMPHENICOL FOLLOWING PARENTERAL ADMINISTRATION  

E-print Network

BIOAVAILABILITY AND TISSUE ELIMINATION OF CHLORAMPHENICOL FOLLOWING PARENTERAL ADMINISTRATION'après un rythme de traitement associant les deux voies d'administration. La posologie est de 30 mg that a minimal blood level of 5 Ilglml chloramphenicol is thera- peutically effective against target

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Measuring Machine Translation Errors in New Domains Johns Hopkins University  

E-print Network

(Medical) Inp mode et voie(s) d'administration Ref method and route(s) of administration Out fashionMeasuring Machine Translation Errors in New Domains Ann Irvine Johns Hopkins University anni corpus-level evaluation; the second is a micro- level analysis for word-level errors. We ap- ply

Daume III, Hal

186

D o s s i e r Second and Third Generation Biofuels: Towards Sustainability and Competitiveness  

E-print Network

bio-ressource. Les diffe´ rentes voies thermochimiques : pyrolyse, solvolyse, conversion hydrothermale by combustion in paper mills. If second generation ethanol is produced in the future from lignocellulosic and hydroconversion considered for the valorization of the lignin are reviewed in this article. Oil & Gas Science

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

Assessing the Value of Information of Geophysical Data For Groundwater Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective groundwater management requires hydrogeologic models informed by various data sources. The long-term goal of our research is to develop methodologies that quantify the value of information (VOI) of geophysical data for water managers. We present an initial sensitivity study on assessing the reliability of airborne electro-magnetic (EM) data for detecting channel orientation. The reliability results are used to calculate VOI regarding decisions of artificial recharge to mitigate seawater intrusion. To demonstrate how a hydrogeologic problem can be framed in decision analysis terms, a hypothetical example is built, where water managers are considering artificial recharge to remediate seawater intrusion. Is the cost of recharge justified given the large uncertainty of subsurface heterogeneity that may interfere in a successful recharge? Thus, the decision is should recharge be performed, and if yes, where should recharge wells be located? This decision is difficult because of the large uncertainty of the aquifer heterogeneity that influences flow. The expected value of all possible outcomes to the decision without gathering additional EM information is the prior value VPRIOR. The value of information (VOI) is calculated as the expected gain in value after including the relevant new information, or the difference between the value after a free experiment (VFE) and the value prior (VPRIOR): VOI = VFE - VPRIOR Airborne EM has been used to detect confining clay layers and flow barriers. However, geophysical information rarely identifies the subsurface perfectly. Many challenges impact data quality and the resulting models (interpretation uncertainty). To evaluate how well airborne EM data detect the orientation of subsurface channel systems, 125 alternative binary, fluvial lithology models are generated, each categorized into one of three subsurface scenarios: northwest, southwest and mixed channel orientation. Using rock property relations, the lithology models are converted into electrical resistivity models for EM forward modeling, to generate time-domain EM data. Noise is added to the late times of the EM data to better represent typical airborne acquisition. Inversions are performed to obtain 125 inverted resistivity images. From the images, we calculate the angle of maximum spatial correlation at every cell, and compare it with the truth - the original lithology model. These synthetic models serve as a proxy to estimate misclassification probabilities of channel orientation from actual EM data. The misclassification probabilities are then used in the VOI calculations. Results are presented demonstrating how the reliability measure and the pumping schedule can impact VOI. Lastly, reliability and VOI are calculated and compared for land-based EM data, which has different spatial sampling and resolution than air-borne data.

Trainor, W. J.; Caers, J. K.; Mukerji, T.; Auken, E.; Knight, R. J.

2008-12-01

188

A statistical integrated system in C Language  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT A Statistical Integrated System in C Language (May 1986) Roland Acra, Ingenieur de 1'Ecole Polytechnique, Francel Eleve Ingenieur, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, Paris, France Chairman of Advisory Committe: Dr. H. Joseph.... . . Vii TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Page 2 THE C PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE 2. 1 General Structure 2. 2 Data Types 2. 3 Operators 2. 4 Control Flow 2. 5 Functions 2. 6 Storage Classes 2. 7 Pointers 2. 8 Structures 3 5 7 8 12 15 18 25 3 THE C...

Acra, Roland Henri

1986-01-01

189

The value of information for managing contaminated sediments.  

PubMed

Effective management of contaminated sediments is important for long-term human and environmental health, but site-management decisions are often made under high uncertainty and without the help of structured decision support tools. Potential trade-offs between remedial costs, environmental effects, human health risks, and societal benefits, as well as fundamental differences in stakeholder priorities, complicate decision making. Formal decision-analytic tools such as multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) move beyond ad hoc decision support to quantitatively and holistically rank management alternatives and add transparency and replicability to the evaluation process. However, even the best decisions made under uncertainty may be found suboptimal in hindsight, once additional scientific, social, economic, or other details become known. Value of information (VoI) analysis extends MCDA by systematically evaluating the impact of uncertainty on a decision. VoI prioritizes future research in terms of expected decision relevance by helping decision makers estimate the likelihood that additional information will improve decision confidence or change their selection of a management plan. In this study, VoI analysis evaluates uncertainty, estimates decision confidence, and prioritizes research to inform selection of a sediment capping strategy for the dibenzo-p-dioxin and -furan contaminated Grenland fjord system in southern Norway. The VoI model extends stochastic MCDA to model decisions with and without simulated new information and compares decision confidence across scenarios with different degrees of remaining uncertainty. Results highlight opportunities for decision makers to benefit from additional information by anticipating the improved decision confidence (or lack thereof) expected from reducing uncertainties for each criterion or combination of criteria. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of VoI analysis for environmental decisions by predicting when decisions can be made confidently, for prioritizing areas of research to pursue to improve decision confidence, and for differentiating between decision-relevant and decision-irrelevant differences in evaluation perspectives, all of which help guide meaningful deliberation toward effective consensus solutions. PMID:24957130

Bates, Matthew E; Sparrevik, Magnus; de Lichy, Nicolas; Linkov, Igor

2014-08-19

190

Completeness map evaluation demonstrated with candidate next-generation cardiac CT architectures  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In this report, the authors introduce the general concept of the completeness map, as a means to evaluate the completeness of data acquired by a given CT system design (architecture and scan mode). They illustrate the utility of completeness map by applying the completeness map concept to a number of candidate CT system designs, as part of a study to advance the state-of-the-art in cardiac CT. Methods: In order to optimally reconstruct a point within a volume of interest (VOI), the Radon transform on all possible planes through that point should be measured. The authors quantified the extent to which this ideal condition is satisfied for the entire image volume. They first determined a Radon completeness number for each point in the VOI, as the percentage of possible planes that is actually measured. A completeness map is then defined as a 3D matrix of the completeness numbers for the entire VOI. The authors proposed algorithms to analyze the projection datasets in Radon space and compute the completeness number for a fixed point and apply these algorithms to various architectures and scan modes that they are evaluating. In this report, the authors consider four selected candidate architectures, operating with different scan modes, for a total of five system design alternatives. Each of these alternatives is evaluated using completeness map. Results: If the detector size and cone angle are large enough to cover the entire cardiac VOI, a single-source circular scan can have ?99% completeness over the entire VOI. However, only the central z-slice can be exactly reconstructed, which corresponds to 100% completeness. For a typical single-source architecture, if the detector is limited to an axial dimension of 40 mm, a helical scan needs about five rotations to form an exact reconstruction region covering the cardiac VOI, while a triple-source helical scan only requires two rotations, leading to a 2.5x improvement in temporal resolution. If the source and detector of an inverse-geometry (IGCT) system have the same axial extent, and the spacing of source points in the axial and transaxial directions is sufficiently small, the IGCT can also form an exact reconstruction region for the cardiac VOI. If the VOI can be covered by the x-ray beam in any view, a composite-circling scan can generate an exact reconstruction region covering the VOI. Conclusions: The completeness map evaluation provides useful information for selecting the next-generation cardiac CT system design. The proposed completeness map method provides a practical tool for analyzing complex scanning trajectories, where the theoretical image quality for some complex system designs is impossible to predict, without yet-undeveloped reconstruction algorithms. PMID:22559610

Liu, Baodong; Bennett, James; Wang, Ge; De Man, Bruno; Zeng, Kai; Yin, Zhye; Fitzgerald, Paul; Yu, Hengyong

2012-01-01

191

Computerized detection of diffuse lung disease in MDCT: the usefulness of statistical texture features.  

PubMed

Accurate detection of diffuse lung disease is an important step for computerized diagnosis and quantification of this disease. It is also a difficult clinical task for radiologists. We developed a computerized scheme to assist radiologists in the detection of diffuse lung disease in multi-detector computed tomography (CT). Two radiologists selected 31 normal and 37 abnormal CT scans with ground glass opacity, reticular, honeycombing and nodular disease patterns based on clinical reports. The abnormal cases in our database must contain at least an abnormal area with a severity of moderate or severe level that was subjectively rated by the radiologists. Because statistical texture features may lack the power to distinguish a nodular pattern from a normal pattern, the abnormal cases that contain only a nodular pattern were excluded. The areas that included specific abnormal patterns in the selected CT images were then delineated as reference standards by an expert chest radiologist. The lungs were first segmented in each slice by use of a thresholding technique, and then divided into contiguous volumes of interest (VOIs) with a 64 x 64 x 64 matrix size. For each VOI, we determined and employed statistical texture features, such as run-length and co-occurrence matrix features, to distinguish abnormal from normal lung parenchyma. In particular, we developed new run-length texture features with clear physical meanings to considerably improve the accuracy of our detection scheme. A quadratic classifier was employed for distinguishing between normal and abnormal VOIs by the use of a leave-one-case-out validation scheme. A rule-based criterion was employed to further determine whether a case was normal or abnormal. We investigated the impact of new and conventional texture features, VOI size and the dimensionality for regions of interest on detecting diffuse lung disease. When we employed new texture features for 3D VOIs of 64 x 64 x 64 voxels, our system achieved the highest performance level: a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 90% for the detection of abnormal VOIs, and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 90% for the detection of abnormal cases. Our computerized scheme would be useful for assisting radiologists in the diagnosis of diffuse lung disease. PMID:19864701

Wang, Jiahui; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio; Li, Qiang

2009-11-21

192

Soft, fortified ice-cream for head and neck cancer patients: a useful first step in nutritional and swallowing difficulties associated with multi-modal management.  

PubMed

Patients with head and neck cancer have complex swallowing and nutritional concerns. Most patients are malnourished, and treatment modalities within the aerodigestive tract have profound effects on future swallowing and nutrition. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the introduction of fortified soft ice-cream to post-operative head and neck cancer patients would increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. Using a questionnaire study, an ice-cream machine that produces fortified soft ice-cream was introduced onto our ward, and 30 patients were asked to fill out questionnaires based on their experience in addition to their oral-feeding regime. Results indicate that overall patient satisfaction and compliance with oral-feeding regimes increased: 77% felt that the taste was excellent and also felt that it was easy to eat; 60% felt that it eased the symptoms associated with their symptoms, in particular its cold temperature. We conclude from the results that the inability of patients undergoing multi-modal treatment for upper aerodigestive tract cancer to enjoy normal foods and its effects on their quality of life is underestimated. Providing a food to that is palatable, familiar and acceptable as it is safe and nutritionally sound can increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. The ice-cream was safe to use in the early post-operative period, especially soothing in patients undergoing upper aerodigestive radiotherapy and high in protein and calorific content. Our practice may have wider benefits, including patients with oral and oropharyngeal infections, the elderly and patients with neurological dysphagia resulting from stroke. PMID:21935631

Trinidade, Aaron; Martinelli, Katrina; Andreou, Zenon; Kothari, Prasad

2012-04-01

193

 

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Narrow band imaging and high definition television are recent innovations in upper aero-digestive tract endoscopy. Aim of this prospective, non-randomized, unblinded study was to establish the diagnostic advantage of these procedures in the evaluation of squamous cell cancer arising from various upper aero-digestive tract sites. Between April 2007 and January 2010, 444 patients affected by upper aero-digestive tract squamous cell cancer, or previously treated for it, were evaluated by white light and narrow band imaging ± high definition television endoscopy, both in the pre-/intra-operative setting and during follow-up. Tumour resection was performed taking into account narrow band imaging and high definition television information to obtain histopathologic confirmation of their validity. Endoscopic and pathologic data were subsequently matched to obtain sensitivity, specificity, positive, negative predictive values, and accuracy. Overall, 110 (25%) patients showed adjunctive findings by narrow band imaging ± high definition television when compared to standard white light endoscopy. Of these patients, 98 (89%) received histopatological confirmation. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, negative predictive values, and accuracy for white light-high definition television were 41%, 92%, 87%, 82%, and 67%, for narrow band imaging alone 75%, 87%, 87%, 74%, and 80%, and for narrow band imaging-high definition television 97%, 84%, 88%, 96%, and 92%. The highest diagnostic gain was observed in the oral cavity and oropharynx (25%). Narrow band imaging and high definition television were of value in the definition of superficial tumour extension, and in the detection of synchronous lesions in the pre-/intra-operative settings. These technologies also played an important role during post-treatment surveillance for early detection of persistences, recurrences, and metachronous tumours. PMID:22065027

PIAZZA, C.; COCCO, D.; DEL BON, F.; MANGILI, S.; NICOLAI, P.; PERETTI, G.

2011-01-01

194

Expectoration of a bullet after gunshot wound to the chest  

PubMed Central

Over the last century, only four cases have been published of patients sustaining gunshot wounds to the chest, managed nonoperatively, who eventually expectorated the bullet. We report the case of a hemodynamically stable 24-year-old male whose bullet was found in the left pulmonary hilum on admission computed tomography (CT) scan. Further workup revealed no obvious aerodigestive injury. Shortly after extubation, he expectorated the bullet onto the floor. Little is known about how to manage these stable, yet challenging patients. PMID:23723626

Rhodes, Stancie C.; Gupta, Surupa S.

2013-01-01

195

Idiopathic lymphoplasmacellular mucositis-dermatitis of the eyelid.  

PubMed

Idiopathic lymphoplasmacellular mucositis-dermatitis is a rare mucosal or cutaneous disorder characterized clinically by papules or plaques with variable erosion and microscopically by dense dermal inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous plasma cells. It has been described in the oral and upper aerodigestive tracts, male and female genitalia, and other mucosal surfaces. In this article, the authors describe a case of idiopathic lymphoplasmacellular mucositis-dermatitis occurring in the skin of the eyelid that was removed by excisional biopsy and has not recurred in the 19-month follow-up period. PMID:24836448

Gupta, Seema R; Steele, Eric A; Solomon, Alvin R

2014-01-01

196

Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica of Bazex.  

PubMed Central

Bazex disease is one of the rarer cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes. It is characterized by psoriasiform changes on the digits, and in some patients spread to the ears, nose and in later stages to the limbs and trunk. The associated malignancy is typically a squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. We review the literature regarding acrokeratosis paraneoplastica of Bazex and report three cases which illustrate both the typical and some of the less common changes that are seen in the condition. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:1433123

Handfield-Jones, S E; Matthews, C N; Ellis, J P; Das, K B; McGibbon, D H

1992-01-01

197

[Role of gemcitabine in the treatment of other malignant tumors].  

PubMed

The therapeutic interest of gemcitabine both as a single drug and in combination is now well known and applied in various malignant diseases. However, it would be worth being further explored in two tumor models for which its efficacy has been suspected and which have been somehow "abandoned" by modern oncology after the demonstration of their high sensitivity to platinum derivatives, namely epidermoid tumours of the upper aero-digestive tract and uterine cervix. Combination studies should be encouraged in this setting. PMID:12449042

Clippe, Christine; Ligneau, Blandine; Trillet-Lenoir, Véronique

2002-08-01

198

Benign lesions of the nose, oral cavity, and oropharynx in children: excision by carbon dioxide laser.  

PubMed

The carbon dioxide laser was used to treat a group of pediatric patients with benign lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract exclusive of the larynx. Prior to development of the CO2 laser, excision of these lesions by conventional means often resulted in incomplete removal, significant bleeding, and postoperative edema resulting in airway obstruction. The CO2 laser, with its unique properties of precise excision, hemostatic effect, and minimal postoperative edema, has become the instrument of choice in the removal of these lesions. PMID:3931530

Crockett, D M; Healy, G B; McGill, T J; Friedman, E M

1985-01-01

199

[Laser surgical excision of a hypopharyngeal hemangioma using the CO2/Nd: YAG combination laser].  

PubMed

Hemangiomas of the upper aerodigestive tract may present a therapeutic challenge depending on their size, location and symptoms. We present a rare case of cavernous hemangioma of the aryepiglottic fold applaning in an adult. First symptoms were dysphagia and hoarseness. Surgical removal was performed with a CO2/Nd: YAG combination laser under microscopic control. After a regular postoperative course the patient has remained disease-free after a 2 year follow up period. We suggest the use of the CO2/Nd: YAG combination laser as preferred treatment in cases of exophytic hemangiomas, because of the favorable combination of excision with photocoagulation effects. PMID:7642401

Kornfehl, J; Kontrus, M; Susani, M; Kautzky, M; Bigenzahn, W

1995-06-01

200

Pediatric postcricoid vascular malformation: a diagnostic and treatment challenge.  

PubMed

Hemangioma of the upper aerodigestive tract is a rarely reported occurrence in the pediatric literature. To date, there have been three published case reports of postcricoid hemangiomas contributing to unexplained dysphagia and respiratory distress. We present three children with a history of swallowing difficulty and stridor who were found to have an occult postcricoid mass. Valsalva maneuvers confirmed the suspicion of a vascular malformation in both patients. Transoral laser therapy (KTP and CO2) was used to ablate the lesions. The patients are symptom-free at 5 months, 5 years, and 2 weeks, respectively. The diagnostic challenge in evaluating these children and the therapeutic choices are described. PMID:15961166

Zur, Karen B; Wood, Robert E; Elluru, Ravindhra G

2005-12-01

201

The evolution and development of human swallowing: the most important function we least appreciate.  

PubMed

As mammals evolved, the larynx accrued added importance in new activities such as effectuating intra-abdominal pressure control during the transition from egg-laying to birthing and control of intrathoracic stabilization as movement of the upper limb required rib stabilization during climbing. The proper development of the larynx during the embryonic period is crucial to its later normal function. The permanent intersection of the respiratory and digestive pathways has created a de novo aerodigestive tract; a first of its kind in mammals. The lowered position of the human larynx has provided a greatly expanded supralaryngeal portion of the pharynx. PMID:24262951

Laitman, Jeffrey T; Reidenberg, Joy S

2013-12-01

202

Video-rate confocal endoscopy.  

PubMed

Rigid endoscopes provide high quality optical images of reasonably accessible regions of the inner body, especially regions such as the aero-digestive and genital tracts. In order to enhance the versatility of these instruments we describe a development that permits confocal endoscopic images to be obtained - along with traditional endoscopic images - in real-time, from within the living patient. The system is based around a host lenslet-array tandem scanning microscope, which is capable of producing images viewed directly by eye. These types of confocal microscope are configured for fluorescence imaging together with laser illumination. Hard and soft tissues in the mouth were imaged using this combined system. PMID:12135457

Watson, T F; Neil, M A A; Juskaitis, R; Cook, R J; Wilson, T

2002-07-01

203

Vocal cord palsy as a presenting feature of sternoclavicular joint septic arthritis.  

PubMed

Sternoclavicular joint septic arthritis (SSA) is rare and often difficult to manage condition. The sternoclavicular joint is an unusual site of septic arthritis in healthy persons, but may be commonly involved in intravenous drug users, primary or secondary immunosuppressive disorders, infections or the presence of infected central lines. After thorough literature search, no cases have yet been reported on SSA leading to vocal cord palsy. The following case describes a male patient who presented to hospital with left vocal cord palsy and symptoms consistent with aero-digestive tract malignancy. Radiological examination and subsequent response to treatment demonstrated the only causative pathology to be an ipsilateral septic sternoclavicular joint. PMID:25583908

Jamil, Fahad; Hussain, Khalid

2015-01-01

204

-1 - Copyright 2000, Universit de Genve Risques majeurs : perception, globalisation et management  

E-print Network

climatiques et risques naturels : un défi pour l'aménagement du territoire en zone alpine Markus STOFFELet de crues importantes en automne. En zone alpine, les villages et les voies de communications pourraient être menacés plus fréquemment et les stations de ski soumises à une durée d'enneigement de plus en

Stoffel, Markus

205

Le Hericium erinaceus: des propriétés essentiellement dépendantes du neuronal growth factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Le Hericium erinaceus (HE) induit la synthèse de neuronal growth factor (NGF), impliqué dans les maladies neurodégénératives comme la maladie d’Alzheimer ou plus généralement dans les troubles\\u000a trophiques (estomac, intestin, foie) ou les cicatrisations (peau, cartilage, os). Le HE stimule aussi les voies TH1 et TH2\\u000a (antiparasitaire puissant), ce qui le positionne parmi les aliments potentiellement utiles contre les maladies

B. Donatini

2011-01-01

206

Three-dimensional image registration improves the long-term precision of in vivo micro-computed tomographic measurements in anabolic and catabolic mouse models.  

PubMed

Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a widely used technique to track bone structural and mineral changes in small animals in vivo. Precise definition of volumes of interest (VOIs) in follow-up scans is required to accurately quantify these changes. To improve precision, VOIs can be transferred from baseline images onto follow-ups using image registration. We studied the performance of a registration procedure applied to in vivo data sets of anabolic and osteoporotic bone changes in mice. Micro-CT image data from two separate CD1 mouse data sets were studied. The first included a group treated with parathyroid hormone (PTH) and control and the second, an ovariectomy (OVX) group and control. Micro-CT was performed once per week for 4 weeks at the proximal tibia starting at treatment onset (PTH data set) or after surgery (OVX data set). A series consisting entirely of user-defined VOIs and a registered series where VOIs defined at baseline were transferred to follow-ups were created. Standard bone structural and mineral measurements were calculated. Image registration resulted in a 13-56 % reduction in precision error. Significant effects of registration to detect PTH-induced changes in BV/TV and trabecular BMD were observed. When changes were very pronounced or small, the qualitative improvement observed for the registered data set did not reach statistical significance. This study documents an increase in long-term precision of micro-CT measurements with image registration. Sensitivity to detect changes was improved but not uniform for all parameters. Future study of this technique on images with a smaller voxel size (<19 ?m) may capture the effect in greater detail, in particular for trabecular thickness, where changes may be too small to be observed with the voxel size used here. Our results document the value of registration and indicate that the magnitude of improvement depends on the model and treatment chosen. PMID:24170302

Campbell, Graeme M; Tiwari, Sanjay; Grundmann, Friederike; Purcz, Nicolai; Schem, Christian; Glüer, Claus-C

2014-03-01

207

Automated classification of normal and pathologic pulmonary tissue by topological texture features extracted from multi-detector CT in 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide a novel, robust algorithm for classification of lung tissue depicted by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT)\\u000a based on the topology of CT-attenuation values and to compare discriminative results with densitometric methods. Two hundred\\u000a seventy-five cubic volumes of interest (VOI, edge length 40 pixels) were obtained from MDCT chest CT (isotropic voxel size,\\u000a edge length 0.6 mm) of 21 subjects with

H. F. Boehm; C. Fink; U. Attenberger; C. Becker; J. Behr; M. Reiser

2008-01-01

208

Aymeric Histace Traitement d Image  

E-print Network

les voies les plus courtes et les plus simples" Pierre de Fermat, 1657 #12;Aymeric Histace Plan n 1 Introduction n Principe de moindre action q En physique, le comportement observé d'un système correspond à la variationnel. q Principe d'abord phénoménologique mis en évidence au 17e siècle en optique (Fermat). 4 #12

Histace, Aymeric

209

Malherbologie (Synthse) Donnes actuelles sur les transferts d'atrazine  

E-print Network

Malherbologie (Synthèse) Données actuelles sur les transferts d'atrazine dans l'environnement M — Les différentes voies de dispersion de l'atrazine dans les sols et l'environnement sont exami végétal. Sur une période d'un an, les pertes en atrazine varient de 0,2 à 2% de la dose appliquée pour le

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

210

Quantification of Tumor Vessels in Glioblastoma Patients Using Time-of-Flight Angiography at 7 Tesla: A Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze if tumor vessels can be visualized, segmented and quantified in glioblastoma patients with time of flight (ToF) angiography at 7 Tesla and multiscale vessel enhancement filtering. Materials and Methods Twelve patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma were examined with ToF angiography (TR?=?15 ms, TE?=?4.8 ms, flip angle?=?15°, FOV?=?160×210 mm2, voxel size: 0.31×0.31×0.40 mm3) on a whole-body 7 T MR system. A volume of interest (VOI) was placed within the border of the contrast enhancing part on T1-weighted images of the glioblastoma and a reference VOI was placed in the non-affected contralateral white matter. Automated segmentation and quantification of vessels within the two VOIs was achieved using multiscale vessel enhancement filtering in ImageJ. Results Tumor vessels were clearly visible in all patients. When comparing tumor and the reference VOI, total vessel surface (45.3±13.9 mm2 vs. 29.0±21.0 mm2 (p<0.035)) and number of branches (3.5±1.8 vs. 1.0±0.6 (p<0.001) per cubic centimeter were significantly higher, while mean vessel branch length was significantly lower (3.8±1.5 mm vs 7.2±2.8 mm (p<0.001)) in the tumor. Discussion ToF angiography at 7-Tesla MRI enables characterization and quantification of the internal vascular morphology of glioblastoma and may be used for the evaluation of therapy response within future studies. PMID:25415327

Radbruch, Alexander; Eidel, Oliver; Wiestler, Benedikt; Paech, Daniel; Burth, Sina; Kickingereder, Philipp; Nowosielski, Martha; Bäumer, Philipp; Wick, Wolfgang; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Bendszus, Martin; Ladd, Mark; Nagel, Armin Michael; Heiland, Sabine

2014-01-01

211

Diffusion Tensor MRI of the Corpus Callosum in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine if decline in corpus callosum (CC) white matter integrity in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is localized to motor-related areas. Materials and Methods Twenty-one ALS patients and 21 controls participated. Diffusion tensor images (DTI) were acquired using 3 Tesla (T) MRI. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to examine whole-brain white matter damage. A segmentation schema was used to define CC volumes-of-interest (VOI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial- and axial-diffusivity (RD, AD) were extracted from VOIs and compared between groups. DTI measurements in motor-related Area III were tested for correlation with symptoms and disease duration. Results Extracted FA values from CC VOIs were reduced in ALS patients (P?0.0001), particularly in Areas II and III (P?0.01). Reduced FA in Area III correlated with disease symptomology (P?0.05) and duration (P?0.02). Between-group whole-brain comparisons (P?0.05, corrected) showed reduced FA and increased RD throughout white matter regions including the CC, corona radiata, and internal capsule. AD was increased in the left corona radiata and internal and external capsules. Conclusion FA in motor-related regions of the CC is more affected than other CC areas in ALS patients. Microstructural pathology of transcallosal fiber tracts may represent a future component of an imaging biomarker for ALS. PMID:23843179

Chapman, Molly C.; Jelsone-Swain, Laura; Johnson, Timothy D.; Gruis, Kirsten L.; Welsh, Robert C.

2013-01-01

212

Interpretation des donnees de flux de chaleur et de gravite dans le bouclier Canadien  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le champ geothermique du Bouclier Canadien est caracterise par un flux moyen de 41 mW·m-2, qui suggere une production de chaleur moyenne dans la croute comprise entre 0.7 et 0.8 muW·m-3. Le flux de chaleur relativement faible favorise la stabilite du bouclier et lui a permis de resister a la deformation tectonique. Les variations du flux de chaleur a la surface sont dominees par la composition de la croute. Un flux eleve implique generalement une composition felsique et il est d'autant plus faible que la croute devient plus mafique. La production de chaleur en surface n'est pas representative de la production moyenne de la croute. Le flux de chaleur dans le Boucher Canadien ne depend donc pas de la production de chaleur en surface, mais depend de la composition principale de la croute. L'interpretation combinee des donnees geophysiques nous permet de determiner les variations de composition d'echelle crustale a partir desquelles il est possible d'etablir la structure de la croute. L'etude detaillee de l'Orogene de Trans-Hudson et de la Sous-province d'Abitibi a montre que le flux de chaleur, la gravite et la sismique lorsqu'elles sont combinees fournissent des contraintes efficaces pour determiner l'architecture crustale. En general, la croute est trop resistante pour se deformer par fluage, excepte tres localement. Le mode de deformation de la lithosphere continentale depend de la composition et du gradient geothermique. Nous montrons que la lithosphere du Bouclier Canadien demeure principalement fragile jusqu'a une profondeur de plus de 150 km. Une deformation ductile pourrait cependant etre possible localement a la base de la, croute, comme dans la ceinture de Thompson par exemple. Si l'on admet que la lithosphere peut resister a des contraintes allant jusqu'a 20 MPa (taux de deformation 3? < 10-15 s-1), l'epaisseur de la lithosphere est de l'ordre de 300 km pour la ceinture de Thompson et est superieure a 300 km pour la sous-province d'Abitibi. La resistance maximum de la lithosphere est atteinte dans la partie superieure du manteau. La lithosphere du Bouclier Canadien est donc capable de supporter d'importantes contraintes tectoniques sans deformation notable. C'est le regime fragile qui controle le comportement rheologique de la lithosphere superieure du bouclier.

Cheng, Li Zhen

2000-10-01

213

Interpretable whole-brain prediction analysis with GraphNet.  

PubMed

Multivariate machine learning methods are increasingly used to analyze neuroimaging data, often replacing more traditional "mass univariate" techniques that fit data one voxel at a time. In the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature, this has led to broad application of "off-the-shelf" classification and regression methods. These generic approaches allow investigators to use ready-made algorithms to accurately decode perceptual, cognitive, or behavioral states from distributed patterns of neural activity. However, when applied to correlated whole-brain fMRI data these methods suffer from coefficient instability, are sensitive to outliers, and yield dense solutions that are hard to interpret without arbitrary thresholding. Here, we develop variants of the Graph-constrained Elastic-Net (GraphNet), a fast, whole-brain regression and classification method developed for spatially and temporally correlated data that automatically yields interpretable coefficient maps (Grosenick et al., 2009b). GraphNet methods yield sparse but structured solutions by combining structured graph constraints (based on knowledge about coefficient smoothness or connectivity) with a global sparsity-inducing prior that automatically selects important variables. Because GraphNet methods can efficiently fit regression or classification models to whole-brain, multiple time-point data sets and enhance classification accuracy relative to volume-of-interest (VOI) approaches, they eliminate the need for inherently biased VOI analyses and allow whole-brain fitting without the multiple comparison problems that plague mass univariate and roaming VOI ("searchlight") methods. As fMRI data are unlikely to be normally distributed, we (1) extend GraphNet to include robust loss functions that confer insensitivity to outliers, (2) equip them with "adaptive" penalties that asymptotically guarantee correct variable selection, and (3) develop a novel sparse structured Support Vector GraphNet classifier (SVGN). When applied to previously published data (Knutson et al., 2007), these efficient whole-brain methods significantly improved classification accuracy over previously reported VOI-based analyses on the same data (Grosenick et al., 2008; Knutson et al., 2007) while discovering task-related regions not documented in the original VOI approach. Critically, GraphNet estimates fit to the Knutson et al. (2007) data generalize well to out-of-sample data collected more than three years later on the same task but with different subjects and stimuli (Karmarkar et al., submitted for publication). By enabling robust and efficient selection of important voxels from whole-brain data taken over multiple time points (>100,000 "features"), these methods enable data-driven selection of brain areas that accurately predict single-trial behavior within and across individuals. PMID:23298747

Grosenick, Logan; Klingenberg, Brad; Katovich, Kiefer; Knutson, Brian; Taylor, Jonathan E

2013-05-15

214

Safety and Efficacy of Oral Feeding in Infants with BPD on Nasal CPAP.  

PubMed

Safety and efficacy of oral feeding was examined in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). We hypothesized that repetitive oral feeding enhances aero-digestive outcomes and reduces resource utilization. Data from infants with BPD (37-42 weeks post menstrual age) that were orally fed while on NCPAP (n = 26) were compared with those that were exclusively gavage fed on NCPAP (n = 27). Subject assignment was random and physician practice based. Specifically, we compared the differences in aero-digestive milestones, resource utilization, and safety metrics. Demographic characteristics such as gender distribution, gestational age, and birth weight, clinical characteristics such as frequency of intraventricular hemorrhage and patent ductus arteriosus needing surgical ligation were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Characteristics of respiratory support and airway milestones were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). However, infants in NCPAP-oral fed group had earlier acquisition of full oral feeding milestone by 17 days (median) versus infants who were not orally fed during NCPAP (p < 0.05). Discharge weights and the frequency of gastrostomy tube placement were also similar in both groups (p > 0.05). There were no tracheostomies in either group. There was no incidence of clinically significant aspiration pneumonia in infants during the period of the oral feeding while on NCPAP. Controlled introduction of oral feedings in infants with BPD during NCPAP is safe and may accelerate the acquisition of oral feeding milestones. PMID:25380678

Hanin, Melissa; Nuthakki, Sushma; Malkar, Manish B; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

2014-11-01

215

Changes in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Cancer Mortality Rates Among French Men Between 1968 and 1996  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated changes in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality rates among men in France between 1968 and 1996. Methods. We used a representative sample of 1% of the French population and studied 4 periods (1968–1974, 1975–1981, 1982–1988, and 1990–1996). Causes of death were obtained by direct linkage with the French national death registry. The socioeconomic position of men aged 35 to 59 years was measured by using the occupational class reported at the time of the census at the beginning of each period. Analyses were conducted for all cancers and specifically for lung, upper aerodigestive tract, esophageal, colorectal, and other cancers. Results. In all analyses, we observed socioeconomic inequalities during the 4 periods considered; the inequalities increased between the first and the last period. Most of the total increase occurred between 1968 and 1981, and inequalities remained stable thereafter. Inequalities were larger when men out of the labor force were included in the analysis. The strongest increase in socioeconomic inequalities over time was observed for upper aerodigestive tract cancer. Conclusions. Although cancer mortality rates have decreased, substantial socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality among men remain. PMID:17395842

Menvielle, Gwenn; Leclerc, Annette; Chastang, Jean-François; Melchior, Maria; Luce, Danièle

2007-01-01

216

Poincare's forgotten conferences on wireless telegraphy  

E-print Network

At the beginning of the twentieth century while Henri Poincar\\'e (1854-1912) was already deeply involved in the developments of wireless telegraphy, he was invited, in 1908, to give a series of lectures at the \\'Ecole Sup\\'erieure des Postes et T\\'el\\'egraphes (today Sup'T\\'elecom). In the last part of his presentation he established that the necessary condition for the existence of a stable regime of maintained oscillations in a device of radio engineering completely analogous to the triode: the singing arc, is the presence in the phase plane of stable limit cycle. The aim of this work is to prove that the correspondence highlighted by Andronov between the periodic solution of a non-linear second order differential equation and Poincar\\'e's concept of limit cycle has been carried out by Poincar\\'e himself, twenty years before in these forgotten conferences of 1908.

Ginoux, Jean-Marc

2014-01-01

217

The Economic Value of Climate Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While demonstrating the economic value of science is challenging, it can be more direct for some Earth observations. For example, suppose a climate science mission can yield decisive information on climate change within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) provides a standard for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, stipulating uncertainty in climate sensitivity, using discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate response (DICE Optimal), and a strong response (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we would switch from BAU to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain also depends on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The resolving power of a climate observing system cannot exceed climate system natural variability. All climate observations add noise to natural variability caused by observing limitations, including calibration errors and space/time sampling uncertainty. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can advance the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems, exceeds the NPV of the system costs. We present illustrative results comparing the proposed CLARREO advance in satellite absolute calibration for climate change records to an existing system for detecting decadal temperature change and cloud feedback (i.e. climate sensitivity uncertainty). While CLARREO is used as an example, the value should be considered as relevant to an improved climate observing system, since societal decisions are unlikely to be based on one or a few observations. The VOI is found to depend on the required confidence level, the trigger value at which we would abandon the BAU emissions path, the path to which we switch, and the date at which the new system is launched. The VOI of CLARREO in this decision context is the surfeit of NPV of averted damages, relative to the existing system. Over all it is in the order of tens of trillions of US dollars. Among the noteworthy conclusions are (1) switching to either the DICE optimal or Stern emissions paths makes only a modest difference in the VOI of CLARREO, (2) raising the trigger value from 0.2C to 0.3C/decade, increases the VOI of CLARREO, while increasing the total NPV of climate damages, and (3) the choice of discount rate affects the VOI by a factor ~ 5. The results conclude that the economic value of advanced climate observing systems is dramatically larger than their cost, and argues for the continual enhancement of the SCC assessment process.

Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

2012-12-01

218

Correlations between indentation modulus and mineral density in bone-fracture calluses  

PubMed Central

The mechanical properties of a healing bone fracture depend not only on the geometry of the fracture callus but also on the material properties of the callus tissues. Despite the biomechanical importance of callus tissues in restoring mechanical integrity to the injured bone, little is known about the material properties of these tissues and whether these properties can be estimated non-invasively. This study used nanoindentation to quantify the spatial variations in indentation modulus throughout the fracture callus and correlated the measurements of modulus with measurements of tissue mineral density (TMD) obtained from images from micro-computed tomography (µCT). Fracture calluses were harvested from rats 24 days following creation of a full-thickness, transverse osteotomy in the femoral mid-diaphysis. Calluses were imaged using µCT, and the average TMD and the median grayvalue (X-ray attenuation) of five, pre-defined volumes of interest (VOIs) in each callus were computed. Nanoindentation was then performed at multiple, regularly spaced locations across 150 µm-thick, sagittal sections of the calluses. The indentation modulus ranged from 0.51 to 1680 MPa throughout the callus, with the highest moduli in the center of the fracture gap and the lowest in the periphery of the gap (P < 0.05). TMD was also highest in the center of the gap (P < 0.05). An increasing trend in both modulus and TMD was observed in the regions of the callus adjacent to the periosteal surfaces of the cortex. While no correlation was found between the average indentation modulus in a given VOI and the median grayvalue of that VOI, the average indentation modulus and the average TMD were positively correlated (R = 0.70, P < 0.05). Together, these findings establish the spatial heterogeneity in the mechanical behavior of tissues in fracture calluses and indicate that the indentation modulus of these tissues can be estimated by non-invasive measurements of tissue mineralization. PMID:21669846

Leong, Pui L.; Morgan, Elise F.

