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Sample records for voies aerodigestives superieures

  1. Construction site Voice Operated Information System (VOIS) test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Debbie J.; Hettchen, William

    1991-01-01

    The Voice Activated Information System (VAIS), developed by USACERL, allows inspectors to verbally log on-site inspection reports on a hand held tape recorder. The tape is later processed by the VAIS, which enters the information into the system's database and produces a written report. The Voice Operated Information System (VOIS), developed by USACERL and Automated Sciences Group, through a ESACERL cooperative research and development agreement (CRDA), is an improved voice recognition system based on the concepts and function of the VAIS. To determine the applicability of the VOIS to Corps of Engineers construction projects, Technology Transfer Test Bad (T3B) funds were provided to the Corps of Engineers National Security Agency (NSA) Area Office (Fort Meade) to procure and implement the VOIS, and to train personnel in its use. This report summarizes the NSA application of the VOIS to quality assurance inspection of radio frequency shielding and to progress payment logs, and concludes that the VOIS is an easily implemented system that can offer improvements when applied to repetitive inspection procedures. Use of VOIS can save time during inspection, improve documentation storage, and provide flexible retrieval of stored information.

  2. Concordance of Two Endoscopic Procedures for Diagnosis of Carcinoma of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-15

    Upper Aerodigestive Tract Lesions; Neoplasms, Oropharyngeal; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Neoplasms, Hypopharyngeal; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Head and Neck Neoplasms; UADT Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Papilloma

  3. Upper aerodigestive tract disorders and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Andrea; Bianchini, Chiara; Zuolo, Michele; Feo, Carlo Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    A wide variety of symptoms and diseases of the upper aerodigestive tract are associated to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). These disorders comprise a large variety of conditions such as asthma, chronic otitis media and sinusitis, chronic cough, and laryngeal disorders including paroxysmal laryngospasm. Laryngo-pharyngeal reflux disease is an extraoesophageal variant of GORD that can affect the larynx and pharynx. Despite numerous research efforts, the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux often remains elusive, unproven and controversial, and its treatment is then still empiric. Aim of this paper is to review the current literature on upper aerodigestive tract disorders in relation to pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux, focusing in particular on the pathophysiology base and results of the surgical treatment of GORD. PMID:25685756

  4. Optimal target VOI size for accurate 4D coregistration of DCE-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Brian; Mikheev, Artem; Zaim Wadghiri, Youssef; Bertrand, Anne; Novikov, Dmitry; Chandarana, Hersh; Rusinek, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI has emerged as a reliable and diagnostically useful functional imaging technique. DCE protocol typically lasts 3-15 minutes and results in a time series of N volumes. For automated analysis, it is important that volumes acquired at different times be spatially coregistered. We have recently introduced a novel 4D, or volume time series, coregistration tool based on a user-specified target volume of interest (VOI). However, the relationship between coregistration accuracy and target VOI size has not been investigated. In this study, coregistration accuracy was quantitatively measured using various sized target VOIs. Coregistration of 10 DCE-MRI mouse head image sets were performed with various sized VOIs targeting the mouse brain. Accuracy was quantified by measures based on the union and standard deviation of the coregistered volume time series. Coregistration accuracy was determined to improve rapidly as the size of the VOI increased and approached the approximate volume of the target (mouse brain). Further inflation of the VOI beyond the volume of the target (mouse brain) only marginally improved coregistration accuracy. The CPU time needed to accomplish coregistration is a linear function of N that varied gradually with VOI size. From the results of this study, we recommend the optimal size of the VOI to be slightly overinclusive, approximately by 5 voxels, of the target for computationally efficient and accurate coregistration.

  5. Biomarkers in upper aerodigestive tract tumorigenesis: a review.

    PubMed

    Shin, D M; Hittelman, W N; Hong, W K

    1994-12-01

    Because therapeutic efforts such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy have only marginally improved the 5-year survival rate from cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (including head and neck and lung cancers) over the past 2 decades, chemoprevention has become an important strategy in reducing the rates of incidence and mortality of these cancers. However, chemoprevention trials have been hampered by serious feasibility problems; they require large numbers of subjects and long-term follow-up for accurate determination of cancer incidence and they are very costly. Because the use of intermediate end points would reduce the duration and costs of these studies, biomarkers that could serve as such end points have recently become a subject of great interest. With the strengthening of the assumption that tumorigenesis is a multistep process of transformation from normal tissues to malignant lesions, there has been a great effort to examine each of these steps for genetic and/or phenotypic alterations that might be candidates for such biomarkers. These candidates include genomic markers, certain specific gene alterations, such as tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, growth factors and their receptors, proliferation markers, and differentiation markers. In this review, we describe several genomic markers, including micronuclei, chromosomal alterations, and specific genetic markers, e.g., the ras gene family, erb B1, int-2/hst-1, and p53 tumor suppressor gene. We also review the proliferation markers, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and squamous cell differentiation markers, including keratins, involucrin, and transglutaminase 1. These biomarker candidates have the potential to be important adjuncts to the development of new chemopreventive agents and to the rational design of future intervention trials. However, we can not overemphasize that these markers need to be validated in clinical trials; only then can they replace cancer incidence as the sole

  6. Effect of nasal noninvasive respiratory support methods on pharyngeal provocation-induced aerodigestive reflexes in infants.

    PubMed

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Sitaram, Swetha; Clouse, Brian J; Slaughter, Jonathan L; Shaker, Reza

    2016-06-01

    The pharynx is a locus of provocation among infants with aerodigestive morbidities manifesting as dysphagia, life-threatening events, aspiration-pneumonia, atelectasis, and reflux, and such infants often receive nasal respiratory support. We determined the impact of different oxygen delivery methods on pharyngeal stimulation-induced aerodigestive reflexes [room air (RA), nasal cannula (NC), and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP)] while hypothesizing that the sensory motor characteristics of putative reflexes are distinct. Thirty eight infants (28.0 ± 0.7 wk gestation) underwent pharyngoesophageal manometry and respiratory inductance plethysmography to determine the effects of graded pharyngeal stimuli (n = 271) on upper and lower esophageal sphincters (UES, LES), swallowing, and deglutition-apnea. Comparisons were made between NC (n = 19), nCPAP (n = 9), and RA (n = 10) groups. Importantly, NC or nCPAP (vs. RA) had: 1) delayed feeding milestones (P < 0.05), 2) increased pharyngeal waveform recruitment and duration, greater UES nadir pressure, decreased esophageal contraction duration, decreased distal esophageal contraction amplitude, and decreased completely propagated esophageal peristalsis (all P < 0.05), and 3) similarly developed UES contractile and LES relaxation reflexes (P > 0.05). We conclude that aerodigestive reflexes were similarly developed in infants using noninvasive respiratory support with adequate upper and lower aerodigestive protection. Increased concern for GERD is unfounded in this population. These infants may benefit from targeted oromotor feeding therapies and safe pharyngeal bolus transit to accelerate feeding milestones. PMID:27012774

  7. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  8. ErbB receptors in the biology and pathology of the aerodigestive tract

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Sarah; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2009-02-15

    The most common sites of malignancies in the aerodigestive tract include the lung, head and neck and the esophagus. Esophageal adenocarcinomas (EA), esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC), and squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) are the primary focus of this review. Traditional treatment for aerodigestive tract cancers includes primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) or surgical resection followed by radiation (or CRT). Recent developments in treatment have focused increasingly on molecular targeting strategies including cetuximab (a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)). Cetuximab was FDA approved in 2006 for treatment of SCCHN, underscoring the importance of understanding the biology of these malignancies. EGFR is a member of the ErbB family of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases. The major pathways activated by ErbB receptors include Ras/Raf/MAPK; PI3K/AKT; PLC{gamma} and STATs, all of which lead to the transcription of target genes that may contribute to aerodigestive tumor progression. This review explores the expression of ErbB receptors in EA, ESCC and SCCHN and the signaling pathways of EGFR in SCCHN.

  9. Low dose, low noise, and high resolution volume of interest (VOI) imaging in C-arm flat-detector CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolditz, Daniel; Kyriakou, Yiannis; Kalender, Willi A.

    2010-04-01

    The high flexibility of C-arm flat-detector computed tomography (FDCT) is used in a volume of interest (VOI) imaging method to handle the challenges of increasing spatial resolution, reducing noise and saving dose. A low-dose overview scan of the object and a high-dose scan of an arbitrary VOI are combined. The first scan is adequate for orientation to select the VOI and the second scan assures high image quality in the VOI. The combination is based on a forward projection of the reconstructed overview volume and the measured VOI data in the raw data domain. Differences in the projection values are matched before a standard Feldkamp-type reconstruction is performed. In simulations, spatial resolution, noise and contrast detectability were evaluated. Measurements of an anthropomorphic phantom were used to validate the proposed method for realistic application. In Monte Carlo dose simulations the dose reduction potential was investigated. By combination of the two scans an image is generated which covers the whole object and provides the actual VOI at high image quality. Spatial resolution was increased whereas noise was decreased from outside to inside the VOI, e.g. for the simulations from 0.8 lp/mm to 3.0 lp/mm and from 39 HU to 18 HU, respectively. Simultaneously, the cumulative dose for this two-scan procedure was significantly reduced in comparison to a conventional high dose scan, e.g. for the performed simulations and measurements by about 95 %. The proposed VOI approach offers significant benefits with respect to high-resolution and low-contrast imaging of a VOI at reduced dose.

  10. Aerodigestive Foreign Bodies in Adult Ethiopian Patients: A Prospective Study at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Abebe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Foreign bodies (FBs) in the aerodigestive tract are important causes of morbidity and mortality and pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The best method of removal of an esophageal and tracheobronchial FB is endoscopic guided extraction. Objective. To present our experience of the removal of aerodigestive FBs in adult Ethiopian patients using rigid endoscopes. Methods. A hospital-based prospective study, at Tikur Anbessa Referral and Teaching Hospital, from January 2011 to December 2012 (over two years). Results. A total of 32 patients (18 males and 14 females) with a mean age of 28.0 ± 12.74 years were treated for FB ingestion and aspiration at Tikur Anbessa Hospital. The FBs were impacted at the esophagus in 18 (56.2%) patients, at the pharynx in 7 (21.8%), and at the air way in 7 (21.8%) patients. Pieces of bones were the commonest objects found in the esophagus (17/18 of the cases) and the pharynx (4/7), while fractured tracheostomy tubes and needles were frequently seen in the air way (3/7 cases each). The foreign bodies were visible in plain radiographs of 26 (81.2%) patients. Successful extraction of FBs was achieved by using Mc gill forceps in 11 cases, rigid esophagoscopes in 9 patients, and bronchoscopes in 4 cases. Four cases required open surgery to remove the foreign bodies. Two complications (one pneumothorax and one esophageal perforation) occurred. All patients were discharged cured. Discussion and Recommendations. Aerodigestive FBs are not so rare in the hospital and timely diagnosis and removal of accidentally ingested and aspirated foreign body should be performed so as to avoid the potentially lethal complications associated. Rigid esophagoscopy requires general anesthesia and is associated with its own complications, but our experience and outcome of its use are encouraging. PMID:24834074

  11. Photodynamic therapy--1994: treatment of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Vanessa G.

    1995-03-01

    From 1983 to 1994 Phase II and III clinical studies at Henry Ford Hospital demonstrated complete or partial responses in 46 of 47 patients treated with hematoporphyrin-derivative photodynamic therapy (HPD-PDT) for a variety of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease: (1) superficial `condemned mucosa' or `field cancerization' of the oral cavity; (2) stage III/IV head and neck cancer; (3) mucocutaneous AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the upper aerodigestive tract; (4) recurrent laryngotracheal papillomatosis; (5) severe dysplasia/adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus; (6) partial or completely obstructing terminal esophageal cancer. HPD-PDT produced complete responses in 19 patients (follow up 6 months to 8 years) with `field cancerization' (CIS, T1) of the oral cavity and larynx (6), adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (2), mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (9), obstructing esophageal carcinoma (1), and stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx (1). PDT treatment protocols, results, complications, and application as adjunct or primary oncologic therapy for head and neck disease are reviewed.

  12. Truncation correction for VOI C-arm CT using scattered radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bier, Bastian; Maier, Andreas; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Schwemmer, Chris; Xia, Yan; Struffert, Tobias; Hornegger, Joachim

    2013-03-01

    In C-arm computed tomography, patient dose reduction by volume-of-interest (VOI) imaging is of increasing interest for many clinical applications. A remaining limitation of VOI imaging is the truncation artifact when reconstructing a 3D volume. It can either be cupping towards the boundaries of the field-of-view (FOV) or an incorrect offset in the Hounsfield values of the reconstructed voxels. In this paper, we present a new method for correction of truncation artifacts in a collimated scan. When axial or lateral collimation are applied, scattered radiation still reaches the detector and is recorded outside of the FOV. If the full area of the detector is read out we can use this scattered signal to estimate the truncated part of the object. We apply three processing steps: detection of the collimator edge, adjustment of the area outside the FOV, and interpolation of the collimator edge. Compared to heuristic truncation correction methods we were able to reconstruct high contrast structures like bones outside of the FOV. Inside the FOV we achieved similar reconstruction results as with water cylinder truncation correction. These preliminary results indicate that scattered radiation outside the FOV can be used to improve image quality and further research in this direction seems beneficial.

  13. Rapid sequence treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Moloy, P.J.; Moran, E.M.; Azawi, S. )

    1991-01-01

    A review of the literature suggested that prolonged treatment time may lessen the probability of cure for patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. To shorten treatment time, rapid sequence treatment (RST) was devised in which chemotherapy, surgery, and irradation were administered in a total treatment time of 8 weeks. Twelve patients were treated and followed 3 years or longer. Medical complications were minor. Osteonecrosis occurred in each of the first five patients and was the only major complication of the protocol. Surgical techniques were modified, and no additional patient developed osteonecrosis. No patient developed local or regional recurrence. Two patients developed distant metastases and three other patients developed second primaries. Absolute survival was 50%. Rapid sequence treatment is an aggressive and potentially hazardous protocol that yielded encouraging results in this pilot study.

  14. Jaw mobility changes in patients with upper aerodigestive tract cancer undergoing radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wienandts, Patrícia; Mozzini, Carolina; Pinto, Rosélie; da Motta, Neiro; Jotz, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation therapy is a therapeutic modality widely used for treatment of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) neoplasms. However, its action is not restricted to tumor cells, and it may cause a variety of adverse reactions, including reduced jaw mobility. Material and Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted to assess changes in jaw mobility in patients with UADT cancer undergoing radiation therapy. Results Fifty-six patients completed the study. The results showed a significant reduction in mouth opening (p<0.001), right lateral excursion (p=0.038) and left lateral excursion (p=0.035) of the jaw, a significant increase in the presence (p<0.001) and severity of oral mucositis (p<0.001), and a significant decrease in performance status (p<0.001) after radiation therapy. Thirty-six patients (64.3%) exhibited reduction in mouth opening after treatment. The variables significantly associated with mouth opening reduction on bivariate analysis were: modification of diet (p=0.037), radiation field (p=0.024), presence of mucositis (p=0.003), and reduction in performance status (p=0.007). After adjustment by the multivariate model, the only variables that remained significantly associated with reduction in mouth opening were presence of mucositis (p=0.018) and reduction in performance status (p=0.47). Conclusions These findings indicate that patients with upper aerodigestive tract cancer experience reduced jaw mobility after radiation therapy, which is strongly correlated with mucositis and reduced functional ability. Key words:Head and neck neoplasms, vertical dimension, radiation therapy, mucositis, temporomandibular joint, joint range of motion, trismus. PMID:26449427

  15. Therapeutic approaches to the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis of the aerodigestive tract (a clinical study)

    PubMed Central

    Avramov, Toma; Vetckova, Evelina; Nikolova, Maria; Valev, Dinko; Manolova, Antoaneta; Tafradgiiska, Maya; Kostadinov, Dimitar; Tchalacov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare disease, characterized by recurrent proliferation of benign squamous cell papillomas in the larynx as well as in the other parts of the aerodigestive tract. We have compared different treatment options for RRP of the aerodigestive tract including surgical, conservative and combined approaches. A total of 43 patients with papillomatosis that received a combined therapy were followed in the period from 2009 to 2013. The treatment included electrosurgery and CO2 laser surgery alongside with either immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) (Calgevax) or α-interferon. In the control group without immunotherapy (n = 16) we used conventional microlaryngeal surgery. During the follow-up, relapse occurred in two patients for the CO2 laser surgery with Calgevax immunotherapy group (n = 16). In the group treated with α-interferon preceded by CO2 laser surgery (n = 9) and electrosurgery (n = 2), relapse had occurred in three patients. Among the control group, recurrence was observed in six patients. This required re-operation. Our data showed a three times more frequent relapses among patients who were operated with conventional surgery as compared to those operated with CO2 laser surgery and Calgevax immunotherapy, and two times more often relapses in patients operated with conventional surgery as compared to those with electrosurgery and CO2 laser surgery and application of α-interferon therapy. Conventional and laser surgeries have a palliative effect, though playing an important role in ensuring the airway patency. While specific antivirus treatment for human papilloma viruses does not exist, the immune modulation with Calgevax considerably reduces the frequency of relapses, by stimulating cellular immune effector mechanisms. The combined protocol allows rarefication of relapses and improvement of patients’ quality of life, but not complete healing. PMID:26692782

  16. Scaling VOI size in 3D μCT studies of trabecular bone: a test of the over-sampling hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lazenby, Richard A; Skinner, Matthew M; Kivell, Tracy L; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2011-02-01

    For comparative 3D microCT studies of trabecular bone, the use of a volume of interest (VOI) scaled to body size may avoid over-sampling the trabecular mass in smaller versus larger-bodied taxa and comparison of regions that are not functionally homologous (Fajardo and Müller: Am J Phys Anthropol 115 (2001) 327-336), though the influence on quantitative analyses using scaled versus nonscaled VOIs remains poorly characterized. We compare trabecular architectural properties reflecting mass, organization, and orientation from three volumes of interest (large, scaled, and small) obtained from the distal first metacarpal in a sample of Homo (n = 10) and Pan (n = 12). We test the null hypotheses that neither absolute VOI size, nor scaling of the VOI to metacarpal size as a proxy for body size, biases intraspecific analyses nor impacts the detection of interspecific differences. These hypotheses were only partially supported. While certain properties (e.g., bone volume fraction or trabecular thickness) were not affected by varying VOI size within taxa, others were significantly impacted (e.g., intersection surface, connectivity, and structure). In comparing large versus scaled VOIs, we found that the large VOI inflated the number and/or magnitude of significant differences between Homo and Pan. In summary, our results support the use of scaled VOIs in studies of trabecular architecture. PMID:20979207

  17. Site specific effect of tobacco addiction in upper aerodigestive tract tumors: a retrospective clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Amita; Ahlawat, Babita; Sharma, Sonam

    2014-01-01

    An institutional study was carried out in 102 patients to investigate the site specific effect of addictions, that is, tobacco smoking and tobacco chewing (smokeless), both independently and synergistically in development of malignancies in upper aerodigestive tract through retrograde questionnaire. The histopathologically proven cases were interviewed regarding different forms of addictions followed by clinical examination and investigations for grading (according to Modified Broadmann's method) and TNM staging (according to UICC) according to the tumor site. Statistical analysis was done by Pearson test. Out of all proven cases of cancers, 29.4% were only tobacco chewers (smokeless), 25.5% were only smokers, 42.2% were having both types of tobacco addictions (smoke and smokeless), and only 2.9% were having no addiction. Out of only tobacco chewers (smokeless), 83.3% were of oral cavity cancers, 6.7% were of oro- and hypopharynx and the rest were of others. Among only smokers, 69.2% cases were of laryngeal and oro- and hypopharynx as compared to 11.5% of oral cavity cancers (nearly 6 times). Tobacco (smokeless) chewing is associated with oral cancers whereas tobacco smoking is associated with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco act in synergy with each other. PMID:25431788

  18. Minor Salivary Gland Tumours of Upper Aerodigestive Tract: A Clinicopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Wyszyńska-Pawelec, Grażyna; Gontarz, Michał; Zapała, Jan; Szuta, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study of 56 patients with minor salivary gland tumours (MSGTs) of the upper aerodigestive tract is to present demographic features, distribution of tumours as well as methods and results of treatment performed in our institution over a 10-year period. Of 221 patients with salivary gland tumours, 56 patients with MSGT were selected. There were 36 female and 20 male patients aged from 8 to 81 years. Male-to-female ratio was 1 : 2 in the group of benign MSGT and 1 : 1.7 in the group of malignant tumours. The palate was the most frequent site of MSGT (45.6%), followed by buccal mucosa (19.3%). Of all MSGTs 63.2% were malignant, and 36.8% were benign. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most common neoplasm (31.6%), followed by pleomorphic adenoma (29.8%). Surgery was the method of choice in the treatment of patients with MSGT. Postoperative defects were reconstructed by prosthetic obturators, local flaps, and free radial forearm flap. Relative survival for patients with malignant MSGT was 88% at three years and 71.5% at five years. MSGTs are more frequent in females and predominantly affect the palate. Malignant MSGTs are more common than benign. PMID:22675346

  19. DNA methylation changes associated with risk factors in tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract

    PubMed Central

    Cuenin, Cyrille; Zaridze, David; Balassiano, Karen; Lima, Sheila CS; Matos, Elena; Daudt, Alexander; Koifman, Sergio; Filho, Victor Wunsch; Menezes, Ana MB; Curado, Maria Paula; Ferro, Gilles; Vaissière, Thomas; Sylla, Bakary S; Tommasino, Massimo; Pinto, Luis Felipe Ribeiro; Boffetta, Paolo; Hainaut, Pierre; Brennan, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) are common forms of malignancy associated with tobacco and alcohol exposures, although human papillomavirus and nutritional deficiency are also important risk factors. While somatically acquired DNA methylation changes have been associated with UADT cancers, what triggers these events and precise epigenetic targets are poorly understood. In this study, we applied quantitative profiling of DNA methylation states in a panel of cancer-associated genes to a case-control study of UADT cancers. Our analyses revealed a high frequency of aberrant hypermethylation of several genes, including MYOD1, CHRNA3 and MTHFR in UADT tumors, whereas CDKN2A was moderately hypermethylated. Among differentially methylated genes, we identified a new gene (the nicotinic acetycholine receptor gene) as target of aberrant hypermethylation in UADT cancers, suggesting that epigenetic deregulation of nicotinic acetycholine receptors in non-neuronal tissues may promote the development of UADT cancers. Importantly, we found that sex and age is strongly associated with the methylation states, whereas tobacco smoking and alcohol intake may also influence the methylation levels in specific genes. This study identifies aberrant DNA methylation patterns in UADT cancers and suggests a potential mechanism by which environmental factors may deregulate key cellular genes involved in tumor suppression and contribute to UADT cancers. PMID:22430803

  20. DNA methylation changes associated with risk factors in tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Mani, Samson; Szymańska, Katarzyna; Cuenin, Cyrille; Zaridze, David; Balassiano, Karen; Lima, Sheila C S; Matos, Elena; Daudt, Alexander; Koifman, Sergio; Filho, Victor Wunsch; Menezes, Ana M B; Curado, Maria Paula; Ferro, Gilles; Vaissière, Thomas; Sylla, Bakary S; Tommasino, Massimo; Pinto, Luis Felipe Ribeiro; Boffetta, Paolo; Hainaut, Pierre; Brennan, Paul; Herceg, Zdenko

    2012-03-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) are common forms of malignancy associated with tobacco and alcohol exposures, although human papillomavirus and nutritional deficiency are also important risk factors. While somatically acquired DNA methylation changes have been associated with UADT cancers, what triggers these events and precise epigenetic targets are poorly understood. In this study, we applied quantitative profiling of DNA methylation states in a panel of cancer-associated genes to a case-control study of UADT cancers. Our analyses revealed a high frequency of aberrant hypermethylation of several genes, including MYOD1, CHRNA3 and MTHFR in UADT tumors, whereas CDKN2A was moderately hypermethylated. Among differentially methylated genes, we identified a new gene (the nicotinic acetycholine receptor gene) as target of aberrant hypermethylation in UADT cancers, suggesting that epigenetic deregulation of nicotinic acetycholine receptors in non-neuronal tissues may promote the development of UADT cancers. Importantly, we found that sex and age is strongly associated with the methylation states, whereas tobacco smoking and alcohol intake may also influence the methylation levels in specific genes. This study identifies aberrant DNA methylation patterns in UADT cancers and suggests a potential mechanism by which environmental factors may deregulate key cellular genes involved in tumor suppression and contribute to UADT cancers. PMID:22430803

  1. Hyaluronic Acid: Perspectives in Upper Aero-Digestive Tract. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Manuele; Moffa, Antonio; Sabatino, Lorenzo; Pace, Annalisa; Oliveto, Giuseppe; Vitali, Massimiliano; Baptista, Peter; Salvinelli, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, topical therapies guarantee a better delivery of high concentrations of pharmacologic agents to the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). The use of topical drugs, which are able to reduce mucosal inflammation and to improve healing tissues, can represent a relevant therapeutic advance. Topical sodium hyaluronate (SH) has recently been recognized as adjuvant treatment in the chronic inflammatory disease of the UADT. Aims The aim of our work was to review the published literature regarding all the potential therapeutic effects of SH in the chronic inflammatory disease of UADT. Methods Relevant published studies were searched in Pubmed, Google Scholar, Ovid using keywords (“sodium hyaluronate” and “upper airways”) or Medical Subject Headings. Results At the end of our selection process, sixteen publications have been included. Six of them in the post-operative period of nasal-sinus surgery, 2 of them in pediatric patients affected by recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, 4 of them in reducing symptoms and preventing exacerbations of chronic upper airways in adult population, 4 of them in patients with chronic inflammatory disease of UADT, including gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Conclusions Topical administration of SH plays a pivotkey role in the postoperative phase of patients undergoing FESS and nasal surgery, and positive results are generally observed in all the patients suffering from UADT chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:26120837

  2. A Rare Truncating BRCA2 Variant and Genetic Susceptibility to Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Anantharaman, Devasena; Timofeeva, Maria N.; Gaborieau, Valérie; Chabrier, Amélie; Vallée, Maxime P.; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Thakker, Nalin S.; Conway, David I.; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M.; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Eluf-Neto, José; Boffetta, Paolo; Fernández Garrote, Leticia; Polesel, Jerry; Lener, Marcin; Jaworowska, Ewa; Lubiński, Jan; Boccia, Stefania; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja A.; Mahimkar, Manoj B.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Franceschi, Silvia; Byrnes, Graham; Brennan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Deleterious BRCA2 genetic variants markedly increase risk of developing breast cancer. A rare truncating BRCA2 genetic variant, rs11571833 (K3326X), has been associated with a 2.5-fold risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma but only a modest 26% increase in breast cancer risk. We analyzed the association between BRCA2 SNP rs11571833 and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk with multivariable unconditional logistic regression adjusted by sex and combinations of study and country for 5942 UADT squamous cell carcinoma case patients and 8086 control patients from nine different studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. rs11571833 was associated with UADT cancers (odds ratio = 2.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.89 to 3.38, P = 3x10-10) and was present in European, Latin American, and Indian populations but extremely rare in Japanese populations. The association appeared more apparent in smokers (current or former) compared with never smokers (P het = .026). A robust association between a truncating BRCA2 variant and UADT cancer risk suggests that treatment strategies orientated towards BRCA2 mutations may warrant further investigation in UADT tumors. PMID:25838448

  3. A rare truncating BRCA2 variant and genetic susceptibility to upper aerodigestive tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Anantharaman, Devasena; Timofeeva, Maria N; Gaborieau, Valérie; Chabrier, Amélie; Vallée, Maxime P; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Thakker, Nalin S; Conway, David I; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Eluf-Neto, José; Boffetta, Paolo; Fernández Garrote, Leticia; Polesel, Jerry; Lener, Marcin; Jaworowska, Ewa; Lubiński, Jan; Boccia, Stefania; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja A; Mahimkar, Manoj B; Matsuo, Keitaro; Franceschi, Silvia; Byrnes, Graham; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D

    2015-05-01

    Deleterious BRCA2 genetic variants markedly increase risk of developing breast cancer. A rare truncating BRCA2 genetic variant, rs11571833 (K3326X), has been associated with a 2.5-fold risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma but only a modest 26% increase in breast cancer risk. We analyzed the association between BRCA2 SNP rs11571833 and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk with multivariable unconditional logistic regression adjusted by sex and combinations of study and country for 5942 UADT squamous cell carcinoma case patients and 8086 control patients from nine different studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. rs11571833 was associated with UADT cancers (odds ratio = 2.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.89 to 3.38, P = 3x10(-10)) and was present in European, Latin American, and Indian populations but extremely rare in Japanese populations. The association appeared more apparent in smokers (current or former) compared with never smokers (P het = .026). A robust association between a truncating BRCA2 variant and UADT cancer risk suggests that treatment strategies orientated towards BRCA2 mutations may warrant further investigation in UADT tumors. PMID:25838448

  4. A Model for Predicting Gastrostomy Tube Placement in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Upper Aerodigestive Tract Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Ashley C.; Moustafa, Farah; Worley, Mitch; Waltonen, Joshua D.; D'Agostino, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Identifying high-risk patients in the preoperative period can allow physicians to optimize nutritional status early for better outcomes after head and neck cancer resections. OBJECTIVE To develop a model to predict preoperatively the need for gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement in patients undergoing surgery of the upper aerodigestive tract. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This retrospective medical record review included all adult patients diagnosed with head and neck cancers who underwent tumor resection from 2007 through 2012 at Wake Forest Baptist Health, a level 1 tertiary care center. Records were screened for patient demographics, tumor characteristics, surgical treatment type, and postoperative placement of G-tube. A total of 743 patients underwent resection of head and neck tumors. Of these, 203 were excluded for prior G-tube placement, prior head and neck resection, G-tube placement for chemoradiotherapy, and resection for solely nodal disease, leaving 540 patients for analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Placement of postoperative G-tube. RESULTS Of the 540 included patients, 23% required G-tube placement. The following variables were significant and independent predictors of G-tube placement: preoperative irradiation (odds ratio [OR], 4.1; 95% CI, 2.4–6.9; P < .001), supracricoid laryngectomy (OR, 26.0; 95% CI, 4.9–142.9; P < .001), tracheostomy tube placement (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5–4.4; P < .001), clinical node stage N0 vs N2 (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4–4.2; P = .01), clinical node stage N1 vs N2 (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P = .01), preoperative weight loss (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2–3.2; P = .004), dysphagia (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2–3.2; P = .005), reconstruction type (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9; P = .02), and tumor stage (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9; P = .03). A predictive model was developed based on these variables. In the validation analysis, we found that the average predicted score for patients who received G-tubes was statistically

  5. Quantitative Expression and Immunogenicity of MAGE-3 and -6 in Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Andrade Filho, Pedro A.; López-Albaitero, Andrés; Xi, Liqiang; Gooding, William; Godfrey, Tony; Ferris, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    The MAGE antigens are frequently expressed cancer vaccine targets. However, quantitative analysis of MAGE expression in upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) tumor cells and its association with T cell recognition has not been performed, hindering the selection of appropriate candidates for MAGE specific immunotherapy. Using quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR), we evaluated the expression of MAGE-3/6 in 65 UADT cancers, 48 normal samples from tumor matched sites and 7 HLA-A*0201+squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) cell lines. Expression results were confirmed using western blot. HLA-A*0201:MAGE-3(271–279) specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (MAGE-CTL) from SCCHN patients and healthy donors showed that MAGE-3/6 expression was highly associated with CTL recognition in vitro. Based on MAGE-3/6 expression we could identify 31 (47%) of the 65 UADT tumors which appeared to express MAGE-3/6 at levels that correlated with efficient CTL recognition. To confirm that the level of MAGE-3 expression was responsible for CTL recognition, two MAGE-3/6 mRNAhigh SCCHN cell lines, PCI-13 and PCI-30, were subjected to MAGE-3/6 specific knockdown. RNAi–transfected cells showed that MAGE expression, and MAGE-CTL recognition, were significantly reduced. Furthermore, treatment of cells expressing low MAGE-3/6 mRNA with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), increased the expression of MAGE-3/6 and CTL recognition. Thus, using QRT-PCR UADT cancers frequently express MAGE-3/6 at levels sufficient for CTL recognition, supporting the use of a QRT-PCR based assay for the selection of candidates likely to respond to MAGE-3/6 immunotherapy. Demethylating agents could increase the number of patients amenable for targeting epigenetically modified tumor antigens in vaccine trials. PMID:19610063

  6. Quantitative expression and immunogenicity of MAGE-3 and -6 in upper aerodigestive tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Filho, Pedro A Andrade; López-Albaitero, Andrés; Xi, Liqiang; Gooding, William; Godfrey, Tony; Ferris, Robert L

    2009-10-15

    The MAGE antigens are frequently expressed cancer vaccine targets. However, quantitative analysis of MAGE expression in upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) tumor cells and its association with T-cell recognition has not been performed, hindering the selection of appropriate candidates for MAGE-specific immunotherapy. Using quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR), we evaluated the expression of MAGE-3/6 in 65 UADT cancers, 48 normal samples from tumor matched sites and 7 HLA-A*0201+ squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) cell lines. Expression results were confirmed using Western blot. HLA-A*0201:MAGE-3- (271-279) specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (MAGE-CTL) from SCCHN patients and healthy donors showed that MAGE-3/6 expression was highly associated with CTL recognition in vitro. On the basis of the MAGE-3/6 expression, we could identify 31 (47%) of the 65 UADT tumors, which appeared to express MAGE-3/6 at levels that correlated with efficient CTL recognition. To confirm that the level of MAGE-3 expression was responsible for CTL recognition, 2 MAGE-3/6 mRNA(high) SCCHN cell lines, PCI-13 and PCI-30, were subjected to MAGE-3/6-specific knockdown. RNAi-transfected cells showed that MAGE expression and MAGE-CTL recognition were significantly reduced. Furthermore, treatment of cells expressing low MAGE-3/6 mRNA with a demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC), increased the expression of MAGE-3/6 and CTL recognition. Thus, using QRT-PCR UADT cancers frequently express MAGE-3/6 at levels sufficient for CTL recognition, supporting the use of a QRT-PCR-based assay for the selection of candidates likely to respond to MAGE-3/6 immunotherapy. Demethylating agents could increase the number of patients amenable for targeting epigenetically modified tumor antigens in vaccine trials. PMID:19610063

  7. Occupation and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer: the ARCAGE study.

    PubMed

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Corbin, Marine; Marron, Manuela; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Lagiou, Pagona; Minaki, Ploumitsa; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsague, Xavier; Slamova, Alena; Schejbalova, Miriam; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Barzan, Luigi; Talamini, Renato; Macfarlane, Gary J; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Canova, Cristina; Simonato, Lorenzo; Conway, David I; McKinney, Patricia A; Sneddon, Linda; Thomson, Peter; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M; McCartan, Bernard E; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul; Merletti, Franco

    2012-05-15

    We investigated the association between occupational history and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk in the ARCAGE European case-control study. The study included 1,851 patients with incident cancer of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx or esophagus and 1,949 controls. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ever employment in 283 occupations and 172 industries, adjusting for smoking and alcohol. Men (1,457 cases) and women (394 cases) were analyzed separately and we incorporated a semi-Bayes adjustment approach for multiple comparisons. Among men, we found increased risks for occupational categories previously reported to be associated with at least one type of UADT cancer, including painters (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.01-3.00), bricklayers (1.58, 1.05-2.37), workers employed in the erection of roofs and frames (2.62, 1.08-6.36), reinforced concreters (3.46, 1.11-10.8), dockers (2.91, 1.05-8.05) and workers employed in the construction of roads (3.03, 1.23-7.46), general construction of buildings (1.44, 1.12-1.85) and cargo handling (2.60, 1.17-5.75). With the exception of the first three categories, risks both increased when restricting to long duration of employment and remained elevated after semi-Bayes adjustment. Increased risks were also found for loggers (3.56, 1.20-10.5) and cattle and dairy farming (3.60, 1.15-11.2). Among women, there was no clear evidence of increased risks of UADT cancer in association with occupations or industrial activities. This study provides evidence of an association between some occupational categories and UADT cancer risk among men. The most consistent findings, also supported by previous studies, were obtained for specific workers employed in the construction industry. PMID:21671472

  8. Effect of Aging on Hypopharyngeal Safe Volume and the Aerodigestive Reflexes Protecting the Airways

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Kulwinder S.; Surapaneni, Sri Naveen; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Hafeezullah, Mohammed; Shaker, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Studies on young volunteers have shown that aerodigestive reflexes are triggered before the maximum volume of fluid that can safely collect in the hypopharynx before spilling into the larynx is exceeded (hypopharyngeal safe volume [HPSV]). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of aging on HPSV and pharyngoglottal closure reflex (PGCR), pharyngo-UES contractile reflex (PUCR), and reflexive pharyngeal swallow (RPS). Study Design Comparison between two groups of different age ranges. Methods Ten young (25 ±3 standard deviation [SD] years) and 10 elderly (77 ±3 SD years) subjects were studied. PGCR, PUCR, and RPS were elicited by perfusing water into the pharynx rapidly and slowly. HPSV was determined by abolishing RPS with pharyngeal anesthesia. Results Frequency–elicitation of PGCR and PUCR were significantly lower in the elderly compared to the young during slow water perfusion (47% vs. 97% and 40% vs. 90%, respectively, P <.001). RPS was absent in five of the 30 (17%) slow injections in the elderly group. In these elderly subjects, HPSV was exceeded and laryngeal penetration of the water was seen. The threshold volume to elicit PGCR, PUCR, and RPS was significantly lower than the HPSV during rapid injections. Except for RPS, these volumes were also significantly lower than HPSV during slow injections. Conclusions PGCR, PUCR, and RPS reflexes are triggered at a threshold volume significantly lower than the HPSV in both young and elderly subjects. Lower frequency–elicitation of PGCR, PUCR, and RPS in the elderly can predispose them to the risks of aspiration. PMID:24281906

  9. Inverse association between yoghurt intake and upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Kawakita, Daisuke; Sato, Fumihito; Hosono, Satoyo; Ito, Hidemi; Oze, Isao; Watanabe, Miki; Hanai, Nobuhiro; Hatooka, Shunzo; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Shinoda, Masayuki; Tajima, Kazuo; Murakami, Shingo; Tanaka, Hideo; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2012-09-01

    Although the combination of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking account for approximately 80% of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk, the role of dietary factors, including dairy products, in the risk of these cancers remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the association between dairy product intake and UADT cancer risk in a Japanese population. We conducted a case-control study in 959 patients with UADT cancer and 2877 sex- and age-matched noncancer control subjects who visited the Aichi Cancer Center in Nagoya, Japan. Data on lifestyle factors, including diet, were obtained by self-administered questionnaire. Associations were assessed by multivariate logistic regression models that considered potential confounders. We found a significant inverse association between yoghurt intake and UADT cancer risk with multivariate-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for <1 time/week, ≥ 1 time/week and <1 time/day, and ≥ 1 time/day consumption of yoghurt of 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.54-0.91), 0.67 (0.54-0.84), and 0.73 (0.55-0.95) relative to nonconsumers (P trend=0.005). When stratified by primary tumor site, this association was significant among patients with hypopharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal cancer. However, we saw no significant association between milk or butter intake and UADT cancer risk. In this study, we found that a high intake of yoghurt may lower the risk of developing UADT cancer in a Japanese population. Further investigation of this association is warranted. PMID:22179690

  10. Augmentation of Radiation Response by Panitumumab in Models of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kruser, Tim J.; Armstrong, Eric A.; Ghia, Amol J.; Huang Shyhmin; Wheeler, Deric L.; Radinsky, Robert; Freeman, Daniel J.; Harari, Paul M.

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To examine the interaction between panitumumab, a fully human anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody, and radiation in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma and non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts. Methods and Materials: The head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma lines UM-SCC1 and SCC-1483, as well as the non-small-cell lung cancer line H226, were studied. Tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice were used to assess the in vivo activity of panitumumab alone and combined with radiation. In vitro assays were performed to assess the effect of panitumumab on radiation-induced cell signaling, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Results: Panitumumab increased the radiosensitivity as measured by the clonogenic survival assay. Radiation-induced epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation and downstream signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was inhibited by panitumumab. Panitumumab augmented radiation-induced DNA damage by 1.2-1.6-fold in each of the cell lines studied as assessed by residual {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX foci after radiation. Radiation-induced apoptosis was increased 1.4-1.9-fold by panitumumab, as evidenced by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining and flow cytometry. In vivo, the combination therapy of panitumumab and radiation was superior to panitumumab or radiation alone in the H226 xenografts (p = 0.01) and showed a similar trend in the SCC-1483 xenografts (p = 0.08). In vivo, immunohistochemistry demonstrated the ability of panitumumab to augment the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of radiation. Conclusion: These studies have identified a favorable interaction in the combination of radiation and panitumumab in upper aerodigestive tract tumor models, both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that clinical investigations examining the combination of radiation and panitumumab in the treatment of epithelial tumors warrant

  11. Alcohol consumption in upper aerodigestive tract cancer: Role of head and neck surgeons' recommendations.

    PubMed

    López-Pelayo, Hugo; Miquel, Laia; Altamirano, José; Blanch, José Luís; Gual, Antoni; Lligoña, Anna

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to describe the prevalence of alcohol consumption in patients diagnosed with an upper aerodigestive tract cancer (UADTC) and evaluate the clinical impact of head and neck surgeons' recommendations on alcohol intake. An observational, retrospective, and cross-sectional study was conducted. Socio-demographic data, type of cancer, psychiatric history, substance-use history, and DSM-IV-TR criteria for alcohol dependence were recorded. Patients were asked to report their alcohol consumption before UADTC diagnosis and during their follow-up. All patients were asked if they had received from the specialist any recommendation to reduce or stop their alcohol consumption. One hundred ninety-one patients were included. Laryngeal cancer was the most frequent. 85.3% of patients were alcohol consumers before being diagnosed, 39.8% were risky drinkers, and 13.1% had alcohol dependence. The prevalence of alcohol use decreased by 16.7% after the UADTC was diagnosed. The proportion of risky drinkers decreased from 46.6% to 24.5%. Almost half of the patients did not recall having received any recommendation regarding alcohol consumption. Receiving a recommendation was independently associated with a positive response (reduced or stopped alcohol consumption) with an Odds Ratio 3.7; p < 0.001. Prevalence of alcohol dependence and risky drinking (39.8%) is high in UADTC patients, compared to the general population. Otorhinolaryngologists and head and neck surgeons frequently provide recommendations about alcohol consumption, which has a relevant impact on the reduction of alcohol intake. Further prospective studies focused on brief advice should be performed in order to demonstrate effectiveness in this population. PMID:26992700

  12. Potential Benefits of Edible Berries in the Management of Aerodigestive and Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Bishayee, Anupam; Haskell, Yennie; Do, Chau; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Mohandas, Nima; Sethi, Gautam; Stoner, Gary D

    2016-07-26

    Epidemiological reports as well as experimental studies have demonstrated the significant health benefits provided by regular berry consumption. Berries possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potential against several chronic illnesses, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases. Berries owe their health benefits to phytoconstituents, such as polyphenolic anthocyanins, ellagic acid, and a diverse array of phytochemicals bestowed with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects as well as the ability to engage a multitude of signaling pathways. This review highlights the principal chemical constituents present in berries and their primary molecular targets. The article presents and critically analyzes the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of berry extracts, fractions, and bioactive components on various cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including esophageal, stomach, intestinal, and colorectal cancers as well as cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, such as oral cancer. The current status of clinical studies evaluating berry products in several aforementioned cancers is presented. Various emerging issues including dose-ranging and dosage forms, the role of synergy and the usage of combination therapy as well as other relevant areas essential for the development of berry phytoconstituents as mainstream chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against aerodigestive and GIT cancers are critically discussed. PMID:25781639

  13. A sex-specific association between a 15q25 variant and upper aerodigestive tract cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dan; Truong, Therese; Gaborieau, Valerie; Byrnes, Graham; Chabrier, Amelie; Chuang, Shu-chun; Olshan, Andrew F.; Weissler, Mark C.; Luo, Jingchun; Romkes, Marjorie; Buch, Shama; Nukui, Tomoko; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Talamini, Renato; Kelsey, Karl T; Christensen, Brock; McClean, Mike; Lacko, Martin; Manni, Johannes J; Peters, Wilbert H. M.; Lubiński, Jan; Trubicka, Joanna; Lener, Marcin; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lazarus, Philip; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Chang, Shen-Chih; Wang, Renyi; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Chen, Chu; Benhamou, Simone; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Thakker, Nalin S; Conway, David I; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M.; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Bucur, Alexandru; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Neto, José Eluf; Fernandez, Leticia; Boccia, Stefania; Hashibe, Mia; Hayes, Richard B.; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Sequence variants located at 15q25 have been associated with lung cancer and propensity to smoke. We recently reported an association between rs16969968 and risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx and esophagus) in women (odds ratio (OR) =1.24, P=0.003) with little effect in men (OR=1.04, P=0.35). Methods In a coordinated genotyping study within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, we have sought to replicate these findings in an additional 4,604 cases and 6,239 controls from 10 independent UADT cancer case-control studies. Results rs16969968 was again associated with UADT cancers in women (OR=1.21, 95% confidence interval(CI)=1.08–1.36, P=0.001) and a similar lack of observed effect in men (OR=1.02, 95%CI=0.95–1.09, P=0.66) (P-heterogeneity=0.01). In a pooled analysis of the original and current studies, totaling 8,572 UADT cancer cases and 11,558 controls, the association was observed among females (OR=1.22, 95%CI=1.12–1.34, P=7×10−6) but not males (OR=1.02, 95%CI=0.97–1.08, P=0.35) (P-heterogeneity=6×10−4). There was little evidence for a sex difference in the association between this variant and cigarettes smoked per day, with male and female rs16969968 variant carriers smoking approximately the same amount more in the 11,991 ever smokers in the pooled analysis of the 14 studies (P-heterogeneity=0.86). Conclusions This study has confirmed a sex difference in the association between the 15q25 variant rs16969968 and UADT cancers. Impact Further research is warranted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these observations. PMID:21335511

  14. The 12p13.33/RAD52 locus and genetic susceptibility to squamous cell cancers of upper aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Oliver, Javier; Timofeeva, Maria N; Gaborieau, Valérie; Johansson, Mattias; Chabrier, Amélie; Wozniak, Magdalena B; Brenner, Darren R; Vallée, Maxime P; Anantharaman, Devasena; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Thakker, Nalin S; Conway, David I; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Eluf-Neto, José; Boffetta, Paolo; Garrote, Leticia Fernández; Serraino, Diego; Lener, Marcin; Jaworowska, Ewa; Lubiński, Jan; Boccia, Stefania; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja A; Mahimkar, Manoj B; Matsuo, Keitaro; Franceschi, Silvia; Byrnes, Graham; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variants located within the 12p13.33/RAD52 locus have been associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Here, within 5,947 UADT cancers and 7,789 controls from 9 different studies, we found rs10849605, a common intronic variant in RAD52, to be also associated with upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) squamous cell carcinoma cases (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15, p = 6x10(-4)). We additionally identified rs10849605 as a RAD52 cis-eQTL inUADT(p = 1x10(-3)) and LUSC (p = 9x10(-4)) tumours, with the UADT/LUSC risk allele correlated with increased RAD52 expression levels. The 12p13.33 locus, encompassing rs10849605/RAD52, was identified as a significant somatic focal copy number amplification in UADT(n = 374, q-value = 0.075) and LUSC (n = 464, q-value = 0.007) tumors and correlated with higher RAD52 tumor expression levels (p = 6x10(-48) and p = 3x10(-29) in UADT and LUSC, respectively). In combination, these results implicate increased RAD52 expression in both genetic susceptibility and tumorigenesis of UADT and LUSC tumors. PMID:25793373

  15. Roles of retinoids and their nuclear receptors in the development and prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Lotan, R

    1997-01-01

    Vitamin A analogs (retinoids) suppress oral and lung carcinogenesis in animal models and prevent the development of second primary tumors in head, neck, and lung cancer patients. These effects result from changes in the expression of genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Retinoic acid receptors (RARs; -alpha, -beta, and -gamma) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs; -alpha, -beta, and, -gamma) are retinoid-activated transcription factors, which mediate effects of retinoids on gene expression. Therefore, alterations in receptor expression or function could interfere with the retinoid signaling pathway and thereby enhance cancer development. We found that the expression of RAR beta was suppressed in more than 50% of oral and lung premalignant lesions in individuals without cancer and in dysplastic lesions adjacent to cancer and in malignant oral and lung carcinomas. The expression of the other receptors was not different among normal, dysplastic, and malignant oral tissues. However, the expression of RAR gamma and RXR beta was somewhat decreased in lung cancers. These results show that RAR beta expression is lost at early stages of carcinogenesis in the aerodigestive tract and support the hypothesis that the loss of RAR beta expression may facilitate the development of some of these cancers. PMID:9255592

  16. The 12p13.33/RAD52 Locus and Genetic Susceptibility to Squamous Cell Cancers of Upper Aerodigestive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Oliver, Javier; Timofeeva, Maria N.; Gaborieau, Valérie; Johansson, Mattias; Chabrier, Amélie; Wozniak, Magdalena B.; Brenner, Darren R.; Vallée, Maxime P.; Anantharaman, Devasena; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Thakker, Nalin S.; Conway, David I.; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M.; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Eluf-Neto, José; Boffetta, Paolo; Garrote, Leticia Fernández; Serraino, Diego; Lener, Marcin; Jaworowska, Ewa; Lubiński, Jan; Boccia, Stefania; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja A.; Mahimkar, Manoj B.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Franceschi, Silvia; Byrnes, Graham; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variants located within the 12p13.33/RAD52 locus have been associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Here, within 5,947 UADT cancers and 7,789 controls from 9 different studies, we found rs10849605, a common intronic variant in RAD52, to be also associated with upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) squamous cell carcinoma cases (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.15, p = 6x10−4). We additionally identified rs10849605 as a RAD52 cis-eQTL inUADT(p = 1x10−3) and LUSC (p = 9x10−4) tumours, with the UADT/LUSC risk allele correlated with increased RAD52 expression levels. The 12p13.33 locus, encompassing rs10849605/RAD52, was identified as a significant somatic focal copy number amplification in UADT(n = 374, q-value = 0.075) and LUSC (n = 464, q-value = 0.007) tumors and correlated with higher RAD52 tumor expression levels (p = 6x10−48 and p = 3x10−29 in UADT and LUSC, respectively). In combination, these results implicate increased RAD52 expression in both genetic susceptibility and tumorigenesis of UADT and LUSC tumors. PMID:25793373

  17. Improved longitudinal [(18)F]-AV45 amyloid PET by white matter reference and VOI-based partial volume effect correction.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Matthias; Högenauer, Marcus; Delker, Andreas; Sauerbeck, Julia; Bartenstein, Peter; Seibyl, John; Rominger, Axel

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid positron-emission-tomography (PET) offers an important research and diagnostic tool for investigating Alzheimer's disease (AD). The majority of amyloid PET studies have used the cerebellum as a reference region, and clinical studies have not accounted for atrophy-based partial volume effects (PVE). Longitudinal studies using cerebellum as reference tissue have revealed only small mean increases and high inter-subject variability in amyloid binding. We aimed to test the effects of different reference regions and PVE-correction (PVEC) on the discriminatory power and longitudinal performance of amyloid PET. We analyzed [(18)F]-AV45 PET and T1-weighted MRI data of 962 subjects at baseline and two-year follow-up data of 258 subjects. Cortical composite volume-of-interest (VOI) values (COMP) for tracer uptake were generated using either full brain atlas VOIs, gray matter segmented VOIs or gray matter segmented VOIs after VOI-based PVEC. Standard-uptake-value ratios (SUVR) were calculated by scaling the COMP values to uptake in cerebellum (SUVRCBL), brainstem (SUVRBST) or white matter (SUVRWM). Mean SUV, SUVR, and changes after PVEC were compared at baseline between diagnostic groups of healthy controls (HC; N=316), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=483) and AD (N=163). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were calculated for the discriminations between HC, MCI and AD, and expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Finally, the longitudinal [(18)F]-AV45-PET data were used to analyze the impact of quantitation procedures on apparent changes in amyloid load over time. Reference region SUV was most constant between diagnosis groups for the white matter. PVEC led to decreases of COMP-SUV in HC (-18%) and MCI (-10%), but increases in AD (+7%). Highest AUCs were found when using PVEC with white matter scaling for the contrast between HC/AD (0.907) or with brainstem scaling for the contrast between HC/MCI (0.658). Longitudinal increases were greatest in all diagnosis

  18. A method of producing carcinoma in upper aerodigestive tree and esophagus of the Syrian golden hamster using wounding and instillation of N-methylnitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Estensen, Richard D; Anderson, W Robert; Galbraith, Arthur R; Hartle, Donna E; Jordan, Margaret M; Ondrey, Frank G; Wattenberg, Lee W

    2007-08-01

    Details of a method for producing carcinoma of the aerodigestive tree of the Syrian golden hamster and the use of this model to evaluate putative agents for chemoprevention of these carcinomas are described. The method produces a majority of squamous carcinomas of the trachea and glottis that follow squamous metaplasia of respiratory epithelium. In addition, seen are adenocarcinomas arising in glands of the respiratory tree. Squamous carcinomas of the digestive epithelium arise in primary squamous epithelium. These tumors of digestive epithelium have a growth pattern that differs from that of the respiratory epithelium in that they grow and invade without filling the epithelial layer with tumor cells. PMID:17684140

  19. Associations of red and processed meat with survival among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract and lung.

    PubMed

    Miles, Fayth L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald; Rao, Jian-Yu; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The effect of red and processed meats on cancer survival is unclear. We sought to examine the role of total and processed red meat consumption on all-cause mortality among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) and lung, in order to test our hypothesis that red or processed meat was associated with overall mortality in these patients. Using data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Los Angeles County, we conducted a case-only analysis to examine the association of red or processed meat consumption on mortality after 12 years of follow-up, using a diet history questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for potential confounders. Of 601 UADT cancer cases and 611 lung cancer cases, there were 248 and 406 deaths, respectively, yielding crude mortality rates of 0.07 and 0.12 deaths per year. Comparing the highest with lowest quartile of red meat consumption, the adjusted HR was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.04-2.57) among UADT cancer cases; for red or processed meat, the adjusted HR was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.10-2.82). A dose-response trend was observed. A weaker association was observed with red meat consumption and overall mortality among lung cancer cases. In conclusion, this case-only analysis demonstrated that increased consumption of red or processed meats was associated with mortality among UADT cancer cases and WAS weakly associated with mortality among lung cancer cases. PMID:27188908

  20. Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Sensory Nerve Terminals of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract of Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Liancai; Chen, Jingming; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Nyirenda, Themba; Benson, Brian; Gupta, Fiona; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H.; Caviness, John N.; Shill, Holly A.; Sabbagh, Marwan; Samanta, Johan E.; Sue, Lucia I.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and causes significant morbidity and mortality. PD dysphagia has usually been explained as dysfunction of central motor control, much like other motor symptoms that are characteristic of the disease. However, PD dysphagia does not correlate with severity of motor symptoms nor does it respond to motor therapies. It is known that PD patients have sensory deficits in the pharynx, and that impaired sensation may contribute to dysphagia. However, the underlying cause of the pharyngeal sensory deficits in PD is not known. We hypothesized that PD dysphagia with sensory deficits may be due to degeneration of the sensory nerve terminals in the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT). We have previously shown that Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS) is present in the main pharyngeal sensory nerves of PD patients, but not in controls. In this study, the sensory terminals in UAT mucosa were studied to discern the presence and distribution of LTS. Whole-mount specimens (tongue-pharynx-larynx-upper esophagus) were obtained from 10 deceased human subjects with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (five with dysphagia and five without) and four age-matched healthy controls. Samples were taken from six sites and immunostained for phosphorylated α-synuclein (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS-immunoreactive (PAS-ir) axons in all the PD subjects and in none of the controls. Notably, PD patients with dysphagia had more PAS-ir axons in the regions that are critical for initiating the swallowing reflex. These findings suggest that Lewy pathology affects mucosal sensory axons in specific regions of the UAT and may be related to PD dysphagia. PMID:26041249

  1. Immunophenotypic and Clinical Differences Between the Nasal and Extranasal Subtypes of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qing-Feng; Wang, Wei-Hu; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Huang, Wen-Ting; Lu, Ning; Zhou, Li-Qiang; Ouyang, Han; Jin, Jing; Li, Ye-Xiong

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate, in a large cohort of patients, the immunophenotypic and clinical differences of nasal and extranasal extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT-NKTCL) and examine the relevance of the immunophenotype on the clinical behavior, prognosis, and treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 231 patients with UADT-NKTCL were recruited. One hundred eighty-one patients had primary location in the nasal cavity (nasal UADT-NKTCL), and 50 patients had primary extranasal UADT-NKTCL. Results: Patients with extranasal UADT-NKTCL had more adverse clinical features, including advanced-stage disease, regional lymph node involvement, B symptoms, and poor performance status, than patients with nasal UADT-NKTCL. In addition, CD56 and granzyme B were less frequently expressed in extranasal UADT-NKTCL. The 5-year overall survival rate was 74.1% for the entire group and 76.0% for early-stage disease. The 5-year overall survival rate for extranasal UADT-NKTCL was similar or superior to that of nasal UADT-NKTCL for all disease stages (76.9% vs 73.4%, P=.465), stage I disease (75.9% vs 79.2%, P=.786), and stage II disease (83.3% vs 50.3%, P=.018). CD56 expression and a Ki-67 proliferation rate ≥50% predicted poorer survival for extranasal UADT-NKTCL but not for nasal UADT-NKTCL. Conclusions: Patients with nasal and extranasal UADT-NKTCL have significantly different clinical features, immunophenotypes, and prognosis. Extranasal UADT-NKTCL should be considered as a distinct subgroup apart from the most commonly diagnosed prototype of nasal UADT-NKTCL.

  2. Descriptive epidemiology of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in France: incidence over 1980-2005 and projection to 2010.

    PubMed

    Ligier, Karine; Belot, Aurélien; Launoy, Guy; Velten, Michel; Bossard, Nadine; Iwaz, Jean; Righini, Christian Adrien; Delafosse, Patricia; Guizard, Anne-Valérie

    2011-04-01

    Over the 1998-2002 period, some French Départements have been shown to have the world's highest incidence of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers in men. The objectives were to describe the changes in UADT cancer incidence in France over the 1980-2005 period, present projections for 2010, and describe the anatomical and histological characteristics of these tumours. The trend of cancer-incidence over 1980-2005 and projection up to 2010 were obtained using age-period-cohort models (data from eleven cancer registries) and incidence/mortality ratios in the area covered by these registries. The description of UADT cancers by anatomical and histological characteristics concerned data collected between 1980 and 2004 in eleven cancer registries. In men, cancer incidence decreased in all cancer sites and the world-standardized incidence rates decreased by 42.9% for lip-oral cavity-pharynx (LOCP) cancers and 50.4% for larynx cancer. In women, the world-standardized incidence rates increased by 48.6% for LOCP cancers and 66.7% for larynx cancer. Incidence increased the most for oropharynx, palate, and hypopharynx cancers. Incidence analysis by one-year cohorts revealed a progressive shift of the incidence peak towards younger and younger generations, with no change as yet in the mean age at diagnosis. In France, the incidence of these cancers is still higher than in other European and North American countries. This urges actions towards reducing the major risk factors for those cancers, namely alcohol and tobacco consumption, especially among young people, and reducing exposure to risk factors due to social inequalities. PMID:21397551

  3. Under which conditions, additional monitoring data are worth gathering for improving decision making? Application of the VOI theory in the Bayesian Event Tree eruption forecasting framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loschetter, Annick; Rohmer, Jérémy

    2016-04-01

    Standard and new generation of monitoring observations provide in almost real-time important information about the evolution of the volcanic system. These observations are used to update the model and contribute to a better hazard assessment and to support decision making concerning potential evacuation. The framework BET_EF (based on Bayesian Event Tree) developed by INGV enables dealing with the integration of information from monitoring with the prospect of decision making. Using this framework, the objectives of the present work are i. to propose a method to assess the added value of information (within the Value Of Information (VOI) theory) from monitoring; ii. to perform sensitivity analysis on the different parameters that influence the VOI from monitoring. VOI consists in assessing the possible increase in expected value provided by gathering information, for instance through monitoring. Basically, the VOI is the difference between the value with information and the value without additional information in a Cost-Benefit approach. This theory is well suited to deal with situations that can be represented in the form of a decision tree such as the BET_EF tool. Reference values and ranges of variation (for sensitivity analysis) were defined for input parameters, based on data from the MESIMEX exercise (performed at Vesuvio volcano in 2006). Complementary methods for sensitivity analyses were implemented: local, global using Sobol' indices and regional using Contribution to Sample Mean and Variance plots. The results (specific to the case considered) obtained with the different techniques are in good agreement and enable answering the following questions: i. Which characteristics of monitoring are important for early warning (reliability)? ii. How do experts' opinions influence the hazard assessment and thus the decision? Concerning the characteristics of monitoring, the more influent parameters are the means rather than the variances for the case considered

  4. Photodynamic Therapy for 101 Early Cancers of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract, the Esophagus, and the Bronchi: A Single-Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Grosjean, P.; Fontolliet, Ch.; Wagnieres, G.; Woodtli, A.; Bergh, H. Van Den; Monnier, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    Cancer, when detected at an early stage, has a very good probability of being eradicated by surgery or radiotherapy. However, less aggressive treatments also tend to provide high rates of cure without the side effects of radical therapy. We report on the results of our clinical experience with photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of early carcinomas in the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus, and the tracheobronchial tree. Sixty-four patients with 101 squamous cell carcinomas were treated with three different photosensitizers: hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), Photofrin II, and tetra (m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC). Seventy-seven (76%) tumors showed a complete rsponse with no recurrence after a mean follow-up period of 27 months. There was no significant difference in terms of cure rates among the three dyes. However, mTHPC has a stronger phototoxicity and induces a shorter skin photosensitization than either of the other photosensitizers. There were eight major complications: three esophagotracheal fistulae after illumination with red light in the esophagus, two esophageal stenoses following 360° circumferential irradiation, and three bronchial stenoses. Illumination with the less penetrating green light and the use of a 180° or 240° windowed cylindrical light distributor render the risk of complications in the esophagus essentially impossible, without reducing the efficacy of the treatment. Therefore, PDT may be considered as a safe and effective treatment for early carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus, and the tracheobronchial tree. PMID:18493496

  5. Genetic variants in DNA repair pathways and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers: combined analysis of data from two genome-wide association studies in European populations.

    PubMed

    Babron, Marie-Claude; Kazma, Rémi; Gaborieau, Valérie; McKay, James; Brennan, Paul; Sarasin, Alain; Benhamou, Simone

    2014-07-01

    DNA repair pathways are good candidates for upper aerodigestive tract cancer susceptibility because of their critical role in maintaining genome integrity. We have selected 13 pathways involved in DNA repair representing 212 autosomal genes. To assess the role of these pathways and their associated genes, two European data sets from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium were pooled, totaling 1954 cases and 3121 controls, with documented demographic, lifetime alcohol and tobacco consumption information. We applied an innovative approach that tests single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-sets within DNA repair pathways and then within genes belonging to the significant pathways. We showed an association between the polymerase pathway and oral cavity/pharynx cancers (P-corrected = 4.45 × 10(-) (2)), explained entirely by the association with one SNP, rs1494961 (P = 2.65 × 10(-) (4)), a missense mutation V306I in the second exon of HELQ gene. We also found an association between the cell cycle regulation pathway and esophagus cancer (P-corrected = 1.48 × 10(-) (2)), explained by three SNPs located within or near CSNK1E gene: rs1534891 (P = 1.27 × 10(-) (4)), rs7289981 (P = 3.37 × 10(-) (3)) and rs13054361 (P = 4.09 × 10(-) (3)). As a first attempt to investigate pathway-level associations, our results suggest a role of specific DNA repair genes/pathways in specific upper aerodigestive tract cancer sites. PMID:24658182

  6. High-Resolution Optical Imaging of Benign and Malignant Mucosa in the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: An Atlas for Image-Guided Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L.; Vila, Peter M.; Park, Richard W.; Schwarz, Richard; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Teng, Marita S.; Gurudutt, Vivek V.; Genden, Eric M.; Miles, Brett; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Background High-resolution optical imaging provides real-time visualization of mucosa in the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) which allows non-invasive discrimination of benign and neoplastic epithelium. The high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) utilizes a fiberoptic probe in conjunction with a tissue contrast agent to display nuclei and cellular architecture. This technology has broad potential applications to intraoperative margin detection and early cancer detection. Methods Our group has created an extensive image collection of both neoplastic and normal epithelium of the UADT. Here, we present and describe imaging characteristics of benign, dysplastic, and malignant mucosa in the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and esophagus. Results There are differences in the nuclear organization and overall tissue architecture of benign and malignant mucosa which correlate with histopathologic diagnosis. Different anatomic subsites also display unique imaging characteristics. Conclusion HRME allows discrimination between benign and neoplastic mucosa, and familiarity with the characteristics of each subsite facilitates correct diagnosis. PMID:23641314

  7. A prognostic model based on pretreatment platelet lymphocyte ratio for stage IE/IIE upper aerodigestive tract extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-feng; Chang, Bo-yang; Chen, Xiao-qin; Liu, Pan-pan; Wuxiao, Zhi-jun; Wang, Zhi-hui; Li, Su; Jiang, Wen-qi; Xia, Zhong-jun

    2014-12-01

    Patients with stage IE/IIE natural killer T (NK/T) cell lymphomas have discrepant survival outcome. This study aims to establish a prognostic model based on the pretreatment platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) specifically for localized extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma to guide the therapy. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 252 patients with early-stage upper aerodigestive tract NK/T cell lymphoma. The 5-year overall survival rate in 252 patients was 67.1%. Prognostic factors for survival were female (P = 0.025; relative risk, 0.51; 95% CI 0.28-0.92), older age (P = 0.000; relative risk, 3.34; 95% CI 1.94-5.75), stage II(P = 0.020; relative risk, 1.79; 95% CI 1.10-2.91), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (P = 0.009; relative risk, 2.00; 95% CI 1.19-3.35), and PLR (P = 0.020; relative risk, 1.77; 95% CI 1.10-2.87). Based on these five parameters, we identified three different risk groups: group 1(106 cases, 43.4%), no or one adverse factor; group 2(85 cases, 34.8%), two factors; group 3(53 cases, 21.7%), three to five factors. Five-year overall survival was 83.3% for group 1, 62.2% for group 2, and 43.1% for group 3 (P = 0.000). Compared with International Prognostic Index and Korean Prognostic Index, the new model has a better prognostic discrimination for the patients of stage IE/IIE upper aerodigestive tract NK/T cell lymphoma. The PLR-based prognosis model is useful to stratify patients with localized extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma into different risk groups and guide the treatment modalities selection. PMID:25377661

  8. Cetuximab Resistance in Squamous Carcinomas of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract Is Driven by Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Plasticity: Potential for mAb Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kjær, Ida; Lindsted, Trine; Fröhlich, Camilla; Olsen, Jesper Velgaard; Horak, Ivan David; Kragh, Michael; Pedersen, Mikkel Wandahl

    2016-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) arising in upper parts of the aerodigestive tract are among the leading causes of death worldwide. EGFR has been found to play an essential role in driving the malignancy of SCC of the upper aerodigestive tract (SCCUAT), but, despite this, clinical results using a range of different EGFR-targeted agents have been disappointing. Cetuximab is currently the only EGFR-targeted agent approved by the FDA for treatment of SCCUAT. However, intrinsic and acquired cetuximab resistance is a major problem for effective therapy. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for cetuximab resistance is valuable for development of the next generation of antibody therapeutics. In order to better understand the underlying mechanisms of cetuximab resistance in SCCUAT, we established from cetuximab-sensitive models cell lines with acquired resistance to cetuximab by continuous selective pressure in vitro and in vivo Our results show that resistant clones maintain partial dependency on EGFR and that receptor tyrosine kinase plasticity mediated by HER3 and IGF1R plays an essential role. A multitarget mAb mixture against EGFR, HER3, and IGF1R was able to overcome cetuximab resistance in vitro To our surprise, these findings could be extended to include SCCUAT cell lines with intrinsic resistance to cetuximab, suggesting that the triad consisting of EGFR, HER3, and IGF1R plays a key role in SCCUAT. Our results thus provide a rationale for simultaneous targeting of EGFR, HER3, and IGF1R in SCCUAT. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1614-26. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27196767

  9. Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

  10. Radiotherapy in the treatment of mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: Analysis of 74 cases. A Rare Cancer Network study

    SciTech Connect

    Krengli, Marco . E-mail: krengli@tera.it; Masini, Laura; Kaanders, Johannes; Maingon, Philippe; Oei, Swan Bing; Zouhair, Abderrahim; Ozyar, Enis; Roelandts, Martine; Amichetti, Maurizio; Bosset, Mathieu; Mirimanoff, Rene-Olivier

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze a series of mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract to determine the prognostic factors and contribute to understanding the role of radiotherapy in the therapeutic strategy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients were analyzed. The most frequent locations were nasal and oral, in 31 patients (41.9%) and 12 patients (16.2%), respectively. Sixty-three patients (85.1%) were in Stage I, 5 (6.8%) in Stage II, and 6 (8.1%) in Stage III. Treatment consisted of surgery in 17 patients (23.0%), surgery and radiotherapy in 42 (56.8%), radiotherapy in 11 (14.9%), and chemo-immunotherapy in 4 (5.4%). Median follow-up was 20 months. Results: Local control at 3 years was 57% after surgery alone and 71% after surgery and radiotherapy. Overall and disease-free survival rates, respectively, were 41% and 31% at 3 years and 14% and 22% at 10 years. After univariate analysis, female gender, melanosis, tumor size {<=}3 cm, Stage I, postoperative radiotherapy, and complete remission were favorable prognostic factors. Stage I and melanosis were confirmed by multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Local control was improved by postoperative radiotherapy, despite survival being as poor as in other published series. Stage I and melanosis at diagnosis were the most favorable prognostic factors.

  11. Mediterranean diet and upper aerodigestive tract cancer: the Greek segment of the Alcohol-Related Cancers and Genetic Susceptibility in Europe study.

    PubMed

    Samoli, Evangelia; Lagiou, Areti; Nikolopoulos, Elias; Lagogiannis, Georgios; Barbouni, Anastasia; Lefantzis, Dimitrios; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Brennan, Paul; Lagiou, Pagona

    2010-11-01

    Several dietary factors have been associated with the occurrence of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx, larynx and oesophagus, collectively called upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers, but the evidence is considered as inconclusive. We hypothesised that the traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern may be more strongly inversely associated with UADT cancer risk than individual dietary components, and may explain the unexpectedly low incidence of these cancers in Greece. In the context of the European alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe project, we have conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Athens, Greece, comparing 239 incident UADT cases and 194 hospital controls with admission diagnoses unrelated to tobacco, alcohol or diet. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was assessed through a widely used score, which ranges from 0 (minimal adherence) to 9 (maximal adherence) and increases with high consumption of plant foods and olive oil and low consumption of meat, dairy products and saturated lipids. Stricter adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a substantial and significant decrease in UADT cancer risk (30 % for a two-unit increase in score), whereas after mutual adjustment, no individual dietary component of this diet was significantly associated with this risk. Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced risk of UADT cancers, and may explain the lower incidence of UADT cancers in Greece, in spite of the smoking and drinking habits of this population. PMID:20500931

  12. Tobacco Smoking, NBS1 Polymorphisms, and Survival in Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers with Semi-Bayes Adjustment for Hazard-ratio Variation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingting; Chang, Po-Yin; Park, Sungshim Lani; Bastani, Delara; Chang, Shen-Chih; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald P.; Mao, Jenny T.; Papp, Jeanette C.; Rao, Jian-Yu; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas M.; Greenland, Sander; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NBS1 have been associated with susceptibility to lung and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers, their relations to cancer survival and measures of effect are largely unknown. Methods Using follow-up data from 611 lung-cancer cases and 601 UADT-cancer cases from a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles, we prospectively evaluated associations of tobacco smoking and 5 NBS1 SNPs with all-cause mortality. Mortality data were obtained from the Social Security Death Index. We used Cox regression to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for main effects and ratios of hazard ratios (RHR) derived from product terms to assess hazard-ratio variations by each SNP. Bayesian methods were used to account for multiple comparisons. Results We observed 406 (66%) deaths in lung-cancer cases and 247 (41%) deaths in UADT-cancer cases with median survival of 1.43 and 1.72 years, respectively. Ever tobacco smoking was positively associated with mortality for both cancers. We observed an upward dose-response association between smoking pack-years and mortality in UADT squamous cell carcinoma. The adjusted HR relating smoking to mortality in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was greater for cases with the GG genotype of NBS1 rs1061302 than for cases with AA/AG genotypes (semi-Bayes adjusted RHR = 1.97; 95% limits = 1.14, 3.41). Conclusions A history of tobacco smoking at cancer diagnosis was associated with mortality among patients with lung cancer or UADT squamous cell carcinoma. The HR relating smoking to mortality appeared to vary with the NBS1 rs1061302 genotype among NSCLC cases. PMID:24166361

  13. Is aspiration as detected on pretreatment video fluorography, a harbinger of poor quality of life and early mortality in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract treated with radiotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Punita; Nautiyal, Vipul; Chaudhuri, Tamojit; Verma, Mranalini; Das, Koilpillai Joseph; Kumar, Shaleen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (head and neck cancer (HNC)) tend to aspirate, either due to disease or treatment. The association of aspiration (documented on video fluorography (VFG)) with quality of life (QOL) and unexpected mortality was studied prospectively in patients treated with simultaneous integrated boost technique of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT). Materials and Methods: Moderately advanced (stage III/IV) HNC were treated by SIB-IMRT delivering 66 Gy/30 fr, 60 Gy/30 fr, and 54 Gy/30 fr to high, intermediate, and low risk volumes, respectively. They underwent serial VFG and QOL assessments (Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (QLQ-C30) and head and neck-35 (HN35) European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) tools) at 0, 3, and 6 months. Pharyngeal musculature (PM) was additionally delineated on planning computed tomography (CT) scans as potential organs at risk (OARs). Results: Between November 2009 and May 2011, 20 HNC were treated as per protocol. All patients were fit (Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥ 80). Based on VFG findings, seven patients (4/9 oropharynx and 3/11 laryngopharynx) were grouped as aspirators (A) and remaining 13 as non-aspirators (NA). The QOL study showed that pretreatment coughing and swallowing difficulties were greater in group A versus NA and remained persistently higher. In group A, deaths attributable to aspiration were seen in 3/7 patients, while none occurred in the NA group (Fisher's exact P = 0.03). The mean PM dose was 60 Gy in both the groups and mean V60 was similar at 69 and 67% in A and NA groups, respectively. Conclusions: VFG helps identify patients who aspirate and are at risk of premature death due to its complications, alerting caregivers to direct attention appropriately. PMID:25422806

  14. Risk factors for developing a second upper aerodigestive cancer after radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancers: An exploratory outcomes analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Taussky, Daniel . E-mail: daniel.taussky.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca; Rufibach, Kaspar M.Sc.; Huguenin, Pia; Allal, Abdelkarim S.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess the influence of treatment-related and patient-related factors on the risk of developing a second primary tumor (SPT) of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) in patients with locoregionally advanced nonmetastatic carcinomas of the head-and-neck region. Methods and Materials: The data of 521 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were pooled: 224 patients from the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK) 10/94 trial, treated with 1.2 Gy b.i.d. to 74.4 Gy, and randomized to receive or not to receive simultaneous chemotherapy with cisplatin (excluding nasopharyngeal and maxillary sinus carcinomas); and 297 patients from Geneva, all treated with accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant boost to 69.9 Gy and predominantly cisplatin-based concomitant chemotherapy in 33% of patients (including 21 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas). An exploratory analysis using competing risk methodology was performed. Results: A total of 65 SPT of the UADT were observed after a median observation time of 4.7 years. The overall risk of experiencing an SPT of the UADT at 10 years in the presence of all other possible events was estimated to be 33%. There were no SPTs after treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, there was no difference in occurrence of SPT at 3 years with respect to the administration of chemotherapy (p = 0.31), age (p 0.62), performance status (p = 0.61), gender (p = 0.27), presence of nodal disease (p = 0.51), or T stage (p = 0.72). However, patients treated with concomitant boost had fewer SPTs (p = 0.0093). Conclusions: Our data do not suggest that addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy influences the incidence of second cancers in patients with head-and-neck cancer. The difference in the incidence of SPT between the two radiotherapy schedule groups merits further exploration.

  15. Association between the Cyclin D1 G870A polymorphism and the susceptibility to and prognosis of upper aerodigestive tract squamous cell carcinomas: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yichen; Zhang, Chenglin; Zhou, Xuhui

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several publications have investigated the association between the Cyclin D1 G to A substitution at nucleotide 870 (CCND1 G870A) polymorphism and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), but their conclusions still remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to precisely evaluate this association. Patients and methods We electronically searched the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed, and Embase (up to January 2015) databases for case–control studies on the association between the CCND1 G870A polymorphism and SCC of the UADT, and 23 studies were included in total. Results The meta-analysis results showed that there was a significant association between the CCND1 G870A polymorphism and the risk of SCC of the UADT (AA vs GG: odds ratio [OR] =1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.01–1.74, P<0.001 for heterogeneity; GA/AA vs GG: OR =1.24, 95% CI =1.01–1.51, P<0.001 for heterogeneity; AA vs GA/GG: OR =1.16, 95% CI =0.97–1.39, P<0.001 for heterogeneity; allele A vs allele G: OR =1.14, 95% CI =1.00–1.30, P<0.001 for heterogeneity; GA vs GG: OR =1.18, 95% CI =0.98–1.42, P<0.001 for heterogeneity). However, when analyzing prognosis, allele G was a potential risk factor for poor tumor differentiation (AA vs GA/GG: OR =2.60, 95% CI =1.15–5.86, P=0.836 for heterogeneity) and reduced disease-free intervals (OR =2.08, 95% CI =1.17–3.69, P=0.134 for heterogeneity). In the subgroup analysis, the cancer susceptibility of Asian groups, population-based control groups, nasopharyngeal cancer groups, and esophageal SCC groups were more likely to be affected by the CCND1 G870A polymorphism. No significant publication bias was found in our analysis (P=0.961 for Egger’s test and P=0.245 for Begg’s test). Conclusion The results of the present meta-analysis suggest that the variant CCND1 870A allele might confer an elevated risk of SCC of the UADT, particularly among Asians and individuals who have esophageal or

  16. Deletion of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) reduces cell migration and invasion, conferring protection from aerodigestive tract carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Jadav, Rathan S; Kumar, Dharmika; Buwa, Natasha; Ganguli, Shubhra; Thampatty, Sitalakshmi R; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Bhandari, Rashna

    2016-08-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), a family of enzymes found in all eukaryotes, are responsible for the synthesis of 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) from inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). Three isoforms of IP6Ks are found in mammals, and gene deletions of each isoform lead to diverse, non-overlapping phenotypes in mice. Previous studies show a facilitatory role for IP6K2 in cell migration and invasion, properties that are essential for the early stages of tumorigenesis. However, IP6K2 also has an essential role in cancer cell apoptosis, and mice lacking this protein are more susceptible to the development of aerodigestive tract carcinoma upon treatment with the oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Not much is known about the functions of the equally abundant and ubiquitously expressed IP6K1 isoform in cell migration, invasion and cancer progression. We conducted a gene expression analysis on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking IP6K1, revealing a role for this protein in cell receptor-extracellular matrix interactions that regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Consequently, cells lacking IP6K1 manifest defects in adhesion-dependent signaling, evident by lower FAK and Paxillin activation, leading to reduced cell spreading and migration. Expression of active, but not inactive IP6K1 reverses migration defects in IP6K1 knockout MEFs, suggesting that 5-IP7 synthesis by IP6K1 promotes cell locomotion. Actin cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration support the ability of cancer cells to achieve their complete oncogenic potential. Cancer cells with lower IP6K1 levels display reduced migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. When fed an oral carcinogen, mice lacking IP6K1 show reduced progression from epithelial dysplasia to invasive carcinoma. Thus, our data reveal that like IP6K2, IP6K1 is also involved in early cytoskeleton remodeling events during cancer progression. However, unlike IP6K2, IP6K1 is essential for 4NQO

  17. Evaluation with mTHPC of early squamous cell carcinomas of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters as a model for clinical PDT of early cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Forrer, Martin; Braichotte, Daniel; Wagnieres, Georges A.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for light induced fluorescence (LIF) photodetection and phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus, and the traecheo-bronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12-DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized meso-(tetrahydoxyphenyl) chlorin (mTHPC). This drug is currently in phase I and II clinical trials for ENT patients presenting superficial `early' squamous cell carcinomas. By means of LIF we measured in vivo the kinetics of the uptake and removal of mTHPC in the normal and tumoral cheek mucosa and in the skin. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) reaction of the tissue after excitation of the photosensitizer with laser light at 652 nm was studied. Both pharmacokinetics and PDT efficacy are compared between animal model and clinical results with special emphasis on selectivity between normal and tumoral mucosa. These first experiments show that this tumor model in the hamster cheek pouch seems to be suitable for testing new photosensitizers preceding their clinical application as well as for optimization of the multiple parameters of clinical PDT.

  18. Localization of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (Foscan) in human healthy tissues and squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract, the esophagus and the bronchi: a fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Andrejevic Blant, S; Grosjean, P; Ballini, J P; Wagnières, G; van den Bergh, H; Fontolliet, C; Monnier, P

    2001-08-15

    To date, little is known about precise time-dependent distribution and histological localization of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC) in human healthy tissues and squamous cell malignancies in the upper aero-digestive tract. A fluorescence microscopy study was performed on 50 healthy tissue biopsies and on 13 tumors (graded from Tis to T1 SCC) from 30 patients. Tissue samples were taken between 4 h and 11 days following injection of 0.15 mg/kg mTHPC. A fairly comparable distribution pattern in various tissues was observed over time in different patients. Vascular localization of mTHPC fluorescence predominates at a short delay, whereas the dye is essentially located in the tumoral and healthy mucosa after longer delays. A much lower uptake and retention of mTHPC fluorescence was noted in striated muscle and cartilage as compared to neoplastic lesions. No significant selectivity was found between healthy and tumoral mucosa. The obtained data are important to confirm drug-light interval that have been selected for effective PDT for early SCC malignancies while minimizing the risks of over- or under-treatment. The low fluorescence level in striated muscle provides the opportunity to develop interstitial PDT as a treatment modality for invasive SCC of unfavorable locations in the oral cavity or pharynx, such as the base of the tongue. PMID:11485842

  19. [Salvage surgery for upper aerodigestive tract tumours].

    PubMed

    Dolivet, Gilles; Cortese, Sophie; Mastronicola, Romina; Phulpin, Bérengère; Kaminski, Marie-Christine; Mecellem, Hinda; Gillon, Véronique; Gangloff, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Salvage surgeries of head and neck tumors are considered as poor satisfactory either for disease control results or for aesthetic and functional outcomes. Several improvements have been made possible since few years in all fields of oncologic treatments. A new approach must be initiated in that context, moreover since take in charge for head and neck region (exclusive initial medical treatment) let us consider an increasement of clinical situations for which a salvage therapy could be performed. The new surgery techniques have to be considered, reconstructive and guided by systems, which can improve surgical skills (navigation, robotic, sentinel node procedure, nervous detection and so on), the help of reirradiation techniques, the use of medical therapy during surgical procedure, the photodynamic therapy and all the help provided by new medical imaging and modern biology, which can determine more precisely the status of the cancer when it is taken in charge. The mastery of those techniques improvements must follow on an evolution of the concepts in the field of combined salvage treatments performed by multidisciplinary teams. Those treatments have to be realized in structures, which have the techniques and the multiple skills for allowing increasement of outcomes of those severe diseases. PMID:21591296

  20. An Integrated Digital Campus Delivers ROI and VOI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsstrom, Jan; Ham, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Five years ago, North Shore Community College (NSCC) encountered rising enrollments in the face of lagging state funding. The addition of two new campuses stretched NSCC thin as it attempted to provide administrative and academic services across five (more recently consolidated to four) locations. Its students increasingly struggled to balance the…

  1. Oil and Gas Exploration Planning using VOI Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peskova, D. N.; Sizykh, A. V.; Rukavishnikov, V. S.

    2016-03-01

    Paper deals with actual problem about making decisions during field development. The main aim was to apply method “Value of information” in order to estimate the necessity of field exploration works and show the effectiveness of this method. The object of analysis - field X, which is located in the Eastern Siberia. The reservoir is B13 formation of Vend age. The Field has complex structure, and divided into blocks by faults. During evaluation of the project, main uncertainties and oil in place were obtained for three blocks of the field. According to uncertainty analysis, it was suggested to drill a new exploration well, and value of information method was applied to estimate results from this exploration works. Economic evaluation of the value of information method was made by choosing optimal development strategy. According to the obtained results, drilling of the exploration wells for blocks 1 and 3 of the field X is a good decision, while drilling a well in the second block is risky and not recommended. Also using the value of information, optimal well locations were advised - well l_le for the first block, and well 33 for the third block.

  2. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approac | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers.

  4. Pratique d'apprentissage en ligne aux etudes superieures (Online Learning for Higher Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Louise

    2001-01-01

    Online learning requires new approaches to teaching and learning. At the University of Montreal, 28 graduate students in education and adult students specializing in educational technology attended an experimental distance education course. Students identified advantages and disadvantages of online learning/teaching and reflected on how the course…

  5. L'enseignement superieur tunisien: Enjeux et avenir (Higher Education in Tunisia: Challenges and Opportunities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report presents findings of a study of higher education in Tunisia. It finds that higher education in Tunisia is a largely effective and well-performing system. However, it notes an expected doubling of enrollment over the next 10 years which will create obstacles that prevent it from playing the role expected of it by a society and economy…

  6. Training in Human Relations for Engineers at the Ecole Superieure D'Informatique-Electronique-Automatique (ESIEA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafargue, M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Points out the need to provide engineers with training in human relations. Describes the process of developing a document defining the problem and steps to be taken toward solution, submitted to students for their evaluation. (JM)

  7. From "Ecoles Superieures de Commerce" to "Management Schools": Transformations and Continuity in French Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Part of the national system of grandes Ecoles, French Business schools have known radical changes since the 1980s, notably in size, and have become more attractive to students both at a national and an international level. As a consequence, the French elitist system has been questioned by the competition of foreign--especially Anglo-Saxon--models.…

  8. Inventory of Research into Higher Education in Canada = Inventaire des recherches sur l'enseignement superieur au Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwing, J. F., Ed.; Kristjanson, A. M., Ed.

    Information is provided in English and French on research projects concerned with postsecondary education in Canada. Approximately 250 current or recently completed projects reported by researchers in universities, community colleges, educational organizations, and government departments and agencies are described. The projects, which are entered…

  9. Coulees volcaniques dans le paleozoique superieur des zones internes helleniques (Grece continentale) — environnement sedimentaire et caracterisation petrographique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Bernard; Lapierre, Henriette

    1980-12-01

    Volcanic flows of Late Paleozoic age in the Pelagonian zone belonging to the internal Hellenic zones, have been studied, for the first time, from petrographical and geochemical viewpoints. Relevant petrographical data and the geochemical analysis lead us to consider that: (a) the basic lavas can be linked to tholeitic basalts. (b) the acid lavas are associated to metarhyolites. (c) the two magmatic flows do not originate from the same parental magma. The geochemical results obtained, compared to those from other deposits of nearly the same age outcropping around the Mediterranean, indicate that the latest Hercynian volcanism has been affected by intra-plate distension phenomena preceding the great Lower Mesozoic break-up which caused the formation of the Tethys Ocean. It is remarkable that in the Mesogean Basin the sedimentary environment is nearly similar to that described in this paper. The volcanic flows end up in a sialic sedimentary basin containing coarse detritic formations that resulted from erosion of the Variscan chain along the southern margin of the European continent.

  10. Multimodality Neurological Data Visualization With Multi-VOI-Based DTI Fiber Dynamic Integration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Alexander, Murray; Ryner, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Brain lesions are usually located adjacent to critical spinal structures, so it is a challenging task for neurosurgeons to precisely plan a surgical procedure without damaging healthy tissues and nerves. The advancement of medical imaging technologies produces a large amount of neurological data, which are capable of showing a wide variety of brain properties. Advanced algorithms of medical data computing and visualization are critically helpful in efficiently utilizing the acquired data for disease diagnosis and brain function and structure exploration, which is helpful for treatment planning. In this paper, we describe new algorithms and a software framework for multiple volume of interest specified diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber dynamic visualization. The displayed results have been integrated with a volume rendering pipeline for multimodality neurological data exploration. A depth texture indexing algorithm is used to detect DTI fiber tracts in graphics process units (GPUs), which makes fibers to be displayed and interactively manipulated with brain data acquired from functional magnetic resonance imaging, T1- and T2-weighted anatomic imaging, and angiographic imaging. The developed software platform is built on an object-oriented structure, which is transparent and extensible. It provides a comprehensive human-computer interface for data exploration and information extraction. The GPU-accelerated high-performance computing kernels have been implemented to enable our software to dynamically visualize neurological data. The developed techniques will be useful in computer-aided neurological disease diagnosis, brain structure exploration, and general cognitive neuroscience. PMID:25376048

  11. Transoral robotic surgery: role in the management of upper aerodigestive tract tumors.

    PubMed

    Genden, Eric M; O'Malley, Bert W; Weinstein, Gregory S; Stucken, Chaz L; Selber, Jesse C; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Hockstein, Neil G; Ozer, Enver; Mallet, Yann; Satava, Richard M; Moore, Eric J; Silver, Carl E; Ferlito, Alfio

    2012-06-01

    The toxicity associated with concomitant chemoradiation for the management of laryngeal and pharyngeal carcinoma has been well documented. Minimally invasive surgical techniques offer the potential to extirpate the malignancy as a single-modality therapy and provide essential information that may direct subsequent treatment. In selected patients, radiation doses may be reduced and systemic chemotherapy may be withheld after tumor extirpation. Transoral laser microsurgery has proven effective, although inability to manipulate and suture tissue by this modality limits ablation and reconstruction of extensive defects. Transoral robotic surgery is a relatively new technique that provides several unique advantages, which include a 3-dimensional magnified view, ability to see and work around curves or angles, and the availability of 2 or 3 robotic arms that can be used to reconstruct extensive defects using either local, regional, or free flaps. Preliminary data suggest that transoral robotic surgery may provide a technique for ablation and reconstruction of pharyngeal defects that may be superior to other transoral techniques. It may also provide a means for personalizing therapy for oropharyngeal and supraglottic carcinoma. PMID:22610591

  12. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Active Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. SPS 91 - Power from space; Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium, Ecole Superieure d'Electricite, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, Aug. 27-30, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on the concept of Solar Power Satellites (SPS) are presented. The general topics addressed include: global energy issues; SPS demonstration projects; extraterrestrial materials; power generation, conversion, and storage; environmental issues; development strategies.

  15. Higher Education and Social Origin in France: A Statistical Study of Inequalities Since 1965 = Enseignement Superieur Et Origine Sociale En France: Etude Statistique Des Inegalites Depuis 1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaoul, Magali

    2004-01-01

    Mass education has the goal of guaranteeing the same education to all in order to moderate differences between individuals and promote a kind of "equality of opportunity." Nonetheless, it seems clear that lower-class youths do not benefit as much from their degree or university experience as do those who come from more privileged backgrounds. The…

  16. Local network interconnection through a satellite point-to-multipoint link. Ph.D. Thesis - Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, 6 Jul. 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duarte, O. Muniz Bandeira

    1986-01-01

    Four architectures to implement a point to multipoint satellite link protocol for communication services offered by the Telecom 1 satellite network are presented. A safe communication service with error correction and flow control facilities is described. It is shown that a time transparent communication system combines simplicity and cost advantages.

  17. From Higher Education To Employment. Volume I: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Germany = De l'enseignement superieur a l'emploi. Volume I: Allemagne, Australie, Autriche, Belgique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume presents reports on the flows of graduates from higher education and on their entry into working life in Germany, Austria, Belgium, and Australia. Each paper is written according to detailed guidelines designed to assemble information from many sources, to reflect the state of the art, and to illustrate a variety of approaches,…

  18. Découverte d'Arthropodes et de bivalves inédits dans le Permien continental (Lodévois, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gand, Georges; Lapeyrie, Jean; Garric, Jacques; Nel, André; Schneider, Jörg; Walter, Harald

    1997-12-01

    Triopsids, Conchostracans, Insects, non-marine Bivalve shells, Arthropod tracks and burrows are reported for the first time in the Saxonian Group which was long thought to be unfossiliferous. Virtually none of these fossils have been described at the species, family or even order rank. Some new insect taxa fill time gaps between the Permian and the Jurassic. Future information about Insects promises to be a useful tool for testing certain phylogenetic assumptions and evaluating the true scale of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction for this class. Insects and Conchostracans indicate a Kungurian to Tatarian age (Leonardian to Capitanian) for the Saxonian fades.

  19. WindVOiCe, a Self-Reporting Survey: Adverse Health Effects, Industrial Wind Turbines, and the Need for Vigilance Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Carmen M. E.; Gillis, Lorrie; Kouwen, Nicholas; Aramini, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Industrial wind turbines have been operating in many parts of the globe. Anecdotal reports of perceived adverse health effects relating to industrial wind turbines have been published in the media and on the Internet. Based on these reports, indications were that some residents perceived they were experiencing adverse health effects. The purpose…

  20. Les programmes revises: Amenagement forestier, interpretation theatrale. Avis a la ministre de l'Enseignement superieur et de la Science (Revised Programs: Forest Management, Theater Arts. Advisory to the Minister of Higher Education and Science).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conseil des Colleges, Quebec (Quebec).

    This two-part report contains an analyses conducted by the Council of Colleges, in Quebec, of proposed revisions to programs in Forestry Management and Theater Arts offered by the province's public colleges. First, the report considers existing and proposed forestry programs in terms of their relationship to the current practices in the forestry…

  1. From Higher Education To Employment. Volume II: Canada, Denmark, Spain, United States = De l'enseignement superieur a l'emploi. Volume II: Canada, Danemark, Expagne, Etats-Unis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume presents reports on the flows of graduates from higher education and on their entry into working life in Canada, Denmark, Spain and the United States. Each paper is written according to detailed guidelines designed to assemble information from many sources, to reflect the state of the art, and to illustrate a variety of approaches,…

  2. Highlighting the Impacts of North-South Research Collaboration among Canadian and Southern Higher Education Partners (Principaux impacts des collaborations de recherche Nord-Sud entre les partenaires des etablissements d'enseignement superieur du Canada et du Sud)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) felt it was timely to create an academic forum in which university researchers have the opportunity to engage with their peers and relevant stakeholders and document the impacts of their North-South research collaboration in a peer-reviewed publication. The Association achieved this by…

  3. Autofluorescence spectroscopy of normal and malignant tissues: both in-vivo and ex-vivo measurements in the upper aero-digestive tract and lung tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A'Amar, Ousama M.; Lignon, Dominique; Menard, O.; Begorre, Henri; Guillemin, Francois H.; Yvroud, Edouard

    1996-04-01

    A spectroscopic system with flexible three optical fiber sensor had been developed to study tissue fluorescence for a clinical use. Autofluorescence spectra at 413 nm and 10 mW excitation light power from different tissues in oral cavity had been measured in vivo in 25 subjects. The correlation coefficient in spectral shape between individual spectra and the mean emission spectrum of each site was about 0.9 and fluorescence intensity variation ranged between 20% and 45% according to the examined site. The variation in fluorescence intensity of the main emission wavelength at about 520 nm between spectra of the lower part of tongue, gingiva, lips, floor of cavity, cheek and palate was not statistically significant. But the spectrum of the upper part of tongue had been characterized by an additional peak around 635 nm. Otherwise, autofluorescence spectra at 410 nm and 0.5 mW excitation light power of 8 carcinoma of buccal and lung tissues were measured. The fluorescence ratio at 520 emission peak between normal tissue and carcinoma was evaluated at a maximum value of 13 for a lung cancer (ex vivo measurement) and a minimum of 3.3 for a cancer of the oro-pharynx (in vivo measurement). On the other hand, a fluorescence peak at 635 nm had characterized the carcinoma of the floor of cavity and the upper part of tongue.

  4. Accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: a comparative study with aero-digestive lesions

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaobo; Xu, Hao; He, Mingjing; Han, Qi; Wang, Hui; Sun, Chongkui; Li, Jing; Jiang, Lu; Zhou, Yu; Dan, Hongxia; Feng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Presently, various studies had investigated the accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with diverse conclusions. This study aimed to assess its accuracy for OSCC and OPMD and to investigate its applicability in general dental practice. After a comprehensive literature search, a meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled diagnostic indexes of autofluorescence for premalignant lesions (PML) and malignant lesions (ML) of the oral cavity, lung, esophagus, stomach and colorectum and to compute indexes regarding the detection of OSCC aided by algorithms. Besides, a u test was performed. Twenty-four studies detecting OSCC and OPMD in 2761 lesions were included. This demonstrated that the overall accuracy of autofluorescence for OSCC and OPMD was superior to PML and ML of the lung, esophagus and stomach, slightly inferior to the colorectum. Additionally, the sensitivity and specificity for OSCC and OPMD were 0.89 and 0.8, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity could be remarkably improved by additional algorithms. With relatively high accuracy, autofluorescence could be potentially applied as an adjunct for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD. Moreover, approaches such as algorithms could enhance its specificity to ensure its efficacy in primary care. PMID:27416981

  5. Accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: a comparative study with aero-digestive lesions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaobo; Xu, Hao; He, Mingjing; Han, Qi; Wang, Hui; Sun, Chongkui; Li, Jing; Jiang, Lu; Zhou, Yu; Dan, Hongxia; Feng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Presently, various studies had investigated the accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with diverse conclusions. This study aimed to assess its accuracy for OSCC and OPMD and to investigate its applicability in general dental practice. After a comprehensive literature search, a meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled diagnostic indexes of autofluorescence for premalignant lesions (PML) and malignant lesions (ML) of the oral cavity, lung, esophagus, stomach and colorectum and to compute indexes regarding the detection of OSCC aided by algorithms. Besides, a u test was performed. Twenty-four studies detecting OSCC and OPMD in 2761 lesions were included. This demonstrated that the overall accuracy of autofluorescence for OSCC and OPMD was superior to PML and ML of the lung, esophagus and stomach, slightly inferior to the colorectum. Additionally, the sensitivity and specificity for OSCC and OPMD were 0.89 and 0.8, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity could be remarkably improved by additional algorithms. With relatively high accuracy, autofluorescence could be potentially applied as an adjunct for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD. Moreover, approaches such as algorithms could enhance its specificity to ensure its efficacy in primary care. PMID:27416981

  6. Chemopreventive effects of the polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 on the carcinogenesis process of the upper aerodigestive tract induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide in Swiss mice

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Ricardo Ribeiro; Giovanini, Allan; de Rosa, Fernanda Scarmato; Ogata, Daniel Cury; de Oliveira, André Luiz Vettore; Cardoso Costa, Ana Flávia; Talini, Carolina; Feniman, Denise; Kamei, Douglas; Júnior, Celso Felipe; Coco, Allan; Carvalho, André Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the potential chemopreventive effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 in Swiss mice submitted to oral and oesophageal carcinogenesis induction by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO). Study design: The animals underwent carcinogenesis induction with 50 µg/mL 4-NQO for eight weeks. The animals were divided into groups: Group I—4-NQO induction without chemoprevention, Group II—chemoprevention with the addition of 5% fish oil (FO) in their diet after 4-NQO carcinogenesis induction, and Group III—chemoprevention with 5% FO in their diet during and after 4-NQO carcinogenesis induction. Results: The incidence of invasive oral carcinoma was: Group I (72.9%), Group II (84.2%), and Group III (64.7%); p = 0.34. The difference in the incidence of invasive oesophageal carcinoma was statistically significant: Group I (37.8%), Group II (68.4%), and Group III (29.4%); p = 0.02. Conclusions: 4-NQO induction led to cancer in the majority of animals. Chemoprevention with FO brought no benefit in preventing the carcinogenesis process initiated by 4-NQO for oral cancer. The suggestive pro-tumour action of FO when given after tumour post-initiation seems to demonstrate that this fatty acid can potentialise the action of 4-NQO in the oesophagus carcinogenesis of the Swiss mice. PMID:24605132

  7. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  8. Trial of Postoperative Radiation, Cisplatin, and Panitumumab in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-28

    Cancer of Head; Cancer of Head and Neck; Cancer of Neck; Cancer of the Head; Cancer of the Head and Neck; Cancer of the Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Head Cancer; Head Neoplasms; Head, Neck Neoplasms; Neck Cancer; Neck Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Head; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Neoplasms, Neck; Neoplasms, Upper Aerodigestive Tract; UADT Neoplasms; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Neoplasms

  9. Value of Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  10. Contrast-to-noise ratio improvement in volume-of-interest cone beam breast CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Youtao; Liu, Xinming; Lai, Chao-Jen; Zhong, Yuncheng; Yi, Ying; You, Zhicheng; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) improvement in breast cone beam CT (CBCT) using the volume-of-interest (VOI) scanning technique. In VOI breast CBCT, the breast is first scanned at a low exposure level. A pre-selected VOI is then scanned at a higher exposure level with collimated x-rays. The two image sets are combined together to reconstruct high quality 3-D images of the VOI. A flat panel detector based system was built to demonstrate and investigate the CNR improvement in VOI breast CBCT. The CNRs of the 8 plastic cones (Teflon, Delrin, polycarbonate, Lucite, solid water, high density polystyrene, nylon and polystyrene) in a breast phantom were measured in images obtained with the VOI CBCT technique and compared to those measured in standard full field CBCT images. CNRs in VOI CBCT images were found to be higher than those in regular CBCT images in all plastic cones. The mean glandular doses (MGDs) from the combination of a high exposure VOI scan and a low exposure full-field scan was estimated to be similar to that from regular full-field scan at standard exposure level. The VOI CBCT technique allows a VOI to be imaged with enhanced image quality with an MGD similar to that from regular CBCT technique.

  11. A Prestigious Image: Advantage or Obstacle in Attracting Candidates to French Elite Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draelants, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and twenty students successful at entering four of the most famous French "grandes ecoles" ("Ecole Normale Superieure" Ulm, Polytechnique, HEC, Sciences Po) were questioned about their institution's image. We focus on how the prestige of these institutions in the French society played a role in students' attraction and contributed to…

  12. Conceptual Integration of Hybridization by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salah, Hazzi; Dumon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to assess the difficulties encountered by students of the Ecole Normale Superieure of Kouba (Algeria) intending to teach physical science in the integration of the hybridization of atomic orbitals. It is a concept that they should use in describing the formation of molecular orbitals ([sigma] and [pi]) in organic chemistry and gaps…

  13. The Idea of a Normal University in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Ruth; Li, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of normal colleges and universities is an important component of building a modern country, which possesses different value ethos with the universities. The emergence of the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris and the local normal schools has set a new model for teacher education around the world and promoted values and knowledge…

  14. The Normative Effects of Higher Education Policy in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Elise

    2012-01-01

    This student survey was a response to the French youth unrest in 2005 and 2006. It considers the degree to which French higher and secondary education institutions create social cohesion. Focusing on three distinct higher-education institutions: "L'institut d'etudes politiques de Paris" (Sciences Po), "Ecole Normale Superieure," Paris 8, and a…

  15. The Acquisition of Stereochemical Knowledge by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boukhechem, Mohamed-Salah; Dumon, Alain; Zouikri, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the level of difficulty found in learning stereochemistry concepts, by students intending to teach physical sciences at the Ecole Normale Superieure (ENS) Kouba (Algeria). A paper and pencil questionnaire was administered to 170 students to evaluate: their familiarity with Newman representations; their ability of linking…

  16. Four-dimensional volume-of-interest reconstruction for cone-beam computed tomography-guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Moiz; Balter, Peter; Pan, Tinsu

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Data sufficiency are a major problem in four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) on linear accelerator-integrated scanners for image-guided radiotherapy. Scan times must be in the range of 4-6 min to avoid undersampling artifacts. Various image reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to accommodate undersampled data acquisitions, but these algorithms are computationally expensive, may require long reconstruction times, and may require algorithm parameters to be optimized. The authors present a novel reconstruction method, 4D volume-of-interest (4D-VOI) reconstruction which suppresses undersampling artifacts and resolves lung tumor motion for undersampled 1-min scans. The 4D-VOI reconstruction is much less computationally expensive than other 4D-CBCT algorithms. Methods: The 4D-VOI method uses respiration-correlated projection data to reconstruct a four-dimensional (4D) image inside a VOI containing the moving tumor, and uncorrelated projection data to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) image outside the VOI. Anatomical motion is resolved inside the VOI and blurred outside the VOI. The authors acquired a 1-min. scan of an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing a moving water-filled sphere. The authors also used previously acquired 1-min scans for two lung cancer patients who had received CBCT-guided radiation therapy. The same raw data were used to test and compare the 4D-VOI reconstruction with the standard 4D reconstruction and the McKinnon-Bates (MB) reconstruction algorithms. Results: Both the 4D-VOI and the MB reconstructions suppress nearly all the streak artifacts compared with the standard 4D reconstruction, but the 4D-VOI has 3-8 times greater contrast-to-noise ratio than the MB reconstruction. In the dynamic chest phantom study, the 4D-VOI and the standard 4D reconstructions both resolved a moving sphere with an 18 mm displacement. The 4D-VOI reconstruction shows a motion blur of only 3 mm, whereas the MB reconstruction

  17. High resolution dual detector volume-of-interest cone beam breast CT––Demonstration with a bench top system

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Youtao; Yi, Ying; Zhong, Yuncheng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Liu, Xinming; You, Zhicheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we used a small field high resolution detector in conjunction with a full field flat panel detector to implement and investigate the dual detector volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam breast computed tomography (CBCT) technique on a bench-top system. The potential of using this technique to image small calcifications without increasing the overall dose to the breast was demonstrated. Significant reduction of scatter components in the high resolution projection image data of the VOI was also shown. Methods: With the regular flat panel based CBCT technique, exposures were made at 80 kVp to generate an air kerma of 6 mGys at the isocenter. With the dual detector VOI CBCT technique, a high resolution small field CMOS detector was used to scan a cylindrical VOI (2.5 cm in diameter and height, 4.5 cm off-center) with collimated x-rays at four times of regular exposure level. A flat panel detector was used for full field scan with low x-ray exposures at half of the regular exposure level. The low exposure full field image data were used to fill in the truncated space in the VOI scan data and generate a complete projection image set. The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct high resolution images for the VOI. Two scanning techniques, one breast centered and the other VOI centered, were implemented and investigated. Paraffin cylinders with embedded thin aluminum (Al) wires were imaged and used in conjunction with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dose measurements to demonstrate the ability of this technique to image small calcifications without increasing the mean glandular dose (MGD). Results: Using exposures that produce an air kerma of 6 mGys at the isocenter, the regular CBCT technique was able to resolve the cross-sections of Al wires as thin as 254 μm in diameter in the phantom. For the specific VOI studied, by increasing the exposure level by a factor of 4 for the VOI scan and reducing the

  18. High resolution dual detector volume-of-interest cone beam breast CT - Demonstration with a bench top system

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Youtao; Yi Ying; Zhong Yuncheng; Lai Chaojen; Liu Xinming; You Zhicheng; Ge Shuaiping; Wang Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: In this study, we used a small field high resolution detector in conjunction with a full field flat panel detector to implement and investigate the dual detector volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam breast computed tomography (CBCT) technique on a bench-top system. The potential of using this technique to image small calcifications without increasing the overall dose to the breast was demonstrated. Significant reduction of scatter components in the high resolution projection image data of the VOI was also shown. Methods: With the regular flat panel based CBCT technique, exposures were made at 80 kVp to generate an air kerma of 6 mGys at the isocenter. With the dual detector VOI CBCT technique, a high resolution small field CMOS detector was used to scan a cylindrical VOI (2.5 cm in diameter and height, 4.5 cm off-center) with collimated x-rays at four times of regular exposure level. A flat panel detector was used for full field scan with low x-ray exposures at half of the regular exposure level. The low exposure full field image data were used to fill in the truncated space in the VOI scan data and generate a complete projection image set. The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct high resolution images for the VOI. Two scanning techniques, one breast centered and the other VOI centered, were implemented and investigated. Paraffin cylinders with embedded thin aluminum (Al) wires were imaged and used in conjunction with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dose measurements to demonstrate the ability of this technique to image small calcifications without increasing the mean glandular dose (MGD). Results: Using exposures that produce an air kerma of 6 mGys at the isocenter, the regular CBCT technique was able to resolve the cross-sections of Al wires as thin as 254 {mu}m in diameter in the phantom. For the specific VOI studied, by increasing the exposure level by a factor of 4 for the VOI scan and reducing

  19. Value of Information Evaluation using Field Data

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor-Guitton, W.

    2015-06-15

    Value of information (VOI) provides the ability to identify and prioritize useful information gathering for a geothermal prospect, either hydrothermal or for enhanced geothermal systems. Useful information provides a value greater than the cost of the information; wasteful information costs more than the expected value of the information. In this project we applied and refined VOI methodologies on selected geothermal prospects.

  20. 28 CFR 91.55 - Categorical exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Categorical exclusions. 91.55 Section 91.55 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis Grant Program § 91.55 Categorical exclusions....

  1. 28 CFR 91.54 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 define “major federal actions” as actions with effects that may be major and... permit or other regulatory decision as well as Federal and Federally assisted activities.” (40 CFR 1508... Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis Grant Program §...

  2. 28 CFR 91.54 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 define “major federal actions” as actions with effects that may be major and... permit or other regulatory decision as well as Federal and Federally assisted activities.” (40 CFR 1508... Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis Grant Program §...

  3. 28 CFR 91.54 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 define “major federal actions” as actions with effects that may be major and... permit or other regulatory decision as well as Federal and Federally assisted activities.” (40 CFR 1508... Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis Grant Program §...

  4. When do we need more data? A primer on calculating the value of information for applied ecologists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canessa, Stefano; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Southwell, Darren M; Armstrong, Doug P.; Chadès, Iadine; Lacy, Robert C; Converse, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    The VoI depends on our current knowledge, the quality of the information collected and the expected outcomes of the available management actions. Collecting information can require significant investments of resources; VoI analysis assists managers in deciding whether these investments are justified.

  5. Semi-automatic classification of textures in thoracic CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; de Jong, Pim A.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Wittenberg, Rianne; Tiehuis, Audrey M.; Gietema, Hester A.; Grutters, Jan C.; Viergever, Max A.; van Ginneken, Bram

    2016-08-01

    The textural patterns in the lung parenchyma, as visible on computed tomography (CT) scans, are essential to make a correct diagnosis in interstitial lung disease. We developed one automatic and two interactive protocols for classification of normal and seven types of abnormal lung textures. Lungs were segmented and subdivided into volumes of interest (VOIs) with homogeneous texture using a clustering approach. In the automatic protocol, VOIs were classified automatically by an extra-trees classifier that was trained using annotations of VOIs from other CT scans. In the interactive protocols, an observer iteratively trained an extra-trees classifier to distinguish the different textures, by correcting mistakes the classifier makes in a slice-by-slice manner. The difference between the two interactive methods was whether or not training data from previously annotated scans was used in classification of the first slice. The protocols were compared in terms of the percentages of VOIs that observers needed to relabel. Validation experiments were carried out using software that simulated observer behavior. In the automatic classification protocol, observers needed to relabel on average 58% of the VOIs. During interactive annotation without the use of previous training data, the average percentage of relabeled VOIs decreased from 64% for the first slice to 13% for the second half of the scan. Overall, 21% of the VOIs were relabeled. When previous training data was available, the average overall percentage of VOIs requiring relabeling was 20%, decreasing from 56% in the first slice to 13% in the second half of the scan.

  6. 28 CFR 91.54 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 define “major federal actions” as actions with effects that may be major and... permit or other regulatory decision as well as Federal and Federally assisted activities.” (40 CFR 1508... Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis Grant Program §...

  7. Dual resolution cone beam breast CT: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingyun; Shen, Youtao; Lai, Chao-Jen; Han, Tao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Liu, Xinming; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Whitman, Gary J.; Shaw, Chris C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated the feasibility of a dual resolution volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam breast CT technique and compared two implementation approaches in terms of dose saving and scatter reduction. Methods: With this technique, a lead VOI mask with an opening is inserted between the x-ray source and the breast to deliver x-ray exposure to the VOI while blocking x rays outside the VOI. A CCD detector is used to collect the high resolution projection data of the VOI. Low resolution cone beam CT (CBCT) images of the entire breast, acquired with a flat panel (FP) detector, were used to calculate the projection data outside the VOI with the ray-tracing reprojection method. The Feldkamp–Davis–Kress filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct the dual resolution 3D images. Breast phantoms with 180 μm and smaller microcalcifications (MCs) were imaged with both FP and FP-CCD dual resolution CBCT systems, respectively. Two approaches of implementing the dual resolution technique, breast-centered approach and VOI-centered approach, were investigated and evaluated for dose saving and scatter reduction with Monte Carlo simulation using a GEANT4 package. Results: The results showed that the breast-centered approach saved more breast absorbed dose than did VOI-centered approach with similar scatter reduction. The MCs in fatty breast phantom, which were invisible with FP CBCT scan, became visible with the FP-CCD dual resolution CBCT scan. Conclusions: These results indicate potential improvement of the image quality inside the VOI with reduced breast dose both inside and outside the VOI. PMID:19810473

  8. Fluence field modulated CT on a clinical TomoTherapy radiation therapy machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Hermus, James

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: The multi-leaf collimator (MLC) assembly present on TomoTherapy (Accuray, Madison WI) radiation therapy (RT) and mega voltage CT machines is well suited to perform fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT). In addition, there is a demand in the RT environment for FFMCT imaging techniques, specifically volume of interest (VOI) imaging. Methods: A clinical TomoTherapy machine was programmed to deliver 30% imaging dose outside predefined VOIs. Four different size ROIs were placed at varying distances from isocenter. Projections intersecting the VOI received "full dose" while those not intersecting the VOI received 30% of the dose (i.e. the incident fluence for non VOI projections was 30% of the incident fluence for projections intersecting the VOI). Additional scans without fluence field modulation were acquired at "full" and 30% dose. The noise (pixel standard deviation) was measured inside the VOI region and compared between the three scans. Results: The VOI-FFMCT technique produced an image noise 1.09, 1.05, 1.05, and 1.21 times higher than the "full dose" scan for ROI sizes of 10 cm, 13 cm, 10 cm, and 6 cm respectively within the VOI region. Conclusions: Noise levels can be almost unchanged within clinically relevant VOIs sizes for RT applications while the integral imaging dose to the patient can be decreased, and/or the image quality in RT can be dramatically increased with no change in dose relative to non-FFMCT RT imaging. The ability to shift dose away from regions unimportant for clinical evaluation in order to improve image quality or reduce imaging dose has been demonstrated. This paper demonstrates that FFMCT can be performed using the MLC on a clinical TomoTherapy machine for the first time.

  9. Water Experiments Related To The "Von Karman Sodium" Dynamo Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, L.; Bourgoin, M.; Petrelis, F.; Roy, J.; Burguete, J.; Chiffaudel, A.; Daviaud, F.; Fauve, S.; Odier, P.; Pinton, J.-F.

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the "Von Karman Sodium" (V.K.S.) experiment is to study the "Dynamo Effect," namely the spontaneous generation of magnetic field in a flow of electrically conducting fluid. The device has been built at CEA / Cadarache, in collaboration with CEA / Saclay, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon and Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris. It consists of a cylindrical vessel, filled with liquid Sodium, in which two coaxial rotating disks induce a Von-Karman type flow. Several experimental runs have taken place since June 2000. In order to optimize the V.K.S. set-up, a half-scale water prototype has also been built. It has allowed us to measure mean velocity profiles, as well as pressure fluctuations and mechanical power dissipation. We have observed that under certain circumstances the mean component of the turbulent flow can undergo a global bifurcation.

  10. Une Exception Francaise: Les Grandes Ecoles (A French Exception: The Great Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role of exceptional schools in France that have produced famous personages such as Charles de Gaulle and Jean-Paul Sartre. The schools reviewed include L'Ecole Nationale d'Administration, L'Ecole Polytechnique, L'Ecole Normale Superieure, L'Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales, Saint-Cyr, and L'Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris.…

  11. Phenylketonuria: brain phenylalanine concentrations relate inversely to cerebral protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Martijn J; Sijens, Paul E; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Paans, Anne M; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2015-01-01

    In phenylketonuria, elevated plasma phenylalanine concentrations may disturb blood-to-brain large neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport and cerebral protein synthesis (CPS). We investigated the associations between these processes, using data obtained by positron emission tomography with l-[1-11C]-tyrosine (11C-Tyr) as a tracer. Blood-to-brain transport of non-Phe LNAAs was modeled by the rate constant for 11C-Tyr transport from arterial plasma to brain tissue (K1), while CPS was modeled by the rate constant for 11C-Tyr incorporation into cerebral protein (k3). Brain phenylalanine concentrations were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in three volumes of interest (VOIs): supraventricular brain tissue (VOI 1), ventricular brain tissue (VOI 2), and fluid-containing ventricular voxels (VOI 3). The associations between k3 and each predictor variable were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The rate constant k3 was inversely associated with brain phenylalanine concentrations in VOIs 2 and 3 (adjusted R2=0.826, F=19.936, P=0.021). Since brain phenylalanine concentrations in these VOIs highly correlated with each other, the specific associations of each predictor with k3 could not be determined. The associations between k3 and plasma phenylalanine concentration, K1, and brain phenylalanine concentrations in VOI 1 were nonsignificant. In conclusion, our study shows an inverse association between k3 and increased brain phenylalanine concentrations. PMID:25352046

  12. Interactive annotation of textures in thoracic CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; de Jong, Pim A.; Gietema, Hester A.; Grutters, Jan C.; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

    2010-03-01

    This study describes a system for interactive annotation of thoracic CT scans. Lung volumes in these scans are segmented and subdivided into roughly spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) with homogeneous texture using a clustering procedure. For each 3D VOI, 72 features are calculated. The observer inspects the scan to determine which textures are present and annotates, with mouse clicks, several VOIs of each texture. Based on these annotations, a k-nearest-neighbor classifier is trained, which classifies all remaining VOIs in the scan. The algorithm then presents a slice with suggested annotations to the user, in which the user can correct mistakes. The classifier is retrained, taking into account these new annotations, and the user is presented another slice for correction. This process continues until at least 50% of all lung voxels in the scan have been classified. The remaining VOIs are classified automatically. In this way, the entire lung volume is annotated. The system has been applied to scans of patients with usual and non-specific interstitial pneumonia. The results of interactive annotation are compared to a setup in which the user annotates all predefined VOIs manually. The interactive system is 3.7 times as fast as complete manual annotation of VOIs and differences between the methods are similar to interobserver variability. This is a first step towards precise volumetric quantitation of texture patterns in thoracic CT in clinical research and in clinical practice.

  13. Thursday's Agenda | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    TimeAgenda8:30 am - 8:50 amRegistration - Networking8:50 am - 8:55 amWelcome and Opening RemarksLeslie Ford, MDAssociate Director for Clinical ResearchDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCIEva Szabo, MD Chief, Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group |

  14. Friday's Agenda | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    TimeAgenda8:00 am - 8:10 amWelcome and Opening RemarksLeslie Ford, MDAssociate Director for Clinical ResearchDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCIEva Szabo, MD Chief, Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research GroupDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCI8:10 am - 8:40 amClinical Trials Statistical Concepts for Non-Statisticians |

  15. Laryngotracheoesophageal clefts.

    PubMed

    Strychowsky, Julie E; Rahbar, Reza

    2016-06-01

    Laryngotracheoesophageal clefts are rare congenital anomalies of the aerodigestive tract. Patients may present with airway and/or swallowing impairments. An approach to evaluation and management is presented. Important pearls for conservative and surgical management are discussed. Open versus endoscopic surgical techniques are reviewed. PMID:27301597

  16. Feeding & Motor Functioning: Start at the Hips to Get to the Lips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donato, Jessica; Fox, Cathy; Mormon, Johnnie; Mormon, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Swallowing is one of the most complex movement patterns that people must use accurately throughout the day and night from the time they are born. These movement patterns are very closely integrated with breathing and movement of food through the aerodigestive tract. Malalignment or dysfunction in any part of these integrated patterns and systems…

  17. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the penis

    PubMed Central

    Scarberry, Kyle; Jegalian, Armin; Valent, Jason; Wood, Hadley M.