2009-01-01

219

Micro-morphologic changes around biophysically-stimulated titanium implants in ovariectomized rats  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoporosis may present a risk factor in achievement of osseointegration because of its impact on bone remodeling properties of skeletal phsiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate micro-morphological changes in bone around titanium implants exposed to mechanical and electrical-energy in osteoporotic rats. Methods Fifteen 12-week old sprague-dowley rats were ovariectomized to develop osteoporosis. After 8 weeks of healing period, two titanium implants were bilaterally placed in the proximal metaphyses of tibia. The animals were randomly divided into a control group and biophysically-stimulated two test groups with five animals in each group. In the first test group, a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation was administrated at a 0.2 mT 4 h/day, whereas the second group received low-magnitude high-frequency mechanical vibration (MECHVIB) at 50 Hz 14 min/day. Following completion of two week treatment period, all animals were sacrificed. Bone sites including implants were sectioned, removed en bloc and analyzed using a microCT unit. Relative bone volume and bone micro-structural parameters were evaluated for 144 ?m wide peri-implant volume of interest (VOI). Results Mean relative bone volume in the peri-implant VOI around implants PEMF and MECHVIB was significantly higher than of those in control (P < .05). Differences in trabecular-thickness and -separation around implants in all groups were similar (P > .05) while the difference in trabecular-number among test and control groups was significant in all VOIs (P < .05). Conclusion Biophysical stimulation remarkably enhances bone volume around titanium implants placed in osteoporotic rats. Low-magnitude high-frequency MECHVIB is more effective than PEMF on bone healing in terms of relative bone volume. PMID:17634134

Akca, Kivanc; Sarac, Ebru; Baysal, Ugur; Fanuscu, Mete; Chang, Ting-Ling; Cehreli, Murat

2007-01-01

220

Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various {open_quotes}constraint levels{close_quotes} have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the {open_quotes}costs{close_quote} of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria.

Harper, B.L.; Gajewski, S.J.; Glantz, C.L. [and others

1996-09-01

221

Balancing bias, reliability, noise properties and the need for parametric maps in quantitative ligand PET: [(11)C]diprenorphine test-retest data.  

PubMed

[(11)C]diprenorphine (DPN) is a non-subtype selective opioid receptor PET ligand with slow kinetics and no region devoid of specific binding. Parametric maps are desirable but have to overcome high noise at the voxel level. We obtained parameter values, parametric map image quality, test-retest reproducibility and reliability (using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs)) for conventional spectral analysis and a derived method (rank shaping), compared them with values obtained through sampling of volumes of interest (VOIs) on the dynamic data sets and tested whether smaller amounts of radioactivity injected maintained reliability. Ten subjects were injected twice with either approximately 185 MBq or approximately 135 MBq of [(11)C]DPN, followed by dynamic PET for 90 min. Data were movement corrected with a frame-to-frame co-registration method. Arterial plasma input functions corrected for radiolabelled metabolites were created. There was no overall effect of movement correction except for one subject with substantial movement whose test-retest differences decreased by approximately 50%. Actual parametric values depended heavily on the cutoff for slow frequencies (between 0.0008 s(-1) and 0.00063 s(-1)). Image quality was satisfactory for restricted base ranges when using conventional spectral analysis. The rank shaping method allowed maximising of this range but had similar bias. VOI-based methods had the widest dynamic range between regions. Average percentage test-retest differences were smallest for the parametric maps with restricted base ranges; similarly ICCs were highest for these (up to 0.86) but unacceptably low for VOI-derived VD estimates at the low doses of injected radioactivity (0.24/0.04). Our data can inform the choice of methodology for a given biological problem. PMID:17764977

Hammers, Alexander; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Turkheimer, Federico E; Hinz, Rainer; Osman, Safiye; Hotton, Gary; Brooks, David J; Duncan, John S; Koepp, Matthias J

2007-10-15

222

Differences in Brainstem Fiber Tract Response to Radiation: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether radiation-induced changes in white matter tracts are uniform across the brainstem. Methods and Materials: We analyzed serial diffusion tensor imaging data, acquired before radiation therapy and over 48 to 72 months of follow-up, from 42 pediatric patients (age 6-20 years) with medulloblastoma. FSL software (FMRIB, Oxford, UK) was used to calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial, radial, and mean diffusivities. For a consistent identification of volumes of interest (VOIs), the parametric maps of each patient were transformed to a standard brain space (MNI152), on which we identified VOIs including corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus (ML), transverse pontine fiber (TPF), and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) at the level of pons. Temporal changes of DTI parameters in VOIs were compared using a linear mixed effect model. Results: Radiation-induced white matter injury was marked by a decline in FA after treatment. The decline was often accompanied by decreased axial diffusivity, increased radial diffusivity, or both. This implied axonal damage and demyelination. We observed that the magnitude of the changes was not always uniform across substructures of the brainstem. Specifically, the changes in DTI parameters for TPF were more pronounced than in other regions (P<.001 for FA) despite similarities in the distribution of dose. We did not find a significant difference among CST, ML, and MCP in these patients (P>.093 for all parameters). Conclusions: Changes in the structural integrity of white matter tracts, assessed by DTI, were not uniform across the brainstem after radiation therapy. These results support a role for tract-based assessment in radiation treatment planning and determination of brainstem tolerance.

Uh, Jinsoo, E-mail: jinsoo.uh@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li, Yimei; Feng, Tianshu [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Gajjar, Amar [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Ogg, Robert J.; Hua, Chiaho [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2013-06-01

223

Real-time scanning beam digital x-ray image guidance system for transbronchial needle biopsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a real-time digital tomosynthesis (DTS) imaging modality, based on the scanning beam digital x-ray (SBDX) hardware, used in conjunction with an electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) system to provide improved image guidance for minimally invasive transbronchial needle biopsy (TBNbx). Because the SBDX system source uses electron beams, steered by electromagnets, to generate x-rays, and the ENB system generates an electromagnetic field to localize and track steerable navigation catheters, the two systems will affect each other when operated in proximity. We first investigate the compatibility of the systems by measuring the ENB system localization error as a function of distance between the two systems. The SBDX system reconstructs DTS images, which provide depth information, and so we investigate the improvement in lung nodule visualization using SBDX system DTS images and compare them to fluoroscopic images currently used for biopsy verification. Target localization error remains below 2mm (or virtually error free) if the volume-of-interest (VOI) is at least 50cm away from the SBDX system source and detector. Inside this region, tomographic angle ranges from 3° to 10° depending on the VOI location. Improved lung nodule (<= 20mm diameter) contrast is achieved by imaging the VOI near the SBDX system detector, where the tomographic angle is maximized. The combination of the SBDX image guidance with an ENB system would provide real-time visualization during biopsy with improved localization of the target and needle/biopsy instruments, thereby increasing the average and lowering the variance of the yield for TBNbx.

Yoon, Sungwon; Wilfley, Brian P.; Jasperson, Keith; Krishna, Ganesh; Fahrig, Rebecca

2011-03-01

224

3D GRASE pulsed arterial spin labeling at multiple inflow times in patients with long arterial transit times: comparison with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI at 3 Tesla.  

PubMed

Pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) at multiple inflow times (multi-TIs) is advantageous for the measurement of brain perfusion in patients with long arterial transit times (ATTs) as in steno-occlusive disease, because bolus-arrival-time can be measured and blood flow measurements can be corrected accordingly. Owing to its increased signal-to-noise ratio, a combination with a three-dimensional gradient and spin echo (GRASE) readout allows acquiring a sufficient number of multi-TIs within a clinically feasible acquisition time of 5?minutes. We compared this technique with the clinical standard dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced imaging-magnetic resonance imaging in patients with unilateral stenosis >70% of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery (MCA) at 3 Tesla. We performed qualitative (assessment by three expert raters) and quantitative (region of interest (ROI)/volume of interest (VOI) based) comparisons. In 43 patients, multi-TI PASL-GRASE showed perfusion alterations with moderate accuracy in the qualitative analysis. Quantitatively, moderate correlation coefficients were found for the MCA territory (ROI based: r=0.52, VOI based: r=0.48). In the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory, a readout related right-sided susceptibility artifact impaired correlation (ROI based: r=0.29, VOI based: r=0.34). Arterial transit delay artifacts were found only in 12% of patients. In conclusion, multi-TI PASL-GRASE can correct for arterial transit delay in patients with long ATTs. These results are promising for the transfer of ASL to the clinical practice.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.200. PMID:25407272

Martin, Steve Z; Madai, Vince I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Federico C; Mutke, Matthias A; Bauer, Miriam; Herzig, Cornelius X; Hetzer, Stefan; Günther, Matthias; Sobesky, Jan

2014-11-19

225

Experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT using digital beam attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tailoring CT scan acquisition parameters to individual patients is a topic of much research in the CT imaging community. It is now common place to find automatically adjusted tube current options for modern CT scanners. In addition, the use of beam shaping filters, commonly called bowtie filters, is available on most CT systems and allows for different body regions to receive different incident x-ray fluence distributions. However, no method currently exists which allows for the form of the incident x-ray fluence distribution to change as a function of the view angle. This study represents the first experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) for a c-arm geometry CT scan. X-ray fluence modulation is accomplished using a digital beam attenuator (DBA). The device is composed of ten iron wedge pairs that modulate the thickness of iron, the x-rays must traverse before reaching a patient. Using this device, experimental data was taken using a Siemens Zeego c-arm scanner. Scans were performed on a cylindrical polyethylene phantom and on two different sections of an anthropomorphic phantom. The DBA was used to equalize the x-ray fluence striking the detector for each scan. Non DBA, or ‘flat field’ scans were also acquired of the same phantom objects for comparison. In addition, a scan was performed in which the DBA was used to enable volume of interest (VOI) imaging. In VOI, only a small sub-volume within a patient receives full dose and the rest of the patient receives a much lower dose. Data corrections unique to using a piece-wise constant modulator were also developed. The feasibility of FFMCT implemented using a DBA device has been demonstrated. Initial results suggest dose reductions of up to 3.6 times relative to ‘flat field’ CT. In addition to dose reduction, the DBA enables a large improvement in image noise uniformity and the ability to provide regionally enhanced signal to noise using VOI imaging techniques. The results presented in this paper take the field of FFMCT from the theoretical stage to that of possible clinical implementation. FFMCT, as shown in this paper, can reduce the patient dose while maintaining or improving image quality. In addition, the DBA has been experimentally shown to be well suited to implement entirely new imaging methods like photon counting and VOI imaging.

Szczykutowicz, T. P.; Mistretta, C. A.

2014-03-01

226

Corps étranger métallique inhalé: 36 mois d’évolution intrabronchique chez un enfant de 8 ans  

PubMed Central

Les corps étrangers dans les voies respiratoires constituent une urgence relativement fréquente chez les enfants. Nous présentons ici le cas d'une fillette de 8 ans qui avait inhalé un clou que la radiographie avait localisé dans la bronche droite. L’évolution est marquée par une symptomatologie muette et une migration vers le bas de ce clou. Ne disposant pas d’équipement pour une chirurgie adaptée, le malade vit encore avec ce corps étranger en lui. La nature et l’évolution clinique et paraclinique rapportées ici en constituent l'intérêt. PMID:25422700

Mupepe, Alexis Kumba; Mukuku, Olivier; Bagale, Yves; Ruhindiza, Bienvenu Mukuku

2014-01-01

227

From Anatomic Standardization Analysis of Perfusion SPECT Data to Perfusion Pattern Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Rationale,and,Objectives. In the general context of perfusion pattern modelling from SPECT data, the purpose of this study was to characterize inter-individual functional variability and,functional connectivity,between,anatomical,structures in a set of SPECT data acquired,from a homogeneous,population,of subjects. Materials,and,methods.,From,Volume,of,Interest (VOI)-perfusion measurements performed on anatomically standardized SPECT data, we proposed to use correspondence,analysis (CA) and hierarchical clustering (HC) to explore the structure of

Christophe Grova; Pierre Jannin; Irène Buvat; Habib Benali; Jean-yves Bansard; Arnaud Biraben; Bernard Gibaud

2003-01-01

228

Segmentation of pulmonary nodules in three-dimensional CT images by use of a spiral-scanning technique  

SciTech Connect

Accurate segmentation of pulmonary nodules in computed tomography (CT) is an important and difficult task for computer-aided diagnosis of lung cancer. Therefore, the authors developed a novel automated method for accurate segmentation of nodules in three-dimensional (3D) CT. First, a volume of interest (VOI) was determined at the location of a nodule. To simplify nodule segmentation, the 3D VOI was transformed into a two-dimensional (2D) image by use of a key 'spiral-scanning' technique, in which a number of radial lines originating from the center of the VOI spirally scanned the VOI from the 'north pole' to the 'south pole'. The voxels scanned by the radial lines provided a transformed 2D image. Because the surface of a nodule in the 3D image became a curve in the transformed 2D image, the spiral-scanning technique considerably simplified the segmentation method and enabled reliable segmentation results to be obtained. A dynamic programming technique was employed to delineate the 'optimal' outline of a nodule in the 2D image, which corresponded to the surface of the nodule in the 3D image. The optimal outline was then transformed back into 3D image space to provide the surface of the nodule. An overlap between nodule regions provided by computer and by the radiologists was employed as a performance metric for evaluating the segmentation method. The database included two Lung Imaging Database Consortium (LIDC) data sets that contained 23 and 86 CT scans, respectively, with 23 and 73 nodules that were 3 mm or larger in diameter. For the two data sets, six and four radiologists manually delineated the outlines of the nodules as reference standards in a performance evaluation for nodule segmentation. The segmentation method was trained on the first and was tested on the second LIDC data sets. The mean overlap values were 66% and 64% for the nodules in the first and second LIDC data sets, respectively, which represented a higher performance level than those of two existing segmentation methods that were also evaluated by use of the LIDC data sets. The segmentation method provided relatively reliable results for pulmonary nodule segmentation and would be useful for lung cancer quantification, detection, and diagnosis.

Wang Jiahui; Engelmann, Roger; Li Qiang [Department of Radiology, MC2026, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2007-12-15

229

Pulmonary nodule registration in serial CT scans based on rib anatomy and nodule template matching  

PubMed Central

An automated method is being developed in order to identify corresponding nodules in serial thoracic CT scans for interval change analysis. The method uses the rib centerlines as the reference for initial nodule registration. A spatially adaptive rib segmentation method first locates the regions where the ribs join the spine, which define the starting locations for rib tracking. Each rib is tracked and locally segmented by expectation-maximization. The ribs are automatically labeled, and the centerlines are estimated using skeletonization. For a given nodule in the source scan, the closest three ribs are identified. A three-dimensional (3D) rigid affine transformation guided by simplex optimization aligns the centerlines of each of the three rib pairs in the source and target CT volumes. Automatically defined control points along the centerlines of the three ribs in the source scan and the registered ribs in the target scan are used to guide an initial registration using a second 3D rigid affine transformation. A search volume of interest (VOI) is then located in the target scan. Nodule candidate locations within the search VOI are identified as regions with high Hessian responses. The initial registration is refined by searching for the maximum cross-correlation between the nodule template from the source scan and the candidate locations. The method was evaluated on 48 CT scans from 20 patients. Experienced radiologists identified 101 pairs of corresponding nodules. Three metrics were used for performance evaluation. The first metric was the Euclidean distance between the nodule centers identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, the second metric was a volume overlap measure between the nodule VOIs identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, and the third metric was the hit rate, which measures the fraction of nodules whose centroid computed by the computer registration in the target scan falls within the VOI identified by the radiologist. The average Euclidean distance error was 2.7±3.3 mm. Only two pairs had an error larger than 10 mm. The average volume overlap measure was 0.71±0.24. Eighty-three of the 101 pairs had ratios larger than 0.5, and only two pairs had no overlap. The final hit rate was 93/101. PMID:17500464

Shi, Jiazheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zhou, Chuan; Cascade, Philip N.; Bogot, Naama; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Wu, Yi-Ta; Wei, Jun

2009-01-01

230

Absent upper blind Pouch in a case of tracheo-esophageal fistula  

PubMed Central

A common upper airway and digestive tract is a rare congenital anomaly that is usually fatal and its exact incidence is not known. It is a diagnostic challenge as it requires high index of suspicion. It should be considered in a neonate with respiratory distress in a non-vigorous baby requiring endotracheal intubation, which is difficult even in expert hand. We present a newborn with suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula that was diagnosed intraoperatively to have absent upper blind pouch of the esophagus and on autopsy found to have laryngeal atresia with absent vocal cords and a common aerodigestive tract continuing distally with trachea. The neonate was ventilated with endotracheal tube (ETT) placement which in retrospect we came to know that it was in the esophagus. The neonate also had associated multiple congenital anomalies of VACTERL association. The importance of teamwork between neonatologist, pediatric surgeon, anesthesiologist, and radiologist is highlighted for diagnosis and management of such rare cases. PMID:25552830

Harjai, Man Mohan; Badal, Sachendra; Khanna, Sangeeta; Singh, Ajit Kumar

2015-01-01

231

Migration of a swallowed blunt foreign body to the neck.  

PubMed

Ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem in the otolaryngology practice. Reports of extraluminal migration of the foreign bodies from the upper aerodigestive tract are rare. Penetration and extraluminal migration of ingested foreign bodies may cause severe vascular and suppurative complications, even death. We report a 4-year-old girl who presented with a mass and partial extrusion of a foreign body in the neck. She had a history of ingesting the plastic top piece of a knitting needle approximately 1 year ago. She had been asymptomatic until the present time. The examination revealed a red, blunt, rectangular plastic foreign body half embedded in the skin of the right neck. Esophagography with barium swallow, cervical X-rays, and computed tomography scans were obtained. The foreign body was easily removed under general anesthesia. Primary closure and direct laryngoscopy was also performed. The patient recovered very well without any complications. PMID:24592347

Ozturk, Kerem; Turhal, Goksel; Gode, Sercan; Yavuzer, Atilla

2014-01-01

232

[Radiation therapy of sinonasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma].  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma are part of lymphoproliferative diseases, they are rare in Europe and the United States but relatively common in Asia and South America. Natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma present clinically as destructive lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract with perforation of deep structures of the face, destruction of the palate or an invasion of orbits. Treatment modalities of these lymphomas are still discussed because of the lack of available studies and the rarity of this disease. Radiotherapy provides a rapid control of the disease and is positioned as a major treatment of localized stages of NK/T-cell lymphoma of the nasal cavity. We therefore studied the different forms of radiation therapy in the early stages of nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma. PMID:24462054

Riet, F-G; Canova, C-H; Gabarre, J; Ben Hassine, S; Kamsu Kom, L; Mazeron, J-J; Feuvret, L

2014-03-01

233

Basaloid squamous cell carcimoma: A rare case report with review of literature.  

PubMed

Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a distinct variant of conventional squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), predominantly localized in the upper aerodigestive tract. In the head and neck region, the tumor has a strong predilection for extra-laryngeal sites, such as the base of the tongue, tonsil, hypopharynx and supraglottic larynx. BSCC has well-defined histological features, characterized by nesting, lobular and trabecular arrangement of basaloid cells. Central comedonecrosis within the cell nests, cells with nuclear palisading and high-grade dysplasia in overlying mucosa are the main characteristics. The tumor is considered to be highly aggressive and often presents itself as an advanced stage lesion, thus demanding early diagnosis and prompt treatment. We here report a case of 72-year-old male diagnosed with BSCC involving the right tonsillar region. PMID:25328315

Shivakumar, Bn; Dash, Bishwajeet; Sahu, Anshuta; Nayak, Barakha

2014-05-01

234

Molecular changes in the multistage pathogenesis of head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCCHN) arise in the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract at multiple anatomic sites. While tobacco and alcohol exposure remain the primary risk factors for this malignancy, infection with the human papilloma virus is emerging as a major contributing factor to cancers that arise primarily in the oropharynx. Despite therapeutic advances, survival has remained relatively unchanged over the past few decades. Increased understand of the cellular and molecular biology of these cancers will improve our understanding of this malignancy and facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. Alterations that have been studied to date include genetic and epigenetic changes. While the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is the only established molecular therapeutic target, other proteins and pathways are under active investigation to determine their contribution to SCCHN carcinogenesis and progression. PMID:22112483

Park, Brian J.; Chiosea, Simion I.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

2012-01-01

235

An unusual presentation of herpes infection in the head and neck  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is among a spectrum of viruses known to affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Gingivostomatitis and pharyngitis are the most common clinical manifestations of first-episode HSV infection, whereas recurrent herpes labialis is the most common clinical manifestation of reactivation HSV infection. Herpetic viral infections seldom attack the larynx. Laryngeal disorders provoked by the herpes virus are characterised by a large spectrum of presentations and polymorphisms, and can simulate mucous lesions such as an extensive laryngeal neoplasm (supraglottic tumour). We report a case of a 69-year-old woman, smoker, who presented with a large ulcerated supraglottic mass mimicking laryngeal cancer, requiring emergency tracheostomy for worsening stridor, which turned out to be an HSV laryngitis superimposed onto an underlying Streptococcus A lower respiratory tract infection. The patient was treated for Streptococcus A infection and her symptoms resolved following treatment. Patient's tracheotomy tube was removed on follow-up appointment. PMID:23376665

Sanei-Moghaddam, Ali; Loizou, Peter; Fish, Brian M

2013-01-01

236

Removal of a Wire Brush Bristle from the Hypopharynx Using Suspension, Microscope, and Fluoroscopy  

PubMed Central

Wire brush bristles are an increasingly recognized hazard that can present as a foreign body in the aerodigestive tract. Due to their small size and tendency to become embedded in surrounding tissue, these small metallic bristles present a unique operative challenge to otolaryngologists. Here we present a case of a 40-year-old woman who underwent endoscopic extraction of a wire bristle from the posterior pharyngeal wall using suspension, microscopy, and C-arm fluoroscopy. We believe this is the first published case of an endoscopic removal of a buried foreign body in the hypopharynx using these methods of localization concurrently. By leveraging multiple techniques for visualization, surgeons can avoid open exploration while ensuring complete removal of the object. Additionally, this case highlights the importance of regulatory oversight and consumer awareness of the hazards of grill brushes. PMID:25649460

Naunheim, Matthew R.; Dedmon, Matthew M.; Mori, Matthew C.; Sedaghat, Ahmad R.; Dowdall, Jayme R.

2015-01-01

237

Facial, Cervical, and Mediastinal Emphysema of the Clarinet Player: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervicofacial emphysema may arise due to the leakage of air from a defect in the aerodigestive tract to the fascial layers of neck and face. Rarely, it may be caused by insufflation of air through the Stensen’s duct. Case Report: We present a case with diffuse facial, cervical and mediastinal emphysema due to playing a wind instrument immediately after a facial trauma. There was no mucosal defect or laceration noticed by examination which could explain the origin of the emphysema. Despite the widespread cervicofacial emphysema with mediastinal involvement, the patient significantly improved within 48 hours without any intervention. Conclusion: Even though cervicofacial emphysema ameliorates spontaneously, increased care must be taken, especially when there is pneumomediastinum and/or pneumothorax.

Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kesgin, Selcan; Tezcan, Erkan; Köyba??, Serap

2014-01-01

238

Migration of a Swallowed Blunt Foreign Body to the Neck  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem in the otolaryngology practice. Reports of extraluminal migration of the foreign bodies from the upper aerodigestive tract are rare. Penetration and extraluminal migration of ingested foreign bodies may cause severe vascular and suppurative complications, even death. We report a 4-year-old girl who presented with a mass and partial extrusion of a foreign body in the neck. She had a history of ingesting the plastic top piece of a knitting needle approximately 1 year ago. She had been asymptomatic until the present time. The examination revealed a red, blunt, rectangular plastic foreign body half embedded in the skin of the right neck. Esophagography with barium swallow, cervical X-rays, and computed tomography scans were obtained. The foreign body was easily removed under general anesthesia. Primary closure and direct laryngoscopy was also performed. The patient recovered very well without any complications. PMID:24592347

Ozturk, Kerem; Turhal, Goksel; Gode, Sercan; Yavuzer, Atilla

2014-01-01

239

Pharyngeal perforation and tracheopharyngeal fistula caused by foreign body impaction.  

PubMed

Development of a tracheopharyngeal fistula after pharyngeal perforation is an uncommon occurrence. As a result, published guidance for management of this rare type of aerodigestive tract fistula is limited. We describe the workup and management of a traumatic tracheopharyngeal fistula caused by foreign body impaction. A conservative, endoscopic treatment strategy with broad-spectrum antibiotics, transnasal drainage, and covered tracheal stent placement was used. The stent was removed after 4 weeks, and complete closure of the fistula tract was confirmed by endoscopy and contrast esophagram. Although tracheopharyngeal fistulae are rare and operative treatment can be complex, this case demonstrates that conservative management with antibiotics, drainage, and endoscopic stenting can be successful in select patients. PMID:25639441

Macke, Ryan A; Foxwell, Tyler; Luketich, James D; Nason, Katie S

2015-02-01

240

Feasibility and clinical outcomes of transoral robotic surgery and transoral robot-assisted carbon dioxide laser for hypopharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been used as a novel procedure for squamous cell carcinoma of the laryngopharyngeal cancers with encouraging outcomes. The safety, feasibility, and efficacy regarding this approach have previously been demonstrated. There are several studies proposing the benefit of combining TORS with carbon dioxide (CO2) laser in resecting upper aerodigestive tract tumors. We report a series of patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma treated with primary TORS with or without the flexible carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. All TORS resections were completed without any intraoperative complication. None required conversion to an open procedure. Clinical outcomes in this preliminary analysis indicate that magnified view, 3D visualization with the wristed instruments and tremor reduction technology of robotic experience, allow en bloc resection of early stage hypopharyngeal cancers. TORS with CO2 laser is a promising, minimally invasive surgical alternative for the treatment of hypopharyngeal tumors with comparable oncologic outcomes. PMID:25478973

Durmus, Kasim; Kucur, Cuneyt; Uysal, Ismail O; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Ozer, Enver

2015-01-01

241

Absent upper blind Pouch in a case of tracheo-esophageal fistula.  

PubMed

A common upper airway and digestive tract is a rare congenital anomaly that is usually fatal and its exact incidence is not known. It is a diagnostic challenge as it requires high index of suspicion. It should be considered in a neonate with respiratory distress in a non-vigorous baby requiring endotracheal intubation, which is difficult even in expert hand. We present a newborn with suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula that was diagnosed intraoperatively to have absent upper blind pouch of the esophagus and on autopsy found to have laryngeal atresia with absent vocal cords and a common aerodigestive tract continuing distally with trachea. The neonate was ventilated with endotracheal tube (ETT) placement which in retrospect we came to know that it was in the esophagus. The neonate also had associated multiple congenital anomalies of VACTERL association. The importance of teamwork between neonatologist, pediatric surgeon, anesthesiologist, and radiologist is highlighted for diagnosis and management of such rare cases. PMID:25552830

Harjai, Man Mohan; Badal, Sachendra; Khanna, Sangeeta; Singh, Ajit Kumar

2015-01-01

242

Plasma cell mucositis with gingival enlargement and severe periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Plasma cell mucositis (PCM) is a very rare, chronic, multifocal, idiopathic, non-neoplastic plasma cell proliferative disorder of the upper aerodigestive tract. The classic clinical presentation is an intensely erythematous mucosa with surface changes described variously as papillomatous, cobblestone, nodular or velvety. It is a very rare condition <50 cases reported in literature. A 72-year-old male patient complained of sore throat, stomatodynia, dysphagia, multiple oral ulcers, enlarged swollen bleeding gums and mobile teeth. There was chronic inflammatory enlargement of the gingiva and palate with severe periodontitis. Histopathological examination revealed a hyperplastic epithelium with a dense infiltrate of mature polyclonal plasma cells in the superficial layer of the lamina propria. PCM is a diagnosis of exclusion, to be differentiated from other infective, reactive, autoimmune, allergic and neoplastic disorders with plasma cell infiltrates. Management with surgical and immunosuppressive therapy is mostly ineffective with short remissions and frequent relapses. PMID:25024555

Gupta, Shalini R.; Gupta, Rajiva; Saran, Ravindra K.; Krishnan, Sriram

2014-01-01

243

[Pathologists and the French network of expertise on rare cancers ENT: The REFCORpath].  

PubMed

Aerodigestive tract tumors are very diverse, either in terms of location, or histologically. Also, this heterogeneity poses particular problems for the histological diagnosis but also for the establishment of the most appropriate treatment. Thus, the network REFCOR (réseau d'expertise français sur les cancers ORL rares/French expert network on rare ENT cancers) was created to better understand these issues, by proposing an epidemiological and diagnostic approach with research collaborations. This network is dedicated to all primary malignant tumors of the salivary glands, ear, nasal cavity and sinuses and all head and neck malignancies other than conventional squamous cell carcinoma. The REFCORpath network consists of expert pathologists and offers, through a network of scanned images, a second opinion or even a third. PMID:24630638

Badoual, Cécile; Baglin, Anne-Catherine; Wassef, Michel; Thariat, Juliette; Reyt, Emile; Janot, François; Baujat, Bertrand

2014-02-01

244

Cytogenetic and molecular genetic demonstration of polyclonality in an acinic cell carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

The paradigm that human malignancies are monoclonal has been questioned during recent years by the finding of unrelated, cytogenetically aberrant clones in short-term cultures from certain tumour types, notably carcinomas of the breast, skin and upper aerodigestive tract. In order to analyse whether cytogenetically unrelated clones are also unrelated at the molecular level, we analysed the X-chromosome inactivation status in cell cultures from a cytogenetically highly polyclonal acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. By using cell cultures dominated by a single abnormal clone, obtained through in vitro culturing for 3-5 passages, we showed that the different clones must indeed have originated from different cells. Images Figure 2 PMID:9703273

Jin, C.; Jin, Y.; Höglund, M.; Wennerberg, J.; Akervall, J.; Willén, R.; Dictor, M.; Mandahl, N.; Mitelman, F.; Mertens, F.

1998-01-01

245

Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the vulva, an underrecognized entity? Case report with a single inguinal micrometastasis detected by sentinel node technique  

PubMed Central

This report describes an unusual EBV-negative lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the vulva in a 73-year-old patient. The lesion was localised at the right minor labium and was resected by partial vulvectomy. A synchronous sentinel lymph node biopsy revealed a single micrometastasis in the right inguinal region, which prompted local radiotherapy. Follow-up nine months later showed only slight vulvar atrophy, without signs of local recurrence or distant metastases. Although lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas of the skin and the female genital tract are presumed to have a better prognosis than their counterparts in the upper aerodigestive tract, possibly due to earlier detection and therapy, this case documents their potential for early metastasis. PMID:21219641

2011-01-01

246

Voluminous Extracardiac Adult Rhabdomyoma of the Neck: A Case Presentation  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Rhabdomyomas of the head and neck are exceptionally rare benign mesenchymal tumors. Rare cases have been reported to involve other sites of the body including the head and neck regions. Case Presentation. We report a case of voluminous extracardiac adult rhabdomyoma affecting adult patients and initially seen as slowly growing, indolent neoplasms. The patient is a seventy-year old male Italian patient. Conclusion. Adult extracardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare benign tumor that may present with symptoms that vary from aerodigestive tract obstruction to remaining asymptomatic for many years. Although histology is very characteristic, several differential diagnoses have to be considered. To our knowledge, this is the first case of voluminous adult-type symptomless rhabdomyoma. PMID:23259131

Maglio, Riccardo; Francesco, Scicchitano; Paolo, Magistri; Stefano, Valabrega; Francesco, D'Angelo; Giovanni, Ramacciato

2012-01-01

247

Supraesophageal reflux disease: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Supraesophageal reflux disease (SERD), defined as reflux proximal to the upper esophageal sphincter, is a common cause of morbidity of the upper aerodigestive tract, including rhinitis, laryngitis, cough, postnasal drip, and throat clearing. Although SERD has a high prevalence, the ideal means of diagnosing and treating the disease remain poorly defined. Evolving pH monitoring technology and a body of literature with conflicting reports regarding the best means for measuring and interpreting supraesophageal acidic reflux complicates the diagnosis of SERD. Treatment options include empiric acid suppression therapy, lifestyle modification, and surgery. However, limited data regarding the effectiveness of these strategies vary between studies and patient populations. It is the goal of this article to summarize the presentation and pathogenesis of SERD and to integrate the evolving body of literature pertaining to diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24717786

Scott, David R; Simon, Ronald A

2014-01-01

248

Revisiting the association between candidal infection and carcinoma, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco and alcohol are risk factors associated with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, but increasingly the role of infection and chronic inflammation is recognized as being significant in cancer development. Bacteria, particularly Helicobacter pylori, and viruses such as members of the human papilloma virus family and hepatitis B and C are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. There is less evidence for an association between fungi and cancer, although it has been recognized for many years that white patches on the oral mucosa, which are infected with Candida, have a greater likelihood of undergoing malignant transformation than those that are not infected. Objective This article reviews the association between the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic candidal infection and describes mechanisms that may be involved in Candida-associated malignant transformation. PMID:21523221

Mohd Bakri, Marina; Mohd Hussaini, Haizal; Rachel Holmes, Ann; David Cannon, Richard; Mary Rich, Alison

2010-01-01

249

An Unusual Localization of a Pleomorphic Adenoma in the Rhinopharynx  

PubMed Central

Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of the parotid glands. Rarely it may arise from minor salivary glands of the upper aerodigestive tract. A 57-year-old woman was admitted at our institution presenting with nasal obstruction. Endoscopic evaluation revealed a pedicled mass in the rhinopharynx. After radiological examination, we opted for a transnasal endoscopic-assisted excision of the mass under general anaesthesia. Histological evaluation deponed for pleomorphic adenoma with clear surgical margins. No endoscopic evidence of local recurrence has been shown after 48 months of followup. In the literature, few cases of pleomorphic adenoma arising in the rhinopharynx have been reported. The introduction of endoscopy, as shown by our experience, leads to important benefits in the identification, treatment, and followup of such rhinopharyngeal benign tumors. PMID:22927861

Pagella, Fabio; Chu, Francesco; Pusateri, Alessandro; Matti, Elina

2012-01-01

250

Argon laser and soft tissue interaction  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of the argon laser with the mucous membrane of the upper aerodigestive tract was studied. The advantages of the argon laser are a small spot that can be varied in size and intensity, selective vascular absorption, the capability of being incorporated into a flexible delivery system, and a coincident aiming beam. The acute soft tissue effects are characterized by subepithelial extension, with a variable delayed reaction between the application of the laser and a detectable break in the epithelium. Postoperative edema persisted, with an increase in the lateral spread of the lesion over 3 days and an acute inflammatory reaction extending over 7 days. By 21 days the lesions were reepithelialized and healed, but their width was 30% greater than the original defect. The unpredictable interaction with soft tissue, the postoperative edema, and the quality of wound healing are disadvantages. The argon laser appears to have limited clinical potential as a surgical tool for the air and food passages.

Gillis, T.M.; Strong, M.S.; Shapshay, S.M.; Incze, J.; Simpson, G.

1984-02-01

251

Ablation of dermal and mucosal lesions with a new CO2 laser application system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser treatment of skin changes has become common practice in recent years. The high absorption of the wavelength of the carbon-dioxide laser (10600 nm) is responsible for its low penetration depth in biological tissue. Shortening the exposure time minimizes thermic side effects such as carbonization and coagulation. This effect can be achieved with the SilkTouchTM scanner 767, since the focused laser beam is moved over a defined area by rapidly rotating mirrors. This enables controlled and reliable removal of certain dermal lesions, particularly hypertrophic scars, scars after common acne, wrinkles, rhinophyma and benign neoplasms like verruca vulgaris. Cosmetically favorable reepithelialization of the lasered surfaces results within a very short period of time. Benign mucosal changes of the upper aerodigestive tract can also be treated. Ablation is less traumatic for papillomas, fibromas, hyperplasias in the area of Waldeyer's tonsillar ring and certain laryngotracheal pathologies. Clinical examples demonstrate the advantages of this new mode of application.

Jovanovic, Sergije; Sedlmaier, Benedikt W.; Fuehrer, Ariane

1997-05-01

252

Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type in Taiwan: a relatively higher frequency of T-cell lineage and poor survival for extranasal tumors.  

PubMed

Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a predominantly extranodal lymphoma associated with Epstein-Barr virus occurring most frequently in the upper aerodigestive tract. There are limited reports on cellular origin and prognostic factors. We retrospectively investigated 73 cases with a median age of 54 years and a male-female ratio of 2.0:1. The upper aerodigestive tract (nasal group) was the most common site of involvement (51 cases; 70%). The other organs (n = 22; extranasal group) included the skin (12 cases; 16%) and gastrointestinal tract (5; 7%). Of the 70 cases with complete staging, 71% had stage I/II disease. All cases were positive for Epstein-Barr virus by in situ hybridization. Using immunohistochemistry and clonality assay for T-cell receptor gene rearrangement, these tumors were classified into NK (n = 39; 53%), T (n = 13; 18%), and indeterminate lineage (n = 21; 29%). The only clinicopathological difference among these 3 groups was rare CD5 expression in the NK-cell group. Nasal tumors were more frequently of NK-cell origin, and extranasal tumors were equally of either T- or NK-cell origin. The 5-year overall survival rate was 35.6%. The overall survival time was shorter in the extranasal group, although there was no statistical difference in age, sex, and histologic or immunophenotypic features between the 2 groups. Excluding the cases with indeterminate lineage, 75% of cases were of NK lineage; and 25%, T lineage. Extranasal tumors were more aggressive than their nasal counterparts. A prospective national study is warranted for a better understanding of the clinicopathological and genetic features of this uncommon tumor and the prognostic factors. PMID:25554090

Jhuang, Jie-Yang; Chang, Sheng-Tsung; Weng, Shih-Feng; Pan, Shien-Tung; Chu, Pei-Yi; Hsieh, Pin-Pen; Wei, Chih-Hsin; Chou, Shih-Cheng; Koo, Chiew-Loon; Chen, Chih-Jung; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Chuang, Shih-Sung

2015-02-01

253

The effects of internal radiation exposure on cancer mortality in nuclear workers at Rocketdyne/Atomics International.  