    2014-01-01

    Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas are rare plasma cell malignancies, particularly outside the upper aerodigestive tract. A 90-year-old male presented with a penile mass suspicious for penile carcinoma. Pathology revealed the tumor to be an Epstein-Barr virus-associated plasmacytoma with no radiographic evidence of bone or other soft tissue involvement. There was no laboratory evidence of multiple myeloma. PMID:25125899

  18. 28 CFR 91.58 - Timing of the environmental review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... anticipated environmental impacts, an environmental impact statement should be initiated. (c) Design phase... CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review... the extent of a project's continuing adverse environmental impacts, and the feasibility of......

  19. Semi-automatic classification of textures in thoracic CT scans.

    PubMed

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T J P; de Jong, Pim A; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M; Wittenberg, Rianne; Tiehuis, Audrey M; Gietema, Hester A; Grutters, Jan C; Viergever, Max A; van Ginneken, Bram

    2016-08-21

    The textural patterns in the lung parenchyma, as visible on computed tomography (CT) scans, are essential to make a correct diagnosis in interstitial lung disease. We developed one automatic and two interactive protocols for classification of normal and seven types of abnormal lung textures. Lungs were segmented and subdivided into volumes of interest (VOIs) with homogeneous texture using a clustering approach. In the automatic protocol, VOIs were classified automatically by an extra-trees classifier that was trained using annotations of VOIs from other CT scans. In the interactive protocols, an observer iteratively trained an extra-trees classifier to distinguish the different textures, by correcting mistakes the classifier makes in a slice-by-slice manner. The difference between the two interactive methods was whether or not training data from previously annotated scans was used in classification of the first slice. The protocols were compared in terms of the percentages of VOIs that observers needed to relabel. Validation experiments were carried out using software that simulated observer behavior. In the automatic classification protocol, observers needed to relabel on average 58% of the VOIs. During interactive annotation without the use of previous training data, the average percentage of relabeled VOIs decreased from 64% for the first slice to 13% for the second half of the scan. Overall, 21% of the VOIs were relabeled. When previous training data was available, the average overall percentage of VOIs requiring relabeling was 20%, decreasing from 56% in the first slice to 13% in the second half of the scan. PMID:27436568

  20. Concentration maxima of volatile organic iodine compounds in the bottom layer water and the cold, dense water over the Chukchi Sea in the western Arctic Ocean: a possibility of production related to degradation of organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooki, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Kuma, K.; Nishino, S.; Kikuchi, T.

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a shipboard observation over the Chukchi Sea and the Canada Basin in the western Arctic Ocean in September and October 2012 to obtain vertical distributions of four volatile organic iodine compounds (VOIs) in seawater. VOIs are believed to play a role in ozone destruction in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The VOIs observed in this study were iodomethane (CH3I), iodoethane (C2H5I), diiodomethane (CH2I2) and chloroiodomethane (CH2ClI). Maximum concentrations of the four VOIs were found in the bottom layer water over the Chukchi Sea shelf, in which layer the maximum concentration of ammonium (NH4+) also occurred. A significant correlation was observed between C2H5I and NH4+ (correlate coefficient R = 0.93) and between CH3I and NH4+ (R = 0.77), suggesting production of these VOIs increased with degradation of organic matter. Over the northern Chukchi Sea shelf-slope area, concentration maxima of CH2I2, CH2ClI, and CH3I were found in the subsurface cold, dense water (CDW). A large nitrogen deficit (N-deficit = NH4+ + NO3- + NO2- - 16PO43-) simultaneously occurred in this water, suggesting production of the three VOIs in the sediment or the bottom layer water over the shelf, probably in association with degradation of organic matter. We conclude that VOI production over the Chukchi Sea shelf can be largely attributed to the degradation of organic matter that is produced in the highly productive shelf water. High concentrations of CH2ClI were also found in the Alaskan Coastal Water (ACW) from the Bering Strait to the surface of the northern Chukchi slope. The VOIs that originated at the Chukchi Sea shelf are expected to be laterally transported to the Arctic Ocean Basin though the subsurface CDW and the surface ACW.

  1. Correlation of {sup 18}F-FDG Avid Volumes on Pre–Radiation Therapy and Post–Radiation Therapy FDG PET Scans in Recurrent Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shusharina, Nadya Cho, Joseph; Sharp, Gregory C.; Choi, Noah C.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the spatial correlation between high uptake regions of 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) before and after therapy in recurrent lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We enrolled 106 patients with inoperable lung cancer into a prospective study whose primary objectives were to determine first, the earliest time point when the maximum decrease in FDG uptake representing the maximum metabolic response (MMR) is attainable and second, the optimum cutoff value of MMR based on its predicted tumor control probability, sensitivity, and specificity. Of those patients, 61 completed the required 4 serial {sup 18}F-FDG PET examinations after therapy. Nineteen of 61 patients experienced local recurrence at the primary tumor and underwent analysis. The volumes of interest (VOI) on pretherapy FDG-PET were defined by use of an isocontour at ≥50% of maximum standard uptake value (SUV{sub max}) (≥50% of SUV{sub max}) with correction for heterogeneity. The VOI on posttherapy images were defined at ≥80% of SUV{sub max}. The VOI of pretherapy and posttherapy {sup 18}F-FDG PET images were correlated for the extent of overlap. Results: The size of VOI at pretherapy images was on average 25.7% (range, 8.8%-56.3%) of the pretherapy primary gross tumor volume (GTV), and their overlap fractions were 0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7-0.9), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.49-0.77), and 0.38 (95% CI: 0.19-0.57) of VOI of posttherapy FDG PET images at 10 days, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. The residual uptake originated from the pretherapy VOI in 15 of 17 cases. Conclusions: VOI defined by the SUV{sub max}-≥50% isocontour may be a biological target volume for escalated radiation dose.

  2. Pancreas segmentation from 3D abdominal CT images using patient-specific weighted subspatial probabilistic atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasawa, Kenichi; Oda, Masahiro; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Rueckert, Daniel; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentations from CT volumes are now widely used in the computer-aided diagnosis and surgery assistance systems. Among abdominal organs, the pancreas is especially difficult to segment because of its large individual differences of the shape and position. In this paper, we propose a new pancreas segmentation method from 3D abdominal CT volumes using patient-specific weighted-subspatial probabilistic atlases. First of all, we perform normalization of organ shapes in training volumes and an input volume. We extract the Volume Of Interest (VOI) of the pancreas from the training volumes and an input volume. We divide each training VOI and input VOI into some cubic regions. We use a nonrigid registration method to register these cubic regions of the training VOI to corresponding regions of the input VOI. Based on the registration results, we calculate similarities between each cubic region of the training VOI and corresponding region of the input VOI. We select cubic regions of training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region. We subspatially construct probabilistic atlases weighted by the similarities in each cubic region. After integrating these probabilistic atlases in cubic regions into one, we perform a rough-to-precise segmentation of the pancreas using the atlas. The results of the experiments showed that utilization of the training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region led good results of the pancreas segmentation. The Jaccard Index and the average surface distance of the result were 58.9% and 2.04mm on average, respectively.

  3. SU-E-J-124: 18F-FDG PET Imaging to Improve RT Treatment Outcome for Locally Advanced Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shusharina, N; Khan, F; Sharp, G; Choi, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate spatial correlation between high uptake regions of pre- and 10-days-post therapy{sup 1} {sup 8}F-FDG PET in recurrent lung cancer and to evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation boosting only regions with high FDG uptake identified on baseline PET. Methods: Nineteen patients with stages II– IV inoperable lung cancer were selected. Volumes of interest (VOI) on pre-therapy FDG-PET were defined using an isocontour at ≥50% of SUVmax. VOI of pre- and post-therapy PET images were correlated for the extent of overlap. A highly optimized IMRT plan to 60 Gy prescribed to PTV defined on the planning CT was designed using clinical dose constraints for the organs at risk. A boost of 18 Gy was prescribed to the VOI defined on baseline PET. A composite plan of the total 78 Gy was compared with the base 60 Gy plan. Increases in dose to the lungs, spinal cord and heart were evaluated. IMRT boost plan was compared with proton RT and SBRT boost plans. Results: Overlap fraction of baseline PET VOI with the VOI on 10 days-post therapy PET was 0.8 (95% CI: 0.7 – 0.9). Using baseline VOI as a boosting volume, dose could be escalated to 78 Gy for 15 patients without compromising the dose constraints. For 4 patients, the dose limiting factors were V20Gy and Dmean for the total lung, and Dmax for the spinal cord. An increase of the dose to OARs correlated significantly with the relative size of the boost volume. Conclusion: VOI defined on baseline 18F-FDG PET by the SUVmax-≥50% isocontour may be a biological target volume for escalated radiation dose. Dose escalation to this volume may provide improved tumor control without breaching predefined dose constraints for OARs. The best treatment outcome may be achieved with proton RT for large targets and with SBRT for small targets.

  4. Relationship between sample volumes and modulus of human vertebral trabecular bone in micro-finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin-Xin; Xu, Chao; Zong, Chun-Lin; Feng, Ya-Fei; Ma, Xiang-Yu; Wang, Fa-Qi; Yan, Ya-Bo; Lei, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Micro-finite element (μFE) models have been widely used to assess the biomechanical properties of trabecular bone. How to choose a proper sample volume of trabecular bone, which could predict the real bone biomechanical properties and reduce the calculation time, was an interesting problem. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between different sample volumes and apparent elastic modulus (E) calculated from μFE model. 5 Human lumbar vertebral bodies (L1-L5) were scanned by micro-CT. Cubic concentric samples of different lengths were constructed as the experimental groups and the largest possible volumes of interest (VOI) were constructed as the control group. A direct voxel-to-element approach was used to generate μFE models and steel layers were added to the superior and inferior surface to mimic axial compression tests. A 1% axial strain was prescribed to the top surface of the model to obtain the E values. ANOVA tests were performed to compare the E values from the different VOIs against that of the control group. Nonlinear function curve fitting was performed to study the relationship between volumes and E values. The larger cubic VOI included more nodes and elements, and more CPU times were needed for calculations. E values showed a descending tendency as the length of cubic VOI decreased. When the volume of VOI was smaller than (7.34mm(3)), E values were significantly different from the control group. The fit function showed that E values approached an asymptotic values with increasing length of VOI. Our study demonstrated that apparent elastic modulus calculated from μFE models were affected by the sample volumes. There was a descending tendency of E values as the length of cubic VOI decreased. Sample volume which was not smaller than (7.34mm(3)) was efficient enough and timesaving for the calculation of E. PMID:26999702

  5. Concentration maxima of volatile organic iodine compounds in the bottom layer water and the cold, dense water over the Chukchi Sea in the western Arctic Ocean: a possibility of production related to the degradation of organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooki, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Kuma, K.; Nishino, S.; Kikuchi, T.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a shipboard observation over the Chukchi Sea and the Canada Basin in the western Arctic Ocean in September and October 2012 to obtain vertical distributions of four volatile organic iodine compounds (VOIs) in seawater. The VOIs observed in this study were iodomethane (CH3I), iodoethane (C2H5I), diiodomethane (CH2I2), and chloroiodomethane (CH2ClI). Maximum concentrations of the four VOIs were found in the bottom layer water over the Chukchi Sea shelf, in which layer the maximum concentration of ammonium (NH4+) also occurred. A significant correlation was observed between C2H5I and NH4+ (correlation coefficient R = 0.93, P < 0.01, n = 64) and between CH3I and NH4+ (R= 0.77, P < 0.01, n = 64), suggesting that the production of these VOIs increased with the degradation of organic matter. Over the northern Chukchi Sea shelf-slope area, concentration maxima of CHI2, CH2ClI, and CH3I were found in the subsurface cold, dense water (CDW). A large nitrogen deficit (N deficit = NH4++ NO3-+ NO2--16PO43-) occurred simultaneously in this water, suggesting the production of the three VOIs in the sediment or the bottom layer water over the shelf, probably in association with the degradation of organic matter. We conclude that VOI production over the Chukchi Sea shelf can be largely attributed to the degradation of organic matter that is produced in the highly productive shelf water. High concentrations of CH2ClI were also found in the Alaskan Coastal Water (ACW) from the Bering Strait to the surface of the northern Chukchi slope. The VOIs that originated at the Chukchi Sea shelf are expected to be laterally transported to the Arctic Ocean basin through the CDW and the surface ACW.

  6. The cosmological microwave background radiation, cosmic and superconducting strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, N.; Signore, M.

    1989-03-01

    We study different kinds of anisotropies and distortions in the cosmological background radiation due to cosmic and superconducting strings: (i) temperature angular anisotropy by loop decay into gravitational waves and (ii) spectral distortions due to electromagnetic energy emission. We relate distortions produced by loops indifferent epochs of their evolution. We confront these predictions with observations, in particular with the submillimeter excess recently observed by the Nagoya-Berkeley experiment. This allows us to place constraints both of the string parameter Gμ and on the parameters governing loop evolution. UA 336 Laboratoire Associé au CNRS, Observatoire de Meudon et Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 reu Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.

  7. Radiation doses in volume-of-interest breast computed tomography—A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chao-Jen Zhong, Yuncheng; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Cone beam breast computed tomography (breast CT) with true three-dimensional, nearly isotropic spatial resolution has been developed and investigated over the past decade to overcome the problem of lesions overlapping with breast anatomical structures on two-dimensional mammographic images. However, the ability of breast CT to detect small objects, such as tissue structure edges and small calcifications, is limited. To resolve this problem, the authors proposed and developed a volume-of-interest (VOI) breast CT technique to image a small VOI using a higher radiation dose to improve that region’s visibility. In this study, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations to estimate average breast dose and average glandular dose (AGD) for the VOI breast CT technique. Methods: Electron–Gamma-Shower system code-based Monte Carlo codes were used to simulate breast CT. The Monte Carlo codes estimated were validated using physical measurements of air kerma ratios and point doses in phantoms with an ion chamber and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters. The validated full cone x-ray source was then collimated to simulate half cone beam x-rays to image digital pendant-geometry, hemi-ellipsoidal, homogeneous breast phantoms and to estimate breast doses with full field scans. 13-cm in diameter, 10-cm long hemi-ellipsoidal homogeneous phantoms were used to simulate median breasts. Breast compositions of 25% and 50% volumetric glandular fractions (VGFs) were used to investigate the influence on breast dose. The simulated half cone beam x-rays were then collimated to a narrow x-ray beam with an area of 2.5 × 2.5 cm{sup 2} field of view at the isocenter plane and to perform VOI field scans. The Monte Carlo results for the full field scans and the VOI field scans were then used to estimate the AGD for the VOI breast CT technique. Results: The ratios of air kerma ratios and dose measurement results from the Monte Carlo simulation to those from the physical

  8. Cancers of the lung, head and neck on the rise: perspectives on the genotoxicity of air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Ng, Yuen-Keng; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been recently classified as a class I human carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cumulative evidence from across the globe shows that polluted air is associated with increased risk of lung, head and neck, and nasopharyngeal cancers—all of which affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Importantly, these cancers have been previously linked to smoking. In this article, we review epidemiologic and experimental evidence of the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of air pollution on DNA, purportedly a key mechanism for cancer development. The alarming increase in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Asia suggests a need to focus government efforts and research on reducing air pollution, promoting clean energy, and investigating the carcinogenic effects of air pollution on humans. PMID:25011457

  9. Completeness map evaluation demonstrated with candidate next-generation cardiac CT architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Baodong; Bennett, James; Wang Ge; De Man, Bruno; Zeng Kai; Yin Zhye; Fitzgerald, Paul; Yu Hengyong

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: In this report, the authors introduce the general concept of the completeness map, as a means to evaluate the completeness of data acquired by a given CT system design (architecture and scan mode). They illustrate the utility of completeness map by applying the completeness map concept to a number of candidate CT system designs, as part of a study to advance the state-of-the-art in cardiac CT. Methods: In order to optimally reconstruct a point within a volume of interest (VOI), the Radon transform on all possible planes through that point should be measured. The authors quantified the extent to which this ideal condition is satisfied for the entire image volume. They first determined a Radon completeness number for each point in the VOI, as the percentage of possible planes that is actually measured. A completeness map is then defined as a 3D matrix of the completeness numbers for the entire VOI. The authors proposed algorithms to analyze the projection datasets in Radon space and compute the completeness number for a fixed point and apply these algorithms to various architectures and scan modes that they are evaluating. In this report, the authors consider four selected candidate architectures, operating with different scan modes, for a total of five system design alternatives. Each of these alternatives is evaluated using completeness map. Results: If the detector size and cone angle are large enough to cover the entire cardiac VOI, a single-source circular scan can have {>=}99% completeness over the entire VOI. However, only the central z-slice can be exactly reconstructed, which corresponds to 100% completeness. For a typical single-source architecture, if the detector is limited to an axial dimension of 40 mm, a helical scan needs about five rotations to form an exact reconstruction region covering the cardiac VOI, while a triple-source helical scan only requires two rotations, leading to a 2.5x improvement in temporal resolution. If the source and

  10. Volume-of-interest reconstruction from severely truncated data in dental cone-beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Kusnoto, Budi; Han, Xiao; Sidky, E. Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2015-03-01

    As cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has gained popularity rapidly in dental imaging applications in the past two decades, radiation dose in CBCT imaging remains a potential, health concern to the patients. It is a common practice in dental CBCT imaging that only a small volume of interest (VOI) containing the teeth of interest is illuminated, thus substantially lowering imaging radiation dose. However, this would yield data with severe truncations along both transverse and longitudinal directions. Although images within the VOI reconstructed from truncated data can be of some practical utility, they often are compromised significantly by truncation artifacts. In this work, we investigate optimization-based reconstruction algorithms for VOI image reconstruction from CBCT data of dental patients containing severe truncations. In an attempt to further reduce imaging dose, we also investigate optimization-based image reconstruction from severely truncated data collected at projection views substantially fewer than those used in clinical dental applications. Results of our study show that appropriately designed optimization-based reconstruction can yield VOI images with reduced truncation artifacts, and that, when reconstructing from only one half, or even one quarter, of clinical data, it can also produce VOI images comparable to that of clinical images.

  11. Fast automatic delineation of cardiac volume of interest in MSCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Lessick, Jonathan; Lavi, Guy; Bulow, Thomas; Renisch, Steffen

    2004-05-01

    Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) is an emerging modality for assessing cardiac anatomy. The delineation of the cardiac volume of interest (VOI) is a pre-processing step for subsequent visualization or image processing. It serves the suppression of anatomic structures being not in the primary focus of the cardiac application, such as sternum, ribs, spinal column, descending aorta and pulmonary vasculature. These structures obliterate standard visualizations such as direct volume renderings or maximum intensity projections. In addition, outcome and performance of post-processing steps such as ventricle suppression, coronary artery segmentation or the detection of short and long axes of the heart can be improved. The structures being part of the cardiac VOI (coronary arteries and veins, myocardium, ventricles and atria) differ tremendously in appearance. In addition, there is no clear image feature associated with the contour (or better cut-surface) distinguishing between cardiac VOI and surrounding tissue making the automatic delineation of the cardiac VOI a difficult task. The presented approach locates in a first step chest wall and descending aorta in all image slices giving a rough estimate of the location of the heart. In a second step, a Fourier based active contour approach delineates slice-wise the border of the cardiac VOI. The algorithm has been evaluated on 41 multi-slice CT data-sets including cases with coronary stents and venous and arterial bypasses. The typical processing time amounts to 5-10s on a 1GHz P3 PC.

  12. Synthesized interstitial lung texture for use in anthropomorphic computational phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, Marc F.; Solomon, Justin B.; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    A realistic model of the anatomical texture from the pulmonary interstitium was developed with the goal of extending the capability of anthropomorphic computational phantoms (e.g., XCAT, Duke University), allowing for more accurate image quality assessment. Contrast-enhanced, high dose, thorax images for a healthy patient from a clinical CT system (Discovery CT750HD, GE healthcare) with thin (0.625 mm) slices and filtered back- projection (FBP) were used to inform the model. The interstitium which gives rise to the texture was defined using 24 volumes of interest (VOIs). These VOIs were selected manually to avoid vasculature, bronchi, and bronchioles. A small scale Hessian-based line filter was applied to minimize the amount of partial-volumed supernumerary vessels and bronchioles within the VOIs. The texture in the VOIs was characterized using 8 Haralick and 13 gray-level run length features. A clustered lumpy background (CLB) model with added noise and blurring to match CT system was optimized to resemble the texture in the VOIs using a genetic algorithm with the Mahalanobis distance as a similarity metric between the texture features. The most similar CLB model was then used to generate the interstitial texture to fill the lung. The optimization improved the similarity by 45%. This will substantially enhance the capabilities of anthropomorphic computational phantoms, allowing for more realistic CT simulations.

  13. [Epidemiology of cancers of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts].

    PubMed

    Lefèbvre, J L; Adenis, L

    1995-04-01

    Tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract affect mainly industrial countries. Squamous cell carcinomas of the pharynx and larynx are linked to alcohol and tobacco abuse. Other factors (such as poor dental or nutritional status, viral or genetic or occupational factors) are, by far, of less importance. Glandular tumours of the ethmoid are, undoubtedly, due to wood dust exposure. Undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharynx are associated with Epstein-Barr virus exposure, genetic profiles and diet behaviour. PMID:7761748

  14. Disorders of Cranial Nerves IX and X

    PubMed Central

    Erman, Audrey B.; Kejner, Alexandra E.; Hogikyan, Norman D.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    The glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves mediate the complex interplay between the many functions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Defects may occur anywhere from the brainstem to the peripheral nerve and can result in significant impairment in speech, swallowing, and breathing. Multiple etiologies can produce symptoms. This review will broadly examine the normal functions, clinical examination, and various pathologies of cranial nerves IX and X. PMID:19214937

  15. Fluorometric analysis for neoplasm diagnostics and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasny, Miroslaw; Mierczyk, Zygmunt

    1997-10-01

    The paper presents methods of laser-induced fluorescence with the use of endo- and exogenous dyes for diagnosis of early tumors of aerodigestive tracts, colons, bladder, GYN, and skin, as well as a review of equipment developed during laboratory examination, construction of diagnostic instruments and clinical use of fluorometric methods with application of various devices, from simple fluorometers to sophisticated endoscopic spectra-analyzers.

  16. Eva Szabo, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Eva Szabo is Chief of the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group at the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention. She graduated from Yale University with a BS in Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, received her MD from Duke University, and completed her internal medicine residency at Bellevue-NYU Medical Center. After completing her medical oncology fellowship at the National Cancer Institute, Dr. Szabo led a laboratory effort studying lung cancer biology. |

  17. Esophageal reflexes modulate frontoparietal response in neonates: Novel application of concurrent NIRS and provocative esophageal manometry.

    PubMed

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Pakiraih, Joanna F; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Dar, Irfaan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Bates, D Gregory; Kashou, Nasser H

    2014-07-01

    Central and peripheral neural regulation of swallowing and aerodigestive reflexes is unclear in human neonates. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method to measure changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD). Pharyngoesophageal manometry permits evaluation of aerodigestive reflexes. Modalities were combined to investigate feasibility and to test neonatal frontoparietal cortical changes during pharyngoesophageal (visceral) stimulation and/or swallowing. Ten neonates (45.6 ± 3.0 wk postmenstrual age, 4.1 ± 0.5 kg) underwent novel pharyngoesophageal manometry concurrent with NIRS. To examine esophagus-brain interactions, we analyzed cortical hemodynamic response (HDR) latency and durations during aerodigestive provocation and esophageal reflexes. Data are presented as means ± SE or percent. HDR rates were 8.84 times more likely with basal spontaneous deglutition compared with sham stimuli (P = 0.004). Of 182 visceral stimuli, 95% were analyzable for esophageal responses, 38% for HDR, and 36% for both. Of analyzable HDR (n = 70): 1) HbO concentration (μmol/l) baseline 1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 poststimulus was significant (P = 0.02), 2) HbD concentration (μmol/l) between baseline 0.1 ± 0.4 vs. poststimulus -0.5 ± 0.4 was not significant (P = 0.73), and 3) hemispheric lateralization was 21% left only, 29% right only, and 50% bilateral. During concurrent esophageal and NIRS responses (n = 66): 1) peristaltic reflexes were present in 74% and HDR in 61% and 2) HDR was 4.75 times more likely with deglutition reflex vs. secondary peristaltic reflex (P = 0.016). Concurrent NIRS with visceral stimulation is feasible in neonates, and frontoparietal cortical activation is recognized. Deglutition contrasting with secondary peristalsis is related to cortical activation, thus implicating higher hierarchical aerodigestive protective functional neural networks. PMID:24789204

  18. Application of value of information of tank waste characterization: A new paradigm for defining tank waste characterization requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L.L.; Brewster, M.E.; Brothers, A.J.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the rationale for adopting a recommended characterization strategy that uses a risk-based decision-making framework for managing the Tank Waste Characterization program at Hanford. The risk-management/value-of-information (VOI) strategy that is illustrated explicitly links each information-gathering activity to its cost and provides a mechanism to ensure that characterization funds are spent where they can produce the largest reduction in risk. The approach was developed by tailoring well-known decision analysis techniques to specific tank waste characterization applications. This report illustrates how VOI calculations are performed and demonstrates that the VOI approach can definitely be used for real Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) characterization problems.

  19. Pulmonary airways tree segmentation from CT examinations using adaptive volume of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Won Pil; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph K.; Pu, Jiantao; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

    2009-02-01

    Airways tree segmentation is an important step in quantitatively assessing the severity of and changes in several lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis. It can also be used in guiding bronchoscopy. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated scheme for segmenting the airways tree structure depicted on chest CT examinations. After lung volume segmentation, the scheme defines the first cylinder-like volume of interest (VOI) using a series of images depicting the trachea. The scheme then iteratively defines and adds subsequent VOIs using a region growing algorithm combined with adaptively determined thresholds in order to trace possible sections of airways located inside the combined VOI in question. The airway tree segmentation process is automatically terminated after the scheme assesses all defined VOIs in the iteratively assembled VOI list. In this preliminary study, ten CT examinations with 1.25mm section thickness and two different CT image reconstruction kernels ("bone" and "standard") were selected and used to test the proposed airways tree segmentation scheme. The experiment results showed that (1) adopting this approach affectively prevented the scheme from infiltrating into the parenchyma, (2) the proposed method reasonably accurately segmented the airways trees with lower false positive identification rate as compared with other previously reported schemes that are based on 2-D image segmentation and data analyses, and (3) the proposed adaptive, iterative threshold selection method for the region growing step in each identified VOI enables the scheme to segment the airways trees reliably to the 4th generation in this limited dataset with successful segmentation up to the 5th generation in a fraction of the airways tree branches.

  20. Volume of interest-based [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET discriminates MCI converting to Alzheimer's disease from healthy controls. A European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) study.

    PubMed

    Pagani, M; De Carli, F; Morbelli, S; Öberg, J; Chincarini, A; Frisoni, G B; Galluzzi, S; Perneczky, R; Drzezga, A; van Berckel, B N M; Ossenkoppele, R; Didic, M; Guedj, E; Brugnolo, A; Picco, A; Arnaldi, D; Ferrara, M; Buschiazzo, A; Sambuceti, G; Nobili, F

    2015-01-01

    An emerging issue in neuroimaging is to assess the diagnostic reliability of PET and its application in clinical practice. We aimed at assessing the accuracy of brain FDG-PET in discriminating patients with MCI due to Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. Sixty-two patients with amnestic MCI and 109 healthy subjects recruited in five centers of the European AD Consortium were enrolled. Group analysis was performed by SPM8 to confirm metabolic differences. Discriminant analyses were then carried out using the mean FDG uptake values normalized to the cerebellum computed in 45 anatomical volumes of interest (VOIs) in each hemisphere (90 VOIs) as defined in the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) Atlas and on 12 meta-VOIs, bilaterally, obtained merging VOIs with similar anatomo-functional characteristics. Further, asymmetry indexes were calculated for both datasets. Accuracy of discrimination by a Support Vector Machine and the AAL VOIs was tested against a validated method (PALZ). At the voxel level SMP8 showed a relative hypometabolism in the bilateral precuneus, and posterior cingulate, temporo-parietal and frontal cortices. Discriminant analysis classified subjects with an accuracy ranging between .91 and .83 as a function of data organization. The best values were obtained from a subset of 6 meta-VOIs plus 6 asymmetry values reaching an area under the ROC curve of .947, significantly larger than the one obtained by the PALZ score. High accuracy in discriminating MCI converters from healthy controls was reached by a non-linear classifier based on SVM applied on predefined anatomo-functional regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetries. Data pre-processing was automated and simplified by an in-house created Matlab-based script encouraging its routine clinical use. Further validation toward nonconverter MCI patients with adequately long follow-up is needed. PMID:25610765

  1. CBCT with specification of imaging dose and CNR by anatomical volume of interest

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, Del; Robar, James L.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: A novel method has been developed for volume of interest (VOI) cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging using a 2.35 MV/Carbon target linac imaging beam line combined with dynamic multileaf collimator sequences. Methods: The authors demonstrate the concept of acquisition of multiple, separate imaging volumes, where volumes can be either completely separated or nested, and are associated with predetermined imaging dose and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) characteristics. Two individual MLC sequences were established in the planning system (Eclipse, Varian Medical) to collimate the beam according to a defined inner VOI (e.g., containing a target volume under image guidance) and an outer VOI (e.g., including surrounding landmarks or organs-at-risk). MLC sequences were interleaved as a function of gantry angle to produce a reconstructed CBCT image with nested VOIs. By controlling the ratio of inner-to-outer ratio of MLC segments (and thus Monitor Units) during acquisition, the relative dose and CNR in the two volumes can be controlled. Inner-to-outer ratios of 2:1 to 6:1 were examined. Results: The concept was explored using an anatomical head phantom to assess image quality. A geometric phantom was used to quantify absolute dose and CNR values for the various sequences. The authors found that the dose in the outer VOI decreased by a functional relationship dependent on the inner-to-outer sequence ratio, while the CNR varied by the square root of dose, as expected. Conclusions: In this study the authors demonstrate flexibility in VOI CBCT by tailoring the imaging dose and CNR distribution in separate volumes within the patient anatomy. This would allow for high quality imaging of a target volume for alignment purposes, with simultaneous low dose imaging of the surrounding anatomy (e.g., for coregistration)

  2. Fast, shape-directed, landmark-based deep gray matter segmentation for quantification of iron deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekin, Ahmet; Jasinschi, Radu; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Buchem, Mark A.; van Muiswinkel, Arianne

    2006-03-01

    This paper introduces image processing methods to automatically detect the 3D volume-of-interest (VOI) and 2D region-of-interest (ROI) for deep gray matter organs (thalamus, globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate nucleus) of patients with suspected iron deposition from MR dual echo images. Prior to the VOI and ROI detection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) region is segmented by a clustering algorithm. For the segmentation, we automatically determine the cluster centers with the mean shift algorithm that can quickly identify the modes of a distribution. After the identification of the modes, we employ the K-Harmonic means clustering algorithm to segment the volumetric MR data into CSF and non-CSF. Having the CSF mask and observing that the frontal lobe of the lateral ventricle has more consistent shape accross age and pathological abnormalities, we propose a shape-directed landmark detection algorithm to detect the VOI in a speedy manner. The proposed landmark detection algorithm utilizes a novel shape model of the front lobe of the lateral ventricle for the slices where thalamus, globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate nucleus are expected to appear. After this step, for each slice in the VOI, we use horizontal and vertical projections of the CSF map to detect the approximate locations of the relevant organs to define the ROI. We demonstrate the robustness of the proposed VOI and ROI localization algorithms to pathologies, including severe amounts of iron accumulation as well as white matter lesions, and anatomical variations. The proposed algorithms achieved very high detection accuracy, 100% in the VOI detection , over a large set of a challenging MR dataset.

  3. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for classification of 18F-NaF uptake on PET/CT*

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Agnes Araujo; Duarte, Paulo Schiavom; Carvalho, Giovanna; Ono, Carla Rachel; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Sado, Heitor Naoki; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the cutoff values established by ROC curves to classify 18F-NaF uptake as normal or malignant. Materials and Methods PET/CT images were acquired 1 hour after administration of 185 MBq of 18F-NaF. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were drawn on three regions of the skeleton as follows: proximal right humerus diaphysis (HD), proximal right femoral diaphysis (FD) and first vertebral body (VB1), in a total of 254 patients, totalling 762 VOIs. The uptake in the VOIs was classified as normal or malignant on the basis of the radiopharmaceutical distribution pattern and of the CT images. A total of 675 volumes were classified as normal and 52 were classified as malignant. Thirty-five VOIs classified as indeterminate or nonmalignant lesions were excluded from analysis. The standardized uptake value (SUV) measured on the VOIs were plotted on an ROC curve for each one of the three regions. The area under the ROC (AUC) as well as the best cutoff SUVs to classify the VOIs were calculated. The best cutoff values were established as the ones with higher result of the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Results The AUCs were 0.933, 0.889 and 0.975 for UD, FD and VB1, respectively. The best SUV cutoffs were 9.0 (sensitivity: 73%; specificity: 99%), 8.4 (sensitivity: 79%; specificity: 94%) and 21.0 (sensitivity: 93%; specificity: 95%) for UD, FD and VB1, respectively. Conclusion The best cutoff value varies according to bone region of analysis and it is not possible to establish one value for the whole body. PMID:26929455

  4. Automatic Liver Segmentation on Volumetric CT Images Using Supervoxel-Based Graph Cuts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Shuicai; Zhang, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of liver from abdominal CT scans is critical for computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy. Despite many years of research, automatic liver segmentation remains a challenging task. In this paper, a novel method was proposed for automatic delineation of liver on CT volume images using supervoxel-based graph cuts. To extract the liver volume of interest (VOI), the region of abdomen was firstly determined based on maximum intensity projection (MIP) and thresholding methods. Then, the patient-specific liver VOI was extracted from the region of abdomen by using a histogram-based adaptive thresholding method and morphological operations. The supervoxels of the liver VOI were generated using the simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) method. The foreground/background seeds for graph cuts were generated on the largest liver slice, and the graph cuts algorithm was applied to the VOI supervoxels. Thirty abdominal CT images were used to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect the liver accurately with significant reduction of processing time, especially when dealing with diseased liver cases. PMID:27127536

  5. 28 CFR 91.58 - Timing of the environmental review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of the environmental review process. 91.58 Section 91.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.58 Timing of the...

  6. 28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... issue a Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact (FONSI) or prepare an Environmental Impact... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91... FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review...

  7. 28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... issue a Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact (FONSI) or prepare an Environmental Impact... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91... FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review...

  8. 28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... issue a Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact (FONSI) or prepare an Environmental Impact... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91... FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review...

  9. 28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... issue a Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact (FONSI) or prepare an Environmental Impact... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91... FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review...

  10. 28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... issue a Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact (FONSI) or prepare an Environmental Impact... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91... FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review...

  11. 28 CFR 91.65 - Responsible OJP officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 91.65 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.65... of decisions resulting from the completion of environmental impact statements on projects subject...

  12. 28 CFR 91.60 - Grantee's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 91.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.60 Grantee... must: (a) Work closely with OJP on the development and review of the environmental documents,...

  13. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State Environmental Policy Acts. 91.67 Section 91.67 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements §...

  14. 28 CFR 91.60 - Grantee's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 91.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.60 Grantee... must: (a) Work closely with OJP on the development and review of the environmental documents,...

  15. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64... environmental assessments or draft or final environmental impact statements if the grantee proposes to...

  16. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64... environmental assessments or draft or final environmental impact statements if the grantee proposes to...

  17. 28 CFR 91.53 - Other guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Justice has also published NEPA procedures that incorporate the CEQ regulations at 28 CFR part 61. Additionally, the Office of Justice Programs' Corrections Program Office has prepared a handbook for VOI/TIS... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES...

  18. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64... environmental assessments or draft or final environmental impact statements if the grantee proposes to...

  19. 28 CFR 91.53 - Other guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Justice has also published NEPA procedures that incorporate the CEQ regulations at 28 CFR part 61. Additionally, the Office of Justice Programs' Corrections Program Office has prepared a handbook for VOI/TIS... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES...

  20. 28 CFR 91.65 - Responsible OJP officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 91.65 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.65... of decisions resulting from the completion of environmental impact statements on projects subject...

  1. 28 CFR 91.53 - Other guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Justice has also published NEPA procedures that incorporate the CEQ regulations at 28 CFR part 61. Additionally, the Office of Justice Programs' Corrections Program Office has prepared a handbook for VOI/TIS... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES...

  2. 28 CFR 91.59 - OJP's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.59 OJP's... environmental impact statements, and their adequacy must, by statute, remain with OJP. Therefore, OJP, as...

  3. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State Environmental Policy Acts. 91.67 Section 91.67 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements §...

  4. 28 CFR 91.53 - Other guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Justice has also published NEPA procedures that incorporate the CEQ regulations at 28 CFR part 61. Additionally, the Office of Justice Programs' Corrections Program Office has prepared a handbook for VOI/TIS... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES...

  5. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS... of an environmental impact statement. Significant impact. For the proposed construction of a...

  6. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64... environmental assessments or draft or final environmental impact statements if the grantee proposes to...

  7. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State Environmental Policy Acts. 91.67 Section 91.67 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements §...

  8. 28 CFR 91.65 - Responsible OJP officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 91.65 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.65... of decisions resulting from the completion of environmental impact statements on projects subject...

  9. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.64... environmental assessments or draft or final environmental impact statements if the grantee proposes to...

  10. 28 CFR 91.59 - OJP's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.59 OJP's... environmental impact statements, and their adequacy must, by statute, remain with OJP. Therefore, OJP, as...

  11. 28 CFR 91.60 - Grantee's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 91.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.60 Grantee... must: (a) Work closely with OJP on the development and review of the environmental documents,...

  12. 28 CFR 91.53 - Other guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Justice has also published NEPA procedures that incorporate the CEQ regulations at 28 CFR part 61. Additionally, the Office of Justice Programs' Corrections Program Office has prepared a handbook for VOI/TIS... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES...

  13. 28 CFR 91.65 - Responsible OJP officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 91.65 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.65... of decisions resulting from the completion of environmental impact statements on projects subject...

  14. 28 CFR 91.60 - Grantee's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 91.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.60 Grantee... must: (a) Work closely with OJP on the development and review of the environmental documents,...

  15. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State Environmental Policy Acts. 91.67 Section 91.67 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements §...

  16. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS... of an environmental impact statement. Significant impact. For the proposed construction of a...

  17. 28 CFR 91.59 - OJP's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.59 OJP's... environmental impact statements, and their adequacy must, by statute, remain with OJP. Therefore, OJP, as...

  18. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS... of an environmental impact statement. Significant impact. For the proposed construction of a...

  19. 28 CFR 91.59 - OJP's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.59 OJP's... environmental impact statements, and their adequacy must, by statute, remain with OJP. Therefore, OJP, as...

  20. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS... of an environmental impact statement. Significant impact. For the proposed construction of a...

  1. 28 CFR 91.57 - Actions that normally require the preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... preparation of an environmental impact statement. 91.57 Section 91.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS... of an environmental impact statement. Significant impact. For the proposed construction of a...

  2. 28 CFR 91.59 - OJP's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....59 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.59 OJP's... environmental impact statements, and their adequacy must, by statute, remain with OJP. Therefore, OJP, as...

  3. 28 CFR 91.60 - Grantee's responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 91.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.60 Grantee... must: (a) Work closely with OJP on the development and review of the environmental documents,...

  4. 28 CFR 91.67 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State Environmental Policy Acts. 91.67 Section 91.67 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Other State and Federal Law Requirements §...

  5. 28 CFR 91.65 - Responsible OJP officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 91.65 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.65... of decisions resulting from the completion of environmental impact statements on projects subject...

  6. 28 CFR 91.58 - Timing of the environmental review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of the environmental review process. 91.58 Section 91.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.58 Timing of the...

  7. Automatic Liver Segmentation on Volumetric CT Images Using Supervoxel-Based Graph Cuts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Shuicai; Zhang, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Accurate segmentation of liver from abdominal CT scans is critical for computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy. Despite many years of research, automatic liver segmentation remains a challenging task. In this paper, a novel method was proposed for automatic delineation of liver on CT volume images using supervoxel-based graph cuts. To extract the liver volume of interest (VOI), the region of abdomen was firstly determined based on maximum intensity projection (MIP) and thresholding methods. Then, the patient-specific liver VOI was extracted from the region of abdomen by using a histogram-based adaptive thresholding method and morphological operations. The supervoxels of the liver VOI were generated using the simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) method. The foreground/background seeds for graph cuts were generated on the largest liver slice, and the graph cuts algorithm was applied to the VOI supervoxels. Thirty abdominal CT images were used to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect the liver accurately with significant reduction of processing time, especially when dealing with diseased liver cases. PMID:27127536

  8. 28 CFR 91.58 - Timing of the environmental review process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of the environmental review process. 91.58 Section 91.58 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.58 Timing of the...

  9. Left inferior parietal lobe engagement in social cognition and language.

    PubMed

    Bzdok, Danilo; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Reid, Andrew; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-09-01

    Social cognition and language are two core features of the human species. Despite distributed recruitment of brain regions in each mental capacity, the left parietal lobe (LPL) represents a zone of topographical convergence. The present study quantitatively summarizes hundreds of neuroimaging studies on social cognition and language. Using connectivity-based parcellation on a meta-analytically defined volume of interest (VOI), regional coactivation patterns within this VOI allowed identifying distinct subregions. Across parcellation solutions, two clusters emerged consistently in rostro-ventral and caudo-ventral aspects of the parietal VOI. Both clusters were functionally significantly associated with social-cognitive and language processing. In particular, the rostro-ventral cluster was associated with lower-level processing facets, while the caudo-ventral cluster was associated with higher-level processing facets in both mental capacities. Contrarily, in the (less stable) dorsal parietal VOI, all clusters reflected computation of general-purpose processes, such as working memory and matching tasks, that are frequently co-recruited by social or language processes. Our results hence favour a rostro-caudal distinction of lower- versus higher-level processes underlying social cognition and language in the left inferior parietal lobe. PMID:27241201

  10. Interpretation des donnees de flux de chaleur et de gravite dans le bouclier Canadien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Li Zhen

    2000-10-01

    Le champ geothermique du Bouclier Canadien est caracterise par un flux moyen de 41 mW·m-2, qui suggere une production de chaleur moyenne dans la croute comprise entre 0.7 et 0.8 muW·m-3. Le flux de chaleur relativement faible favorise la stabilite du bouclier et lui a permis de resister a la deformation tectonique. Les variations du flux de chaleur a la surface sont dominees par la composition de la croute. Un flux eleve implique generalement une composition felsique et il est d'autant plus faible que la croute devient plus mafique. La production de chaleur en surface n'est pas representative de la production moyenne de la croute. Le flux de chaleur dans le Boucher Canadien ne depend donc pas de la production de chaleur en surface, mais depend de la composition principale de la croute. L'interpretation combinee des donnees geophysiques nous permet de determiner les variations de composition d'echelle crustale a partir desquelles il est possible d'etablir la structure de la croute. L'etude detaillee de l'Orogene de Trans-Hudson et de la Sous-province d'Abitibi a montre que le flux de chaleur, la gravite et la sismique lorsqu'elles sont combinees fournissent des contraintes efficaces pour determiner l'architecture crustale. En general, la croute est trop resistante pour se deformer par fluage, excepte tres localement. Le mode de deformation de la lithosphere continentale depend de la composition et du gradient geothermique. Nous montrons que la lithosphere du Bouclier Canadien demeure principalement fragile jusqu'a une profondeur de plus de 150 km. Une deformation ductile pourrait cependant etre possible localement a la base de la, croute, comme dans la ceinture de Thompson par exemple. Si l'on admet que la lithosphere peut resister a des contraintes allant jusqu'a 20 MPa (taux de deformation 3˙ < 10-15 s-1), l'epaisseur de la lithosphere est de l'ordre de 300 km pour la ceinture de Thompson et est superieure a 300 km pour la sous-province d'Abitibi. La resistance

  11. The value of information for managing contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Sparrevik, Magnus; de Lichy, Nicolas; Linkov, Igor

    2014-08-19

    Effective management of contaminated sediments is important for long-term human and environmental health, but site-management decisions are often made under high uncertainty and without the help of structured decision support tools. Potential trade-offs between remedial costs, environmental effects, human health risks, and societal benefits, as well as fundamental differences in stakeholder priorities, complicate decision making. Formal decision-analytic tools such as multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) move beyond ad hoc decision support to quantitatively and holistically rank management alternatives and add transparency and replicability to the evaluation process. However, even the best decisions made under uncertainty may be found suboptimal in hindsight, once additional scientific, social, economic, or other details become known. Value of information (VoI) analysis extends MCDA by systematically evaluating the impact of uncertainty on a decision. VoI prioritizes future research in terms of expected decision relevance by helping decision makers estimate the likelihood that additional information will improve decision confidence or change their selection of a management plan. In this study, VoI analysis evaluates uncertainty, estimates decision confidence, and prioritizes research to inform selection of a sediment capping strategy for the dibenzo-p-dioxin and -furan contaminated Grenland fjord system in southern Norway. The VoI model extends stochastic MCDA to model decisions with and without simulated new information and compares decision confidence across scenarios with different degrees of remaining uncertainty. Results highlight opportunities for decision makers to benefit from additional information by anticipating the improved decision confidence (or lack thereof) expected from reducing uncertainties for each criterion or combination of criteria. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of VoI analysis for environmental decisions by predicting when

  12. SU-E-J-143: Short- and Near-Term Effects of Proton Therapy On Cerebral White Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Uh, J; Merchant, T; Ogg, R; Sabin, N; Hua, C; Indelicato, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess early effects of proton therapy on the structural integrity of cerebral white matter in relation to the subsequent near-term development of such effects. Methods: Sixteen children (aged 2–19 years) with craniopharyngioma underwent proton therapy of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) in a prospective therapeutic trial. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed at baseline before proton therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Tract-based spatial statics analysis of DTI data was performed to derive the fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) in 26 volumes of interest (VOIs). The dose distributions were spatially normalized to identify VOIs prone to high doses. The longitudinal percentage changes of the FA and RD in these VOIs at 3 and 12 months from the baseline were calculated, and their relationships were evaluated. Results: The average dose was highest to the cerebral peduncle (CP), corticospinal tract (CST) in the pons, pontine crossing tract (PCT), anterior/posterior limbs of the internal capsule (ALIC/PLIC), and genu of the corpus callosum (GCC). It ranged from 33.3 GCE (GCC) to 49.7 GCE (CP). A mild but statistically significant (P<0.05) decline of FA was observed 3 months after proton therapy in all VOIs except the PLIC and ranged from −1.7% (ALIC) to −2.8% (PCT). A significant increase of RD was found in the CP (3.5%) and ALIC (2.1%). The average longitudinal change from the baseline was reduced at 12 months for most VOIs. However, the standard deviation increased, indicating that the temporal pattern varied individually. The follow-up measurements at 3 and 12 months correlated for the CP, CST, PCT, and GCC (P < 0.04). Conclusion: DTI data suggest early (3 months) effects of proton therapy on microstructures in the white matter. The subsequent follow-up indicated individual variation of the changes, which was partly implied by the early effects.

  13. Interactive lung segmentation in abnormal human and animal chest CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P. Viergever, Max A.; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Brown, Matthew S.; Jong, Pim A. de; Ginneken, Bram van

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Many medical image analysis systems require segmentation of the structures of interest as a first step. For scans with gross pathology, automatic segmentation methods may fail. The authors’ aim is to develop a versatile, fast, and reliable interactive system to segment anatomical structures. In this study, this system was used for segmenting lungs in challenging thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: In volumetric thoracic CT scans, the chest is segmented and divided into 3D volumes of interest (VOIs), containing voxels with similar densities. These VOIs are automatically labeled as either lung tissue or nonlung tissue. The automatic labeling results can be corrected using an interactive or a supervised interactive approach. When using the supervised interactive system, the user is shown the classification results per slice, whereupon he/she can adjust incorrect labels. The system is retrained continuously, taking the corrections and approvals of the user into account. In this way, the system learns to make a better distinction between lung tissue and nonlung tissue. When using the interactive framework without supervised learning, the user corrects all incorrectly labeled VOIs manually. Both interactive segmentation tools were tested on 32 volumetric CT scans of pigs, mice and humans, containing pulmonary abnormalities. Results: On average, supervised interactive lung segmentation took under 9 min of user interaction. Algorithm computing time was 2 min on average, but can easily be reduced. On average, 2.0% of all VOIs in a scan had to be relabeled. Lung segmentation using the interactive segmentation method took on average 13 min and involved relabeling 3.0% of all VOIs on average. The resulting segmentations correspond well to manual delineations of eight axial slices per scan, with an average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.933. Conclusions: The authors have developed two fast and reliable methods for interactive lung segmentation in

  14. Improving initial polyp candidate extraction for CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongbin; Fan, Yi; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2010-04-01

    Reducing the number of false positives (FPs) as much as possible is a challenging task for computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps. As part of a typical CAD pipeline, an accurate and robust process for segmenting initial polyp candidates (IPCs) will significantly benefit the successive FP reduction procedures, such as feature-based classification of false and true positives (TPs). In this study, we introduce an improved scheme for segmenting IPCs. It consists of two main components. One is geodesic distance-based merging, which merges suspicious patches (SPs) for IPCs. Based on the merged SPs, another component, called convex dilation, grows each SP beyond the inner surface of the colon wall to form a volume of interest (VOI) for that IPC, so that the inner border of the VOI beyond the colon inner surface could be segmented as convex, as expected. The IPC segmentation strategy was evaluated using a database of 50 patient studies, which include 100 scans at supine and prone positions with 84 polyps and masses sized from 6 to 35 mm. The presented IPC segmentation strategy (or VOI extraction method) demonstrated improvements, in terms of having no undesirably merged true polyp and providing more helpful mean and variance of the image intensities rooted from the extracted VOI for classification of the TPs and FPs, over two other VOI extraction methods (i.e. the conventional method of Nappi and Yoshida (2003 Med. Phys. 30 1592-601) and our previous method (Zhu et al 2009 Cancer Manag. Res. 1 1-13). At a by-polyp sensitivity of 0.90, these three methods generated the FP rate (number of FPs per scan) of 4.78 (new method), 6.37 (Nappi) and 7.01 (Zhu) respectively.

  15. Effects of birth asphyxia on the modulation of pharyngeal provocation-induced adaptive reflexes.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Ish K; Shubert, Theresa R; Sitaram, Swetha; Wei, Lai; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2015-10-15

    Perinatal asphyxia and aerodigestive symptoms are troublesome. We tested the hypothesis that pharyngeal provocation alters proximal and distal aerodigestive reflex coordination and kinetics in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), compared with healthy controls. Specifically, we characterized the sensory-motor properties of pharyngeal provocation-induced effects on upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) reflexes. Ten orally fed controls (32.0 ± 1.5 wk gestation) and 25 infants with HIE (38.1 ± 0.4 wk gestation) were evaluated at 39.7 ± 0.9 and 41.9 ± 0.6 wk postmenstrual age respectively. Pharyngo-esophageal reflexes evoked upon graded water stimuli were tested using water-perfusion micromanometry methods. Analysis included sensory-motor characteristics of pharyngeal reflexive swallow (PRS), pharyngo-UES-contractile reflex (PUCR), esophageal body-waveform kinetics, and pharyngo-LES-relaxation reflex (PLESRR). For controls vs. infants with HIE, median appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration (APGAR) scores were 6 vs. 1 at 1 min (P < 0.001) and 8 vs. 3 at 5 min (P < 0.001). Upon pharyngeal- stimulation, HIE infants (vs. controls) had frequent PUCR (P = 0.01); increased UES basal tone (P = 0.03); decreased LES basal tone (P = 0.002); increased pharyngeal-waveforms per stimulus (P = 0.03); decreased frequency of LES relaxation (P = 0.003); and decreased proximal esophageal contractile amplitude (P = 0.002), with prolonged proximal esophageal contractile duration (P = 0.008). Increased tonicity and reactivity of the UES and dysregulation of LES may provide the pathophysiological basis for pooling of secretions, improper bolus clearance, and aspiration risk. Deficits in function at the nuclear or supranuclear level involving glossopharyngeal and vagal neural networks and respiratory regulatory pathways involved with aerodigestive protection may be contributory. PMID:26272260

  16. Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Smoking-Related Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To systematically investigate the effects of dietary flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses on the risk of smoking-related cancer in observational studies. Methods Summary estimates and corresponding standard errors were calculated using the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) and 95% CI of selected studies and weighted by the inverse variance. Results A total of 35 studies, including 19 case-controls (9,525 cases and 15,835 controls) and 15 cohort studies (988,082 subjects and 8,161 cases), were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Total dietary flavonoids and most of the flavonoid subclasses were inversely associated with smoking-related cancer risk (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.93). In subgroup analyses by cancer site, significant associations were observed in aerodigestive tract and lung cancers. Total dietary flavonoid intake was significantly associated with aerodigestive tract cancer risk (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.83) marginally associated with lung cancer risk (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-1.00). Subgroup analyses by smoking status showed significantly different results. The intake of total flavonoids, flavonols, flavones, and flavanones, as well as the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was significantly associated with decreased risk of smoking-related cancer in smokers, whereas no association was observed in non-smokers, except for flavanones. In meta-analysis for the effect of subclasses of dietary flavonoids by cancer type, aerodigestive tract cancer was inversely associated with most flavonoid subclasses. Conclusion The protective effects of flavonoids on smoking-related cancer risk varied across studies, but the overall results indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids, especially flavonols, was inversely associated with smoking-related cancer risk. The protective effects of flavonoids on smoking-related cancer risk were more prominent in smokers. PMID:24069431

  17. Household air pollution and cancers other than lung: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Josyula, Sowmya; Lin, Juan; Xue, Xiaonan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Rohan, Thomas E; Hosgood, H Dean

    2015-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion contributes to 2.6% of the global burden of disease. HAP emissions are an established lung carcinogen; however, associations with other cancer sites have not been fully explored. We conducted a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies. Using fixed-effects models, utilizing the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from each study, we evaluated the association between HAP and cervical neoplasia (663 cases and 1747 controls) and upper aero-digestive tract cancers (6022 cases and 15 325 controls). We found that HAP was associated with cervical neoplasia (OR = 6.46; 95% CI = 3.12-13.36; 4 studies); oral (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.87-3.19; 4 studies; 1000 cases/3450 controls); nasopharyngeal (OR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.42-2.29; 6 studies; 2231 cases/2160 controls); pharyngeal (OR = 3.56; 95% CI = 2.22-5.70; 4 studies; 1036 cases/3746 controls); and laryngeal (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.72- 3.21; 5 studies; 1416 cases/4514 controls) cancers. The elevated risk for esophageal cancer (OR = 1.92; 95% CI = 0.82-4.49; 2 studies; 339 cases/1455 controls) was non-significant. HAP was associated with cervical neoplasia among studies that accounted for HPV infection (OR = 9.60; 95% CI = 3.79-24.32) and smoking (OR = 4.72; 95% CI = 1.84-12.07). Similarly, our observed associations between HAP and upper aero-digestive tract cancers remained significantly elevated when analyses were restricted to studies that controlled for smoking. No significant publication bias was detected. Our results suggest that the carcinogenic effect of HAP observed for lung cancer may extend to other cancers, including those of the cervix and the upper aero-digestive tract. Further research is needed to confirm these associations in prospective studies. PMID:25890249

  18. Soft, fortified ice-cream for head and neck cancer patients: a useful first step in nutritional and swallowing difficulties associated with multi-modal management.

    PubMed

    Trinidade, Aaron; Martinelli, Katrina; Andreou, Zenon; Kothari, Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer have complex swallowing and nutritional concerns. Most patients are malnourished, and treatment modalities within the aerodigestive tract have profound effects on future swallowing and nutrition. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the introduction of fortified soft ice-cream to post-operative head and neck cancer patients would increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. Using a questionnaire study, an ice-cream machine that produces fortified soft ice-cream was introduced onto our ward, and 30 patients were asked to fill out questionnaires based on their experience in addition to their oral-feeding regime. Results indicate that overall patient satisfaction and compliance with oral-feeding regimes increased: 77% felt that the taste was excellent and also felt that it was easy to eat; 60% felt that it eased the symptoms associated with their symptoms, in particular its cold temperature. We conclude from the results that the inability of patients undergoing multi-modal treatment for upper aerodigestive tract cancer to enjoy normal foods and its effects on their quality of life is underestimated. Providing a food to that is palatable, familiar and acceptable as it is safe and nutritionally sound can increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. The ice-cream was safe to use in the early post-operative period, especially soothing in patients undergoing upper aerodigestive radiotherapy and high in protein and calorific content. Our practice may have wider benefits, including patients with oral and oropharyngeal infections, the elderly and patients with neurological dysphagia resulting from stroke. PMID:21935631

  19. A twelve-year survey of cervicothoracic vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Bladergroen, M; Brockman, R; Luna, G; Kohler, T; Johansen, K

    1989-05-01

    This study of a large series of victims of trauma to the cervicothoracic great vessels confirms the lethal potential of these injuries: more than half of victims of such injuries died. The optimal management of patients potentially harboring such vascular damage appears to include skilled prehospital resuscitation and rapid transport to a trauma center, a high index of diagnostic suspicion, a low threshold for the performance of contrast arteriography, aggressive surveillance for associated neurologic and aerodigestive tract injuries, and timely technical repair, including liberal indications for sternotomy or thoracotomy to assure vascular control. PMID:2712204

  20. Changes in the trend of alcohol-related cancers: perspectives on statistical trends.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Jyoti; Praud, Delphine; Boffetta, Paolo

    2015-09-21

    Alcohol is a major risk factor for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) including oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal cancers. Our present study aims at comparing the effect of alcohol consumption trends on UADT cancer incidence and mortality in four countries: USA, France, Sweden, and UK (Scotland). Analogous to the decline in alcohol consumption in the countries being studied, incidence and mortality rates for UADT cancers were also noted to stabilize or decline over time. Factors such as tobacco use and HPV infection may have confounded our findings. PMID:26178266

  1. Spindle Cell Carcinoma of the Mandibular Gingiva – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Patankar, Sangeeta R.; Bhandare, Prachi R.; Tripathi, Nidhi; Sridharan, Gokul

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a malignancy of epithelial origin often mimicking its mesenchymal counterpart thus posing a diagnostic challenge. It is a rare biphasic malignant tumour mostly encountered in the upper aerodigestive tract. The chief differential diagnoses of spindle cell carcinoma are true superficial sarcomas and they especially need to be differentiated from fibrosarcoma. This presentation reports a spindle cell carcinoma of the gingiva and highlights the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis. It also emphasizes the importance of accurate and thorough diagnosis of malignant spindle cell lesions to determine the appropriate therapeutic modality. PMID:27042594

  2. Madelung disease : report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Celentano, V; Esposito, E; Perrotta, S; Giglio, M C; Tarquini, R; Luglio, G; Bucci, L

    2014-01-01

    Madelung disease is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of multiple, symmetric, nonencapsulated fatty accumulations diffusely involving the cheeks, the neck, the upper trunk, the shoulder girdle area, and the upper extremities. The cause of this syndrome is unknown, but it has been associated with alcoholism in 60% to 90% of -patients. The long-term lipomatous deposits are often large and cosmetically deforming, and the upper aerodigestive tract and great veins may be compressed. We report the case of a man with MD, involving the cervical and upper dorsal -regions, who underwent surgical treatment at our Department. PMID:26021689

  3. Respiratory papillomas

    PubMed Central

    Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Papillomas are known to occur in the lower respiratory tract. They are however, rare compared to their occurrence in the upper respiratory tract. These are generally exophytic tumors in the more proximal upper airways however cases with more distal location with an inverted growth pattern have also been described in the literature. These can be solitary or multiple and multifocality associated with multiple papillomas in the upper respiratory/aerodigestive tract. The four major types of respiratory papillomas are (1) Recurrent respiratory papillomas, (2) solitary squamous papillomas, (3) solitary glandular papillomas, (4) mixed papillomas. We review the incidence, etiopathology, diagnosis, and possible treatment modalities and algorithms for these respiratory papillomas. PMID:27625447

  4. Iatrogenic phenol injury: a case report and review of medication safety and labeling practices with flexible laryngoscopy.