PubMed Central

We examined the effects of chronic exposure to radionuclides, primarily uranium and mixed-fission products, on cancer mortality in a retrospective cohort study of workers enrolled in the radiation-monitoring program of a nuclear research and development facility. Between 1950 and 1994, 2,297 workers were monitored for internal radiation exposures, and 441 workers died, 134 (30.4%) of them from cancer as the underlying cause. We calculated internal lung-dose estimates based on urinalysis and whole-body and lung counts reported for individual workers. We examined cancer mortality of workers exposed at different cumulative lung-dose levels using complete risk-set analysis for cohort data, adjusting for age, pay type, time since first radiation monitored, and external radiation. In addition, we examined the potential for confounding due to chemical exposures and smoking, explored whether external radiation exposure modifies the effects of internal exposure, and estimated effects after excluding exposures likely to have been unrelated to disease onset. Dose-response relations were observed for death from hemato- and lymphopoietic cancers and from upper aerodigestive tract cancers, adjusting for age, time since first monitored, pay type, and external (gamma) radiation dose. No association was found for other cancers, including cancers of the lung. Despite the small number of exposed deaths from specific cancer types and possible bias due to measurement error and confounding, the positive findings and strong dose-response gradients observed suggest carcinogenic effects of internal radiation to the upper aerodigestive tract and the blood and lymph system in this occupational cohort. However, causal inferences require replication of our results in other populations or confirmation with an extended follow-up of this cohort. PMID:10964795

Ritz, B; Morgenstern, H; Crawford-Brown, D; Young, B

2000-01-01

254

Association of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene polymorphism with multiple oesophageal dysplasia in head and neck cancer patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Multiple occurrences of oesophageal dysplasia are frequently observed in head and neck cancer patients, and closely associated with alcohol consumption. Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is thought to play an important role in the carcinogenesis of the upper aerodigestive tract.?AIM—To investigate if genetic polymorphism in alcohol metabolising enzymes (ADH3, alcohol dehydrogenase 3; ALDH2, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2) is associated with oesophageal multiple dysplasia in head and neck cancer patients.?METHODS—Thirty one consecutive patients with head and neck cancer were included in the study. Multiple oesophageal dysplasia was detected endoscopically as multiple Lugol voiding lesions (multiple LVL) using the Lugol dye staining method. The ADH3 and ALDH2 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.?RESULTS—Among the 31 patients with head and neck cancer, 17 had multiple LVL. Multiple LVL were closely associated with a second primary oesophageal carcinoma in head and neck cancer patients (odds ratio 60.7, 95% CI 5.6-659). Furthermore, the mutant ALDH2 allele was significantly more prevalent in patients with multiple LVL (65% v 29%; p<0.05) whereas no difference was observed in ADH3 polymorphism.?CONCLUSIONS—The mutant ALDH2 allele appears to be a risk indicator for multiple LVL in head and neck cancer patients. Accumulation of acetaldehyde due to low ALDH2 activity may play a critical role in cancerous changes throughout the mucosa in the upper aerodigestive tract.???Keywords: head and neck cancer; oesophageal carcinoma; alcohol dehydrogenase; aldehyde dehydrogenase; multiple dysplasia; Lugol voiding lesion PMID:10896918

Muto, M; Hitomi, Y; Ohtsu, A; Ebihara, S; Yoshida, S; Esumi, H

2000-01-01

255

Impact of Personalized Feeding Program in 100 NICU Infants: Pathophysiology-based Approach for Better Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives In neonatal intensive care unit infants referred for home-tube feeding methods, we evaluated the effect of an innovative diagnostic and management approach on feeding outcomes at discharge and 1 year, by comparing data from historical controls; we hypothesized that clinical and aerodigestive motility characteristics at evaluation were predictive of feeding outcomes at discharge; we assessed the economic impact of feeding outcomes. Patients and Methods Patients (N = 100) who were referred for development of long-term feeding management strategy at 46.4 ± 13.1 weeks’ postmenstrual age were compared with 50 historical controls that received routine care. The focused approach included swallow-integrated pharyngoesophageal manometry, individualized feeding strategy, and prospective follow-up. Feeding success was defined as ability to achieve oral feedings at discharge and 1 year. Motility characteristics were evaluated in relation to feeding success or failure at discharge. Results Higher feeding success was achieved in the innovative feeding program (vs historical controls) at discharge (51% vs 10%, P < 0.0001) and at 1 year (84.3% vs 42.9%, P < 0.0001), at a reduced economic burden (P < 0.05). Contributing factors to the innovative program’s feeding success (vs feeding failure) were earlier evaluation and discharge (both P < 0.05), greater peristaltic reflex-frequency to provocation (P < 0.05), normal pharyngeal manometry (P < 0.05), oral feeding challenge success (P < 0.05), and suck-swallow-breath-esophageal swallow sequence (P < 0.05). Probability of feeding success demonstrated a prediction rate of 79.6%. Conclusions Short-term and long-term feeding outcomes in complex neonates can be significantly improved with innovative feeding strategies at a reduced cost. Clinical and aerodigestive motility characteristics were predictive of outcomes. PMID:21694638

Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.; Peng, Juan; Moore, Rebecca; Saavedra, Jason; Shepherd, Edward; Fernandez, Soledad; Erdman, Steven H.; DiLorenzo, Carlo

2013-01-01

256

Radiation Doses to Structures Within and Adjacent to the Larynx are Correlated With Long-Term Diet- and Speech-Related Quality of Life  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that radiation dose to key sites in the upper aerodigestive tract is associated with long-term functional outcome after (chemo)radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancers. Methods and Materials: This study examined the outcome for 27 patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for definitive management of their head-and-neck cancer who were disease free for at least 1 year after treatment. Head-and-neck cancer-specific quality of life (QoL) was assessed before treatment and at 1 year after treatment. Type of diet tolerated, presence of a feeding tube, and degree of weight loss 1 year after treatment were also used as outcome measures. Radiation doses delivered to various points along the upper aerodigestive tract, including base of tongue, lateral pharyngeal walls, and laryngeal structures, were determined from each treatment plan. Radiation doses for each of these points were tested for correlation with outcome measures. Results: Higher doses delivered to the aryepiglottic folds, false vocal cords, and lateral pharyngeal walls near the false cords correlated with a more restrictive diet, and higher doses to the aryepiglottic folds correlated with greater weight loss (p < 0.05) 1 year after therapy. Better posttreatment speech QoL scores were associated with lower doses delivered to structures within and surrounding the larynx. Conclusion: Our data show an inverse relationship between radiation dose delivered to laryngeal structures and speech and diet and QoL outcomes after definitive (chemo)radiation treatment. These findings suggest that efforts to deliver lower doses to laryngeal structures may improve outcomes after definitive (chemo)radiation therapy.

Dornfeld, Ken [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)]. E-mail: kenneth-dornfeld@uiowa.edu; Simmons, Joel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Karnell, Lucy [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Karnell, Michael [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Funk, Gerry [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Yao Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Wacha, Judith [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Zimmerman, Bridget [Department of Biostatistics, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA (United States); Buatti, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)

2007-07-01

257

Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.  

PubMed

The aim of this research study was to meta-analyze the effects of adherence to Mediterranean diet (MD) on overall cancer risk, and different cancer types. Literature search was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS and EMBASE until January 10, 2014. Inclusion criteria were cohort or case-control studies. Study specific risk ratios (RRs) were pooled using a random effect model by the Cochrane software package Review Manager 5.2. Twenty-one cohort studies including 1,368,736 subjects and 12 case-control studies with 62,725 subjects met the objectives and were enclosed for meta-analyses. The highest adherence to MD category resulted in a significantly risk reduction for overall cancer mortality/incidence (cohort; RR: 0.90, 95% CI 0.86-0.95, p < 0.0001; I(2) = 55%), colorectal (cohort/case-control; RR: 0.86, 95% CI 0.80-0.93, p < 0.0001; I(2) = 62%], prostate (cohort/case-control; RR: 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p = 0.03; I(2) = 0%) and aerodigestive cancer (cohort/case-control; RR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.77, p = 0.003; I(2) = 83%). Nonsignificant changes could be observed for breast cancer, gastric cancer and pancreatic cancer. The Egger regression tests provided limited evidence of substantial publication bias. High adherence to a MD is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of overall cancer mortality (10%), colorectal cancer (14%), prostate cancer (4%) and aerodigestive cancer (56%). PMID:24599882

Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

2014-10-15

258

Structure crustale et anomalies du champ de gravite dans l'est du Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette these presente les resultats d'etudes gravimetriques menees dans le Bouclier canadien. Les mesures du champ de gravite recoltees le long et a proximite de divers transects Lithoprobe y sont interpretees. Chacun des chapitres de cette these est un article publie ou soumis. Le premier article presente l'interpretation gravimetrique le long de la ligne sismique 52 de Lithoprobe, dans la province de Grenville. A l'echelle regionale, la modelisation de l'anomalie de Bouguer invoque un amincissement crustal au sud du front de Grenville sous le terrane allochtone du reservoir Cabonga. Cet amincissement, localise au niveau de la croute inferieure, peut etre associe a une extension post-orogenique. Le modele gravimetrique a aussi permis de mettre en evidence des caracteristiques majeures non revelees par les donnees sismiques, telle que la zone de contact subverticale entre les terranes du reservoir de Cabonga et du reservoir Dozois. La rampe de Baskatong representerait une discontinuite majeure le long de laquelle, les terranes proterozoiques furent accretes. Par ailleurs, un modele de l'anomalie residuelle, dans la partie nord du profil, met en evidence trois corps gabbroiques peu profonds. Le second article presente des modeles crustaux du nord de la province du Superieur a la lumiere de nouvelles donnees de gravite recoltees le long d'un transect traversant les sous-provinces de Nemiscau et La Grande. L'interpretation de l'anomalie de Bouguer pour le nord de l'Abitibi et l'Opatica, invoque un epaississement crustal. Pour les sous-provinces de Nemiscau et La Grande, l'interpretation gravimetrique invoque une densite de la croute superieure plus elevee qu'en Abitibi et en Opatica. Un leger epaississement crustal est observe dans la sous-province de La Grande. Des sequences supracrustales mafiques sont aussi mises en evidence a l'extremite nord du profil dans la sous-province de La Grande. La signature gravimetrique associee a la variation laterale de densite et les evidences de terrain indiquent un pendage vers le nord des principales frontieres tectoniques. Le troisieme chapitre fait l'objet d'une etude du champ de pesanteur au dessus de la region de la baie d'Ungava a partir de donnees satellite et de nouvelles donnees recoltees le long de la cote sud de la baie. Un leve gravimetrique partant de la baie aux Feuilles, dans la province du Superieur, traversant l'Orogene du Nouveau Quebec (ONQ), et finissant pres de la riviere George dans le craton de Rae, a ete realise. L'interpretation des donnees acquises a permis de fournir des modeles de densite. Ces modeles mettent en evidence un epaississement crustal sous l'ONQ et un amincissement sous le terrane de Kuujjuaq, a l'est de l'orogene. Alors que plus a l'est, dans le craton de Rae, une anomalie negative de quelques dix milligals est correlee avec les extensions vers le nord de la zone de cisaillement de la riviere George (ZCRG) et du batholite de De Pas. L'orientation des structures sur les modeles de gravite suggere un chevauchement du craton de Rae au dessus de l'ONQ. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Telmat, Hamid

259

Return to Venus of the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter AKATSUKI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter/AKATSUKI was proposed in 2001 with strong support by international Venus science community and approved as an ISAS (The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science) mission soon after the proposal. The mission life we expected was more than two Earth years in Venus orbit. AKATSUKI was successfully launched at 06:58:22JST on May 21, 2010, by H-IIA F17. After the separation from H-IIA, the telemetry from AKATSUKI was normally detected by DSN Goldstone station (10:00JST) and the solar cell paddles' deployment was confirmed. After a successful cruise, the malfunction happened on the propulsion system during the Venus orbit insertion (VOI) on Dec. 7, 2010. The engine shut down before the planned reduction in speed to achieve. The spacecraft did not enter the Venus orbit but entered an orbit around the Sun with a period of 203 days. Most of the fuel still had remained, but the orbital maneuvering engine was found to be broken and unusable. However, we have found an alternate way of achieving orbit by using only the reaction control system (RSC). We had adopted the alternate way for orbital maneuver and three minor maneuvers in Nov. 2011 were successfully done so that AKATSUKI would meet Venus in 2015. We are considering several scenarios for VOI using only RCS.

Nakamura, Masato; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Chikako; Imamura, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Abe, Takumi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yamada, Manabu; Ogohara, Kazunori; Uemizu, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Shoko; Satoh, Takehiko; Suzuki, Makoto; Ueno, Munetaka; Nakatsuka, Junichi; Iwagami, Naomoto; Taguchi, Makoto; Watanabe, Shigeto; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Hashimoto, George L.; Yamamoto, Hiroki

2014-01-01

260

Effects of Metformin on the Cerebral Metabolic Changes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

Metformin, a widely used antidiabetic drug, has numerous effects on human metabolism. Based on emerging cellular, animal, and epidemiological studies, we hypothesized that metformin leads to cerebral metabolic changes in diabetic patients. To explore metabolism-influenced foci of brain, we used 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography for type 2 diabetic patients taking metformin (MET, n = 18), withdrawing from metformin (wdMET, n = 13), and not taking metformin (noMET, n = 9). Compared with the noMET group, statistical parametric mapping showed that the MET group had clusters with significantly higher metabolism in right temporal, right frontal, and left occipital lobe white matter and lower metabolism in the left parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In volume of interest (VOI-) based group comparisons, the normalized FDG uptake values of both hypermetabolic and hypometabolic clusters were significantly different between groups. The VOI-based correlation analysis across the MET and wdMET groups showed a significant negative correlation between normalized FDG uptake values of hypermetabolic clusters and metformin withdrawal durations and a positive but nonsignificant correlation in the turn of hypometabolic clusters. Conclusively, metformin affects cerebral metabolism in some white matter and semantic memory related sites in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24782665

Huang, Yung-Cheng; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Lin, Wei-Che; Yin, Tang-Kai; Huang, Chi-Wei; Wang, Pei-Wen; Chang, Han-Hsuan

2014-01-01

261

The Value of Information from a GRACE-Enhanced Drought Severity Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage anomalies derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Data Assimilation System (GRACE-DAS) have been used to enhance the information contained in drought indicators. The potential value of this information is to inform local and regional decisions to improve economic welfare in the face of drought. Based on a characterization of current drought evaluations, a modeling framework has been structured to analyze the contributed value of the Earth observations in the assessment of the onset and duration of droughts and their regional impacts. The analysis focuses on (1) characterizing how GRACE-DAS provides Earth observation information for a drought warning, (2) assessing how a GRACE-DAS-enhanced U.S. Drought Monitor would improve economic outcomes in a region, and (3) applying this enhancement process in a decision framework to illustrate the potential role of GRACE data products in a recent drought and response scenario for a value-of-information (VOI) analysis. The VOI analysis quantifies the relative contribution of enhanced understanding and communication of the societal benefits associated with GRACE Earth observation science. Our emphasis is to illustrate the role of an enhanced National Integrated Drought Information System outlook on three key societal outcomes: effects on particular economic sectors, changes in land management decisions, and reductions in damages to ecosystem services.

Kuwayama, Y.; Bernknopf, R.; Macauley, M.; Brookshire, D.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Rodell, M.

2013-12-01

262

An inverse method to design RF coil arrays optimized for SENSE imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method to design MRI RF coils that are optimized for SENSE (sensitivity encoding) imaging is introduced. In this approach, the inverse problem was solved where the surface current density distribution on a coil former was calculated to maximize the SNRsense within a volume of interest (VOI). For that purpose, an analytic relationship was formulated between the SNRsense and surface current density on the coil former. The SNR at pixel ? in a SENSE-MR image, SNRsense,?, is inversely proportional to the g-factor: therefore, the g-factor was formulated in terms of the B1 distribution of the coils. Then, by specifying the geometry of the desired coil former and using a finite element mesh (FEM), the surface current distribution was calculated to maximize the SNRsense, by minimizing (1/SNRsense) in the VOI using a least squares procedure. A simple two-coil array was designed and built to test the method and phantom images were collected. The results show that the new coil design method yielded better uniformity and SNR in SENSE images compared to those of standard coils.

Tugan Muftuler, L.; Chen, Gang; Nalcioglu, Orhan

2006-12-01

263

Quantification of trabecular spatial orientation from low-resolution images.  

PubMed

No accepted methodology exists to assess trabecular bone orientation from clinical CT scans. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the distribution of grey values in clinical CT images is related to the underlying trabecular architecture and that this distribution can be used to identify the principal directions and local anisotropy of trabecular bone. Fourteen trabecular bone samples were extracted from high-resolution (30 ?m) micro-CT scans of seven human femoral heads. Trabecular orientations and local anisotropy were calculated using grey-level deviation (GLD), a novel method providing a measure of the three-dimensional distribution of image grey values. This was repeated for different image resolutions down to 300 ?m and for volumes of interest (VOIs) ranging from 1 to 7 mm. Outcomes were compared with the principal mechanical directions and with mean intercept length (MIL) as calculated for the segmented 30-?m images. For the 30-?m images, GLD predicted the mechanical principal directions equally well as MIL. For the 300-?m images, which are resolutions that can be obtained in vivo using clinical CT, only a small increase (3°-6°) in the deviation from the mechanical orientations was found. VOIs of 5 mm resulted in a robust quantification of the orientation. We conclude that GLD can quantify structural bone parameters from low-resolution CT images. PMID:24787095

Lenaerts, L; Wirth, A J; van Lenthe, G H

2015-10-01

264

A Value of Information approach to data quality objectives for the Hanford high-level waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a Pacific Northwest Laboratory review of the organic-nitrate reaction safety issue in the Hanford single-shell tanks. This study employed a decision analytic method known as Value of Information (VOI). VOI analysis is a special form of decision analysis that has an information collection alternative as one of the initial decision choices. This type of decision analysis, therefore results in the ability to specify the preferred information collection alternative, taking into account all information gathering and other relevant alternatives. For example, the risk reduction benefit associated with further sampling to quantify total organic carbon inventory or to improve information on energetics can be compared to the risk reduction benefit of better temperature monitoring, operational restrictions, or mitigation by moisture control. This approach allows freedom from built-in assumptions, e.g., that all tanks must be sampled to some degree or that all tanks must be deemed intrinsically safe by some means or another. It allows for each tank management decision to be judged in terms of risk reduction from the current state of affairs, and for that state of affairs to be continuously updated to incorporate new information on tank contents, the phenomenology of safety issues, or the effectiveness of mitigation schemes.

Wood, T.W.; Hunter, V.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ulvila, J.W. [Decision Science Associates (United States)

1995-02-01

265

Estimating the benefits of land imagery in environmental applications: a case study in nonpoint source pollution of groundwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is crucial to a more complete assessment of the cumulative, landscape-level effect of agricultural land use and land cover on environmental quality. If this improved assessment yields a net social benefit, then that benefit reflects the value of information (VOI) from MRLI. Environmental quality and the capacity to provide ecosystem services evolve because of human actions, changing natural conditions, and their interaction with natural physical processes. The human actions, in turn, are constrained and redirected by many institutions and regulations such as agricultural, energy, and environmental policies. We present a general framework for bringing together sociologic, biologic, physical, hydrologic, and geologic processes at meaningful scales to interpret environmental implications of MRLI applications. We set out a specific application using MRLI observations to identify crop planting patterns and thus estimate surface management activities that influence groundwater resources over a regional landscape. We tailor the application to the characteristics of nonpoint source groundwater pollution hazards in Iowa to illustrate a general framework in a land use-hydrologic-economic system. In the example, MRLI VOI derives from reducing the risk of both losses to agricultural production and damage to human health and other consequences of contaminated groundwater.

Bernknopf, Richard L.; Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Mishra, Shruti K.

2012-01-01

266

Predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens with Minkowski functionals and support vector regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional trabecular bone quality estimation for purposes of femoral bone strength prediction is important for improving the clinical assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk. In this study, we explore the ability of 3D Minkowski Functionals derived from multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images of proximal femur specimens in predicting their corresponding biomechanical strength. MDCT scans were acquired for 50 proximal femur specimens harvested from human cadavers. An automated volume of interest (VOI)-fitting algorithm was used to define a consistent volume in the femoral head of each specimen. In these VOIs, the trabecular bone micro-architecture was characterized by statistical moments of its BMD distribution and by topological features derived from Minkowski Functionals. A linear multiregression analysis and a support vector regression (SVR) algorithm with a linear kernel were used to predict the failure load (FL) from the feature sets; the predicted FL was compared to the true FL determined through biomechanical testing. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each feature set. The best prediction result was obtained from the Minkowski Functional surface used in combination with SVR, which had the lowest prediction error (RMSE = 0.939 ± 0.345) and which was significantly lower than mean BMD (RMSE = 1.075 ± 0.279, p<0.005). Our results indicate that the biomechanical strength prediction can be significantly improved in proximal femur specimens with Minkowski Functionals extracted from on MDCT images used in conjunction with support vector regression.

Yang, Chien-Chun; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Huber, Markus B.; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Bauer, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas; Eckstein, Felix; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Link, Thomas M.; Wismüller, Axel

2014-03-01

267

Mesiotemporal Volume Loss Associated with Disorder Severity: A VBM Study in Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Results of MRI volumetry in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are inconsistent. Some, but not all, studies reported decreased hippocampus, amygdala, and/or prefrontal volumes. In the current study, we used rater-independent voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 33 female BPD patients and 33 healthy women. We measured gray matter (GM) volumes of the whole brain and of three volumes of interest (VOI), i.e., the hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC). Analyses were conducted using lifetime diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MD) as covariates. We used adversive childhood experiences and the numbers of BPD criteria (as an indicator of disorder severity) to investigate associations with GM volumes. We did not find volume differences between BPD patients and healthy subject, neither of the whole brain nor of the three VOIs, independent of presence or absence of comorbid PTSD and MD. We also did not find a relationship between childhood maltreatment and the patients’ brain volumes. However, within the patient group, the number of BPD criteria fulfilled was inversely correlated with left hippocampal/parahippocampal volume (x=-32, y=-23, z=-18, k=496, t=5.08, p=.007). Consequently, mesiotemporal GM volumes do not seem to differentiate patients from healthy subjects, but might be associated with symptom severity within the BPD group. PMID:24367606

Beblo, Thomas; Mertens, Markus; Kurlandchikov, Oleg; Bien, Christian G.; Driessen, Martin; Woermann, Friedrich G.

2013-01-01

268

Le changement comme tradition dans la recherche et la formation a la recherche en biotechnologie et en peripherie Etude de cas en sciences de la sante, sciences naturelles et genie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le champ de la recherche scientifique et de la formation a la recherche est traverse depuis quelques dizaines d'annees par plusieurs courants et discours associes au changement, mais peu de travaux empiriques permettent de comprendre ce qui change concretement. C'est la contribution originale de cette these au champ de l'education, plus specifiquement a l'etude sociologique de l'enseignement superieur ou sont concentrees les activites liees a la triade thematique du programme doctoral dans lequel elle a ete produite : recherche, formation et pratique. L'enquete-terrain a ete realisee en 2009 et 2010 aupres de 808 repondants affilies a 60 etablissements au Quebec et a produit un vaste materiau de nature mixte (donnees quantitatives et qualitatives). Un portrait de la nebuleuse biotechnologique qui touche les secteurs des sciences de la sante, des sciences naturelles et du genie a ete realise. Ce domaine concerne des dizaines de disciplines et se revele de nature transdisciplinaire, mais les pratiques n'y sont pas davantage marquees par le changement que celles d'autres domaines connexes. Les dynamiques sociales ont fait l'objet d'analyses comparatives dans quatre contextes: le choix des programmes, des objets et des methodes, le financement, la diffusion et la planification de la carriere. Les resultats indiquent que les echanges entre les agents traditionnellement situes au coeur des activites de recherche dominent ces dynamiques dans tous les contextes etudies. L'etude des representations au fondement des pratiques a revele l'existence de trois ecoles de pensee qui coexistent dans le champ scientifique: academique, pragmatique et economiste. Ces ecoles permettent de categoriser les agents en fonction des zones de fractures qui marquent leurs oppositions tout en identifiant ce qu'ils ont en commun. Les representations et les pratiques liees a la formation temoignent d'un habitus plutot homogene, alors que les contradictions semblent plus souvent ancrees dans des luttes universitaires que scientifiques, concentrees sur la negociation du capital scientifique, symbolique et economique en jeu dans la formation doctorale, dans les carrieres auxquelles elle mene, et dans les qualites du titre de Ph.D. Au final, la confusion entre des logiques opposees peut etre reduite en reinterpretant le changement comme tradition du champ scientifique. Mots-cles Sociologie, education, enseignement superieur, science et technologie, biotechnologie, formation doctorale, champ scientifique, reseaux sociaux

Bourque, Claude Julie

269

Design and fabrication of intake manifold for formula SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) race car  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, a group of students from Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) in Montreal design and build a formula-type race car and compete in the Formula SAE competition. In this paper, we examine the design and fabrication of the ir intake system, A number of constraints challenge the designers. For example, to ensure the security of amateur drivers, motors are restrained to 600 cc and a circular restriction of 20 mm in diameter is placed at the entry of the system. Under these conditions, it is important to optimize the quality of the air/fuel mixture which depends mostly on the air intake system. A theoretical analysis reduced the field of possible runner length. However, the influence of runner configuration, plenum shape and size can only be determined experimentally. Polyacrylic functional prototypes were produced and tested on a dynamometric bench. A stereolithography model representing the inner passageways of the optimal intake manifold was built and used as a positive for a polyurethane mold. A composite lamination process was used to laminate the pre-production prototype over a molded wax plug. The major advantage of this approach over craftsmanship or even machining is the time saved to make the mold and the unlimited complexity of the shape permitted by the rapid prototyping systems.

Dore, Sylvie; Lavallee, Patrice

1997-01-01

270

Color, light, and altruistic creation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It seems necessary to me to combine a certain technical inventivity with plastic creation, a particular poetry arises from this relation. The sources of inspiration for works, especially works in which color plays a pre-eminent role, do not only come from nature. The fantasy of the creators evolves and changes thanks to discoveries and technological inventions. My work as a painter has made me particularly sensitive to the diversity of the plastic writings in general and to the chromatic writings in particular. (1) Environmental creation imposes a renewal of the means of creation. Conducting experimental works, I study the particularities of light, mainly its incidence on materials (transmission, reflection, colors, textures, etc.) and its mobility. These works are a source of inspiration for my architectural works and nurture my lectures at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts Decoratifs (National College of Decorative Arts). Environmental creation also imposes some qualities on the artist since he, whether he serves a social entity or a person, serves the whole collectivity. Environmental creation has to be envisaged as an altruistic approach.

Charnay, Yves

2002-06-01

271

Reconnaissance Invariante des Formes avec le Filtre de Fourier-Mellin et un Reseau Neuronique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le filtre de Fourier-Mellin est applique a un ensemble d'objets pour generer des vecteurs invariants sous translation, rotation et changement d'echelle. C'est la premiere methode permettant d'obtenir ces trois invariants simultanement. Le calcul des vecteurs invariants est fait numeriquement et optiquement. Les vecteurs ainsi obtenus sont utilises comme entrees dans un reseau neuronique backpropagation pour faire la classification des prototypes qui lui sont presentes. Les dimensions des vecteurs invariants sont tres petites par rapport aux objets d'entree et permettent d'utiliser un reseau possedant un nombre restreint de connexions. Il devient possible d'entrai ner le reseau dans des temps relativement courts sur un ordinateur du type PC. Une fois le reseau entrai ne, nous lui presentons des vecteurs invariants provenant d'objets se retrouvant dans l'ensemble d'entrai nement mais ayant subi des rotations et des changements d'echelle. Ce nouveau groupe represente l'ensemble de rappel. La performance de la methode est tres bonne avec des taux de succes superieurs a 85%.

Lejeune, Claude

272

Ferret Thoracic Anatomy by 2-Deoxy-2-(18F)Fluoro-D-Glucose (18F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) Imaging  

PubMed Central

The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) has been a long-standing animal model used in the evaluation and treatment of human diseases. Molecular imaging techniques such as 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) would be an invaluable method of tracking disease in vivo, but this technique has not been reported in the literature. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish baseline imaging characteristics of PET/computed tomography (CT) with 18F-FDG in the ferret model. Twelve healthy female ferrets were anesthetized and underwent combined PET/CT scanning. After the images were fused, volumes of interest (VOIs) were generated in the liver, heart, thymus, and bilateral lung fields. For each VOI, standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated. Additional comparisons were made between radiotracer uptake periods (60, 90, and >90 minutes), intravenous and intraperitoneal injections of 18F-FDG, and respiratory gated and ungated acquisitions. Pulmonary structures and the surrounding thoracic and upper abdominal anatomy were readily identified on the CT scans of all ferrets and were successfully fused with PET. VOIs were created in various tissues with the following SUV calculations: heart (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVMax] 8.60, mean standardized uptake value [SUVMean] 5.42), thymus (SUVMax 3.86, SUVMean 2.59), liver (SUVMax 1.37, SUVMean 0.99), right lung (SUVMax 0.92, SUVMean 0.56), and left lung (SUVMax 0.88, SUVMean 0.51). Sixty- to 90-minute uptake periods were sufficient to separate tissues based on background SUV activity. No gross differences in image quality were seen between intraperitoneal and intravenous injections of 18F-FDG. Respiratory gating also did not have a significant impact on image quality of lung parenchyma. The authors concluded that 18F-FDG PET and CT imaging can be performed successfully in normal healthy ferrets with the parameters identified in this study. They obtained similar imaging features and uptake measurements with and without respiratory gating as well as with intraperitoneal and intravenous 18F-FDG injections. 18F-FDG PET and CT can be a valuable resource for the in vivo tracking of disease progression in future studies that employ the ferret model. PMID:23382267

Wu, Albert; Zheng, Huaiyu; Kraenzle, Jennifer; Biller, Ashley; Vanover, Carol D.; Proctor, Mary; Sherwood, Leslie; Steffen, Marlene; Ng, Chin; Mollura, Daniel J.; Jonsson, Colleen B.

2013-01-01

273

Construction and Evaluation of Quantitative Small-Animal PET Probabilistic Atlases for [18F]FDG and [18F]FECT Functional Mapping of the Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Automated voxel-based or pre-defined volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis of small-animal PET data in mice is necessary for optimal information usage as the number of available resolution elements is limited. We have mapped metabolic ([18F]FDG) and dopamine transporter ([18F]FECT) small-animal PET data onto a 3D Magnetic Resonance Microscopy (MRM) mouse brain template and aligned them in space to the Paxinos co-ordinate system. In this way, ligand-specific templates for sensitive analysis and accurate anatomical localization were created. Next, using a pre-defined VOI approach, test-retest and intersubject variability of various quantification methods were evaluated. Also, the feasibility of mouse brain statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was explored for [18F]FDG and [18F]FECT imaging of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned (6-OHDA) mice. Methods Twenty-three adult C57BL6 mice were scanned with [18F]FDG and [18F]FECT. Registrations and affine spatial normalizations were performed using SPM8. [18F]FDG data were quantified using (1) an image-derived-input function obtained from the liver (cMRglc), using (2) standardized uptake values (SUVglc) corrected for blood glucose levels and by (3) normalizing counts to the whole-brain uptake. Parametric [18F]FECT binding images were constructed by reference to the cerebellum. Registration accuracy was determined using random simulated misalignments and vectorial mismatch determination. Results Registration accuracy was between 0.21–1.11 mm. Regional intersubject variabilities of cMRglc ranged from 15.4% to 19.2%, while test-retest values were between 5.0% and 13.0%. For [18F]FECT uptake in the caudate-putamen, these values were 13.0% and 10.3%, respectively. Regional values of cMRglc positively correlated to SUVglc measured within the 45–60 min time frame (spearman r?=?0.71). Next, SPM analysis of 6-OHDA-lesioned mice showed hypometabolism in the bilateral caudate-putamen and cerebellum, and an unilateral striatal decrease in DAT availability. Conclusion MRM-based small-animal PET templates facilitate accurate assessment and spatial localization of mouse brain function using VOI or voxel-based analysis. Regional intersubject- and test-retest variations indicate that for these targets accuracy comparable to humans can be achieved. PMID:23762335

Casteels, Cindy; Vunckx, Kathleen; Aelvoet, Sarah-Ann; Baekelandt, Veerle; Bormans, Guy; Van Laere, Koen; Koole, Michel

2013-01-01

274

Errors in MR-based attenuation correction for brain imaging with PET/MR scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AimAttenuation correction of PET data acquired by hybrid MR/PET scanners remains a challenge, even if several methods for brain and whole-body measurements have been developed recently. A template-based attenuation correction for brain imaging proposed by our group is easy to handle and delivers reliable attenuation maps in a short time. However, some potential error sources are analyzed in this study. We investigated the choice of template reference head among all the available data (error A), and possible skull anomalies of the specific patient, such as discontinuities due to surgery (error B). Materials and methodsAn anatomical MR measurement and a 2-bed-position transmission scan covering the whole head and neck region were performed in eight normal subjects (4 females, 4 males). Error A: Taking alternatively one of the eight heads as reference, eight different templates were created by nonlinearly registering the images to the reference and calculating the average. Eight patients (4 females, 4 males; 4 with brain lesions, 4 w/o brain lesions) were measured in the Siemens BrainPET/MR scanner. The eight templates were used to generate the patients' attenuation maps required for reconstruction. ROI and VOI atlas-based comparisons were performed employing all the reconstructed images. Error B: CT-based attenuation maps of two volunteers were manipulated by manually inserting several skull lesions and filling a nasal cavity. The corresponding attenuation coefficients were substituted with the water's coefficient (0.096/cm). ResultsError A: The mean SUVs over the eight templates pairs for all eight patients and all VOIs did not differ significantly one from each other. Standard deviations up to 1.24% were found. Error B: After reconstruction of the volunteers' BrainPET data with the CT-based attenuation maps without and with skull anomalies, a VOI-atlas analysis was performed revealing very little influence of the skull lesions (less than 3%), while the filled nasal cavity yielded an overestimation in cerebellum up to 5%. ConclusionsThe present error analysis confirms that our template-based attenuation method provides reliable attenuation corrections of PET brain imaging measured in PET/MR scanners.

Rota Kops, Elena; Herzog, Hans

2013-02-01

275

An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38.1 billion ±$8.8 billion for that flow of benefits in perpetuity. Given that these economic estimates are derived from one case study in a part of only one State, the estimates provide a lower estimate related to the potential value of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission.

Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

2012-01-01

276

Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.  

SciTech Connect

The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging survivability issues. Our findings indicate that packaging represents the most significant technical challenge associated with application of sensors in the downhole environment for long periods (5+ years) of time. These issues are described in detail within the report. The impact of successful reservoir monitoring programs and coincident improved reservoir management is measured by the production of additional oil and gas volumes from existing reservoirs, revitalization of nearly depleted reservoirs, possible re-establishment of already abandoned reservoirs, and improved economics for all cases. Smart Well monitoring provides the means to understand how a reservoir process is developing and to provide active reservoir management. At the same time it also provides data for developing high-fidelity simulation models. This work has been a joint effort with Sandia National Laboratories and UT-Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, and the Institute of Computational and Engineering Mathematics.

Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

2006-11-01

277

Design and Implementation of an Automated Partial Volume Correction in PET: Application to Dopamine Receptor Quantification in the Normal Human Striatum  

PubMed Central

The considerable effort and potential lack of reproducibility of human-driven PET quantification and partial volume correction (PVC) can be alleviated by use of atlas-based automatic analysis. The present study examined the application of a new algorithm designed to automatically define 3-dimensional regions of interest (ROIs) and their effect on dopamine receptor quantification in the normal human brain striatum, both without and with PVC. Methods A total of 90 healthy volunteers (age range, 18–46 y) received a single injection of 11C-raclopride, and automatic segmentation of concomitant structural MR images was performed using a maximum-probability atlas in combination with a trained neural network. For each identified tissue segment considered homogeneous for the tracer (or volumes of interest [VOIs]), an a priori criterion based on minimum axial recovery coefficient (RCzmin = 50%, 75%, and 90%) was used to constrain the extent of each ROI. Results With ROIs essentially overlapping the entire VOI volume (obtained with RCzmin = 50%), the binding potential (BPND) of 11C-raclopride was found to be around 2.2 for caudate and 2.9 for putamen, an underestimation by 35% and 28%, respectively, according to PVC values. At increased RCzmin, BPND estimates of 11C-raclopride were increased by 12% and 21% for caudate and 8% and 15% for putamen when the associated ROIs decreased to around 65% and 43% of total tissue volume (VOI) for caudate and 67% and 31% for putamen. After PVC, we observed relative increases in BPND variance of 12% for caudate and 20% for putamen, whereas estimated BPND values all increased to 3.4 for caudate and 4.0 for putamen, regardless of ROI size. Dopamine receptor concentrations appeared less heterogeneous in the normal human striatum after PVC than they did without PVC: the 25%–30% difference in BPND estimates observed between caudate and putamen remained significant after PVC but was reduced to slightly less than 20%. Furthermore, the results were comparable with those obtained with a manual method currently in use in our laboratory. Conclusion The new algorithm allows for traditional PET data extraction and PVC in an entirely automatic fashion, thus avoiding labor-intensive analyses and potential intra- or interobserver variability. This study also offers the first, to our knowledge, large-scale application of PVC to dopamine D2/D3 receptor imaging with 11C-raclopride in humans. PMID:18552147

Rousset, Olivier G.; Collins, D. Louis; Rahmim, Arman; Wong, Dean F.

2011-01-01

278

Systematic evaluation of three different commercial software solutions for automatic segmentation for adaptive therapy in head-and-neck, prostate and pleural cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To validate, in the context of adaptive radiotherapy, three commercial software solutions for atlas-based segmentation. Methods and materials Fifteen patients, five for each group, with cancer of the Head&Neck, pleura, and prostate were enrolled in the study. In addition to the treatment planning CT (pCT) images, one replanning CT (rCT) image set was acquired for each patient during the RT course. Three experienced physicians outlined on the pCT and rCT all the volumes of interest (VOIs). We used three software solutions (VelocityAI 2.6.2 (V), MIM 5.1.1 (M) by MIMVista and ABAS 2.0 (A) by CMS-Elekta) to generate the automatic contouring on the repeated CT. All the VOIs obtained with automatic contouring (AC) were successively corrected manually. We recorded the time needed for: 1) ex novo ROIs definition on rCT; 2) generation of AC by the three software solutions; 3) manual correction of AC. To compare the quality of the volumes obtained automatically by the software and manually corrected with those drawn from scratch on rCT, we used the following indexes: overlap coefficient (DICE), sensitivity, inclusiveness index, difference in volume, and displacement differences on three axes (x, y, z) from the isocenter. Results The time saved by the three software solutions for all the sites, compared to the manual contouring from scratch, is statistically significant and similar for all the three software solutions. The time saved for each site are as follows: about an hour for Head&Neck, about 40?minutes for prostate, and about 20?minutes for mesothelioma. The best DICE similarity coefficient index was obtained with the manual correction for: A (contours for prostate), A and M (contours for H&N), and M (contours for mesothelioma). Conclusions From a clinical point of view, the automated contouring workflow was shown to be significantly shorter than the manual contouring process, even though manual correction of the VOIs is always needed. PMID:22989046

2012-01-01

279

Les Troubles Respiratoires Chez Le Brule  

PubMed Central

Summary A travers une revue de la littérature, cet article se propose d'exposer les particularités des troubles respiratoires chez le brûlé. Ces troubles sont liés à un mécanisme direct, lorsque l'arbre respiratoire est lésé par le transfert d'énergie thermique du à la brûlure et/ou par un mécanisme indirect, lorsque la fonction respiratoire et ventilatoire du poumon est perturbée par les phénomènes loco-régionaux ou généraux du brûlé. Ces troubles respiratoires sont aggravés par l'inhalation des gaz contenus dans la fumée d'incendie. Le diagnostic de ces troubles est clinique et paraclinique. Il doit être précoce et continu. Les patients nécessitent de différents moyens thérapeutiques tels que l'oxygénothérapie, la libération des voies respiratoires, l'amélioration de la mécanique ventilatoire et de la fonction respiratoire, l'antibiothérapie ou la chirurgie des séquelles. Cette prise en charge doit nécessairement être multidisciplinaire. PMID:21991224

Fassi Fihri, J.; Ezzoubi, M.; Boukind, E.H.