    PubMed

    Cote, Valerie; Prager, Jeremy D

    2014-10-01

    Medication errors can be reduced by following standards in patient identification and medication labeling. We present an investigation of a life-threatening event from medication error: A newborn that received intranasal phenol instead of topical anesthetic prior to flexible laryngoscopy. The patient required urgent intubation for respiratory distress and suffered chemical burns of the face, neck, and upper aerodigestive tract. The hospital course was prolonged and included intensive care, delayed oral feeding with enteral support, and the need for several endoscopies. Current standards of medication labeling are reviewed as well as evidence for and against using topical agents for flexible laryngoscopy. PMID:25103774

  5. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: a rare presentation of diabetic ketoacidosis in a pregnant woman

    PubMed Central

    Speksnijder, Leonie; Duvekot, Johannes J; Duschek, Erik J J; Jebbink, Max C W; Bremer, Henk A

    2010-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum (PM) or mediastinal emphysema is defined as the presence of free air around mediastinal structures. Spontaneous (or atraumatic) pneumomediastinum (SPM) is a rare complication during pregnancy. Primary or spontaneous PM can arise due to increased intra-alveolar pressure. Secondary PM is due to direct trauma, intrathoracic infections or violation of the aerodigestive track. This case report describes a pregnant woman newly diagnosed with diabetes presenting with an SPM due to vigorously vomiting and Kussmaul's breathing caused by diabetic ketoacidosis. Appropriate management of SPM and its underlying cause is required to reduce the risks for both mother and child.

  6. Split latissimus dorsi muscle flap repair of acquired, nonmalignant, intrathoracic tracheoesophageal and bronchoesophageal fistulas.

    PubMed

    Hammoudeh, Ziyad S; Gursel, Eti; Baciewicz, Frank A

    2015-06-01

    The development of a fistula between the tracheobronchial tree and oesophagus due to nonmalignant causes is uncommon. Division of the fistula with muscle flap interposition eliminates contact between the tracheobronchial segment and the oesophagus, theoretically decreasing the chance of recurrence as well as providing a robust blood supply to aid in healing. The split latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a well-suited flap for such repairs because of the ability to simultaneously cover two separate apertures (tracheobronchial and oesophageal). The authors describe the split latissimus dorsi muscle flap with step-by-step technique for repair of intrathoracic aerodigestive fistulas. PMID:25697381

  7. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Naren N; Pine, Harold S; Underbrink, Michael P

    2012-06-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare, benign disease with no known cure. RRP is caused by infection of the upper aerodigestive tract with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Passage through the birth canal is thought to be the initial transmission event, but infection may occur in utero. HPV vaccines have helped to provide protection from cervical cancer; however, their role in the prevention of RRP is undetermined. Clinical presentation of initial symptoms of RRP may be subtle. RRP course varies, and current management focuses on surgical debulking of papillomatous lesions with or without concurrent adjuvant therapy. PMID:22588043

  8. Mayo Clinic Experience with Unfavorable Results After Free Tissue Transfer to Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Thomas H; Hayden, Richard E

    2016-10-01

    Free tissue transfer to the head and neck in the modern era has a high success rate. To maximize success with reconstructive surgery in the head and neck region, it helps to understand those factors that present unique challenges. These factors include contamination by the upper aerodigestive tract, tissue mobility, and a high percentage of patients receiving radiotherapy for oncologic treatment. This article reviews the authors' experience in the head and neck, specifically how addressing these factors can best lead to successful functional and aesthetic outcomes. The authors share surgical techniques and lessons learned from their successes and failures. PMID:27601391

  9. Unusual association of diseases/symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, Thomas; Pankhania, Miran; Hettige, Roland; Draper, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Cicatricial pemphigoid is a chronic, systemic, immunobullous disorder affecting mucous membranes. Nasal manifestations of cicatricial pemphigoid are less common than in the rest of the upper aero-digestive tract, and may prove difficult to diagnose and manage effectively. We report one such case presenting with isolated nasal symptoms, in which diagnosis, treatment and ongoing management of the underlying cause was particularly challenging. A literature review was performed to ascertain the incidence of cicatricial pemphigoid and to establish the best evidence-based investigation and treatment. PMID:22751422

  10. Current philosophy in the surgical management of neck metastases for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, H. Hakan; Medina, Jesus E.; Robbins, K. Thomas; Silver, Carl E.; Strojan, Primož; Teymoortash, Afshin; Pellitteri, Phillip K.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Stoeckli, Sandro J.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Suçrez, Carlos; Hartl, Dana M.; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P.; Hamoir, Marc; Pitman, Karen T.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    Neck dissection is an important treatment for metastases from upper aerodigestive carcinoma; an event that markedly reduces survival. Since its inception, the philosophy of the procedure has undergone significant change from one of radicalism to the current conservative approach. Furthermore, nonsurgical modalities have been introduced, and, in many situations, have supplanted neck surgery. The refinements of imaging the neck based on the concept of neck level involvement has encouraged new philosophies to evolve that seem to benefit patient outcomes particularly as this relates to diminished morbidity. The purpose of this review was to highlight the new paradigms for surgical removal of neck metastases using an evidence-based approach. PMID:24623715

  11. SubMIR - a submillimeter and IR observations database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayet, E.; Rabasse, J. F.; Gerin, M.

    2005-12-01

    We have built the first submillimeter and IR observations database of the Laboratoire de Radioastronomie-Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris-LERMA (Observatoire de Paris) which contains already more than 1000 submm/mm spectra and several IR maps of nearby galaxies (D<10Mpc) from Bayet et al. 2004, 2005a, 2005b, 2006; Gerin & Phillips 1998, 2000. It has been developed to gather, classify and make available all the submm, mm, IR observations collected these last years and obtained not only for the nearby galaxies but also for more distant objects. SubMIR interacts and completes the already existing databases such as NED, ADS, SIMBAD, etc... Presently, the test periods are almost finished and we hope to open SubMIR very soon to the large astrophysical community. In this poster, we present the way the database works.

  12. Journees 2010: New challenges for reference systems and numerical standards in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, Nicole

    2011-10-01

    The Journees 2010 "Systemes de reference spatio-temporels", with the sub-title "New challenges for reference systems and numerical standards in astronomy", were organized from 20 to 22 September 2010 at Paris Observatory and Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, France. The scientific programme was focused on the issues related to the recent developments and new challenges in astronomical space and time reference systems and their relativistic aspects, astrometric catalogs, Earth orientation, astronomical constants and numerical standards, planetary ephemerides and modern astrometry. There have been presentations and discussions related to the IAU Division 1 commissions and IAU Working Group "Numerical Standards for Fundamental astronomy" (NSFA); there has been a special session for presenting the latest developments in the solar system ephemerides and comparing details in those ephemerides.

  13. Dynamics in the First Hydration Shell of Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, James

    2007-03-01

    We will describe our recent efforts to elucidate theoretically the vibrational and reorientation dynamics of water molecules in the first hydration shells of anions in aqueous solution, to assist in the interpretation of recent ultrafast infrared spectroscopic experiments on this issue. In particular, we will discuss (a) OH vibrational frequency dephasing for an iodide ion dilute in a solution of HOD in D2O and (b) the reorientation dynamics for an HOD in the first hydration shell of a chloride ion dilute in a solution of HOD in D2O. This work has been performed in collaboration with Damien Laage, Suyong Re and Bruno Nigro of the Dept. de Chimie, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris.

  14. The Impact of 3D Volume-of-Interest Definition on Accuracy and Precision of Activity Estimation in Quantitative SPECT and Planar Processing Methods

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate and precise estimation of organ activities is essential for treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. We have previously evaluated the impact of processing methodology, statistical noise, and variability in activity distribution and anatomy on the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates obtained with quantitative SPECT (QSPECT), and planar (QPlanar) processing. Another important effect impacting the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates is accuracy of and variability in the definition of organ regions of interest (ROI) or volumes of interest (VOI). The goal of this work was thus to systematically study the effects of VOI definition on the reliability of activity estimates. To this end, we performed Monte Carlo simulation studies using randomly perturbed and shifted VOIs to assess the impact on organ activity estimations. The 3D NCAT phantom was used with activities that modeled clinically observed 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan distributions. In order to study the errors resulting from misdefinitions due to manual segmentation errors, VOIs of the liver and left kidney were first manually defined. Each control point was then randomly perturbed to one of the nearest or next-nearest voxels in the same transaxial plane in three ways: with no, inward or outward directional bias, resulting in random perturbation, erosion or dilation, respectively of the VOIs. In order to study the errors resulting from the misregistration of VOIs, as would happen, e.g., in the case where the VOIs were defined using a misregistered anatomical image, the reconstructed SPECT images or projections were shifted by amounts ranging from −1 to 1 voxels in increments of 0.1 voxels in both the transaxial and axial directions. The activity estimates from the shifted reconstructions or projections were compared to those from the originals, and average errors were computed for the QSPECT and QPlanar methods, respectively. For misregistration, errors in organ

  15. TH-A-18C-11: An Investigation of KV CBCT Image Quality and Dose Reduction for Volume-Of-Interest Imaging Using Dynamic Collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, D; Robar, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The focus of this work was to investigate the improvements in image quality and dose reduction for volume-of-interest (VOI) kV-CBCT using dynamic collimation. Methods: A prototype iris aperture was used to track a VOI during a CBCT acquisition. The current aperture design is capable of one-dimensional translation as a function of gantry angle and dynamic adjustment of the iris radius. The aperture occupies the location of the bow-tie filter on a Varian OBI system. CBCT and planar image quality was investigated as a function of aperture radius, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI, for a 20 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom with a 9 mm diameter bone insert centered on isocenter. Corresponding scatter-to-primary ratios (SPR) were determined at the detector plane with Monte Carlo simulation using EGSnrc. Dose distributions for various anatomical sites were modeled using a dynamic BEAMnrc library and DOSXYZnrc. The resulting VOI dose distributions were compared to full-field distributions. Results: SPR was reduced by a factor of 8.4 when decreasing iris diameter from 21.2 cm to 2.4 cm (at isocenter). Similarly, this change in iris diameter corresponds to a factor increase of approximately 1.4 and 1.5 in image contrast for CBCT and planar images, respectively, and similarly a factor decrease in image noise of approximately 1.7 and 1.5. This results in a measured gain in contrast-to-noise ratio of a factor of approximately 2.3 for both CBCT and planar images. Depending upon the anatomical site, dose was reduced to 10%–70% of the full field value along the central axis plane and down to 2% along the axial planes, while maintaining the same dose to the VOI compared to full-field techniques. Conclusion: The presented VOI technique offers improved image quality for image-guided radiotherapy while sparing the surrounding volume of unnecessary dose compared to full-field techniques.

  16. Preliminary clinical studies of PDT with meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin (m-THPC) as a photosensitizing agent for the treatment of early pharyngeal, esophageal, and bronchial carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnieres, Georges A.; Braichotte, Daniel; Fontolliet, Charlotte; van den Bergh, Hubert

    1994-03-01

    A new photosensitizer (PS), meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl-chlorin(m-THPC), has been clinically evaluated for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early squamous cell carcinomas located in the upper aerodigestive tract, the oesophagus and the tracheobronchial tree. The injected doses ranged between 0.1 - 0.3 mg/kg m-THPC and the wavelength of the excitation light was either at 514 nm or 652 nm. The evaluation of the m-THPC induced phototoxicity was carried out on healthy mucosae of the bronchi, the oral cavity and the skin, using various `frontal' light distributors. Skin photosensitization tests were performed with a filtered Xenon white light source which simulates the solar emission spectrum at noon on a clear summer day at sea level at our latitude. At the present time, we are still searching for conditions where effective PDT with m-THPC of early carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, the oesophagus and the tracheobronchial tree would show a real selectivity, i.e., destruction of the neoplastic tissue without necrosis of the surrounding normal tissue.

  17. 7, 12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene(DMBA)-induced "early" Squamous Cell carcinoma in the Golden Syrian hamster: evaluation of an animal model and comparison with "early" forms of human Squamous Cell car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Fontolliet, Charlotte; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    To improve our knowledge on PDT of human early squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract and to evaluate new photosensitizers, we have set up the Syrian hamster as an animal model. A 0.5% oily solution of DMBA was applied topically to the left buccal pouch mucosa 3 times weekly. The contralateral buccal pouch served as control. Groups of 5 animals were sacrificed at 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks from the first applications. Tissue samples of the buccal mucosa were analyzed by histopathologic and immunohistochemical techniques and compared with preneoplastic and neoplastic changes which are seen in the human carcinogenesis of the upper aero-digestive tract. After 6 to 9 weeks from the beginning of the application, we observed different degrees of epithelial dysplasia and after 10 weeks microinvasive carcinomas. The sequence of dysplastic changes to early carcinoma was reproducible in different groups of animals, and they were closely comparable with the human forms of `early' squamous cell cancer. Hyper- and dyskeratosis were present at all stages of tumor development. We are particularly interested in (mu) -invasive tumor forms appearing 10 weeks after the first application because they are potentially amenable to photodynamic therapy.

  18. Cancer incidence and mortality due to alcohol: an analysis of 10-year data.

    PubMed

    Laffoy, M; McCarthy, T; Mullen, L; Byrne, D; Martin, J

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is causally related to cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract, liver, colon, rectum, female breast and pancreas. The dose response relationship varies for each site. We calculated Ireland's cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol over a 10-year period. Between 2001 and 2010, 4,585 (4.7%) male and 4,593 (4.2%) female invasive cancer diagnoses were attributable to alcohol. The greatest risk was for the upper aero-digestive tract where 2,961 (52.9%) of these cancers in males and 866 (35.2%) in females were attributable to alcohol. Between 2001 and 2010, 2,823 (6.7%) of male cancer deaths and 1,700 (4.6%) of female cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol. Every year approximately 900 new cancers and 500 cancer deaths are attributable to alcohol. Alcohol is a major cause of cancer after smoking, obesity and physical inactivity. Public awareness of risk must improve. Over half of alcohol related cancers are preventable by adhering to Department of Health alcohol consumption guidelines. PMID:24579406

  19. Hematoporphyrin-mediated photodynamic therapy for treatment of head and neck cancer: clinical update 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Vanessa G.

    1996-04-01

    From 1983 to 1996 Phase II and III clinical studies at Henry Ford Hospital demonstrated complete or partial responses in 55 of 56 patients treated with hematoporphyrin-derivative or PHOTOFRIN-mediated photodynamic therapy (HPD-PDT) for a variety of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease: (1) superficial 'condemned mucosa' or 'field cancerization' of the oral cavity and larynx (7 cases); (2) Stage III/IV head and neck cancer (25 cases); (3) mucocutaneous AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma of the upper aerodigestive tract and non AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the lower extremity (15 cases); (4) recurrent laryngotracheal papillomatosis (3 cases); (5) severe dysplasia/adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (4 cases); (6) partial or completely obstructing terminal esophageal cancer (9 cases). At the time of this report, HPD-PDT produced complete responses in 24 patients (follow up 6 months to 9 years) with 'field cancerization' (CIS, T1N0M0) of the oral cavity and larynx (6 cases), adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (3 cases), mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (12 cases), obstructing esophageal carcinoma (1 case), and stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx (1 case), and radiation therapy or solar-induced basal cell/squamous cell carcinomas (2 cases). PDT treatment protocols, results, complications, and application as adjunct or primary oncologic therapy for head and neck cancer are reviewed in this article.

  20. Theoretical Study of All-Electrical Quantum Wire Valley Filters in Bilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Lue, Ning-Yuan; Chen, Yen-Chun; Jiang, Jia-Huei; Chou, Mei-Yin

    Graphene electrons carry valley pseudospin, due to the double valley degeneracy in graphene band structure. In gapped graphene, the pseudospin is coupled to an in-plane electric field, through the mechanism of valley-orbit interaction (VOI), Based on the VOI, a family of electrically-controlled valleytronic devices have been proposed. Here, we report the theoretical study of a recently proposed valley filter consisting of a Q1D channel in bilayer graphene defined and controlled by electrical gates. We discuss two types of calculations - those of energy subband structure in the channel and electron transmission through a valley valve consisting of two proposed filters. For the former, we have developed a tight binding formulation in the continuum limit. For the latter, we employ the recursive Green's function method. Results from the calculations will be presented. Financial support by MoST, Taiwan, ROC is acknowledged.

  1. Exact Interior Reconstruction from Truncated Limited-Angle Projection Data

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yangbo; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2008-01-01

    Using filtered backprojection (FBP) and an analytic continuation approach, we prove that exact interior reconstruction is possible and unique from truncated limited-angle projection data, if we assume a prior knowledge on a subregion or subvolume within an object to be reconstructed. Our results show that (i) the interior region-of-interest (ROI) problem and interior volume-of-interest (VOI) problem can be exactly reconstructed from a limited-angle scan of the ROI/VOI and a 180 degree PI-scan of the subregion or subvolume and (ii) the whole object function can be exactly reconstructed from nontruncated projections from a limited-angle scan. These results improve the classical theory of Hamaker et al. (1980). PMID:18490957

  2. Evolution insolite d'une plaie complexe de la voie biliaire principale post cholécystectomie cœlioscopique

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Hedfi; Hala, Bouhafa; Youssef, Elcadhi; Abdelhedi, Cherif; Karim, Sassi; Azza, Sridi; Adnen, Chouchene

    2016-01-01

    Depuis l'avènement de la chirurgie coelioscopique de la lithiase biliaire le nombre de plaies des voies biliaires a sensiblement augmenté dans la littérature en rapport avec la courbe d'apprentissage des opérateurs. Les plaies méconnues peuvent avoir des conséquences immédiates dramatiques et évoluer vers la péritonite biliaire. Ailleurs la réparation des fistules biliaires externes au stade de dilatation des voies biliaires nécessite une anastomose bilio digestive ou des résections hépatiques réglées. PMID:27279975

  3. Prioritizing HIV Comparative Effectiveness Trials based on Value of Information: Generic vs. Brand-Name ART in the US

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Pamela P.; Weinstein, Milton C.; Li, X. Cynthia; Hughes, Michael D.; Paltiel, A. David; Hou, Taige; Parker, Robert A.; Gaynes, Melanie R.; Sax, Paul E.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Value of Information (VOI) analysis examines whether to acquire information before making a decision. We introduced VOI to the HIV audience, using the example of generic antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the US. Methods and Findings We used a mathematical model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to generate probability distributions of survival (in quality-adjusted life years, QALYs) and cost for three potential first-line ART regimens: 3-pill generic, 2-pill generic, and 1-pill branded. These served as input for a comparison of two hypothetical two-arm trials: 3-pill generic vs. 1-pill branded; and 2-pill generic vs.1-pill branded. We modeled pre-trial uncertainty by defining probability distributions around key inputs, including 24-week HIV-RNA suppression and subsequent ART failure. We assumed that, without a trial, patients received the 1-pill branded strategy. Post-trial, we assumed that patients received the most cost-effective strategy. For both trials, we quantified the probability of changing to a generic-based regimen upon trial completion and the expected VOI in terms of improved health outcomes and costs. Assuming a willingness to pay threshold of $100,000/QALY, the 3-pill trial led to more treatment changes (84%) than the 2-pill trial (78%). Estimated VOI was $48,000 (3-pill trial) and $35,700 (2-pill trial) per future patient initiating ART. Conclusions A 3-pill trial of generic ART is more likely to lead to post-trial treatment changes and to provide more value than a 2-pill trial if policy decisions are based on cost-effectiveness. Value of Information analysis can identify trials likely to confer the greatest impact and value for HIV care. PMID:26651525

  4. A New 2.5D Representation for Lymph Node Detection using Random Sets of Deep Convolutional Neural Network Observations

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Le; Seff, Ari; Cherry, Kevin M.; Hoffman, Joanne; Wang, Shijun; Liu, Jiamin; Turkbey, Evrim; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    Automated Lymph Node (LN) detection is an important clinical diagnostic task but very challenging due to the low contrast of surrounding structures in Computed Tomography (CT) and to their varying sizes, poses, shapes and sparsely distributed locations. State-of-the-art studies show the performance range of 52.9% sensitivity at 3.1 false-positives per volume (FP/vol.), or 60.9% at 6.1 FP/vol. for mediastinal LN, by one-shot boosting on 3D HAAR features. In this paper, we first operate a preliminary candidate generation stage, towards ~100% sensitivity at the cost of high FP levels (~40 per patient), to harvest volumes of interest (VOI). Our 2.5D approach consequently decomposes any 3D VOI by resampling 2D reformatted orthogonal views N times, via scale, random translations, and rotations with respect to the VOI centroid coordinates. These random views are then used to train a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier. In testing, the CNN is employed to assign LN probabilities for all N random views that can be simply averaged (as a set) to compute the final classification probability per VOI. We validate the approach on two datasets: 90 CT volumes with 388 mediastinal LNs and 86 patients with 595 abdominal LNs. We achieve sensitivities of 70%/83% at 3 FP/vol. and 84%/90% at 6 FP/vol. in mediastinum and abdomen respectively, which drastically improves over the previous state-of-the-art work. PMID:25333158

  5. Applied Use Value of Scientific Information for Management of Ecosystem Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raunikar, R. P.; Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R.; Mishra, S.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed and applied methods for quantifying the value of scientific information (VOI) that are based on the applied use value of the information. In particular the applied use value of U.S. Geological Survey information often includes efficient management of ecosystem services. The economic nature of U.S. Geological Survey scientific information is largely equivalent to that of any information, but we focus application of our VOI quantification methods on the information products provided freely to the public by the U.S. Geological Survey. We describe VOI economics in general and illustrate by referring to previous studies that use the evolving applied use value methods, which includes examples of the siting of landfills in Louden County, the mineral exploration efficiencies of finer resolution geologic maps in Canada, and improved agricultural production and groundwater protection in Eastern Iowa possible with Landsat moderate resolution satellite imagery. Finally, we describe the adaptation of the applied use value method to the case of streamgage information used to improve the efficiency of water markets in New Mexico.

  6. Real-time Motion and B0 corrected single voxel spectroscopy using volumetric navigators

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Aaron T.; Tisdall, M. Dylan; Andronesi, Ovidiu C.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; van der Kouwe, André J.W.

    2010-01-01

    In population groups where head pose cannot be assumed to be constant during an MRS examination or in difficult-to-shim regions of the brain, real-time volume of interest (VOI), frequency, and shim optimisation may be necessary. We investigate the effect of pose change on the B0 homogeneity of a (2 cm)3 volume and observe typical first-order shim changes of 1 μT/m per 1° rotation (chin down to up) in four different VOI's in a single volunteer. An EPI volume navigator (vNav) was constructed to measure and apply in real-time within each TR: VOI positioning, frequency adjustment, and first-order shim adjustment. This vNav is demonstrated in six healthy volunteers and achieved a mean linewidth of 4.4 Hz, similar to that obtained by manual shim adjustment of 4.9 Hz. Furthermore, this linewidth is maintained by the vNav at 4.9 Hz in the presence of pose change. By comparison, a mean linewidth of 7.5 Hz was observed when no correction was applied. PMID:21381101

  7. Comparison of anatomic coordinate systems with rigid multi-resolution 3D registration for the reproducible positioning of analysis volumes of interest in QCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisa, Fabian; Museyko, Oleg; Hess, Andreas; Kalender, Willi A.; Engelke, Klaus

    2010-03-01

    In this study we compared two approaches that have recently been used to minimize precision errors in 3D quantitative computed tomography (QCT) images of the hip and the spine in order to optimize the detection of longitudinal changes in bone mineral density (BMD). In 30 subjects we obtained baseline and 1 year follow-up 3D CT scans of the proximal femur and the spine. QCT analysis was applied to a variety of volumes of interest (VOIs) automatically positioned relative to anatomic coordinate systems (ACS). In the first approach (A1) baseline and follow-up scans were analyzed independently. In the second approach (A2) a 3D versor-based rigid intensity registration method was applied to match baseline and follow-up images, and the baseline ACS was mapped on the follow-up image using the registration transformation. Afterwards, the analysis VOIs were again independently calculated for baseline and follow-up images. There were no significant differences of percent BMD changes between baseline and follow-up images between A1 and A2 for any of the VOIs investigated. With advanced image processing methods a time-consuming 3D registration between baseline and follow-up images before the analysis does not improve analysis precision compared to the use of anatomical coordinate systems.

  8. Probabilistic Flood Maps to support decision-making: Mapping the Value of Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, L.; Mukolwe, M. M.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2016-02-01

    Floods are one of the most frequent and disruptive natural hazards that affect man. Annually, significant flood damage is documented worldwide. Flood mapping is a common preimpact flood hazard mitigation measure, for which advanced methods and tools (such as flood inundation models) are used to estimate potential flood extent maps that are used in spatial planning. However, these tools are affected, largely to an unknown degree, by both epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. Over the past few years, advances in uncertainty analysis with respect to flood inundation modeling show that it is appropriate to adopt Probabilistic Flood Maps (PFM) to account for uncertainty. However, the following question arises; how can probabilistic flood hazard information be incorporated into spatial planning? Thus, a consistent framework to incorporate PFMs into the decision-making is required. In this paper, a novel methodology based on Decision-Making under Uncertainty theories, in particular Value of Information (VOI) is proposed. Specifically, the methodology entails the use of a PFM to generate a VOI map, which highlights floodplain locations where additional information is valuable with respect to available floodplain management actions and their potential consequences. The methodology is illustrated with a simplified example and also applied to a real case study in the South of France, where a VOI map is analyzed on the basis of historical land use change decisions over a period of 26 years. Results show that uncertain flood hazard information encapsulated in PFMs can aid decision-making in floodplain planning.

  9. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method provided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output. PMID:26430292

  10. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method pro- vided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  11. Patient-bounded extrapolation using low-dose priors for volume-of-interest imaging in C-arm CT

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Y.; Maier, A.; Berger, M.; Hornegger, J.; Bauer, S.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) volume-of-interest (VOI) imaging with C-arm systems provides anatomical information in a predefined 3D target region at a considerably low x-ray dose. However, VOI imaging involves laterally truncated projections from which conventional reconstruction algorithms generally yield images with severe truncation artifacts. Heuristic based extrapolation methods, e.g., water cylinder extrapolation, typically rely on techniques that complete the truncated data by means of a continuity assumption and thus appear to be ad-hoc. It is our goal to improve the image quality of VOI imaging by exploiting existing patient-specific prior information in the workflow. Methods: A necessary initial step prior to a 3D acquisition is to isocenter the patient with respect to the target to be scanned. To this end, low-dose fluoroscopic x-ray acquisitions are usually applied from anterior–posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) views. Based on this, the patient is isocentered by repositioning the table. In this work, we present a patient-bounded extrapolation method that makes use of these noncollimated fluoroscopic images to improve image quality in 3D VOI reconstruction. The algorithm first extracts the 2D patient contours from the noncollimated AP and ML fluoroscopic images. These 2D contours are then combined to estimate a volumetric model of the patient. Forward-projecting the shape of the model at the eventually acquired C-arm rotation views gives the patient boundary information in the projection domain. In this manner, we are in the position to substantially improve image quality by enforcing the extrapolated line profiles to end at the known patient boundaries, derived from the 3D shape model estimate. Results: The proposed method was evaluated on eight clinical datasets with different degrees of truncation. The proposed algorithm achieved a relative root mean square error (rRMSE) of about 1.0% with respect to the reference reconstruction on

  12. Accuracy of 131I Tumor Quantification in Radioimmunotherapy Using SPECT Imaging with an Ultra-High-Energy Collimator: Monte Carlo Study

    PubMed Central

    Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Ljungberg, Michael; Koral, Kenneth F.

    2010-01-01

    Accuracy of 131I tumor quantification after radioimmunotherapy (RIT) was investigated for SPECT imaging with an ultra-highenergy (UHE) collimator designed for imaging 511-keV photons. Methods First, measurements and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compare the UHE collimator with a conventionally used, high-energy collimator. On the basis of this comparison, the UHE collimator was selected for this investigation, which was carried out by simulation of spherical tumors in a phantom. Reconstruction was by an expectation–maximization algorithm that included scatter and attenuation correction. Keeping the tumor activity constant, simulations were carried out to assess how volume-of-interest (VOI) counts vary with background activity, radius of rotation (ROR), tumor location, and size. The constant calibration factor for quantification was determined from VOI counts corresponding to a 3.63-cm-radius sphere of known activity. Tight VOIs corresponding to the physical size of the spheres or tumors were used. Results Use of the UHE collimator resulted in a large reduction in 131I penetration, which is especially significant in RIT where background uptake is high. With the UHE collimator, typical patient images showed an improvement in contrast. Considering the desired geometric events, sensitivity was reduced, but only by a factor of 1.6. Simulation results for a 3.63-cm-radius tumor showed that VOI counts vary with background, location, and ROR by less than 3.2%, 3%, and 5.3%, respectively. The variation with tumor size was more significant and was a function of the background. Good quantification accuracy (<6.5% error) was achieved when tumor size was the same as the sphere size used in the calibration, irrespective of the other parameters. For smaller tumors, activities were underestimated by up to −15% for the 2.88-cm-radius sphere, −23% for the 2.29-cm-radius sphere, and −47% for the 1.68-cm-radius sphere. Conclusion Reasonable accuracy can be

  13. Deconvolution-based partial volume correction in Raclopride-PET and Monte Carlo comparison to MR-based method.

    PubMed

    Tohka, Jussi; Reilhac, Anthonin

    2008-02-15

    In this work, we evaluated three iterative deconvolution algorithms and compared their performance to partial volume (PV) correction based on structural imaging in brain positron emission tomography (PET) using a database of Monte Carlo-simulated images. We limited our interest to quantitative radioligand PET imaging, particularly to (11)C-Raclopride and striatal imaging. The studied deconvolution methods included Richardson-Lucy, reblurred Van Cittert, and reblurred Van Cittert with the total variation regularization. We studied the bias and variance of the regional estimates of binding potential (BP) values and the accuracy of regional TACs as a function of the applied image processing. The resolution/noise tradeoff in parametric BP images was addressed as well. The regional BP values and TACs obtained by deconvolution were almost as accurate than those by structural imaging-based PV correction (GTM method) when the ideal volumes of interests (VOIs) were used to extract TACs from the images. For deconvolution methods, the ideal VOIs were slightly eroded from the exact anatomical VOI to limit the bias due to tissue fraction effect which is not corrected for by deconvolution-based methods. For the GTM method, the ideal VOIs were the exact anatomical VOIs. The BP values and TACs by deconvolution were less affected by segmentation and registration errors than those with the GTM-based PV correction. The BP estimates and TACs with deconvolution-based PV correction were more accurate than BPs and TACs derived without PV correction. The parametric images obtained by the deconvolution-based PV correction showed considerably improved resolution with only slightly increased noise level compared to the case with no PV correction. The reblurred Van Cittert method was the best of the studied deconvolution methods. We conclude that the deconvolution is an interesting alternative to structural imaging-based PV correction as it leads to quantification results of similar accuracy

  14. Conception d'un circuit d'etouffement pour photodiodes a avalanche en mode geiger pour integration heterogene 3d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Alexandre

    Le Groupe de Recherche en Appareillage Medical de Sherbrooke (GRAMS) travaille actuellement sur un programme de recherche portant sur des photodiodes a avalanche mono-photoniques (PAMP) operees en mode Geiger en vue d'une application a la tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP). Pour operer dans ce mode; la PAMP, ou SPAD selon l'acronyme anglais (Single Photon Avalanche Diode), requiert un circuit d'etouffement (CE) pour, d'une part, arreter l'avalanche pouvant causer sa destruction et, d'autre part. la reinitialiser en mode d'attente d'un nouveau photon. Le role de ce CE comprend egalement une electronique de communication vers les etages de traitement avance de signaux. La performance temporelle optimale du CE est realisee lorsqu'il est juxtapose a la PAMP. Cependant, cela entraine une reduction de la surface photosensible ; un element crucial en imagerie. L'integration 3D, a base d'interconnexions verticales, offre une solution elegante et performante a cette problematique par l'empilement de circuits integres possedant differentes fonctions (PAMP, CE et traitement avance de signaux). Dans l'approche proposee, des circuits d'etouffement de 50 pm x 50 pm realises sur une technologie CMOS 130 mn 3D Tezzaron, contenant chacun 112 transistors, sont matrices afin de correspondre a une matrice de PAMP localisee sur une couche electronique superieure. Chaque circuit d'etouffement possede une gigue temporelle de 7,47 ps RMS selon des simulations faites avec le logiciel Cadence. Le CE a la flexibilite d'ajuster les temps d'etouffement et de recharge pour la PAMP tout en presentant une faible consommation de puissance (~ 0,33 mW a 33 Mcps). La conception du PAMP necessite de supporter des tensions superieures aux 3,3 V de la technologie. Pour repondre a ce probleme, des transistors a drain etendu (DEMOS) ont ete realises. En raison de retards de production par Ies fabricants, les circuits n'ont pu etre testes physiquement par des mesures. Les resultats de ce memoire

  15. Le changement comme tradition dans la recherche et la formation a la recherche en biotechnologie et en peripherie Etude de cas en sciences de la sante, sciences naturelles et genie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourque, Claude Julie

    Le champ de la recherche scientifique et de la formation a la recherche est traverse depuis quelques dizaines d'annees par plusieurs courants et discours associes au changement, mais peu de travaux empiriques permettent de comprendre ce qui change concretement. C'est la contribution originale de cette these au champ de l'education, plus specifiquement a l'etude sociologique de l'enseignement superieur ou sont concentrees les activites liees a la triade thematique du programme doctoral dans lequel elle a ete produite : recherche, formation et pratique. L'enquete-terrain a ete realisee en 2009 et 2010 aupres de 808 repondants affilies a 60 etablissements au Quebec et a produit un vaste materiau de nature mixte (donnees quantitatives et qualitatives). Un portrait de la nebuleuse biotechnologique qui touche les secteurs des sciences de la sante, des sciences naturelles et du genie a ete realise. Ce domaine concerne des dizaines de disciplines et se revele de nature transdisciplinaire, mais les pratiques n'y sont pas davantage marquees par le changement que celles d'autres domaines connexes. Les dynamiques sociales ont fait l'objet d'analyses comparatives dans quatre contextes: le choix des programmes, des objets et des methodes, le financement, la diffusion et la planification de la carriere. Les resultats indiquent que les echanges entre les agents traditionnellement situes au coeur des activites de recherche dominent ces dynamiques dans tous les contextes etudies. L'etude des representations au fondement des pratiques a revele l'existence de trois ecoles de pensee qui coexistent dans le champ scientifique: academique, pragmatique et economiste. Ces ecoles permettent de categoriser les agents en fonction des zones de fractures qui marquent leurs oppositions tout en identifiant ce qu'ils ont en commun. Les representations et les pratiques liees a la formation temoignent d'un habitus plutot homogene, alors que les contradictions semblent plus souvent ancrees dans des

  16. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic demonstration of polyclonality in an acinic cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, C.; Jin, Y.; Höglund, M.; Wennerberg, J.; Akervall, J.; Willén, R.; Dictor, M.; Mandahl, N.; Mitelman, F.; Mertens, F.

    1998-01-01

    The paradigm that human malignancies are monoclonal has been questioned during recent years by the finding of unrelated, cytogenetically aberrant clones in short-term cultures from certain tumour types, notably carcinomas of the breast, skin and upper aerodigestive tract. In order to analyse whether cytogenetically unrelated clones are also unrelated at the molecular level, we analysed the X-chromosome inactivation status in cell cultures from a cytogenetically highly polyclonal acinic cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. By using cell cultures dominated by a single abnormal clone, obtained through in vitro culturing for 3-5 passages, we showed that the different clones must indeed have originated from different cells. Images Figure 2 PMID:9703273

  17. [Dental state in patients with head and neck cancers].

    PubMed

    Rouers, M; Truntzer, P; Dubourg, S; Guihard, S; Antoni, D; Noël, G

    2015-05-01

    In France, in 2005, there were approximately 16,000 new cases of head and neck cancer. These cancers have an unfavourable prognosis: the survival rates at 3 and 10 years are 50% and 10% respectively. The consumption of alcohol and tobacco is the most important risk factor; in some countries HPV infection was identified as a risk factor of head and neck tumours. Furthermore, a poor oral hygiene seems to raise this risk. We found many decay and periodontium problems in patients with an upper aerodigestive tract cancer. An evaluation of dental state is necessary before any cancer treatment. Treatments by radiotherapy engender noxious effects: hypocellular, hypovascularization, hypoxie of the irradiated tissues, which lead to immediate and chronically oral complications such as mucositis, fibrosis, xerostomia, decay, or osteoradionecrosis. An oral follow-up of these patients can prevent these complications, or reduce the severity of oral complications, and promote a good oral state. PMID:25937188

  18. The properties of the mucus barrier, a unique gel - how can nanoparticles cross it?

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jeffrey P; Chater, Peter I; Wilcox, Matthew D

    2016-04-01

    The key criterion for a nanoparticle drug-delivery system is the ability to produce substantial bioavailability without damaging the physiological protective mechanisms. The main area for drug delivery is the aerodigestive tract. All epithelial surfaces have a membrane-bound layer and in the lung this layer is surmounted by a gel layer. In the gastrointestinal tract the membrane-bound mucin layer is covered by a mucus bilayer. The pore sizes of mucus gels are around 100 to 200 nm. Consequently, only nanoparticles in this size range could potentially penetrate without modification of these layers. To study nanoparticle permeation with results that pertain to in vivo conditions, native mucus mucin preparations must be used. Strategies to increase pores in mucus gels are discussed herein. PMID:27010985

  19. Dysphagia in the high-risk infant: potential factors and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal dysphagia, or abnormalities of swallowing, represent a major global problem, and consequences of dysfunctional feeding patterns carry over into infancy and toddler age groups. Growth, development, and independent feeding skills are all delayed among high-risk infants. Such a group comprises premature birth, low-birth-weight, congenital anomalies, perinatal asphyxia, postsurgical, and sepsis categories. The conflict between pathophysiologic and pragmatic feeding strategies remains a major conundrum and is largely due to a lack of validated diagnostic approaches amid heterogeneity of the patient phenotype. Thus, well-tested feeding management strategies that can be generalizable are lacking. Furthermore, the aerodigestive symptoms and signs, potential risk factors, and contributory etiologies remain nonspecific. This article presents mechanistic evidence related to the pathophysiologic basis of neonatal dysphagia as well as potential opportunities to improve feeding abilities and long-term development. PMID:26791178

  20. Human papillomavirus promotes Epstein-Barr virus maintenance and lytic reactivation in immortalized oral keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Makielski, Kathleen R; Lee, Denis; Lorenz, Laurel D; Nawandar, Dhananjay M; Chiu, Ya-Fang; Kenney, Shannon C; Lambert, Paul F

    2016-08-01

    Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomaviruses are human tumor viruses that infect and replicate in upper aerodigestive tract epithelia and cause head and neck cancers. The productive phases of both viruses are tied to stratified epithelia highlighting the possibility that these viruses may affect each other's life cycles. Our lab has established an in vitro model system to test the effects of EBV and HPV co-infection in stratified squamous oral epithelial cells. Our results indicate that HPV increases maintenance of the EBV genome in the co-infected cells and promotes lytic reactivation of EBV in upper layers of stratified epithelium. Expression of the HPV oncogenes E6 and E7 were found to be necessary and sufficient to account for HPV-mediated lytic reactivation of EBV. Our findings indicate that HPV increases the capacity of epithelial cells to support the EBV life cycle, which could in turn increase EBV-mediated pathogenesis in the oral cavity. PMID:27179345

  1. CT-clinical approach to patients with symptoms related to the V, VII, IX-XII cranial nerves and cervical sympathetics

    SciTech Connect

    Kalovidouris, A.; Mancuso, A.A.; Dillon, W.

    1984-06-01

    Forty-three patients who had signs and symptoms possibly related to the extracranial course of cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X-XII, and the cervical sympathetics were examined prospectively using high resolution CT to obtain images of thin sections during rapid drip infusion of contrast material. Anatomic areas in the scan protocols included the posterior fossa, cavernous and paranasal sinuses, skull base, temporal bone, nasopharynx, parotid gland, tongue base, and neck. Nine of the 23 patients with possible fifth nerve deficits had extracranial structural lesions that explained the symptoms; none of these nine, however, had typical trigeminal neuralgia. Of eight patients with peripheral seventh nerve abnormalities, two had positive findings on scans. Of five patients presenting with referred ear pain, three had carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. The authors' experience suggests that patients at high risk for structural lesions responsible for cranial nerve deficits can be selected by clinical criteria. Protocols for each clinical setting are presented.

  2. Occult Pneumomediastinum in the Deployed Setting: Evaluation and Management.

    PubMed

    Reha, Jeffrey; Davis, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Pneumomediastinum can occur after both blunt and penetrating trauma. The greatest concern involving this finding in a trauma patient is an aerodigestive tract injury. Prompt evaluation, identification, and management of these injuries are extremely important. This case describes a soldier who was involved in an improvised explosive device blast with no evidence of cavity penetration. During the routine evaluation of his head and neck an occult pneumomediastinum was identified. The patient was asymptomatic and was further evaluated with computed tomography because of the absence of endoscopy and bronchoscopy in theatre. The imaging showed no evidence of esophageal or tracheobronchial injury. The patient was observed and when noted to be stable was transferred to the local Role 3 hospital for management of his other injuries. PMID:27483543

  3. An unusual presentation of herpes infection in the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Sanei-Moghaddam, Ali; Loizou, Peter; Fish, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is among a spectrum of viruses known to affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Gingivostomatitis and pharyngitis are the most common clinical manifestations of first-episode HSV infection, whereas recurrent herpes labialis is the most common clinical manifestation of reactivation HSV infection. Herpetic viral infections seldom attack the larynx. Laryngeal disorders provoked by the herpes virus are characterised by a large spectrum of presentations and polymorphisms, and can simulate mucous lesions such as an extensive laryngeal neoplasm (supraglottic tumour). We report a case of a 69-year-old woman, smoker, who presented with a large ulcerated supraglottic mass mimicking laryngeal cancer, requiring emergency tracheostomy for worsening stridor, which turned out to be an HSV laryngitis superimposed onto an underlying Streptococcus A lower respiratory tract infection. The patient was treated for Streptococcus A infection and her symptoms resolved following treatment. Patient's tracheotomy tube was removed on follow-up appointment. PMID:23376665

  4. Oropharyngeal cancer: an emergent disease?

    PubMed

    Granados-García, Martín

    2016-04-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer incidence has recently increased, thereby attracting public attention. Akin to other malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract, it has been attributed to the carcinogenic effects of tobacco and alcohol use. However, recent evidence shows that a substantial increase in the disease is attributable to the effects of human papillomavirus (HPV). Marked progress has been made in relation to the knowledge of molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in the genesis and progression of these cancers. This has led to the development of new and promising therapies of a more specific and less toxic nature that have prolonged life and improved its quality. However, these therapies have failed to significantly increase the proportion of patients who are cured. To decrease the mortality associated with these neoplasms, it is necessary to adopt public health measures aimed at prevention and early diagnosis. PMID:27557387

  5. An Unusual Localization of a Pleomorphic Adenoma in the Rhinopharynx

    PubMed Central

    Pagella, Fabio; Chu, Francesco; Pusateri, Alessandro; Matti, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of the parotid glands. Rarely it may arise from minor salivary glands of the upper aerodigestive tract. A 57-year-old woman was admitted at our institution presenting with nasal obstruction. Endoscopic evaluation revealed a pedicled mass in the rhinopharynx. After radiological examination, we opted for a transnasal endoscopic-assisted excision of the mass under general anaesthesia. Histological evaluation deponed for pleomorphic adenoma with clear surgical margins. No endoscopic evidence of local recurrence has been shown after 48 months of followup. In the literature, few cases of pleomorphic adenoma arising in the rhinopharynx have been reported. The introduction of endoscopy, as shown by our experience, leads to important benefits in the identification, treatment, and followup of such rhinopharyngeal benign tumors. PMID:22927861

  6. NK/T cell lymphoma associated with peripheral eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Yap, E; Wan Jamaluddin, W F; Tumian, N R; Mashuri, F; Mohammed, F; Tan, G C; Masir, N; Abdul Wahid, F S

    2014-12-01

    NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type is an aggressive and uncommon malignancy. Disease that occurs outside of the aerodigestive tract exhibits an even more aggressive clinical behaviour and does not respond as well to conventional therapy compared to its nasal counterpart. We report such a case of NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type, that presented as an anterior chest wall mass, arising from the left pectoralis muscle. An interesting feature we wish to highlight is the associated eosinophilia that corresponded to disease activity, exhibiting fluctuations with surgical resection and chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge this is the third reported case of NK/T cell lymphoma that is associated with peripheral eosinophilia. Our case highlights the role of certain NK cell subsets that play a major role in eosinophilic activation in NK/T lymphomas and calls for more research into further classification of this disease by virtue of its NK cell subsets. PMID:25500520

  7. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the larynx in an adolescent: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Kimberley; Parsons, Stephen; Cordes, Susan

    2009-02-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma is uncommon, accounting for only 3% of all plasma cell neoplasms. Most lesions occur in the head and neck, primarily in the upper aerodigestive tract; only a minority occur in the larynx. Most cases of extramedullary plasmacytoma are seen in older men; presentation in an adolescent is rare. We report the case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with a 2- to 3-month history of progressive dysphonia. Physical examination identified two lesions--a nasopharyngeal mass and a laryngeal mass. Biopsy indicated that the masses were extramedullary plasmacytomas with amyloid deposition. The patient was treated with radiation therapy, and the tumors were eradicated. We also review the literature with respect to the epidemiology and presentation of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the head and neck, specifically those that affect the larynx. PMID:19224468

  8. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Rizos, Ch; Papassava, M; Golias, Ch; Charalabopoulos, K

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer has become a major public health problem worldwide although the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Dietary factors, dietary supplements, and physical activity might be important in the prevention of the disease. In the majority of studies published, it was observed that high consumption of meat, alcohol and dairy products has been linked to a greater risk. Specifically, alcohol use, and particularly heavy use, may cause cancers of liver, esophagus, larynx, pharynx and oral cavity, with risks for the aero-digestive cancers. Moderate use among women has been related with increases in breast cancer. Alcohol consumption is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect prostate cancer risk. Alcohol alters the hormonal environment and in parallel, containing chemical substances such as flavonoids (red wine), may alter tumor cell growth. In this mini review, the relation between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk is analyzed. PMID:20693964

  9. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting as Nasal Mass: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ritesh; Mayappa, Nagaraj; Prashanth, V

    2016-09-01

    Sinonasal neoplasms are rare and exceptional site for metastatic tumours and comprising <3 % of all malignant aerodigestive tumours and <1 % of all malignancies. Renal cell carcinoma is known to metastasise to the most unusual sites, the sinonasal region being one of them. We here by present a case of 60 year old male patient who presented with epistaxis and nasal obstruction. Clinical examination and CT scan revealed a tumour in the right nasal cavity and maxillary sinus. The presence of primary renal cell carcinoma was recognized only after surgical removal of metastatic tumour. Very few reports have been presented in literature of metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the sinonasal region. We present this case to document its occurrence; highlight the rarity, presentation and difficulties in diagnosis and treatment along with review of literature. PMID:27508143

  10. [Urgent operations for diseases of the thyroid gland and postoperative complications].

    PubMed

    Romanchishen, A F; Bagaturiia, G O; Bogatikov, A A; Kim, I Iu; Vabalaĭte, K V

    2012-01-01

    Anasplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland (243 cases), polinodous goiter of cervical retrosternal localization (25 cases), acute purulent strumitis or thyroiditis (9 cases) induced disturbance of aero-digestive organs of the neck and resulted in the necessary urgent surgical care. The most dangerous complications after 23777 operations on the TG requiring repeated surgical intervention were bilateral lesion of the recurrent nerves (1% of observations), hemorrhages in the TG bed (0.38% of observations). Timely surgical treatment as well as exact knowledge of the neck anatomy, visual control of the recurrent laryngeal nerves, cover of the nerves and lessening the TG bed volume with a part of the parietal leaf of the 4th fascia of the neck in each thyroid operation considerably decreased the danger of asphyxia and the appearance of life threatening complications at the early postoperative period. PMID:22774547

  11. Absent upper blind Pouch in a case of tracheo-esophageal fistula.

    PubMed

    Harjai, Man Mohan; Badal, Sachendra; Khanna, Sangeeta; Singh, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A common upper airway and digestive tract is a rare congenital anomaly that is usually fatal and its exact incidence is not known. It is a diagnostic challenge as it requires high index of suspicion. It should be considered in a neonate with respiratory distress in a non-vigorous baby requiring endotracheal intubation, which is difficult even in expert hand. We present a newborn with suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula that was diagnosed intraoperatively to have absent upper blind pouch of the esophagus and on autopsy found to have laryngeal atresia with absent vocal cords and a common aerodigestive tract continuing distally with trachea. The neonate was ventilated with endotracheal tube (ETT) placement which in retrospect we came to know that it was in the esophagus. The neonate also had associated multiple congenital anomalies of VACTERL association. The importance of teamwork between neonatologist, pediatric surgeon, anesthesiologist, and radiologist is highlighted for diagnosis and management of such rare cases. PMID:25552830

  12. Ablation of dermal and mucosal lesions with a new CO2 laser application system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Sergije; Sedlmaier, Benedikt W.; Fuehrer, Ariane

    1997-05-01

    Laser treatment of skin changes has become common practice in recent years. The high absorption of the wavelength of the carbon-dioxide laser (10600 nm) is responsible for its low penetration depth in biological tissue. Shortening the exposure time minimizes thermic side effects such as carbonization and coagulation. This effect can be achieved with the SilkTouchTM scanner 767, since the focused laser beam is moved over a defined area by rapidly rotating mirrors. This enables controlled and reliable removal of certain dermal lesions, particularly hypertrophic scars, scars after common acne, wrinkles, rhinophyma and benign neoplasms like verruca vulgaris. Cosmetically favorable reepithelialization of the lasered surfaces results within a very short period of time. Benign mucosal changes of the upper aerodigestive tract can also be treated. Ablation is less traumatic for papillomas, fibromas, hyperplasias in the area of Waldeyer's tonsillar ring and certain laryngotracheal pathologies. Clinical examples demonstrate the advantages of this new mode of application.

  13. CT findings of accidental fish bone ingestion and its complications.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Sandeep Halagatti; Venkatanarasimha Karaddi, Nanda Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone is one of the most common accidentally ingested foreign bodies, and patients commonly present to the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms. Fortunately, most of them are asymptomatic and exit the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. However, fish bones can get impacted in any part of the aerodigestive tract and cause symptoms. Occasionally, they are asymptomatic initially after ingestion and may present remotely at a later date with serious complications such as gastrointestinal tract perforation, obstruction, and abscess formation. Radiographs are most often negative. High degree of clinical suspicion and familiarity with CT appearance can help to detect fish bone along with any associated complications, and direct further management. We describe and illustrate various CT presentations of ingested fish bone and its complications. PMID:26714057

  14. Pediatric radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Halperin, E.C.; Kun, L.E.; Constine, L.S.; Tarbell, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    This text covers all aspects of radiation therapy for treatment of pediatric cancer. The book describes the proper use of irradiation in each of the malignancies of childhood, including tumors that are rarely encountered in adult practice. These include acute leukemia; supratentorial brain tumors; tumors of the posterior fossa of the brain and spinal canal; retinoblastoma and optic nerve glioma; neuroblastoma; Hodgkin's disease; malignant lymphoma; Ewing's sarcoma; osteosarcoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; Desmoid tumor; Wilms' tumor; liver and biliary tumors; germ cell and stromal cell tumors of the gonads; endocrine, aerodigestive tract, and breast tumors; Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; and skin cancer and hemangiomas. For each type of malignancy, the authors describe the epidemiology, common presenting signs and symptoms, staging, and proper diagnostic workup. Particular attention is given to the indications for radiation therapy and the planning of a course of radiotherapy, including the optimal radiation dose, field size, and technique.

  15. Facial, Cervical, and Mediastinal Emphysema of the Clarinet Player: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kesgin, Selcan; Tezcan, Erkan; Köybaşı, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervicofacial emphysema may arise due to the leakage of air from a defect in the aerodigestive tract to the fascial layers of neck and face. Rarely, it may be caused by insufflation of air through the Stensen’s duct. Case Report: We present a case with diffuse facial, cervical and mediastinal emphysema due to playing a wind instrument immediately after a facial trauma. There was no mucosal defect or laceration noticed by examination which could explain the origin of the emphysema. Despite the widespread cervicofacial emphysema with mediastinal involvement, the patient significantly improved within 48 hours without any intervention. Conclusion: Even though cervicofacial emphysema ameliorates spontaneously, increased care must be taken, especially when there is pneumomediastinum and/or pneumothorax. PMID:25667794

  16. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: a Mozambique overview.

    PubMed

    Pizzol, Damiano; Putoto, Giovanni; Chhaganlal, Kajal D

    2016-06-01

    Human Papillomavirus is agent of the most common sexually transmitted disease which is able to infect mucosal and cutaneous membranes of the anogenital region, upper aerodigestive tract, and other head and neck mucosal regions. Although mainly HPV infection can be asymptomatic and transient, it may persist and give rise to various lesions such as warts, condyloma dysplasia and cancers depending on low or high risk type of HPV infection. Moreover, growing recent evidence suggests a role of this virus in male and female fertility. To date no effective prevention, test, treatment and control strategies are provided for people in developing countries despite the reported high incidence of HPV both in women and men. This paper reviews the more recent literature about HPV infection highlighting epidemiology, related pathologies and possible fertility effects of HPV in male and female with particular attention to the Mozambique context. PMID:27366761

  17. Feasibility and clinical outcomes of transoral robotic surgery and transoral robot-assisted carbon dioxide laser for hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Durmus, Kasim; Kucur, Cuneyt; Uysal, Ismail O; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Ozer, Enver

    2015-01-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been used as a novel procedure for squamous cell carcinoma of the laryngopharyngeal cancers with encouraging outcomes. The safety, feasibility, and efficacy regarding this approach have previously been demonstrated. There are several studies proposing the benefit of combining TORS with carbon dioxide (CO2) laser in resecting upper aerodigestive tract tumors. We report a series of patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma treated with primary TORS with or without the flexible carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. All TORS resections were completed without any intraoperative complication. None required conversion to an open procedure. Clinical outcomes in this preliminary analysis indicate that magnified view, 3D visualization with the wristed instruments and tremor reduction technology of robotic experience, allow en bloc resection of early stage hypopharyngeal cancers. TORS with CO2 laser is a promising, minimally invasive surgical alternative for the treatment of hypopharyngeal tumors with comparable oncologic outcomes. PMID:25478973

  18. Hypoxia Imaging Endoscopy Equipped with Laser Light Source from Preclinical Live Animal Study to First-In-Human Subject Research

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Takaaki; Yano, Tomonori; Oono, Yasuhiro; Ikematsu, Hiroaki; Nomura, Shogo; Sato, Akihiro; Kojima, Motohiro; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    A goal in next-generation endoscopy is to develop functional imaging techniques to open up new opportunities for cancer diagnosis. Although spatial and temporal information on hypoxia is crucial for understanding cancer physiology and expected to be useful for cancer diagnosis, existing techniques using fluorescent indicators have limitations due to low spatial resolution and invasive administration. To overcome these problems, we developed an imaging technology based on hemoglobin oxygen saturation in both the tumor and surrounding mucosa using a laser endoscope system, and conducted the first human subject research for patients with aero-digestive tract cancer. The oxygen saturation map overlapped the images of cancerous lesions and indicated highly heterogeneous features of oxygen supply in the tumor. The hypoxic region of the tumor surface was found in both early cancer and cancer precursors. This technology illustrates a novel aspect of cancer biology as a potential biomarker and can be widely utilized in cancer diagnosis. PMID:24915532

  19. [The concept of field cancerization and its clinical application].

    PubMed

    Wei, Z H; Gong, W; Zhou, M; Chen, Q M

    2016-09-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma(HNSCC) is among the most common malignances worldwide. Patients with HNSCC often develop primary tumors at multiple sites and have tendency for local recurrences following curative resectional surgery. Field cancerization theory presumes that, after repeated carcinogenic exposures, the entire superficialepitheliium of the upper aerodigestive tract has an increased risk for developing (pre)malignant lesions because of multiple genetic abnormalities. This theorywell explains the strong potential with malignant transformation and loco-regional recurrence in HNSCC, and helps to better understand the pathogenesis, and thus provides a new idea for prevention and treatment of this disease. This paper will give an overview of field cancerization, including the concept and its clinical application. PMID:27596348

  20. Natural history and management of keratosis, atypia, carcinoma-in situ, and microinvasive cancer of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Gillis, T M; Incze, J; Strong, M S; Vaughan, C W; Simpson, G T

    1983-10-01

    Keratosis, atypia, carcinoma in situ, and microinvasive cancer occurring as white or red patches on the vocal cords are part of the diathesis of cancer of the aerodigestive tract and represented a sequential continuum. Excisional biopsy is the preferred treatment for identification and potential cure of the lesion. If the margins of excision are inadequate, further treatment options are either reexcision or radiotherapy. Radiotherapy should be used only when the need for voice conservation prevails. Cessation of smoking does not remove the potential for progression of the disease, therefore, all patients must be followed indefinitely. Excisional biopsy of keratosis, carcinoma in situ, and microinvasive cancer of the larynx offers an excellent prognosis for voice preservation and survival. PMID:6625098

  1. Effects of radiation and chemical exposures on cancer mortality among Rocketdyne workers: a review of three cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, H; Ritz, B

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the UCLA Rocketdyne Study was to estimate the effects of occupational exposures to low-level ionizing radiation and selected chemicals on cancer mortality among nuclear and aerospace workers who were employed at Rocketdyne/Atomics International between 1950 and 1993. The results of this retrospective cohort study suggest that: (1) exposure to external radiation, especially doses greater than 200 mSv, increased the risk of dying from lymphopoietic cancers, lung cancer, and possibly other solid cancers; (2) exposure to internal radiation increased the risk of dying from lymphopoietic cancers and upper-aerodigestive-tract cancers; and (3) exposure to hydrazine or other chemicals associated with the same jobs at rocket-engine test stands increased the risk of dying from lung cancer and possibly other cancers. PMID:11319049

  2. CT findings of accidental fish bone ingestion and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Sandeep Halagatti; Karaddi, Nanda Kumar Venkatanarasimha

    2016-01-01

    Fish bone is one of the most common accidentally ingested foreign bodies, and patients commonly present to the emergency department with nonspecific symptoms. Fortunately, most of them are asymptomatic and exit the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. However, fish bones can get impacted in any part of the aerodigestive tract and cause symptoms. Occasionally, they are asymptomatic initially after ingestion and may present remotely at a later date with serious complications such as gastrointestinal tract perforation, obstruction, and abscess formation. Radiographs are most often negative. High degree of clinical suspicion and familiarity with CT appearance can help to detect fish bone along with any associated complications, and direct further management. We describe and illustrate various CT presentations of ingested fish bone and its complications. PMID:26714057

  3. Selective expression of prion protein in peripheral tissues of the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Ford, M J; Burton, L J; Morris, R J; Hall, S M

    2002-01-01

    The level of expression of normal cellular prion protein, PrP(c) (cellular prion protein), controls both the rate and the route of neuroinvasive infection, from peripheral entry portal to the CNS. Paradoxically, an overview of the distribution of PrP(c) within tissues outside the CNS is lacking. We have used novel antibodies that recognise cellular prion protein in glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue (in order to optimise immunohistochemical labelling of this conformationally labile protein), in combination with in situ hybridisation, to examine the expression of PrP(c) in peripheral tissues of the adult mouse. We found that although prion protein is expressed in many tissues, it is expressed at high levels only in discrete subpopulations of cells. Prominent amongst these are elements of the "hardwired neuroimmune network" that integrate the body's immune defence and neuroendocrine systems under CNS control. These prion protein-expressing elements include small diameter afferent nerves in the skin and the lamina propria of the aerodigestive tract, sympathetic ganglia and nerves, antigen presenting and processing cells (both follicular and non-follicular dendritic cells) and sub-populations of lymphocytes particularly in skin, gut- and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues. Prion protein is also expressed in the parasympathetic and enteric nervous systems, in the dispersed neuroendocrine system, and in peripheral nervous system axons and their associated Schwann cells. This selective expression of cellular prion protein provides a variety of alternative routes for the propagation and transport of prion infection entering from peripheral sites, either naturally (via the aerodigestive tract or abraded skin) or experimentally (by intraperitoneal injection) to the brain. Key regulatory cells that express prion protein, and in particular enteroendocrine cells in the mucosal wall of the gut, and dendritic cells that convey pathogens from epithelial layers to secondary lymphoid

  4. The effects of internal radiation exposure on cancer mortality in nuclear workers at Rocketdyne/Atomics International.

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, B; Morgenstern, H; Crawford-Brown, D; Young, B

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of chronic exposure to radionuclides, primarily uranium and mixed-fission products, on cancer mortality in a retrospective cohort study of workers enrolled in the radiation-monitoring program of a nuclear research and development facility. Between 1950 and 1994, 2,297 workers were monitored for internal radiation exposures, and 441 workers died, 134 (30.4%) of them from cancer as the underlying cause. We calculated internal lung-dose estimates based on urinalysis and whole-body and lung counts reported for individual workers. We examined cancer mortality of workers exposed at different cumulative lung-dose levels using complete risk-set analysis for cohort data, adjusting for age, pay type, time since first radiation monitored, and external radiation. In addition, we examined the potential for confounding due to chemical exposures and smoking, explored whether external radiation exposure modifies the effects of internal exposure, and estimated effects after excluding exposures likely to have been unrelated to disease onset. Dose-response relations were observed for death from hemato- and lymphopoietic cancers and from upper aerodigestive tract cancers, adjusting for age, time since first monitored, pay type, and external (gamma) radiation dose. No association was found for other cancers, including cancers of the lung. Despite the small number of exposed deaths from specific cancer types and possible bias due to measurement error and confounding, the positive findings and strong dose-response gradients observed suggest carcinogenic effects of internal radiation to the upper aerodigestive tract and the blood and lymph system in this occupational cohort. However, causal inferences require replication of our results in other populations or confirmation with an extended follow-up of this cohort. PMID:10964795

  5. Radiation Doses to Structures Within and Adjacent to the Larynx are Correlated With Long-Term Diet- and Speech-Related Quality of Life

    SciTech Connect

    Dornfeld, Ken . E-mail: kenneth-dornfeld@uiowa.edu; Simmons, Joel R.; Karnell, Lucy; Karnell, Michael; Funk, Gerry; Yao Min; Wacha, Judith; Zimmerman, Bridget; Buatti, John M.

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that radiation dose to key sites in the upper aerodigestive tract is associated with long-term functional outcome after (chemo)radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancers. Methods and Materials: This study examined the outcome for 27 patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for definitive management of their head-and-neck cancer who were disease free for at least 1 year after treatment. Head-and-neck cancer-specific quality of life (QoL) was assessed before treatment and at 1 year after treatment. Type of diet tolerated, presence of a feeding tube, and degree of weight loss 1 year after treatment were also used as outcome measures. Radiation doses delivered to various points along the upper aerodigestive tract, including base of tongue, lateral pharyngeal walls, and laryngeal structures, were determined from each treatment plan. Radiation doses for each of these points were tested for correlation with outcome measures. Results: Higher doses delivered to the aryepiglottic folds, false vocal cords, and lateral pharyngeal walls near the false cords correlated with a more restrictive diet, and higher doses to the aryepiglottic folds correlated with greater weight loss (p < 0.05) 1 year after therapy. Better posttreatment speech QoL scores were associated with lower doses delivered to structures within and surrounding the larynx. Conclusion: Our data show an inverse relationship between radiation dose delivered to laryngeal structures and speech and diet and QoL outcomes after definitive (chemo)radiation treatment. These findings suggest that efforts to deliver lower doses to laryngeal structures may improve outcomes after definitive (chemo)radiation therapy.

  6. Predictors and Intensity of Online Access to Electronic Medical Records Among Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, David E.; Laccetti, Andrew L.; Chen, Beibei; Yan, Jingsheng; Cai, Jennifer; Gates, Samantha; Xie, Yang; Lee, Simon J. Craddock

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic portals are secure Web-based servers that provide patients with real-time access to their personal health record (PHR). These applications are now widely used at cancer centers nationwide, but their impact has not been well studied. This study set out to determine predictors and patterns of use of a Web-based portal for accessing PHRs and communicating with health providers among patients with cancer. Methods: Retrospective analysis of enrollment in and use of MyChart, a PHR portal for the Epic electronic medical record system, among patients seen at a National Cancer Institute–designated cancer center. Predictors of MyChart use were analyzed through univariable and multivariable regression models. Results: A total of 6,495 patients enrolled in MyChart from 2007 to 2012. The median number of log-ins over this period was 57 (interquartile range 17-137). The most common portal actions were viewing test results (37%), viewing and responding to clinic messages (29%), and sending medical advice requests (6.4%). Increased portal use was significantly associated with younger age, white race, and an upper aerodigestive malignancy diagnosis. Thirty-seven percent of all log-ins and 31% of all medical advice requests occurred outside clinic hours. Over the study period, the average number of patient log-ins per year more than doubled. Conclusions: Among patients with cancer, PHR portal use is frequent and increasing. Younger patients, white patients, and patients with upper aerodigestive malignancies exhibit the heaviest portal use. Understanding the implications of this new technology will be central to the delivery of safe and effective care. PMID:25006222

  7. Genotoxicity of di-butyl-phthalate and di-iso-butyl-phthalate in human lymphocytes and mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Kleinsasser, N H; Wallner, B C; Kastenbauer, E R; Weissacher, H; Harréus, U A

    2001-01-01

    The genotoxicity of phthalates, widely used plasticizers, has been shown previously for di-butyl-phthalate (DBP) and di-iso-butyl-phthalate (DBP) in human mucosal cells of the upper aerodigestive tract in a previous study using the Comet assay. Furthermore, higher genotoxic sensitivities of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of either the larynx or the oropharynx compared to non-tumor patients were described. Other authors have demonstrated DNA damage by a different phthalate in human lymphocytes. It was the aim of the present study to determine whether there is a correlation between the genotoxic sensitivities to DBP and its isomer DiBP in either mucosal cells or lymphocytes. The single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was applied to detect DNA strand breaks in human epithelial cells of the upper aerodigestive tract (n=132 specimens). Human mucosa was harvested from the oropharynx in non-tumor patients and patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx. Laryngeal mucosa of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas was harvested as well. Peripheral lymphocytes (n=49 specimens) were separated from peripheral blood. Xenobiotics investigated were DBP, DiBP, and N'methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) as positive control, respectively. For statistical analysis, the SPSS correlation analysis according to Pearson and the Wilcoxon test were performed. Genotoxicity was found for DBP and DiBP in epithelial cells and lymphocytes (P<0.001). MNNG caused severe DNA damage. In analyzing DBP and DiBP results, genotoxic impacts in mucosal cells showed an intermediate correlation (r=0.570). Correlation in lymphocytes was the same (r=0.570). Phthalates have been investigated as a potential health hazard for a variety of reasons, including possible xenoestrogenic impact, peroxisome proliferation, and membrane destabilization. The present investigation suggests a correlated DNA-damaging impact of DBP and DiBP in human mucosal cells and in

  8. Acetaldehyde as an underestimated risk factor for cancer development: role of genetics in ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Helmut K; Stickel, Felix

    2010-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is a strong risk factor for the development of certain types of cancer including those of the upper aerodigestive tract, the liver, the large intestine and the female breast. Multiple mechanisms are involved in alcohol-mediated carcinogenesis. Among those the action of acetaldehyde (AA), the first metabolite of ethanol oxidation is of particular interest. AA is toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments. AA binds to DNA and forms carcinogenic adducts. Direct evidence of the role of AA in alcohol-associated carcinogenesis derived from genetic linkage studies in alcoholics. Polymorphisms or mutations of genes coding for AA generation or detoxifying enzymes resulting in elevated AA concentrations are associated with increased cancer risk. Approximately 40% of Japanese, Koreans or Chinese carry the AA dehydrogenase 2*2 (ALDH2*2) allele in its heterozygous form. This allele codes for an ALDH2 enzyme with little activity leading to high AA concentrations after the consumption of even small amounts of alcohol. When individuals with this allele consume ethanol chronically, a significant increased risk for upper alimentary tract and colorectal cancer is noted. In Caucasians, alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 (ADH1C*1) allele encodes for an ADH isoenzyme which produces 2.5 times more AA than the corresponding allele ADH1C*2. In studies with moderate to high alcohol intake, ADH1C*1 allele frequency and rate of homozygosity was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk for cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, the liver, the colon and the female breast. These studies underline the important role of acetaldehyde in ethanol-mediated carcinogenesis. PMID:19847467

  9. Complete remission after first-line radio-chemotherapy as predictor of survival in extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Extranodal nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma is a rare and severe disease. Considering the rarity of this lymphoma in Europe, we conducted a multicentric retrospective study on nasal-type NK/T cell lymphoma to determine the optimal induction strategy and identify prognostic factors. Methods Thirty-six adult patients with nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma were recruited and assessed. In total, 80 % of patients were classified as having upper aerodigestive tract NK/T-cell lymphoma (UNKTL) and 20 % extra-upper aerodigestive tract NK/T-cell lymphoma (EUNKTL). Results For advanced-stage disease, chemotherapy alone (CT) was the primary treatment (84 % vs. 10 % for combined CT + radiation therapy (RT), respectively), while for early-stage disease, 50 % of patients received the combination of CT + RT and 50 % CT alone. Five-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 39 % and 33 %. Complete remission (CR) rates were significantly higher when using CT + RT (90 %) versus CT alone (33 %) (p < 0.0001). For early-stage disease, CR rates were 37 % for CT alone versus 100 % for CT + RT. Quality of response was significantly associated with survival, with 5-year OS being 80 % for CR patients versus 0 % for progressive disease patients (p < 0.01). Conclusion Early RT concomitantly or sequentially with CT led to improved patient outcomes, with quality of initial response being the most important prognosticator for 5-year OS. PMID:22682004

  10. The Economic Value of Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    While demonstrating the economic value of science is challenging, it can be more direct for some Earth observations. For example, suppose a climate science mission can yield decisive information on climate change within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) provides a standard for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, stipulating uncertainty in climate sensitivity, using discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate response (DICE Optimal), and a strong response (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we would switch from BAU to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain also depends on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The resolving power of a climate observing system cannot exceed climate system natural variability. All climate observations add noise to natural variability caused by observing limitations, including calibration errors and space/time sampling uncertainty. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can advance the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems

  11. Estimation of dynamic time activity curves from dynamic cardiac SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, J.; Du, Y.; Links, J.; Rahmim, A.; Karakatsanis, N.; Akhbardeh, A.; Lyons, J.; Frey, E. C.

    2015-04-01

    Whole-heart coronary flow reserve (CFR) may be useful as an early predictor of cardiovascular disease or heart failure. Here we propose a simple method to extract the time-activity curve, an essential component needed for estimating the CFR, for a small number of compartments in the body, such as normal myocardium, blood pool, and ischemic myocardial regions, from SPECT data acquired with conventional cameras using slow rotation. We evaluated the method using a realistic simulation of 99mTc-teboroxime imaging. Uptake of 99mTc-teboroxime based on data from the literature were modeled. Data were simulated using the anatomically-realistic 3D NCAT phantom and an analytic projection code that realistically models attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. The proposed method was then applied to estimate time activity curves (TACs) for a set of 3D volumes of interest (VOIs) directly from the projections. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of estimated TACs and studied the effects of the presence of perfusion defects that were and were not modeled in the estimation procedure. The method produced good estimates of the myocardial and blood-pool TACS organ VOIs, with average weighted absolute biases of less than 5% for the myocardium and 10% for the blood pool when the true organ boundaries were known and the activity distributions in the organs were uniform. In the presence of unknown perfusion defects, the myocardial TAC was still estimated well (average weighted absolute bias <10%) when the total reduction in myocardial uptake (product of defect extent and severity) was ≤5%. This indicates that the method was robust to modest model mismatch such as the presence of moderate perfusion defects and uptake nonuniformities. With larger defects where the defect VOI was included in the estimation procedure, the estimated normal myocardial and defect TACs were accurate (average weighted absolute bias ≈5% for a defect with 25% extent and 100% severity).

  12. Effect of denoising on supervised lung parenchymal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayamani, Padmapriya; Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2012-03-01

    Denoising is a critical preconditioning step for quantitative analysis of medical images. Despite promises for more consistent diagnosis, denoising techniques are seldom explored in clinical settings. While this may be attributed to the esoteric nature of the parameter sensitve algorithms, lack of quantitative measures on their ecacy to enhance the clinical decision making is a primary cause of physician apathy. This paper addresses this issue by exploring the eect of denoising on the integrity of supervised lung parenchymal clusters. Multiple Volumes of Interests (VOIs) were selected across multiple high resolution CT scans to represent samples of dierent patterns (normal, emphysema, ground glass, honey combing and reticular). The VOIs were labeled through consensus of four radiologists. The original datasets were ltered by multiple denoising techniques (median ltering, anisotropic diusion, bilateral ltering and non-local means) and the corresponding ltered VOIs were extracted. Plurality of cluster indices based on multiple histogram-based pair-wise similarity measures were used to assess the quality of supervised clusters in the original and ltered space. The resultant rank orders were analyzed using the Borda criteria to nd the denoising-similarity measure combination that has the best cluster quality. Our exhaustive analyis reveals (a) for a number of similarity measures, the cluster quality is inferior in the ltered space; and (b) for measures that benet from denoising, a simple median ltering outperforms non-local means and bilateral ltering. Our study suggests the need to judiciously choose, if required, a denoising technique that does not deteriorate the integrity of supervised clusters.

  13. 3D GRASE pulsed arterial spin labeling at multiple inflow times in patients with long arterial transit times: comparison with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Steve Z; Madai, Vince I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Federico C; Mutke, Matthias A; Bauer, Miriam; Herzig, Cornelius X; Hetzer, Stefan; Günther, Matthias; Sobesky, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) at multiple inflow times (multi-TIs) is advantageous for the measurement of brain perfusion in patients with long arterial transit times (ATTs) as in steno-occlusive disease, because bolus-arrival-time can be measured and blood flow measurements can be corrected accordingly. Owing to its increased signal-to-noise ratio, a combination with a three-dimensional gradient and spin echo (GRASE) readout allows acquiring a sufficient number of multi-TIs within a clinically feasible acquisition time of 5 minutes. We compared this technique with the clinical standard dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced imaging–magnetic resonance imaging in patients with unilateral stenosis >70% of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery (MCA) at 3 Tesla. We performed qualitative (assessment by three expert raters) and quantitative (region of interest (ROI)/volume of interest (VOI) based) comparisons. In 43 patients, multi-TI PASL-GRASE showed perfusion alterations with moderate accuracy in the qualitative analysis. Quantitatively, moderate correlation coefficients were found for the MCA territory (ROI based: r=0.52, VOI based: r=0.48). In the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory, a readout related right-sided susceptibility artifact impaired correlation (ROI based: r=0.29, VOI based: r=0.34). Arterial transit delay artifacts were found only in 12% of patients. In conclusion, multi-TI PASL-GRASE can correct for arterial transit delay in patients with long ATTs. These results are promising for the transfer of ASL to the clinical practice. PMID:25407272

  14. Fuzzy hidden Markov chains segmentation for volume determination and quantitation in PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatt, M.; Lamare, F.; Boussion, N.; Turzo, A.; Collet, C.; Salzenstein, F.; Roux, C.; Jarritt, P.; Carson, K.; Cheze-LeRest, C.; Visvikis, D.

    2007-07-01

    Accurate volume of interest (VOI) estimation in PET is crucial in different oncology applications such as response to therapy evaluation and radiotherapy treatment planning. The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm for automatic lesion volume delineation; namely the fuzzy hidden Markov chains (FHMC), with that of current state of the art in clinical practice threshold based techniques. As the classical hidden Markov chain (HMC) algorithm, FHMC takes into account noise, voxel intensity and spatial correlation, in order to classify a voxel as background or functional VOI. However the novelty of the fuzzy model consists of the inclusion of an estimation of imprecision, which should subsequently lead to a better modelling of the 'fuzzy' nature of the object of interest boundaries in emission tomography data. The performance of the algorithms has been assessed on both simulated and acquired datasets of the IEC phantom, covering a large range of spherical lesion sizes (from 10 to 37 mm), contrast ratios (4:1 and 8:1) and image noise levels. Both lesion activity recovery and VOI determination tasks were assessed in reconstructed images using two different voxel sizes (8 mm3 and 64 mm3). In order to account for both the functional volume location and its size, the concept of % classification errors was introduced in the evaluation of volume segmentation using the simulated datasets. Results reveal that FHMC performs substantially better than the threshold based methodology for functional volume determination or activity concentration recovery considering a contrast ratio of 4:1 and lesion sizes of <28 mm. Furthermore differences between classification and volume estimation errors evaluated were smaller for the segmented volumes provided by the FHMC algorithm. Finally, the performance of the automatic algorithms was less susceptible to image noise levels in comparison to the threshold based techniques. The analysis of both

  15. A global-scale map of isoprene and volatile organic iodine in surface seawater of the Arctic, Northwest Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooki, Atsushi; Nomura, Daiki; Nishino, Shigeto; Kikuchi, Takashi; Yokouchi, Yoko

    2015-06-01

    Isoprene (C5H8) and three volatile organic iodine compounds (VOIs: CH3I, C2H5I, and CH2ClI) in surface seawater were measured in the western Arctic, Northwest Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans during the period 2008-2012. These compounds are believed to play an important role in the marine atmospheric chemistry after their emission. The measurements were performed with high time-resolution (1-6 h intervals) using an online equilibrator gas chromatography mass spectrometer. C5H8 was most abundant in high-productivity transitional waters and eutrophic tropical waters. The chlorophyll-a normalized production rates of C5H8 were high in the warm subtropical and tropical waters, suggesting the existence of a high emitter of C5H8 in the biological community of the warm waters. High concentrations of the three VOIs in highly productive transitional water were attributed to biological productions. For CH3I, the highest concentrations were widely distributed in the basin area of the oligotrophic subtropical NW Pacific, probably due to photochemical production and/or high emission rates from phytoplankton. In contrast, the lowest concentrations of C2H5I in subtropical waters were attributed to photochemical removal. Enhancement of CH2ClI concentrations in the shelf-slope areas of the Chukchi Sea and the transitional waters of the NW Pacific in winter suggested that vertical mixing with subsurface waters by regional upwelling or winter cooling acts to increase the CH2ClI concentrations in surface layer. Sea-air flux calculations revealed that the fluxes of CH2ClI were the highest among the three VOIs in shelf-slope areas; the CH3I flux was highest in basin areas.

  16. Differences in Brainstem Fiber Tract Response to Radiation: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    SciTech Connect

    Uh, Jinsoo; Merchant, Thomas E.; Li, Yimei; Feng, Tianshu; Gajjar, Amar; Ogg, Robert J.; Hua, Chiaho

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation-induced changes in white matter tracts are uniform across the brainstem. Methods and Materials: We analyzed serial diffusion tensor imaging data, acquired before radiation therapy and over 48 to 72 months of follow-up, from 42 pediatric patients (age 6-20 years) with medulloblastoma. FSL software (FMRIB, Oxford, UK) was used to calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial, radial, and mean diffusivities. For a consistent identification of volumes of interest (VOIs), the parametric maps of each patient were transformed to a standard brain space (MNI152), on which we identified VOIs including corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus (ML), transverse pontine fiber (TPF), and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) at the level of pons. Temporal changes of DTI parameters in VOIs were compared using a linear mixed effect model. Results: Radiation-induced white matter injury was marked by a decline in FA after treatment. The decline was often accompanied by decreased axial diffusivity, increased radial diffusivity, or both. This implied axonal damage and demyelination. We observed that the magnitude of the changes was not always uniform across substructures of the brainstem. Specifically, the changes in DTI parameters for TPF were more pronounced than in other regions (P<.001 for FA) despite similarities in the distribution of dose. We did not find a significant difference among CST, ML, and MCP in these patients (P>.093 for all parameters). Conclusions: Changes in the structural integrity of white matter tracts, assessed by DTI, were not uniform across the brainstem after radiation therapy. These results support a role for tract-based assessment in radiation treatment planning and determination of brainstem tolerance.

  17. Detecting variable responses in time-series using repeated measures ANOVA: Application to physiologic challenges.

    PubMed

    Macey, Paul M; Schluter, Philip J; Macey, Katherine E; Harper, Ronald M

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to analyzing physiologic timetrends recorded during a stimulus by comparing means at each time point using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA). The approach allows temporal patterns to be examined without an a priori model of expected timing or pattern of response. The approach was originally applied to signals recorded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) volumes-of-interest (VOI) during a physiologic challenge, but we have used the same technique to analyze continuous recordings of other physiological signals such as heart rate, breathing rate, and pulse oximetry. For fMRI, the method serves as a complement to whole-brain voxel-based analyses, and is useful for detecting complex responses within pre-determined brain regions, or as a post-hoc analysis of regions of interest identified by whole-brain assessments. We illustrate an implementation of the technique in the statistical software packages R and SAS. VOI timetrends are extracted from conventionally preprocessed fMRI images. A timetrend of average signal intensity across the VOI during the scanning period is calculated for each subject. The values are scaled relative to baseline periods, and time points are binned. In SAS, the procedure PROC MIXED implements the RMANOVA in a single step. In R, we present one option for implementing RMANOVA with the mixed model function "lme". Model diagnostics, and predicted means and differences are best performed with additional libraries and commands in R; we present one example. The ensuing results allow determination of significant overall effects, and time-point specific within- and between-group responses relative to baseline. We illustrate the technique using fMRI data from two groups of subjects who underwent a respiratory challenge. RMANOVA allows insight into the timing of responses and response differences between groups, and so is suited to physiologic testing paradigms eliciting complex response patterns. PMID

  18. Mapping the distribution of serotonin transporter in the human brainstem with high-resolution PET: Validation using postmortem autoradiography data.

    PubMed

    Fazio, P; Schain, M; Varnäs, K; Halldin, C; Farde, L; Varrone, A

    2016-06-01

    The human brainstem is a complex structure with several small nuclei and neural pathways of interest in the pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In common with other monoaminergic systems, serotoninergic neurons originate from a group of nuclei located in the brainstem. The present study was designed to validate a user-independent approach for a detailed in vivo quantification of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) availability in the human brainstem using a template-based approach that consisted of three steps. First, 3T-MR images and parametric binding potential (BPND) [(11)C]MADAM images of ten healthy subjects were used to generate a PET template of 5-HTT availability. In the second step, volumes of interest (VOIs) for different brainstem nuclei were obtained using a method in which VOIs are initially delineated on MRI images using anatomical landmarks and then are finally tailored on the distribution of 5-HTT binding using a thresholding approach applied to the 5-HTT template. In the final step, the VOIs were transformed and applied individually to BPND images of 16 healthy subjects (14M/2F, 20-64years). The in vivo distribution of BPND values obtained with the template-based method were in good agreement with an individual-based approach taken as gold standard. Results were also in agreement with 5-HTT quantification using in vitro binding data obtained with autoradiography (ARG) studies using [(3)H]MADAM. The proposed template-based method can be applied to PET data acquired in several CNS disorders in which serotonin neurons in the brainstem might be affected. PMID:26994829

  19. Detecting variable responses in time-series using repeated measures ANOVA: Application to physiologic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Macey, Paul M.; Schluter, Philip J.; Macey, Katherine E.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to analyzing physiologic timetrends recorded during a stimulus by comparing means at each time point using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA). The approach allows temporal patterns to be examined without an a priori model of expected timing or pattern of response. The approach was originally applied to signals recorded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) volumes-of-interest (VOI) during a physiologic challenge, but we have used the same technique to analyze continuous recordings of other physiological signals such as heart rate, breathing rate, and pulse oximetry. For fMRI, the method serves as a complement to whole-brain voxel-based analyses, and is useful for detecting complex responses within pre-determined brain regions, or as a post-hoc analysis of regions of interest identified by whole-brain assessments. We illustrate an implementation of the technique in the statistical software packages R and SAS. VOI timetrends are extracted from conventionally preprocessed fMRI images. A timetrend of average signal intensity across the VOI during the scanning period is calculated for each subject. The values are scaled relative to baseline periods, and time points are binned. In SAS, the procedure PROC MIXED implements the RMANOVA in a single step. In R, we present one option for implementing RMANOVA with the mixed model function “lme”. Model diagnostics, and predicted means and differences are best performed with additional libraries and commands in R; we present one example. The ensuing results allow determination of significant overall effects, and time-point specific within- and between-group responses relative to baseline. We illustrate the technique using fMRI data from two groups of subjects who underwent a respiratory challenge. RMANOVA allows insight into the timing of responses and response differences between groups, and so is suited to physiologic testing paradigms eliciting complex response patterns

  20. The influence of tumor oxygenation on 18F-FDG (Fluorine-18 Deoxyglucose) uptake: A mouse study using positron emission tomography (PET)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Linda W; Hapdey, Sebastien; English, Sean; Seidel, Jurgen; Carson, Joann; Sowers, Anastasia L; Krishna, Murali C; Green, Michael V; Mitchell, James B; Bacharach, Stephen L

    2006-01-01

    Background This study investigated whether changing a tumor's oxygenation would alter tumor metabolism, and thus uptake of 18F-FDG (fluorine-18 deoxyglucose), a marker for glucose metabolism using positron emission tomography (PET). Results Tumor-bearing mice (squamous cell carcinoma) maintained at 37°C were studied while breathing either normal air or carbogen (95% O2, 5% CO2), known to significantly oxygenate tumors. Tumor activity was measured within an automatically determined volume of interest (VOI). Activity was corrected for the arterial input function as estimated from image and blood-derived data. Tumor FDG uptake was initially evaluated for tumor-bearing animals breathing only air (2 animals) or only carbogen (2 animals). Subsequently, 5 animals were studied using two sequential 18F-FDG injections administered to the same tumor-bearing mouse, 60 min apart; the first injection on one gas (air or carbogen) and the second on the other gas. When examining the entire tumor VOI, there was no significant difference of 18F-FDG uptake between mice breathing either air or carbogen (i.e. air/carbogen ratio near unity). However, when only the highest 18F-FDG uptake regions of the tumor were considered (small VOIs), there was a modest (21%), but significant increase in the air/carbogen ratio suggesting that in these potentially most hypoxic regions of the tumor, 18F-FDG uptake and hence glucose metabolism, may be reduced by increasing tumor oxygenation. Conclusion Tumor 18F-FDG uptake may be reduced by increases in tumor oxygenation and thus may provide a means to further enhance 18F-FDG functional imaging. PMID:16722588

  1. Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, B.L.; Gajewski, S.J.; Glantz, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various {open_quotes}constraint levels{close_quotes} have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the {open_quotes}costs{close_quote} of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria.

  2. Cardiac imaging using a four-segment slant-hole collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Bal, G.; DiBella, E.V.R.; Gullberg, G.T.; Zeng, G.L.

    2005-09-27

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate four segmentslant-hole (FSSH) SPECT for cardiac imaging. FSSH is a slant-holecollimator that is divided into four segments and arranged such that thephotons from the volume of interest (VOI)are projected four times forevery location of the detector. These multiple projections help toimprove the sensitivity of the photons from the VOI by a factor4(cos(sigma))3, where is the slant angle of the collimator. Anotheradvantage of FSSH SPECT is a reduction in the total scan time, since agantry rotation of pi-2sigma is sufficient to satisfy Orlov's condition.That means, for a slant angle of 30 degrees, a gantry rotation of 120degrees is sufficient to satisfy Orlov's condition and obtain a completedataset. In this paper, we evaluate and compare the reconstructed imagesobtained using an FSSH collimator, for a gantry rotation of 180 degreesand 120 degrees, with those obtained from a parallel-hole (PH) SPECTsystem using a 180 degree acquisition. The reconstructed images from thethree imaging geometries were compared in terms of average image noise,contrast, and percentage error, for seven different clinical count levelsand for multiple noise realizations in each case. The increase insensitivity of the FSSH system was found to translate into a proportionaldecrease in statistical noise for voxels in the VOI of the reconstructedimages. Finally, a physical phantom study was performed using a prototypeFSSH collimator. Our findings show that FSSH collimators have thepotential of being the collimator of choice for cardiac SPECT imaging.Though we explore the potential of FSSH collimators for cardiac imagingin this paper, the concept can be extended for imaging other organs suchas the breasts, kidney, and brain.

  3. Measuring the Value of Earth Observation Information with the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernknopf, R.; Kuwayama, Y.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B.; Pesko, S.; Vail, P.

    2014-12-01

    Determining how much to invest in earth observation technology depends in part on the value of information (VOI) that can be derived from the observations. We design a framework and then evaluate the value-in-use of the NASA Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for regional water use and reliability in the presence of drought. As a technology that allows measurement of water storage, the GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS) provides information that is qualitatively different from that generated by other water data sources. It provides a global, reproducible grid of changes in surface and subsurface water resources on a frequent and regular basis. Major damages from recent events such as the 2012 Midwest drought and the ongoing drought in California motivate the need to understand the VOI from remotely sensed data such as that derived from GRACE DAS. Our conceptual framework models a dynamic risk management problem in agriculture. We base the framework on information from stakeholders and subject experts. The economic case for GRACE DAS involves providing better water availability information. In the model, individuals have a "willingness to pay" (wtp) for GRACE DAS - essentially, wtp is an expression of savings in reduced agricultural input costs and for costs that are influenced by regional policy decisions. Our hypothesis is that improvements in decision making can be achieved with GRACE DAS measurements of water storage relative to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells and soil moisture monitors that would be relied on in the absence of GRACE DAS. The VOI is estimated as a comparison of outcomes. The California wine grape industry has features that allow it to be a good case study and a basis for extrapolation to other economic sectors. We model water use in this sector as a sequential decision highlighting the attributes of GRACE DAS input as information for within-season production decisions as well as for longer-term water reliability.

  4. Nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck trabecular architecture and its relationship to locomotor mode.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Roberto J; Müller, Ralph; Ketcham, Rich A; Colbert, Matthew

    2007-04-01

    Functional analyses of human and nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck structure have largely ignored the trabecular bone. We tested hypotheses regarding differences in the relative distribution and structural anisotropy of trabecular bone in the femoral neck of quadrupedal and climbing/suspensory anthropoids. We used high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to analyze quantitatively the femoral neck trabecular structure of Ateles geoffroyi, Symphalangus syndactylus, Alouatta seniculus, Colobus guereza, Macaca fascicularis, and Papio cynocephalus (n = 46). We analyzed a size-scaled superior and inferior volume of interest (VOI) in the femoral neck. The ratio of the superior to inferior VOI bone volume fraction indicated that the distribution of trabecular bone was inferiorly skewed in most (but not all) quadrupeds and evenly distributed the climbing/suspensory species, but interspecific comparisons indicated that all taxa overlapped in these measurements. Degree of anisotropy values were generally higher in the inferior VOI of all species and the results for the two climbing/suspensory taxa, A. geoffroyi (1.71 +/- 0.30) and S. syndactylus (1.55 +/- 0.04), were similar to the results for the quadrupedal anthropoids, C. guereza (male = 1.64 +/- 0.13; female = 1.68 +/- 0.07) and P. cynocephalus (1.47 +/- 0.13). These results suggest strong trabecular architecture similarity across body sizes, anthropoid phylogenetic backgrounds, and locomotor mode. This structural similarity might be explained by greater similarity in anthropoid hip joint loading mechanics than previously considered. It is likely that our current models of anthropoid hip joint mechanics are overly simplistic. PMID:17514766

  5. Color, light, and altruistic creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnay, Yves

    2002-06-01

    It seems necessary to me to combine a certain technical inventivity with plastic creation, a particular poetry arises from this relation. The sources of inspiration for works, especially works in which color plays a pre-eminent role, do not only come from nature. The fantasy of the creators evolves and changes thanks to discoveries and technological inventions. My work as a painter has made me particularly sensitive to the diversity of the plastic writings in general and to the chromatic writings in particular. (1) Environmental creation imposes a renewal of the means of creation. Conducting experimental works, I study the particularities of light, mainly its incidence on materials (transmission, reflection, colors, textures, etc.) and its mobility. These works are a source of inspiration for my architectural works and nurture my lectures at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts Decoratifs (National College of Decorative Arts). Environmental creation also imposes some qualities on the artist since he, whether he serves a social entity or a person, serves the whole collectivity. Environmental creation has to be envisaged as an altruistic approach.

  6. Design and fabrication of intake manifold for formula SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) race car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, Sylvie; Lavallee, Patrice

    1997-01-01

    Every year, a group of students from Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) in Montreal design and build a formula-type race car and compete in the Formula SAE competition. In this paper, we examine the design and fabrication of the ir intake system, A number of constraints challenge the designers. For example, to ensure the security of amateur drivers, motors are restrained to 600 cc and a circular restriction of 20 mm in diameter is placed at the entry of the system. Under these conditions, it is important to optimize the quality of the air/fuel mixture which depends mostly on the air intake system. A theoretical analysis reduced the field of possible runner length. However, the influence of runner configuration, plenum shape and size can only be determined experimentally. Polyacrylic functional prototypes were produced and tested on a dynamometric bench. A stereolithography model representing the inner passageways of the optimal intake manifold was built and used as a positive for a polyurethane mold. A composite lamination process was used to laminate the pre-production prototype over a molded wax plug. The major advantage of this approach over craftsmanship or even machining is the time saved to make the mold and the unlimited complexity of the shape permitted by the rapid prototyping systems.

  7. Virtual firm in biomedical education: a very successful experience.

    PubMed

    Butterlin, Nadia; Flores, Steeven; Guyon, Florent; Blagosklonov, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    In May 2006, the Institut Superieur d'Ingenieurs de Franche-Comté (ISIFC) launched its own virtual firm, which was named Biotika® by students. Virtual means that this company has no real legal status. It is a pedagogic model; however, the situation scenario for the ISIFC student engineers is real. They are currently working in real conditions on the development of new medical devices and on the modernization of medical products. The need for these innovative medical devices was identified by the students during their second-year (6 weeks) internship in hospitals. Biotika® is open between March and December every year. The students are "recruited" following an imitation job interview and each is then entrusted with a mission (engineer, project manager etc.) in one of the company's four departments: Research & Design, Quality-regulatory affairs, Clinical investigations, and Public relations-marketing. The personnel of Biotika® work on the development of innovative medical devices and/or the preparation of CE or FDA certification for 2 days per week. Since its launch, Biotika® has developed eight products and obtained many grants and prizes from French research and governmental organizations. It is also certified ISO 13485. PMID:25571157

  8. Turonian ammonite faunas from the southern Corbières, Aude, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, William James; Bilotte, Michel; Melchior, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    The Turonian successions of the southern Corbieres comprise three transgressive-regressive cycles in which ammonites occur in three intervals. The lowest comes from the glauconitic basal transgressive unit of the first cycle, and comprises 21 species, including Kamerunoceras douvillei (Pervinquiere, 1907), Kamerunoceras turoniense (d'Orbigny, 1850), Spathites (Jeanrogericeras) revelerianus (Courtiller, 1860), Spathites (Jeanrogericeras) combesi (d'Orbigny, 1856), Mammites nodosoides (Schluter, 1871), Mammites powelli Kennedy, Wright and Hancock, 1987, Fagesia tevestensis (Peron, 1896), Neoptychites cephalotus (Coutiller, 1860), Thomasites rollandi (Thomas and Peron, 1889), Wrightoceras wallsi Reyment, 1954, and Choffaticeras (Choffaticeras) quaasi (Peron, 1904). This is a Lower Turonian assemblage referred to the Mammites nodosoides Zone, although the possibility that elements from the preceding Fagesia catinus Zone are also present cannot be excluded. The fauna from the transgressive glauconitic interval of the succeeding cycle comprises nine species, including Romaniceras (Romaniceras) mexicanum Jones, 1938, Romaniceras (Yubariceras) ornatissimum (Stoliczka, 1864), Pseudotissotia galliennei (d'Orbigny, 1850), Collignoniceras woollgari (Mantell, 1822) sensu lato, Coilopoceras springeri Hyatt, 1903, and Eubostrychoceras (Eubostrychoceras) saxonicum (Schluter, 1872). They indicate the Middle Turonian Romaniceras (R.) mexicanum and R. (Y.) ornatissimum zones. The highest fauna, from the Marnes superieurs de Saint-Louis of the Saint-Louis syncline, is: Subprionocyclus sp. juv., Prionocyclus sp. and Worthoceras cf. rochatianum (d'Orbigny, 1850). The Subprionocyclus are minute individuals that resemble S. bravaisianus (d'Orbigny, 1841), and suggest the presence of the lower Upper Turonian bravaisianus Zone.

  9. Reversible Semiconductor-To-Metal Transition Of VOx Thin Films Prepared By The Sol-Gel Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lisong; Lu, Song W.; Gan, Fuxi

    1989-12-01

    Using VO(i-0C3H7)3 as the starting material VOx thin films have been prepared on silica glass substrates by the Sol-Gel dip-coating method and the subsequent heat treatment under vacuum conditions. These thin films show a reversible semiconductor-to-metal phase transition at 67°C. The change of transmittance in the near IR region due to the phase transition is as high as 50%. Infrared spectra show that the value of x is close to 2.

  10. Experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT using digital beam attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Szczykutowicz, TP; Mistretta, CA

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Tailoring CT scan acquisition parameters to individual patients is a topic of much research in the CT imaging community. It is now common place to find automatically adjusted tube current options for modern CT scanners. In addition, the use of beam shaping filters, commonly called bowtie filters, is available on most CT systems and allows for different body regions to receive different incident x-ray fluence distributions. However, no method currently exists which allows for the form of the incident x-ray fluence distribution to change as a function of view angle. This study represents the first experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) for a c-arm geometry CT scan. Methods: X-ray fluence modulation is accomplished using a digital beam attenuator (DBA). The device is composed of 10 iron wedge pairs that modulate the thickness of iron x-rays must traverse before reaching a patient. Using this device, experimental data was taken using a Siemens Zeego c-arm scanner. Scans were performed on a cylindrical polyethylene phantom and on two different sections of an anthropomorphic phantom. The DBA was used to equalize the x-ray fluence striking the detector for each scan. Non DBA, or “flat field” scans were also acquired of the same phantom objects for comparison. In addition, a scan was performed in which the DBA was used to enable volume of interest (VOI) imaging. In VOI, only a small sub-volume within a patient receives full dose and the rest of the patient receives a much lower dose. Data corrections unique to using a piece-wise constant modulator were also developed. Results The feasibility of FFMCT implemented using a DBA device has been demonstrated. Initial results suggest dose reductions of up to 3.6 times relative to “flat field” CT. In addition to dose reduction, the DBA enables a large improvement in image noise uniformity and the ability to provide regionally enhanced signal to noise using VOI imaging techniques. Conclusions

  11. The result of Venus Orbit Insertion of Akatsuki on December 7th, 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, K. I.; Nakamura, M.; Imamura, T.; Ishii, N.; Abe, T.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Hirose, C.; Satoh, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ueno, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Iwagami, N.; Watanabe, S.; Taguchi, M.; Fukuhara, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Yamada, M.; Imai, M.; Ohtsuki, S.; Uemizu, K.; Hashimoto, G. L.; Takagi, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ogohara, K.; Sato, N.; Kasaba, Y.; Kouyama, T.; Hirata, N.; Nakamura, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Horinouchi, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Hayashi, Y. Y.; Nakatsuka, J.; Kashimura, H.; Sakanoi, T.; Ando, H.; Murakami, S. Y.; Sato, T.; Takagi, S.; Nakajima, K.; Peralta, J.; Lee, Y. J.

    2015-12-01

    Japan launched Venus Climate Orbiter 'Akatsuki' (JAXA's mission code name: PLANET-C) to observe the dynamics of the Venus atmosphere globally and clarify the mechanism of the atmospheric circulation. The launch was on May 21st , 2010 from the Tanegashima Space Center. The cruise to Venus was smooth, however, the first Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI) trial on December 7th, 2010 tuned out to be a failure. Later Akatsuki has been orbiting the sun. Fortunately we keep the spacecraft in a healthy condition and surprisingly we have found another chance to let this spacecraft to meet Venus in 2015. Next VOI trial will be done on December 7th, 2015 and we report the result of this operation at this AGU meeting. This mission is planed to answer the question described below. The radius of the Earth and Venus are almost the same. In addition the radiation from the sun is also almost the same. The climates of these planets, however, are much different. For example, the strong zonal wind is observed on Venus with the period of 4 days, where Venus rotates westward with the period of 243 days. The wind speed is about 100 m s-1. This is called super rotation. We will investigate from data from Akatsuki what attributes to the difference of the climates between Earth and Venus. AKATSUKI was designed for remote sensing from an equatorial, elliptical orbit to tract the atmospheric motion at different altitudes using 5 cameras (3xIR, UV, Visible) and by the radio occultation technique. The first VOI has failed due to a malfunction of the propulsion system. The check valve between the helium tank and the fuel tank was blocked by an unexpected salt formation during the cruising from the Earth to Venus. As a result the main engine (orbital maneuvering engine, OME) became oxidizer-rich and fuel-poor condition, which led to an abnormal combustion in the engine with high temperature, and finally the engine was broken. We decide to use RCS thrusters for Trajectory Control Maneuvers' (TCMs) and

  12. Risk estimation and value-of-information analysis for three proposed genetic screening programs for chronic beryllium disease prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Bartell, S.M.; Ponce, R.A.; Takaro, T.K.; Zerbe, R.O.; Omenn, G.S.; Faustman, E.M.

    2000-02-01

    Genetic differences (polymorphisms) among members of a population are thought to influence susceptibility to various environmental exposures. In practice, however, this information is rarely incorporated into quantitative risk assessment and risk management. The authors describe an analytic framework for predicting the risk reduction and value-of-information (VOI) resulting from specific risk management applications of genetic biomarkers, and they apply the framework to the example of occupational chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an immune-mediated pulmonary granulomatous disease. One described Human Leukocyte Antigen gene variant, HLA-DP{beta}1*0201, contains a substitution of glutamate for lysine at position 69 that appears to have high sensitivity ({approximately}94%) but low specificity ({approximately}70%) with respect to CBD among individuals occupationally exposed to respirable beryllium. The expected postintervention CBD prevalence rates for using the genetic variant (1) as a required job placement screen, (2) as a medical screen for semiannual in place of annual lymphocyte proliferation testing, or (3) as a voluntary job placement screen are 0.08%, 0.8%, and 0.6%, respectively, in a hypothetical cohort with 1% baseline CBD prevalence. VOI analysis is used to examine the reduction in total social cost, calculated as the net value of disease reduction and financial expenditures, expected for proposed CBD intervention programs based on the genetic susceptibility test. For the example cohort the expected net VOI per beryllium worker for genetically based testing and intervention is $13,000, $1,800, and $5,100, respectively, based on a health valuation of $1.45 million per CBD case avoided. VOI results for alternative CBD valuations are also presented. Despite large parameter uncertainty, probabilistic analysis predicts generally positive utility for each of the three evaluated programs when avoidance of a CBD case is valued at $1 million or higher. Although

  13. Segmentation of pulmonary nodules in three-dimensional CT images by use of a spiral-scanning technique

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jiahui; Engelmann, Roger; Li Qiang

    2007-12-15

    Accurate segmentation of pulmonary nodules in computed tomography (CT) is an important and difficult task for computer-aided diagnosis of lung cancer. Therefore, the authors developed a novel automated method for accurate segmentation of nodules in three-dimensional (3D) CT. First, a volume of interest (VOI) was determined at the location of a nodule. To simplify nodule segmentation, the 3D VOI was transformed into a two-dimensional (2D) image by use of a key 'spiral-scanning' technique, in which a number of radial lines originating from the center of the VOI spirally scanned the VOI from the 'north pole' to the 'south pole'. The voxels scanned by the radial lines provided a transformed 2D image. Because the surface of a nodule in the 3D image became a curve in the transformed 2D image, the spiral-scanning technique considerably simplified the segmentation method and enabled reliable segmentation results to be obtained. A dynamic programming technique was employed to delineate the 'optimal' outline of a nodule in the 2D image, which corresponded to the surface of the nodule in the 3D image. The optimal outline was then transformed back into 3D image space to provide the surface of the nodule. An overlap between nodule regions provided by computer and by the radiologists was employed as a performance metric for evaluating the segmentation method. The database included two Lung Imaging Database Consortium (LIDC) data sets that contained 23 and 86 CT scans, respectively, with 23 and 73 nodules that were 3 mm or larger in diameter. For the two data sets, six and four radiologists manually delineated the outlines of the nodules as reference standards in a performance evaluation for nodule segmentation. The segmentation method was trained on the first and was tested on the second LIDC data sets. The mean overlap values were 66% and 64% for the nodules in the first and second LIDC data sets, respectively, which represented a higher performance level than those of two

  14. Creation of an atlas of filter positions for fluence field modulated CT

    SciTech Connect

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Hermus, James

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) and volume of interest (VOI) CT imaging applications require adjustment of the profile of the x-ray fluence incident on a patient as a function of view angle. Since current FFMCT prototypes can theoretically take on an infinite number of configurations, measuring a calibration data set for all possible positions would not be feasible. The present work details a methodology for calculating an atlas of configurations that will span all likely body regions, patient sizes, patient positioning, and imaging modes. The hypothesis is that there exists a finite number of unique modulator configurations that effectively span the infinite number of possible fluence profiles with minimal loss in performance. Methods: CT images of a head, shoulder, thorax, abdominal, wrist, and leg anatomical slices were dilated and contracted to model small, medium, and large sized patients. Additionally, the images were positioned from iso-center by three different amounts. The modulator configurations required to compensate for each image were computed assuming a FFMCT prototype, digital beam attenuator, (DBA), was set to equalize the detector exposure. Each atlas configuration should be different from the other atlas configurations. The degree of difference was quantified using the sum of the absolute differences in filter thickness between configurations. Using this metric, a set of unique wedge configurations for which no two configurations have a metric value smaller than some threshold can be constructed. Differences in the total number of incident photons between the unconstrained filters and the atlas were studied as a function of the number of atlas positions for each anatomical site and size/off-centering combination. Results: By varying the threshold used in creating the atlas, it was found that roughly 322 atlas positions provided an incident number of photons within 20% of using 19 440 unique filters (the number of atlas entries

  15. Tracking tumor boundary in MV-EPID images without implanted markers: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoyong Homma, Noriyasu; Ichiji, Kei; Takai, Yoshihiro; Yoshizawa, Makoto

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a markerless tracking algorithm to track the tumor boundary in megavoltage (MV)-electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images for image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: A level set method (LSM)-based algorithm is developed to track tumor boundary in EPID image sequences. Given an EPID image sequence, an initial curve is manually specified in the first frame. Driven by a region-scalable energy fitting function, the initial curve automatically evolves toward the tumor boundary and stops on the desired boundary while the energy function reaches its minimum. For the subsequent frames, the tracking algorithm updates the initial curve by using the tracking result in the previous frame and reuses the LSM to detect the tumor boundary in the subsequent frame so that the tracking processing can be continued without user intervention. The tracking algorithm is tested on three image datasets, including a 4-D phantom EPID image sequence, four digitally deformable phantom image sequences with different noise levels, and four clinical EPID image sequences acquired in lung cancer treatment. The tracking accuracy is evaluated based on two metrics: centroid localization error (CLE) and volume overlap index (VOI) between the tracking result and the ground truth. Results: For the 4-D phantom image sequence, the CLE is 0.23 ± 0.20 mm, and VOI is 95.6% ± 0.2%. For the digital phantom image sequences, the total CLE and VOI are 0.11 ± 0.08 mm and 96.7% ± 0.7%, respectively. In addition, for the clinical EPID image sequences, the proposed algorithm achieves 0.32 ± 0.77 mm in the CLE and 72.1% ± 5.5% in the VOI. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the authors’ proposed method both in tumor localization and boundary tracking in EPID images. In addition, compared with two existing tracking algorithms, the proposed method achieves a higher accuracy in tumor localization. Conclusions: In this paper, the authors presented a feasibility study of tracking

  16. When is enough evidence enough? - Using systematic decision analysis and value-of-information analysis to determine the need for further evidence.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Uwe; Rochau, Ursula; Claxton, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Decision analysis (DA) and value-of-information (VOI) analysis provide a systematic, quantitative methodological framework that explicitly considers the uncertainty surrounding the currently available evidence to guide healthcare decisions. In medical decision making under uncertainty, there are two fundamental questions: 1) What decision should be made now given the best available evidence (and its uncertainty)?; 2) Subsequent to the current decision and given the magnitude of the remaining uncertainty, should we gather further evidence (i.e., perform additional studies), and if yes, which studies should be undertaken (e.g., efficacy, side effects, quality of life, costs), and what sample sizes are needed? Using the currently best available evidence, VoI analysis focuses on the likelihood of making a wrong decision if the new intervention is adopted. The value of performing further studies and gathering additional evidence is based on the extent to which the additional information will reduce this uncertainty. A quantitative framework allows for the valuation of the additional information that is generated by further research, and considers the decision maker's objectives and resource constraints. Claxton et al. summarise: "Value of information analysis can be used to inform a range of policy questions including whether a new technology should be approved based on existing evidence, whether it should be approved but additional research conducted or whether approval should be withheld until the additional evidence becomes available." [Claxton K. Value of information entry in Encyclopaedia of Health Economics, Elsevier, forthcoming 2014.] The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce the framework of systematic VoI analysis to guide further research. In our tutorial article, we explain the theoretical foundations and practical methods of decision analysis and value-of-information analysis. To illustrate, we use a simple case example of a foot ulcer (e.g., with

  17. Improved quantification for local regions of interest in preclinical PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cal-González, J.; Moore, S. C.; Park, M.-A.; Herraiz, J. L.; Vaquero, J. J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    In Positron Emission Tomography, there are several causes of quantitative inaccuracy, such as partial volume or spillover effects. The impact of these effects is greater when using radionuclides that have a large positron range, e.g. 68Ga and 124I, which have been increasingly used in the clinic. We have implemented and evaluated a local projection algorithm (LPA), originally evaluated for SPECT, to compensate for both partial-volume and spillover effects in PET. This method is based on the use of a high-resolution CT or MR image, co-registered with a PET image, which permits a high-resolution segmentation of a few tissues within a volume of interest (VOI) centered on a region within which tissue-activity values need to be estimated. The additional boundary information is used to obtain improved activity estimates for each tissue within the VOI, by solving a simple inversion problem. We implemented this algorithm for the preclinical Argus PET/CT scanner and assessed its performance using the radionuclides 18F, 68Ga and 124I. We also evaluated and compared the results obtained when it was applied during the iterative reconstruction, as well as after the reconstruction as a postprocessing procedure. In addition, we studied how LPA can help to reduce the ‘spillover contamination’, which causes inaccurate quantification of lesions in the immediate neighborhood of large, ‘hot’ sources. Quantification was significantly improved by using LPA, which provided more accurate ratios of lesion-to-background activity concentration for hot and cold regions. For 18F, the contrast was improved from 3.0 to 4.0 in hot lesions (when the true ratio was 4.0) and from 0.16 to 0.06 in cold lesions (true ratio  =  0.0), when using the LPA postprocessing. Furthermore, activity values estimated within the VOI using LPA during reconstruction were slightly more accurate than those obtained by post-processing, while also visually improving the image contrast and uniformity

  18. SU-E-J-114: A Practical Hybrid Method for Improving the Quality of CT-CBCT Deformable Image Registration for Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C; Kumarasiri, A; Chetvertkov, M; Gordon, J; Chetty, I; Siddiqui, F; Kim, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Accurate deformable image registration (DIR) between CT and CBCT in H&N is challenging. In this study, we propose a practical hybrid method that uses not only the pixel intensities but also organ physical properties, structure volume of interest (VOI), and interactive local registrations. Methods: Five oropharyngeal cancer patients were selected retrospectively. For each patient, the planning CT was registered to the last fraction CBCT, where the anatomy difference was largest. A three step registration strategy was tested; Step1) DIR using pixel intensity only, Step2) DIR with additional use of structure VOI and rigidity penalty, and Step3) interactive local correction. For Step1, a public-domain open-source DIR algorithm was used (cubic B-spline, mutual information, steepest gradient optimization, and 4-level multi-resolution). For Step2, rigidity penalty was applied on bony anatomies and brain, and a structure VOI was used to handle the body truncation such as the shoulder cut-off on CBCT. Finally, in Step3, the registrations were reviewed on our in-house developed software and the erroneous areas were corrected via a local registration using level-set motion algorithm. Results: After Step1, there were considerable amount of registration errors in soft tissues and unrealistic stretching in the posterior to the neck and near the shoulder due to body truncation. The brain was also found deformed to a measurable extent near the superior border of CBCT. Such errors could be effectively removed by using a structure VOI and rigidity penalty. The rest of the local soft tissue error could be corrected using the interactive software tool. The estimated interactive correction time was approximately 5 minutes. Conclusion: The DIR using only the image pixel intensity was vulnerable to noise and body truncation. A corrective action was inevitable to achieve good quality of registrations. We found the proposed three-step hybrid method efficient and practical for CT

  19. Automated volume of interest delineation and rendering of cone beam CT images in interventional cardiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Schäfer, Dirk; Eshuis, Peter; Carroll, John; Grass, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Interventional C-arm systems allow the efficient acquisition of 3D cone beam CT images. They can be used for intervention planning, navigation, and outcome assessment. We present a fast and completely automated volume of interest (VOI) delineation for cardiac interventions, covering the whole visceral cavity including mediastinum and lungs but leaving out rib-cage and spine. The problem is addressed in a model based approach. The procedure has been evaluated on 22 patient cases and achieves an average surface error below 2mm. The method is able to cope with varying image intensities, varying truncations due to the limited reconstruction volume, and partially with heavy metal and motion artifacts.

  20. Improved quantification for local regions of interest in preclinical PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Cal-González, J; Moore, S C; Park, M-A; Herraiz, J L; Vaquero, J J; Desco, M; Udias, J M

    2015-09-21

    In Positron Emission Tomography, there are several causes of quantitative inaccuracy, such as partial volume or spillover effects. The impact of these effects is greater when using radionuclides that have a large positron range, e.g. (68)Ga and (124)I, which have been increasingly used in the clinic. We have implemented and evaluated a local projection algorithm (LPA), originally evaluated for SPECT, to compensate for both partial-volume and spillover effects in PET. This method is based on the use of a high-resolution CT or MR image, co-registered with a PET image, which permits a high-resolution segmentation of a few tissues within a volume of interest (VOI) centered on a region within which tissue-activity values need to be estimated. The additional boundary information is used to obtain improved activity estimates for each tissue within the VOI, by solving a simple inversion problem. We implemented this algorithm for the preclinical Argus PET/CT scanner and assessed its performance using the radionuclides (18)F, (68)Ga and (124)I. We also evaluated and compared the results obtained when it was applied during the iterative reconstruction, as well as after the reconstruction as a postprocessing procedure. In addition, we studied how LPA can help to reduce the 'spillover contamination', which causes inaccurate quantification of lesions in the immediate neighborhood of large, 'hot' sources. Quantification was significantly improved by using LPA, which provided more accurate ratios of lesion-to-background activity concentration for hot and cold regions. For (18)F, the contrast was improved from 3.0 to 4.0 in hot lesions (when the true ratio was 4.0) and from 0.16 to 0.06 in cold lesions (true ratio  =  0.0), when using the LPA postprocessing. Furthermore, activity values estimated within the VOI using LPA during reconstruction were slightly more accurate than those obtained by post-processing, while also visually improving the image contrast and uniformity

  1. Local respiratory motion correction for PET/CT imaging: Application to lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lamare, F. Fernandez, P.; Fayad, H.; Visvikis, D.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Despite multiple methodologies already proposed to correct respiratory motion in the whole PET imaging field of view (FOV), such approaches have not found wide acceptance in clinical routine. An alternative can be the local respiratory motion correction (LRMC) of data corresponding to a given volume of interest (VOI: organ or tumor). Advantages of LRMC include the use of a simple motion model, faster execution times, and organ specific motion correction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of LMRC using various motion models for oncology (lung lesion) applications. Methods: Both simulated (NURBS based 4D cardiac-torso phantom) and clinical studies (six patients) were used in the evaluation of the proposed LRMC approach. PET data were acquired in list-mode and synchronized with respiration. The implemented approach consists first in defining a VOI on the reconstructed motion average image. Gated PET images of the VOI are subsequently reconstructed using only lines of response passing through the selected VOI and are used in combination with a center of gravity or an affine/elastic registration algorithm to derive the transformation maps corresponding to the respiration effects. Those are finally integrated in the reconstruction process to produce a motion free image over the lesion regions. Results: Although the center of gravity or affine algorithm achieved similar performance for individual lesion motion correction, the elastic model, applied either locally or to the whole FOV, led to an overall superior performance. The spatial tumor location was altered by 89% and 81% for the elastic model applied locally or to the whole FOV, respectively (compared to 44% and 39% for the center of gravity and affine models, respectively). This resulted in similar associated overall tumor volume changes of 84% and 80%, respectively (compared to 75% and 71% for the center of gravity and affine models, respectively). The application of the nonrigid

  2. Effect of Volume-of-Interest Misregistration on Quantitative Planar Activity and Dose Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Song, N.; He, B.; Frey, E. C.

    2010-01-01

    In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), dose estimation is essential for treatment planning and tumor dose response studies. Dose estimates are typically based on a time series of whole body conjugate view planar or SPECT scans of the patient acquired after administration of a planning dose. Quantifying the activity in the organs from these studies is an essential part of dose estimation. The Quantitative Planar (QPlanar) processing method involves accurate compensation for image degrading factors and correction for organ and background overlap via the combination of computational models of the image formation process and 3D volumes of interest defining the organs to be quantified. When the organ VOIs are accurately defined, the method intrinsically compensates for attenuation, scatter, and partial volume effects, as well as overlap with other organs and the background. However, alignment between the 3D organ volume of interest (VOIs) used in QPlanar processing and the true organ projections in the planar images is required. The goal of this research was to study the effects of VOI misregistration on the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates obtained using the QPlanar method. In this work, we modeled the degree of residual misregistration that would be expected after an automated registration procedure by randomly misaligning 3D SPECT/CT images, from which the VOI information was derived, and planar images. Mutual information based image registration was used to align the realistic simulated 3D SPECT images with the 2D planar images. The residual image misregistration was used to simulate realistic levels of misregistration and allow investigation of the effects of misregistration on the accuracy and precision of the QPlanar method. We observed that accurate registration is especially important for small organs or ones with low activity concentrations compared to neighboring organs. In addition, residual misregistration gave rise to a loss of precision

  3. Interobserver and Intraobserver Reproducibility with Volume Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (DCE-CT) in Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lundsgaard Hansen, Martin; Fallentin, Eva; Axelsen, Thomas; Lauridsen, Carsten; Norling, Rikke; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of three different analytic methods to evaluate quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) measures from gastroesophageal junctional cancer. Twenty-five DCE-CT studies with gastroesophageal junction cancer were selected from a previous longitudinal study. Three radiologists independently reviewed all scans, and one repeated the analysis eight months later for intraobserver analysis. Review of the scans consisted of three analysis methods: (I) Four, fixed small sized regions of interest (2-dimensional (2D) fixed ROIs) placed in the tumor periphery, (II) 2-dimensional regions of interest (2D-ROI) along the tumor border in the tumor center, and (III) 3-dimensional volumes of interest (3D-VOI) containing the entire tumor volume. Arterial flow, blood volume and permeability (ktrans) were recorded for each observation. Inter- and intra-observer variability were assessed by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman statistics. Interobserver ICC was excellent for arterial flow (0.88), for blood volume (0.89) and for permeability (0.91) with 3D-VOI analysis. The 95% limits of agreement were narrower for 3D analysis compared to 2D analysis. Three-dimensional volume DCE-CT analysis of gastroesophageal junction cancer provides higher inter- and intra-observer reproducibility with narrower limits of agreement between readers compared to 2D analysis. PMID:26838804

  4. Visual saliency-based active learning for prostate magnetic resonance imaging segmentation.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Dwarikanath; Buhmann, Joachim M

    2016-01-01

    We propose an active learning (AL) approach for prostate segmentation from magnetic resonance images. Our label query strategy is inspired from the principles of visual saliency that have similar considerations for choosing the most salient region. These similarities are encoded in a graph using classification maps and low-level features. Random walks are used to identify the most informative node, which is equivalent to the label query sample in AL. To reduce computation time, a volume of interest (VOI) is identified and all subsequent analysis, such as probability map generation using semisupervised random forest classifiers and label query, is restricted to this VOI. The negative log-likelihood of the probability maps serves as the penalty cost in a second-order Markov random field cost function, which is optimized using graph cuts for prostate segmentation. Experimental results on the Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) 2012 prostate segmentation challenge show the superior performance of our approach to conventional methods using fully supervised learning. PMID:26958579

  5. Estimation of Local Bone Loads for the Volume of Interest.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Jin; Kim, Youkyung; Jang, In Gwun

    2016-07-01

    Computational bone remodeling simulations have recently received significant attention with the aid of state-of-the-art high-resolution imaging modalities. They have been performed using localized finite element (FE) models rather than full FE models due to the excessive computational costs of full FE models. However, these localized bone remodeling simulations remain to be investigated in more depth. In particular, applying simplified loading conditions (e.g., uniform and unidirectional loads) to localized FE models have a severe limitation in a reliable subject-specific assessment. In order to effectively determine the physiological local bone loads for the volume of interest (VOI), this paper proposes a novel method of estimating the local loads when the global musculoskeletal loads are given. The proposed method is verified for the three VOI in a proximal femur in terms of force equilibrium, displacement field, and strain energy density (SED) distribution. The effect of the global load deviation on the local load estimation is also investigated by perturbing a hip joint contact force (HCF) in the femoral head. Deviation in force magnitude exhibits the greatest absolute changes in a SED distribution due to its own greatest deviation, whereas angular deviation perpendicular to a HCF provides the greatest relative change. With further in vivo force measurements and high-resolution clinical imaging modalities, the proposed method will contribute to the development of reliable patient-specific localized FE models, which can provide enhanced computational efficiency for iterative computing processes such as bone remodeling simulations. PMID:27109554

  6. Evaluation of non-animal methods for assessing skin sensitisation hazard: A Bayesian Value-of-Information analysis.

    PubMed

    Leontaridou, Maria; Gabbert, Silke; Van Ierland, Ekko C; Worth, Andrew P; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    This paper offers a Bayesian Value-of-Information (VOI) analysis for guiding the development of non-animal testing strategies, balancing information gains from testing with the expected social gains and costs from the adoption of regulatory decisions. Testing is assumed to have value, if, and only if, the information revealed from testing triggers a welfare-improving decision on the use (or non-use) of a substance. As an illustration, our VOI model is applied to a set of five individual non-animal prediction methods used for skin sensitisation hazard assessment, seven battery combinations of these methods, and 236 sequential 2-test and 3-test strategies. Their expected values are quantified and compared to the expected value of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) as the animal method. We find that battery and sequential combinations of non-animal prediction methods reveal a significantly higher expected value than the LLNA. This holds for the entire range of prior beliefs. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the testing strategy with the highest expected value does not necessarily have to follow the order of key events in the sensitisation adverse outcome pathway (AOP). PMID:27494625

  7. Investigation of defects in Fresco substrates by means of the ECoSp imaging system and the principal component image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazzi, C.; Lodi, E.; Maino, G.; Muzzioli, V.; Nanetti, L.; Ludwig, N.; Milazzo, M.; Tartari, A.