2010-01-01

280

A near-infrared stellar spectral library: I. H-band spectra.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the H band near-infrared (NIR) spectral library of 135 solar type stars covering spectral types O5-M3 and luminosity classes I-V as per MK classification. The observations were carried out with 1.2 meter Gurushikhar Infrared Telescope (GIRT), at Mt. Abu, India using a NICMOS3 HgCdTe 256 x 256 NIR array based spectrometer. The spectra have a moderate resolution of 1000 (about 16 A) at the H band and have been continuum shape corrected to their respective effective temperatures. This library and the remaining ones in J and K bands once released will serve as an important database for stellar population synthesis and other applications in conjunction with the newly formed large optical coude feed stellar spectral library of Valdes et al. (2004). The complete H-Band library is available online at: http://vo.iucaa.ernet.in/~voi/NIR_Header.html

Ranade, Arvind; Gupta, Ranjan; Ashok, N. M.; Singh, Harinder P.

2004-12-01

281

The influence of curing time on the keeping quality of Bermuda onions in refrigerated storage  

E-print Network

' @, ' . ''. CJ le, , 8; I '. : 1!Gl '. 8 ':. J, -Bi Ger i;fx ' Bratea. BJ-, cir- a 8, r. ':-i, u . =J. . -. O=B-"-': SO rOC. ' 1y 8'C r. OI!a i, -o;iioerBJ;Qr":8 'u'. BJ' 1 ';?- . ee e u' I . - '- - -, -. I-- 1c le OOJ1 u o'; . =' ? 0 J1or or i. Bl c...VV 15+VV 2Q~V4 25~75 25~ 19 2V, 09 30i&6 44 42 42~21 43, Q+ 46) Vr3 41+ 22 (Lossss x = 88886 8 Of ')Y" - ~ al 'oor816)qt j . ;)airs Gu H8 f V'l GV:ig84 6l OX 8 8 I'. . o, 'lsolg 8~store @xnan@ Tobal 8 FiOuS 69VOI1' 8 "'O u': 1 61...

Mack, Harry John

2012-06-07

282

Axonal and glial microstructural information obtained with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T  

PubMed Central

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DWS) offers unique access to compartment-specific microstructural information on tissue, and potentially sensitive detection of compartment-specific changes in disease. The specificity of DWS is, however, offset by its relative low sensitivity, intrinsic to all MRS-based methods, and further exacerbated by the signal loss due to the diffusion weighting and long echo times. In this work we first provide an experimental example for the type of compartment-specific information that can be obtained with DWS from a small volume of interest (VOI) in brain white matter. We then propose and discuss a strategy for the analysis of DWS data, which includes the use of models of diffusion in compartments with simple geometries. We conclude with a broader discussion of the potential role of DWS in the characterization of tissue microstructure and the complementarity of DWS with less-specific but more sensitive microstructural tools such as diffusion tensor imaging. PMID:23493316

Ronen, Itamar; Ercan, Ece; Webb, Andrew

2013-01-01

283

Le déficit immunitaire humoral: mieux le connaître pour mieux le prendre en charge  

PubMed Central

Les déficits immunitaires humoraux (DIH) sont des maladies hétérogènes allant des formes asymptomatiques rencontrés lors des déficits sélectifs en immunoglobulines A (IgA) et en sous-classes d'IgG aux formes graves des agammaglobulinémies congénitales. Les patients atteints de DIH présentent souvent des infections ORL ou des voies respiratoires récidivantes ou sévères. Ces patients peuvent présenter un certain nombre de complications non infectieuses, telles que des manifestations auto-immunes et des entéropathies, qui pourraient être le seul symptôme clinique révélateur. Les formes sévères des DIH sont facilement diagnostiquées grâce au dosage des IgG totaux, des IgA et des IgM. La thérapie substitutive par les immunoglobulines reste le traitement de choix chez ces patients. PMID:25489366

El Bakkouri, Jalila; Aadam, Zahra; Ailal, Fatima; Alj, Hanane Salih; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz

2014-01-01

284

Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

2008-01-01

285

La prévention des infections par le virus respiratoire syncytial  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ L’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS) est la principale cause d’infections des voies respiratoires inférieures chez les jeunes enfants. Le palivizumab, un anticorps monoclonal anti-VRS, réduit le taux d’hospitalisation des enfants à haut risque mais est très coûteux. Le présent document de principes remplace les trois précédents documents de principes de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie sur le sujet et est mis à jour principalement pour traiter des récentes modifications aux lignes directrices de l’American Academy of Pediatrics dans le contexte canadien. Il contient une analyse des publications ainsi que des recommandations au sujet de l’utilisation du palivizumab chez les enfants à haut risque

Robinson, JL

2011-01-01

286

In vivo FID-based 3D Multivoxel Longitudinal Hadamard Spectroscopic Imaging In the Human Brain at 3 T  

PubMed Central

We propose and demonstrate a full 3D longitudinal Hadamard Spectroscopic Imaging (L-HSI) scheme for obtaining chemical shift maps, by employing adiabatic inversion pulses to encode the spins’ positions. The approach offers several advantages over conventional Fourier-based encoding methods, including a localized point spread function; no aliasing, allowing for VOIs smaller than the object being imaged; an option for acquiring non-contiguous voxels; and inherent outer volume rejection. The latter allows for doing away with conventional outer volume suppression schemes, such as PRESS or STEAM, and acquiring non spin-echo spectra with short acquisition delay times, limited only by the excitation pulse’s duration. This, in turn, minimizes T2 decay, maximizes the signal to noise ratio, and reduces J-coupling induced signal decay. Results are presented for both a phantom and an in-vivo healthy volunteer at 3T. PMID:22576419

Tal, Assaf; Goelman, Gadi; Gonen, Oded

2012-01-01

287

Antimicrobial prophylaxis for contaminated head and neck surgery.  

PubMed

The use of antibiotic prophylaxis in head and neck surgery is controversial. Most surgeons agree that when surgery requires entry into the aerodigestive tract through the skin the wound is by definition contaminated and antibiotic prophylaxis is indicated as it is in other contaminated wounds. There is no general agreement as to which antibiotic or combination of antibiotics to use or what the schedule of dosage administration should be. In order to obtain a meaningful data to help in decision making, a double blind, randomized study was performed to investigate whether cefazolin alone or a combination of gentamicin and clindamycin was more effective in prophylaxis. All patients entered into the study underwent major oncologic head and neck surgery requiring entry into the upper aerodigestive tract through the skin. Patients were stratified at entry according to the stage of disease, surgical procedure, and the existence of a prior tracheotomy or prior radiation therapy. Subsequently, patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups. Group I: Cefazolin 1 day, placebo day 2 to 5. Group II: Cefazolin days 1 to 5, Group III: Gentamicin and clindamycin 1 day, placebo days 2 to 5. Group IV: Gentamicin and clindamycin days 1 to 5. Drugs were given intravenously beginning 3 hours preoperatively and continued postoperatively every 8 hours, according to the assigned schedule. All wounds were observed daily following surgery and were graded on a predetermined scale by 3 unbiased observers. Significantly wound infections occurred in 15% of all patients. Group I, 33%; Group II, 20%; Group III, 7%; Group IV, 4%. In Group III and Group IV there was a statistically significant (P less than .05) reduction in the rate of postoperative wound infection. Multifactorial analysis demonstrated that patients whose surgery included repair with a regional pectoral flap had a statistically significant increased chance of developing postoperative wound infection (P less than .05). Patients undergoing laryngectomy, with or without neck dissection, were at less risk of postoperative infection tham patients undergoing oropharyngeal resection (P less than .05). The preoperative existence of tracheotomy or prior radiation therapy had no demonstrable effect on the incidence of wound infection postoperatively in this study. PMID:6361430

Johnson, J T; Myers, E N; Thearle, P B; Sigler, B A; Schramm, V L

1984-01-01

288

Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [18F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach.

Xiong, Guoming; Cumming, Paul; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

2012-12-01

289

[(18) F]MK-9470 PET measurement of cannabinoid CB1 receptor availability in chronic cannabis users.  

PubMed

?(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive component of cannabis, exerts its central effects through activation of the cerebral type 1 cannabinoid (CB1 ) receptor. Pre-clinical studies have provided evidence that chronic cannabis exposure is linked to decreased CB1 receptor expression and this is thought to be a component underlying drug tolerance and dependence. In this study, we make first use of the selective high-affinity positron emission tomography (PET) ligand [(18) F]MK-9470 to obtain in vivo measurements of cerebral CB1 receptor availability in 10 chronic cannabis users (age?=?26.0?±?4.1 years). Each patient underwent [(18) F]MK-9470 PET within the first week following the last cannabis consumption. A population of 10 age-matched healthy subjects (age?=?23.0?±?2.9 years) was used as control group. Parametric modified standardized uptake value images, reflecting CB1 receptor availability, were calculated. Statistical parametric mapping and volume-of-interest (VOI) analyses of CB1 receptor availability were performed. Compared with controls, cannabis users showed a global decrease in CB1 receptor availability (-11.7 percent). VOI-based analysis demonstrated that the CB1 receptor decrease was significant in the temporal lobe (-12.7 percent), anterior (-12.6 percent) and posterior cingulate cortex (-13.5 percent) and nucleus accumbens (-11.2 percent). Voxel-based analysis confirmed this decrease and regional pattern in CB1 receptor availability in cannabis users. These findings revealed that chronic cannabis use may alter specific regional CB1 receptor expression through neuroadaptive changes in CB1 receptor availability, opening the way for the examination of specific CB1 -cannabis addiction interactions which may predict future cannabis-related treatment outcome. PMID:24373053

Ceccarini, Jenny; Kuepper, Rebecca; Kemels, Dieter; van Os, Jim; Henquet, Cécile; Van Laere, Koen

2015-03-01

290

Interactive Dose Shaping - efficient strategies for CPU-based real-time treatment planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning is based on the traditional concept of iterative optimization using an objective function specified by dose volume histogram constraints for pre-segmented VOIs. This indirect approach suffers from unavoidable shortcomings: i) The control of local dose features is limited to segmented VOIs. ii) Any objective function is a mathematical measure of the plan quality, i.e., is not able to define the clinically optimal treatment plan. iii) Adapting an existing plan to changed patient anatomy as detected by IGRT procedures is difficult. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce the method of Interactive Dose Shaping (IDS) as a new paradigm for IMRT treatment planning. IDS allows for a direct and interactive manipulation of local dose features in real-time. The key element driving the IDS process is a two-step Dose Modification and Recovery (DMR) strategy: A local dose modification is initiated by the user which translates into modified fluence patterns. This also affects existing desired dose features elsewhere which is compensated by a heuristic recovery process. The IDS paradigm was implemented together with a CPU-based ultra-fast dose calculation and a 3D GUI for dose manipulation and visualization. A local dose feature can be implemented via the DMR strategy within 1-2 seconds. By imposing a series of local dose features, equal plan qualities could be achieved compared to conventional planning for prostate and head and neck cases within 1-2 minutes. The idea of Interactive Dose Shaping for treatment planning has been introduced and first applications of this concept have been realized.

Ziegenhein, P.; Kamerling, C. P.; Oelfke, U.

2014-03-01

291

NEUROFEEDBACK USING FUNCTIONAL SPECTROSCOPY.  

PubMed

Neurofeedback based on real-time measurement of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has potential for treatment of neurological disorders and behavioral enhancement. Commonly employed methods are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequences that sacrifice speed and accuracy for whole-brain coverage, which is unnecessary in most applications. We present multi-voxel functional spectroscopy (MVFS): a system for computing the BOLD signal from multiple volumes of interest (VOI) in real-time that improves speed and accuracy of neurofeedback. MVFS consists of a functional spectroscopy (FS) pulse sequence, a BOLD reconstruction component, a neural activation estimator, and a stimulus system. The FS pulse sequence is a single-voxel, magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence without water suppression that has been extended to allow acquisition of a different VOI at each repetition and real-time subject head motion compensation. The BOLD reconstruction component determines the T2* decay rate, which is directly related to BOLD signal strength. The neural activation estimator discounts nuisance signals and scales the activation relative to the amount of ROI noise. Finally, the neurofeedback system presents neural activation-dependent stimuli to experimental subjects with an overall delay of less than 1s. Here we present the MVFS system, validation of certain components, examples of its usage in a practical application, and a direct comparison of FS and echo-planar imaging BOLD measurements. We conclude that in the context of realtime BOLD imaging, MVFS can provide superior accuracy and temporal resolution compared with standard fMRI methods. PMID:24999293

Hinds, Oliver; Wighton, Paul; Tisdall, M Dylan; Hess, Aaron; Breiter, Hans; van der Kouwe, André

2014-06-01

292

Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies.  

PubMed

Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach. PMID:23160517

Xiong, Guoming; Paul, Cumming; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

2012-12-01

293

The Prognostic Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE)  

PubMed Central

18F-Fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT can be used to monitor the biological behavior of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Baseline PET/CT has prognostic value in HCC patients, but there is litter knowledge of the PET/CT changes after treatment. We evaluated 27 HCC patients treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) from June 2011 to July 2012, and we investigated the prognostic value of PET/CT. Patients were followed up with regular clinical and laboratory examinations and contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography (CT). Furthermore, PET/CT assessments were collected and analyzed before (range 1~15 d) and after the first month of TACE (range, 27~45d). We tested the prognostic value of the tumor standardized uptake value (TSUV) and normal liver SUV(LSUV) according to the VOI (volume of interest). The SUVs were used to assess the relationship between the treatment response and survival. To assess their prognostic value, we evaluated the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of different SUVs for predicting survival. Finally, the median overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP) for 27 patients were 15.4 months (95%CI, 3.3-27.5 months) and 11.4 months (95%CI, 6.7-16.1 months), respectively. The ?TSUVmax%, based on the VOI, had the highest discriminative prognostic value and the cutoff PET/CT response was 0.1 with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95.2%. The OS was significantly better in the PET/CT response group than in the PET/CT non-response group (p=0.025). In conclusion, an early interim PET/CT after TACE may have prognostic value for HCC patients treated with TACE, and the ?TSUVmax% may help in determining the HCCs viability in patients with high baseline and follow-up18F-FDG uptake. PMID:24883123

Ma, Wenhui; Jia, Jia; Wang, Shengjun; Bai, Wei; Yi, Jingwei; Bai, Ming; Quan, Zhiyong; Yin, Zhanxin; Fan, Daiming; Wang, Jing; Han, Guohong

2014-01-01

294

Dissociable roles of right inferior frontal cortex and anterior insula in inhibitory control: evidence from intrinsic and task-related functional parcellation, connectivity, and response profile analyses across multiple datasets.  

PubMed

The right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) and the right anterior insula (rAI) have been implicated consistently in inhibitory control, but their differential roles are poorly understood. Here we use multiple quantitative techniques to dissociate the functional organization and roles of the rAI and rIFC. We first conducted a meta-analysis of 70 published inhibitory control studies to generate a commonly activated right fronto-opercular cortex volume of interest (VOI). We then segmented this VOI using two types of features: (1) intrinsic brain activity; and (2) stop-signal task-evoked hemodynamic response profiles. In both cases, segmentation algorithms identified two stable and distinct clusters encompassing the rAI and rIFC. The rAI and rIFC clusters exhibited several distinct functional characteristics. First, the rAI showed stronger intrinsic and task-evoked functional connectivity with the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas the rIFC had stronger intrinsic and task-evoked functional connectivity with dorsomedial prefrontal and lateral fronto-parietal cortices. Second, the rAI showed greater activation than the rIFC during Unsuccessful, but not Successful, Stop trials, and multivoxel response profiles in the rAI, but not the rIFC, accurately differentiated between Successful and Unsuccessful Stop trials. Third, activation in the rIFC, but not rAI, predicted individual differences in inhibitory control abilities. Crucially, these findings were replicated in two independent cohorts of human participants. Together, our findings provide novel quantitative evidence for the dissociable roles of the rAI and rIFC in inhibitory control. We suggest that the rAI is particularly important for detecting behaviorally salient events, whereas the rIFC is more involved in implementing inhibitory control. PMID:25355218

Cai, Weidong; Ryali, Srikanth; Chen, Tianwen; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Menon, Vinod

2014-10-29

295

"First pain" in humans: convergent and specific forebrain responses  

PubMed Central

Background Brief heat stimuli that excite nociceptors innervated by finely myelinated (A?) fibers evoke an initial, sharp, well-localized pain ("first pain") that is distinguishable from the delayed, less intense, more prolonged dull pain attributed to nociceptors innervated by unmyelinated (C) fibers ("second pain"). In the present study, we address the question of whether a brief, noxious heat stimulus that excites cutaneous A? fibers activates a distinct set of forebrain structures preferentially in addition to those with similar responses to converging input from C fibers. Heat stimuli at two temperatures were applied to the dorsum of the left hand of healthy volunteers in a functional brain imaging (fMRI) paradigm and responses analyzed in a set of volumes of interest (VOI). Results Brief 41°C stimuli were painless and evoked only C fiber responses, but 51°C stimuli were at pain threshold and preferentially evoked A? fiber responses. Most VOI responded to both intensities of stimulation. However, within volumes of interest, a contrast analysis and comparison of BOLD response latencies showed that the bilateral anterior insulae, the contralateral hippocampus, and the ipsilateral posterior insula were preferentially activated by painful heat stimulation that excited A? fibers. Conclusions These findings show that two sets of forebrain structures mediate the initial sharp pain evoked by brief cutaneous heat stimulation: those responding preferentially to the brief stimulation of A? heat nociceptors and those with similar responses to converging inputs from the painless stimulation of C fibers. Our results suggest a unique and specific physiological basis, at the forebrain level, for the "first pain" sensation that has long been attributed to A? fiber stimulation and support the concept that both specific and convergent mechanisms act concurrently to mediate pain. PMID:21083897

2010-01-01

296

A Computed Tomography-Based Spatial Normalization for the Analysis of [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography of the Brain  

PubMed Central

Objective We developed a new computed tomography (CT)-based spatial normalization method and CT template to demonstrate its usefulness in spatial normalization of positron emission tomography (PET) images with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in healthy controls. Materials and Methods Seventy healthy controls underwent brain CT scan (120 KeV, 180 mAs, and 3 mm of thickness) and [18F] FDG PET scans using a PET/CT scanner. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired for all subjects. By averaging skull-stripped and spatially-normalized MR and CT images, we created skull-stripped MR and CT templates for spatial normalization. The skull-stripped MR and CT images were spatially normalized to each structural template. PET images were spatially normalized by applying spatial transformation parameters to normalize skull-stripped MR and CT images. A conventional perfusion PET template was used for PET-based spatial normalization. Regional standardized uptake values (SUV) measured by overlaying the template volume of interest (VOI) were compared to those measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOI (FSVOI). Results All three spatial normalization methods underestimated regional SUV values by 0.3-20% compared to those measured with FSVOI. The CT-based method showed slightly greater underestimation bias. Regional SUV values derived from all three spatial normalization methods were correlated significantly (p < 0.0001) with those measured with FSVOI. Conclusion CT-based spatial normalization may be an alternative method for structure-based spatial normalization of [18F] FDG PET when MR imaging is unavailable. Therefore, it is useful for PET/CT studies with various radiotracers whose uptake is expected to be limited to specific brain regions or highly variable within study population. PMID:25469101

Cho, Hanna; Kim, Jin Su; Choi, Jae Yong; Ryu, Young Hoon

2014-01-01

297

Radiation dosimetry of florbetapir F 18  

PubMed Central

Background Florbetapir is one of several 18F-labeled amyloid plaque imaging tracers for positron emission tomography (PET). As the bio-distribution and radiation dose of PET tracers in human research are important for estimating the relative risks and benefits, a study was conducted to obtain this information on florbetapir. Methods Nine cognitively normal subjects (six females and three males, age 58?±?10 years, weight 81?±?17 kg) received an intravenous bolus injection of 395?±?27.9 MBq of florbetapir, and whole-body emission scans were performed over approximately 6 h. Computed tomography scans were acquired for attenuation correction. Volumes of interest (VOIs) for source organs including the brain, liver, lung, heart wall, and vertebrae were defined on the PET images. The VOIs of the gallbladder, urinary bladder, and large and small intestines were also defined. Using reference man organ volumes (ICRP 30), total activity was calculated per organ for each time point. The resultant time-activity curves (TACs) were fitted with constrained exponentials. Kinetic data were entered into OLINDA/EXM software to calculate dose estimates; the dynamic urinary bladder and ICRP 30 GI tract models were employed. The effective dose (ED) for each subject was estimated from the acquired data using the adult model. Results The mean ED determined for nine healthy volunteers was 18.60?±?4.26 ?Sv/MBq or 6.88 mSv for a 370-MBq dose. The organs that received the highest radiation absorbed doses were the gallbladder, upper large intestine, small intestine, liver, and urinary bladder at 143.0?±?80.20, 74.50?±?34.20, 65.50?±?29.60, 64.40?±?22.10, and 27.10?±?11.70 ?Sv/MBq, respectively. Conclusions The ED for florbetapir has been calculated for nine healthy volunteers. At a dose of 370 MBq florbetapir, the total average ED is approximately 6.88 mSv. PMID:24401181

2014-01-01

298

Breast segmentation in MR images using three-dimensional spiral scanning and dynamic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been widely used for risk assessment and diagnosis of breast cancer in clinic. To develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system, breast segmentation is the first important and challenging task. The accuracy of subsequent quantitative measurement of breast density and abnormalities depends on accurate definition of the breast area in the images. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a fully automated method for accurate segmentation of breast in three-dimensional (3-D) MR images. A fast method was developed to identify bounding box, i.e., the volume of interest (VOI), for breasts. A 3-D spiral scanning method was used to transform the VOI of each breast into a single two-dimensional (2-D) generalized polar-coordinate image. Dynamic programming technique was applied to the transformed 2-D image for delineating the "optimal" contour of the breast. The contour of the breast in the transformed 2-D image was utilized to reconstruct the segmentation results in the 3-D MR images using interpolation and lookup table. The preliminary results on 17 cases show that the proposed method can obtain accurate segmentation of the breast based on subjective observation. By comparing with the manually delineated region of 16 breasts in 8 cases, an overlap index of 87.6% +/- 3.8% (mean +/- SD), and a volume agreement of 93.4% +/- 4.5% (mean +/- SD) were achieved, respectively. It took approximately 3 minutes for our method to segment the breast in an MR scan of 256 slices.

Jiang, Luan; Lian, Yanyun; Gu, Yajia; Li, Qiang

2013-03-01

299

Radiotherapy Alone With Curative Intent in Patients With Stage I Extranodal Nasal-Type NK/T-Cell Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the outcome and pattern of failure in a large cohort of patients with Stage I NK/T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: The pathological diagnosis was confirmed using standard criteria. All patients were treated with high-dose extended-field radiotherapy alone. The median dose was 50 Gy. The primary tumor was located in the nasal cavity (n = 80), Waldeyer ring (n = 5), or oral cavity (n = 2). Results: The overall response to radiotherapy was achieved in 85 of 87 (97.7%) patients, with a complete response rate of 95.4% and a partial response rate of 2.3%. The 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control rates for all patients were 80%, 69%, and 93%, respectively. Twenty patients (23%) had disease progression or relapse. Of these, 15 patients (17%) developed systemic extranodal disseminations, whereas only 4 (5%) patients had local relapse and 4 (5%) patients had lymph node relapse. Conclusions: Our study suggests that high-dose extended-field radiotherapy alone is a curative therapy and shows favorable clinical outcome in patients with Stage I disease. With the high possibility of local control and primary failure of systemic dissemination, the integration of optimal radiotherapy with more effective systematic therapy is warranted to bring additional improvement to the outcome for these patients.

Li Yexiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Wang Hua; Jin Jing; Wang Weihu; Liu Qingfeng; Song Yongwen; Wang Zhaoyang; Qi Shunan; Wang Shulian; Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Yu Zihao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China)

2012-04-01

300

Methylation as a biomarker for head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Head and neck cancer is a collective term that describes malignant tumors of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx characterized by high incidence and mortality rates. Although most HNSCC originate from the mucosal surface of the upper aerodigestive tract, where they can be easily detected during a routine clinical examination. Often the definitive diagnosis is delayed because of the difficulty in differentiating from other similar lesions. Activation of proto-oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes are the major molecular alterations involved in carcinogenesis. In addition, epigenetic changes can alter the expression of critical genes important in the development of a variety of cancers. The detection of aberrant gene promoter methylation as a tool for the detection of tumors or its use as prognostic marker have been described for many different cancers including HNSCC. The search for biomarkers has as its main aim the evaluation and measurement of the status of normal and pathological biological processes as well as pharmacological responses to certain treatments. The tracking of these biomarkers is an important part for the identification of individuals in the early stages of head and neck cancer for its diagnostic and prognostic relevance reflecting in high survival rates, better quality of life and less cost to the healthcare system. Therefore, assuming that cancer results from genetic and epigenetic changes, analyzes based on gene methylation profile in combination with the pathological diagnosis would be useful in predicting the behavior of these head and neck tumors. PMID:24656975

Arantes, L M R B; de Carvalho, A C; Melendez, M E; Carvalho, A L; Goloni-Bertollo, E M

2014-06-01

301

Traditional and Modern Uses of Natural Honey in Human Diseases: A Review  

PubMed Central

Honey is a by-product of flower nectar and the upper aero-digestive tract of the honey bee, which is concentrated through a dehydration process inside the bee hive. Honey has a very complex chemical composition that varies depending on the botanical source. It has been used both as food and medicine since ancient times. Human use of honey is traced to some 8000 years ago as depicted by Stone Age paintings. In addition to important role of natural honey in the traditional medicine, during the past few decades, it was subjected to laboratory and clinical investigations by several research groups and it has found a place in modern medicine. Honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on around 60 species of bacteria, some species of fungi and viruses. Antioxidant capacity of honey is important in many disease conditions and is due to a wide range of compounds including phenolics, peptides, organic acids, enzymes, and Maillard reaction products. Honey has also been used in some gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neoplastic states. This review covers the composition, physico-chemical properties and the most important uses of natural honey in human diseases. PMID:23997898

Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Najafi, Moslem

2013-01-01

302

Coordinated Activation of Candidate Proto-Oncogenes and Cancer Testes Antigens via Promoter Demethylation in Head and Neck Cancer and Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Epigenetic alterations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of solid tumors, however, proto-oncogenes activated by promoter demethylation have been sporadically reported. We used an integrative method to analyze expression in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and pharmacologically demethylated cell lines to identify aberrantly demethylated and expressed candidate proto-oncogenes and cancer testes antigens in HNSCC. Methodology/Principal Findings We noted coordinated promoter demethylation and simultaneous transcriptional upregulation of proto-oncogene candidates with promoter homology, and phylogenetic footprinting of these promoters demonstrated potential recognition sites for the transcription factor BORIS. Aberrant BORIS expression correlated with upregulation of candidate proto-oncogenes in multiple human malignancies including primary non-small cell lung cancers and HNSCC, induced coordinated proto-oncogene specific promoter demethylation and expression in non-tumorigenic cells, and transformed NIH3T3 cells. Conclusions/Significance Coordinated, epigenetic unmasking of multiple genes with growth promoting activity occurs in aerodigestive cancers, and BORIS is implicated in the coordinated promoter demethylation and reactivation of epigenetically silenced genes in human cancers. PMID:19305507

Smith, Ian M.; Glazer, Chad A.; Mithani, Suhail K.; Ochs, Michael F.; Sun, Wenyue; Bhan, Sheetal; Vostrov, Alexander; Abdullaev, Ziedulla; Lobanenkov, Victor; Gray, Andrew; Liu, Chunyan; Chang, Steven S.; Ostrow, Kimberly L.; Westra, William H.; Begum, Shahnaz; Dhara, Mousumi; Califano, Joseph

2009-01-01

303

 

PubMed Central

SUMMARY At present, it is difficult to identify a gold standard for endoscopic staging of laryngeal cancer, especially considering the large number of endoscopic instruments available. We have coined the term multistep endoscopy to describe a method for staging laryngeal precancerous and neoplastic lesions that sequentially uses several endoscopic tools including high definition white light endoscopy (HDTV), stroboscopy and autofluorescence endoscopy. During the period from November 2007 to November 2009, 140 patients with a suspect laryngeal lesion underwent multistep endoscopy at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at Martini Hospital in Turin. All patients were subjected to a series of endoscopic examinations in indirect laryngoscopy (white light endoscopy coupled to a HDTV camera, laryngostroboscopy, indirect autofluorescence) followed by white light endoscopy coupled to a HDTV camera and autofluorescence in direct microlaryngoscopy. The aim of the present prospective study was to evaluate the utility of multistep endoscopy in the diagnostic work-up of laryngeal lesions. Multistep endoscopy showed a higher sensitivity and "biological" predictive value in early cancer and precancerous lesions of the larynx (sensitivity, 97.9%; specificity, 90.5%) compared to individual endoscopic tools. It allows for better therapeutic planning of superficial lesions and more accurate orientation when performing mapping biopsies on diffuse lesions. In our opinion, more widespread use of indirect autofluorescence endoscopy during follow-up may be warranted to search for synchronous/metachronous second tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract. PMID:22767983

CROSETTI, E.; PILOLLI, F.; SUCCO, G.

2012-01-01

304

Oral potentially malignant disorders: Is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?  

PubMed Central

Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented. Furthermore, follow-up programs are of questionable value in this respect. Cessation of smoking habits may result in regression or even disappearance of the leukoplakia and will diminish the risk of cancer development either at the site of the leukoplakia or elsewhere in the mouth or the upper aerodigestive tract. The debate on the allegedly potentially malignant character of oral lichen planus is going on already for several decades. At present, there is a tendency to accept its potentially malignant behaviour, the annual malignant transformation rate amounting less than 0.5%. As in leukoplakia, there are no reliable predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented either. Follow-up visits, e.g twice a year, may be of some value. It is probably beyond the scope of most dentists to manage patients with these lesions in their own office. Timely referral to a specialist seems most appropriate, indeed. Key words:Oral potentially malignant disorders, oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus. PMID:24905952

van der Waal, Isaäc

2014-01-01

305

Implications of acetaldehyde-derived DNA adducts for understanding alcohol-related carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Among various potential mechanisms that could explain alcohol carcinogenicity, the metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde represents an obvious possible mechanism, at least in some tissues. The fundamental principle of genotoxic carcinogenesis is the formation of mutagenic DNA adducts in proliferating cells. If not repaired, these adducts can result in mutations during DNA replication, which are passed on to cells during mitosis. Consistent with a genotoxic mechanism, acetaldehyde does react with DNA to form a variety of different types of DNA adducts. In this chapter we will focus more specifically on N (2)-ethylidene-deoxyguanosine (N2-ethylidene-dG), the major DNA adduct formed from the reaction of acetaldehyde with DNA and specifically highlight recent data on the measurement of this DNA adduct in the human body after alcohol exposure. Because results are of particular biological relevance for alcohol-related cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), we will also discuss the histology and cytology of the UADT, with the goal of placing the adduct data in the relevant cellular context for mechanistic interpretation. Furthermore, we will discuss the sources and concentrations of acetaldehyde and ethanol in different cell types during alcohol consumption in humans. Finally, in the last part of the chapter, we will critically evaluate the concept of carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde, which has been raised in the literature, and discuss how data from acetaldehyde genotoxicity are and can be utilized in physiologically based models to evaluate exposure risk. PMID:25427902

Balbo, Silvia; Brooks, Philip J

2015-01-01

306

Preliminary oncological results of endosopic laser surgery in advanced head and neck tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasersurgery has established itself in the treatment of minor tumors (T1 - T2) of the upper aerodigestive tract. However, advanced carcinomas of the head and neck (T3 - T4) are generally treated with conventional surgical procedures which include pharyngolaryngectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oncological outcome of endoscopic lasersurgery in advanced head and neck tumors and to compare the results with conventional surgical procedures. Between January 1994 to December 1996, 86 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx underwent endoscopic lasersurgery instead of pharyngolaryngectomy as a curative measure. Besides the recurrence and survival rate, the necessity of tracheostomy, postoperative complications and the mean duration of hospitalization were documented. The results showed that the recurrence and survival rate were similar or even better after conventional pharyngolaryngectomy, whereas the patients' postoperative rehabilitation was better after lasersurgery. In this contribution the indication for lasersurgical intervention or pharyngolaryngectomy in advanced carcinomas of the head and neck is discussed.

Baker-Schreyer, Antonio; Sadick, Haneen; Juncker, Cathrine; Bergler, Wolfgang; Hoermann, Karl

1998-01-01

307

Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy in head and neck malignancies: early preclinical experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: Malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) are conventionally diagnosed by white light endoscopy, biopsy and histopathology. Probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a novel non-invasive technique which offers in vivo surface and sub-surface imaging of tissue. It produces pictures of cellular architecture comparable to histology without the need for biopsy. It has already been successfully used in different clinical subspecialties to help in the diagnosis and treatment planning of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. PCLE needs to be used in combination with specific or non-specific contrast agents. In this study we evaluated the potential use of pCLE in combination with non-specific and specific contrast agents to distinguish between healthy mucosa and invasive carcinoma. Methods: Tissue samples from healthy mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were taken during surgery. After topical application of three different contrast agents, samples were examined using different pCLE-probes and a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). Images were then compared to the corresponding histological slides and cryosections. Results: Initial results show that pCLE in combination with fluorophores allows visualization of cellular and structural components. Imaging of different layers was possible using three distinct pCLEprobes. Conclusion: pCLE is a promising non-invasive technique that may be a useful adjunct in the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment planning of head and neck malignancies.

Englhard, Anna; Girschick, Susanne; Mack, Brigitte; Volgger, Veronika; Gires, Oliver; Conderman, Christian; Stepp, Herbert; Betz, Christian Stephan

2013-06-01

308

Changing trends in oesophageal endoscopy: a systematic review of transnasal oesophagoscopy.  

PubMed

The safety, efficacy, and economic implications of using transnasal oesophagoscopy (TNE) are compared with conventional rigid or flexible oesophagoscopy for oesophageal disorders in otorhinolaryngology (ORL) clinics in this systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were searched for articles on transnasal oesophagoscopy. A total of 67 relevant titles were identified and 39 abstracts were screened of which 17 full- text articles were included in this report. There was fair level of evidence to suggest that TNE was effective for screening examination in patients with dysphagia, globus pharyngeus, and reflux symptoms and for detection of metachronous oesophageal carcinoma. TNE can also be used to biopsy suspicious lesions in the upper aerodigestive tract, placement of wireless pH capsule, transnasal balloon dilation of the oesophagus, secondary tracheoesophageal puncture, and management of foreign bodies. TNE was well tolerated and can be safely performed in an office setting with topical anaesthesia. Complications associated with TNE were mild and uncommon. There was evidence to suggest potential cost savings by performing TNE in the office setting compared with conventional investigation and examination for dysphagia. TNE may lead to a change in practice from investigation and treatment in the operating theatre or day care center to an office-based practice. PMID:23984101

Sabirin, Junainah; Abd Rahman, Maharita; Rajan, Philip

2013-01-01

309

How I treat NK/T-cell lymphomas.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphomas and NK-cell leukemias are aggressive malignancies. Occurring worldwide, they show a predilection for Asian and South American populations. Neoplastic cells are surface CD3-, cytoplasmic CD3?+, CD56+, cytotoxic-molecule positive, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive, with germline T-cell receptor gene. Lymphomas occur commonly in the nasal and upper aerodigestive region. Occasional cases present in the skin, salivary gland, testis, and gastrointestinal tract. Rare cases are disseminated with lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and a leukemic phase. Positron emission tomography computed tomography is useful in staging, as lymphomas are 18-fluorodeoxyglucose avid. Quantification of circulating EBV DNA is an accurate biomarker of tumor load. Nasal NK/T-cell lymphomas present mostly with stage I/II disease. Concomitant/sequential chemotherapy and radiotherapy is standard treatment. Radiotherapy alone is inadequate because of high systemic failure rate. For stage III/IV nasal, nonnasal, and disseminated lymphomas, systemic chemotherapy is indicated. Regimens containing l-asparaginase and drugs unaffected by P-glycoprotein are most effective. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is not indicated for early-stage nasal lymphomas. HSCT for lymphomas not in remission has poor results. In advanced-stage nasal, nonnasal, disseminated, or relapsed lymphomas, HSCT may be considered when remission is achieved. Prognostic modeling and EBV DNA monitoring may be useful in risk stratification for HSCT. PMID:23652805

Tse, Eric; Kwong, Yok-Lam

2013-06-20

310

Surgical Approaches to Resection of Anterior Skull Base and Paranasal Sinuses Tumors  

PubMed Central

Malignant tumours of the sinonasal tract comprise approximately 3% of the malignancies that arise in the upper aerodigestive tract. Approximately 10% of tumours that arise in the sinonasal tract originate in the ethmoid and/or frontal sinuses, and are likely to involve the anterior cranial base. The route of spread of tumours originating in the anterior skull base and paranasal sinuses is determined by the complex anatomy of the craniomaxillofacial compartments. These tumours may invade laterally into the orbit and middle fossa, inferiorly into the maxillary antrum and palate, posteriorly into the nasopharynx and pterygopalatine fossa, and superiorly into the cavernous sinus and brain. Recent improvements in endoscopic technology now allow the resection of the majority of benign neoplasms and some early malignant tumours with minor dural involvement. For advanced-stage malignant tumours and benign tumours with frontal bone involvement, the classical open approaches remain viable surgical techniques. In this paper, we review the open surgical resection approaches used for resections in the craniomaxillofacial area. PMID:25207089

Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Fliss, Dan M.

2013-01-01

311

A Case-Control Study of the Role of Human Papillomavirus in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Australia  

PubMed Central

Objective. We investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues compared to oesophageal tissue from healthy controls, in an Australian cohort. Methods. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 99 patients with OSCC and 100 healthy controls to examine the presence of HPV DNA. Paraffin tissues were tested using the PapType high-risk HPV detection and genotyping kit and with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra. The biopsy samples were tested for HPV using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 consensus primer set PGMY09-PGMY11. Results. HPV DNA of the oncogenic genotype 16 was detected in 1/99 case specimens, a rate of 1010 per 100,000 (95% CI: 30–5500). All control specimens were negative for HPV. Significantly higher rates of smoking, other aerodigestive cancers, and mortality were seen among cases than controls. A pooled analysis of this study and the only other Australian case-control study found that 9/321 cases and 0/155 controls were positive for HPV. The pooled odds ratio for HPV being a risk factor for OSCC was 9.35 (95% CI: 0.47–190.33). Conclusion. Our results suggest that in this multifactorial cancer HPV may be an additional risk factor; although a larger, better powered study is needed. PMID:24872815

Liyanage, Surabhi S.; Malik, Aisha; Garland, Suzanne M.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Rahman, Bayzidur; Barbour, Andrew P.; Crowe, Philip J.; MacIntyre, C. Raina

2014-01-01

312

Do high-risk human papillomaviruses cause oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma?  

PubMed

High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are an established etiologic factor for a growing number of oropharyngeal cancers. However, their potential role in other upper aerodigestive tract locations is still a matter of debate, particularly in the oral cavity. This is of paramount importance as in the future diagnosis, treatment and follow up in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma may vary according to HPV status. This article reviews the recent published data and highlights some of the pitfalls that have hampered the accurate assessment of HR-HPV oncological role outside the oropharynx. We demonstrate that, in contrast to the oropharynx, only a small fraction of cancers located in the oral cavity seem to be HPV-related even in young non-smoking non-drinking patients. We emphasize several relevant factors to consider in assumed HPV-induced oral cavity cancers and discuss the current theories that explain why HPV-induced cancers arise preferentially in the oropharynx. PMID:25488179

Mirghani, H; Amen, F; Moreau, F; Lacau St Guily, J

2014-12-01

313

An endoscopic fluorescence imaging system for simultaneous visual examination and photodetection of cancers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and performance tested during six years of clinical trials of a fluorescence endoscope for the detection and delineation of cancers in several hollow organs. The apparatus is based on the imaging of the laser-induced fluorescence that differs between a tumor and its surrounding normal tissue. The tests are carried out in the upper aerodigestive tract, the tracheobronchial tree, the esophagus, and the colon. In the three former cases an exogenous dye is used (Photofrin II), whereas in the latter case fluorescein molecules conjugated with monoclonal antibodies directed against carcinoembryonic antigen are injected. The decrease of native tissue autofluorescence observed in early cancers is also used for detecting lesions in the tracheobronchial tree. The fluorescence contrast between the tumor and surrounding normal tissue is enhanced by real time image processing. This is done by simultaneously recording the fluorescence image in two spectral domains, after which these two images are digitized and manipulated with a mathematical operator (look-up table) at video frequency. Moreover, the device that is described below allows for an immediate observation of the endoscopic area under white light illumination during fluorescence detection in order to localize the origin of the "positive" fluorescence signals. Typical results obtained in the tracheobronchial tree and in the colon are presented and the sources of false positives and false negatives are evaluated in terms of the fluorescent dye, tissue optical properties, and illumination optics.

Wagnières, Georges A.; Studzinski, André P.; van den Bergh, Hubert E.

1997-01-01

314

Genomic evidence of pre-invasive clonal expansion, dispersal and progression in bronchial dysplasia  

PubMed Central

The term ‘field cancerization’ is used to describe an epithelial surface that has a propensity to develop cancerous lesions, and in the case of the aerodigestive tract this is often as a result of chronic exposure to carcinogens in cigarette smoke 1, 2. The clinical endpoint is the development of multiple tumours, either simultaneously or sequentially in the same epithelial surface. The mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear; one possible explanation is that the epithelium is colonized by a clonal population of cells that are at increased risk of progression to cancer. We now address this possibility in a short case series, using individual genomic events as molecular biomarkers of clonality. In squamous lung cancer the most common genomic aberration is 3q amplification. We use a digital PCR technique to assess the clonal relationships between multiple biopsies in a longitudinal bronchoscopic study, using amplicon boundaries as markers of clonality. We demonstrate that clonality can readily be defined by these analyses and confirm that field cancerization occurs at a pre-invasive stage and that pre-invasive lesions and subsequent cancers are clonally related. We show that while the amplicon boundaries can be shared between different biopsies, the degree of 3q amplification and the internal structure of the 3q amplicon varies from lesion to lesion. Finally, in this small cohort, the degree of 3q amplification corresponds to clinical progression. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21506132

McCaughan, Frank; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P; Janes, Sam M; George, P Jeremy; Rabbitts, Pamela H; Dear, Paul H

2011-01-01

315

New Insights into the Enigma of Immunoglobulin D  

PubMed Central

Summary Immunoglobulin D (IgD) has remained a mysterious antibody class for almost half a century. IgD was initially thought to be a recently evolved Ig isotype expressed only by some mammalian species, but recent discoveries in fishes and amphibians demonstrate that IgD was present in the ancestor of all jawed vertebrates and has important immunological functions. The structure of IgD has been very dynamic throughout evolution. Mammals can express IgD through alternative splicing and class switch recombination (CSR). Active cell-dependent and T-cell-independent IgM-to-IgD class switching takes place in a unique subset of human B cells from the upper aerodigestive mucosa, which provides a layer of mucosal protection by interacting with many pathogens and their virulence factors. Circulating IgD can bind to myeloid cells such as basophils and induce antimicrobial, inflammatory, and B-cell-stimulating factors upon cross-linking, which contributes to immune surveillance but also inflammation and tissue damage when this pathway is overactivated under pathological conditions. Recent research shows that IgD is an important immunomodulator that orchestrates an ancestral surveillance system at the interface between immunity and inflammation. PMID:20727035

Chen, Kang; Cerutti, Andrea

2011-01-01

316

Polymeric implant materials for the reconstruction of tracheal and pharyngeal mucosal defects in head and neck surgery  

PubMed Central

The existing therapeutical options for the tracheal and pharyngeal reconstruction by use of implant materials are described. Inspite of a multitude of options and the availability of very different materials none of these methods applied for tracheal reconstruction were successfully introduced into the clinical routine. Essential problems are insufficiencies of anastomoses, stenoses, lack of mucociliary clearance and vascularisation. The advances in Tissue Engineering (TE) offer new therapeutical options also in the field of the reconstructive surgery of the trachea. In pharyngeal reconstruction far reaching developments cannot be recognized at the moment which would allow to give a prognosis of their success in clinical application. A new polymeric implant material consisting of multiblock copolymers was applied in our own work which was regarded as a promising material for the reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract (ADT) due to its physicochemical characteristics. In order to test this material for applications in the ADT under extreme chemical, enzymatical, bacterial and mechanical conditions we applied it for the reconstruction of a complete defect of the gastric wall in an animal model. In none of the animals tested either gastrointestinal complications or negative systemic events occurred, however, there was a multilayered regeneration of the gastric wall implying a regular structured mucosa. In future the advanced stem cell technology will allow further progress in the reconstruction of different kind of tissues also in the field of head and neck surgery following the principles of Tissue Engineering. PMID:22073099

Rickert, Dorothee

2011-01-01

317

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin cytotoxicity occurs through bilayer destabilization  

PubMed Central

Summary The Gram-negative bacterium, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, is a common inhabitant of the human upper aerodigestive tract. The organism produces an RTX (Repeats in ToXin) toxin (LtxA) that kills human white blood cells. LtxA is believed to be a membrane-damaging toxin, but details of the cell surface interaction for this and several other RTX toxins have yet to be elucidated. Initial morphological studies suggested that LtxA was bending the target cell membrane. Because the ability of a membrane to bend is a function of its lipid composition, we assessed the proficiency of LtxA to release of a fluorescent dye from a panel of liposomes composed of various lipids. Liposomes composed of lipids that form nonlamellar phases were susceptible to LtxA-induced damage while liposomes composed of lipids that do not form non-bilayer structures were not. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the toxin decreased the temperature at which the lipid transitions from a bilayer to a nonlamellar phase, while 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the LtxA-induced transition from a bilayer to an inverted hexagonal phase occurs through the formation of an isotropic intermediate phase. These results indicate that LtxA cytotoxicity occurs through a process of membrane destabilization. PMID:22309134

Brown, Angela C.; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Du, Yurong; Stefano, Frank P.; Kieba, Irene R.; Epand, Raquel F.; Kakalis, Lazaros; Yeagle, Philip L.; Epand, Richard M.; Lally, Edward T.

2012-01-01

318

Estimating the optimal threshold for a diagnostic biomarker in case of complex biomarker distributions  

PubMed Central

Background Estimating the optimal threshold (and especially the confidence interval) of a quantitative biomarker to be used as a diagnostic test is essential for medical decision-making. This is often done with simple methods that are not always reliable. More advanced methods work well but only for biomarkers with very simple distributions. In fact, biomarker distributions are often complex because of a natural heterogeneity in marker expression and other heterogeneities due to various disease stages, laboratory equipments, etc. Methods are required to estimate a biomarker optimal threshold in case of heterogeneity and complex distributions. Methods A previously described Bayesian method developed for normally distributed biomarkers is applied to two flexible distributions; namely, a Student-t and a mixture of Dirichlet processes. Here, numerical studies assess the adequacy of the previous method with both distributions. Two applications are presented: the diagnosis of treatment failure after prostate cancer treated by ultrasound and the early diagnosis of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. Results Bayesian inference provided reliable credible intervals in terms of bias and coverage probability. The two distributions analysed gave meaningful clinical interpretations in both applications. Conclusions Reliable methods can be used to estimate a biomarker optimal threshold, even in case of complex distributions. PMID:24927622

2014-01-01

319

Changing Trends in Oesophageal Endoscopy: A Systematic Review of Transnasal Oesophagoscopy  

PubMed Central

The safety, efficacy, and economic implications of using transnasal oesophagoscopy (TNE) are compared with conventional rigid or flexible oesophagoscopy for oesophageal disorders in otorhinolaryngology (ORL) clinics in this systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were searched for articles on transnasal oesophagoscopy. A total of 67 relevant titles were identified and 39 abstracts were screened of which 17 full- text articles were included in this report. There was fair level of evidence to suggest that TNE was effective for screening examination in patients with dysphagia, globus pharyngeus, and reflux symptoms and for detection of metachronous oesophageal carcinoma. TNE can also be used to biopsy suspicious lesions in the upper aerodigestive tract, placement of wireless pH capsule, transnasal balloon dilation of the oesophagus, secondary tracheoesophageal puncture, and management of foreign bodies. TNE was well tolerated and can be safely performed in an office setting with topical anaesthesia. Complications associated with TNE were mild and uncommon. There was evidence to suggest potential cost savings by performing TNE in the office setting compared with conventional investigation and examination for dysphagia. TNE may lead to a change in practice from investigation and treatment in the operating theatre or day care center to an office-based practice. PMID:23984101

Sabirin, Junainah; Abd Rahman, Maharita; Rajan, Philip

2013-01-01

320

Neighborhood deprivation and mortality in individuals with cancer: a multilevel analysis from Sweden.  

PubMed

Little information is available on the effect of neighborhood deprivation on mortality in individuals with cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of level of neighborhood deprivation on mortality after a wide range of cancer diagnoses. This 1990-2004 follow-up study included all individuals in Sweden aged 25-74 years and used multilevel logistic regression with individual-level variables at the first level and the level of neighborhood deprivation at the second level. There was a relationship between the level of neighborhood deprivation and mortality for both men and women with cancer. The model accounted for age and socioeconomic factors. For individuals with cancer, the overall risk of mortality was 24% higher for men and 20% higher for women living in the most deprived neighborhoods than in those living in the least deprived neighborhoods. In men and women with kidney, urinary bladder, and endocrine gland cancers, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mortality differed according to the level of neighborhood deprivation. In men with cancer of the prostate, testes, upper aerodigestive tract, colon, rectum, and lung, mortality differed according to the level of neighborhood deprivation. Mortality differences were also found in women with cancer of the breast, cervix, endometrium, and small intestine, and leukemia. In conclusion, neighborhood deprivation predicts the risk of mortality among adults with certain cancers. PMID:22495253

Sundquist, Jan; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Kristina

2012-07-01

321

Prevention of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy stoma metastases in patients with active oropharyngeal malignancy.  

PubMed

The implantation of metastasis of oropharyngeal or esophageal cancer to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) stomata is considered an uncommon complication, but it is being recognized with increasing frequency. The incidence of this complication is not known. Multiple theories of metastatic spread have been proposed. We describe a case following retrograde endoscopy via a PEG stoma site. A National Library of Medicine literature search was performed, and case reports and bibliographies were reviewed. We estimate the incidence of this complication as 1% minimum. Direct seeding of the site is the only reasonable hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. Health care providers need to be educated about this problem. Although there is no direct evidence that metastases are spread by direct contact, we believe that transgression of the active primary tumor during gastrostomy tube placement should be avoided. Laparoscopic gastrostomy tube placement provides a safe, effective, and minimally invasive method of enteral access, which avoids transgression of the primary tumor site, and may prevent stomal metastases in patients with active aerodigestive tract malignancies who require gastrostomy. PMID:12874695

Maccabee, D; Sheppard, B C

2003-10-01

322

Incidence and prognostic impact of high-risk HPV tumor infection in cervical esophageal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical esophageal carcinoma (CEC) is an uncommon malignancy. Limited data supports the use of definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) as primary treatment. Furthermore, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) tumor infection in CEC remains unknown. This study retrospectively analyzes both outcomes of CEC patients treated with CRT and the incidence and potential role of HPV tumor infection in CEC lesions. Methods A total of 37 CEC patients were treated with definitive CRT at our institution between 1987 and 2013. Of these, 19 had tumor samples available for high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) pathological analysis. Results For all patients (n=37), 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and loco-regional control (LRC) rates were 34.1%, 40.2%, and 65.6%, respectively. On pathological analysis, 1/19 (5.3%) patients had an HPV-positive lesion. Conclusions Definitive CRT provides disease-related outcomes comparable to surgery. Moreover, HPV tumor infection in CEC is uncommon and its prognostic role is unclear. Our data contribute to the construction of an anatomical map of HPV tumor infection in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the upper aerodigestive tract, and suggest a steep drop in viral infection rates at sites distal to the oropharynx, including the cervical esophagus. PMID:25436117

Ludmir, Ethan B.; Palta, Manisha; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wu, Yuan; Willett, Christopher G.

2014-01-01

323

Posttraumatic Frontal Bone Osteomyelitis  

PubMed Central

We present the clinical case of a patient with open bilateral frontal sinus fractures who developed a frontal osteomyelitis. A review of the problem and management ascending to the different alternatives for central anterior skull base defects and fronto-orbital reconstruction is also presented. After extensive radical debridement of the necrotic bone, final reconstruction of the skull base was performed by using a rectus abdominis free flap. A custom-made hard tissue replacement implant was used for the fronto-orbital reconstruction. Extensive debridement is required for the treatment of frontal osteomyelitis. An appropriate isolation of the skull base from the upper aerodigestive system must be obtained to prevent continuous infectious complications. Free flaps are especially useful for skull base reconstruction when traditional methods are not available or have failed because of the lack of available tissue for vascularized reconstruction. Custom-made alloplastic implants are a good reconstructive option for large fronto-orbital defects once the infection is gone and vascularized tissue has been transferred. PMID:22110798

Jung, S. Heredero; Aniceto, G. Sánchez; Rodríguez, I. Zubillaga; Diaz, R. Gutiérrez; Recuero, I.I. García

2009-01-01

324

Cytogenetic damage in the oral mucosa cells of bladder cancer patients exposed to tobacco in Southern Tunisia.  

PubMed

Bladder cancer was associated to exposure to several pollutants which can be absorbed, inhaled, or possibly ingested. We analyzed the frequency of micronuclei (MNC) and binucleated cells (BNC) in exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa of 24 bladder cancer (BC) patients and 48 controls residing in Southern Tunisia. An assessment was carried out on the incidence of MNC and BNC in 1,000 cells per individual. The data were analyzed with SPSS, using the chi-square and the Mann-Whitney U test, ? = 0.05. The frequency of MN cells in BC cases was 2.5-fold higher, than in the control group (P < 0.001), while the difference for BNC between both groups was not significant. The smoking habits, age, and gender significantly influenced the MN but not the BNC alterations. The results of our study showed significantly increased frequencies of MN but not of BNC in exfoliated oral cells of BC patients associated with the smoking status, sex, and age. This study provides preliminary evidence that the frequency of MN in oral mucosa could be a predictive biomarker for cancers in parts of the body other than the upper aerodigestive tract, such as BC. Further scrupulous investigations are certainly warranted in order to implement this assay as a routine test in the planning and validation of cancer surveillance and prevention programs. PMID:24981033

Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Khlifi, Rim; Mhiri, Mohamed-Nabil; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

2014-11-01

325

Gene-Environment Interactions of Novel Variants Associated with Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background A genome-wide association study for upper aerodigestive tract cancers identified 19 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used these SNPs to investigate the potential gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) risk. Methods The 19 variants were genotyped using Taqman (Applied Biosystems) assays among 575 cases and 676 controls in our population-based case-control study. Results A restricted cubic spline model suggested both ADH1B and HEL308 modified the association between smoking pack-years and HNSCC. Classification and regression tree analysis demonstrated a higher order interaction between smoking status, ADH1B, FLJ13089 and FLJ35784 in HNSCC risk. Compared with ever smokers carrying ADH1B T/C+T/T genotypes, smokers carrying ADH1B C/C genotype and FLJ13089 A/G+A/A genotypes had a highest risk of HNSCC (OR=1.84). Conclusions Our results suggest that the risk associated with these variants may be specifically important amongst specific exposure groups. PMID:22052802

Liang, Caihua; Marsit, Carmen J.; Houseman, E. Andres; Butler, Rondi; Nelson, Heather H.; McClean, Michael D.; Kelsey, Karl T.

2013-01-01

326

Random Synchronous Malignancy in Male Breast: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

We report here a case of a random synchronous male breast malignancy in a patient with a known base of tongue malignancy that was incidentally detected on a whole body 18-fluorine deoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT). Patient was referred to us for PET/CT staging and radiotherapy planning for a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of base of tongue. Histopathologically, the incidentally detected breast lesion was proven to be an invasive ductal carcinoma. 18F-FDG PET/CT being a whole body imaging modality is known to detect a considerable number of synchronous primaries. Synchronous malignancies in the head and neck area and the upper aerodigestive tract are well established. However, synchronous malignancy in male breast is reportedly uncommon. Our case is unique for the fact that a random synchronous dual malignancy of base of tongue and breast in a male patient was detected during a whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging. PMID:24454468

Borde, Chaitanya; Subramanyam, Padma; Shanmuga Sundaram, Palaniswamy

2013-01-01

327

Otolaryngologic manifestations of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.  

PubMed

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is characterized by formation of large cervical osteophytes that may compress the posterior wall of the aerodigestive tract. It is a rare cause of dysphagia in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the various otolaryngologic manifestations of DISH. Eleven elderly patients with DISH were included in the study. All patients presented with dysphagia that was graded on the swallowing screening tool (EAT-10), and the diagnosis of DISH was based on computed tomographic criteria. The patients were subjected to otolaryngologic examination and flexible laryngoscopy. Polysomnography was used for patients with excessive daytime sleepiness for detection of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In addition to dysphagia of varying severity, OSA was found in nine patients, change of voice in six, globus sensation in seven, aspiration in three, and cervical pain in seven. Flexible laryngoscopy showed bulging of the posterior pharyngeal wall in all patients. DISH may be an unrecognized contributory factor to both dysphagia and OSA in the elderly. Change of voice, aspiration, globus sensation, and cervical pain are other otolaryngologic manifestations that may be encountered symptoms of the disease. An otolaryngologist should be aware of the disease that may be overlooked, and computed tomography is a confirmatory diagnostic method. PMID:24264765

Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; Azab, Noha A; Rashed, Mohammed; Talaat, Ahmed

2014-06-01

328

Alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: epidemiology, clinical findings, and prevention.  

PubMed

Both cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking are well-established risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and the relationship of dose to cancer risk has already been described. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of these two factors has been reported. Our case-control study revealed the odds ratio of ESCC to be 50.1 for those who were both heavy smokers and heavy drinkers in comparison to people who neither drank nor smoked. In patients with ESCC, head and neck cancers as well as dysplastic lesions are frequently observed. Heavy smoking and heavy drinking are closely related to such multicentric carcinogenesis events in the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), including the esophagus and head andneck region. Polymorphisms in acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) are reported to be a key event in deciding individual susceptibility to UADT cancer. Patients with inactive ALDH2, in whom facial flushing is usually observed after the drinking of alcohol, are at high risk for ESCC as well as multiple UADT cancers. For the early detection of the disease, effective follow up using endoscopy with Lugol staining or narrow band imaging endoscopy is strongly recommended for high-risk populations, such as smokers, heavy drinkers, people with experience of flushing after the drinking of alcohol, and patients with UADT cancer. PMID:20224884

Morita, Masaru; Kumashiro, Ryuichi; Kubo, Nobuhide; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Rintaro; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Saeki, Hiroshi; Emi, Yasunori; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Sakaguchi, Yoshihisa; Toh, Yasushi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

2010-04-01

329

Optical coherence tomography and confocal endomicroscopy for rhinologic pathologies: a pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal endomicroscopy (CEM) have a well-established potential for early diagnosis of pre-malignant and early malignant lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract mucosa. Additional applications in ENT-diagnostics might facilitate a more widespread use by making the investment into the devices more economic. Both imaging techniques might also provide valuable information in nasal pathologies. OCT images were generated with a surgical microscope (Möller-Wedel Hi-R 1000) with an integrated high-speed-OCT camera (Optomedical GmbH). For the CEM a Heidelberg Retina tomograph II scanner (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH) was used. Both during sinus surgery in vivo and from removed material ex vivo OCT and CEM images were taken and correlated with histopathological analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Patients with inverted papillomas and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) were evaluated. Inverted papillomas show a variably thick epithelial layer on OCT and densely packed epithelial cells on CEM. They can be clearly distinguished from nasal polyps that show a very thin epithelial layer upon loose subepithelial tissue. In CRS CEM can distinguish areas with intact from areas with destroyed ciliated epithelium by directly visualizing ciliary movement. OCT sometimes showed thin superficial dense structures that might correspond to biofilms. OCT and CEM might provide valuable information in the follow-up care of patients with inverted papillomas and in diagnostics of CRS.

Olzowy, B.; Starke, N.; Schuldt, T.; Hüttmann, G.; Lankenau, E.; Just, T.

2013-06-01

330

Lead article: The prognostic significance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) in laryngeal cancer.  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinoma arising from upper aerodigestive tract carries with it a significant morbidity and mortality and, over the last few decades, its incidence has steadily increased. The management of patients requires thorough investigation to determine the local, regional, and distant extent of the disease, and treatment options include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or combinations of these.Despite the large number of therapeutic and hsitopathologic studies in print, there is currently no morphologic or cytologic feature available which consistenly predicts outcome in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. The use of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a newly available marker of a cell's proliferative activity ( S-phase fraction), was evaluated in 25 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. PCNA scores differed, statistically significantly as far as the localization of the lesion, pathological grade, clinical stage, presence of lymph node metastases and prognosis of the patients were concerned.These data suggest that PCNA is an indicator of the malignant potential of the larynx. PCNA can be used in decision making for treatment and assessing prognosis in carcinoma of the larynx. PMID:23119458

Sapci, T; Filizel, F; Karavus, A; Akbulut, U G; Karavus, M

1998-10-01

331

Otolaryngologic symptoms in persons exposed to World Trade Center dust and particle pollutants: a case for caution in declaring a diagnosis of WTC syndrome.  

PubMed

Since the Sept. 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center (WTC), the health status of survivors, rescue and cleanup workers, and residents of Lower Manhattan has been monitored. Exposure to dust and particulate matter resulted in numerous complaints of both upper and lower aerodigestive tract irritation. The symptoms, diagnoses, and management of affected persons have previously been described in the literature. However, evidence establishing causation is scarce, especially with regard to the purported long-term effects of such exposure. Many persons who were exposed to the Ground Zero site have otolaryngologic conditions that are common in persons who were not so exposed. Therefore, otolaryngologists involved in the care of such patients should be cautious about assigning a diagnosis of "WTC syndrome" without a comprehensive examination to look for other possible etiologies. A diagnosis of a treatable, potentially serious health problem should not be missed simply because a patient who was exposed to WTC irritants was presumed to have WTC syndrome. In this review, we discuss the reported otolaryngologic manifestations of exposure to the WTC site, and we describe the specific cases of 2 workers there who continue to have otolaryngologic complaints. Considerable research is needed to establish the existence and nature of any long-term sequelae of exposure to WTC fallout. PMID:19688717

Chandran, Swapna K; Hawkshaw, Mary J; Sataloff, Robert T

2009-08-01

332

Influenza and SARS-Coronavirus Activating Proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT Are Expressed at Multiple Sites in Human Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Tracts  

PubMed Central

The type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT activate influenza viruses and the SARS-coronavirus (TMPRSS2) in cell culture and may play an important role in viral spread and pathogenesis in the infected host. However, it is at present largely unclear to what extent these proteases are expressed in viral target cells in human tissues. Here, we show that both HAT and TMPRSS2 are coexpressed with 2,6-linked sialic acids, the major receptor determinant of human influenza viruses, throughout the human respiratory tract. Similarly, coexpression of ACE2, the SARS-coronavirus receptor, and TMPRSS2 was frequently found in the upper and lower aerodigestive tract, with the exception of the vocal folds, epiglottis and trachea. Finally, activation of influenza virus was conserved between human, avian and porcine TMPRSS2, suggesting that this protease might activate influenza virus in reservoir-, intermediate- and human hosts. In sum, our results show that TMPRSS2 and HAT are expressed by important influenza and SARS-coronavirus target cells and could thus support viral spread in the human host. PMID:22558251

Gierer, Stefanie; Danisch, Simon; Perin, Paula; Lucas, Jared M.; Nelson, Peter S.; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Soilleux, Elizabeth J.

2012-01-01

333

High absorption but very low bioavailability of oral resveratrol in humans.  

PubMed

The dietary polyphenol resveratrol has been shown to have chemopreventive activity against cardiovascular disease and a variety of cancers in model systems, but it is not clear whether the drug reaches the proposed sites of action in vivo after oral ingestion, especially in humans. In this study, we examined the absorption, bioavailability, and metabolism of 14C-resveratrol after oral and i.v. doses in six human volunteers. The absorption of a dietary relevant 25-mg oral dose was at least 70%, with peak plasma levels of resveratrol and metabolites of 491 +/- 90 ng/ml (about 2 microM) and a plasma half-life of 9.2 +/- 0.6 h. However, only trace amounts of unchanged resveratrol (<5 ng/ml) could be detected in plasma. Most of the oral dose was recovered in urine, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis identified three metabolic pathways, i.e., sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugation of the phenolic groups and, interestingly, hydrogenation of the aliphatic double bond, the latter likely produced by the intestinal microflora. Extremely rapid sulfate conjugation by the intestine/liver appears to be the rate-limiting step in resveratrol's bioavailability. Although the systemic bioavailability of resveratrol is very low, accumulation of resveratrol in epithelial cells along the aerodigestive tract and potentially active resveratrol metabolites may still produce cancer-preventive and other effects. PMID:15333514

Walle, Thomas; Hsieh, Faye; DeLegge, Mark H; Oatis, John E; Walle, U Kristina

2004-12-01

334

Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity treated with proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mostly seen in the upper aerodigestive tract and has a propensity for lymph node spread and systemic metastases. Various treatment modalities have been reported, including surgical excision supplemented with radiotherapy/adjuvant chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, treatment of nasal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma with proton beam therapy and cisplatin has not been described in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 56-year-old Japanese man with locally invasive basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in his right nasal cavity with invasion of the orbit, paranasal sinus, and buccal subcutaneous tissue. He underwent proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin. Acute and late side effects did not exceed grade 3. At 24-month follow up, he remains in complete remission. Conclusion Proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin may be one choice for locally invasive basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24716457

2014-01-01

335

Aggressive mature natural killer cell neoplasms: from epidemiology to diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Mature natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms are classified by the World Health Organization into NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTCL), aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKCL) and chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK-cells, the latter being considered provisionally. NKTCL and ANKCL are rare diseases, with higher prevalence in Asia, Central and South America. Most NKTCL present extranodal, as a destructive tumor affecting the nose and upper aerodigestive tract (nasal NKTCL) or any organ or tissue (extranasal NKTCL) whereas ANKCL manifests as a systemic disease with multiorgan involvement and naturally evolutes to death in a few weeks. The histopathological hallmark of these aggressive NK-cell tumors is a polymorphic neoplastic infiltrate with angiocentricity, angiodestruction and tissue necrosis. The tumor cells have cytoplasmatic azurophilic granules and usually show a CD45+bright, CD2+, sCD3-, cytCD3epsilon+, CD56+bright, CD16?/+, cytotoxic granules molecules+ phenotype. T-cell receptor genes are in germ-line configuration. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -encoded membrane proteins and early region EBV RNA are usually detected on lymphoma cells, with a pattern suggestive of a latent viral infection type II. Complex chromosomal abnormalities are frequent and loss of chromosomes 6q, 11q, 13q, and 17p are recurrent aberrations. The rarity of the NK-cell tumors limits our ability to standardize the procedures for the diagnosis and clinical management and efforts should be made to encourage multi-institutional registries. PMID:23816348

2013-01-01

336

Prevalence of Oral Human Papilloma Virus in Healthy Individuals in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Human papilloma virus causes benign and malignant abnormalities in different part of the body. The link between high risk types of HPV and some anogenital and aerodigestive tract cancer is well established. Oral HPV infection plays a role in developing oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We studied the prevalence of oral HPV in healthy individuals and its relative risk factors. Methods: Saliva samples of 114 healthy subjects were collected for HPV DNA analysis. Volunteers completed questionnaires and signed a written consent. For data analysis descriptive statistic, chi square test and odds ratio was used. Results: The frequency of oral HPV in healthy individuals was 6.1 %(seven participant).The most frequent type was HPV-18 in five of them. HPV-6 and HPV-66 each was detected in one case. Relation of oral HPV positivity to demographic features and risk factors was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of oral HPV infection in our community is the same as many other communities of developing countries, stressing that HPV-18 were the dominant type. PMID:23514804

SEIFI, Sharareh; ASVADI KERMANI, Iraj; DOLATKHAH, Roya; ASVADI KERMANI, Atabak; SAKHINIA, Ebrahim; ASGARZADEH, Mohammad; DASTGIRI, Saeed; EBRAHIMI, Ayoub; ASGHARI HAGGI, Arezou; NADRI, Mahsa; ASVADI KERMANI, Touraj

2013-01-01

337

Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: regulatory safety and epidemiological issues.  

PubMed

Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener that has been used safely in food for more than 30 years. Its safety has been evaluated by various regulatory agencies in accordance with procedures internationally recognized, and decisions have been revised and updated regularly. The present review summarizes the most relevant conclusions of epidemiological studies concerning the use of low-calorie sweeteners (mainly aspartame), published between January 1990 and November 2012. In the Nurses' Health study and the Health Professionals Followup study some excess risk of Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma was found in men but not in women; no association was found with leukemia. In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, there was no association between aspartame and haematopoietic neoplasms. US case-control studies of brain and haematopoietic neoplasms also showed no association. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and case-control studies from California showed no association with pancreatic cancer, and a case-control study from Denmark found no relation with breast cancer risk. Italian case-control studies conducted in 1991-2008 reported no consistent association for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, digestive tract, breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, and kidney. Low calorie sweeteners were not consistently related to vascular events and preterm deliveries. PMID:23891579

Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L; Bosetti, Cristina; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo

2013-10-01

338

Light distributors for photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview is given of light distributors developed by our group in Lausanne for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. We focus on fiberoptic devices which have to a large extent been tested over the years in the clinic for PDT of the upper aerodigestive tract, the tracheobronchial tree, the esophagus, the uterus, and the skin. Both surface and interstitial light distributors are discussed. Several different physical principles for obtaining the desired light intensity distribution in tissue are demonstrated, including the use of specially shaped reflecting surfaces, light scattering and refraction by particles, the use of flexible highly reflecting balloons, controlled fiber core surface roughening, and microlenses. PDT can be improved using 'intelligent' light distributors, which permit the measurement of the light intensity reflected from the irradiated surface, as well as the dye fluorescence signals. Both are measured in situ and in real time during the treatment. The use of such devices, which can measure photobleaching kinetics, and enable one to adjust the light dose to the observed dye fluorescence signals, thus giving better PDT control, is discussed.

van den Bergh, Hubert; Mizeret, Jerome C.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Woodtli, Alain; Bays, Roland; Robert, D.; Thielen, P.; Philippoz, J. M.; Braichotte, Daniel; Forrer, Martin; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnieres, Georges A.

1995-01-01

339

p53 overexpression correlates with increased survival in patients with squamous carcinoma of the tongue base.  

PubMed

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA), and p53 are frequently overexpressed in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the upper aerodigestive tract. We chose to study SCC of the tongue base, which is often advanced at presentation and fatal, to evaluate whether overexpression correlates with survival. Complete follow-up was available for 20 patients, 18 of whom had stage III or IV disease. A number of clinical (age, sex, stage of disease) and histologic (tumor grade, keratinization, mitotic rate, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, host response) variables were analyzed. None of these variables correlated with survival. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue from each patient. Because EGFR and TGFA expression were routinely found in normal squamous epithelium, overexpression was considered present if greater uptake of the antibody was manifested by a deeper immunostain. In contrast, p53 oncoprotein was not detected in normal epithelium, so detection of the antibody was believed to indicate overexpression. EGFR was overexpressed in 60% of tumors, TGFA in 35%, and p53 in 20%. Those patients who had an overexpression of p53 had a greater mean survival than those who did not (48 versus 16 months, respectively, p = 0.06). This difference was significant for patients with clinical stage IV lesions (p = 0.03). EGFR overexpression and TGFA overexpression did not correlate with survival. p53 may serve as a biologic marker indicative of improved survival potential. PMID:1463117

Sauter, E R; Ridge, J A; Gordon, J; Eisenberg, B L

1992-12-01

340

List of Participants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna Ceresole Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università di Torino Kang Sin Choi University of Bonn Michele Cirafici University of Patras Andres Collinucci Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Aldo Cotrone Universitat de Barcelona Ben Craps Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Stefano Cremonesi SISSA, Trieste Gianguido Dall'Agata Padova University Sanjit Das Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Forcella Davide SISSA, Trieste Jose A de Azcarraga Valencia University and Instituto de Fìsica Corpuscular (CSIC-UVEG), Valencia Sophie de BuylInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Jean-Pierre Derendinger Université de Neuchâtel Stephane Detournay Università Degli Studi di Milano Paolo Di Vecchia NORDITA, København Oscar Dias Universitat de Barcelona Vladimir Dobrev Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia Joel Ekstrand Department of Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University Federico Elmetti Università di Milano I Diaconu Eugen University of Craiova Oleg Evnin Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Bo Feng Imperial College, London Livia Ferro Università di Torino Pau Figueras Universitat de Barcelona Raphael Flauger University of Texas at Austin Valentina Forini Università di Perugia Angelos Fotopoulos Università di Torino Denis Frank Université de Neuchâtel Lisa Freyhult Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm Carlos Fuertes Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Matthias Gaberdiel Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Maria Pilar Garcia del Moral Università di Torino Daniel Gerber Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Valentina Giangreco Marotta Puletti Uppsala University Joaquim Gomis Universitat de Barcelona Gianluca Grignani Università di Perugia Luca Griguolo Università di Parma Umut Gursoy École Polytechnique, Palaiseau and École Normale Supérieure, Paris Michael Haack Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Troels Harmark Niels Bohr Institute, København Alexander Haupt Imperial College, London Michal Heller Jagiellonian University, Krakow Samuli Hemming University of Iceland Yasuaki Hikida DESY,

2007-11-01

341

Laser plasma accelerator: Control of electron beam parameters in colliding laser pulses scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable and high quality electron beams are produced when two laser pulses collide in underdense plasmas. In addition to the improvement of the stability of the electron beam, the use of a second laser pulse allows the control of the electron beam parameters (energy, relative energy spread, and charge). The experimental features are well explained by the use of PIC simulations which underline physics processes which were not predicted by fluid model. This control is obtained by changing laser pulse energy, laser pulses polarization or electron density. With a total of 1 J laser energy, a 10 pC electron beam at 200 MeV with relative energy spread smaller than 1% has been measured for the first time. Using higher laser energy PIC simulations predicted that 3 GeV electron beam with 0.9% should be produced in this scheme after 3.8 cm propagation length. In collaboration with J. Faure and C. Rechatin, Laboratoire d'Optique Appliqu'ee, 'Ecole Nationale Sup'erieure de Techniques Avanc'ees, 'Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau, France; A. Ben-Ismail, Laboratoire d'Optique Appliqu'ee, and LLR, 'Ecole polytechnique, CNRS-IN2P3, 91128 Palaiseau, France; J. Lim, Laboratoire d'Optique Appliqu'ee; X. Davoine and E. Lefebvre, Commissariat àl'Energie Atomique, DIF, Bruyères-le-Châtel, France; and A. Specka and H. Videau, LLR, 'Ecole polytechnique. [2pt] This work has been partially supported by ANR-05-NT05-2-41699, by the European Community Research Infrastructure Activity under the FP6 Structuring the European Research Area program (CARE, contract number RII3-CT-2003-506395 and EU-ROLEAP, contract number 028514).

Malka, V.