    2004-01-01

    A new imaging technique is presented, based on the detection of Compton scattering photons and a further statistical analysis of the collected data. The photon detection has been performed by the Enhanced Compton Spectrometer (ECoSp) a recently devised instrument that allows one to collect the backscattered photons by investigating the tested sample from one side only. Photons collected during the planar scanning of a given area are used to describe the electronic density of the sample as a density image; afterwards, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the image. As a case study, a non-destructive testing of plaster substrates supporting mural paintings has been performed using this technique, searching for flaws, defects, fractures and so on. The rationale behind this procedure is that the presence of such gaps, into the otherwise uniform material, can be revealed because the existing correlation between the backscattering radiation detected by ECoSp from each adjacent volume of interest (VOI) during the scanning. The principal component correlation analysis, performed over the resulting data from all VOIs, then reveals each gap in his size, shape and position.

  8. A Sparse Representation Based Method to Classify Pulmonary Patterns of Diffuse Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Tachibana, Rie; Kido, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    We applied and optimized the sparse representation (SR) approaches in the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to classify normal tissues and five kinds of diffuse lung disease (DLD) patterns: consolidation, ground-glass opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and nodule. By using the K-SVD which is based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), it can achieve a satisfied recognition rate, but too much time was spent in the experiment. To reduce the runtime of the method, the K-Means algorithm was substituted for the K-SVD, and the OMP was simplified by searching the desired atoms at one time (OMP1). We proposed three SR based methods for evaluation: SR1 (K-SVD+OMP), SR2 (K-Means+OMP), and SR3 (K-Means+OMP1). 1161 volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to optimize the parameters and train each method, and 1049 VOIs were adopted to evaluate the performances of the methods. The SR based methods were powerful to recognize the DLD patterns (SR1: 96.1%, SR2: 95.6%, SR3: 96.4%) and significantly better than the baseline methods. Furthermore, when the K-Means and OMP1 were applied, the runtime of the SR based methods can be reduced by 98.2% and 55.2%, respectively. Therefore, we thought that the method using the K-Means and OMP1 (SR3) was efficient for the CAD of the DLDs. PMID:25821509

  9. Optimising the reward of appraisal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Gdula, J.

    1996-12-31

    Management of the uncertainties associated with the development of a hydrocarbon resource is essential to minimize economic risk. In many instances these uncertainties can only be reduced by appraisal drilling. This presentation illustrates the efforts being made to manage uncertainty by determining its impact on overall project profitability. The Value of Information (VOI) approach is described. VOI aims at quantifying the benefits of appraisal by determining its economic reward in terms of its contribution to a development plan which is economically robust over the uncertainty range. Appraisal drilling costs can be reduced by combining appraisal and development objectives in one well. The growing use of horizontal drilling technology has resulted in novel approaches to appraisal. As examples, in the Osprey and Brent Fields (UK North Sea) wells were designed to satisfy both appraisal and development objectives. In Osprey, a well was drilled from a central production platform to provide water injection support in a satellite structure while at the same time appraising the saddle area between the two structures. In Brent, horizontal wells are used to appraise and develop the so called slump blocks, characterized by being highly faulted and compartmentalized. Another increasingly common application of horizontal wells is for the flank appraisal of hydrocarbon bearing structure. Examples from the Rabi Field (Gabon) and Batan Field (Nigeria) show how appraisal was achieved by extending the reach of horizontal development wells from the central core of the structures.

  10. Optimising the reward of appraisal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Gdula, J.

    1996-01-01

    Management of the uncertainties associated with the development of a hydrocarbon resource is essential to minimize economic risk. In many instances these uncertainties can only be reduced by appraisal drilling. This presentation illustrates the efforts being made to manage uncertainty by determining its impact on overall project profitability. The Value of Information (VOI) approach is described. VOI aims at quantifying the benefits of appraisal by determining its economic reward in terms of its contribution to a development plan which is economically robust over the uncertainty range. Appraisal drilling costs can be reduced by combining appraisal and development objectives in one well. The growing use of horizontal drilling technology has resulted in novel approaches to appraisal. As examples, in the Osprey and Brent Fields (UK North Sea) wells were designed to satisfy both appraisal and development objectives. In Osprey, a well was drilled from a central production platform to provide water injection support in a satellite structure while at the same time appraising the saddle area between the two structures. In Brent, horizontal wells are used to appraise and develop the so called slump blocks, characterized by being highly faulted and compartmentalized. Another increasingly common application of horizontal wells is for the flank appraisal of hydrocarbon bearing structure. Examples from the Rabi Field (Gabon) and Batan Field (Nigeria) show how appraisal was achieved by extending the reach of horizontal development wells from the central core of the structures.

  11. Influence of bone morphological properties on a new expandable orthopaedic fastener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldakowski, M.; Oldakowska, I.; Kirk, T. B.; Ford, C. T.; Sercombe, T. B.; Hardcastle, P.; Day, R. E.

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bone morphological properties are a significant determinant of orthopaedic fastener fixation strength. The authors previously tested a new design of unthreaded expandable fastener (UEF) prototype against screws and demonstrated a significant increase in pull-out strength. However the effect of bone morphology on the pull-out strength of the UEF and expandable fasteners in general is unknown. This study assessed the correlation between failure force and maximum force against five microstructural parameters. The failure force of the UEF was correlated to the trabecular bone volume fraction, as with screws. Unlike screws, however, the maximum force of the UEF has an inverse relationship with cortical volume. No correlation was found between failure force and the Structural Model Index (SMI). Additionally the critical volume of interest (VOI) for the UEF is around the bottom of the fastener where the expansion occurs, whereas for the screw a full height VOI is critical. Furthermore, we observed that screw mechanical performance may be affected more by bone morphological parameters that are associated with poorer quality bone. Therefore the UEF may perform better than screws in low quality osteoporotic bone.

  12. Using anisotropic 3D Minkowski functionals for trabecular bone characterization and biomechanical strength prediction in proximal femur specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; De, Titas; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Eckstein, Felix; Wismüller, Axel

    2014-04-01

    The ability of Anisotropic Minkowski Functionals (AMFs) to capture local anisotropy while evaluating topological properties of the underlying gray-level structures has been previously demonstrated. We evaluate the ability of this approach to characterize local structure properties of trabecular bone micro-architecture in ex vivo proximal femur specimens, as visualized on multi-detector CT, for purposes of biomechanical bone strength prediction. To this end, volumetric AMFs were computed locally for each voxel of volumes of interest (VOI) extracted from the femoral head of 146 specimens. The local anisotropy captured by such AMFs was quantified using a fractional anisotropy measure; the magnitude and direction of anisotropy at every pixel was stored in histograms that served as a feature vectors that characterized the VOIs. A linear multi-regression analysis algorithm was used to predict the failure load (FL) from the feature sets; the predicted FL was compared to the true FL determined through biomechanical testing. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each feature set. The best prediction performance was obtained from the fractional anisotropy histogram of AMF Euler Characteristic (RMSE = 1.01 ± 0.13), which was significantly better than MDCT-derived mean BMD (RMSE = 1.12 ± 0.16, p<0.05). We conclude that such anisotropic Minkowski Functionals can capture valuable information regarding regional trabecular bone quality and contribute to improved bone strength prediction, which is important for improving the clinical assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk.

  13. Predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens with Minkowski functionals and support vector regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chien-Chun; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Huber, Markus B.; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Bauer, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas; Eckstein, Felix; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Link, Thomas M.; Wismüller, Axel

    2014-03-01

    Regional trabecular bone quality estimation for purposes of femoral bone strength prediction is important for improving the clinical assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk. In this study, we explore the ability of 3D Minkowski Functionals derived from multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images of proximal femur specimens in predicting their corresponding biomechanical strength. MDCT scans were acquired for 50 proximal femur specimens harvested from human cadavers. An automated volume of interest (VOI)-fitting algorithm was used to define a consistent volume in the femoral head of each specimen. In these VOIs, the trabecular bone micro-architecture was characterized by statistical moments of its BMD distribution and by topological features derived from Minkowski Functionals. A linear multiregression analysis and a support vector regression (SVR) algorithm with a linear kernel were used to predict the failure load (FL) from the feature sets; the predicted FL was compared to the true FL determined through biomechanical testing. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each feature set. The best prediction result was obtained from the Minkowski Functional surface used in combination with SVR, which had the lowest prediction error (RMSE = 0.939 ± 0.345) and which was significantly lower than mean BMD (RMSE = 1.075 ± 0.279, p<0.005). Our results indicate that the biomechanical strength prediction can be significantly improved in proximal femur specimens with Minkowski Functionals extracted from on MDCT images used in conjunction with support vector regression.

  14. A homogeneous superconducting magnet design using a hybrid optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Zhipeng; Wang, Qiuliang; Liu, Feng; Yan, Luguang

    2013-12-01

    This paper employs a hybrid optimization algorithm with a combination of linear programming (LP) and nonlinear programming (NLP) to design the highly homogeneous superconducting magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The whole work is divided into two stages. The first LP stage provides a global optimal current map with several non-zero current clusters, and the mathematical model for the LP was updated by taking into account the maximum axial and radial magnetic field strength limitations. In the second NLP stage, the non-zero current clusters were discretized into practical solenoids. The superconducting conductor consumption was set as the objective function both in the LP and NLP stages to minimize the construction cost. In addition, the peak-peak homogeneity over the volume of imaging (VOI), the scope of 5 Gauss fringe field, and maximum magnetic field strength within superconducting coils were set as constraints. The detailed design process for a dedicated 3.0 T animal MRI scanner was presented. The homogeneous magnet produces a magnetic field quality of 6.0 ppm peak-peak homogeneity over a 16 cm by 18 cm elliptical VOI, and the 5 Gauss fringe field was limited within a 1.5 m by 2.0 m elliptical region.

  15. Using PET/CT Bone Scan Dynamic Data to Evaluate Tibia Remodeling When a Taylor Spatial Frame Is Used: Short and Longer Term Differences

    PubMed Central

    Lundblad, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q.; Karlsson-Thur, Charlotte; Jonsson, Cathrine; Noz, Marilyn E.; Zeleznik, Michael P.; Jacobsson, Hans; Weidenhielm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen consecutive patients, treated with a Taylor Spatial Frame for complex tibia conditions, gave their informed consent to undergo Na18F− PET/CT bone scans. We present a Patlak-like analysis utilizing an approximated blood time-activity curve eliminating the need for blood aliquots. Additionally, standardized uptake values (SUV) derived from dynamic acquisitions were compared to this Patlak-like approach. Spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) were drawn to include broken bone, other (normal) bone, and muscle. The SUVm(t) (m = max, mean) and a series of slopes were computed as (SUVm(ti) − SUVm(tj))/(ti − tj), for pairs of time values ti and tj. A Patlak-like analysis was performed for the same time values by computing ((VOIp(ti)/VOIe(ti))−(VOIp(tj)/VOIe(tj)))/(ti − tj), where p = broken bone, other bone, and muscle and e = expected activity in a VOI. Paired comparisons between Patlak-like and SUVm slopes showed good agreement by both linear regression and correlation coefficient analysis (r = 84%, rs = 78%-SUVmax, r = 92%, and rs = 91%-SUVmean), suggesting static scans could substitute for dynamic studies. Patlak-like slope differences of 0.1 min−1 or greater between examinations and SUVmax differences of ~5 usually indicated good remodeling progress, while negative Patlak-like slope differences of −0.06 min−1 usually indicated poor remodeling progress in this cohort. PMID:26436093

  16. Insula Volume and Salience Network Are Associated with Memory Decline in Parkinson Disease: Complementary Analyses of Voxel-Based Morphometry versus Volume of Interest

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan-Ting; Chang, Wen-Neng; Chang, Chiung-Chih; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Nai-Ching; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We investigated structural brain change in subjects with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and examined its relationship with memory impairment. Methods. Twenty-three PD-MCI patients were enrolled and underwent cognitive evaluation and 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to assess brain-behavior correlations and examine the relationship between insula and memory score. VOI methods replicated results obtained from VBM. Results. VBM uncovered the notion that memory scores were positively correlated with the gray matter (GM) density in the insular cortex and a significant positive correlation between overall cognitive performance and concentration of GM within the lateral temporal cortex. In VOI analyses, our results suggested a positive correlation between the insula and composite free-recall verbal memory (ρ = 0.617, P = 0.003) and the delayed free-recall verbal memory subdomain (ρ = 0.725, P < 0.001). Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between the insula and caudate (σ = 0.570, P = 0.006) and putamen volume (σ = 0.683, P < 0.001). Conclusions. In patients with PD-MCI, atrophic changes in the insula may be related to memory deficits, and the brain-behavior correlation may be associated with atrophic change in the striatum within the salience network. PMID:26998378

  17. Parkinson's disease prediction using diffusion-based atlas approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Roxana O.; Racoceanu, Daniel; Smit, Nicolas; Cretu, Vladimir I.; Tan, Eng K.; Chan, Ling L.

    2010-03-01

    We study Parkinson's disease (PD) using an automatic specialized diffusion-based atlas. A total of 47 subjects, among who 22 patients diagnosed clinically with PD and 25 control cases, underwent DTI imaging. The EPIs have lower resolution but provide essential anisotropy information for the fiber tracking process. The two volumes of interest (VOI) represented by the Substantia Nigra and the Putamen are detected on the EPI and FA respectively. We use the VOIs for the geometry-based registration. We fuse the anatomical detail detected on FA image for the putamen volume with the EPI. After 3D fibers growing on the two volumes, we compute the fiber density (FD) and the fiber volume (FV). Furthermore, we compare patients based on the extracted fibers and evaluate them according to Hohen&Yahr (H&Y) scale. This paper introduces the method used for automatic volume detection and evaluates the fiber growing method on these volumes. Our approach is important from the clinical standpoint, providing a new tool for the neurologists to evaluate and predict PD evolution. From the technical point of view, the fusion approach deals with the tensor based information (EPI) and the extraction of the anatomical detail (FA and EPI).

  18. An ontogenetic framework linking locomotion and trabecular bone architecture with applications for reconstructing hominin life history.

    PubMed

    Raichlen, David A; Gordon, Adam D; Foster, Adam D; Webber, James T; Sukhdeo, Simone M; Scott, Robert S; Gosman, James H; Ryan, Timothy M

    2015-04-01

    The ontogeny of bipedal walking is considered uniquely challenging, due in part to the balance requirements of single limb support. Thus, locomotor development in humans and our bipedal ancestors may track developmental milestones including the maturation of the neuromuscular control system. Here, we examined the ontogeny of locomotor mechanics in children aged 1-8, and bone growth and development in an age-matched skeletal sample to identify bony markers of locomotor development. We show that step-to-step variation in mediolateral tibia angle relative to the vertical decreases with age, an indication that older children increase stability. Analyses of trabecular bone architecture in the distal tibia of an age-matched skeletal sample (the Norris Farms #36 archaeological skeletal collection) show a bony signal of this shift in locomotor stability. Using a grid of eleven cubic volumes of interest (VOI) in the distal metaphysis of each tibia, we show that the degree of anisotropy (DA) of trabecular struts changes with age. Intra-individual variation in DA across these VOIs is generally high at young ages, likely reflecting variation in loading due to kinematic instability. With increasing age, mean DA converges on higher values and becomes less variable across the distal tibia. We believe the ontogeny of distal tibia trabecular architecture reflects the development of locomotor stability in bipeds. We suggest this novel bony marker of development may be used to assess the relationship between locomotor development and other life history milestones in fossil hominins. PMID:25743432

  19. Return to Venus of the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter AKATSUKI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masato; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Chikako; Imamura, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Abe, Takumi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yamada, Manabu; Ogohara, Kazunori; Uemizu, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Shoko; Satoh, Takehiko; Suzuki, Makoto; Ueno, Munetaka; Nakatsuka, Junichi; Iwagami, Naomoto; Taguchi, Makoto; Watanabe, Shigeto; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Hashimoto, George L.; Yamamoto, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter/AKATSUKI was proposed in 2001 with strong support by international Venus science community and approved as an ISAS (The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science) mission soon after the proposal. The mission life we expected was more than two Earth years in Venus orbit. AKATSUKI was successfully launched at 06:58:22JST on May 21, 2010, by H-IIA F17. After the separation from H-IIA, the telemetry from AKATSUKI was normally detected by DSN Goldstone station (10:00JST) and the solar cell paddles' deployment was confirmed. After a successful cruise, the malfunction happened on the propulsion system during the Venus orbit insertion (VOI) on Dec. 7, 2010. The engine shut down before the planned reduction in speed to achieve. The spacecraft did not enter the Venus orbit but entered an orbit around the Sun with a period of 203 days. Most of the fuel still had remained, but the orbital maneuvering engine was found to be broken and unusable. However, we have found an alternate way of achieving orbit by using only the reaction control system (RSC). We had adopted the alternate way for orbital maneuver and three minor maneuvers in Nov. 2011 were successfully done so that AKATSUKI would meet Venus in 2015. We are considering several scenarios for VOI using only RCS.

  20. A sparse representation based method to classify pulmonary patterns of diffuse lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Xu, Rui; Hirano, Yasushi; Tachibana, Rie; Kido, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    We applied and optimized the sparse representation (SR) approaches in the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to classify normal tissues and five kinds of diffuse lung disease (DLD) patterns: consolidation, ground-glass opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and nodule. By using the K-SVD which is based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), it can achieve a satisfied recognition rate, but too much time was spent in the experiment. To reduce the runtime of the method, the K-Means algorithm was substituted for the K-SVD, and the OMP was simplified by searching the desired atoms at one time (OMP1). We proposed three SR based methods for evaluation: SR1 (K-SVD+OMP), SR2 (K-Means+OMP), and SR3 (K-Means+OMP1). 1161 volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to optimize the parameters and train each method, and 1049 VOIs were adopted to evaluate the performances of the methods. The SR based methods were powerful to recognize the DLD patterns (SR1: 96.1%, SR2: 95.6%, SR3: 96.4%) and significantly better than the baseline methods. Furthermore, when the K-Means and OMP1 were applied, the runtime of the SR based methods can be reduced by 98.2% and 55.2%, respectively. Therefore, we thought that the method using the K-Means and OMP1 (SR3) was efficient for the CAD of the DLDs. PMID:25821509

  1. Estimating the benefits of land imagery in environmental applications: a case study in nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is crucial to a more complete assessment of the cumulative, landscape-level effect of agricultural land use and land cover on environmental quality. If this improved assessment yields a net social benefit, then that benefit reflects the value of information (VOI) from MRLI. Environmental quality and the capacity to provide ecosystem services evolve because of human actions, changing natural conditions, and their interaction with natural physical processes. The human actions, in turn, are constrained and redirected by many institutions and regulations such as agricultural, energy, and environmental policies. We present a general framework for bringing together sociologic, biologic, physical, hydrologic, and geologic processes at meaningful scales to interpret environmental implications of MRLI applications. We set out a specific application using MRLI observations to identify crop planting patterns and thus estimate surface management activities that influence groundwater resources over a regional landscape. We tailor the application to the characteristics of nonpoint source groundwater pollution hazards in Iowa to illustrate a general framework in a land use-hydrologic-economic system. In the example, MRLI VOI derives from reducing the risk of both losses to agricultural production and damage to human health and other consequences of contaminated groundwater.

  2. Ultrasonic diaphragm tracking for cardiac interventional navigation on 3D motion compensated static roadmaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timinger, Holger; Kruger, Sascha; Dietmayer, Klaus; Borgert, Joern

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, a novel approach to cardiac interventional navigation on 3D motion-compensated static roadmaps is presented. Current coronary interventions, e.g. percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasties, are performed using 2D X-ray fluoroscopy. This comes along with well-known drawbacks like radiation exposure, use of contrast agent, and limited visualization, e.g. overlap and foreshortening, due to projection imaging. In the presented approach, the interventional device, i.e. the catheter, is tracked using an electromagnetic tracking system (MTS). Therefore, the catheters position is mapped into a static 3D image of the volume of interest (VOI) by means of an affine registration. In order to compensate for respiratory motion of the catheter with respect to the static image, a parameterized affine motion model is used which is driven by a respiratory sensor signal. This signal is derived from ultrasonic diaphragm tracking. The motion compensation for the heartbeat is done using ECG-gating. The methods are validated using a heart- and diaphragm-phantom. The mean displacement of the catheter due to the simulated organ motion decreases from approximately 9 mm to 1.3 mm. This result indicates that the proposed method is able to reconstruct the catheter position within the VOI accurately and that it can help to overcome drawbacks of current interventional procedures.

  3. Midazolam intranasal pour arrêter les convulsions en contexte extra-hospitalier

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Il arrive parfois que des parents se présentent à ma clinique après que leur enfant eut eu une crise convulsive et qu’une deuxième crise ait lieu à la clinique. En attendant le transfert à l’hôpital, existe-t-il des moyens de mettre fin aux convulsions sans devoir obtenir l’accès intraveineux à la clinique? Réponse Le diazépam par voie intraveineuse est depuis de nombreuses années un traitement de première intention pour mettre fin aux crises convulsives chez les enfants. Il est aussi possible d’administrer le médicament par les voies intramusculaire, rectale ou buccale, mais ces voies d’administration s’accompagnent de plusieurs inconvénients. D’autres données probantes laissent croire que la voie intranasale est rapide et efficace chez les enfants, et le midazolam continue de se montrer prometteur pour mettre fin aux crises convulsives. Doté d’un bon profil d’innocuité, le midazolam intranasal s’utilise en clinique et en contexte préhospitalier pour arrêter les convulsions chez les enfants.

  4. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  5. Mesure de la Polarisation des Lambda Produits dans les Collisions Positron-Electron AU Lep a L'aide du Detecteur Opal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenplas, Denis

    Le Modele Standard est le cadre theorique general qui, jusqu'a present, a permis l'interpretation de tous les resultats experimentaux en physique des hautes energies. Cette theorie decrit, entre autres, la production d'une paire de particules elementaires, formee d'un quark et d'un antiquark, a partir de la desintegration de l'un des bosons mediateurs de l'interaction faible, le Z^0. Cependant, dans ce cas precis, la transformation subsequente des quarks primaires en particules reelles, un processus appele hadronisation, n'est decrite qu'a l'aide de modeles phenomenologiques. Afin de sonder les mecanismes de l'hadronisation, cette these presente la mesure du transfert du spin d'un quark etrange primaire a une particule appelee Lambda lors des desintegrations hadroniques du Z^0. L'etude a ete realisee dans le cadre de la collaboration OPAL, une des quatre experiences menees au collisionneur LEP, la ou des electrons et des positrons sont acceleres jusqu'a une energie commune, sqrt{s} = {rm E_ {cm}}, voisine de l'energie de production du rm Z^0, M_{Z ^0} egale a 91.3 GeV. La theorie electrofaible precise la direction du spin, c'est-a-dire la polarisation, d'un quark etrange primaire provenant de la desintegration d'un Z ^0. Quant a lui, le modele des quarks etablit que l'orientation du spin d'un Lambda est directement reliee a la polarisation du quark etrange dont il provient. La question est de determiner dans quelle mesure la polarisation du quark primaire est transmise au Lambda a la suite du processus de l'hadronisation, decrit dans le cadre de la ChromoDynamique Quantique. Une estimation, qui tient compte de tous ces differents aspects theoriques, evalue a 30% la polarisation des Lambda dont l'impulsion est superieure a 15 GeV/c. La mesure experimentale de la polarisation repose sur l'identification des Lambda a partir de la reconstitution de la desintegration Lambdato ppi^-. Ce processus, qui se deroule par le biais de l'interaction faible, viole la parite car

  6. Quantification du champ electromagnetique et description quantique de la generation du second harmonique a l'interieur d'une microcavite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Marc

    L'existence de particules virtuelles qui surgissent spontanement du vide pour disparaitre tres peu de temps apres leur apparition (les fluctuations du vide) trouve son origine dans le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg. Par ailleurs, on sait que le phenomene de resonance par confinement explique l'amplification de l'intensite lumineuse a l'interieur d'une cavite ouverte aux frequences de resonances de celle-ci. C'est pourquoi le taux d'apparition des photons virtuels au sein des modes propres d'une cavite est lui aussi amplifie par le resonateur. Mathematiquement, cet effet quantique est decrit par l'existence d'un commutateur " anomal " entre les operateurs d'annihilation et de creation des photons. Nous decrivons les consequences de ce commutateur sur la generation du second harmonique optique (GSH), un processus photonique ou, dans un materiau optiquement non lineaire, deux photons de meme energie fusionnent pour n'en former qu'un seul. On commence ce travail avec un traitement complet et original sur la quantification du champ electromagnetique. On montre ensuite que les fluctuations du vide stimulent le signal de la GSH a l'interieur du milieu confine. Cependant, on constate aussi que les fluctuations du vide jouent le role d'un inhibiteur au declenchement du processus, c'est-a-dire que le seuil de la GSH augmente (il est superieur au seuil minimal de deux photons seulement). En conclusion, les mecanismes intimes de certains processus optiques non lineaires doivent etre reconsideres lorsqu'ils surviennent en presence d'un confinement electromagnetique.

  7. Elaboration du Ge mesoporeux et etude de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue d'applications photovoltaiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutashkonko, Sergii

    Le sujet de cette these porte sur l'elaboration du nouveau nanomateriau par la gravure electrochimique bipolaire (BEE) --- le Ge mesoporeux et sur l'analyse de ses proprietes physico-chimiques en vue de son utilisation dans des applications photovoltaiques. La formation du Ge mesoporeux par gravure electrochimique a ete precedemment rapportee dans la litterature. Cependant, le verrou technologique important des procedes de fabrication existants consistait a obtenir des couches epaisses (superieure a 500 nm) du Ge mesoporeux a la morphologie parfaitement controlee. En effet, la caracterisation physico-chimique des couches minces est beaucoup plus compliquee et le nombre de leurs applications possibles est fortement limite. Nous avons developpe un modele electrochimique qui decrit les mecanismes principaux de formation des pores ce qui nous a permis de realiser des structures epaisses du Ge mesoporeux (jusqu'au 10 mum) ayant la porosite ajustable dans une large gamme de 15% a 60%. En plus, la formation des nanostructures poreuses aux morphologies variables et bien controlees est desormais devenue possible. Enfin, la maitrise de tous ces parametres a ouvert la voie extremement prometteuse vers la realisation des structures poreuses a multi-couches a base de Ge pour des nombreuses applications innovantes et multidisciplinaires grace a la flexibilite technologique actuelle atteinte. En particulier, dans le cadre de cette these, les couches du Ge mesoporeux ont ete optimisees dans le but de realiser le procede de transfert de couches minces d'une cellule solaire a triple jonctions via une couche sacrificielle en Ge poreux. Mots-cles : Germanium meso-poreux, Gravure electrochimique bipolaire, Electrochimie des semi-conducteurs, Report des couches minces, Cellule photovoltaique

  8. Physicochemical characterization of the thermal aging of insulating paper in power transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, M.C.; Van Nifterik, L.; Masse, M.; Penneau, J.F.; Grob, R.

    1996-12-31

    Paper is a low-cost base material with outstanding mechanical and electrical properties, which is why it is still a key element in the insulation of electrical apparatus. Under the effect of a variety of factors including temperature, paper can substantially lose its properties, thus jeopardizing the service life of costly equipment. To remedy this situation, new so-called thermally upgraded papers are being made by certain manufacturers. A study carried out jointly by Hydro-Quebec, Electricite de France and the Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Toulouse has allowed researchers to qualify the thermal resistance of three different types of thermostable paper. These papers have been selected as being representative of what is available on the market today. The paper samples were subjected to a thermal aging test in the presence of mineral oil to represent normal conditions of operation (150 C). The thermal degradation of the paper insulation is characterized by various physicochemical methods including measurement of the degree of polymerization, determination of 2-furfural in mineral oil by HPLC as well as determination of various sugars (monosaccharides, polysaccharides and anhydrosugars) in the paper using ion chromatography. This last method allows the authors to verify the formation of cellobiose, which is the real repeat unit of cellulose, as well as that of levoglucosan, which is an anhydrosugar and a precursor of 2-furfural. The evolution of all of these parameters, measured as a function of time, has allowed them to compare the thermal resistance of various insulating papers. The results of this study seem to show that, compared to traditional kraft paper, certain paper types are more susceptible to being thermally upgraded than others. This study also allowed the authors to demonstrate that the use of an inhibitor in mineral oil (DBPC) does not seem to influence the thermal degradation of these papers.

  9. [Alfred Lacroix (Macon, 1863 - Paris, 1948), Chemist, Mineralogist, Volcanologist].

    PubMed

    Chaigneau, M

    1998-01-01

    His grandfather and his father were chemists in Macon. It was then natural for him to adopt such profession. After his studies at the Superior School of Chemistry of Paris (Ecole superieure de pharmacie de Paris), he passed as a first class chemist on december the seventh 1887. His passion for mineralogy, displayed since his youngest years, leads him to frequent scientists specialized in the earth's science, amongst who is Ferdinand Fouque, from the College of France (College de France), whom he used to accompany in his travels through the world between 1888 - the year when he parted from his pharmacy - and 1902. This very year, the eight of may, the terrifying eruption of the montagne Pelee on the isle of la Martinique annihilated in few minutes the town and the port of Saint-Pierre, leaving only two survivors, He sejourned there a second time, in august 1902 after the second eruption. A. Lacroix explained, for the first time, phenomena he designated as nuees ardentes. His knowledge in volcanology and mineralogy made him an expert who has been solicitated to observe various volcanos through out the world. Amongst his principal writings are the treaty of mineralogy (5 vol.), the 2 volumes of his conclusions about his observations of the montagne Pelee and one about the Piton de la Fournaise, to which must be added more than 650 notes and communications. Great officer of the Legion d'Honneur, the chemist Alfred Lacroix, professor at the Museum of natural history since the first of april 1893, carried on the function of perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences during 34 years. PMID:11625479

  10. Value of Information: Comparing Surface-Wave Dispersion Curves Estimated from Conventional Seismometers Versus Distributed Acoustic Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainor Guitton, W.; Lancelle, C.; Wang, H. F.; Feigl, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    The efficacy of geophysical data to estimate key subsurface parameters is difficult to quantify given the complexity of both the signal and the earth, among many other factors. To address this, we utilize a metric from decision analysis known as the value of information (VOI). We analyze the uncertainty of surface-wave dispersion curves derived from travel times recorded by two types of seismological sensors: 3-component seismometers and Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS), a technique for measuring longitudinal strain in fiber-optic cables. Both data types were recorded at the Garner Valley test site in California. A 45 kN shear-shaker source produced a swept-frequency input from a few Hz to 10 Hz and back over 60 seconds. The geophone and DAS traces were filtered to remove harmonics from the source, traffic and other external noise. Source-Synchronous Filtering (Lord et al., AGU 2015) was applied to obtain waveforms. To measure the travel time from the source to the sensor, multiple zero-crossings are picked for frequencies between 4 and 20 Hz. These picks are used to estimate phase velocities as a function of frequency for both data types by plotting the travel times versus the distance of the sensor from the source. The slope of the best-fitting line provides an estimate of the phase velocity at a given frequency. To assess its uncertainty, we use a nonparametric bootstrap procedure [Efron & Tibshirani, 1986]. The resulting distributions of phase velocities describe the precision of the estimates for each data type. We then plot the phase velocities as a function of their frequency to generate many dispersion curves. These dispersion curves are inverted to estimate the posterior distribution of shear wave velocity with depth for each type of data. We hypothesize that this information is used to make a decision (e.g. how to develop a geothermal field), and therefore the VOI technique can be applied. This approach provides a metric for evaluating the VOI of each

  11. SU-E-J-231: Comparison of Delineation Variability of Soft Tissue Volume and Position in Head-And-Neck Between Two T1-Weighted Pulse Sequences Using An MR-Simulator with Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, O; Lo, G; Yuan, J; Law, M; Ding, A; Cheng, K; Chan, K; Cheung, K; Yu, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: There is growing interests in applying MR-simulator(MR-sim) in radiotherapy but MR images subject to hardware, patient and pulse sequence dependent geometric distortion that may potentially influence target definition. This study aimed to evaluate the influence on head-and-neck tissue delineation, in terms of positional and volumetric variability, of two T1-weighted(T1w) MR sequences on a 1.5T MR-sim Methods: Four healthy volunteers were scanned (4 scans for each on different days) using both spin-echo (3DCUBE, TR/TE=500/14ms, TA=183s) and gradient-echo sequences (3DFSPGR, TE/TR=7/4ms, TA=173s) with identical coverage, voxel-size(0.8×0.8×1.0mm3), receiver-bandwidth(62.5kHz/pix) and geometric correction on a 1.5T MR-sim immobilized with personalized thermoplastic cast and head-rest. Under this setting, similar T1w contrast and signal-to-noise ratio were obtained, and factors other than sequence that might bias image distortion and tissue delineation were minimized. VOIs of parotid gland(PGR, PGL), pituitary gland(PIT) and eyeballs(EyeL, EyeR) were carefully drawn, and inter-scan coefficient-of-variation(CV) of VOI centroid position and volume were calculated for each subject. Mean and standard deviation(SD) of the CVs for four subjects were compared between sequences using Wilcoxon ranksum test. Results: The mean positional(<4%) and volumetric(<7%) CVs varied between tissues, majorly dependent on tissue inherent properties like volume, location, mobility and deformability. Smaller mean volumetric CV was found in 3DCUBE, probably due to its less proneness to tissue susceptibility, but only PGL showed significant difference(P<0.05). Positional CVs had no significant differences for all VOIs(P>0.05) between sequences, suggesting volumetric variation might be more sensitive to sequence-dependent delineation difference. Conclusion: Although 3DCUBE is considered less prone to tissue susceptibility-induced artifact and distortion, our preliminary data showed

  12. MO-C-17A-08: Evaluation of Lung Deformation Using Three Dimensional Strain Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, T; Huang, Q; Miller, W; Zhong, X; Yin, F; Cai, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a systematic approach to generate three dimensional (3D) strain maps of lung using the displacement vector field (DVF) during the respiratory deformation, and to demonstrate its application in evaluating deformable image registration (DIR). Methods: A DVF based strain tensor at each voxel of interest (VOI) was calculated from the relative displacements between the VOI and each of the six nearest neighbors. The maximum and minimum stretches of a VOI can be determined by the principal strains (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2} and E{sub 3}), which are the eigenvalues and the corresponding strain tensors. Two healthy volunteers enrolled in this study under IRB-approved protocol, each was scanned using 3D Hyperpolarized He-3 tagging-MRI and 3D proton-MRI with TrueFISP sequence at the endof- inhalation (EOI) and the end-of-exhalation (EOE) phases. 3D DVFs of tagging- and proton-MRI were obtained by the direct measurements of the tagging grid trajectory and by the DIR method implemented in commercial software. Results: 3D strain maps were successfully generated for all DVFs. The principal strain E1s were calculated as 0.43±0.05 and 0.17±0.25 for tagging-MRI and proton-MRI, respectively. The large values of E{sub 1} indicate the predominant lung motion in the superior-inferior (SI) direction. Given that the DVFs from the tagging images are considered as the ground truth, the discrepancies in the DIR-based strain maps suggest the inaccuracy of the DIR algorithm. In the E{sub 1} maps of tagging-MRI for subject 1, the fissures were distinguishable by the larger values (0.49±0.02) from the adjacent tissues (0.41±0.03) due to the larger relative displacement between the lung lobes. Conclusion: We have successfully developed a methodology to generate DVF-based 3D strain maps of lung. It can potentially enable us to better understand the pulmonary biomechanics and to evaluate and improve the DIR algorithms for the lung deformation. We are currently studying more

  13. MO-C-17A-02: A Novel Method for Evaluating Hepatic Stiffness Based On 4D-MRI and Deformable Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, T; Liang, X; Czito, B; Palta, M; Bashir, M; Yin, F; Cai, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative imaging of hepatic stiffness has significant potential in radiation therapy, ranging from treatment planning to response assessment. This study aims to develop a novel, noninvasive method to quantify liver stiffness with 3D strains liver maps using 4D-MRI and deformable image registration (DIR). Methods: Five patients with liver cancer were imaged with an institutionally developed 4D-MRI technique under an IRB-approved protocol. Displacement vector fields (DVFs) across the liver were generated via DIR of different phases of 4D-MRI. Strain tensor at each voxel of interest (VOI) was computed from the relative displacements between the VOI and each of the six adjacent voxels. Three principal strains (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2} and E{sub 3}) of the VOI were derived as the eigenvalue of the strain tensor, which represent the magnitudes of the maximum and minimum stretches. Strain tensors for two regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated and compared for each patient, one within the tumor (ROI{sub 1}) and the other in normal liver distant from the heart (ROI{sub 2}). Results: 3D strain maps were successfully generated fort each respiratory phase of 4D-MRI for all patients. Liver deformations induced by both respiration and cardiac motion were observed. Differences in strain values adjacent to the distant from the heart indicate significant deformation caused by cardiac expansion during diastole. The large E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} (∼2) and E{sub 1}/E{sub 2} (∼10) ratios reflect the predominance of liver deformation in the superior-inferior direction. The mean E{sub 1} in ROI{sub 1} (0.12±0.10) was smaller than in ROI{sub 2} (0.15±0.12), reflecting a higher degree of stiffness of the cirrhotic tumor. Conclusion: We have successfully developed a novel method for quantitatively evaluating regional hepatic stiffness based on DIR of 4D-MRI. Our initial findings indicate that liver strain is heterogeneous, and liver tumors may have lower principal strain values

  14. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim; Gilbert, Bob; Lake, Larry W.; Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Thomas, Sunil G.; Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo; Klie, Hector; Banchs, Rafael; Nunez, Emilio J.; Jablonowski, Chris

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  15. Errors in MR-based attenuation correction for brain imaging with PET/MR scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota Kops, Elena; Herzog, Hans

    2013-02-01

    AimAttenuation correction of PET data acquired by hybrid MR/PET scanners remains a challenge, even if several methods for brain and whole-body measurements have been developed recently. A template-based attenuation correction for brain imaging proposed by our group is easy to handle and delivers reliable attenuation maps in a short time. However, some potential error sources are analyzed in this study. We investigated the choice of template reference head among all the available data (error A), and possible skull anomalies of the specific patient, such as discontinuities due to surgery (error B). Materials and methodsAn anatomical MR measurement and a 2-bed-position transmission scan covering the whole head and neck region were performed in eight normal subjects (4 females, 4 males). Error A: Taking alternatively one of the eight heads as reference, eight different templates were created by nonlinearly registering the images to the reference and calculating the average. Eight patients (4 females, 4 males; 4 with brain lesions, 4 w/o brain lesions) were measured in the Siemens BrainPET/MR scanner. The eight templates were used to generate the patients' attenuation maps required for reconstruction. ROI and VOI atlas-based comparisons were performed employing all the reconstructed images. Error B: CT-based attenuation maps of two volunteers were manipulated by manually inserting several skull lesions and filling a nasal cavity. The corresponding attenuation coefficients were substituted with the water's coefficient (0.096/cm). ResultsError A: The mean SUVs over the eight templates pairs for all eight patients and all VOIs did not differ significantly one from each other. Standard deviations up to 1.24% were found. Error B: After reconstruction of the volunteers' BrainPET data with the CT-based attenuation maps without and with skull anomalies, a VOI-atlas analysis was performed revealing very little influence of the skull lesions (less than 3%), while the filled nasal

  16. An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38

  17. Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Medically Refractory Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haense, Cathleen; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Wilke, Florian; Schrader, Christoph; Capelle, Holger H; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M; Krauss, Joachim K; Berding, Georg

    2016-01-01

    In this study, alterations in brain perfusion have been investigated in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) compared with control subjects. In addition, we investigated the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in both globus pallidus internus (GPi) and centromedian-parafascicular/ventralis oralis internus nuclei of the thalamus (CM/Voi) and sham (SHAM) stimulation on cerebral blood flow. In a prospective controlled, randomized, double-blind setting, five severely affected adult patients with TS with predominant motor or vocal tics (mean total tic score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale: 39) underwent serial brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography with (99m)Tc-ECD. Results were compared with data from six age-matched control subjects. All patients were investigated at four different time points: once before DBS implantation (preOP) and three times postoperatively. Postoperative scans were performed in a randomized order, each after 3 months of either GPi, CM/Voi, or SHAM stimulation. At each investigation, patients were injected at rest while awake, but scanned during anesthesia. This procedure ensured that neither anesthesia nor movement artifacts influenced our results. Control subjects were investigated only once at baseline (without DBS or anesthesia). At baseline, cerebral blood flow was significantly reduced in patients with TS (preOP) compared with controls in the central region, frontal, and parietal lobe, specifically in Brodmann areas 1, 4-9, 30, 31, and 40. Significantly increased perfusion was found in the cerebellum. When comparing SHAM stimulation to preOP condition, we found significantly decreased perfusion in basal ganglia and thalamus, but increased perfusion in different parts of the frontal cortex. Compared with SHAM condition both GPi and thalamic stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in cerebral blood flow in basal ganglia and cerebellum, while perfusion in the frontal cortex was significantly increased

  18. Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Medically Refractory Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Haense, Cathleen; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R.; Wilke, Florian; Schrader, Christoph; Capelle, Holger H.; Geworski, Lilli; Bengel, Frank M.; Krauss, Joachim K.; Berding, Georg

    2016-01-01

    In this study, alterations in brain perfusion have been investigated in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) compared with control subjects. In addition, we investigated the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in both globus pallidus internus (GPi) and centromedian-parafascicular/ventralis oralis internus nuclei of the thalamus (CM/Voi) and sham (SHAM) stimulation on cerebral blood flow. In a prospective controlled, randomized, double-blind setting, five severely affected adult patients with TS with predominant motor or vocal tics (mean total tic score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale: 39) underwent serial brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography with 99mTc-ECD. Results were compared with data from six age-matched control subjects. All patients were investigated at four different time points: once before DBS implantation (preOP) and three times postoperatively. Postoperative scans were performed in a randomized order, each after 3 months of either GPi, CM/Voi, or SHAM stimulation. At each investigation, patients were injected at rest while awake, but scanned during anesthesia. This procedure ensured that neither anesthesia nor movement artifacts influenced our results. Control subjects were investigated only once at baseline (without DBS or anesthesia). At baseline, cerebral blood flow was significantly reduced in patients with TS (preOP) compared with controls in the central region, frontal, and parietal lobe, specifically in Brodmann areas 1, 4–9, 30, 31, and 40. Significantly increased perfusion was found in the cerebellum. When comparing SHAM stimulation to preOP condition, we found significantly decreased perfusion in basal ganglia and thalamus, but increased perfusion in different parts of the frontal cortex. Compared with SHAM condition both GPi and thalamic stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in cerebral blood flow in basal ganglia and cerebellum, while perfusion in the frontal cortex was significantly increased

  19. Location of metastases in cancer of unknown primary are not random and signal familial clustering

    PubMed Central

    Hemminki, Kari; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Akseli; Ji, Jianguang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a fatal disease diagnosed through metastases. It shows intriguing familial clustering with certain defined primary cancers. Here we examine whether metastatic location in CUP patients is related to primary non-CUP cancers in relatives based on the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for CUP patients defined by metastatic location depending on cancer in their first degree relatives. SIRs for CUP were high in association with liver (3.94), ovarian (3.41), lung (2.43) and colorectal cancers (1.83) in relatives. The SIR was 1.63 for CUP with metastases in the abdomen when a relative was diagnosed with ovarian cancer. CUP with liver metastases associated with liver (1.44) cancer in relatives. CUP with head and neck region metastases associated with relatives’ esophageal (2.87) cancer. CUP metastases in the thorax associated with a relative’s cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract (2.14) and lung (1.74). The findings, matching metastatic location in CUP and primary cancer in relatives, could be reconciled if these cases of CUP constitute a phenotypically modified primary lacking tissue identification, resulting from epitope immunoediting. Alternatively, CUP metastases arise in a genetically favored tissue environment (soil) promoting growth of both primary cancers and metastases (seeds). PMID:26956545

  20. Assessment of Margins in Transoral Laser and Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hamzany, Yaniv; Brasnu, Daniel; Shpitzer, Thomas; Shvero, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The growing practice of endoscopic surgery has changed the therapeutic management of selected head and neck cancers. Although a negative surgical margin in resection of neoplasm is the most important surgical principle in oncologic surgery, controversies exist regarding assessment and interpretation of the status of margin resection. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature considering the assessment and feasibility of negative margins in transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) and transoral robotic surgery (TORS). Free margin status is being approached differently in vocal cord cancer (1–2 mm) compared with other sites in the upper aerodigestive tract (2–5 mm). Exposure, orientation of the pathological specimen, and co-operation with the pathologist are crucial principles needed to be followed in transoral surgery. Piecemeal resection to better expose deep tumor involvement and biopsies taken from surgical margins surrounding site of resection can improve margin assessment. High rates of negative surgical margins can be achieved with TLM and TORS. Adjuvant treatment decision should take into consideration also the surgeon’s judgment with regard to the completeness of tumor resection. PMID:24808954

  1. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate reduces DNA damage induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide and cigarette smoke condensate in human mucosa tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Philipp; Reiter, Maximilian; Kleinsasser, Norbert; Matthias, Christoph; Harréus, Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    Although epidemiological studies indicate cancer preventive effects of diets rich in fruit and vegetables, large clinical intervention studies conducted to evaluate dietary supplementation with micronutrients, mostly vitamins, showed disappointing results in large parts. In contrast, there is encouraging epidemiologic data indicating great chemopreventive potential of a large group of phytochemicals, namely polyphenols. This study shows the DNA protective effect epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a tea catechin, and one of the best-studied substances within this group, on carcinogen-induced DNA fragmentation in upper aerodigestive tract cells. Cell cultures from fresh oropharyngeal mucosa biopsies were preincubated with epigallocatechin-3-gallate in different concentrations before DNA damage was introduced with the metabolically activated carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide or cigarette smoke condensate. Effects on resulting DNA fragmentation were measured using the alkaline single-cell microgel electrophoresis (comet assay). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate significantly reduced benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide-induced DNA damage by up to 51% (P<0.001). Fragmentation induced by cigarette smoke condensate could be lowered by 47% (P<0.001). Data suggest a cancer preventive potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate as demonstrated on a subcellular level. An additional mechanism of tea catechin action is revealed by using a primary mucosa culture model. PMID:19491610

  2. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P.; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n=11), lung cancer (n=6), testicular cancer (n=3), childhood cancers (n=6), all cancers (n=1), anal cancer (n=1), penile cancer (n=1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=2), malignant primary gliomas(n=1), bladder cancer (n=1), and Kaposi's sarcoma (n=1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by HPV status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared to tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use (summary odds ratios 1.56 (95%CI=1.09-2.23) for higher frequency; 1.50 (95%=1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years). For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  3. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, and tracheobronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, Merrill A.

    1994-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has the potential to treat and cure early carcinomas of the head and neck while preserving normal tissue. Fifty-three patients with neoplasia of the head and neck have been treated with PDT with follow-up to 40 months. Eight patients with T2-T4 carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract had a partial response. Eighteen patients with CIS and T1 carcinomas of the larynx obtained a complete response and are disease free. Eleven patients with T1 carcinomas of the tongue, floor of mouth, and nasal cavity obtained a complete response. Three patients with mucosal melanomas of the nasopharynx obtained a complete response and remain disease free. Two patients with Kaposi's sarcoma or the oral cavity were treated, one obtained a complete response. Five patients with juvenile laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis obtained a complete response, but all recurred within six months of treatment. PDT is a promising therapy for treatment of early neoplasia of the head and neck. There are, however limitations to this treatment based on tumor size and site. Methodology, clinical response, limitations and complications are discussed.

  4. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, and tracheobronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, Merrill A.

    1993-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy has the potential to treat and cure early carcinomas of the head and neck while preserving normal tissue. Thirty patients with neoplasia of the head and neck have been treated with PDT with follow-up to twenty nine months. Four patients with T3 and T4 carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract had a partial response. Eleven patients with T1 and T2 carcinomas of the larynx obtained a complete response and are disease free. Seven patients with T1 carcinomas of the tongue, floor of mouth, and nasal cavity obtained a complete response. Three patients with mucosal melanomas of the nasopharynx obtained a complete response and have remained disease free. Two patients with Kaposi's sarcoma of the oral cavity were treated. One obtained a complete response. Three patients with recurrent juvenile laryngotracheal papillomatosis obtained a complete response, but one recurred four months post-PDT. PDT is a promising therapy for treatment of early neoplasia of the head and neck. There are, however, limitations to this treatment based on tumor size and site. Methodology, clinical response, limitations, and complications will be discussed.

  5. Predictive value of epigenetic alterations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koffler, Jennifer; Sharma, Sarika; Hess, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancer collectively describes malignant tumors originating from the mucosal surface of the upper aerodigestive tract. These tumors pose a great threat to public health because of their high incidence and mortality. Traditional risk factors are tobacco and alcohol abuse. More recently, infection by high-risk types of human papilloma virus (HPV) has been identified as an additional risk factor, especially for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Moreover, HPV-positive OPSCC is considered a distinct tumor entity with an improved clinical outcome compared to HPV-negative OPSCC. Epigenetic alterations act as key events in the pathogenesis of cancer and are of special interest for basic and translational oncology because of their reversible nature. This review provides a comprehensive summary of alterations of the epigenome in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with a focus on the methylome (hypomethylation and hypermethylation) and its predictive value in the evaluation of pathologic states and clinical outcome, or monitoring response rates to certain therapies. PMID:27308324

  6. Polymeric implant materials for the reconstruction of tracheal and pharyngeal mucosal defects in head and neck surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rickert, Dorothee

    2011-01-01

    The existing therapeutical options for the tracheal and pharyngeal reconstruction by use of implant materials are described. Inspite of a multitude of options and the availability of very different materials none of these methods applied for tracheal reconstruction were successfully introduced into the clinical routine. Essential problems are insufficiencies of anastomoses, stenoses, lack of mucociliary clearance and vascularisation. The advances in Tissue Engineering (TE) offer new therapeutical options also in the field of the reconstructive surgery of the trachea. In pharyngeal reconstruction far reaching developments cannot be recognized at the moment which would allow to give a prognosis of their success in clinical application. A new polymeric implant material consisting of multiblock copolymers was applied in our own work which was regarded as a promising material for the reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract (ADT) due to its physicochemical characteristics. In order to test this material for applications in the ADT under extreme chemical, enzymatical, bacterial and mechanical conditions we applied it for the reconstruction of a complete defect of the gastric wall in an animal model. In none of the animals tested either gastrointestinal complications or negative systemic events occurred, however, there was a multilayered regeneration of the gastric wall implying a regular structured mucosa. In future the advanced stem cell technology will allow further progress in the reconstruction of different kind of tissues also in the field of head and neck surgery following the principles of Tissue Engineering. PMID:22073099

  7. Constitutional CHEK2 mutations are associated with a decreased risk of lung and laryngeal cancers.

    PubMed

    Cybulski, Cezary; Masojc, Bartlomiej; Oszutowska, Dorota; Jaworowska, Ewa; Grodzki, Tomasz; Waloszczyk, Piotr; Serwatowski, Piotr; Pankowski, Juliusz; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Górski, Bohdan; Jakubowska, Anna; Debniak, Tadeusz; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Gronwald, Jacek; Tarnowska, Czeslawa; Serrano-Fernández, Pablo; Lubinski, Jan; Narod, Steven A

    2008-04-01

    Mutations in the CHEK2 gene have been associated with increased risks of breast, prostate and colon cancer. In contrast, a previous report suggests that individuals with the I157T missense variant of the CHEK2 gene might be at decreased risk of lung cancer and upper aero-digestive cancers. To confirm this hypothesis, we genotyped 895 cases of lung cancer, 430 cases of laryngeal cancer and 6391 controls from Poland for four founder alleles in the CHEK2 gene, each of which has been associated with an increased risk of cancer at several sites. The presence of a CHEK2 mutation was protective against both lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2-0.5; P = 3 x 10(-8)] and laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.3-0.99; P = 0.05). The basis of the protective effect is unknown, but may relate to the reduced viability of lung cancer cells with a CHEK2 mutation. Lung cancers frequently possess other defects in genes in the DNA damage response pathway (e.g. p53 mutations) and have a high level of genotoxic DNA damage induced by tobacco smoke. We speculate that lung cancer cells with impaired CHEK2 function undergo increased rates of cell death. PMID:18281249

  8. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in the nasal cavity treated with proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mostly seen in the upper aerodigestive tract and has a propensity for lymph node spread and systemic metastases. Various treatment modalities have been reported, including surgical excision supplemented with radiotherapy/adjuvant chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, treatment of nasal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma with proton beam therapy and cisplatin has not been described in the literature. Case presentation We report the case of a 56-year-old Japanese man with locally invasive basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in his right nasal cavity with invasion of the orbit, paranasal sinus, and buccal subcutaneous tissue. He underwent proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin. Acute and late side effects did not exceed grade 3. At 24-month follow up, he remains in complete remission. Conclusion Proton beam therapy concurrent with cisplatin may be one choice for locally invasive basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24716457

  9. Effects of Omeprazole Over Voice Quality in Muscle Tension Dysphonia Patients With Laryngopharyngeal Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Kandogan, Tolga; Aksoy, Gökce; Dalgic, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Backround Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is the backflow of stomach contents above upper esophageal sphincter, into the pharynx, larynx, and upper aerodigestive system. Objectives In this study, effects of omeprazole over voice quality in muscle tension dysphonia with laryngopharyngeal reflux was ınvestigated. Patients and Methods Nine patients, 7 males and 2 females, aged between 27-43 (mean age:31) were included to this study. The diagnosis of muscle tension dysphonia with LPR was established by video laryngoscopy, rigid scope 70º. The laryngeal changes related with LPR were evaluated according to Reflux Finding Score. The patients received omeprazole 20 mg twice a day for a period of 6 months. None of the patients received voice therapy. Vocal hygiene guidelines were also explained to the patients. Objective and subjective voice parameters (Jitter, shimmer, NHR, Voice Handicap Index, and Auditive analysis; Roughness, breathiness, and hoarseness) were evaluated in this study. Results After treatment with omeprazol, all the parameters showed an improvement in voice quality, but only VHI (P = 0) and shimmer (P = 0,018) are statistically significant. Conclusions For FD patients with LPR condition, we highly recommend that LPR treatment should be part of the treatment plan. PMID:23483094

  10. Does cancer survivors' health-related quality of life depend on cancer type? Findings from a large French national sample 2 years after cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Le Corroller-Soriano, A-G; Bouhnik, A-D; Preau, M; Malavolti, L; Julian-Reynier, C; Auquier, P; Moatti, J-P

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether health-related quality of life (HRQL) depends on cancer type, after adjustment for demographic and medical variables. A French national population-based survey was conducted between November and December 2004 to assess surviving cancer patients' HRQL 2 years after diagnosis. HRQL was measured by the 36-Item Short Form Survey scale. The sample included 3900 persons. All cancer diagnoses were entered in the study. We demonstrated that medical and treatment variables have an impact on patients' physical HRQL but not on mental HRQL. Cancer type impacted on physical HRQL, with those suffering from upper aerodigestive tract /lung cancers and haematological malignancies being affected to a greater degree. Disturbing side effects impacted both HRQL domains. Socio-demographic variables had statistically significant effects but not clinically meaningful ones. Socio-economic variables led to potentially clinically meaningful differences for cancer patients' HRQL and represented a socio-economic gradient in HRQL among cancer survivors. From our results, we may assert that cancer survivors, 2 years after cancer diagnosis, share a similar pattern of psychological morbidity, independent of cancer type. Patients disproportionately affected by cancer, such as those with lower educational levels and income, need to be identified and targeted and interventions which address their unique needs and concerns need to be developed. PMID:20345457

  11. Aspects of nitrogen dioxide toxicity in environmental urban concentrations in human nasal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, C.; Ginzkey, C.; Friehs, G.; Hackenberg, S.; Froelich, K.; Scherzed, A.; Burghartz, M.; Kessler, M.; Kleinsasser, N.

    2010-06-01

    Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) as part of urban exhaust pollution are widely discussed as potential hazards to human health. This study focuses on toxic effects of NO{sub 2} in realistic environmental concentrations with respect to the current limit values in a human target tissue of volatile xenobiotics, the epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract. Nasal epithelial cells of 10 patients were cultured as an air-liquid interface and exposed to 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2}, 0.1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 10 ppm NO{sub 2} and synthetic air for half an hour. After exposure, genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell microgel electophoresis (Comet) assay and by induction of micronuclei in the micronucleus test. Depression of proliferation and cytotoxic effects were determined using the micronucleus assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. The experiments revealed genotoxic effects by DNA fragmentation starting at 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2} in the Comet assay, but no micronucleus inductions, no changes in proliferation, no signs of necrosis or apoptosis in the micronucleus assay, nor did the trypan blue exclusion assay show any changes in viability. The present data reveal a possible genotoxicity of NO{sub 2} in urban concentrations in a screening test. However, permanent DNA damage as indicated by the induction of micronuclei was not observed. Further research should elucidate the effects of prolonged exposure.