2008-11-01

342

Elaboration du Ge mesoporeux et etude de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue d'applications photovoltaiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le sujet de cette these porte sur l'elaboration du nouveau nanomateriau par la gravure electrochimique bipolaire (BEE) --- le Ge mesoporeux et sur l'analyse de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue de son utilisation dans des applications photovoltaiques. La formation du Ge mesoporeux par gravure electrochimique a ete precedemment rapportee dans la litterature. Cependant, le verrou technologique important des procedes de fabrication existants consistait a obtenir des couches epaisses (superieure a 500 nm) du Ge mesoporeux a la morphologie parfaitement controlee. En effet, la caracterisation physico-chimique des couches minces est beaucoup plus compliquee et le nombre de leurs applications possibles est fortement limite. Nous avons developpe un modele electrochimique qui decrit les mecanismes principaux de formation des pores ce qui nous a permis de realiser des structures epaisses du Ge mesoporeux (jusqu'au 10 mum) ayant la porosite ajustable dans une large gamme de 15% a 60%. En plus, la formation des nanostructures poreuses aux morphologies variables et bien controlees est desormais devenue possible. Enfin, la maitrise de tous ces parametres a ouvert la voie extremement prometteuse vers la realisation des structures poreuses a multi-couches a base de Ge pour des nombreuses applications innovantes et multidisciplinaires grace a la flexibilite technologique actuelle atteinte. En particulier, dans le cadre de cette these, les couches du Ge mesoporeux ont ete optimisees dans le but de realiser le procede de transfert de couches minces d'une cellule solaire a triple jonctions via une couche sacrificielle en Ge poreux. Mots-cles : Germanium meso-poreux, Gravure electrochimique bipolaire, Electrochimie des semi-conducteurs, Report des couches minces, Cellule photovoltaique

Tutashkonko, Sergii

343

The Value of Information: Assessing the Ability of Electrical Resistivity to Detect CO2 Leakage in a Shallow Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study demonstrates a methodology for evaluating the value of electrical resistivity data to detect CO2 leakage in a shallow groundwater aquifer. This methodology adopts the value of information (VOI) metric from the field of decision analysis. We consider a stakeholder's decision of whether or not to remediate the aquifer, given that they are uncertain whether or not a CO2 leak has occurred from a deep storage source through a well-bore into the shallow aquifer and what the impact of that leak would be. Two themes of uncertainty are needed for VOI studies. The first is related to the uncertain state of the subsurface, which is directly related to the outcome of the decision. In our example, it is uncertain whether or not the shallow groundwater has been impacted by CO2 leakage. The impact may be determined by the existence of depressed pH or elevated TDS (total dissolved solids) plume. We utilize results from a previous work that investigated uncertainty quantification of spatial heterogeneity and leakage rates (Mansoor et al, 2011). Therefore, we have a comprehensive suite of 713 simulations that represent our uncertainty regarding the existence and extent of a CO2 plume. Given certain TDS and pH thresholds, the simulations are categorized into two groups: impacted (a plume exists) or not impacted (no plume) at time=50 years. The second theme is related to the information's accuracy to inform us about the existence of a plume (e.g. the state of the subsurface directly relevant to the decision). The uncertainty of the information is measured by the data likelihood and is used to determine the value of imperfect information. For this demonstration, we consider how electrical resistivity data can detect the existence of pH plumes (due to the dissolution of CO2) and TDS (due to the accompanying brine leakage). The pH and TDS output from the 713 simulations are used to determine the electrical resistivity at time = 0 and time=50 years. An empirical method is used to compare the time=0 and time=50 resistivities: the geometric log mean ratio (GLMR) of the 2 data sets is calculated (Daily et al, 2004). This requires only the forward response be calculated at the 2 different times. The GLMR is used as a sensitivity measure, representing how much the electrical resistivity would change given the conditions of the aquifer. The likelihood of electrical resistivity to detect the presence of a plume is estimated by comparing the GLMR and the category (plume or no plume) for all the 713 simulations. Electrical resistivity forward models were calculated for two acquisition configurations: surface electrodes only and surface-to-borehole. For the surface acquisition, a GLMR >0.05 exclusively identifies impacted simulations. Whereas GLMR <0.05 give a more ambiguous message: both simulations that are impacted and not have GMLR<0.05. The degree of this ambiguity changes with different definitions of the plume (i.e. pH and TDS thresholds). Surface-to-borehole forward models were performed for a borehole located 200m from the leaky well. Results show that surface-to-borehole resistivity data is more reliable at distinguishing between impacted and non-impacted simulations, and therefore the VOI is higher than for surface electrodes alone. Prepared by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Trainor Guitton, W. J.; Yang, X.; Mansoor, K.; Ramirez, A. L.; Sun, Y.; Carroll, S.

2012-12-01

344

A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate pollution poses a health risk for infants whose freshwater drinking source is groundwater. This risk creates a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include: (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, pollution transport processes, and climate (Khader and McKee, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine where methemoglobinemia is the main health problem associated with the principal pollutant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not-use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs include healthcare for methemoglobinemia, purchase of bottled water, and installation and maintenance of the groundwater monitoring system. At current methemoglobinemia and bottled water costs of 150 $/person and 0.6 $/baby/day, the decision tree results show that the expected cost of establishing the proposed groundwater quality monitoring network exceeds the expected costs of the uninformed alternatives and there is not value to the information the monitoring system provides. However, the monitoring system will be preferred to ignoring the health risk or using alternative sources if the methemoglobinemia cost rises to 300 $/person or the bottled water cost increases to 2.3 $/baby/day. Similarly, the monitoring system has value if the system can more accurately report actual aquifer concentrations and the public more fully abides by managers' recommendations to use/not use the aquifer. The system also has value if it will serve a larger population or if its installation costs can be reduced, for example using a smaller number of monitoring wells. The VOI analysis shows how monitoring system design, accuracy, installation and operating costs, public awareness of health risks, costs of alternatives, and demographics together affect the value of implementing a system to monitor groundwater quality.

Khader, A.; Rosenberg, D.; McKee, M.

2012-12-01

345

A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs include healthcare for methemoglobinemia, purchase of bottled water, and installation and maintenance of the groundwater monitoring system. At current methemoglobinemia and bottled water costs of 150/person and 0.6/baby/day, the decision tree results show that the expected cost of establishing the proposed groundwater quality monitoring network exceeds the expected costs of the uninformed alternatives and there is no value to the information the monitoring system provides. However, the monitoring system will be preferred to ignoring the health risk or using alternative sources if the methemoglobinemia cost rises to 300/person or the bottled water cost increases to 2.3/baby/day. Similarly, the monitoring system has value if the system can more accurately report actual aquifer concentrations and the public more fully abides by manager recommendations to use/not use the aquifer. The system also has value if it will serve a larger population or if its installation costs can be reduced, for example using a smaller number of monitoring wells. The VOI analysis shows how monitoring system design, accuracy, installation and operating costs, public awareness of health risks, costs of alternatives, and demographics together affect the value of implementing a system to monitor groundwater quality.

Khader, A. I.; Rosenberg, D. E.; McKee, M.

2013-05-01

346

Effect of surrounding vasculature on intravoxel BOLD signal  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The nonlocal influence from distant magnetization will affect the magnetic field at a voxel in question. Existing reports on BOLD simulation only consider vasculature inside a single voxel, thus omitting the contribution from the surrounding regions. In this article, the authors study the effect of the surrounding vasculature on the magnetic field and the BOLD signal at a cortical voxel by numerical simulation. Methods: A cortical voxel is generated as a cubic bin filled with randomly networked capillary vessels. First, the authors generate a cortical voxel with a random vessel network and embed it in a greater voxel by filling its surrounding region with vasculatures by different strategies. Next, they calculate the blood-susceptibility-induced magnetic field (BOLD field) at the voxel of interest (VOI) by a Fourier transform technique for different surrounding scenarios and varying surrounding extent. The BOLD field inhomogeneity is described by a radial distribution with a collection of cubic shell masks. The surrounding extent is defined by a collection of concentric cubes, which encase the VOI. Given a BOLD field in the presence of surrounding vasculature, they calculate BOLD signals by intravoxel dephasing. Results: The influence from the surroundings on the BOLD field at a voxel in question mainly happens at the boundary. The most influence to the BOLD signal is from the inner surroundings. For a 160×160×160 ?m3 voxel embedded in a 480×480×480 ?m3 greater region, the surroundings could disturb the magnetic field by an amount in the range of [?0.002, 0.010] ppmT and could change the BOLD signal ratio in the range of [2.5%, 10%]. (These results were generated from the setting of ??bB0=3 ppmT, capillary={2.5,6,9} ?m, and relaxation time=60 ms). Conclusions: The surrounding vasculature will impose a magnetic field disturbance at the voxel in question due to the nonlocal influence of magnetization. Simulation results show that the surrounding vasculature significantly alters the magnetic field (up to 0.01 ppmT) and BOLD signal (typically no more than 10%) at the central voxel and thus should be considered in accurate BOLD modeling. PMID:20443500

Chen, Zikuan; Caprihan, Arvind; Calhoun, Vince

2010-01-01

347

PET/CT imaging evidence of FUS-mediated (18)F-FDG uptake changes in rat brain  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) delivers highly focused acoustic energy to a small region of the brain in a noninvasive manner. Recent studies have revealed that FUS, which is administered either in pulsed or continuous waves, can elicit or suppress neural tissue excitability. This neuromodulatory property of FUS has been demonstrated via direct motion detection, electrophysiological recordings, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), confocal imaging, and microdialysis sampling of neurotransmitters. This study presents new evidence of local increase in glucose metabolism induced by FUS to the rat brain using FDG (18-fludeoxyglucose) positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats underwent sonication to a unilateral hemispheric area of the brain prior to PET scan. The pulsed sonication (350 kHz, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, and duration of 300 ms) was applied in 2 s intervals for 40 min immediately after the FDG injection via tail vein. Subsequently, the PET was acquired in dynamic list-mode to image FDG activity for an hour, and reconstructed into a single volume representing standardized uptake value (SUV). The raw SUV as well as its asymmetry index (AI) were measured from five different volume-of-interests (VOIs) of the brain for both hemispheres, and compared between sonicated and unsonicated groups. Results: Statistically significant hemispheric changes in SUV were observed only at the center of sonication focus within the FUS group [paired t-test; t(7) = 3.57, p < 0.05]. There were no significant hemispheric differences in SUV within the control group in any of the VOIs. A statistically significant elevation in AI (t-test; t(7) = 3.40, p < 0.05) was observed at the center of sonication focus (7.9 ± 2.5%, the deviations are in standard error) among the FUS group when compared to the control group (?0.8 ± 1.2%). Conclusions: Spatially distinct increases in the glucose metabolic activity in the rat brain is present only at the center of sonication focus, suggesting localized functional neuromodulation mediated by the sonication. PMID:23464343

Kim, Hyungmin; Park, Mi-Ae; Wang, Shuyan; Chiu, Alan; Fischer, Krisztina; Yoo, Seung-Schik

2013-01-01

348

Pre-therapeutic 124I PET(/CT) dosimetry confirms low average absorbed doses per administered 131I activity to the salivary glands in radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Salivary gland impairment following high activity radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a severe side effect. Dosimetric calculations using planar gamma camera scintigraphy (GCS) with 131I and ultrasonography (US) provided evidence that the average organ dose per administered 131I activity (ODpA) is too low to account for observed radiation damages to the salivary glands. The objective of this work was to re-estimate the ODpA using 124I PET(/CT) as a more reliable approach than 131I GCS/US. Methods Ten DTC patients underwent a series of six (or seven) PET scans and one PET/CT scan after administration of ~23 MBq 124I-iodide. Volumes of interest (VOIs) drawn on the CT and serial PET images were used to determine the glandular volumes and the imaged 124I activities. To enable identical VOIs to be drawn on serial PET images, each PET was co-registered with the CT image. To correct for partial volume effect and for the artificial bias in the activity concentration due to cascading gamma coincidences occurring in 124I decay, the imaged activity was effectively corrected using isovolume recovery coefficients (RCs) based on recovery phantom measurements. A head-neck phantom, which contained 124I-filled spheres, was manufactured to validate the isovolume recovery correction method with a realistic patient-based phantom geometry and for a range of activity concentration regimes. The mean±standard deviation (range) ODpA projected for 131I was calculated using the absorbed dose fraction method. Results The ODpAs (in Gy/GBq) for the submandibular and parotid glands were 0.32±0.13 (0.18–0.55) and 0.31±0.10 (0.13–0.46), respectively. No significant differences (p>0.2) in the mean ODpA between 124I PET(/CT) and 131I GCS/US dosimetry was found. The validation experiment showed that the percentage deviations between RC-corrected and true activity concentrations were <10%. Conclusion 124I PET(/CT) dosimetry also corroborates the low ODpAs to the salivary glands. A voxel-based calculation taking into account the nonuniform activity distributions in the glands is necessary to possibly explain the radiation-induced salivary gland damage. PMID:20069293

Hobbs, Robert F.; Stahl, Alexander; Knust, Jochen; Sgouros, George; Bockisch, Andreas

2010-01-01

349

In vivo MRS and MRSI: Performance analysis, measurement considerations and evaluation of metabolite concentration images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The doctoral thesis concerns development, evaluation and performance of quality assessment methods for volume- selection methods in 31P and 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS). It also contains different aspects of the measurement procedure for 1H MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) with application on the human brain, image reconstruction of the MRSI images and evaluation methods for lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Two complementary two-compartment phantoms and evaluation methods for quality assessment of 31P MRS in small-bore MR systems were presented. The first phantom consisted of an inner cube inside a sphere phantom where measurements with and without volume selection where compared for various VOI sizes. The multi-centre showed that the evaluated parameters provide useful information of the performance of volume-selective MRS at the MR system. The second phantom consisted of two compartments divided by a very thin wall and was found useful for measurements of the appearance and position of the VOI profile in specific gradient directions. The second part concerned 1H MRS and MRSI of whole-body MR systems. Different factors that may degrade or complicate the measurement procedure like for MRSI were evaluated, e.g. the volume selection performance, contamination, susceptibility and motion. Two interpolation methods for reconstruction of MRSI images were compared. Measurements and computer simulations showed that Fourier interpolation correctly visualizes the information inherent in the data set, while the results were dependent on the position of the object relative the original matrix using Cubic spline interpolation. Application of spatial filtering may improve the image representation of the data. Finally, 1H MRSI was performed on healthy volunteers and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Metabolite concentration images were used for lateralization of TLE, where the signal intensity in the two hemispheres were compared. Visual analysis of the metabolite concentration images can, with high accuracy, be used for lateralization in routine examinations. Analysis from measurements with region-of-interests (ROI) in different locations gives quantitative information about the degree of signal loss and the spatial distribution.

Vikhoff-Baaz, Barbro

2000-10-01

350

Pulmonary vessel segmentation utilizing curved planar reformation and optimal path finding (CROP) in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for CAD applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately under suboptimal conditions, such as vessels occluded by PEs, surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases, and crossing with other vessels. In this study, we developed a new vessel refinement method utilizing curved planar reformation (CPR) technique combined with optimal path finding method (MHES-CROP). The MHES segmented vessels straightened in the CPR volume was refined using adaptive gray level thresholding where the local threshold was obtained from least-square estimation of a spline curve fitted to the gray levels of the vessel along the straightened volume. An optimal path finding method based on Dijkstra's algorithm was finally used to trace the correct path for the vessel of interest. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOIs) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 32.9+/-10.2% using the MHES method to 9.9+/-7.9% using the MHES-CROP method. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (p<0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the segmented vessel volume between the automated segmentation and the reference standard was improved from 0.919 to 0.988. Quantitative comparison of the MHES method and the MHES-CROP method with the reference standard was also evaluated by the Bland-Altman plot. This preliminary study indicates that the MHES-CROP method has the potential to improve PE detection.

Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Guo, Yanhui; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A.

2012-03-01

351

The economic value of remote sensing information: a case study of agricultural production and groundwater vulnerability using applied environmental science and hydrogeospatial methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

William M. Forney1*, Richard L. Bernknopf1, Shruti K. Mishra2, Ronald P. Raunikar1. 1=Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. 2=Contractor, Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California *=Contact author, wforney@usgs.gov, 650-329-4237. Does remote sensing information provide economic benefits to society and can those benefits be valued? Can resource management and policy be better informed by coupling past and present earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the USGS's research applies an established conceptual framework to answer these questions as well as estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate resolution land imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the US Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, we model the relationship between a population of the CDL's land uses and the evolution of nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Using source data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and the USGS's National Water Quality Assessment Program, the approach uses multi-scaled, environmental science models to address dynamic, biophysical process models of nitrogen fate and transport at specific sites (wells) and at landscape scale (35 counties) in order to assess groundwater vulnerability. In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on particular agricultural goods and land uses: corn, soybeans and livestock manure management. Results of this four-year study will be presented, including: 1) the integrated models of the assessment approach, 2) mapping the range of vulnerabilities across the region, and 3) considerations of improved nitrogen and crop management. Finally, utilizing both a situation where society does not have access to MRLI, and an enhanced land use scenario based on plausible, future regulatory and policy frameworks and continued availability of MRLI, estimates of the incremental increase in the MRLI's VOI are presented.

Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Mishra, S.; Raunikar, R. P.

2011-12-01

352

Combination of Anti-IGF-1R Antibody A12 and Ionizing Radiation in Upper Respiratory Tract Cancers  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The IGF1/IGF-1R signaling pathway has emerged as a potential determinant of radiation resistance in human cancer cell lines. Therefore we investigated the potency of monoclonal anti-IGF-1R antibody, A12, to enhance radiation response in upper respiratory tract cancers. Methods and Materials: Cell lines were assessed for IGF-1R expression and IGF1-dependent response to A12 or radiation using viability and clonogenic cancer cell survival assays. In vivo response of tumor xenografts to 10 or 20 Gy and A12 (0.25-2 mg x 3) was assessed using growth delay assays. Combined treatment effects were also analyzed by immunohistochemical assays for tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression at Days 1 and 6 after start of treatment. Results: A12 enhanced the radiosensitivity of HN5 and FaDu head-and-neck carcinomas in vitro (p < 0.05) and amplified the radioresponse of FaDu xenografts in a dose-dependent manner, with enhancement factors ranging from 1.2 to 1.8 (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis of FaDu xenografts demonstrated that A12 inhibited tumor cell proliferation (p < 0.05) and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. When A12 was combined with radiation, this resulted in apoptosis induction that persisted until 6 days from the start of treatment and in increased necrosis at Day 1 (p < 0.01, respectively). Combined treatment with A12 and radiation resulted in additive or subadditive growth delay in H460 or A549 xenografts, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study strengthen the evidence for investigating how anti-IGF-1R strategies can be integrated into radiation and radiation-cetuximab regimen in the treatment of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract cancers.

Riesterer, Oliver; Yang Qiuan; Raju, Uma; Torres, Mylin; Molkentine, David; Patel, Nalini; Valdecanas, David; Milas, Luka [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson, Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ang, K. Kian, E-mail: kianang@mdanderson.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson, Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2011-03-15

353

Predictors of Pain among Head and Neck Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective Pain is a strong contributor to cancer patients’ quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of pain 1 year after the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. Design Prospective, multi-site cohort study. Setting Three academically-affiliated medical centers. Patients Previously untreated patients with carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (n=374). Main Outcome Measures Participants were surveyed pre-treatment and 1 year thereafter. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine predictors of the SF-36 bodily pain score 1 year after diagnosis. Results The mean SF-36 bodily pain score at 1 year was 65, compared to 61 at diagnosis (p=.004), compared to 75 among population norms (lower scores indicate worse pain). Variables independently associated with pain included pre-treatment pain score (p<0.001), less education (p=0.02), neck dissection (p=0.001), feeding tube (p=0.05), xerostomia (p<0.001), depressive symptoms (p<0.001), taking more pain medication (p<0.001), less physical activity (p=.02), and poor sleep quality (p=0.006). Current smoking and problem drinking were marginally significant (p=0.07 and 0.08, respectively). Conclusions Aggressive pain management may be indicated for head and neck cancer patients who undergo neck dissections, complain of xerostomia, require feeding tubes, and have medical comorbidities. Treatment of modifiable risk factors such as depression, poor sleep quality, tobacco and alcohol abuse may also reduce pain and improve quality of life among head and neck cancer patients. PMID:23165353

Shuman, Andrew G.; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Light, Emily; Wolf, Gregory T.; Bradford, Carol R.; Chepeha, Douglas; Jiang, Yunyun; McLean, Scott; Ghanem, Tamer A.; Duffy, Sonia A.

2014-01-01

354

Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic instrument in head and neck carcinoma  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE 1) Determine differences in lifetime fluorescence between normal and malignant tissue of the upper aerodigestive tract. 2) Evaluate the potential of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as a diagnostic instrument for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING University-based medical center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Nine patients with suspected HNSCC were included. In the operating room, a nitrogen pulse laser (337 nm, 700 ps pulse width) was used to induce tissue autofluorescence of normal tissue and suspected malignant lesions. Spectral intensities and time-domain measurements were obtained and compared to the histopathology at each site. A total of 53 sites were measured. The fluorescence parameters that provided the most discrimination were determined. RESULTS Differences in spectral intensities allowed for discrimination between malignant and normal tissue. The spectral intensity of malignant tissue was lower than the normal tissue, and a shift of peak intensity to a longer wavelength was observed in the normalized spectrum of malignant tissue in the range of 360~660 nm. Multiple time-resolved fluorescence parameters provided the best diagnostic discrimination between normal tissue and carcinoma, including average lifetimes (i.e., at 390 nm: 1.7±0.06 ns for normal and 1.3±0.06 ns for tumor, P=0.0025), and the Laguerre coefficients, LEC-2 (i.e., at 460 nm: 0.135±0.001 for normal and 0.155±0.007 for tumor, P<0.05). CONCLUSION These findings highlight some of the differences in lifetime fluorescence between normal and malignant tissue. TR-LIFS has potential as a non-invasive diagnostic technique for HNSCC. PMID:20493355

Meier, Jeremy D.; Xie, Hongtao; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Hatami, Nisa; Poirier, Brian; Marcu, Laura; Farwell, D. Gregory

2011-01-01

355

Nasal and nasal-type natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma: immunophenotype and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) association.  

PubMed

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is believed to have a pathogenic role in lymphomas of the upper-aerodigestive tract. This study aims to elucidate the virus association pattern in nasal and nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphomas, and in sequential biopsies of these tumours. A total of 31 cases of previously diagnosed as lethal midline granuloma. Stewart's granuloma, nasal T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (T-NHL) and NK/T-cell lymphomas from all anatomical sites were retrieved from the files for the study. Reviews of these cases confirm 8 nasal T-NHL, 19 nasal and 4 extranasal lymphomas of NK/T-cell phenotype from 10 Malays, 18 Chinese, 2 Indian and 1 Kadazan. The male: female ratio was 2.4: 1. All T- and NK/T-cell lymphomas strongly expressed TIA-1 and 63% expressed CD2. The majority of NK/T-cell lymphoma occurred in Chinese (13/23), of which 12/13 (92%) of these cases were associated with EBV. Of the 15 nasal and 9 tonsillar B-cell lymphomas included for a comparison study, only 3 (20%) of the nasal cases were associated with EBV (1 male Chinese, 1 female Chinese and 1 male of other ethnic group). Eight cases of NK/T-cell tumours with sequential biopsies show persistence of EBV, irrespective of the interval and sites of subsequent presentations. This study confirms the cytotoxic nature of NK/T-cell tumour and that EBV is strongly associated with the disease regardless of the anatomical site of presentation and ethnicity. However, nasal and paranasal lymphomas of all phenotypes appear to show higher predilection of EBV association in the ethnic Chinese when compared to non-Chinese. PMID:14569739

Peh, S C; Quen, Q W

2003-06-01

356

Risk of cancer in psoriasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

The relationship between psoriasis and increased cancer risk is debated. The aim of this study was to evaluate if there is an increase in the background risk of cancer in psoriasis patients compared with the general population. A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases, using the keywords 'Psoriasis [Majr] AND Neoplasms', from 1980 to January 2012. Meta-analysis was performed based on observational studies showing consistency in cancer risk assessment methods. Of the 1080 articles retrieved, 37 references were selected. There may be an increased risk of some solid cancers in psoriasis: respiratory tract cancer [standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-1.71], upper aerodigestive tract cancer (SIR = 3.05, 95% CI 1.74-5.32), urinary tract cancer (SIR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.11-1.55) and liver cancer (SIR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.48-2.44). The risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma appears slightly increased in psoriasis (SIR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.06-1.86). Psoriasis patients have an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SIR = 5.3, 95% CI 2.63-10.71) and basal cell carcinoma (SIR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.83-2.20), whereas the risk of melanoma is not increased. There was a large heterogeneity in studies assessing cancer risk in psoriasis preventing from including all studies in meta-analysis. This systematic literature review shows a small increased risk of some solid cancers in psoriasis, especially those linked to alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. A higher risk of non-melanoma skin cancers, especially squamous cell carcinoma, is shown, mainly due to previous exposure to 8-methoxypsoralen-ultraviolet-A (PUVA), ciclosporin and possibly methotrexate. PMID:23845151

Pouplard, C; Brenaut, E; Horreau, C; Barnetche, T; Misery, L; Richard, M-A; Aractingi, S; Aubin, F; Cribier, B; Joly, P; Jullien, D; Le Maître, M; Ortonne, J-P; Paul, C

2013-08-01

357

Carnosol, a Constituent of Zyflamend, Inhibits Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Activation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 Transcription and Mutagenesis  

PubMed Central

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated member of the basic-helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, plays a significant role in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) induced carcinogenesis. In the upper aerodigestive tract of humans, tobacco smoke, a source of PAHs, activates the AhR leading to increased expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which encode proteins that convert PAHs to genotoxic metabolites. Inhibitors of Hsp90 ATPase cause a rapid decrease in levels of AhR, an Hsp90 client protein, and thereby block PAH-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. The main objective of this study was to determine whether Zyflamend, a polyherbal preparation, suppressed PAH-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and inhibited DNA adduct formation and mutagenesis. We also investigated whether carnosol, one of multiple phenolic antioxidants in Zyflamend, had similar inhibitory effects. Treatment of cell lines derived from oral leukoplakia (MSK-Leuk1) and skin (HaCaT) with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a prototypic PAH, induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transcription, resulting in enhanced levels of message and protein. Both Zyflamend and carnosol suppressed these effects of B[a]P. Notably, both Zyflamend and carnosol inhibited Hsp90 ATPase activity and caused a rapid reduction in AhR levels. The formation of B[a]P induced DNA adducts and mutagenesis were also inhibited by Zyflamend and carnosol. Collectively, these results show that Zyflamend and carnosol inhibit Hsp90 ATPase leading to reduced levels of AhR, suppression of B[a]P-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and inhibition of mutagenesis. Carnosol-mediated inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase activity can help explain the chemopreventive activity of herbs such as Rosemary, which contain this phenolic antioxidant. PMID:22374940

Mohebati, Arash; Guttenplan, Joseph B.; Kochhar, Amit; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

358

Carnosol, a constituent of Zyflamend, inhibits aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transcription and mutagenesis.  

PubMed

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, plays a significant role in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced carcinogenesis. In the upper aerodigestive tract of humans, tobacco smoke, a source of PAHs, activates the AhR leading to increased expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which encode proteins that convert PAHs to genotoxic metabolites. Inhibitors of Hsp90 ATPase cause a rapid decrease in levels of AhR, an Hsp90 client protein, and thereby block PAH-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. The main objective of this study was to determine whether Zyflamend, a polyherbal preparation, suppressed PAH-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and inhibited DNA adduct formation and mutagenesis. We also investigated whether carnosol, one of multiple phenolic antioxidants in Zyflamend, had similar inhibitory effects. Treatment of cell lines derived from oral leukoplakia (MSK-Leuk1) and skin (HaCaT) with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a prototypic PAH, induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transcription, resulting in enhanced levels of message and protein. Both Zyflamend and carnosol suppressed these effects of B[a]P. Notably, both Zyflamend and carnosol inhibited Hsp90 ATPase activity and caused a rapid reduction in AhR levels. The formation of B[a]P-induced DNA adducts and mutagenesis was also inhibited by Zyflamend and carnosol. Collectively, these results show that Zyflamend and carnosol inhibit Hsp90 ATPase leading to reduced levels of AhR, suppression of B[a]P-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, and inhibition of mutagenesis. Carnosol-mediated inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase activity can help explain the chemopreventive activity of herbs such as Rosemary, which contain this phenolic antioxidant. PMID:22374940

Mohebati, Arash; Guttenplan, Joseph B; Kochhar, Amit; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Dannenberg, Andrew J

2012-04-01

359

Conversion to everolimus dramatically improves the prognosis of de novo malignancies after liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease.  

PubMed

De novo malignancies are a main cause for late death after liver transplantation (LT). Everolimus (ERL) is an immunosuppressive agent with antitumoral properties. The aim of the present retrospective study was to identify prognostic factors, including conversion to ERL, for patients presenting non-cutaneous de novo solid organ malignancy after LT for alcoholic cirrhosis. The study population consisted of 83 patients (presenting 100 tumors, including 75% of upper aerodigestive tract cancers), among the 398 patients who underwent LT for alcoholic cirrhosis in our center. After diagnosis, ERL was introduced in 38 patients and calcineurin-inhibitor was discontinued in 64.1% of them. Tumor stage was a significant prognostic factor with a one-yr survival at 82.6% for early stages, 63.4% for intermediate stages (N+) and 27.4% for disseminated diseases (p < 0.001). Associated relative risk factor was 2.202 (95% CI 1.044-4.644) for intermediate stages and 5.743 (95% CI 2.436-13.541) for metastatic stages. One- and five-yr survival was 77.4% and 35.2% in ERL group vs. 47.2% and 19.4% in the non-ERL group, respectively (p = 0.003). The relative risk factor for ERL was 0.447 (95%CI 0.257-0.778). Our results strongly suggest that conversion to ERL improves the prognosis of de novo malignancies after LT for alcoholic cirrhosis. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this benefit. PMID:25081431

Thimonier, Elsa; Guillaud, Olivier; Walter, Thomas; Decullier, Evelyne; Vallin, Mélanie; Boillot, Olivier; Dumortier, Jérôme

2014-12-01

360

Microsatellite mutations in buccal cells are associated with aging and head and neck carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Carcinogen exposure from tobacco smoking is the major cause of upper aerodigestive tract cancer, yet heavy smokers only have about a 10% life-time risk of developing one of these cancers. Current technologies allow only limited prediction of cancer risk and there are no approved screening methods applicable to the general population. We developed a method to assess somatic mutational load using small-pool PCR (SP-PCR) and analysed mutations in DNA isolated from cells obtained by mouth rinse. Mutation levels in the hypermutable tetranucleotide marker D7S1482 were analysed in specimens from 25 head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) cases and 31 controls and tested for associations with age, smoking history and cancer status. We found a significant association between mutation frequency and age (P=0.021, Generalized Linear Model (GLM), N=56), but no influence of smoking history. Cases had higher mutation frequencies than controls when corrected for the effects of age, a difference that was statistically significant in the subgroup of 10 HNSCC patients who were treated with surgery only (P=0.017, GLM, N=41). We also present evidence that cancer status is linked to levels of nonunique, and presumably clonally derived, mutations in D7S1482. Insertion mutations were observed in 833 (79%) of 1058 alleles, of which 457 (43%) could be explained by insertion of a single repeat unit; deletion mutations were found in 225 (21%) of tested alleles. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the sensitive detection of single molecule mutations in clinical specimens is feasible by SP-PCR. Our study confirms an earlier report that microsatellite mutations increase with age and is the first to provide evidence that these mutations may be associated with cancer status in individual subjects. PMID:18212747

Slebos, R J C; Li, M; Vadivelu, S; Burkey, B B; Netterville, J L; Sinard, R; Gilbert, J; Murphy, B; Chung, C H; Shyr, Y; Yarbrough, W G

2008-01-01

361

Identification of Mutations in the PYRIN-Containing NLR Genes (NLRP) in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) encompasses malignancies that arise in the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Recent high throughput DNA sequencing revealed HNSCC genes mutations that contribute to several cancer cell characteristics, including dysregulation of cell proliferation and death, intracellular proinflammatory signaling, and autophagy. The PYRIN-domain containing NLR (Nucleotide-binding domain, Leucine rich Repeats – containing) proteins have recently emerged as pivotal modulators of cell death, autophagy, inflammation, and metabolism. Their close physiologic association with cancer development prompted us to determine whether mutations within the NLRP (PYRIN-containing NLR) gene family were associated with HNSCC genome instability and their clinicopathologic correlations. Catastrophic mutational events underlie cancer cell genome instability and mark a point-of-no-return in cancer cell development and generation of heterogeneity. The mutation profiles of 62 patients with primary conventional type HNSCC excluding other histologic variants were analyzed. Associations were tested using Fisher's Exact test or Mann-Whitney U test. Mutations in NLRP were associated with elevated genome instability as characterized by higher mutation rates. Clinically, NLRP mutations were more frequently found in HNSCC arising in the floor of mouth (50.0%) in comparison with HNSCC at other head and neck locations (14.8%). These mutations were clustered at the leucine rich repeats region of NLRP proteins, and affected NLRP genes were mostly localized at chromosomes 11p15.4 and 19q13.42-19q13.43. Twenty novel NLRP mutations were identified in HNSCC, and mutations in this group of genes were correlated with increased cancer cell genome mutation rates, and such features could be a potential molecular biomarker of HNSCC genome instability. PMID:24465623

Lei, Yu; Lui, Vivian W. Y.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Egloff, Ann Marie

2014-01-01

362

The pathogenesis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: its relevance to developing effective strategies for prevention.  

PubMed

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit and is associated with major morbidity and attributable mortality. Strategies to prevent VAP are likely to be successful only if based upon a sound understanding of pathogenesis and epidemiology. The major route for acquiring endemic VAP is oropharyngeal colonization by the endogenous flora or by pathogens acquired exogenously from the intensive care unit environment, especially the hands or apparel of health-care workers, contaminated respiratory equipment, hospital water, or air. The stomach represents a potential site of secondary colonization and reservoir of nosocomial Gram-negative bacilli. Endotracheal-tube biofilm formation may play a contributory role in sustaining tracheal colonization and also have an important role in late-onset VAP caused by resistant organisms. Aspiration of microbe-laden oropharyngeal, gastric, or tracheal secretions around the cuffed endotracheal tube into the normally sterile lower respiratory tract results in most cases of endemic VAP. In contrast, epidemic VAP is most often caused by contamination of respiratory therapy equipment, bronchoscopes, medical aerosols, water (eg, Legionella) or air (eg, Aspergillus or the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus). Strategies to eradicate oropharyngeal and/or intestinal microbial colonization, such as with chlorhexidine oral care, prophylactic aerosolization of antimicrobials, selective aerodigestive mucosal antimicrobial decontamination, or the use of sucralfate rather than H(2) antagonists for stress ulcer prophylaxis, and measures to prevent aspiration, such as semirecumbent positioning or continuous subglottic suctioning, have all been shown to reduce the risk of VAP. Measures to prevent epidemic VAP include rigorous disinfection of respiratory equipment and bronchoscopes, and infection-control measures to prevent contamination of medical aerosols. Hospital water should be Legionella-free, and high-risk patients, especially those with prolonged granulocytopenia or organ transplants, should be cared for in hospital units with high-efficiency-particulate-arrestor (HEPA) filtered air. Routine surveillance of VAP, to track endemic VAPs and facilitate early detection of outbreaks, is mandatory. PMID:15913465

Safdar, Nasia; Crnich, Christopher J; Maki, Dennis G

2005-06-01

363

Association between a 15q25 gene variant, smoking quantity and tobacco-related cancers among 17 000 individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic variants in 15q25 have been identified as potential risk markers for lung cancer (LC), but controversy exists as to whether this is a direct association, or whether the 15q variant is simply a proxy for increased exposure to tobacco carcinogens. Methods We performed a detailed analysis of one 15q single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs16969968) with smoking behaviour and cancer risk in a total of 17 300 subjects from five LC studies and four upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer studies. Results Subjects with one minor allele smoked on average 0.3 cigarettes per day (CPD) more, whereas subjects with the homozygous minor AA genotype smoked on average 1.2 CPD more than subjects with a GG genotype (P < 0.001). The variant was associated with heavy smoking (>20 CPD) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96–1.34, P = 0.13 for heterozygotes and 1.81, 95% CI 1.39–2.35 for homozygotes, P < 0.0001]. The strong association between the variant and LC risk (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.23–1.38, P = 1 × 10–18), was virtually unchanged after adjusting for this smoking association (smoking adjusted OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.19–1.35, P = 5 × 10–13). Furthermore, we found an association between the variant allele and an earlier age of LC onset (P = 0.02). The association was also noted in UADT cancers (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.15, P = 0.02). Genome wide association (GWA) analysis of over 300 000 SNPs on 11 219 subjects did not identify any additional variants related to smoking behaviour. Conclusions This study confirms the strong association between 15q gene variants and LC and shows an independent association with smoking quantity, as well as an association with UADT cancers. PMID:19776245

Lips, Esther H; Gaborieau, Valerie; McKay, James D; Chabrier, Amelie; Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Field, John K; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Xinarianos, George; McLaughlin, John; Liu, Geoffrey; Skorpen, Frank; Elvestad, Maiken Bratt; Hveem, Kristian; Vatten, Lars; Study, EPIC; Benhamou, Simone; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Merletti, Franco; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Lowry, Ray; Conway, David I; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Matos, Elena; Menezes, Ana; Fernandez, Leticia; Metspalu, Andres; Heath, Simon; Lathrop, Mark; Brennan, Paul

2010-01-01

364

Comparing Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Responses in Genetically Engineered Mouse Lung Cancer Models and a Window of Opportunity Trial in Lung Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi, vorinostat) responses were studied in murine and human lung cancer cell lines and genetically-engineered mouse lung cancer models. Findings were compared with a window of opportunity trial in aerodigestive tract cancers. In human (HOP62, H522 and H23) and murine transgenic (ED-1, ED-2, LKR-13, and 393P, driven respectively by cyclin E, degradation-resistant cyclin E, KRAS, or KRAS/p53) lung cancer cell lines vorinostat reduced growth, cyclin D1 and cyclin E levels, but induced p27, histone acetylation and apoptosis. Other biomarkers also changed. Findings from transgenic murine lung cancer models were integrated with those from a window of opportunity trial that measured vorinostat pharmacodynamic responses in pre- versus post-treatment tumor biopsies. Vorinostat repressed cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression in murine transgenic lung cancers and significantly reduced lung cancers in syngeneic mice. Vorinostat also reduced cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression, but increased p27 levels in post- versus pre-treatment human lung cancer biopsies. Notably, necrotic and inflammatory responses appeared in post-treatment biopsies. These depended on intratumoral HDACi levels. Therefore, HDACi treatments of murine genetically-engineered lung cancer models exert similar responses (growth inhibition and changes in gene expression) as observed in lung cancer cell lines. Moreover, enhanced pharmacodynamic responses occurred in the window of opportunity trial, providing additional markers of response that can be evaluated in subsequent HDACi trials. Thus, combining murine and human HDACi trials is a strategy to translate preclinical HDACi treatment outcomes into the clinic. This study uncovered clinically-tractable mechanisms to engage in future HDACi trials. PMID:23686769

Ma, Tian; Galimberti, Fabrizio; Erkmen, Cherie P.; Memoli, Vincent; Chinyengetere, Fadzai; Sempere, Lorenzo; Beumer, Jan H.; Anyang, Bean N.; Nugent, William; Johnstone, David; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Kurie, Jonathan M.; Li, Hua; DiRenzo, James; Guo, Yongli; Freemantle, Sarah J.; Dragnev, Konstantin H.; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

2013-01-01

365

Prophylactic cervical lymph node irradiation provides no benefit for patients of stage IE extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.  

PubMed

Radiation therapy (RT) may cure many patients with stage IE extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL), but the real benefit of prophylactic cervical node irradiation (PCNI) for this patient population has not been defined yet. We retrospectively reviewed 126 patients who were diagnosed as stage IE ENKTL and treated with chemoradiotherapy in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The RT dose was 36-72 Gy (median 54 Gy), with 1.8-2.0 Gy a day and 5 fractions each week. 35 patients (27.8 %) in this cohort received PCNI. At a median follow-up time of 94.59 months (range 14.59-182.08 months), the systemic failure rate and locoregional failure rate in patients with PCNI were 76.5 and 23.5 %, respectively, compared with 62.9 and 37.1 % in those without PCNI, and there was no significant difference between those two groups (P = 0.505). Whether patients received PCNI or not did not affect the survival outcome (P > 0.05). Also, PCNI did not improve the survival outcome for neither patients with primary tumor site localized to nasal cavity nor those localized to upper aerodigestive tract beyond nasal cavity (P > 0.05), and PCNI did not provide survival benefit for neither patients with local tumor invasion nor those without (P > 0.05). In conclusion, in a large cohort of 126 patients with stage IE ENKTL, we found that PCNI provided no benefit for PFS and OS, regardless of the primary tumor site or local tumor invasiveness. PMID:25429828

Wang, Liang; Xia, Zhong-Jun; Lu, Yue; Zhang, Yu-Jing

2015-01-01

366

Differential expression of tissue-specific adhesion molecules on human circulating antibody-forming cells after systemic, enteric, and nasal immunizations. A molecular basis for the compartmentalization of effector B cell responses.  

PubMed Central

Expression of the adhesion molecules CD44, L-selectin (CD62L), and integrin alpha 4 beta 7 by antibody-secreting cells (ASC) was examined in human volunteers after oral, rectal, intranasal, or systemic immunization with cholera toxin B subunit. Almost all blood ASC, irrespective of immunization route, isotype (IgG and IgA), and immunogen, expressed CD44. On the other hand, marked differences were observed between systemically and intestinally induced ASC with respect to expression of integrin alpha 4 beta 7 and L-selectin, adhesion molecules conferring tissue specificity for mucosal tissues and peripheral lymph nodes, respectively. Thus, most ASC induced at systemic sites expressed L-selectin, whereas only a smaller proportion of ASC expressed alpha 4 beta 7. In contrast, virtually all IgA- and even IgG-ASC detected after peroral and rectal immunizations expressed alpha 4 beta 7, with only a minor fraction of these cells expressing L-selectin. Circulating ASC induced by intranasal immunization displayed a more promiscuous pattern of adhesion molecules, with a large majority of ASC coexpressing L-selectin and alpha 4 beta 7. These results demonstrate that circulating ASC induced by mucosal and systemic immunization express different sets of adhesion molecules. Furthermore, these findings provide for the first time evidence for differential expression of adhesion molecules on circulating ASC originating from different mucosal sites. Collectively, these results may explain the anatomical division of mucosal and systemic immune responses in humans as well as the compartmentalization of mucosal immune responses initiated in the upper vs. the lower aerodigestive tract. PMID:9077537

Quiding-Järbrink, M; Nordström, I; Granström, G; Kilander, A; Jertborn, M; Butcher, E C; Lazarovits, A I; Holmgren, J; Czerkinsky, C

1997-01-01

367

Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

1997-01-01

368

 

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Snoring is caused by vibrating anatomical structures in the upper aerodigestive tract. It can be treated surgically and non-surgically, although resective procedures are associated with high postoperative morbidity and failure rate. We describe a new non-resective surgical procedure called the velo-uvulo-pharyngeal lift in which the soft palate is lifted, shortened, advanced and stiffened by means of permanent threads anchored to fibro-osseous attachments at the level of the posterior nasal spine and both pterygoid hamuli. Four adult patients (median age 44.5 years; range 42-65) affected by snoring and mild obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (apneoa-hypopnoea index, AHI < 20) requiring septal surgery under general anesthesia also underwent velo-uvulo-pharyngeal lift. There were no significant intra- or post-operative complications, and all of the patients reported immediate snoring relief. The main complaints were slight pain and a sensation of local fullness, both of which spontaneously disappeared within two days. The subjective clinical improvement in snoring was confirmed during post-operative follow-up (median 15.5 months; range 6-25), as was the stable reshaping of the soft velo-uvulo-pharyngeal tissues and enlargement of the mesopharyngeal space. There was also a decrease in daytime sleepiness. Our preliminary results suggest that velo-uvulo-pharyngeal lift is a simple, cost-effective and minimally invasive means of widening the mesopharyngeal space in snoring patients with or without mild sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome. The widening of the mesopharyngeal space prevents contact-induced wall vibrations and its inspiratory obstruction causing hypopnoea and apnoea. It can also be combined with other procedures if indicated. PMID:22500068

MANTOVANI, M.; MINETTI, A.; TORRETTA, S.; PINCHERLE, A.; TASSONE, G.; PIGNATARO, L.

2012-01-01

369

Point-wise measurements of MRS volume selection performance are insensitive to magnetic susceptibility effects of phantom materials.  

PubMed

The purpose was to analyse magnetic susceptibility effects on accuracy of point-wise measurements of signal profiles in the assessment of MRS volume selection performance. An existing phantom design consisting of a sphere with a movable signal source was used for the investigation. The influence from the phantom on magnetic field homogeneity was measured with phase sensitive 1H imaging and 31P spectroscopy on a 1.5 T whole body MR system. The susceptibility effects for such a phantom design can be separated in 1/ A variation in the background magnetic field, which is caused by the stationary structures and has a significant influence on spatial accuracy. 2/ A magnetic field distortion, which is caused by the movable signal source and has very little influence on accuracy. The spatial inaccuracy due to susceptibility effects in this phantom, was 0.03 mm for positions of the signal source covering a 40-mm VOI. Susceptibility effects from the movable signal source were substantial but had very little influence on spatial accuracy. Still, improvements of this phantom design are possible. Point-wise measurements using a phantom with a movable signal source is inherently insensitive to susceptibility effects from the signal source and permits accurate signal profile measurements of high spatial (sub-mm) resolution. PMID:11027881

Starck, G; Ljungberg, M; Vikhoff-Baaz, B; Alpsten, M; Ekholm, S; Forssell-Aronsson, E

2000-09-01

370

Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese  

PubMed Central

The “value of information” (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004; 24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration.

Williams, Byron K; Johnson, Fred A

2015-01-01

371

A Low-Interaction Automatic 3D Liver Segmentation Method Using Computed Tomography for Selective Internal Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

This study introduces a novel liver segmentation approach for estimating anatomic liver volumes towards selective internal radiation treatment (SIRT). The algorithm requires minimal human interaction since the initialization process to segment the entire liver in 3D relied on a single computed tomography (CT) slice. The algorithm integrates a localized contouring algorithm with a modified k-means method. The modified k-means segments each slice into five distinct regions belonging to different structures. The liver region is further segmented using localized contouring. The novelty of the algorithm is in the design of the initialization masks for region contouring to minimize human intervention. Intensity based region growing together with novel volume of interest (VOI) based corrections is used to accomplish the single slice initialization. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated using 34 liver CT scans. Statistical experiments were performed to determine consistency of segmentation and to assess user dependency on the initialization process. Volume estimations are compared to the manual gold standard. Results show an average accuracy of 97.22% for volumetric calculation with an average Dice coefficient of 0.92. Statistical tests show that the algorithm is highly consistent (P = 0.55) and independent of user initialization (P = 0.20 and Fleiss' Kappa = 0.77 ± 0.06). PMID:25105118

Gulec, Seza; Bhatt, Ruchir; McGoron, Anthony J.

2014-01-01

372

Ressources en ligne en pédiatrie  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ Question Depuis les dernières années, les parents d’enfants que je vois en clinique font souvent des recherches en ligne concernant des questions médicales. Dans quelle mesure les ressources en ligne sontelles fiables dans le domaine de la pédiatrie et quels conseils puis-je donner aux parents qui s’informent en ligne concernant la santé de leurs enfants? Réponse Le recours à Internet pour trouver des renseignements médicaux a connu une hausse dramatique au cours de la dernière décennie, y compris dans le domaine de la pédiatrie. Les quantités énormes d’information sont sources de confusion autant pour les parents que pour les professionnels de la santé et les moteurs généraux de recherche n’ont pas ce qu’il faut pour permettre de discerner les renseignements fiables de ceux qui sont biaisés. Les médecins peuvent élaborer des sites web présentant des renseignements fiables, conseiller les parents sur les façons de cerner les sources d’information dignes de confiance et donner des exemples de sites web à consulter sur des sujets reliés à la santé des enfants.

Goldman, Ran D.

2014-01-01

373

A fully automated method for tissue segmentation and CSF-correction of proton MRSI metabolites corroborates abnormal hippocampal NAA in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe the implementation and application of a fully automated segmentation routine using SPM99 algorithms and MATLAB for clinical Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) studies. By segmenting high-resolution 3-D image data and coregistering the results to the spatial localizer slices of a spectroscopy examination, the program offers the possibility to easily calculate segmentation maps for a large variety of MRSI experiments. The segmented data are corrected for the individual point-spread function, slice and VOI profiles for measurement sequences with selective pulses as well as for the chemical shifts of different metabolites. The new method was applied to investigate discrete hippocampal metabolite abnormalities in a small sample of schizophrenic patients in comparison to healthy controls (15 patients, 15 controls). Only after correction was the N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) signal significantly lower in patients compared to controls. No differences were found for the corrected signals from the creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr) or choline-containing compounds (Ch). These results are in good agreement with neuropathological and previous MR spectroscopy studies of the hippocampus in schizophrenic patients. PMID:11969317

Weber-Fahr, W; Ende, G; Braus, D F; Bachert, P; Soher, B J; Henn, F A; Büchel, C

2002-05-01

374

Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

Khader, A.; McKee, M.

2010-12-01

375

North-directed Triassic nappes in Northeastern Vietnam (East Bac Bo)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A careful re-examination of the previous tectonic descriptions and the acquisition of new structural and kinematic data have been undertaken in Northeastern Vietnam. The structure of the area consists of a system of slightly metamorphosed but ductilely deformed nappes, including recumbent folds, formed during the Triassic, prior to the unconformable deposition of the Upper Triassic terrigenous sediments. These results confirm the previous interpretation of "preyunnanaises nappes", represented by Middle-Upper Paleozoic foliated limestone resting through a flat mylonitic contact over an intermediate "Song Mien unit" ( Deprat, 1915), the latter made essentially of deformed Lower Triassic sedimentary and volcanic formations, which previously filled the Song Hien rift ( Bourret, 1922a,b). In the external part of the belt, the Triassic strata conformably overlie slightly deformed and unmetamorphosed Upper Paleozoic rocks, forming an autochthonous domain. Alternatively, the same Triassic succession can be seen resting tectonically through décollement zones, directly over the Middle Paleozoic marbles, to form a distinct but subsidiary allochthonous unit. Our data show that the Song Chay orthogneiss and its Lower Paleozoic sedimentary country rocks belong to the main nappe. They also demonstrate that this nappe was transported to the N-NE. A newly discovered ophiolitic mélange of supposed oceanic nature and Triassic age, lying along the Song Chay Fault, North of the Nui Con Voi, could hypothetically represent the rooted zone of the nappe. A Tertiary overprinting event, in particular accommodated by strike-slip movements, likely accounts for the present orocline of NE Vietnam.

Lepvrier, Claude; Faure, Michel; Van, Vuong Nguyen; Vu, Tich Van; Lin, Wei; Trong, Thang Ta; Hoa, Phuong Ta

2011-04-01

376

Road map to a patient-centered research agenda at the intersection of hospital medicine and geriatric medicine.  

PubMed

As the United States ages, the patient population in acute care hospitals is increasingly older and more medically complex. Despite evidence of a high burden of disease, high costs, and often poor outcomes of care, there is limited understanding of the presentation, diagnostic strategies, and management of acute illness in older adults. In this paper, we present a strategy for the development of a research agenda at the intersection of hospital and geriatric medicine. This approach is informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, emphasizing input from patients and caregivers. The framework's four components are: 1) Topic generation, 2) Gap Analysis in Systematic Review, 3) Value of information (VOI) analysis, and 4) Peer Review. An inclusive process for topic generation requiring the systematic engagement of multiple stakeholders, especially patients, is emphasized. In subsequent steps, researchers and stakeholders prioritize research topics in order to identify areas that optimize patient-centeredness, population impact, impact on clinical decision making, ease of implementation, and durability. Finally, next steps for dissemination of the research agenda and evaluation of the impact of the patient-centered research prioritization process are described. PMID:24557516

Wald, Heidi L; Leykum, Luci K; Mattison, Melissa L P; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Meltzer, David O

2014-06-01

377

Isokinetic Peak Torque in Young Wrestlers  

E-print Network

00 28 . en OS +1 en in en 0.4 +1 o 46 . VO OS +1 39 .6 35 .3 ± 6. p in +1 CS cn en en en +1 27 . VO CN +1 vd +1 t— 12 . r-- +1 I CN f,; +1 12 .0 CN 10 .1 ± 5. CN |.^ +1 OO en _ +1 o 15 . in in +1 15 . 05 . V +1 c (U I u 60 'SX SP 'S 13 O 03 Fa l •o...»n'^mr^voiO':t"fnvow~i"^mvo'0"^m ooooooooaoooooooo en d +1 CN d +1 in d +1 en d +1 CN d +1 >n od +1 OS 14 5 9.7 +1 • VO t-; od +1 15 2.: GO 14 6.6 + 1 in VO +1 f^ CN vq +1 vq 13 3 +1 CN d +1 m 40 .: 1.1 +1 VO 52 . o d +1 45 .0 39 .4 ± 7, 1-: +1 OS od en OS +1 32 . p en +1...

Housh, Terry J.; Johnson, Glen O.; Housh, Dona J.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Weir, Joseph P.; Weir, Loree L.; Eckerson, Joan M.

1996-01-01

378

PIRATE: pediatric imaging response assessment and targeting environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining the strengths of various imaging modalities, the multimodality imaging approach has potential to improve tumor staging, delineation of tumor boundaries, chemo-radiotherapy regime design, and treatment response assessment in cancer management. To address the urgent needs for efficient tools to analyze large-scale clinical trial data, we have developed an integrated multimodality, functional and anatomical imaging analysis software package for target definition and therapy response assessment in pediatric radiotherapy (RT) patients. Our software provides quantitative tools for automated image segmentation, region-of-interest (ROI) histogram analysis, spatial volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis, and voxel-wise correlation across modalities. To demonstrate the clinical applicability of this software, histogram analyses were performed on baseline and follow-up 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET images of nine patients with rhabdomyosarcoma enrolled in an institutional clinical trial at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. In addition, we combined 18F-FDG PET, dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR, and anatomical MR data to visualize the heterogeneity in tumor pathophysiology with the ultimate goal of adaptive targeting of regions with high tumor burden. Our software is able to simultaneously analyze multimodality images across multiple time points, which could greatly speed up the analysis of large-scale clinical trial data and validation of potential imaging biomarkers.

Glenn, Russell; Zhang, Yong; Krasin, Matthew; Hua, Chiaho

2010-02-01

379

La biogenèse des mélanosomes  

PubMed Central

Les mélanocytes situés à la base de l’épiderme produisent des mélanosomes qui sont transférés aux kératinocytes pour assurer la pigmentation de l’épiderme et sa photoprotection contre les rayons ultraviolets. Les mélanosomes, organites apparentés aux lysosomes, sont le lieu de synthèse et de stockage d’un pigment, la mélanine. Leur formation dépend de protéines mélanosomales qui transitent par les voies de biosynthèse et d’endocytose et exploitent les mécanismes moléculaires du trafic intracellulaire. Les acteurs moléculaires impliqués dans le transport des protéines mélanosomales et la biogenèse des mélanosomes sont la cible de mutations dans des maladies génétiques accompagnées d’hypopigmentation comme l’albinisme et les maladies lysosomales. Les études menées sur les mélanocytes issus de souris modèles de ces maladies permettent de comprendre certaines des étapes-clés de la mélanogenèse ainsi que les dysfonctionnements associés à ces pathologies. De plus, décrypter la mélanogenèse facilite également la compréhension d’autres processus physiologiques, comme l’illustrent les similitudes inattendues avec l’amyloïdogenèse dans les maladies neurodégénératives. PMID:21382323

Delevoye, Cédric; Giordano, Francesca; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

2012-01-01

380

3DVIEWNIX-AVS: a software package for separate visualization of arteries and veins in CE-MRA images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our earlier study developed a computerized method, based on fuzzy connected object delineation principles and algorithms, for artery and vein separation in CE-MRA images. This paper reports its current development - a software package - for the routine clinical use. The software package, termed 3DVIEWNIX-AVS, consists of the following major operational parts: 1)converting data from DICOM3 to 3DVIEWNIX format, 2) previewing slices/creating VOI and MIP shell, 3) segmenting vessel, 4) separating artery and vein, 5) shell rendering vascular structures and creating animations. This package has been applied to EPIX Medical Inc's CE-MRA data (AngioMark MS-325). 133 original CE-MRA data sets (of 52 patients) from 6 hospitals have been processed. In all case studies, unified parameter settings produce correct artery/vein separation. The current package is running on a Pentium PC under Linux and the total operation time per study is about 10 minutes. The strengths of this software package are its 1) minimal user interaction, 2) minimal anatomic knowledge requirements on human vascular system, 3) clinically required speed, 4) free entry to any operational stages, 5) reproducible, reliable, high quality of results, and 6) cost effective computer implementation. To date, it seems to be the only software package (using an image processing approach) available for artery and vein separation for the routine use in a clinical setting.

Lei, Tianhu; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Saha, Punam K.

2001-05-01

381

Tumor-Cut: segmentation of brain tumors on contrast enhanced MR images for radiosurgery applications.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a fast and robust practical tool for segmentation of solid tumors with minimal user interaction to assist clinicians and researchers in radiosurgery planning and assessment of the response to the therapy. Particularly, a cellular automata (CA) based seeded tumor segmentation method on contrast enhanced T1 weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images, which standardizes the volume of interest (VOI) and seed selection, is proposed. First, we establish the connection of the CA-based segmentation to the graph-theoretic methods to show that the iterative CA framework solves the shortest path problem. In that regard, we modify the state transition function of the CA to calculate the exact shortest path solution. Furthermore, a sensitivity parameter is introduced to adapt to the heterogeneous tumor segmentation problem, and an implicit level set surface is evolved on a tumor probability map constructed from CA states to impose spatial smoothness. Sufficient information to initialize the algorithm is gathered from the user simply by a line drawn on the maximum diameter of the tumor, in line with the clinical practice. Furthermore, an algorithm based on CA is presented to differentiate necrotic and enhancing tumor tissue content, which gains importance for a detailed assessment of radiation therapy response. Validation studies on both clinical and synthetic brain tumor datasets demonstrate 80%-90% overlap performance of the proposed algorithm with an emphasis on less sensitivity to seed initialization, robustness with respect to different and heterogeneous tumor types, and its efficiency in terms of computation time. PMID:22207638

Hamamci, Andac; Kucuk, Nadir; Karaman, Kutlay; Engin, Kayihan; Unal, Gozde

2012-03-01

382

Numerically optimized RF-refocusing pulses in localized MR proton spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The slice selection properties of three different soft refocusing-pulses (sinc-pulse, Hanning filtered sinc-pulse, and the numerically optimized reburp-pulse) within a standard double spin-echo sequence for localized proton spectroscopy were examined and compared. The slice profiles were measured acquiring two-dimensional images of the selected volumes of interest (VOI) appending a gradient-echo imaging part at the end of the spectroscopic part of the sequence. A comparison of the reached signal strength with the different pulses using the same voxel size (same Full Width Half Maximum, FWHM) was performed by in vitro and in vivo measurements. Additionally theoretical calculations using the Schrödinger equation for spin 1/2 particles in combination with a phase averaging method that takes into account the magnetic field spoiling and selection gradients of the spectroscopy sequence were performed. Calculated and measured slice profiles did well correspond. The numerically optimized reburp-pulse showed significant better slice selection and phase behaviour properties compared to the sinc-pulses. Further, a signal gain of about 20% was measured using the reburp-pulse, which was in good agreement with the calculated signal gain of 23%. PMID:8371634

Nägele, T; Klose, U; Grodd, W

1993-01-01

383

Magellan Prelaunch Mission Operations Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magellan spacecraft will be launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) within a 31-day overall launch period extending from April 28 to May 28, 1989. The launch will use the Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis to lift an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) and the Magellan Spacecraft into low Earth orbit. After the Shuttle achieves its parking orbit, the IUS and attached Magellan spacecraft are deployed from the payload bay. After a short coast time, the two-stage IUS is fired to inject the Magellan spacecraft into an Earth-Venus transfer trajectory. The Magellan spacecraft is powered by single degree of freedom, sun-tracking, solar panels charging a set of nickel-cadmium batteries. The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized by reaction wheels using gyros and a star sensor for attitude reference. The spacecraft carries a solid rocket motor for Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI). A hydrazine propulsion system allows trajectory correction and prevents saturation of the reaction wheels. Communication with Earth through the Deep Space Network (DSN) is provided by S- and X-band telemetry channels, through alternatively a low, medium, or 3.7 m high-gain parabolic antenna rigidly attached to the spacecraft. The high-gain antenna also serves as the radar and radiometer antenna during orbit around Venus.

1989-01-01

384

Anatomical-Functional Correlative Analysis Of The Human Brain Using Three Dimensional Imaging Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative interpretation of functional images (PET or SPECT) is hampered by poor spatial resolution, low counting statistics and, for many tracers, low contrast between different brain structures of interest. Further, normal tracer distributions can be severely distorted by such gross pathologies as stroke, tumor and dementia. Hence, the complementary anatomical information provided by CT or MRI is essential for accurate and reproducible regional analysis of functional data. We have developed methods for the three-dimensional integration and simultaneous display of image volumes from MRI and PET. PET data was collected from an older Therascan 3-slice scanner with 12 mm resolution and a 15-slice Scanditronix PC-2048 system having 5-6 mm resolution in each dimension. MRI data was obtained from a Philips 1.5 Tesla Gyroscan scanner. The image volumes were loaded into a PIXAR 3-D image computer for simultaneous display. A general algorithm for finding the optimal transformation between two ensembles of equivalent points was implemented and investigated through simulation studies. Using a locally-developed 3-D image/graphics analysis package, equivalent points in the two image volumes were identified, either manually or via an adjustable computerized volume-of-interest (VOI) atlas. The MRI data were then re-sampled along planes parallel to the PET planes and the two volumes overlaid using opacity-weighted composition. Arbitrary oblique planes through the two volumes were obtained in interactive sessions.

Evans, Alan C.; Marrett, Sean; Collins, D. L.; Peters, Terence M.

1989-05-01

385

Mechanical behavior of low porosity carbonate rock: from brittle creep to ductile creep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical compaction and associated porosity reduction play an important role in the diagenesis of porous rocks. They may also affect reservoir rocks during hydrocarbon production, as the pore pressure field is modified. This inelastic compaction can lead to subsidence, cause casing failure, trigger earthquake, or change the fluid transport properties. In addition, inelastic deformation can be time - dependent. In particular, brittle creep phenomena have been deeply investigated since the 90s, especially in sandstones. However knowledge of carbonates behavior is still insufficient. In this experimental study, we focus on the mechanical behavior of a low porosity (9%) white Tavel (France) carbonate rock (>98% calcite) at P-Q conditions beyond the elastic domain. It has been shown that in sandstones composed of quartz, cracks are developing under these conditions. However, in carbonates, calcite minerals can meanwhile also exhibit microplasticity. The samples were deformed in the triaxial cell of the Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris at effective confining pressures ranging from 35 MPa to 85 MPa and room temperature. Experiments were carried on dry and water saturated samples to explore the role played by the pore fluids. Time dependency was investigated by a creep steps methodology: at each step, differential stress was increased rapidly and kept constant for at least 24h. During these steps elastic wave velocities (P and S) and permeability were measured continuously. Our results show two different creep behaviors: (1) brittle creep is observed at low confining pressures, whereas (2) ductile creep is observed at higher confining pressures. These two creep behaviors have a different signature in term of elastic wave velocities and permeability changes. Indeed, in the brittle domain, the primary creep is associated with a decrease of elastic wave velocities and an increase of permeability, and no secondary creep is observed. In the ductile domain, the primary creep is also associated with a decreased in elastic wave velocity and an increase of the permeability. However, the secondary creep is associated with an increase of velocities and a decrease of permeability (pointing to recovery). This behavior observed in the ductile regime can be explained by two mechanisms: cracks propagation and plasticity. Indeed, the increase of stress induces fractures. When long term plastic phenomena take place at the tips of the cracks, these fractures close partially.

Nicolas, A.; Fortin, J.; Gueguen, Y.

2013-12-01

386

Conception de lois de pilotage robustes et sequencement de gains par l'approche de systemes lineaires a parametres variants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette recherche s'inscrit dans le cadre du projet de recherche Active Control Technology entre l'Ecole de Technologie Superieure et le constructeur Bombardier Aeronautique . Le but est de concevoir des strategies de commandes multivariables et robustes pour des modeles dynamiques d'avions. Ces strategies de commandes devraient assurer a l'avion une haute performance et satisfaire des qualites de vol desirees en l'occurrence, une bonne manoeuvrabilite, de bonnes marges de stabilite et un amortissement des mouvements phugoides et rapides de l'avion. Dans un premier temps, nous nous sommes principalement interesses aux methodes de synthese LTI et plus exactement a l'approche Hinfinity et la mu-synthese. Par la suite, nous avons accorde un interet particulier aux techniques de commande LPV. Pour mener a bien ce travail, nous avons envisage une approche frequentielle, typiquement Hinfinity. Cette approche est particulierement interessante, dans la mesure ou le modele de synthese est construit directement a partir des differentes specifications du cahier des charges. En effet, ces specifications sont traduites sous forme de gabarits frequentiels, correspondant a des ponderations en entree et en sortie que l'on retrouve dans la synthese Hinfinity classique. Par ailleurs, nous avons utilise une representation de type lineaire fractionnelle (LFT), jugee mieux adaptee pour la prise en compte des differents types d'incertitudes, qui peuvent intervenir sur le systeme. De plus, cette representation s'avere tres appropriee pour l'analyse de la robustesse via les outils de la mu-analyse. D'autre part, afin d'optimiser le compromis entre les specifications de robustesse et de performance, nous avons opte pour une structure de commande a 2 degres de liberte avec modele de reference. Enfin, ces techniques sont illustrees sur des applications realistes, demontrant ainsi la pertinence et l'applicabilite de chacune d'elle. Mots cles. Commande de vol, qualites de vol et manoeuvrabilite, commande robuste, approche Hinfinity , mu-synthese, systemes lineaires a parametres variants, sequencement de gains, transformation lineaire fractionnelle, inegalite matricielle lineaire.

Hentabli, Kamel

387

A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging  

PubMed Central

Quantitative Yttrium-90 (90Y) bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of90Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for90Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure-of-merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as90Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In90Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues, in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error (RMSE) of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were derived for calculating the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the VOI activity estimates, respectively. To obtain the optimal acquisition energy window for general situations of interest in clinical90Y microsphere imaging, we generated phantoms with multiple tumors of various sizes and various tumor-to-normal activity concentration ratios using a digital phantom that realistically simulates human anatomy, simulated90Y microsphere imaging with a clinical SPECT system and typical imaging parameters using a previously validated Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code, and used a previously-proposed method for modeling the image degrading effects in quantitative SPECT reconstruction. The obtained optimal acquisition energy window was 100–160 keV. The values of the proposed FOM were much larger than the FOM taking into account only the variance of the activity estimates, thus demonstrating in our experiment that the bias of the activity estimates due to model-mismatch was a more important factor than the variance in terms of limiting the reliability of activity estimates. PMID:22617760

Rong, Xing; Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C

2013-01-01

388

Computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary nodules on CT scans: improvement of classification performance with nodule surface features.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to differentiate malignant and benign lung nodules on CT scans. A fully automated system was designed to segment the nodule from its surrounding structured background in a local volume of interest (VOI) and to extract image features for classification. Image segmentation was performed with a 3D active contour method. The initial contour was obtained as the boundary of a binary object generated by k-means clustering within the VOI and smoothed by morphological opening. A data set of 256 lung nodules (124 malignant and 132 benign) from 152 patients was used in this study. In addition to morphological and texture features, the authors designed new nodule surface features to characterize the lung nodule surface smoothness and shape irregularity. The effects of two demographic features, age and gender, as adjunct to the image features were also investigated. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier built with features from stepwise feature selection was trained using simplex optimization to select the most effective features. A two-loop leave-one-out resampling scheme was developed to reduce the optimistic bias in estimating the test performance of the CAD system. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, A(z), for the test cases improved significantly (p < 0.05) from 0.821 +/- 0.026 to 0.857 +/- 0.023 when the newly developed image features were included with the original morphological and texture features. A similar experiment performed on the data set restricted to primary cancers and benign nodules, excluding the metastatic cancers, also resulted in an improved test A(z), though the improvement did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). The two demographic features did not significantly affect the performance of the CAD system (p > 0.05) when they were added to the feature space containing the morphological, texture, and new gradient field and radius features. To investigate if a support vector machine (SVM) classifier can achieve improved performance over the LDA classifier, we compared the performance of the LDA and SVMs with various kernels and parameters. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the feature space for both the LDA and the SVM classifiers. When the number of selected principal components was varied, the highest test A(z) among the SVMs of various kernels and parameters was slightly higher than that of the LDA in one-loop leave-one-case-out resampling. However, no SVM with fixed architecture consistently performed better than the LDA in the range of principal components selected. This study demonstrated that the authors' proposed segmentation and feature extraction techniques are promising for classifying lung nodules on CT images. PMID:19673208

Way, Ted W; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Cascade, Philip N; Chughtai, Aamer; Bogot, Naama; Kazerooni, Ella

2009-07-01

389

A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative Yttrium-90 (90Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of 90Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for 90Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as 90Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In 90Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were derived for calculating the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the VOI activity estimates, respectively. To obtain the optimal acquisition energy window for general situations of interest in clinical 90Y microsphere imaging, we generated phantoms with multiple tumors of various sizes and various tumor-to-normal activity concentration ratios using a digital phantom that realistically simulates human anatomy, simulated 90Y microsphere imaging with a clinical SPECT system and typical imaging parameters using a previously validated Monte Carlo simulation code, and used a previously proposed method for modeling the image degrading effects in quantitative SPECT reconstruction. The obtained optimal acquisition energy window was 100-160 keV. The values of the proposed FOM were much larger than the FOM taking into account only the variance of the activity estimates, thus demonstrating in our experiment that the bias of the activity estimates due to model-mismatch was a more important factor than the variance in terms of limiting the reliability of activity estimates.

Rong, Xing; Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C.

2012-06-01

390

Regional, disease specific patterns of smoking-attributable mortality in 2000  

PubMed Central

Background: Smoking has been causally associated with increased mortality from several diseases, and has increased considerably in many developing countries in the past few decades. Mortality attributable to smoking in the year 2000 was estimated for adult males and females, including estimates by age and for specific diseases in 14 epidemiological subregions of the world. Methods: Lung cancer mortality was used as an indirect marker of the accumulated hazard of smoking. Never-smoker lung cancer mortality was estimated based on the household use of coal with poor ventilation. Estimates of mortality caused by smoking were made for lung cancer, upper aerodigestive cancer, all other cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), other respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and selected other medical causes. Estimates were limited to ages 30 years and above. Results: In 2000, an estimated 4.83 million premature deaths in the world were attributable to smoking, 2.41 million in developing countries and 2.43 million in industrialised countries. There were 3.84 million male deaths and 1.00 million female deaths attributable to smoking. 2.69 million smoking attributable deaths were between the ages of 30–69 years, and 2.14 million were 70 years of age and above. The leading causes of death from smoking in industrialised regions were cardiovascular diseases (1.02 million deaths), lung cancer (0.52 million deaths), and COPD (0.31 million deaths), and in the developing world cardiovascular diseases (0.67 million deaths), COPD (0.65 million deaths), and lung cancer (0.33 million deaths). The share of male and female deaths and younger and older adult deaths, and of various diseases in total smoking attributable deaths exhibited large inter-regional heterogeneity, especially in the developing world. Conclusions: Smoking was an important cause of global mortality in 2000, affecting a large number of diseases. Age, sex, and disease patterns of smoking-caused mortality varied greatly across regions, due to both historical and current smoking patterns, and the presence of other risk factors that affect background mortality from specific diseases. PMID:15564623

Ezzati, M; Lopez, A

2004-01-01

391

Nd:YAG laser treatment of tumors of the oropharynx  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser surgical treatment of carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract has become an established treatment modality at many otolaryngology departments throughout the laser years. The oncologic results that can be achieved with this surgical technique are quite as good as the results that can be achieved by conventional surgery, the functional results on the other hand often seem to be superior to conventional surgery. The Nd:YAG laser has so far rarely been used as a cutting device in the head and neck region. The fibertom mode is a new technique, which has been developed to make the employment of the Nd:YAG laser as a laser scalpel feasible. Between December 1995 and May 1997 thirty-five patients with squamous cell carinomas of the oral cavity were treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of the University of Kiel with the Nd:YAG laser in fibertom mode (30 - 50 Watt, cw-mode, 600 m bare fiber). The operative approach, intra- and postoperative complications, duration of the operation and of the healing process, as well as functional and oncologic results were documented and compared to the retrospectively raised data of a group of patients (n equals 25), that was treated by CO2 laser surgery. When working with the Nd:YAG laser in fibertom mode fewer hemorrhages during the actual dissection could be observed as opposed to dissection with the CO2 laser. By laser dissection with the Nd:YAG laser in fibertom mode the operation had to be interrupted to a much lesser extent for bipolar cautery, thus resulting in a reduced operation time. Until a complete reepithelialization of the laser wound was achieved an interval of 3 - 4 weeks went by. Following Nd:YAG laser excision the healing process was 7 - 10 days delayed when compared to CO2 laser surgery. The functional and oncologic results were quite satisfactory in both groups and no major difference between the two laser systems could be observed. The fibertom mode renders the use of the Nd:YAG laser for the excision of tumors in highly vascularized regions like e.g. the tongue, the floor of the mouth and the oropharynx. The functional and oncologic results which were achieved with this method in the treatment of carcinomas of the tongue are so convincing that the CO2 laser has been replaced in our department by the Nd:YAG laser for the indications mentioned above. Tumors of the larynx and hypopharynx on the other hand remain to stay a domain of CO2 laser surgery.

Lippert, Burkard M.; Folz, Benedikt J.; Werner, Jochen A.

1998-01-01

392

Lifetime alcohol use and overall and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the role of factors that modulate the association between alcohol and mortality, and to provide estimates of absolute risk of death. Design The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Setting 23 centres in 10 countries. Participants 380?395 men and women, free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack or stroke at enrolment, followed up for 12.6?years on average. Main outcome measures 20?453 fatal events, of which 2053 alcohol-related cancers (ARC, including cancers of upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectal and female breast), 4187 cardiovascular diseases/coronary heart disease (CVD/CHD), 856 violent deaths and injuries. Lifetime alcohol use was assessed at recruitment. Results HRs comparing extreme drinkers (?30?g/day in women and ?60?g/day in men) to moderate drinkers (0.1–4.9?g/day) were 1.27 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.43) in women and 1.53 (1.39 to 1.68) in men. Strong associations were observed for ARC mortality, in men particularly, and for violent deaths and injuries, in men only. No associations were observed for CVD/CHD mortality among drinkers, whereby HRs were higher in never compared to moderate drinkers. Overall mortality seemed to be more strongly related to beer than wine use, particularly in men. The 10-year risks of overall death for women aged 60?years, drinking more than 30?g/day was 5% and 7%, for never and current smokers, respectively. Corresponding figures in men consuming more than 60?g/day were 11% and 18%, in never and current smokers, respectively. In competing risks analyses, mortality due to CVD/CHD was more pronounced than ARC in men, while CVD/CHD and ARC mortality were of similar magnitude in women. Conclusions In this large European cohort, alcohol use was positively associated with overall mortality, ARC and violent death and injuries, but marginally to CVD/CHD. Absolute risks of death observed in EPIC suggest that alcohol is an important determinant of total mortality. PMID:24993766

Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Kragh Andersen, Per; Johansson, Mattias; Boeing, Heiner; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Sanchez, Carmen Navarro; Arriola, Larraitz; Wallström, Peter; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Agnoli, Claudia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peeters, Petra; Beulens, Joline WJ; Nunes, Luciana; Gunter, Marc; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Brennan, Paul; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

2014-01-01

393

Caustic ingestion in adults: The role of endoscopic classification in predicting outcome  

PubMed Central

Background The ingestion of caustic substances induces an extensive spectrum of injuries to the aerodigestive tract which include extensive necrosis and perforation of the esophagus and stomach. The gold standard of safely assessing depth, extent of injury, and appropriate therapeutic regimen is esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The objective of this study was to report our clinical experience and to evaluate the role of a 6-point EGD classification system of injury in predicting outcomes in adult patients diagnosed with caustic agent ingestion. Methods The study was a retrospective medical chart review from 273 patients admitted to the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Tao-Yuan, Taiwan between June 1999 and July 2006 for treatment of caustic ingestion. The patients underwent EGD within 24 hours of admission and mucosal damage was graded using Zagar's modified endoscopic classification scheme. After treatment, patients were followed in the outpatient clinic for a minimum of 6 months. Results A total of 273 patients were included for analysis. Grade 3b injury was the most common caustic injury (n = 82, 30.03%), followed by grade 2b injuries (n = 62, 22.71%). Stricture was the most common complication (n = 66, 24.18%), followed by aspiration pneumonia (n = 31, 11.36%), and respiratory failure (n = 21, 7.69%). Compared to grade 3a mucosal injury, grade 3b mucosal injuries were at greater risk of prolonged hospital stay (odds ratio [OR]: 2.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25–4.80), ICU admission (OR: 10.82; 95% CI: 2.05–200.39), and gastrointestinal (OR: 4.15; 95% CI: 1.55–13.29) and systemic complications (OR: 4.07; 95% CI: 1.81–14.07). Conclusion In patients with caustic ingestion, EGD should be performed within 12 to 24 hours and categorized according to a 6-point scale. Patients with grade 3b burns identified on endoscopy have high rates of morbidity. The 6-point scale is useful for predicting immediate and long-term complications, and guiding appropriate therapy. PMID:18655708

Cheng, Hao-Tsai; Cheng, Chi-Liang; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Tang, Jui-Hsiang; Chu, Yin-Yi; Liu, Nai-Jen; Chen, Pang-Chi

2008-01-01

394

Signaling Networks of Activated Oncogenic and Altered Tumor Suppressor Genes in Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) arises from the upper aerodigestive tract and is the six most common cancers worldwide. HNSCC is associated with high morbidity and mortality, as standard surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy can cause significant disfigurement and only provide 5-year survival rates of ~50–60%. The heterogeneity of HNSCC subsets with different potentials for recurrence and metastasis challenges the traditional pathological classification system, thereby increasing demand for the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tools based on global molecular signatures of HNSCC. Historically, using classical biological techniques, it has been extremely difficult and time-consuming to survey hundreds or thousands of genes in a given disease. However, the development of high throughput technologies and high-powered computation throughout the last two decades has enabled us to investigate hundreds or thousands of genes simultaneously. Using high throughput technologies, our laboratory has identified the gene signatures and protein networks, which significantly affect HNSCC malignant phenotypes, including TP53/p63/p73 family members, IL-1/TNF-?/NF-?B, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, IL-6/IL-6R/JAK/STAT3, EGFR/MAPK/AP1, HGF/cMET/EGR1, and TGF?/TGF?R/TAK1/SMAD pathways. This review summarizes the results from high-throughput technological assays conducted on HNSCC samples, including microarray, DNA methylation, miRNA profiling, and protein array, using primarily experimental data and conclusions generated in our own laboratory. The use of bioinformatics and integrated analyses of data sets from different platforms, as well as meta-analysis of large datasets pulled from multiple publicly available studies, provided significantly higher statistical power to extract biologically relevant information. The data suggested that the heterogeneity of HNSCC genotype and phenotype are much more complex than we previously thought. Understanding of global molecular signatures and disease classification for specific subsets of HNSCC will be essential to provide accurate diagnoses for targeted therapy and personalized treatment, which is an important effort toward improving patient outcomes.