  12. Iron supplement tablet embedded in the oral cavity mimicking neoplasm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The detection of foreign bodies in the upper-aerodigestive tract is a fairly frequent event and can occur in various areas and for various reasons. In rare cases, foreign bodies can simulate a neoplasia. We evaluated similar cases during emergency regimen with an oral cavity mucosal lesion, causing lockjaw, sore throat, dysphagia, and swelling of the submandibular and laterocervical region. Physical examination revealed an extensive mucosal ulceration in the floor of the mouth and the lateral surface of the tongue, comparable to oral cancer. During a second, more accurate assessment, a partially deteriorated iron supplement tablet was found embedded in a mucosal pocket. After removing the tablet, gradual normalization of the tissue was observed without any sequelae. This is one of the many reasons why it is advisable and useful in cases of oral lesions to collect a detailed medical history and to perform an accurate clinical evaluation, including inspection and palpation of the lesion, before proceeding to further diagnostic assessments, especially in elderly patients taking many medications. However unlikely, it is possible that difficulty in swallowing pills or tablets could generate tumorlike lesions. PMID:27162752

  13. The mucosal immune system: From dentistry to vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    KIYONO, Hiroshi; AZEGAMI, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity is the beginning of the aero-digestive tract, which is covered by mucosal epithelium continuously under the threat of invasion of pathogens, it is thus protected by the mucosal immune system. In the early phase of our scientific efforts for the demonstration of mucosal immune system, dental science was one of major driving forces due to their foreseeability to use oral immunity for the control of oral diseases. The mucosal immune system is divided functionally into, but interconnected inductive and effector sites. Intestinal Peyer’s patches (PPs) are an inductive site containing antigen-sampling M cells and immunocompetent cells required to initiate antigen-specific immune responses. At effector sites, PP-originated antigen-specific IgA B cells become plasma cells to produce polymeric IgA and form secretory IgA by binding to poly-Ig receptor expressed on epithelial cells for protective immunity. The development of new-generation mucosal vaccines, including the rice-based oral vaccine MucoRice, on the basis of the coordinated mucosal immune system is a promising strategy for the control of mucosal infectious diseases. PMID:26460320

  14. An impacted meat bone in the larynx with an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Hazra, T K; Ghosh, A K; Roy, P; Roy, S; Sur, S

    2005-04-01

    Lodgment of foreign bodies in the aero-digestive tract commonly occurs in the infant and children (Hazra et al, Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1993;2:216). Children especially between 1 and 3 years appear to be more vulnerable (Aylec et al, J Thoracic Cardiovascular Surg 1977;74:145). Ninety percent of these foreign bodies are accidental in nature and are due to carelessness and are avoidable (Holinger and Holinger. Chest 1978;73:721). Lodgment of foreign body has been usually seen to occur in mentally retarded intoxicated, or edentulous adult and to some other persons like fishermen. electrician, and decoration worker who use to hold those materials in between their teeth during their work. Usually, the victims present with respiratory distress. hoarseness of voice and/or dysphagia, which are proceeded by a severe history of choking cough immediately after ingestion of foreign bodies. Heroic attempts of removal of the foreign bodies may be dangerous to life. Therefore, each case should be dealt with proper care and precautionary measures. Here we present a case of an impacted meat bone in the larynx with the only complaint of hoarseness of voice for 2 weeks. PMID:23120154

  15. Aggressive mature natural killer cell neoplasms: from epidemiology to diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mature natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms are classified by the World Health Organization into NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTCL), aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKCL) and chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK-cells, the latter being considered provisionally. NKTCL and ANKCL are rare diseases, with higher prevalence in Asia, Central and South America. Most NKTCL present extranodal, as a destructive tumor affecting the nose and upper aerodigestive tract (nasal NKTCL) or any organ or tissue (extranasal NKTCL) whereas ANKCL manifests as a systemic disease with multiorgan involvement and naturally evolutes to death in a few weeks. The histopathological hallmark of these aggressive NK-cell tumors is a polymorphic neoplastic infiltrate with angiocentricity, angiodestruction and tissue necrosis. The tumor cells have cytoplasmatic azurophilic granules and usually show a CD45+bright, CD2+, sCD3-, cytCD3epsilon+, CD56+bright, CD16−/+, cytotoxic granules molecules+ phenotype. T-cell receptor genes are in germ-line configuration. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -encoded membrane proteins and early region EBV RNA are usually detected on lymphoma cells, with a pattern suggestive of a latent viral infection type II. Complex chromosomal abnormalities are frequent and loss of chromosomes 6q, 11q, 13q, and 17p are recurrent aberrations. The rarity of the NK-cell tumors limits our ability to standardize the procedures for the diagnosis and clinical management and efforts should be made to encourage multi-institutional registries. PMID:23816348

  16. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Momani, H; Perry, A; Stewart, C J; Jones, R; Krishnan, A; Robertson, A G; Bourke, S; Doe, S; Cummings, S P; Anderson, A; Forrest, T; Griffin, S M; Brodlie, M; Pearson, J; Ward, C

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance. PMID:27245316

  17. Inhibition and regression of tumors in hamster DMBA model following laser microvascular targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Wang, Zhi; Shapshay, Stanley M.

    1998-07-01

    Vascular targeting is a recent approach to cancer therapy that aims at damaging tumor vasculature to induce tumor cell hypoxia and subsequent cell death. Squamous cell cancer arises in the superficial mucosal and cutaneous epithelial layers, and tumor microvasculature therefore may be particularly well suited for targeting by selective photothermolysis. An initial evaluation of the effect of selective eradication of microvasculature on tumor development was undertaken here using the chemically-induced hamster cheek pouch model and a 585 nm pulsed dye laser. In a first group of 6 hamsters, progression of premalignant mucosal lesions was compared between control and laser treatment groups, and laser-induced regression of established tumors was evaluated. In a second group of 12 hamsters, the number of laser treatments required to produce complete regression of tumors of the buccal mucosa was determined. The effect of the laser on tumors appearing on the skin in these animals was also investigated. These experiments showed that laser treatment inhibited tumor development and caused complete regression of established tumors 10 mm3 or smaller. Photothermal microvascular targeting may be useful in treating dyplasia and early tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and skin, with fewer adverse sequelae than existing modalities.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of meso-(tetrahydroxyphenyl)chlorin (m-THPC) studied by fluorescence spectroscopy on early cancer of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Braichotte, Daniel; Forrer, Martin; Wagnieres, Georges A.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-01-01

    Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus and the tracheobronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12 DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized meso- (tetrahydoxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC). The same drug is currently in phase I, II clinical trials for ENT patients with superficial squamous cell carcinomas. By means of light induced fluorescence (LIF) we measured in vivo the kinetics of the uptake and removal of mTHPC in the normal and tumoral cheek mucosa and in the skin. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) reaction of the tissue after excitation of the photosensitizer by laser light at 652 nm was studied. Both pharmacokinetics and PDT efficacy are compared between animal model and clinical results with special emphasis on selectivity between normal and tumoral mucosa. These first experiments show that this tumor model in the hamster cheek pouch seems to be suitable for tests of a number of PDT variables of new photosensitizers preceding their clinical application as well as for optimization of the multiple parameters of clinical phototherapy.

  19. COPD and the microbiome.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Manoj J; Sethi, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    Traditional culture techniques confirm that bacteria have an important role in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). In individuals with COPD, acquisition of novel bacterial strains is associated with onset of acute exacerbation of COPD, which leads to further lung dysfunction and enormous health-care costs. Recent study of the human microbiome, the total composite of the bacteria on the human body, posited the microbiome as the last human organ studied, as the microbiome performs a multitude of metabolic functions absent in the human genome. The largest project to study the human microbiome was the National Institutes of Health (NIH) human microbiome project (HMP) started in 2007 to understand the 'normal' microbiome. However due to the presumption that the healthy human lung was sterile, the respiratory tract was not included in that study. The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has allowed the investigation of the human respiratory microbiome, which revealed that the healthy lung does have a robust microbiome. Subsequent studies in individuals with COPD revealed that the microbiome composition fluctuates with severity of COPD, composition of the individual aero-digestive tract microbiomes, age, during an acute exacerbation of COPD and with the use of steroids and/or antibiotics. Understanding the impact of the microbiome on COPD progression and risk of exacerbation will lead to directed therapies for prevention of COPD progression and exacerbation. PMID:26852737

  20. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy in head and neck malignancies: early preclinical experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englhard, Anna; Girschick, Susanne; Mack, Brigitte; Volgger, Veronika; Gires, Oliver; Conderman, Christian; Stepp, Herbert; Betz, Christian Stephan

    2013-06-01

    Background: Malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) are conventionally diagnosed by white light endoscopy, biopsy and histopathology. Probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a novel non-invasive technique which offers in vivo surface and sub-surface imaging of tissue. It produces pictures of cellular architecture comparable to histology without the need for biopsy. It has already been successfully used in different clinical subspecialties to help in the diagnosis and treatment planning of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. PCLE needs to be used in combination with specific or non-specific contrast agents. In this study we evaluated the potential use of pCLE in combination with non-specific and specific contrast agents to distinguish between healthy mucosa and invasive carcinoma. Methods: Tissue samples from healthy mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were taken during surgery. After topical application of three different contrast agents, samples were examined using different pCLE-probes and a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). Images were then compared to the corresponding histological slides and cryosections. Results: Initial results show that pCLE in combination with fluorophores allows visualization of cellular and structural components. Imaging of different layers was possible using three distinct pCLEprobes. Conclusion: pCLE is a promising non-invasive technique that may be a useful adjunct in the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment planning of head and neck malignancies.

  1. Necrotizing fasciitis of the neck after total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Danic Hadzibegovic, Ana; Sauerborn, Damir; Grabovac, Stjepan; Matic, Ivo; Danic, Davorin

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an unusual, life threatening, rapidly advancing infection characterized by widespread fascial and subcutaneous tissue necrosis and gangrene of the skin. It most commonly affects the extremities, abdominal wall and perineum, whereas cervical NF is rare. NF of the head and neck is often caused by both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms found in the upper aerodigestive tract. Usually, cervical NF originates from odontogenic, tonsillar and pharyngeal infection, and it is very rarely a complication of surgical procedure. Without immediate surgical treatment, cervical NF leads to mediastinitis and fatal sepsis. There is only one case of cervical NF after total laryngectomy described in the literature. We report two cases of cervical NF after total laryngectomy, selective neck dissection and primary vocal prosthesis insertion. In both cases, the infection spreads to thoracic region and in one of them NF was associated with Lemierre's syndrome, i.e., thrombosis of the internal jugular vein. In both patients, vocal prosthesis was inserted during the infection and did not influence the healing process. PMID:22430034

  2. Reliability of a flushing questionnaire and the ethanol patch test in screening for inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and alcohol-related cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Muramatsu, T; Ohmori, T; Kumagai, Y; Higuchi, S; Ishii, H

    1997-12-01

    Molecular epidemiology of esophageal and upper aerodigestive tract cancers revealed that alcohol is more carcinogenic in persons with inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) than in those with active ALDH2. A simple questionnaire has been developed to screen for the facial flushing that occurs in persons with inactive ALDH2 when they drink even a single glass of beer. In this study, 266 of 284 consecutive male Japanese clinic patients (age > or = 50 years) completed the flushing questionnaire, and 239 underwent the ethanol patch test (a cutaneous model for the flushing response). Blinded genotyping showed inactive ALDH2 for 94.4% (102 of 108) of subjects who reported always flushing (early in their drinking history or currently) and for 47.7% (21 of 44) of those who reported sometimes flushing, whereas 95.6% (109 of 114) of subjects reporting that they never exhibited facial flushing had active ALDH2. When all three categories of flushing (current always, former always, and sometimes) were collapsed into one, the questionnaire's sensitivity and specificity for identifying inactive ALDH2 were 96.1 and 79.0%, respectively, compared with 72.4 and 71.4% for the ethanol patch test. The results suggest the utility of this simple flushing questionnaire in daily practice, as well as large-scale studies to assess cancer risks associated with drinking and ALDH2 and for activities aimed at preventing alcohol-related cancer. PMID:9419411

  3. Case Report: Bazex Syndrome Associated With Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Xilin; Chen, Zhuo; Wu, Jian-hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bazex syndrome, a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by psoriasiform eruptions, palmoplantar keratosis, and symmetric onychodystrophy, is most prevalent with squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. Here, we reported an uncommon case of Bazex syndrome about an 83-year-old man with pulmonary adenocarcinoma and osseous metastasis, Physical examination found psoriasiform eruptions on the nose, cheeks, ears, knees, and the dorsa of interphalangeal joints, along with plantar keratosis and symmetric onychodystrophy involving hands and feet. Imaging analyses pulmonary adenocarcinoma with both local metastatic nodules and osseous metastasis. Symptomatic treatment with topical corticosteroids and oral retinoids showed no improvement. A 4-month follow-up showed that Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, successfully reduced primary tumor size and alleviated cutaneous lesions. Our report here highlighted a potential correlation between pulmonary adenocarcinoma and Bazex syndrome, which is characterized by hallmark nail destruction and preferential involvement of body extremities. Moreover, etiological therapy against underlying malignancy is essential for treating paraneoplastic Bazex syndrome. PMID:26765420

  4. Preliminary oncological results of endosopic laser surgery in advanced head and neck tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker-Schreyer, Antonio; Sadick, Haneen; Juncker, Cathrine; Bergler, Wolfgang; Hoermann, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Lasersurgery has established itself in the treatment of minor tumors (T1 - T2) of the upper aerodigestive tract. However, advanced carcinomas of the head and neck (T3 - T4) are generally treated with conventional surgical procedures which include pharyngolaryngectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oncological outcome of endoscopic lasersurgery in advanced head and neck tumors and to compare the results with conventional surgical procedures. Between January 1994 to December 1996, 86 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx underwent endoscopic lasersurgery instead of pharyngolaryngectomy as a curative measure. Besides the recurrence and survival rate, the necessity of tracheostomy, postoperative complications and the mean duration of hospitalization were documented. The results showed that the recurrence and survival rate were similar or even better after conventional pharyngolaryngectomy, whereas the patients' postoperative rehabilitation was better after lasersurgery. In this contribution the indication for lasersurgical intervention or pharyngolaryngectomy in advanced carcinomas of the head and neck is discussed.

  5. Role of Helicobacter pylori in pathogenesis of upper respiratory system diseases.

    PubMed

    Kurtaran, Hanifi; Uyar, Mehtap Erkmen; Kasapoglu, Benan; Turkay, Cansel; Yilmaz, Turker; Akcay, Ali; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2008-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the frequently encountered micro-organisms in the aerodigestive tract. Although infections caused by H. pylori are this common, the exact mode of transmission has not been fully understood yet. Oral-oral, fecal-oral and gastrointestinal-oral routes are the possible modes of transmission. This infection is usually acquired in childhood and may persist for the whole life of the patient. However, about 80% of the infected humans are asymptomatic. Human stomach was considered to be the only reservoir of H. pylori until bacteria were discovered in human dental plaque, in oral lesions, in saliva, in tonsil and adenoid tissue. It is suggested that H. pylori enters the nasopharyngeal cavity by gastroesophageal reflux and colonize in the dental plaques, adenoid tissues and tonsils. From these localizations, the bacteria ascend to the middle ear and to the paranasal sinuses directly or by the reflux again and may trigger some diseases, including otitis, sinusitis, phyrangitis, laryngitis and glossitis. But still, the exact mechanism remains unclear. PMID:18942285

  6. Retinoic acid induces cells cultured from oral squamous cell carcinomas to become anti-angiogenic.

    PubMed Central

    Lingen, M. W.; Polverini, P. J.; Bouck, N. P.

    1996-01-01

    Retinoids have shown great promise as chemopreventive against the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract. However, the exact mechanism by which they block new tumors from arising is unknown. Here, we report that 13-cis- and all-trans-retinoic acid, used at clinically achievable doses of 10(-6) mol/L or less, can directly and specifically affect cell lines cultured from oral squamous cell carcinomas, inducing them to switch from an angiogenic to an anti-angiogenic phenotype. Although retinoic-acid-treated and untreated tumor cells make the same amount of interleukin-8, the major inducer of neovascularization produced by such tumor lines, they vary in production of inhibitory activity. Only the retinoic-acid-treated cells produce a potent angio-inhibitory activity that is able to block in vitro migration of endothelial cells toward tumor cell conditioned media and to halt neovascularization induced by such media in the rat cornea. Anti-angiogenic activity is induced in the tumor cells by low doses of retinoids in the absence of toxicity with a kinetics that suggest that it could be contributing to the effectiveness of the retinoids as chemopreventive agents. Images Figure 6 PMID:8686749

  7. Paranasal sinus cancer.

    PubMed

    Jégoux, F; Métreau, A; Louvel, G; Bedfert, C

    2013-12-01

    Paranasal sinus cancers are rare, aggressive tumours that are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. They differ from other upper aerodigestive tract tumours in terms of risk factors (wood dust exposure) and premalignant lesions (inverted papillomas). The diagnosis should be suspected in the presence of unilateral and continuous nasal sinus symptoms or bone lysis or a heterogeneous opacity on imaging. The definitive positive diagnosis is based on histological examination. Staging must comprise face, brain, neck and chest CT as well as face and brain MRI. Tumours are stage T3-T4 in two-thirds of cases and are associated with cervical lymph node involvement in 10% of squamous cell carcinomas and 4% of adenocarcinomas. These tumours must be managed in reference centres experienced in all of the various treatment modalities. Treatment decisions must be based on a multidisciplinary approach comprising local, regional and national REFCOR expertise (French rare head and neck cancer network). Optimal treatment is surgical resection with clear margins associated with adjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Although it has been improved over recent decades, the prognosis remains poor with local recurrences occurring in 38% of cases and a five-year overall survival of about 63%. PMID:23523040

  8. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n = 11), lung cancer (n = 6), testicular cancer (n = 3), childhood cancers (n = 6), all cancers (n = 1), anal cancer (n = 1), penile cancer (n = 1), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), malignant primary gliomas (n = 1), bladder cancer (n = 1), and Kaposi sarcoma (n = 1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by human papillomavirus status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared with tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use [summary ORs, 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.23 for higher frequency and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years]. For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  9. Curcumin and Other Polyphenolic Compounds in Head and Neck Cancer Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Baumeister, Philipp; Reiter, Maximilian; Harréus, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Despite clear results of observational studies linking a diet rich in fruits and vegetables to a decreased cancer risk, large interventional trials evaluating the impact of dietary micronutrient supplementation, mostly vitamins, could not show any beneficial effects. Today it has become clear that a single micronutrient, given in supernutritional doses, cannot match cancer preventive effects of whole fruits and vegetables. In this regard polyphenols came into focus, not only because of their antioxidant potential but also because of their ability to interact with molecular targets within the cells. Because polyphenols occur in many foods and beverages in high concentration and evidence for their anticancer activity is best for tissues they can come into direct contact with, field cancerization predestines upper aerodigestive tract epithelium for cancer chemoprevention by polyphenols. In this paper, we summarize cancer chemopreventive attempts with emphasis on head and neck carcinogenesis and discuss some methodological issues. We present data regarding antimutagenic effects of curcumin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human oropharyngeal mucosa cultures exposed to cigarette smoke condensate. PMID:22690273

  10. Enhanced contact endoscopy for the assessment of the neoangiogenetic changes in precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Carta, Filippo; Sionis, Sara; Cocco, Daniela; Gerosa, Clara; Ferreli, Caterina; Puxeddu, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract show significant neoangiogenesis appearing as subepithelial and epithelial microvascular irregularities that can be detected by Image-Enhanced Endoscopy such as Narrow Band Imaging and Storz Professional Image Enhancement System. In the present study, the most advanced endoscopic enhancement systems were coupled with Contact Endoscopy (Enhanced Contact Endoscopy). This original method improved the identification and the understanding of the neoangiogenetic changes of the chorion in 42 patients with leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and leuko-erythroplakia of the oral cavity and oropharynx. The physiologic and pathologic mucosa was described in five obvious vascular patterns observed at Enhanced Contact Endoscopy ranging from normal to squamous cell carcinoma, passing through inflammation, hyperplasia, and dysplasia. Each vascular pattern was then compared to histology, showing that the microvascular architectural changes seen with Enhanced Contact Endoscopy are almost constant. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value in the differentiation between healthy mucosa and inflammation versus pathologic hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma were, respectively, 96.6, 93.3, 98.2, 87.5, and 95.9 %. Sensitivity and specificity were 100 % in differentiation between non-malignant lesions versus squamous cell carcinoma. Our preliminary experience shows that accuracy of Image-Enhanced Endoscopy in the diagnosis of precancerous lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx can be increased if associated to Contact Endoscopy. PMID:26138390

  11. Effects of radiation therapy in microvascular anastomoses

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, M.P.

    1985-07-01

    The otolaryngologist, as a head and neck surgeon, commonly cares for patients with upper aerodigestive tract malignancies. Therapy of these neoplasms often requires wide excision. One standard reconstructive procedure utilizes pedicled regional flaps, both dermal and myodermal which have some disadvantages. The shortcomings of these pedicled regional flaps have led to the use of the vascularized free flap in certain cases. The occasional case may lead to catastrophe if microanastomoses fail when combined with radiation. Notwithstanding, many surgical series have reported success when radiation has been given. The present investigation was undertaken to assess the effects of radiation therapy on microvascular anastomoses when radiation is administered pre- or postoperatively or when nonradiated tissue is transferred to an irradiated recipient site. These effects were observed serially in an experimental rat model using a tubed superficial epigastric flap that adequately reflected tissue viability and vascular patency. The histologic changes were then noted over a three month period after completion of both radiation and surgery. This study adds credence to the observation of the lack of deleterious effects of radiation on experimental microvascular anastomotic patency whether the radiation is given before or after surgery or if radiated tissue is approximated to nonradiated vessels.

  12. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Diet and cancer.

    PubMed

    Norat, Teresa; Scoccianti, Chiara; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Anderson, Annie; Berrino, Franco; Cecchini, Michele; Espina, Carolina; Key, Tim; Leitzmann, Michael; Powers, Hilary; Wiseman, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    Lifestyle factors, including diet, have long been recognised as potentially important determinants of cancer risk. In addition to the significant role diet plays in affecting body fatness, a risk factor for several cancers, experimental studies have indicated that diet may influence the cancer process in several ways. Prospective studies have shown that dietary patterns characterised by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain foods, and lower intakes of red and processed meats and salt, are related to reduced risks of death and cancer, and that a healthy diet can improve overall survival after diagnosis of breast and colorectal cancers. There is evidence that high intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancers of the aerodigestive tract, and the evidence that dietary fibre protects against colorectal cancer is convincing. Red and processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Diets rich in high-calorie foods, such as fatty and sugary foods, may lead to increased calorie intake, thereby promoting obesity and leading to an increased risk of cancer. There is some evidence that sugary drinks are related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Taking this evidence into account, the 4th edition of the European Code against Cancer recommends that people have a healthy diet to reduce their risk of cancer: they should eat plenty of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits; limit high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat); avoid sugary drinks and processed meat; and limit red meat and foods high in salt. PMID:26164653

  13. Pulmonary vascular malformations.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Kenneth W; Flake, Alan W

    2008-02-01

    Pulmonary vascular malformations have historically been diagnosed in a wide range of age groups, but the extensive use of prenatal imaging studies has resulted in the majority of lesions being diagnosed in utero. Among this group of lesions, bronchopulmonary sequestrations (BPS), hybrid lesions with both congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) and BPS, aberrant systemic vascular anastomoses, and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM), are the most common. The biologic behavior of these lesions and the subsequent therapy is, in large part, determined by the age of the patient at diagnosis. In the fetus, large BPS or hybrid lesions can result in fetal hydrops and in utero fetal demise. In the perinatal period, pulmonary hypoplasia from the mass effect or air trapping within the cystic component of hybrid lesions can result in life-threatening respiratory distress. In the postnatal period, communication of the lesion with the aero-digestive system can result in recurrent pneumonia. Alternatively, increased pulmonary blood flow from the systemic arterial supply can result in hemorrhage, hemoptysis, or high output cardiac failure. In addition, there have been several reports of malignant degeneration. Finally, the broad spectrum encompassed by these lesions makes classification and subsequent communication of the lesions confusing and difficult. This paper will review the components of these lesions, their associated anomalies, the diagnosis and natural history, and finally, current concepts in the management of pulmonary vascular malformations. PMID:18158137

  14. Granulomatous disease in the head and neck: developing a differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Nwawka, O Kenechi; Nadgir, Rohini; Fujita, Akifumi; Sakai, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Granulomatous diseases have a varied etiology that includes autoimmune, infectious, idiopathic, and hereditary causes. The unifying factor in these diseases is the formation of granulomas, which histologically are mononuclear inflammatory cells or macrophages surrounded by lymphocytes. Granulomatous diseases often have systemic manifestations that affect organs throughout the body. Granulomatous diseases with head and neck manifestations include granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Behçet disease, chronic granulomatous disease, and sarcoidosis. Infectious causes include tuberculosis, cat-scratch disease, syphilis, leprosy, actinomycosis, rhinoscleroma, and fungal infections. In the head and neck, granulomatous disease may affect the orbits, sinonasal cavities, salivary glands, aerodigestive tract, temporal bone, or skull base. Imaging findings include sinonasal opacification, ocular and other soft-tissue masses, osseous erosion, airway narrowing, lymphadenopathy, and salivary gland infiltration. Vascular involvement may also be evident, with displacement, narrowing, or occlusion of arteries and veins. Some radiologic findings of granulomatous processes have a considerable overlap with findings of malignancy, and a radiologic differential diagnosis inclusive of both is critical to avoid incorrect clinical treatment. Without the benefit of a prior clinical diagnosis, laboratory findings, or suggestive clinical signs and symptoms, granulomatous diseases may be difficult to differentiate radiologically. Although individual granulomatous diseases may have overlapping findings at imaging, certain radiologic findings should prompt the inclusion of granulomatous diseases in the differential diagnosis, thus facilitating appropriate clinical management. PMID:25208278

  15. Microarchitecture of irradiated bone: comparison with healthy bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bléry, Pauline; Amouriq, Yves; Guédon, Jeanpierre; Pilet, Paul; Normand, Nicolas; Durand, Nicolas; Espitalier, Florent; Arlicot, Aurore; Malard, Olivier; Weiss, Pierre

    2012-03-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract represent about ten percent of cancers. External radiation therapy leads to esthetic and functional consequences, and to a decrease of the bone mechanical abilities. For these patients, the oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including possibilities of dental implant placement, is difficult. The effects of radiotherapy on bone microarchitecture parameters are not well known. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the effects of external radiation on bone micro architecture in an experimental model of 25 rats using micro CT. 15 rats were irradiated on the hind limbs by a single dose of 20 Grays, and 10 rats were non irradiated. Images of irradiated and healthy bone were compared. Bone microarchitecture parameters (including trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, connectivity density and tissue and bone volume) between irradiated and non-irradiated bones were calculated and compared using a Mann and Whitney test. After 7 and 12 weeks, images of irradiated and healthy bone are different. Differences on the irradiated and the healthy bone populations exhibit a statistical significance. Trabecular number, connectivity density and closed porosity are less important on irradiated bone. Trabecular thickness and separation increase for irradiated bone. These parameters indicate a decrease of irradiated bone properties. Finally, the external irradiation induces changes on the bone micro architecture. This knowledge is of prime importance for better oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including implant placement.

  16. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin cytotoxicity occurs through bilayer destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Angela C.; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Du, Yurong; Stefano, Frank P.; Kieba, Irene R.; Epand, Raquel F.; Kakalis, Lazaros; Yeagle, Philip L.; Epand, Richard M.; Lally, Edward T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The Gram-negative bacterium, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, is a common inhabitant of the human upper aerodigestive tract. The organism produces an RTX (Repeats in ToXin) toxin (LtxA) that kills human white blood cells. LtxA is believed to be a membrane-damaging toxin, but details of the cell surface interaction for this and several other RTX toxins have yet to be elucidated. Initial morphological studies suggested that LtxA was bending the target cell membrane. Because the ability of a membrane to bend is a function of its lipid composition, we assessed the proficiency of LtxA to release of a fluorescent dye from a panel of liposomes composed of various lipids. Liposomes composed of lipids that form nonlamellar phases were susceptible to LtxA-induced damage while liposomes composed of lipids that do not form non-bilayer structures were not. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the toxin decreased the temperature at which the lipid transitions from a bilayer to a nonlamellar phase, while 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the LtxA-induced transition from a bilayer to an inverted hexagonal phase occurs through the formation of an isotropic intermediate phase. These results indicate that LtxA cytotoxicity occurs through a process of membrane destabilization. PMID:22309134

  17. Button Battery Foreign Bodies in Children: Hazards, Management, and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Thabet, Mohammed Hossam; Basha, Waleed Mohamed; Askar, Sherif

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The demand and usage of button batteries have risen. They are frequently inadvertently placed by children in their ears or noses and occasionally are swallowed and lodged along the upper aerodigestive tract. The purpose of this work is to study the different presentations of button battery foreign bodies and present our experience in the diagnosis and management of this hazardous problem in children. Patients and Methods. This study included 13 patients. The diagnostic protocol was comprised of a thorough history, head and neck physical examination, and appropriate radiographic evaluation. The button batteries were emergently extracted under general anesthesia. Results. The average follow-up period was 4.3 months. Five patients had a nasal button battery. Four patients had an esophageal button battery. Three patients had a button battery in the stomach. One patient had a button battery impacted in the left external ear canal. Apart from a nasal septal perforation and a tympanic membrane perforation, no major complications were detected. Conclusion. Early detection is the key in the management of button battery foreign bodies. They have a distinctive appearance on radiography, and its prompt removal is mandatory, especially for batteries lodged in the esophagus. Physicians must recognize the hazardous potential and serious implications of such an accident. There is a need for more public education about this serious problem. PMID:23936851

  18. Optical coherence tomography and confocal endomicroscopy for rhinologic pathologies: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olzowy, B.; Starke, N.; Schuldt, T.; Hüttmann, G.; Lankenau, E.; Just, T.

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal endomicroscopy (CEM) have a well-established potential for early diagnosis of pre-malignant and early malignant lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract mucosa. Additional applications in ENT-diagnostics might facilitate a more widespread use by making the investment into the devices more economic. Both imaging techniques might also provide valuable information in nasal pathologies. OCT images were generated with a surgical microscope (Möller-Wedel Hi-R 1000) with an integrated high-speed-OCT camera (Optomedical GmbH). For the CEM a Heidelberg Retina tomograph II scanner (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH) was used. Both during sinus surgery in vivo and from removed material ex vivo OCT and CEM images were taken and correlated with histopathological analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Patients with inverted papillomas and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) were evaluated. Inverted papillomas show a variably thick epithelial layer on OCT and densely packed epithelial cells on CEM. They can be clearly distinguished from nasal polyps that show a very thin epithelial layer upon loose subepithelial tissue. In CRS CEM can distinguish areas with intact from areas with destroyed ciliated epithelium by directly visualizing ciliary movement. OCT sometimes showed thin superficial dense structures that might correspond to biofilms. OCT and CEM might provide valuable information in the follow-up care of patients with inverted papillomas and in diagnostics of CRS.

  19. Radiotherapy Alone With Curative Intent in Patients With Stage I Extranodal Nasal-Type NK/T-Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yexiong; Wang Hua; Jin Jing; Wang Weihu; Liu Qingfeng; Song Yongwen; Wang Zhaoyang; Qi Shunan; Wang Shulian; Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Yu Zihao

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the outcome and pattern of failure in a large cohort of patients with Stage I NK/T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: The pathological diagnosis was confirmed using standard criteria. All patients were treated with high-dose extended-field radiotherapy alone. The median dose was 50 Gy. The primary tumor was located in the nasal cavity (n = 80), Waldeyer ring (n = 5), or oral cavity (n = 2). Results: The overall response to radiotherapy was achieved in 85 of 87 (97.7%) patients, with a complete response rate of 95.4% and a partial response rate of 2.3%. The 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control rates for all patients were 80%, 69%, and 93%, respectively. Twenty patients (23%) had disease progression or relapse. Of these, 15 patients (17%) developed systemic extranodal disseminations, whereas only 4 (5%) patients had local relapse and 4 (5%) patients had lymph node relapse. Conclusions: Our study suggests that high-dose extended-field radiotherapy alone is a curative therapy and shows favorable clinical outcome in patients with Stage I disease. With the high possibility of local control and primary failure of systemic dissemination, the integration of optimal radiotherapy with more effective systematic therapy is warranted to bring additional improvement to the outcome for these patients.

  20. Case Report: Bazex Syndrome Associated With Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Xilin; Chen, Zhuo; Wu, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Bazex syndrome, a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by psoriasiform eruptions, palmoplantar keratosis, and symmetric onychodystrophy, is most prevalent with squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract.Here, we reported an uncommon case of Bazex syndrome about an 83-year-old man with pulmonary adenocarcinoma and osseous metastasis, Physical examination found psoriasiform eruptions on the nose, cheeks, ears, knees, and the dorsa of interphalangeal joints, along with plantar keratosis and symmetric onychodystrophy involving hands and feet. Imaging analyses pulmonary adenocarcinoma with both local metastatic nodules and osseous metastasis.Symptomatic treatment with topical corticosteroids and oral retinoids showed no improvement. A 4-month follow-up showed that Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, successfully reduced primary tumor size and alleviated cutaneous lesions.Our report here highlighted a potential correlation between pulmonary adenocarcinoma and Bazex syndrome, which is characterized by hallmark nail destruction and preferential involvement of body extremities. Moreover, etiological therapy against underlying malignancy is essential for treating paraneoplastic Bazex syndrome. PMID:26765420

  1. Traditional and Modern Uses of Natural Honey in Human Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Najafi, Moslem

    2013-01-01

    Honey is a by-product of flower nectar and the upper aero-digestive tract of the honey bee, which is concentrated through a dehydration process inside the bee hive. Honey has a very complex chemical composition that varies depending on the botanical source. It has been used both as food and medicine since ancient times. Human use of honey is traced to some 8000 years ago as depicted by Stone Age paintings. In addition to important role of natural honey in the traditional medicine, during the past few decades, it was subjected to laboratory and clinical investigations by several research groups and it has found a place in modern medicine. Honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on around 60 species of bacteria, some species of fungi and viruses. Antioxidant capacity of honey is important in many disease conditions and is due to a wide range of compounds including phenolics, peptides, organic acids, enzymes, and Maillard reaction products. Honey has also been used in some gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neoplastic states. This review covers the composition, physico-chemical properties and the most important uses of natural honey in human diseases. PMID:23997898

  2. Selected aspects of Mediterranean diet and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Bosetti, Cristina; Rossi, Marta; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    European Mediterranean populations have a high life expectancy. Several aspects of their diet are considered favorable on health. We considered the role of various aspects of the Mediterranean diet on cancer risk in a series of Italian case-control studies including about 10,000 cases of cancer at 13 different sites and over 17,000 controls. For most epithelial cancers, the risk decreased with increasing vegetable consumption. Allium vegetables were also favorably related to cancer risk. Fruit intake was inversely associated with digestive tract and laryngeal cancers. For digestive tract cancers, the population attributable risks for low intake of vegetables and fruit ranged between 15% and 40%. Olive oil and unsaturated fats, which are typical aspects of the Mediterranean diet, were inversely related to the risk of several cancers, particularly of the upper aerodigestive tract. Whole grain food (and hence possibly fiber) intake was also related to reduced risk of various cancers. In contrast, refined grains and, consequently, glycemic load and index were associated to increased risks. Several micronutrients and food components (including folate, flavonoids, and carotenoids) showed inverse relations with cancer risk, but the main component(s) responsible for the favorable effect of a diet rich in vegetables and fruit remain undefined. PMID:20155613

  3. Prognostic significance of Ki-67 antigen expression in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Xinke; Qiu, Huijuan; Zhang, Bei

    2014-10-01

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (ENKTL) is a clinically heterogeneous disease with poor prognosis and requires risk stratification in affected patients. Recent studies have shown that Ki-67 may serve as a prognostic marker in certain types of lymphoma. We analyzed Ki-67 expression and its correlation with prognosis in 182 patients with ENKTL from January 2002 to June 2013. The patients were classified into two groups through a median value: low (<60%) versus high Ki-67 (≥60%). High Ki-67 expression was more common in patients with B symptoms (p=0.02), bulky disease (p=0.001), and extraupper aerodigestive tract NK/T-cell lymphoma (p=0.001). High Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival (p<0.0001) and progression-free survival (p<0.0001). For patients with low-risk IPI or KPI, Ki-67 at diagnosis could contribute to distinguish patients with favorable outcomes from those with poor outcomes. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the high Ki-67 expression is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and progression-free survival. (OS, p=0.001; PFS, p=0.003). Our data showed that Ki-67 is an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKTL patients. This prognostic index may be helpful in identifying high-risk patients with ENKTL. PMID:25204411

  4. Ethanol versus Phytochemicals in Wine: Oral Cancer Risk in a Light Drinking Perspective.

    PubMed

    Varoni, Elena M; Lodi, Giovanni; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review aims to summarize the current controversy on the balance between ethanol and phytochemicals in wine, focusing on light drinking and oral cancer. Extensive literature search included PUBMED and EMBASE databases to identify in human studies and systematic reviews (up to March 2015), which contributed to elucidate this issue. Independently from the type of beverage, meta-analyses considering light drinking (≤1 drinks/day or ≤12.5 g/day of ethanol) reported relative risks (RR) for oral, oro-pharyngeal, or upper aero-digestive tract cancers, ranging from 1.0 to 1.3. One meta-analysis measured the overall wine-specific RR, which corresponded to 2.1. Although little evidence exists on light wine intake, phytochemicals seem not to affect oral cancer risk, being probably present below the effective dosages and/or due to their low bioavailability. As expected, the risk of oral cancer, even in light drinking conditions, increases when associated with smoking habit and high-risk genotypes of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. PMID:26225960

  5. Ethanol versus Phytochemicals in Wine: Oral Cancer Risk in a Light Drinking Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Varoni, Elena M.; Lodi, Giovanni; Iriti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review aims to summarize the current controversy on the balance between ethanol and phytochemicals in wine, focusing on light drinking and oral cancer. Extensive literature search included PUBMED and EMBASE databases to identify in human studies and systematic reviews (up to March 2015), which contributed to elucidate this issue. Independently from the type of beverage, meta-analyses considering light drinking (≤1 drinks/day or ≤12.5 g/day of ethanol) reported relative risks (RR) for oral, oro-pharyngeal, or upper aero-digestive tract cancers, ranging from 1.0 to 1.3. One meta-analysis measured the overall wine-specific RR, which corresponded to 2.1. Although little evidence exists on light wine intake, phytochemicals seem not to affect oral cancer risk, being probably present below the effective dosages and/or due to their low bioavailability. As expected, the risk of oral cancer, even in light drinking conditions, increases when associated with smoking habit and high-risk genotypes of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. PMID:26225960

  6. [Cervical nodules: diagnosis and management].

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Pierre; Monnier, Philippe

    2004-06-01

    Family physicians frequently encounter patients with neck lumps. The causes are numerous but in the adult the origin is most often a lymph node, the majority of which are malignant. Inappropriate management may often lead to a very poor outcome. Relevant investigations must therefore be correctly chosen. The risk for a neck lump to be malignant depends mainly on age, male sex, and alcohol and tobacco consumption and to a lesser extent on a family history for head and neck malignancy. Careful medical history looks for symptoms such as dysphagia, pain, dysphonia, otalgia, or weight loss. On physical examination, the location, size, consistency and mobility of the mass is described. A careful inspection of the scalp, skin of the face and mucosal surface of the upper aerodigestive tract is performed followed by palpation. If no inflammatory or tumoral lesion is identified, the next step is to perform a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the neck mass which will most often lead to a definite diagnosis. When this is not the case, an otolaryngology consultation and excisional biopsy should be obtained. PMID:15293445

  7. Pharmacological recruitment of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) to assist ALDH2 in acetaldehyde and ethanol metabolism in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Che-Hong; Cruz, Leslie A.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2015-01-01

    Correcting a genetic mutation that leads to a loss of function has been a challenge. One such mutation is in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), denoted ALDH2*2. This mutation is present in ∼0.6 billion East Asians and results in accumulation of toxic acetaldehyde after consumption of ethanol. To temporarily increase metabolism of acetaldehyde in vivo, we describe an approach in which a pharmacologic agent recruited another ALDH to metabolize acetaldehyde. We focused on ALDH3A1, which is enriched in the upper aerodigestive track, and identified Alda-89 as a small molecule that enables ALDH3A1 to metabolize acetaldehyde. When given together with the ALDH2-specific activator, Alda-1, Alda-89 reduced acetaldehyde-induced behavioral impairment by causing a rapid reduction in blood ethanol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol intoxication in both wild-type and ALDH2-deficient, ALDH2*1/*2, heterozygotic knock-in mice. The use of a pharmacologic agent to recruit an enzyme to metabolize a substrate that it usually does not metabolize may represent a novel means to temporarily increase elimination of toxic agents in vivo. PMID:25713355

  8. Microbiological profiles of sputum and gastric juice aspirates in Cystic Fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Al-momani, H.; Perry, A.; Stewart, C. J.; Jones, R.; Krishnan, A.; Robertson, A. G.; Bourke, S.; Doe, S.; Cummings, S. P.; Anderson, A.; Forrest, T.; Griffin, S. M.; Brodlie, M.; Pearson, J.; Ward, C.

    2016-01-01

    Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR) is a key problem in Cystic Fibrosis (CF), but the relationship between lung and gastric microbiomes is not well understood. We hypothesised that CF gastric and lung microbiomes are related. Gastric and sputum cultures were obtained from fifteen CF patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Non-CF gastric juice data was obtained through endoscopy from 14 patients without lung disease. Bacterial and fungal isolates were identified by culture. Molecular bacterial profiling used next generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S rRNA gene. Cultures grew bacteria and/or fungi in all CF gastric juice and sputa and in 9/14 non-CF gastric juices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa(Pa) was present in CF sputum in 11 patients, 4 had identical Pa strains in the stomach. NGS data from non-CF gastric juice samples were significantly more diverse compared to CF samples. NGS showed CF gastric juice had markedly lower abundance of normal gut bacteria; Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium, but increased Pseudomonas compared with non-CF. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated similar bacterial profiles of CF sputum and gastric juice samples, which were distinct from non-CF gastric juice. We provide novel evidence suggesting the existence of an aerodigestive microbiome in CF, which may have clinical relevance. PMID:27245316

  9. A 13C-NMR study of exopolysaccharide synthesis in Rhizobium meliloti Su47 strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavernier, P.; Portais, J.-C.; Besson, I.; Courtois, J.; Courtois, B.; Barbotin, J.-N.

    1998-02-01

    Metabolic pathways implied in the synthesis of succinoglycan produced by the Su47 strain of R. meliloti were evaluated by 13C-NMR spectroscopy after incubation with [1{-}13C] or [2{-}13C] glucose. The biosynthesis of this polymer by R. meliloti from glucose occurred by a direct polymerisation of the introduced glucose and by the pentose phosphate pathway. Les voies métaboliques impliquées dans la synthèse du succinoglycane produit par la souche Su47 de R. meliloti ont été évaluées par la spectroscopie de RMN du carbone 13 après incubation des cellules avec du [1{-}13C] ou [2{-}13C] glucose. La biosynthèse de ce polymère à partir du glucose se produit par polymérisation directe du glucose et par la voie des pentoses phosphate.

  10. The gas-phase on-line production of vanadium oxytrihalides, VOX 3 and their identification by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidan, Mohammed D.; Allaf, Abdul W.

    2000-12-01

    A new route has been devised, leading to the production of VOX 3 molecules where XF, Br and I by an on-line process using vanadium oxytrichloride, VOCl 3 as a starting compound passed over the following heated salts NaF, KBr and KI at 375, 700 and 550°C, respectively. The products have been characterized by the IR spectra of their vapors. The low resolution gas phase on-line Fourier transform infrared spectra reported for the first time show strong bands with PQR type structure, centered at 1058, 1035, 1030 and 1025 cm -1 assigned to the ν1( a1), the OV stretching fundamental mode of VOF 3, VOCl 3, VOBr 3 and VOI 3, respectively.

  11. Computed Tomography Image Compressibility and Limitations of Compression Ratio-Based Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pambrun, Jean-François; Noumeir, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Finding optimal compression levels for diagnostic imaging is not an easy task. Significant compressibility variations exist between modalities, but little is known about compressibility variations within modalities. Moreover, compressibility is affected by acquisition parameters. In this study, we evaluate the compressibility of thousands of computed tomography (CT) slices acquired with different slice thicknesses, exposures, reconstruction filters, slice collimations, and pitches. We demonstrate that exposure, slice thickness, and reconstruction filters have a significant impact on image compressibility due to an increased high frequency content and a lower acquisition signal-to-noise ratio. We also show that compression ratio is not a good fidelity measure. Therefore, guidelines based on compression ratio should ideally be replaced with other compression measures better correlated with image fidelity. Value-of-interest (VOI) transformations also affect the perception of quality. We have studied the effect of value-of-interest transformation and found significant masking of artifacts when window is widened. PMID:25804842

  12. La prévention des infections par le virus respiratoire syncytial

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, JL

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ L’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS) est la principale cause d’infections des voies respiratoires inférieures chez les jeunes enfants. Le palivizumab, un anticorps monoclonal anti-VRS, réduit le taux d’hospitalisation des enfants à haut risque mais est très coûteux. Le présent document de principes remplace les trois précédents documents de principes de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie sur le sujet et est mis à jour principalement pour traiter des récentes modifications aux lignes directrices de l’American Academy of Pediatrics dans le contexte canadien. Il contient une analyse des publications ainsi que des recommandations au sujet de l’utilisation du palivizumab chez les enfants à haut risque

  13. Lesion quantification in oncological positron emission tomography: a maximum likelihood partial volume correction strategy.

    PubMed

    De Bernardi, Elisabetta; Faggiano, Elena; Zito, Felicia; Gerundini, Paolo; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2009-07-01

    A maximum likelihood (ML) partial volume effect correction (PVEC) strategy for the quantification of uptake and volume of oncological lesions in 18F-FDG positron emission tomography is proposed. The algorithm is based on the application of ML reconstruction on volumetric regional basis functions initially defined on a smooth standard clinical image and iteratively updated in terms of their activity and volume. The volume of interest (VOI) containing a previously detected region is segmented by a k-means algorithm in three regions: A central region surrounded by a partial volume region and a spill-out region. All volume outside the VOI (background with all other structures) is handled as a unique basis function and therefore "frozen" in the reconstruction process except for a gain coefficient. The coefficients of the regional basis functions are iteratively estimated with an attenuation-weighted ordered subset expectation maximization (AWOSEM) algorithm in which a 3D, anisotropic, space variant model of point spread function (PSF) is included for resolution recovery. The reconstruction-segmentation process is iterated until convergence; at each iteration, segmentation is performed on the reconstructed image blurred by the system PSF in order to update the partial volume and spill-out regions. The developed PVEC strategy was tested on sphere phantom studies with activity contrasts of 7.5 and 4 and compared to a conventional recovery coefficient method. Improved volume and activity estimates were obtained with low computational costs, thanks to blur recovery and to a better local approximation to ML convergence. PMID:19673203

  14. Assessment of tumour response with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography using three-dimensional measures compared to SUVmax—a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucek, J. A.; Francis, R. J.; Jones, C. G.; Khan, N.; Turlach, B. A.; Green, A. J.

    2008-08-01

    SUVmax is currently the most common semi-quantitative method of response assessment on FDG PET. By defining the tumour volume of interest (VOI), a measure of total glycolytic volume (TGV) may be obtained. We aimed to comprehensively examine, in a phantom setting, the accuracy of TGV in reflecting actual lesion activity and to compare TGV with SUVmax for response assessment. The algorithms for VOI generation from which TGV was derived included fixed threshold techniques at 50% of maximum (MAX50), 70% of maximum (MAX70), an adaptive threshold of 50% of (maximum + background)/2 (BM50) and a semi-automated iterative region-growing algorithm, GRAB. Comparison with both actual lesion activity and response scenarios was performed. SUVmax correlated poorly with actual lesion activity (r = 0.651) and change in lesion activity (r = 0.605). In a response matrix scenario SUVmax performed poorly when all scenarios were considered, but performed well when only clinically likely scenarios were included. The TGV derived using MAX50 and MAX70 algorithms performed poorly in evaluation of lesion change. The TGV derived from BM50 and GRAB algorithms however performed extremely well in correlation with actual lesion activity (r = 0.993 and r = 0.982, respectively), change in lesion activity (r = 0.972 and r = 0.963, respectively) and in the response scenario matrix. TGVGRAB demonstrated narrow confidence bands when modelled with actual lesion activity. Measures of TGV generated by iterative algorithms such as GRAB show potential for increased sensitivity of metabolic response monitoring compared to SUVmax, which may have important implications for improved patient care.

  15. Functional integration changes in regional brain glucose metabolism from childhood to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Nicola; Archambaud, Frédérique; Goldman, Serge; Baete, Kristof; Van Laere, Koen; Wens, Vincent; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Chiron, Catherine; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in resting-state neurometabolic connectivity from childhood to adulthood (6-50 years old). Fifty-four healthy adult subjects and twenty-three pseudo-healthy children underwent [(18) F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography at rest. Using statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), age and age squared were first used as covariate of interest to identify linear and non-linear age effects on the regional distribution of glucose metabolism throughout the brain. Then, by selecting voxels of interest (VOI) within the regions showing significant age-related metabolic changes, a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was used to search for age-induced changes in the contribution of VOIs to the metabolic activity in other brain areas. Significant linear or non-linear age-related changes in regional glucose metabolism were found in prefrontal cortices (DMPFC/ACC), cerebellar lobules, and thalamo-hippocampal areas bilaterally. Decreases were found in the contribution of thalamic, hippocampal, and cerebellar regions to DMPFC/ACC metabolic activity as well as in the contribution of hippocampi to preSMA and right IFG metabolic activities. Increases were found in the contribution of the right hippocampus to insular cortex and of the cerebellar lobule IX to superior parietal cortex metabolic activities. This study evidences significant linear or non-linear age-related changes in regional glucose metabolism of mesial prefrontal, thalamic, mesiotemporal, and cerebellar areas, associated with significant modifications in neurometabolic connectivity involving fronto-thalamic, fronto-hippocampal, and fronto-cerebellar networks. These changes in functional brain integration likely represent a metabolic correlate of age-dependent effects on sensory, motor, and high-level cognitive functional networks. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3017-3030, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27133021

  16. Integrating Dimension Reduction and Out-of-Sample Extension in Automated Classification of Ex Vivo Human Patellar Cartilage on Phase Contrast X-Ray Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Coan, Paola; Huber, Markus B.; Diemoz, Paul C.; Wismüller, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Phase contrast X-ray computed tomography (PCI-CT) has been demonstrated as a novel imaging technique that can visualize human cartilage with high spatial resolution and soft tissue contrast. Different textural approaches have been previously investigated for characterizing chondrocyte organization on PCI-CT to enable classification of healthy and osteoarthritic cartilage. However, the large size of feature sets extracted in such studies motivates an investigation into algorithmic feature reduction for computing efficient feature representations without compromising their discriminatory power. For this purpose, geometrical feature sets derived from the scaling index method (SIM) were extracted from 1392 volumes of interest (VOI) annotated on PCI-CT images of ex vivo human patellar cartilage specimens. The extracted feature sets were subject to linear and non-linear dimension reduction techniques as well as feature selection based on evaluation of mutual information criteria. The reduced feature set was subsequently used in a machine learning task with support vector regression to classify VOIs as healthy or osteoarthritic; classification performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results show that the classification performance achieved by 9-D SIM-derived geometric feature sets (AUC: 0.96 ± 0.02) can be maintained with 2-D representations computed from both dimension reduction and feature selection (AUC values as high as 0.97 ± 0.02). Thus, such feature reduction techniques can offer a high degree of compaction to large feature sets extracted from PCI-CT images while maintaining their ability to characterize the underlying chondrocyte patterns. PMID:25710875

  17. Return to Venus of Japanese Venus Orbiter AKATSUKI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.; Ishii, N.; Abe, T.; Imamura, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Satoh, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ueno, M.; Ohtsuki, S.; Yamada, M.; Ogohara, K.; Uemizu, K.; Hirose, C.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Iwagami, N.; Taguchi, M.

    2012-12-01

    Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter 'AKATSUKI' (PLANET-C) was successfully launched at 06:58:22JST on May 21, by H-IIA F17. The malfunction, which happened during the Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI) on 7 Dec, 2010 is as follows. Orbital maneuver engine (OME) was fired 08:49 JST on Dec. 7. 1min. after firing the spacecraft went into the occultation region and we had no telemetry, but we expected to continuous firing for 12min. Recording on the spacecraft told us later that, unfortunately the firing continued just 152sec. and stopped. The reason of the malfunction of the OME was the blocking of check valve on the gas pressure line to push the fuel to the engine. We failed to make the spacecraft the Venus orbiter, and it is rotating the sun with the orbital period of 203 days. Most of the fuel still remains, but the OME was found to be broken. We decided to use only RCS for orbit maneuver and 3 minor maneuvers in November 2012 were successfully done so that AKATSUKI will meet Venus in late 2015. We are considering several scenarios only using RCS for VOI. In the presentation we will show the possible orbits and how we put the spacecraft into those orbits. They have higher apoapsis than we expected in the initial design, but they are still westward and equatorial that is ideal to reveal the mechanism of the super-rotation of the atmosphere, and we think we will be able to achieve the scientific goals which we have been proposing.

  18. Computerized detection of pulmonary embolism in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA): improvement of vessel segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Chughtai, Aamer; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2011-03-01

    Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately when the vessel is occluded by PEs and/or surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases. In this study, we developed a method that combines MHES with level set refinement (MHES-LSR) to improve vessel segmentation accuracy. The level set was designed to propagate the initial object contours to the regions with relatively high gray-level, high gradient, and high compactness as measured by the smoothness of the curvature along vessel boundaries. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOI) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 31.7+/-10.9% using the MHES method to 7.7+/-4.7% using the MHES-LSR method. The correlation between the computer-segmented vessel volume and the reference standard was improved from 0.954 to 0.986. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (p<0.05). The MHES-LSR method may have the potential to improve PE detection.

  19. Assessment of tumour response with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography using three-dimensional measures compared to SUVmax--a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Boucek, J A; Francis, R J; Jones, C G; Khan, N; Turlach, B A; Green, A J

    2008-08-21

    SUVmax is currently the most common semi-quantitative method of response assessment on FDG PET. By defining the tumour volume of interest (VOI), a measure of total glycolytic volume (TGV) may be obtained. We aimed to comprehensively examine, in a phantom setting, the accuracy of TGV in reflecting actual lesion activity and to compare TGV with SUVmax for response assessment. The algorithms for VOI generation from which TGV was derived included fixed threshold techniques at 50% of maximum (MAX50), 70% of maximum (MAX70), an adaptive threshold of 50% of (maximum + background)/2 (BM50) and a semi-automated iterative region-growing algorithm, GRAB. Comparison with both actual lesion activity and response scenarios was performed. SUVmax correlated poorly with actual lesion activity (r = 0.651) and change in lesion activity (r = 0.605). In a response matrix scenario SUVmax performed poorly when all scenarios were considered, but performed well when only clinically likely scenarios were included. The TGV derived using MAX50 and MAX70 algorithms performed poorly in evaluation of lesion change. The TGV derived from BM50 and GRAB algorithms however performed extremely well in correlation with actual lesion activity (r = 0.993 and r = 0.982, respectively), change in lesion activity (r = 0.972 and r = 0.963, respectively) and in the response scenario matrix. TGV(GRAB) demonstrated narrow confidence bands when modelled with actual lesion activity. Measures of TGV generated by iterative algorithms such as GRAB show potential for increased sensitivity of metabolic response monitoring compared to SUVmax, which may have important implications for improved patient care. PMID:18653927

  20. Levothyroxine effects on depressive symptoms and limbic glucose metabolism in bipolar disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled positron emission tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, M; Berman, S; Stamm, T; Plotkin, M; Adli, M; Pilhatsch, M; London, E D; Hellemann, G S; Whybrow, P C; Schlagenhauf, F

    2016-01-01

    Adding supraphysiologic doses of levothyroxine (L-T4) to standard treatment for bipolar depression shows promise, but the mechanisms underlying clinical improvement are unknown. In a previous pilot study, L-T4 treatment reduced depression scores and activity within the anterior limbic network. Here we extended this work in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of patients with bipolar depression. Cerebral glucose metabolism was assessed with positron emission tomography and [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose before and after 6 weeks of treatment with L-T4 (n=15) or placebo (n=10) in 12 volumes of interest (VOIs): the bilateral thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, dorsal striatum and ventral striatum, and midline cerebellar vermis and subgenual cingulate cortex. Radioactivity in the VOIs, normalized to whole-brain radioactivity was taken as a surrogate index of glucose metabolism, and markers of thyroid function were assayed. Changes in brain activity and their association with clinical response were assessed using statistical parametric mapping. Adjunctive L-T4 treatment produced a significant decline in depression scores during the 6-week treatment. In patients treated with L-T4, we found a significant decrease in regional activity at P<0.05 after Bonferroni correction in the left thalamus, right amygdala, right hippocampus, left ventral striatum and the right dorsal striatum. Decreases in the left thalamus, left dorsal striatum and the subgenual cingulate were correlated with a reduction in depression scores (P<0.05 after Bonferroni correction). Placebo treatment was associated with a significant decrease in activity only in the right amygdala, and no region had a change in activity that was correlated with change in depression scores. The groups differed significantly in the relationship between the changes in depression scores and in activity in the thalamus bilaterally and the left ventral striatum. The findings provide evidence that administration of

  1. Automatic pulmonary vessel segmentation in 3D computed tomographic pulmonary angiographic (CTPA) images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Patel, Smita; Cascade, Philip N.; Sahiner, Berkman; Wei, Jun; Ge, Jun; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2006-03-01

    Automatic and accurate segmentation of the pulmonary vessels in 3D computed tomographic angiographic images (CTPA) is an essential step for computerized detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) because PEs only occur inside the pulmonary arteries. We are developing an automated method to segment the pulmonary vessels in 3D CTPA images. The lung region is first extracted using thresholding and morphological operations. 3D multiscale filters in combination with a newly developed response function derived from the eigenvalues of Hessian matrices are used to enhance all vascular structures including the vessel bifurcations and suppress non-vessel structures such as the lymphoid tissues surrounding the vessels. At each scale, a volume of interest (VOI) containing the response function value at each voxel is defined. The voxels with a high response indicate that there is an enhanced vessel whose size matches the given filter scale. A hierarchical expectation-maximization (EM) estimation is then applied to the VOI to segment the vessel by extracting the high response voxels at this single scale. The vessel tree is finally reconstructed by combining the segmented vessels at all scales based on a "connected component" analysis. Two experienced thoracic radiologists provided the gold standard of pulmonary arteries by manually tracking the arterial tree and marking the center of the vessels using a computer graphical user interface. Two CTPA cases containing PEs were used to evaluate the performance. One of these two cases also contained other lung diseases. The accuracy of vessel tree segmentation was evaluated by the percentage of the "gold standard" vessel center points overlapping with the segmented vessels. The result shows that 97.3% (1868/1920) and 92.0% (2277/2476) of the manually marked center points overlapped with the segmented vessels for the cases without and with other lung disease, respectively. The results demonstrate that vessel segmentation using our method is

  2. Automatic anatomy partitioning of the torso region on CT images by using multiple organ localizations with a group-wise calibration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Morita, Syoichi; Zhou, Xinxin; Chen, Huayue; Hara, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Kanematsu, Masayuki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an automatic approach for anatomy partitioning on three-dimensional (3D) computedtomography (CT) images that divide the human torso into several volume-of-interesting (VOI) images based on anatomical definition. The proposed approach combines several individual detections of organ-location with a groupwise organ-location calibration and correction to achieve an automatic and robust multiple-organ localization task. The essence of the proposed method is to jointly detect the 3D minimum bounding box for each type of organ shown on CT images based on intra-organ-image-textures and inter-organ-spatial-relationship in the anatomy. Machine-learning-based template matching and generalized Hough transform-based point-distribution estimation are used in the detection and calibration processes. We apply this approach to the automatic partitioning of a torso region on CT images, which are divided into 35 VOIs presenting major organ regions and tissues required by routine diagnosis in clinical medicine. A database containing 4,300 patient cases of high-resolution 3D torso CT images is used for training and performance evaluations. We confirmed that the proposed method was successful in target organ localization on more than 95% of CT cases. Only two organs (gallbladder and pancreas) showed a lower success rate: 71 and 78% respectively. In addition, we applied this approach to another database that included 287 patient cases of whole-body CT images scanned for positron emission tomography (PET) studies and used for additional performance evaluation. The experimental results showed that no significant difference between the anatomy partitioning results from those two databases except regarding the spleen. All experimental results showed that the proposed approach was efficient and useful in accomplishing localization tasks for major organs and tissues on CT images scanned using different protocols.