Yan, Bin; Broek, Robert Vander; Saleh, Anthony D; Mehta, Arpita; Van Waes, Carter; Chen, Zhong

2014-01-01

395

Impact of XRCC2 Arg188His Polymorphism on Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Association between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs3218536 (known as Arg188His) located in the X-ray repair cross complementing group 2 (XRCC2) gene and cancer susceptibility has been widely investigated. However, results thus far have remained controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to identify the impact of this polymorphism on cancer susceptibility. Methods PubMed and Embase databases were searched systematically until September 7, 2013 to obtain all the records evaluating the association between the XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphism and the risk of all types of cancers. We used the odds ratio (OR) as measure of effect, and pooled the data in a Mantel-Haenszel weighed random-effects meta-analysis to provide a summary estimate of the impact of this polymorphism on breast cancer, ovarian cancer and other cancers. All the analyses were carried out in STATA 12.0. Results With 30868 cases and 38656 controls, a total of 45 case-control studies from 26 publications were eventually included in our meta-analysis. No significant association was observed between the XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility (dominant model: OR?=?0.94, 95%CI?=?0.86–1.04, P?=?0.232). However, a significant impact of this polymorphism was detected on decreased ovarian cancer risk (dominant model: OR?=?0.83, 95%CI?=?0.73–0.95, P?=?0.007). In addition, we found this polymorphism was associated with increased upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer susceptibility (dominant model: OR?=?1.51, 95%CI?=?1.04–2.20, P?=?0.032). Conclusion The Arg188His polymorphism might play different roles in carcinogenesis of various cancer types. Current evidence did not suggest that this polymorphism was directly associated with breast cancer susceptibility. However, this polymorphism might contribute to decreased gynecological cancer risk and increased UADT cancer risk. More preclinical and epidemiological studies were still imperative for further evaluation. PMID:24621646

Deng, Xiangbing; Wei, Mingtian; Wu, Qingbin; Yang, Tinghan; Zhou, Yanhong; Wang, Ziqiang

2014-01-01

396

Alcohol attributable burden of incidence of cancer in eight European countries based on results from prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study. Design Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure. Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Participants 109?118 men and 254?870 women, mainly aged 37-70. Main outcome measures Hazard rate ratios expressing the relative risk of cancer incidence for former and current alcohol consumption among EPIC participants. Hazard rate ratios combined with representative information on alcohol consumption to calculate alcohol attributable fractions of causally related cancers by country and sex. Partial alcohol attributable fractions for consumption higher than the recommended upper limit (two drinks a day for men with about 24 g alcohol, one for women with about 12 g alcohol) and the estimated total annual number of cases of alcohol attributable cancer. Results If we assume causality, among men and women, 10% (95% confidence interval 7 to 13%) and 3% (1 to 5%) of the incidence of total cancer was attributable to former and current alcohol consumption in the selected European countries. For selected cancers the figures were 44% (31 to 56%) and 25% (5 to 46%) for upper aerodigestive tract, 33% (11 to 54%) and 18% (?3 to 38%) for liver, 17% (10 to 25%) and 4% (?1 to 10%) for colorectal cancer for men and women, respectively, and 5.0% (2 to 8%) for female breast cancer. A substantial part of the alcohol attributable fraction in 2008 was associated with alcohol consumption higher than the recommended upper limit: 33?037 of 178?578 alcohol related cancer cases in men and 17?470 of 397?043 alcohol related cases in women. Conclusions In western Europe, an important proportion of cases of cancer can be attributable to alcohol consumption, especially consumption higher than the recommended upper limits. These data support current political efforts to reduce or to abstain from alcohol consumption to reduce the incidence of cancer. PMID:21474525

2011-01-01

397

Pediatric caustic ingestion: 50 consecutive cases and a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Caustic injury to the aerodigestive tract remains a significant medical and social concern despite various efforts to minimize hazards of caustic household products. Agents with a pH less than two or greater than 12 are extremely corrosive, causing damage that can range from mild to extensive, including esophageal perforation leading to mediastinitis and death at the extreme scale. Methods include retrospective case note review of all admissions to the otolaryngology unit with caustic injury that underwent esophagoscopy to the Children's Hospital Westmead between 1990 and 2007. A protocol-based management system with antibiotics and steroids together with esophagoscopy at 48 hours was implemented. A total of 50 admissions were identified with an average follow-up of 5 years. There were a total of 28 males and 22 females with a median age of 22 months. Forty-nine cases (98%) were accidental. Thirty-eight cases (76%) occurred within the interiors of the family home with the kitchen being the common location. Another seven (14%) occurred within the external environment of the home, usually in the garage or pool shed. The causative agents were varied with 37 (74%) being alkali, three cases (6%) being acidic, and other agents, such as chlorine bleach, being the remainder. The most frequently ingested alkalis were dishwashing powder and disinfectants closely followed by degreasers. Twenty-five children (50%) drank directly from a container with the remainder ingesting granules or powder directly. At esophagoscopy, 17 cases (34%) had grade 1 injury and 10 (20%) had grade 2 injury. Fifty percent of patients of grade 2 injury subsequently developed strictures requiring multiple dilatations. Importantly, six cases (12%) had evidence of esophageal injury without oral injury. Caustic injuries continue to be a significant morbidity in the pediatric patient group. Most cases are still happening as a result of accidental ingestion from unmarked containers within reach of children at home. Oral injury is not always a useful marker of more significant distal injury. A protocol-based management can identify children at risk for long-term stricture earlier. PMID:18847446

Riffat, F; Cheng, A

2009-01-01

398

Attributable fraction of tobacco smoking on cancer using population-based nationwide cancer incidence and mortality data in Korea  

PubMed Central

Background Smoking is by far the most important cause of cancer that can be modified at the individual level. Cancer incidence and mortality rates in Korea are the highest among all Asian countries, and smoking prevalence in Korean men is one of the highest in developed countries. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and provide an evidence-based assessment of the burden of tobacco smoking-related cancers in the Korean population. Methods Sex- and cancer-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of ever-smoking and second-hand smoking in 1989 among Korean adults, respectively, and the relative risks were estimated from the meta-analysis of studies performed in the Korean population for ever-smoking and in the Asian population for passive smoking. National cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and national cancer mortality data from Statistics Korea for the year 2009 were used to estimate the cancer cases and deaths attributable to tobacco smoking. Results Tobacco smoking was responsible for 20,239 (20.9%) cancer incident cases and 14,377 (32.9%) cancer deaths among adult men and 1,930 (2.1%) cancer incident cases and 1,351 (5.2%) cancer deaths among adult women in 2009 in Korea. In men, 71% of lung cancer deaths, 55%–72% of upper aerodigestive tract (oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and larynx) cancer deaths, 23% of liver, 32% of stomach, 27% of pancreas, 7% of kidney and 45% of bladder cancer deaths were attributable to tobacco smoking. In women the proportion of ever-smoking-attributable lung cancer was 8.1%, while that attributable to second-hand smoking among non-smoking women was 20.5%. Conclusions Approximately one in three cancer deaths would be potentially preventable through appropriate control of tobacco smoking in Korean men at the population level and individual level. For Korean women, more lung cancer cases and deaths were attributable to second-hand than ever-smoking. Effective control programs against tobacco smoking should be further developed and implemented in Korea to reduce the smoking-related cancer burden. PMID:24902960

2014-01-01

399

Identification and Functional Characterization of a Novel UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 2A1 Splice Variant: Potential Importance in Tobacco-Related Cancer Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2A1 is a respiratory and aerodigestive tract-expressing phase II detoxifying enzyme that metabolizes various xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study, a novel exon 3 deletion splice variant was identified for UGT2A1 (UGT2A1?exon3). As determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), UGT2A1?exon3 was shown to be expressed in various tissues including lung, trachea, larynx, tonsil, and colon. The ratio of UGT2A1?exon3/wild-type UGT2A1 expression was highest in colon (0.79 ± 0.08) and lung (0.42 ± 0.12) as determined by real-time PCR; an antibody specific to UGT2A1 showed splice variant protein (UGT2A1_i2) to wild-type protein (UGT2A1_i1) ratios in the range of 0.5 to 0.9 in these tissues. Using ultra-pressure liquid chromatography, we found that homogenates prepared from UGT2A1_i2-overexpressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells exhibited no glucuronidation activity against PAHs, including benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (B[a]P-7,8-diol). An inducible in vitro system was created to determine the effect of UGT2A1_i2 expression on UGT2A1_i1 activity. Increasing UGT2A1_i2 levels resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in the UGT2A1_i1 Vmax against 1-hydroxy (OH)-pyrene, 3-OH-benzo[a]pyrene, and B[a]P-7,8-diol; no significant changes in KM were observed for any of the three substrates. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments suggested the formation of UGT2A1_i1 and UGT2A1_i2 hetero-oligomers and UGT2A1_i1 homo-oligomers; coexpression of UGT2A1_i1 or UGT2A1_i2 with other UGT1A or UGT2B enzymes caused no change in UGT1A or UGT2B glucuronidation activity. These data suggest that a novel UGT2A1 splice variant regulates UGT2A1-mediated glucuronidation activity via UGT2A1-specific protein-protein interactions, and expression of this variant could play an important role in the detoxification of carcinogens within target tissues for tobacco carcinogenesis. PMID:22984225

Bushey, Ryan T.

2012-01-01

400

Abcès thyroïdien à Escherichia coli: à propos d’un cas et revue de la littérature  

PubMed Central

L’abcès de la thyroïde est une entité pathologique extrêmement rare, représentant seulement 0.1% des pathologies chirurgicales de la thyroïde. C’est une situation inhabituelle en raison des caractéristiques anatomiques et physiologiques de la glande qui lui donne une capacité de résistance vis-à-vis des infections. Nous rapportons un cas rare d’abcès thyroïdien à Escherichia. coli survenu chez une patiente de 55 ans, immunodéprimée: diabétique insulinodépendante non équilibrée, hypertendue mal suivie avec insuffisance cardiaque gauche, et en insuffisance rénale chronique terminale. La patiente s’est présentée aux urgences avec une tuméfaction basi-cervicale antérieure évoluant sur 10 jours, prédominante à droite, mesurant 6 cm, sensible, inflammatoire, mobile à la déglutition, avec une dyspnée mixte, sueurs et fièvre. Un scanner cervico-thoracique mettait en évidence un énorme processus du lobe thyroïdien droit à contenu liquidien de 9cm, refoulement des voies aériennes supérieures. Une cytoponction à l’aiguille ramenait 10 ml de liquide purulent. Le drainage chirurgical a été réalisé sous anesthésie locale vue le risque d’intubation difficile devant le blindage cervical en présence d’une trachée difficilement accessible. Une E. coli était isolée après la culture du liquide de drainage. La patiente était porteuse d’un bricker depuis l’enfance pour malformation de la vessie. Ceci suggère une bactériémie à point de départ urinaire, avec embole septique au niveau de la glande thyroïde. L’évolution était bonne sous tri-antibiothérapie, et des pansements biquotidiens, avec équilibration de son diabète et insuffisance rénale chronique. Nous rappellerons à travers cette observation les moyens de défense de la thyroïde contre les infections, les différents facteurs prédisposant à l’abcès de la thyroïde, et les germes incriminés dans chaque étiologie. Nous discuterons les diagnostics différentiels et nous insisterons sur les modalités diagnostiques et de prise en charge thérapeutique de ce type de malades. PMID:22593778

Fassih, Malika; Moujahid, Essadik; Abada, Reda; Rouadi, Sami; Mahtar, Mohamed; Roubal, Mohamed; Essadi, Moustapha; El Kadiri, Mohamed Fatmi

2012-01-01

401

Une tumeur rare et distincte du cancer du sein: le carcinosarcome, à propos de huit cas et revue de la littérature  

PubMed Central

Le carcinosarcome du sein souvent appelé carcinome métaplasique du sein, est une tumeur maligne rare composée de deux lignées cellulaires distinctes, il est décrit comme un cancer du sein de type canalaire avec un composant de type sarcome. Il représente 0,08-0.2% de toutes les tumeurs malignes du sein. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective étalée sur un an, huit cas des carcinosarcomes mammaires ont été colligés à l'Institut national d'oncologie au Maroc durant l'année 2007. La médiane d’âge était de 49,5 ans, toutes les tumeurs étaient de haut grade, cliniquement 5 cas ont été classé t2 ou t3, et 3 cas classé sein localement avancé. Le traitement envisagé était basé sur une chirurgie mammaire suivie d'une radiothérapie et d'une chimiothérapie pour les cas adjuvants, l'envahissement ganglionnaire a été noté dans un cas, les récepteurs œstrogèniques sont négatifs, alors que les récepteurs progesteroniques sont positifs dans 4 cas, l'expression d'Her2 est absente dans tous les cas, le traitement des carcinosarcomes mammaires métastatiques était basé sur une chimiothérapie palliative. A 20 mois de médiane follow-up, la survie sans progression(SSP) pour le groupe entier est de 62,5%. Dans la limite de ce suivi, une rechute locorégionale a été détectée dans un cas, les deux patientes métastatiques sont décédées. Le carcinosarcome du sein est un sous-type rare du cancer du sein qui a un profil particulier et agressif, il a souvent un caractère triple négatif. Il est nécessaire de développer d'autres voies de recherche comme cibler le Récepteur HER1/EGFR. PMID:23734272

Ghanem, Samia; Khoyaali, Siham; Naciri, Sara; Glaoui, Meriem; Mesmoudi, Mohamed; Errihani, Hassan

2013-01-01

402

A combined approach for the enhancement and segmentation of mammograms using modified fuzzy C-means method in wavelet domain  

PubMed Central

In this paper, a combined approach for enhancement and segmentation of mammograms is proposed. In preprocessing stage, a contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) method is applied to obtain the better contrast mammograms. After this, the proposed combined methods are applied. In the first step of the proposed approach, a two dimensional (2D) discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to all the input images. In the second step, a proposed nonlinear complex diffusion based unsharp masking and crispening method is applied on the approximation coefficients of the wavelet transformed images to further highlight the abnormalities such as micro-calcifications, tumours, etc., to reduce the false positives (FPs). Thirdly, a modified fuzzy c-means (FCM) segmentation method is applied on the output of the second step. In the modified FCM method, the mutual information is proposed as a similarity measure in place of conventional Euclidian distance based dissimilarity measure for FCM segmentation. Finally, the inverse 2D-DWT is applied. The efficacy of the proposed unsharp masking and crispening method for image enhancement is evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and that of the proposed segmentation method is evaluated in terms of random index (RI), global consistency error (GCE), and variation of information (VoI). The performance of the proposed segmentation approach is compared with the other commonly used segmentation approaches such as Otsu's thresholding, texture based, k-means, and FCM clustering as well as thresholding. From the obtained results, it is observed that the proposed segmentation approach performs better and takes lesser processing time in comparison to the standard FCM and other segmentation methods in consideration. PMID:25190996

Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, Neeraj; Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, R.

2014-01-01

403

Longitudinal Restriction Spectrum Imaging is Resistant to Pseudoresponse in Patients with High-Grade Gliomas treated with Bevacizumab  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Antiangiogenic therapies, such as bevacizumab, decrease contrast enhancement and FLAIR hyperintensity (FLAIR-HI) in patients with high-grade gliomas in a manner that may not correlate with actual tumor response. This study evaluated the ability of an advanced DWI technique, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), to improve conspicuity within regions of restricted diffusion (RD) compared to ADC in patients treated with bevacizumab, and to demonstrate that unlike ADC, RSI is less affected by bevacizumab-induced reductions in FLAIR-HI. Materials and Methods RSI cellularity maps (RSI-CMs) and DWI were available for 12 patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas at baseline and following initiation of bevacizumab. VOIs were drawn for regions of RD, surrounding FLAIR-HI, and normal appearing white matter (NAWM), and intensity values within regions of RD and FLAIR-HI were normalized to NAWM. Normalized values were compared between RSI-CMs and ADC at baseline and on-treatment using repeated measures (RM) ANOVA. Results All patients exhibited decreases in contrast enhancement and FLAIR-HI following treatment. Normalized intensity values were higher on RSI-CMs compared to ADC in regions of RD, whereas intensity values were higher on ADC compared to RSI-CMs in regions of FLAIR-HI. Bevacizumab-induced decreases in FLAIR-HI had a greater effect on ADC than on the RSI-CMs, with the relative sensitivity of ADC to changes in FLAIR-HI being over 20 times higher than that on RSI-CMs. Conclusion RSI is less influenced by reductions in FLAIR-HI compared to ADC, which may confer an advantage of RSI over ADC for interpreting tumor response on imaging following antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:23578667

Kothari, Pranay; White, Nathan S.; Farid, Nikdokht; Chung, Romy; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Girard, Holly M.; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Kesari, Santosh

2014-01-01

404

New design for an endo-esophageal probe intended for the ablation of cardiac muscle in the left-atrium: A parametric simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A parametric simulation study was carried out to establish optimal dimensions of endo-esophageal devices intended to treat the atrial fibrillation (AF). The devices are spherical-surface sections truncated at 15 mm (depth of 4 mm) and cut in concentric-rings each composed of independently driven sectors. The number of independent elements (N) was minimized for different values of ratio of amplitude of secondary lobe over main lobe (E) of 0.35, 0.4, 0.45 and 0.5 and for a volume of interest (VOI) of 24×27×28 mm3 (located at 23.5 mm from the center of the device), which is large enough to contain all the targets identified in the Visible Human Project Male specimen. Operating at 1 MHz, E and N were calculated in function of the element size and focal length (F). After keeping values of F and normalized dimensions of the independent elements in terms of wavelength, higher frequencies were considered: 1.25 and 1.5 MHz. Lesion formation in the heart chamber showed that the twelve configurations were able to produce the typical lesion used to treat the AF while preserving surrounding structures. For an exposure of 5 s and maximal temperature of 70 ?C, the average (s.d.) acoustical intensity at transducer surface varied from 22.3(5.8)W/cm2 for a device with F = 98 mm at 1 MHz to 9.2(2.1)W/cm2 for a device with F = 186 mm at 1.5 MHz, while requiring 319 and 1158 elements, respectively, and achieving values of E of 0.5 and 0.41, respectively.

Pichardo, Samuel; Hynynen, Kullervo

2009-04-01

405

Specification and estimation of sources of bias affecting neurological studies in PET/MR with an anatomical brain phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selection of reconstruction parameters has an effect on the image quantification in PET, with an additional contribution from a scanner-specific attenuation correction method. For achieving comparable results in inter- and intra-center comparisons, any existing quantitative differences should be identified and compensated for. In this study, a comparison between PET, PET/CT and PET/MR is performed by using an anatomical brain phantom, to identify and measure the amount of bias caused due to differences in reconstruction and attenuation correction methods especially in PET/MR. Differences were estimated by using visual, qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis consisted of a line profile analysis for measuring the reproduction of anatomical structures and the contribution of the amount of iterations to image contrast. The quantitative analysis consisted of measurement and comparison of 10 anatomical VOIs, where the HRRT was considered as the reference. All scanners reproduced the main anatomical structures of the phantom adequately, although the image contrast on the PET/MR was inferior when using a default clinical brain protocol. Image contrast was improved by increasing the amount of iterations from 2 to 5 while using 33 subsets. Furthermore, a PET/MR-specific bias was detected, which resulted in underestimation of the activity values in anatomical structures closest to the skull, due to the MR-derived attenuation map that ignores the bone. Thus, further improvements for the PET/MR reconstruction and attenuation correction could be achieved by optimization of RAMLA-specific reconstruction parameters and implementation of bone to the attenuation template.

Teuho, J.; Johansson, J.; Linden, J.; Saunavaara, V.; Tolvanen, T.; Teräs, M.

2014-01-01

406

L'Infection Nosocomiale en Reanimation des Brules  

PubMed Central

Summary L'infection nosocomiale bactérienne étant l'une des principales causes de morbidité et de mortalité chez le brûlé, nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 84 patients hospitalisés au sein du service de réanimation des brûlés de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat, sur une période de 3 ans, du premier janvier 2001 au 31 décembre 2003. Les critères d'infection nosocomiale étaient ceux du Center for Disease Control d'Atlanta de 1988. Les taux d'incidence ont été calculés. La population infectée a été comparée à celle non infectée. L'écologie bactérienne du service a été décrite comme aussi l'antibiotype. Il ressort de cette étude la survenue de 87 infections nosocomiales chez 27 patients. L'incidence cumulative était de 103 infections pour 1000 jours de traitement. Pour ce qui est des caractéristiques des infections bactériennes, les sites infectés étaient la peau (77%), le sang (13,8%), les voies urinaires (8%) et les poumons (1,1%). Les principaux germes étaient: Staphylococcus sp. (33,3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23%), Enterococcus faecalis et Acinetobacter (8%). Les staphylocoques étaient méticillo-résistants dans 22,2% des cas. Le Pseudomonas et l'Acinetobacter étaient multirésistants (60%). Dans notre étude les facteurs prédictifs de survenue des infections nosocomiales que nous avons retenus après l'étude comparative des populations infectées et non infectées ont été l'âge, le body mass index, l'abbreviated burn severity index et le remplissage initial. En isolant ces paramètres, nous avons pu établir une équation à valeur prédictive de survenue d'infection nosocomiale chez le patient brûlé. PMID:21991158

Siah, S.; Belefqih, R.; Elouennass, M.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ihrai, I.

2009-01-01

407

A combined approach for the enhancement and segmentation of mammograms using modified fuzzy C-means method in wavelet domain.  

PubMed

In this paper, a combined approach for enhancement and segmentation of mammograms is proposed. In preprocessing stage, a contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) method is applied to obtain the better contrast mammograms. After this, the proposed combined methods are applied. In the first step of the proposed approach, a two dimensional (2D) discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to all the input images. In the second step, a proposed nonlinear complex diffusion based unsharp masking and crispening method is applied on the approximation coefficients of the wavelet transformed images to further highlight the abnormalities such as micro-calcifications, tumours, etc., to reduce the false positives (FPs). Thirdly, a modified fuzzy c-means (FCM) segmentation method is applied on the output of the second step. In the modified FCM method, the mutual information is proposed as a similarity measure in place of conventional Euclidian distance based dissimilarity measure for FCM segmentation. Finally, the inverse 2D-DWT is applied. The efficacy of the proposed unsharp masking and crispening method for image enhancement is evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and that of the proposed segmentation method is evaluated in terms of random index (RI), global consistency error (GCE), and variation of information (VoI). The performance of the proposed segmentation approach is compared with the other commonly used segmentation approaches such as Otsu's thresholding, texture based, k-means, and FCM clustering as well as thresholding. From the obtained results, it is observed that the proposed segmentation approach performs better and takes lesser processing time in comparison to the standard FCM and other segmentation methods in consideration. PMID:25190996

Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, Neeraj; Singh, S K; Srivastava, R

2014-07-01

408

In vivo type 1 cannabinoid receptor availability in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an important modulatory and potentially neuroprotective homeostatic system in the brain. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the role of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB?R) is unclear, with contradictory findings in post-mortem studies showing upregulation, downregulation or unchanged CB?R status. We have investigated CB?R availability in vivo in patients with AD, in relation to amyloid deposition, cognitive functioning and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. Eleven AD patients and 7 healthy volunteers (HV) underwent combined [¹?F]MK-9470 PET and [¹¹C]PIB PET scans to assess CB?R availability and amyloid deposition, respectively, and T1 volumetric MRI for partial volume correction. We found no difference in CB?R availability between AD and HV, VOI-based fractional uptake values (FUR) were 0.043±0.01 for AD and 0.045±0.01 for controls (p=0.9). CB?R availability did not correlate with neuropsychological test scores and was not modulated by ApoE genotype. As expected, global [¹¹C]PIB SUVR (standardized uptake value ratio) was increased in AD (SUVR 1.9±0.3) compared to HV (1.2±0.1) with p<0.001, but no correlation was found between amyloid ? (A?) deposition and CB?R availability. In conclusion, we found no in vivo evidence for a difference in CB?R availability in AD compared to age-matched controls. Taken together with recently reported in vivo CB?R changes in Parkinson's and Huntington's disease, these data suggest that the CB?R is differentially involved in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24189376

Ahmad, Rawaha; Goffin, Karolien; Van den Stock, Jan; De Winter, François-Laurent; Cleeren, Evy; Bormans, Guy; Tournoy, Jos; Persoons, Philippe; Van Laere, Koen; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

2014-02-01

409

Phosphorus Spectroscopy of Calf Muscles before and after Exercise  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The aim of this study was to determine 31PMRS reference spectrum and intracellular pH of calf muscles in the dominant limb of healthy, young, male volunteers before and after intense physical effort. Material/Methods Examinations were performed with a 1.5 T MR system. FID CSI (Free Induction Decay Chemical Shift Imaging) sequence was used with the following parameters: TR=4000 ms, FA=90°, NEX=2 and VOI (Volume Of Interest)=8×8×8 cm3 (512 cm3) involving in calf muscles. Raw data was preprocessed using SAGE (GE) software. Authors analyzed relative concentrations ratios of selected metabolites: PCr/ATP and PCr/Pi. Intracellular pH and relative concentrations ratios of each metabolite (Pi, PCr, ?-ATP, ?-ATP, ?-ATP, ATP) were also calculated relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites. Results were compared with a t-test. Results Based on statistical analysis of results significant differences (p<0.05) were demonstrated for some of the studied metabolites and for intracellular pH. Increase in PCr concentration in relation to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites and to ATP concentration was noted. However, ?-ATP, ?-ATP and ATP concentrations relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites become reduced. Decrease in pH after physical effort was demonstrated. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) in concentrations of remaining metabolites before and after exercise. Increase in PCr concentration relative to Pi concentration and decrease of Pi and ?-ATP concentration relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites were demonstrated. Conclusions The 31PMRS method enables assessment of concentrations of phosphorus-containing metabolites as well as intercellular pH before and after exercise. This method is still under examination, but it has already shown promise as a diagnostic tool for the future. PMID:25276259

Wcis?o, Bo?ena; Cichocka, Monika; Urbanik, Andrzej

2014-01-01

410

Migration trachéale d'une canule de trachéotomie: complication exceptionnelle  

PubMed Central

La trachéotomie est un geste chirurgical de survie largement pratiqué dans les services des urgences et de réanimation. En fonction de l'indication de sa réalisation, elle peut être transitoire ou définitive. Dans ce dernier cas le port d'une canule de trachéotomie de manière prolongée peut exposer à certaines complications qui peuvent s'avérer graves. Nous présentons un cas très rare d'un enfant présentant un syndrome de Guillain Barré, trachéotomisé depuis 4 ans suite à une sténose trachéale par intubation prolongée et portant une canule de trachéotomie métallique de type KRISHABER qui s'est présenté aux urgences dans un tableau de détresse respiratoire suite à la migration trachéale de sa canule. La trachéotomie est l'ouverture à la peau de la trachée cervicale, et à la mise d'une canule qui a pour but de permettre la respiration en court-circuitant les voies aériennes supérieures. De réalisation simple et codifiée le plus souvent, elle présente des risques de complications post opératoires notamment tardives. Les plus décrites sont les granulomes, les sténoses trachéales, les infections, et les fistules. La migration trachéale de la canule de trachéotomie reste exceptionnelle. Elle résulte d'un mauvais entretien qui fragilise la canule et doit être prise en charge en urgence. La trachéotomie définitive nécessite une surveillance régulière, un entretien et des soins de canules rigoureux pour éviter la survenue de complications qui peuvent être graves. Chez l'enfant, l'utilisation de canules souples en PVC ou en silicone doit être préférée aux canules métalliques. PMID:25368730

Chouikh, Chakib; El Moqaddem, Amine; Benmakhlouf, Anas; Naanaa, Saad; El Koraichi, Alae; El Kettani, Salma; Jahidi, Ali

2014-01-01

411

Le traitement chirurgical des fractures du cotyle: à propos de 22 cas  

PubMed Central

Vingt deux patients présentant une fracture incongruente de l'acétabulum ont été opérés et revues avec un recul moyen de 2 ans. Le but de cette étude est d'analyser les résultats fonctionnels et radiologiques des fractures de l'acétabulum après traitement chirurgical. La population était constituée de 17 hommes et 5 femmes, avec un âge moyen de 42,5 ans. Les fractures de l'acétabulum étaient répertoriées selon la classification de Judet et Letournel: 11 fractures de la paroi postérieure, une fracture de la colonne postérieure, six fractures transversales, quatre fractures transversales associées à une paroi postérieure, et une seule fracture de la colonne postérieure avec fracture de la paroi postérieure. Quatre patients présentaient des lésions associées du bassin, sept patients avaient une luxation postérieur de la hanche, deux une luxation centrale et deux avaient un traumatisme crânien associée. Deux voies d'abords ont été utilisées dans ce travail: la voie de Kocher Langenbeck (19 cas), et la voie de Dana Mears (4 cas). A partir du bilan radiologique initial (bassin face, ¾ alaire, ¾ obturateur et tomodensitomértie) on évaluer le déplacement, la congruence, tête/toit et tête/acétabulum ainsi que le degré de comminution. La qualité de réduction était évaluée selon les critères de Matta et les résultats fonctionnels selon la cotation de Merle D'Aubigné. Sur le Plan radiologique nous avons obtenu 56,52% de réduction anatomique, alors que sur le plan fonctionnel 78% patient avaient de bons et très bon résultats. Parmi les complications postopératoires, on a noté un seul cas d'infection cutanée superficielle, cinq ossifications héterotopiques. A distance un cas d'ostéonécrose aseptique de la tête fémorale et un cas de coxarthrose. PMID:25374628

Mahdane, Hicham; Elghazi, Amine; Shimi, Mohamed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

2014-01-01

412

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and cognition in patients with spastin mutations.  

PubMed

The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness in the lower limbs. Axonal loss in the long corticospinal tracts has been shown. Supraspinal symptoms and findings in the most common dominant HSP type, SPG4, support the theory that the disease also causes cerebral neuronal damage in specific parts of the brain. To investigate whether SPG4-HSP is associated with neuronal biochemical changes detectable on MR spectroscopy (MRS), single-voxel proton MRS of the brain was performed in eight subjects from four families with genetically confirmed SPG4-type HSP and eight healthy age-matched controls. Volumes of interest (VOI) were located in the frontal white matter and motor cortex. N-acetyl-aspartate-to-creatine ratio (NAA/Cr), N-acetyl-aspartate-to-choline (NAA/Cho), cholin to creatin (Cho/Cr) and myo-inositol-to-creatine (Ins/Cr) ratios were calculated for both locations. Neuropsychological tests were performed to support the neuroradiological findings. The Cho/Cr ratio in motor cortex (MC) of SPG4-HSP subjects was significantly lower than in controls. This reduction of the Cho/Cr ratio in SPG4 subjects was significantly associated with age-related verbal learning- and memory (CVLT) reduction. Our findings support involvement of motor cortex in SPG4-HSP. Proton MRS could be a useful tool for detecting metabolite abnormalities in areas of brain that appear normal on MRI. Cho/Cr ratio may be a marker of neurodegenerative process in SPG4-HSP. PMID:19084842

Erichsen, A K; Server, A; Landrø, N I; Sandvik, L; Tallaksen, C M E

2009-02-15

413

MFGA-IDT2 workshop: Astrophysical and geophysical fluid mechanics: the impact of data on turbulence theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1 Facts about the Workshop This workshop was convened on November 13-15 1995 by E. Falgarone and D. Schertzer within the framework of the Groupe de Recherche Mecanique des Fluides Geophysiques et Astrophysiques (GdR MFGA, Research Group of Geophysical and Astrophysical Fluid Mechanics) of Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, (French) National Center for Scientific Research). This Research Group is chaired by A. Babiano and the meeting was held at Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, by courtesy of its Director E. Guyon. More than sixty attendees participated to this workshop, they came from a large number of institutions and countries from Europe, Canada and USA. There were twenty-five oral presentations as well as a dozen posters. A copy of the corresponding book of abstracts can be requested to the conveners. The theme of this meeting is somewhat related to the series of Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics conferences (NVAG1, Montreal, Aug. 1986; NVAG2, Paris, June 1988; NVAG3, Cargese (Corsica), September, 1993), as well as seven consecutive annual sessions at EGS general assemblies and two consecutive spring AGU meeting sessions devoted to similar topics. One may note that NVAG3 was a joint American Geophysical Union Chapman and European Geophysical Society Richardson Memorial conference, the first topical conference jointly sponsored by the two organizations. The corresponding proceedings were published in a special NPG issue (Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 1, 2/3, 1994). In comparison with these previous meetings, MFGA-IDT2 is at the same time specialized to fluid turbulence and its intermittency, and an extension to the fields of astrophysics. Let us add that Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics was readily chosen as the appropriate journal for publication of these proceedings since this journal was founded in order to develop interdisciplinary fundamental research and corresponding innovative nonlinear methodologies in Geophysics. It had an appropriate editorial structure, in particular a large number of editors covering a wide range of methodologies, expertises and schools. At least two of its sections (Scaling and Multifractals, Turbulence and Diffusion) were directly related to the topics of the workshop, in any case contributors were invited to choose their editor freely. 2 Goals of the Workshop The objective of this meeting was to enhance the confrontation between turbulence theories and empirical data from geophysics and astrophysics fluids with very high Reynolds numbers. The importance of these data seems to have often been underestimated for the evaluation of theories of fully developed turbulence, presumably due to the fact that turbulence does not appear as pure as in laboratory experiments. However, they have the great advantage of giving access not only to very high Reynolds numbers (e.g. 1012 for atmospheric data), but also to very large data sets. It was intended to: (i) provide an overview of the diversity of potentially available data, as well as the necessary theoretical and statistical developments for a better use of these data (e.g. treatment of anisotropy, role of processes which induce other nonlinearities such as thermal instability, effect of magnetic field and compressibility ... ), (ii) evaluate the means of discriminating between different theories (e.g. multifractal intermittency models) or to better appreciate the relevance of different notions (e.g. Self-Organized Criticality) or phenomenology (e.g. filaments, structures), (iii) emphasise the different obstacles, such as the ubiquity of catastrophic events, which could be overcome in the various concerned disciplines, thanks to theoretical advances achieved. 3 Outlines of the Workshop During the two days of the workshop, the series of presentations covered many manifestations of turbulence in geophysics, including: oceans, troposphere, stratosphere, very high atmosphere, solar wind, giant planets, interstellar clouds... up to the very large scale of the Universe. The presentations and the round table at the end of the wor

Schertzer, D.; Falgarone, E.

414

EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. The conference The third conference on "Nonlinear VAriability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes" (NVAG 3) was held in Cargese, Corsica, Sept. 10-17, 1993. NVAG3 was joint American Geophysical Union Chapman and European Geophysical Society Richardson Memorial conference, the first specialist conference jointly sponsored by the two organizations. It followed NVAG1 (Montreal, Aug. 1986), NVAG2 (Paris, June 1988; Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991), five consecutive annual sessions at EGS general assemblies and two consecutive spring AGU meeting sessions. As with the other conferences and workshops mentioned above, the aim was to develop confrontation between theories and experiments on scaling/multifractal behaviour of geophysical fields. Subjects covered included climate, clouds, earthquakes, atmospheric and ocean dynamics, tectonics, precipitation, hydrology, the solar cycle and volcanoes. Areas of focus included new methods of data analysis (especially those used for the reliable estimation of multifractal and scaling exponents), as well as their application to rapidly growing data bases from in situ networks and remote sensing. The corresponding modelling, prediction and estimation techniques were also emphasized as were the current debates about stochastic and deterministic dynamics, fractal geometry and multifractals, self-organized criticality and multifractal fields, each of which was the subject of a specific general discussion. The conference started with a one day short course of multifractals featuring four lectures on a) Fundamentals of multifractals: dimension, codimensions, codimension formalism, b) Multifractal estimation techniques: (PDMS, DTM), c) Numerical simulations, Generalized Scale Invariance analysis, d) Advanced multifractals, singular statistics, phase transitions, self-organized criticality and Lie cascades (given by D. Schertzer and S. Lovejoy, detailed course notes were sent to participants shortly after the conference). This was followed by five days with 8 oral sessions and one poster session. Overall, there were 65 papers involving 74 authors. In general, the main topics covered are reflected in this special issue: geophysical turbulence, clouds and climate, hydrology and solid earth geophysics. In addition to AGU and EGS, the conference was supported by the International Science Foundation, the Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique, Meteo-France, the Department of Energy (US), the Commission of European Communities (DG XII), the Comite National Francais pour le Programme Hydrologique International, the Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche (France). We thank P. Hubert, Y. Kagan, Ph. Ladoy, A. Lazarev, S.S. Moiseev, R. Pierrehumbert, F. Schmitt and Y. Tessier, for help with the organization of the conference. However special thanks goes to A. Richter and the EGS office, B. Weaver and the AGU without whom this would have been impossible. We also thank the Institut d' Etudes Scientifiques de Cargese whose beautiful site was much appreciated, as well as the Bar des Amis whose ambiance stimulated so many discussions. 2. Tribute to L.F. Richardson With NVAG3, the European geophysical community paid tribute to Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) on the 40th anniversary of his death. Richardson was one of the founding fathers of the idea of scaling and fractality, and his life reflects the European geophysical community and its history in many ways. Although many of Richardson's numerous, outstanding scientific contributions to geophysics have been recognized, perhaps his main contribution concerning the importance of scaling and cascades has still not received the attention it deserves. Richardson was the first not only to suggest numerical integration of the equations of motion of the atmosphere, but also to attempt to do so by hand, during the First World War. This work, as well as a presentation of a broad vision of future developments in the field, appeared in his famous, pioneering book "Weather prediction by numerical processes" (1922). As

Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

415

Diffusion des Metaux et Evolution Stellaire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nous presentons dans cette these des modeles d'evolution stellaire incorporant la diffusion microscopique de maniere consistante. Pour la premiere fois, on a calcule l'evolution d'etoiles en tenant compte en detail de l'impact des variations d'abondances sur leur structure. Nous utilisons des spectres monochromatiques pour chacun des elements les plus abondants dans un melange solaire pour recalculer l'opacite pour les abondances et les conditions locales dans l'interieur d'une etoile au cours de son evolution. Nos