  3. Alteration of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects by glucose loading.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kenji; Wagatsuma, Kei; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    High plasma glucose (PG) levels can reduce fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG) uptake, especially in the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related regions. This fact is supported by studies showing that the resting-state activity in diabetes can be altered in the default mode network (DMN)-related regions, which considerably overlap with the AD-related regions. In order to expand the current knowledge, we aimed to investigate the relationship between increasing PG levels and the regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (CMRglc ) as a direct index of brain activity. We performed dynamic (18) F-FDG positron emission tomography with arterial blood sampling once each in the fasting and glucose-loading conditions on 12 young, healthy volunteers without cognitive impairment or insulin resistance. The absolute CMRglc values were calculated for the volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis, and normalized CMRglc maps were generated for the voxelwise analysis. The normalized measurement is known to have smaller intersubject variability than the absolute measurement, and may, thus, lead to greater statistical power. In VOI analysis, no regional difference in the CMRglc was found between the two conditions. In exploratory voxelwise analysis, however, significant clusters were identified in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, lateral parietotemporal, and medial prefrontal regions where the CMRglc decreased upon glucose loading (P < 0.05, corrected). These regions include the representative components of both the DMN and AD pathology. Taken together with the previous knowledge on the relationships between the DMN, AD, and diabetes, it may be inferred that glucose loading induces hypometabolism in the AD-related and DMN-related regions. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2823-2832, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061859

  4. Dissociable Roles of Right Inferior Frontal Cortex and Anterior Insula in Inhibitory Control: Evidence from Intrinsic and Task-Related Functional Parcellation, Connectivity, and Response Profile Analyses across Multiple Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Ryali, Srikanth; Chen, Tianwen; Li, Chiang-Shan R.

    2014-01-01

    The right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) and the right anterior insula (rAI) have been implicated consistently in inhibitory control, but their differential roles are poorly understood. Here we use multiple quantitative techniques to dissociate the functional organization and roles of the rAI and rIFC. We first conducted a meta-analysis of 70 published inhibitory control studies to generate a commonly activated right fronto-opercular cortex volume of interest (VOI). We then segmented this VOI using two types of features: (1) intrinsic brain activity; and (2) stop-signal task-evoked hemodynamic response profiles. In both cases, segmentation algorithms identified two stable and distinct clusters encompassing the rAI and rIFC. The rAI and rIFC clusters exhibited several distinct functional characteristics. First, the rAI showed stronger intrinsic and task-evoked functional connectivity with the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas the rIFC had stronger intrinsic and task-evoked functional connectivity with dorsomedial prefrontal and lateral fronto-parietal cortices. Second, the rAI showed greater activation than the rIFC during Unsuccessful, but not Successful, Stop trials, and multivoxel response profiles in the rAI, but not the rIFC, accurately differentiated between Successful and Unsuccessful Stop trials. Third, activation in the rIFC, but not rAI, predicted individual differences in inhibitory control abilities. Crucially, these findings were replicated in two independent cohorts of human participants. Together, our findings provide novel quantitative evidence for the dissociable roles of the rAI and rIFC in inhibitory control. We suggest that the rAI is particularly important for detecting behaviorally salient events, whereas the rIFC is more involved in implementing inhibitory control. PMID:25355218

  5. Integrating dimension reduction and out-of-sample extension in automated classification of ex vivo human patellar cartilage on phase contrast X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B; Coan, Paola; Huber, Markus B; Diemoz, Paul C; Wismüller, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Phase contrast X-ray computed tomography (PCI-CT) has been demonstrated as a novel imaging technique that can visualize human cartilage with high spatial resolution and soft tissue contrast. Different textural approaches have been previously investigated for characterizing chondrocyte organization on PCI-CT to enable classification of healthy and osteoarthritic cartilage. However, the large size of feature sets extracted in such studies motivates an investigation into algorithmic feature reduction for computing efficient feature representations without compromising their discriminatory power. For this purpose, geometrical feature sets derived from the scaling index method (SIM) were extracted from 1392 volumes of interest (VOI) annotated on PCI-CT images of ex vivo human patellar cartilage specimens. The extracted feature sets were subject to linear and non-linear dimension reduction techniques as well as feature selection based on evaluation of mutual information criteria. The reduced feature set was subsequently used in a machine learning task with support vector regression to classify VOIs as healthy or osteoarthritic; classification performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results show that the classification performance achieved by 9-D SIM-derived geometric feature sets (AUC: 0.96 ± 0.02) can be maintained with 2-D representations computed from both dimension reduction and feature selection (AUC values as high as 0.97 ± 0.02). Thus, such feature reduction techniques can offer a high degree of compaction to large feature sets extracted from PCI-CT images while maintaining their ability to characterize the underlying chondrocyte patterns. PMID:25710875

  6. Probability distribution function-based classification of structural MRI for the detection of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, I; Demirel, H

    2015-09-01

    High-dimensional classification methods have been a major target of machine learning for the automatic classification of patients who suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD). One major issue of automatic classification is the feature-selection method from high-dimensional data. In this paper, a novel approach for statistical feature reduction and selection in high-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data based on the probability distribution function (PDF) is introduced. To develop an automatic computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) technique, this research explores the statistical patterns extracted from structural MRI (sMRI) data on four systematic levels. First, global and local differences of gray matter in patients with AD compared to healthy controls (HCs) using the voxel-based morphometric (VBM) technique with 3-Tesla 3D T1-weighted MRI are investigated. Second, feature extraction based on the voxel clusters detected by VBM on sMRI and voxel values as volume of interest (VOI) is used. Third, a novel statistical feature-selection process is employed, utilizing the PDF of the VOI to represent statistical patterns of the respective high-dimensional sMRI sample. Finally, the proposed feature-selection method for early detection of AD with support vector machine (SVM) classifiers compared to other standard feature selection methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) techniques, is assessed. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated using 130 AD and 130 HC MRI data from the ADNI dataset with 10-fold cross validation(1). The results show that the PDF-based feature selection approach is a reliable technique that is highly competitive with respect to the state-of-the-art techniques in classifying AD from high-dimensional sMRI samples. PMID:26226415

  7. NEUROFEEDBACK USING FUNCTIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Oliver; Wighton, Paul; Tisdall, M. Dylan; Hess, Aaron; Breiter, Hans; van der Kouwe, André

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback based on real-time measurement of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has potential for treatment of neurological disorders and behavioral enhancement. Commonly employed methods are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequences that sacrifice speed and accuracy for whole-brain coverage, which is unnecessary in most applications. We present multi-voxel functional spectroscopy (MVFS): a system for computing the BOLD signal from multiple volumes of interest (VOI) in real-time that improves speed and accuracy of neurofeedback. MVFS consists of a functional spectroscopy (FS) pulse sequence, a BOLD reconstruction component, a neural activation estimator, and a stimulus system. The FS pulse sequence is a single-voxel, magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence without water suppression that has been extended to allow acquisition of a different VOI at each repetition and real-time subject head motion compensation. The BOLD reconstruction component determines the T2* decay rate, which is directly related to BOLD signal strength. The neural activation estimator discounts nuisance signals and scales the activation relative to the amount of ROI noise. Finally, the neurofeedback system presents neural activation-dependent stimuli to experimental subjects with an overall delay of less than 1s. Here we present the MVFS system, validation of certain components, examples of its usage in a practical application, and a direct comparison of FS and echo-planar imaging BOLD measurements. We conclude that in the context of realtime BOLD imaging, MVFS can provide superior accuracy and temporal resolution compared with standard fMRI methods. PMID:24999293

  8. Prefrontal Lobe Brain Reserve Capacity with Resistance to Higher Global Amyloid Load and White Matter Hyperintensity Burden in Mild Stage Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ya-Ting; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chen, Nai-Ching; Lin, Kun-Ju; Huang, Shu-Hua; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lui, Chun-Chung; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background Amyloid deposition and white matter lesions (WMLs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are both considered clinically significant while a larger brain volume is thought to provide greater brain reserve (BR) against these pathological effects. This study identified the topography showing BR in patients with mild AD and explored the clinical balances among BR, amyloid, and WMLs burden. Methods Thirty patients with AD were enrolled, and AV-45 positron emission tomography was conducted to measure the regional standardized uptake value ratio (SUVr) in 8 cortical volumes-of- interests (VOIs). The quantitative WMLs burden was measured from magnetic resonance imaging while the normalized VOIs volumes represented BR in this study. The cognitive test represented major clinical correlates. Results Significant correlations between the prefrontal volume and global (r = 0.470, p = 0.024), but not regional (r = 0.264, p = 0.223) AV-45 SUVr were found. AD patients having larger regional volume in the superior- (r = 0.572, p = 0.004), superior medial- (r = 0.443, p = 0.034), and middle-prefrontal (r = 0.448, p = 0.032) regions had higher global AV-45 SUVr. For global WML loads, the prefrontal (r = -0.458, p = 0.019) and hippocampal volume (r = -0.469, p = 0.016) showed significant correlations while the prefrontal (r = -0.417, p = 0.043) or hippocampal volume (r = -0.422, p = 0.04) also predicted better composite memory scores. There were no interactions between amyloid SUVr and WML loads on the prefrontal volume. Conclusions BR of the prefrontal region might modulate the adverse global pathological burden caused by amyloid deposition. While prefrontal volume positively associated with hippocampal volume, WMLs had an adverse impact on the hippocampal volume that predicts memory performance in mild stage AD. PMID:26872386

  9. Predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens with bone mineral density features and support vector regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Markus B.; Yang, Chien-Chun; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Bauer, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Eckstein, Felix; Lochmüller, Eva; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.; Wismüller, Axel

    2012-03-01

    To improve the clinical assessment of osteoporotic hip fracture risk, recent computer-aided diagnosis systems explore new approaches to estimate the local trabecular bone quality beyond bone density alone to predict femoral bone strength. In this context, statistical bone mineral density (BMD) features extracted from multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images of proximal femur specimens and different function approximations methods were compared in their ability to predict the biomechanical strength. MDCT scans were acquired in 146 proximal femur specimens harvested from human cadavers. The femurs' failure load (FL) was determined through biomechanical testing. An automated volume of interest (VOI)-fitting algorithm was used to define a consistent volume in the femoral head of each specimen. In these VOIs, the trabecular bone was represented by statistical moments of the BMD distribution and by pairwise spatial occurrence of BMD values using the gray-level co-occurrence (GLCM) approach. A linear multi-regression analysis (MultiReg) and a support vector regression algorithm with a linear kernel (SVRlin) were used to predict the FL from the image feature sets. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each image feature on independent test sets; in addition the coefficient of determination R2 was calculated. The best prediction result was obtained with a GLCM feature set using SVRlin, which had the lowest prediction error (RSME = 1.040+/-0.143, R2 = 0.544) and which was significantly lower that the standard approach of using BMD.mean and MultiReg (RSME = 1.093+/-0.133, R2 = 0.490, p<0.0001). The combined sets including BMD.mean and GLCM features had a similar or slightly lower performance than using only GLCM features. The results indicate that the performance of high-dimensional BMD features extracted from MDCT images in predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens can be significantly improved by

  10. Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Guoming; Paul, Cumming; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

    2012-12-01

    Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach. PMID:23160517

  11. A Multi-Atlas Based Method for Automated Anatomical Rat Brain MRI Segmentation and Extraction of PET Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lancelot, Sophie; Roche, Roxane; Slimen, Afifa; Bouillot, Caroline; Levigoureux, Elise; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Zimmer, Luc; Costes, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Preclinical in vivo imaging requires precise and reproducible delineation of brain structures. Manual segmentation is time consuming and operator dependent. Automated segmentation as usually performed via single atlas registration fails to account for anatomo-physiological variability. We present, evaluate, and make available a multi-atlas approach for automatically segmenting rat brain MRI and extracting PET activies. Methods High-resolution 7T 2DT2 MR images of 12 Sprague-Dawley rat brains were manually segmented into 27-VOI label volumes using detailed protocols. Automated methods were developed with 7/12 atlas datasets, i.e. the MRIs and their associated label volumes. MRIs were registered to a common space, where an MRI template and a maximum probability atlas were created. Three automated methods were tested: 1/registering individual MRIs to the template, and using a single atlas (SA), 2/using the maximum probability atlas (MP), and 3/registering the MRIs from the multi-atlas dataset to an individual MRI, propagating the label volumes and fusing them in individual MRI space (propagation & fusion, PF). Evaluation was performed on the five remaining rats which additionally underwent [18F]FDG PET. Automated and manual segmentations were compared for morphometric performance (assessed by comparing volume bias and Dice overlap index) and functional performance (evaluated by comparing extracted PET measures). Results Only the SA method showed volume bias. Dice indices were significantly different between methods (PF>MP>SA). PET regional measures were more accurate with multi-atlas methods than with SA method. Conclusions Multi-atlas methods outperform SA for automated anatomical brain segmentation and PET measure’s extraction. They perform comparably to manual segmentation for FDG-PET quantification. Multi-atlas methods are suitable for rapid reproducible VOI analyses. PMID:25330005

  12. Two-Time-Point FDG PET/CT: Liver SULmean Repeatability

    PubMed Central

    Tahari, Abdel K.; Paidpally, Vasavi; Chirindel, Alin; Wahl, Richard L.; Subramaniam, Rathan M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of liver mean standardized uptake value normalized to lean body mass (SULmean) in the same patients at different time points within the right lobe of the liver at 18F-FDG PET/CT, in a clinical setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two PET/CT studies performed on two different dates from each of 130 patients who had normal livers according to structural imaging were included in this reader study. The mean (± SD) length of time between the studies was 235 ± 192 days. SULmean was measured with a 30-mm diameter spherical volume of interest (VOI) placed within the right lobe of the liver (above, below, and at the level of the main portal vein) by two expert readers. ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman analysis were performed. RESULTS The ICC for the first and second set of studies varied between 0.487 and 0.535 for reader 1 and between 0.472 and 0.545 for reader 2. The mean percentage variation for SULmean between the two time scans for the VOIs placed above, below, and at the level of the main portal vein were 3.55% ± 23.19%, 4.65% ± 23.87%, and 4.30% ± 23.03%, respectively, for reader 1 and 4.49% ± 23.23%, 4.33% ± 23.74%, and 4.48% ± 23.01%, respectively, for reader 2. Using 95% CI, the reference range for intrapatient variations between the studies in liver SULmean was −0.5 to 0.60. CONCLUSION There is only fair repeatability of liver SULmean measured between two time points in the same patient in a clinical setting. Scan-to-scan intrapatient variation in absolute liver SULmean was −0.5 to 0.60. PMID:25615764

  13. Deformable planning CT to cone-beam CT image registration in head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Jidong; Guerrero, Mariana; Chen, Wenjuan; D'Souza, Warren D.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to implement and validate a deformable CT to cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image registration method in head-and-neck cancer to eventually facilitate automatic target delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twelve head-and-neck cancer patients underwent a planning CT and weekly CBCT during the 5-7 week treatment period. The 12 planning CT images (moving images) of these patients were registered to their weekly CBCT images (fixed images) via the symmetric force Demons algorithm and using a multiresolution scheme. Histogram matching was used to compensate for the intensity difference between the two types of images. Using nine known anatomic points as registration targets, the accuracy of the registration was evaluated using the target registration error (TRE). In addition, region-of-interest (ROI) contours drawn on the planning CT were morphed to the CBCT images and the volume overlap index (VOI) between registered contours and manually delineated contours was evaluated. Results: The mean TRE value of the nine target points was less than 3.0 mm, the slice thickness of the planning CT. Of the 369 target points evaluated for registration accuracy, the average TRE value was 2.6{+-}0.6 mm. The mean TRE for bony tissue targets was 2.4{+-}0.2 mm, while the mean TRE for soft tissue targets was 2.8{+-}0.2 mm. The average VOI between the registered and manually delineated ROI contours was 76.2{+-}4.6%, which is consistent with that reported in previous studies. Conclusions: The authors have implemented and validated a deformable image registration method to register planning CT images to weekly CBCT images in head-and-neck cancer cases. The accuracy of the TRE values suggests that they can be used as a promising tool for automatic target delineation on CBCT.

  14. Poster — Thur Eve — 29: Characterization of Patient Immobilization for Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Courneyea, L; Mullins, J; Howard, M; Beltran, C; Brinkmann, D; Pafundi, D

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Evaluate an immobilization system to determine its adequacy for the reduced margins required for proton therapy. Methods: Twelve head-and-neck cancer patients were immobilized for conventional photon radiotherapy and imaged with pre- and post-treatment cone beam CTs (CBCTs) for each treatment fraction. To quantify the patient positioning reproducibility, each CBCT was registered to the simulation CT offline. Registrations were performed using auto-match tools and a matching volume-of-interest (VOI) consisting of a 5mm expansion around the mandible, occipital bone, C1/C2 and C7/T1. For each registration, the bony anatomy in the VOI was evaluated for agreement with the simulation position using 3 and 5mm margins. Registrations were initially restricted to translational corrections. If the bony anatomy did not agree with the simulation position to within 3mm or 5mm, the auto-match was repeated with 3 additional rotational corrections. Intrafraction motion was calculated as the difference between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT matches. Results: Pre-treatment patient positioning agreed with the simulation CT to within 3mm/5mm for 62%/86% of fractions using translational matching and 84%/100% of fractions when rotations were included. Intrafraction motion averaged 1.1±0.8mm, with 12% of fractions having >2mm intrafraction motion. Post-treatment positioning accuracy was 57%/84% and 80%/100% for registrations without/with rotations. For the mandible, positioning accuracy dropped from 93% pre-treatment to 82% post-treatment. Conclusion: If rotational corrections are available, the immobilization system studied created reproducible patient positioning to within 3mm for 84% of fractions. However, intrafraction motion caused additional anatomy to fall outside the 3mm margin by the end of treatment.

  15. Automatic intrinsic cardiac and respiratory gating from cone-beam CT scans of the thorax region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Andreas; Sauppe, Sebastian; Lell, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2016-03-01

    We present a new algorithm that allows for raw data-based automated cardiac and respiratory intrinsic gating in cone-beam CT scans. It can be summarized in three steps: First, a median filter is applied to an initially reconstructed volume. The forward projection of this volume contains less motion information and is subtracted from the original projections. This results in new raw data that contain only moving and not static anatomy like bones, that would otherwise impede the cardiac or respiratory signal acquisition. All further steps are applied to these modified raw data. Second, the raw data are cropped to a region of interest (ROI). The ROI in the raw data is determined by the forward projection of a binary volume of interest (VOI) that includes the diaphragm for respiratory gating and most of the edge of the heart for cardiac gating. Third, the mean gray value in this ROI is calculated for every projection and the respiratory/cardiac signal is acquired using a bandpass filter. Steps two and three are carried out simultaneously for 64 or 1440 overlapping VOI inside the body for the respiratory or cardiac signal respectively. The signals acquired from each ROI are compared and the most consistent one is chosen as the desired cardiac or respiratory motion signal. Consistency is assessed by the standard deviation of the time between two maxima. The robustness and efficiency of the method is evaluated using simulated and measured patient data by computing the standard deviation of the mean signal difference between the ground truth and the intrinsic signal.

  16. Interactive Dose Shaping - efficient strategies for CPU-based real-time treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegenhein, P.; Kamerling, C. P.; Oelfke, U.

    2014-03-01

    Conventional intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning is based on the traditional concept of iterative optimization using an objective function specified by dose volume histogram constraints for pre-segmented VOIs. This indirect approach suffers from unavoidable shortcomings: i) The control of local dose features is limited to segmented VOIs. ii) Any objective function is a mathematical measure of the plan quality, i.e., is not able to define the clinically optimal treatment plan. iii) Adapting an existing plan to changed patient anatomy as detected by IGRT procedures is difficult. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce the method of Interactive Dose Shaping (IDS) as a new paradigm for IMRT treatment planning. IDS allows for a direct and interactive manipulation of local dose features in real-time. The key element driving the IDS process is a two-step Dose Modification and Recovery (DMR) strategy: A local dose modification is initiated by the user which translates into modified fluence patterns. This also affects existing desired dose features elsewhere which is compensated by a heuristic recovery process. The IDS paradigm was implemented together with a CPU-based ultra-fast dose calculation and a 3D GUI for dose manipulation and visualization. A local dose feature can be implemented via the DMR strategy within 1-2 seconds. By imposing a series of local dose features, equal plan qualities could be achieved compared to conventional planning for prostate and head and neck cases within 1-2 minutes. The idea of Interactive Dose Shaping for treatment planning has been introduced and first applications of this concept have been realized.

  17. Abnormal White Matter Integrity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder: A Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lindi; Zhao, Zhimin; Xu, Jianrong; Lei, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is currently becoming a serious mental health issue around the globe. Previous studies regarding IAD were mainly focused on associated psychological examinations. However, there are few studies on brain structure and function about IAD. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter integrity in adolescents with IAD. Methodology/Principal Findings Seventeen IAD subjects and sixteen healthy controls without IAD participated in this study. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) was performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to localize abnormal white matter regions between groups. TBSS demonstrated that IAD had significantly lower FA than controls throughout the brain, including the orbito-frontal white matter, corpus callosum, cingulum, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and corona radiation, internal and external capsules, while exhibiting no areas of higher FA. Volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis was used to detect changes of diffusivity indices in the regions showing FA abnormalities. In most VOIs, FA reductions were caused by an increase in radial diffusivity while no changes in axial diffusivity. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between FA and behavioral measures within the IAD group. Significantly negative correlations were found between FA values in the left genu of the corpus callosum and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and between FA values in the left external capsule and the Young's Internet addiction scale. Conclusions Our findings suggest that IAD demonstrated widespread reductions of FA in major white matter pathways and such abnormal white matter structure may be linked to some behavioral impairments. In addition, white matter integrity may serve as a potential new treatment target and FA may be as a qualified biomarker to understand the underlying neural mechanisms of injury or to

  18. Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guoming; Cumming, Paul; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

    2012-12-01

    Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [18F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach.

  19. The impact of breast structure on lesion detection in breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Nolte, Loren W.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Segars, William P.; Ghate, Sujata V.; Samei, Ehsan

    2015-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials (VCT) can be carefully designed to inform, orient, or potentially replace clinical trials. The focus of this study was to demonstrate the capability of the sophisticated tools that can be used in the design, implementation, and performance analysis of VCTs, through characterization of the effect of background tissue density and heterogeneity on the detection of irregular masses in digital breast tomosynthesis. Twenty breast phantoms from the extended cardiactorso (XCAT) family, generated based on dedicated breast computed tomography of human subjects, were used to extract a total of 2173 volumes of interest (VOI) from simulated tomosynthesis images. Five different lesions, modeled after human subject tomosynthesis images, were embedded in the breasts, for a total of 6×2173 VOIs with and without lesions. Effects of background tissue density and heterogeneity on the detection of the lesions were studied by implementing a doubly composite hypothesis signal detection theory paradigm with location known exactly, lesion known exactly, and background known statistically. The results indicated that the detection performance as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) deteriorated as density was increased, yielding findings consistent with clinical studies. The detection performance varied substantially across the twenty breasts. Furthermore, the log-likelihood ratio under H0 and H1 seemed to be affected by background tissue density and heterogeneity differently. Considering background tissue variability can change the outcomes of a VCT and is hence of crucial importance. The XCAT breast phantoms can address this concern by offering realistic modeling of background tissue variability based on a wide range of human subjects.

  20. AKATSUKI returns to Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masato; Imamura, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Abe, Takumi; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Chikako; Satoh, Takehiko; Suzuki, Makoto; Ueno, Munetaka; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Iwagami, Naomoto; Watanabe, Shigeto; Taguchi, Makoto; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Yamada, Manabu; Imai, Masataka; Ohtsuki, Shoko; Uemizu, Kazunori; Hashimoto, George L.; Takagi, Masahiro; Matsuda, Yoshihisa; Ogohara, Kazunori; Sato, Naoki; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kouyama, Toru; Hirata, Naru; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Yukio; Horinouchi, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masaru; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Kashimura, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Ando, Hiroki; Murakami, Shin-ya; Sato, Takao M.; Takagi, Seiko; Nakajima, Kensuke; Peralta, Javier; Lee, Yeon Joo; Nakatsuka, Junichi; Ichikawa, Tsutomu; Inoue, Kozaburo; Toda, Tomoaki; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Tachikawa, Sumitaka; Narita, Shinichiro; Hayashiyama, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Akiko; Kamata, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    AKATSUKI is the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter that was designed to investigate the climate system of Venus. The orbiter was launched on May 21, 2010, and it reached Venus on December 7, 2010. Thrust was applied by the orbital maneuver engine in an attempt to put AKATSUKI into a westward equatorial orbit around Venus with a 30-h orbital period. However, this operation failed because of a malfunction in the propulsion system. After this failure, the spacecraft orbited the Sun for 5 years. On December 7, 2015, AKATSUKI once again approached Venus and the Venus orbit insertion was successful, whereby a westward equatorial orbit with apoapsis of ~440,000 km and orbital period of 14 days was initiated. Now that AKATSUKI's long journey to Venus has ended, it will provide scientific data on the Venusian climate system for two or more years. For the purpose of both decreasing the apoapsis altitude and avoiding a long eclipse during the orbit, a trim maneuver was performed at the first periapsis. The apoapsis altitude is now ~360,000 km with a periapsis altitude of 1000-8000 km, and the period is 10 days and 12 h. In this paper, we describe the details of the Venus orbit insertion-revenge 1 (VOI-R1) and the new orbit, the expected scientific information to be obtained at this orbit, and the Venus images captured by the onboard 1-µm infrared camera, ultraviolet imager, and long-wave infrared camera 2 h after the successful initiation of the VOI-R1.

  1. Mechanical behavior of low porosity carbonate rock: from brittle creep to ductile creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, A.; Fortin, J.; Gueguen, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Mechanical compaction and associated porosity reduction play an important role in the diagenesis of porous rocks. They may also affect reservoir rocks during hydrocarbon production, as the pore pressure field is modified. This inelastic compaction can lead to subsidence, cause casing failure, trigger earthquake, or change the fluid transport properties. In addition, inelastic deformation can be time - dependent. In particular, brittle creep phenomena have been deeply investigated since the 90s, especially in sandstones. However knowledge of carbonates behavior is still insufficient. In this experimental study, we focus on the mechanical behavior of a low porosity (9%) white Tavel (France) carbonate rock (>98% calcite) at P-Q conditions beyond the elastic domain. It has been shown that in sandstones composed of quartz, cracks are developing under these conditions. However, in carbonates, calcite minerals can meanwhile also exhibit microplasticity. The samples were deformed in the triaxial cell of the Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris at effective confining pressures ranging from 35 MPa to 85 MPa and room temperature. Experiments were carried on dry and water saturated samples to explore the role played by the pore fluids. Time dependency was investigated by a creep steps methodology: at each step, differential stress was increased rapidly and kept constant for at least 24h. During these steps elastic wave velocities (P and S) and permeability were measured continuously. Our results show two different creep behaviors: (1) brittle creep is observed at low confining pressures, whereas (2) ductile creep is observed at higher confining pressures. These two creep behaviors have a different signature in term of elastic wave velocities and permeability changes. Indeed, in the brittle domain, the primary creep is associated with a decrease of elastic wave velocities and an increase of permeability, and no secondary creep is observed. In the ductile domain, the primary creep

  2. Conception, fabrication et validation d'un capteur de direction instantanee d'ecoulement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaab, Quentin

    A Flow Direction Probe was designed and built at the Thermo-Fluids for Transport (TFT) laboratory of Ecole de technologie superieure to enable the study of instantaneous flow reversals in a turbulent separation bubble. The probe's general form is based on the thermal-tuft probe introduced by Eaton et al. (1979). It consists of three parallel wires (one central wire and two sensing wires placed on each side) mounted close to the test surface, perpendicular to the main flow direction. The middle wire is heated by an electric current which generates a heated wake. The heated wake increases the electrical resistance of the sensing wire that is placed downstream of the central wire. Therefore, the flow direction near the wall can be determined by comparing the resistances of the two sensing wires. For that purpose, the two sensing wires are mounted in a Wheatstone bridge and a signal conditioning circuitry, which is a simplification of the one proposed by Eaton et al. (1979), delivers an output voltage that is readable by a digital data acquisition system (1 if the flow moves downstream and 0 otherwise). Therefore, the fraction of time the flow moves downstream (gamma) and the intermittent frequency (fc) can easily be computed. The probe measurement's principle has been evaluated in an acoustic resonator by generating an oscillating flow at about 200Hz. The probe was shown to be in good agreement with the acoustic reference velocity. Then, the signal conditioner performances have been tested by simulating an oscillating flow at 20Hz thanks to a mechanical shaker. A small delay has been highlighted between the sign change of the voltage across the bridge and the actual commutation of the output signal. However, this delay didn't infer the value of gamma. Finally, the probe has been implemented in the TFT's wind tunnel facility where a pressure-driven turbulent separation bubble had been created. The distributions of gamma and fc have been measured below the test surface

  3. Processus mis en jeu dans l'evolution morpho-dynamique de Roberts Bank (Delta du Fraser): Observation et modelisation hydrodynamiques et sedimentaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meule, Samuel

    'un panache de surface et par les chenaux deltaiques. Une forte turbulence favorisera un processus dit de "sedimentation convective induite par un melange turbulent" ("mixing-induced convective sedimentation "). Le comportement des vagues de tempete qui se propagent sur la partie superieure de la pente du Delta du Fraser depend du marnage, de l'incidence de propagation et de la morphologie sous-marine. Ces facteurs controlent une divergence dans le transport sedimentaire au niveau de la rupture de pente deltaique. A maree haute, le transport sedimentaire sera essentiellement "onshore".

  4. Study of the occlusion effect induced by an earplug: Numerical modelling and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brummund, Martin

    (IRSST) and the Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) has been launched. The present study represents a part of this collaboration and aims at studying the occlusion effect of the system earplug - ear canal through the development of novel numerical models and experimental methods. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  5. Acoustic Emissions, Velocities And Permeability Evolution During Formation Of Compaction Bands In Sandstone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, J.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Schubnel, A.; Gueguen, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Compaction bands are zones of localized deformation observed in high porosity rock (Mollema et al. [1996], Klein et al. [2001], Fortin et al. [2003]). These planar bands form perpendicular to the direction of maximum compression. Compaction bands display significantly reduced porosity and are potentially important permeability barriers in reservoir rocks and aquifers. To investigate localized compaction and changes in physical properties of porous sandstone, we performed triaxial tests on Bleurswiller sandstone, (50% quartz 30% feldspars and 20% clay, 25% porosity), on Fontainebleau sandstone (100% quartz, 25% porosity) and on Flechtingen sandstone (65-75% quartz, calcite and illite 15%, porosity 5.5-7%). Experiments were performed under wet conditions at a pore pressure of 10 MPa. Thirteen experiments were performed at the Laboratoire de Geologie (Ecole Normal Superieur Paris) and at GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. Evolution of volumetric strain, elastic wave velocities and permeability were recorded at confining pressures of 12 and 180 MPa. Acoustic Emission (AE) characteristics during deformation were studied at GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. To monitor velocity change and microcracking of sandstone, 10 P-wave sensors and 8 polarized S-wave piezoelectric sensors were glued to the cylindrical surface of the samples. To monitor fracture-induced anisotropy, two additional P sensors were installed in axial direction. Fully digitized waveforms were recorded by 10 MHz/16bit Data Acquisition System with an accuracy of AE hypocenters determination of about 2.5 mm. Location of acoustic emission events reveal the evolution of localized compaction bands in sandstone subjected to axial compression. The formation of the bands depends on rock type and effective pressure. Our experiments show a reduction of permeability across compaction bands by about one to two orders of magnitude (Vajdova et al. [2004]; Holcomb et al., [2003]) suggesting that the bands may act as barriers to

  6. Contribution au developpement d'une methode de controle des procedes dans une usine de bouletage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Claude

    This thesis, a collaborative effort between Ecole de technologie superieure and ArcelorMittal Company, presents the development of a methodology for monitoring and quality control of multivariable industrial production processes. This innovation research mandate was developed at ArcelorMittal Exploitation Miniere (AMEM) pellet plant in Port-Cartier (Quebec, Canada). With this undertaking, ArcelorMittal is striving to maintain its world class level of excellence and continues to pursue initiatives that can augment its competitive advantage worldwide. The plant's gravimetric classification process was retained as a prototype and development laboratory due to its effect on the company's competitiveness and its impact on subsequent steps leading to final production of iron oxide pellets. Concretely, the development of this expertise in process control and in situ monitoring will establish a firm basic knowledge in the fields of complex system physical modeling, data reconciliation, statistical observers, multivariate command and quality control using real-time monitoring of the desirability function. The hydraulic classifier is mathematically modeled. Using planned disturbances on the production line, an identification procedure was established to provide empirical estimations of the model's structural parameters. A new sampling campaign and a previously unpublished data collection and consolidation policy were implemented plant-wide. Access to these invaluable data sources has enabled the establishment of new thresholds that govern the production process and its control. Finally, as a substitute for the traditional quality control process, we have implemented a new strategy based on the use of the desirability function. Our innovation is not in using this Finally, as a substitute for the traditional quality control process, we have implemented a new strategy based on the use of the desirability function. Our innovation is not in using this function as an indicator of

  7. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy. Methods and finding We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group. Conclusions The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin. PMID:27058240

  8. Prediagnostic serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers are correlated with future development of lung and esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Brieze R; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Pak, Jamie S; Brennan, Paul; Khademi, Hooman; Genden, Eric M; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Sikora, Andrew G

    2014-09-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that prediagnostic serum levels of 20 cancer-associated inflammatory biomarkers correlate directly with future development of head and neck, esophageal, and lung cancers in a high-risk prospective cohort. This is a nested case-control pilot study of subjects enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study, an ongoing epidemiologic project assessing cancer trends in Golestan, Iran. We measured a panel of 20 21 cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory molecules using Luminex technology in serum samples collected 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis in 78 aerodigestive cancer cases and 81 controls. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon rank sum test, odds ratios, receiver operating characteristic areas of discrimination, and multivariate analysis. Biomarkers were profoundly and globally elevated in future esophageal and lung cancer patients compared to controls. Odds ratios were significant for association between several biomarkers and future development of esophageal cancer, including interleukin-1Rα (IL-1Ra; 35.9), interferon α2 (IFN-a2; 34.0), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2; 17.4), and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF; 17.4). The same pattern was observed among future lung cancer cases for G-CSF (27.7), GM-CSF (13.3), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-a; 8.6). By contrast, the majority of biomarkers studied showed no significant correlation with future head and neck cancer development. This study provides the first direct evidence that multiple inflammatory biomarkers are coordinately elevated in future lung and esophageal cancer patients 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis. PMID:25040886

  9. Prediagnostic serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers are correlated with future development of lung and esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Keeley, Brieze R; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Pak, Jamie S; Brennan, Paul; Khademi, Hooman; Genden, Eric M; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Sikora, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that prediagnostic serum levels of 20 cancer-associated inflammatory biomarkers correlate directly with future development of head and neck, esophageal, and lung cancers in a high-risk prospective cohort. This is a nested case–control pilot study of subjects enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study, an ongoing epidemiologic project assessing cancer trends in Golestan, Iran. We measured a panel of 20 21cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory molecules using Luminex technology in serum samples collected 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis in 78 aerodigestive cancer cases and 81 controls. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon rank sum test, odds ratios, receiver operating characteristic areas of discrimination, and multivariate analysis. Biomarkers were profoundly and globally elevated in future esophageal and lung cancer patients compared to controls. Odds ratios were significant for association between several biomarkers and future development of esophageal cancer, including interleukin-1Rα (IL-1Ra; 35.9), interferon α2 (IFN-a2; 34.0), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2; 17.4), and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF; 17.4). The same pattern was observed among future lung cancer cases for G-CSF (27.7), GM-CSF (13.3), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-a; 8.6). By contrast, the majority of biomarkers studied showed no significant correlation with future head and neck cancer development. This study provides the first direct evidence that multiple inflammatory biomarkers are coordinately elevated in future lung and esophageal cancer patients 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis. PMID:25040886

  10. Combination of Anti-IGF-1R Antibody A12 and Ionizing Radiation in Upper Respiratory Tract Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Riesterer, Oliver; Yang Qiuan; Raju, Uma; Torres, Mylin; Molkentine, David; Patel, Nalini; Valdecanas, David; Milas, Luka; Ang, K. Kian

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The IGF1/IGF-1R signaling pathway has emerged as a potential determinant of radiation resistance in human cancer cell lines. Therefore we investigated the potency of monoclonal anti-IGF-1R antibody, A12, to enhance radiation response in upper respiratory tract cancers. Methods and Materials: Cell lines were assessed for IGF-1R expression and IGF1-dependent response to A12 or radiation using viability and clonogenic cancer cell survival assays. In vivo response of tumor xenografts to 10 or 20 Gy and A12 (0.25-2 mg x 3) was assessed using growth delay assays. Combined treatment effects were also analyzed by immunohistochemical assays for tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression at Days 1 and 6 after start of treatment. Results: A12 enhanced the radiosensitivity of HN5 and FaDu head-and-neck carcinomas in vitro (p < 0.05) and amplified the radioresponse of FaDu xenografts in a dose-dependent manner, with enhancement factors ranging from 1.2 to 1.8 (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis of FaDu xenografts demonstrated that A12 inhibited tumor cell proliferation (p < 0.05) and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. When A12 was combined with radiation, this resulted in apoptosis induction that persisted until 6 days from the start of treatment and in increased necrosis at Day 1 (p < 0.01, respectively). Combined treatment with A12 and radiation resulted in additive or subadditive growth delay in H460 or A549 xenografts, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study strengthen the evidence for investigating how anti-IGF-1R strategies can be integrated into radiation and radiation-cetuximab regimen in the treatment of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract cancers.

  11. Identification of Mutations in the PYRIN-Containing NLR Genes (NLRP) in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yu; Lui, Vivian W. Y.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Egloff, Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) encompasses malignancies that arise in the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Recent high throughput DNA sequencing revealed HNSCC genes mutations that contribute to several cancer cell characteristics, including dysregulation of cell proliferation and death, intracellular proinflammatory signaling, and autophagy. The PYRIN-domain containing NLR (Nucleotide-binding domain, Leucine rich Repeats – containing) proteins have recently emerged as pivotal modulators of cell death, autophagy, inflammation, and metabolism. Their close physiologic association with cancer development prompted us to determine whether mutations within the NLRP (PYRIN-containing NLR) gene family were associated with HNSCC genome instability and their clinicopathologic correlations. Catastrophic mutational events underlie cancer cell genome instability and mark a point-of-no-return in cancer cell development and generation of heterogeneity. The mutation profiles of 62 patients with primary conventional type HNSCC excluding other histologic variants were analyzed. Associations were tested using Fisher's Exact test or Mann-Whitney U test. Mutations in NLRP were associated with elevated genome instability as characterized by higher mutation rates. Clinically, NLRP mutations were more frequently found in HNSCC arising in the floor of mouth (50.0%) in comparison with HNSCC at other head and neck locations (14.8%). These mutations were clustered at the leucine rich repeats region of NLRP proteins, and affected NLRP genes were mostly localized at chromosomes 11p15.4 and 19q13.42-19q13.43. Twenty novel NLRP mutations were identified in HNSCC, and mutations in this group of genes were correlated with increased cancer cell genome mutation rates, and such features could be a potential molecular biomarker of HNSCC genome instability. PMID:24465623

  12. NUT midline carcinoma in a newborn with multiorgan disseminated tumor and a 2-year-old with a pancreatic/hepatic primary.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Bahig M; Steelman, Charlotte K; Abramowsky, Carlos R; Olson, Thomas A; French, Christopher A; Saxe, Debra F; Ricketts, Richard R; Katzenstein, Howard M

    2010-01-01

    NUT midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare and aggressive malignant epithelial tumor defined by rearrangement of the NUT gene on chromosome 15. In two thirds of cases, NUT is involved in a balanced translocation with BDR4 on chromosome 19, while in the remaining cases, NUT is rearranged with variant fusion partners such as BRD3. These undifferentiated tumors primarily affect midline structures, usually in the upper aerodigestive tract and mediastinum. Most reported cases have followed a rapidly lethal clinical course. We report the clinical and pathological findings of NMC in the youngest patients identified so far. The 1st case involves a newborn who presented with a supraorbital mass and extensive multiorgan involvement, including the spine, lungs, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, and subcutaneous tissue. The 2nd patient was a 2-year-old male with an abdominal mass involving the liver and pancreas with pulmonary metastasis. Histopathological analysis of both tumors showed undifferentiated malignant neoplasms, and immunohistochemistry showed positivity for epithelial markers. Both tumors demonstrated t(15;19), and immunohistochemistry with NUT monoclonal antibodies and fluorescent in situ hybridization confirmed NUT rearrangement. The patients died from disease at 1 and 2 months postpresentation. Thus far, 25 cases have been reported, including our 2 current cases. Presentation ages range from 0 to 78 years (mean, 23 years). Herein, we report the 2 youngest reported cases of NMC, including the 1st congenital case and the 1st case arising within the liver/pancreas. Increased awareness and further molecular studies are required for a better understanding of NMC pathobiology and improved therapeutic outcomes. PMID:20017639

  13. Endoscopic surveillance of head and neck cancer in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Minoru; Ishihara, Ryu; Hamada, Kenta; Tonai, Yusuke; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Matsuura, Noriko; Kanesaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Multiple squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) frequently arise in the upper aerodigestive tract, referred to as the field cancerization phenomenon. The aim of this study was to elucidate the detailed clinical features of second primary head and neck (H&N) SCCs arising in patients with esophageal SCC. Patients and methods: A total of 818 patients underwent endoscopic resection for superficial esophageal cancer between January 2006 and December 2013. Of these, 439 patients met our inclusion criteria, and we retrospectively investigated the incidence, primary sites, and stages of second primary H&N SCCs in these patients. Results: A total of 53 metachronous H&N SCCs developed in 40 patients after a median follow-up period of 46 months (range 9 – 109). The cumulative incidence rates of metachronous H&N SCCs at 3, 5, and 7 years were 5.3 %, 9.7 %, and 17.2 %, respectively. These lesions were frequently located at pyriform sinus or in the posterior wall of the pharynx (70 %, 37/53 lesions). Most of the lesions were detected at an early stage, though 4 lesions were associated with lymph node metastasis when their primary sites were detected (1 postcricoid area, 2 posterior wall of hypopharynx, and 1 lateral wall of oropharynx). Conclusions: Patients with esophageal SCC should undergo careful inspection of the pyriform sinus and posterior wall of the pharynx for detection of H&N SCCs. Methods to open the hypopharyngeal space, such as the Valsalva maneuver, should be included in the surveillance program. PMID:27556090

  14. Suppression of Proinflammatory and Prosurvival Biomarkers in Oral Cancer Patients Consuming a Black Raspberry Phytochemical-Rich Troche.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Thomas J; Uhrig, Lana K; Pearl, Dennis K; Casto, Bruce C; Warner, Blake M; Clinton, Steven K; Sardo-Molmenti, Christine L; Ferguson, Jeanette M; Daly, Brett T; Riedl, Kenneth; Schwartz, Steven J; Vodovotz, Yael; Buchta, Anthony J; Schuller, David E; Ozer, Enver; Agrawal, Amit; Weghorst, Christopher M

    2016-02-01

    Black raspberries (BRB) demonstrate potent inhibition of aerodigestive tract carcinogenesis in animal models. However, translational clinical trials evaluating the ability of BRB phytochemicals to impact molecular biomarkers in the oral mucosa remain limited. The present phase 0 study addresses a fundamental question for oral cancer food-based prevention: Do BRB phytochemicals successfully reach the targeted oral tissues and reduce proinflammatory and antiapoptotic gene expression profiles? Patients with biopsy-confirmed oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) administered oral troches containing freeze-dried BRB powder from the time of enrollment to the date of curative intent surgery (13.9 ± 1.27 days). Transcriptional biomarkers were evaluated in patient-matched OSCCs and noninvolved high at-risk mucosa (HARM) for BRB-associated changes. Significant expression differences between baseline OSCC and HARM tissues were confirmed using a panel of genes commonly deregulated during oral carcinogenesis. Following BRB troche administration, the expression of prosurvival genes (AURKA, BIRC5, EGFR) and proinflammatory genes (NFKB1, PTGS2) were significantly reduced. There were no BRB-associated grade 3-4 toxicities or adverse events, and 79.2% (N = 30) of patients successfully completed the study with high levels of compliance (97.2%). The BRB phytochemicals cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-xylosylrutinoside were detected in all OSCC tissues analyzed, demonstrating that bioactive components were successfully reaching targeted OSCC tissues. We confirmed that hallmark antiapoptotic and proinflammatory molecular biomarkers were overexpressed in OSCCs and that their gene expression was significantly reduced following BRB troche administration. As these molecular biomarkers are fundamental to oral carcinogenesis and are modifiable, they may represent emerging biomarkers of molecular efficacy for BRB-mediated oral cancer chemoprevention. PMID:26701664

  15. BRAF and NRAS mutations are uncommon in melanomas arising in diverse internal organs

    PubMed Central

    Wong, C W; Fan, Y S; Chan, T L; Chan, A S W; Ho, L C; Ma, T K F; Yuen, S T; Leung, S Y

    2005-01-01

    Background: Malignant melanoma arising from different body compartments may be associated with differing aetiological factors and clinical behaviour, and may manifest diverse molecular genetic profiles. Although many studies have focused on cutaneous melanoma, little is known of mucosal and other types of melanoma. In particular, malignant melanoma of soft parts is different from other melanomas in many respects, yet manifests a common melanocytic differentiation. Mutation of BRAF is now known to be common in cutaneous melanomas, and raises possible new therapeutic options of anti-RAF treatment for these patients. Few data are available for non-cutaneous melanomas. Aims: To study the incidence of BRAF and NRAS mutations in melanomas arising in diverse internal organs. Methods: Fifty one melanomas from various internal organs were investigated for BRAF and NRAS mutation by direct DNA sequencing. Results: BRAF and NRAS mutations were found in two and five mucosal melanomas arising from the aerodigestive and female genital tracts (n = 36). Their occurrence is mutually exclusive, giving a combined mutation incidence rate of 19.4% in mucosal melanomas. Both BRAF and NRAS mutations were absent in malignant melanoma of soft parts (n = 7). BRAF mutation was also absent in uveal melanoma (n = 6), but was seen in two of five cutaneous melanomas. The incidence of BRAF or combined BRAF/NRAS mutations in all non-cutaneous groups was significantly lower than published rates for cutaneous melanomas. Conclusion: Each melanoma subtype may have a unique oncogenetic pathway of tumour development, and only a small fraction of non-cutaneous melanomas may benefit from anti-RAF treatment. PMID:15917418

  16. Incidence, risk factors and outcomes of de novo malignancies post liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mukthinuthalapati, Pavan Kedar; Gotur, Raghavender; Ghabril, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is associated with a 2 to 7 fold higher, age and gender adjusted, risk of de novo malignancy. The overall incidence of de novo malignancy post LT ranges from 2.2% to 26%, and 5 and 10 years incidence rates are estimated at 10% to 14.6% and 20% to 32%, respectively. The main risk factors for de novo malignancy include immunosuppression with impaired immunosurveillance, and a number of patient factors which include; age, latent oncogenic viral infections, tobacco and alcohol use history, and underlying liver disease. The most common cancers after LT are non-melanoma skin cancers, accounting for approximately 37% of de novo malignancies, with a noted increase in the ratio of squamous to basal cell cancers. While these types of skin cancer do not impact patient survival, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and solid organ cancer, accounting for 25% and 48% of malignancies, are associated with increased mortality. Patients developing these types of cancer are diagnosed at more advanced stages, and their cancers behave more aggressively compared with the general population. Patients undergoing LT for primary sclerosing cholangitis (particularly with inflammatory bowel disease) and alcoholic liver disease have high rates of malignancies compared with patients undergoing LT for other indications. These populations are at particular risk for gastrointestinal and aerodigestive cancers respectively. Counseling smoking cessation, skin protection from sun exposure and routine clinical follow-up are the current approach in practice. There are no standardized surveillance protocol, but available data suggests that regimented surveillance strategies are needed and capable of yielding cancer diagnosis at earlier stages with better resulting survival. Evidence-based strategies are needed to guide optimal surveillance and safe minimization of immunosuppression. PMID:27134701

  17. Non-invasive assessment of human tumour hypoxia with 123I-iodoazomycin arabinoside: preliminary report of a clinical study.

    PubMed Central

    Parliament, M. B.; Chapman, J. D.; Urtasun, R. C.; McEwan, A. J.; Golberg, L.; Mercer, J. R.; Mannan, R. H.; Wiebe, L. I.

    1992-01-01

    Non-invasive predictive assays which can confirm the presence or absence of hypoxic cells in human tumours show promise for understanding the natural history of tumour oxygenation, and improving the selection of patient subsets for novel radiotherapeutic strategies. Sensitiser adducts have been proposed as markers for hypoxic cells. Misonidazole analogues radiolabelled with iodine-123 have been developed for the detection of tumour hypoxia using conventional nuclear medicine techniques. In this pilot study, we have investigated one such potential marker, 123I-iodoazomycin arabinoside (123I-IAZA). Patients with advanced malignancies have undergone planar and single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging after intravenous administration of 123I-IAZA. We have observed radiotracer avidity in three out of ten tumours studied to date. Normal tissue activity of variable extent was also seen in the thyroid and salivary glands, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, intestine, and urinary bladder. Quantitative analysis of those images showing radiotracer avidity revealed tumour/normal tissue (T/N) ratios of 2.3 (primary small cell lung carcinoma), 1.9 (primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma) and 3.2 (brain metastasis from small cell lung carcinoma) at 18-24 h post injection. These preliminary data suggest that the use of gamma-emitter labelled 2-nitroimidazoles as diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals is feasible and safe, and that metabolic binding of 123I-IAZA is observed in some, but not all tumours. The inference that tumour 123I-IAZA avidity could be a non-invasive measure of tumour hypoxia deserves independent confirmation with needle oximetry. Images p92-a Figure 2 PMID:1310253

  18. Feasibility and safety of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for early hypopharyngeal cancer: a subset analysis of the Hamburg University TORS-trial.

    PubMed

    Lörincz, Balazs B; Busch, Chia-Jung; Möckelmann, Nikolaus; Knecht, Rainald

    2015-10-01

    Over the past 5 years, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has become well established as one of the standard treatment options for T1 and T2 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Besides this main indication, TORS can provide with improved access to other subsites of the upper aerodigestive tract as well, such as the supraglottic larynx and the hypopharynx, with superior visibility and maneuverability to that of transoral laser microsurgery (TOLM). Since September 2011, over one hundred TORS procedures have been performed at our institution, predominantly for oropharyngeal cancer. As part of our first 50 transoral robotic cases making up our initial TORS-trial, five patients underwent TORS for early hypopharyngeal carcinoma. The present case series evaluates its feasibility, safety and the completeness of resection in this well-defined subgroup of patients. Main outcome measures were completeness of resection, the presence or lack of postoperative bleeding, number of days intubated, rate of elective tracheotomy, duration of intensive care and/or intermediate care, speech and swallowing function, and duration of nasogastric and/or gastrostomy tube dependency. All patients have been free of recurrence to date. One patient died of other disease. Four patients are alive and free of tumour, three of them did not need adjuvant therapy. Transoral robotic surgery with appropriate neck dissection is a valid primary treatment option for select early hypopharyngeal carcinoma, especially in cases that did not require adjuvant treatment. In contrast to TOLM, TORS allows a multi-planar en bloc resection in the hypopharynx which makes histopathological evaluation more reliable. In addition to this, its faster learning curve makes the results less dependent on the individual surgeons' capabilities. PMID:25217079

  19. Direct and indirect costs of smoking in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hoang Anh, Pham Thi; Thu, Le Thi; Ross, Hana; Quynh Anh, Nguyen; Linh, Bui Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Thac

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the direct and indirect costs of active smoking in Vietnam. Method A prevalence-based disease-specific cost of illness approach was utilised to calculate the costs related to five smoking-related diseases: lung cancer, cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Data on healthcare came from an original survey, hospital records and official government statistics. Morbidity and mortality due to smoking combined with the average per capita income were used to calculate the indirect costs of smoking by applying the human capital approach. The smoking-attributable fraction was calculated using the adjusted relative risk values from phase II of the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study (CPS-II). Costs were classified as personal, governmental and health insurance costs. Results The total economic cost of smoking in 2011 was estimated at 24 679.9 billion Vietnamese dong (VND), equivalent to US$1173.2 million or approximately 0.97% of the 2011 gross domestic product. The direct costs of inpatient and outpatient care reached 9896.2 billion VND (US$470.4 million) and 2567.2 billion VND (US$122.0 million), respectively. The government’s contribution to these costs was 4534.3 billion VND (US$215.5 million), which was equivalent to 5.76% of its 2011 healthcare budget. The indirect costs (productivity loss) due to morbidity and mortality were 2652.9 billion VND (US$126.1 million) and 9563.5 billion VND (US$454.6 million), respectively. These indirect costs represent about 49.5% of the total costs of smoking. Conclusions Tobacco consumption has large negative consequences on the Vietnamese economy. PMID:25512430

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of gastroesophageal reflux in children with otitis media in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Seyed Hamidreza; Kazerooni, Azadeh; Brejis, Nezamodin; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Saneian, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Otitis media (OM) is the most common cause of childhood hearing loss and reason to visit the pediatrician. Furthermore, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with a variety of upper aerodigestive tract symptoms or diseases, such as sinusitis, laryngitis, and otits. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of GER in children, aged 3 months to 7 years, with OM. Materials and Methods: This retrospective case-control study was conducted on 50 children with OM and 50 healthy children. Presence of GER as the main variables was diagnosed by clinical examination in all studied children using the questionnaires with 2 age-stratified versions of the pediatric GER disease symptoms for children 2 years old and younger, and children 3–7 years old. Results: The prevalence of GER in children with OM and controls was 58% and 22% respectively (P = 0.0005). The frequency of irritability, congestion, and feeding complex in children with OM were significantly more than in control groups. Among children with recurrent acute OM (AOM), and chronic serous OM (CSOM) the prevalence of GER was significantly more than controls (61.1%, vs. 22% for AOM, P = 0.004, and 72.7% vs. 22%, P= 0.003). In children with AOM, regurgitation, vomiting, irritability and congestion were significantly higher than controls included. In children with CSOM, regurgitation, vomiting, and congestion were significantly higher than controls. Conclusion: Results show a significant association between GER and OM, AOM and CSOM in children with OM compares to healthy children. This shows that looking for GER in children with OM may help improving treatments outcomes. PMID:27274496

  1. FOREIGN BODY IN THE NASOPHARYNX; MASQUERADING AS PHARYNGOTONSILLITIS.

    PubMed

    Enyuma, C O A; Offiong, M; Adekanye, A; Akpan, U; Ezeanyagu, N; Uffiah, O

    2015-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) in the aerodigestive tracts has been commonly reported but findings of impacted foreign bodies in the nasopharynx following inhalation/ingestion are very rare. Most of the FB gets lodged as a result of forceful vomiting, coughing,and digital manoeuvres for removal of FB in the oropharynx. Several objects have been identified lodged in the nasopharynx. No age group is spared although most victims are children under 10 years of age. Foreign bodies in the nasopharynx can be uneventful or potentially dangerous depending on type, size and location as it may cause sudden airway obstruction, or local pressure necrosis of alimentary or respiratory tract or both. Presentation in children is usually with a history of swallowed FB which may not be witnessed in children, choking, cough, bluish discolouration, breathlessness, drooling of saliva, halitosis, rhinorrhoea, snoring, stridor, dysphagia, vomiting and dysphonia. A foreign body in the nasopharynx is a challenge to patient, parents, the physician and the ENT surgeon, as it may be miss-diagnosed, in the index case, as Pharyngotonsilitis. The index patient, a 14 month child,was presented with a two days history of fever, drooling of saliva, mouth breathing, and digital manipulation. Lateral imaging of the post nasal space following initial treatment with antibiotics, aided the diagnosis of a periwinkle shell in the nasopharyngx that was removed during a nasopharyngoscopy under general anaesthesia without complication and subsequently discharged home. This emphasizes a high index of suspicion for FB in the nasopharynx in children with history of missing foreign body, digital manipulation, drooling of saliva and mouth breathing. Lateral X-ray of the postnasal space, neck, chest and abdomen should be the minimum investigation required. PMID:27487618

  2. Epidemiology and pathology of HPV disease in males

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Anna R.; Anic, Gabriella; Nyitray, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    It is currently recognized that besides the significant impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in females, HPV causes substantial disease in men as well. Genital warts are a common manifestation of male infection with HPV. Genital warts are highly infectious and approximately 65% of people who have sex with an infected partner will develop warts themselves. More than 90% of genital warts are caused by non-oncogenic HPV types 6 and 11. In addition, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a rare disease most often associated with HPV types 6 and 11. Several cancers of the anogenital tract and upper aero-digestive tract, and their precursor lesions in men are now understood to be caused by infection with sexually transmitted HPV. For example, there is increasing incidence of anal cancer in western countries; however, there are limited data on its primary cause, anal canal HPV infection. Genital HPV infection is very common in men with an ongoing international study estimating a prevalence of 65.2% in asymptomatic males aged 18–70 years. Lifetime number of sexual partners was the most significant risk factor for the acquisition of HPV infection (P<0.05), and circumcision has been associated with reduced detection of HPV infection in men. HPV infections may be less likely to persist in men than in women. In men, the median time to clearance of any HPV infection was 5.9 months, with 75% of infections clearing within 12 months. More data are needed to better understand the natural history of HPV infection. Although the quadrivalent HPV vaccine has been shown to be effective and safe in men, low awareness of HPV in males may be a barrier to its use for the prevention of HPV infection. PMID:20138345

  3. Helical tomotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost dose painting for the treatment of synchronous primary cancers involving the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Daly, M E; Cui, J; Wooten, H O; Farwell, D G; Purdy, J A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the feasibility of helical tomotherapy (HT)-based intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for the treatment of synchronous primary cancers arising from the head and neck. Methods: 14 consecutive patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were determined to have a second primary cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract on further evaluation and were treated with HT using simultaneous integrated boost IMRT. Megavoltage CT scans were acquired daily as part of an image-guided registration protocol. Concurrent platinum-based systemic therapy was given to nine patients (64%). Results: HT resulted in durable local control in 21 of the 28 primary disease sites irradiated, including a complete clinical and radiographic response initially observed at 17 of the 20 sites with gross tumour. The mean displacements to account for interfraction motion were 2.44 ± 1.25, 2.92 ± 1.09 and 2.31 ± 1.70 mm for the medial–lateral (ML), superior–inferior (SI) and anteroposterior (AP) directions, respectively. Table shifts of >3 mm occurred in 19%, 20% and 22% of the ML, SI and AP directions, respectively. The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control and progression-free survival were 58%, 73% and 60%, respectively. Conclusion: The effectiveness of HT for the treatment of synchronous primary cancers of the head and neck was demonstrated. Advances in knowledge: HT is a feasible option for synchronous primary cancers of the head and neck and can result in long-term disease control with acceptable toxicity in appropriately selected patients. PMID:24884726

  4. The Case for Requiring Graphic Warning Labels on Smokeless Tobacco Product Packages.

    PubMed

    Pakhale, Smita; Samet, Jonathan; Folan, Patricia; Leone, Frank; White, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    On November 10, 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved, for the first time, the sale of smokeless tobacco products authorized under the new premarket tobacco application pathway. This Food and Drug Administration regulatory decision draws attention to the growing worldwide use of smokeless tobacco products in general. Use of these tobacco products is particularly popular in low- and middle-income countries of Asia. Due to aggressive and strategic marketing to children, young adults, and current smokers, rates of smokeless tobacco use in men of all ages are on the rise in United States and elsewhere. The tobacco industry also continues to market these products to current cigarette smokers for use in the growing number of "smoke-free environments." Smokeless tobacco products are associated with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, particularly the oral cavity, esophagus, and pancreas; cardiovascular diseases; small-for-gestational-age infants; premature births; increased risk of apnea; and stillbirth. There is no convincing evidence regarding the efficacy of smokeless tobacco, including snus, to promote smoking cessation. Rather, studies from Europe and the United States demonstrate that smokeless tobacco use may facilitate regular cigarette smoking by acting as a gateway drug, especially for children. Caution is warranted before proposing smokeless tobacco as a harm-reduction strategy, in part because of the potential for further promoting smokeless tobacco in low- and middle-income countries where use is already widespread. Continued vigilance through comprehensive surveillance is warranted. We strongly recommend the use of graphic warning labels as a "no regrets" strategy for all smokeless tobacco products marketed globally. PMID:26784741

  5. Scintigraphy in laryngopharyngeal and gastroesophageal reflux disease: A definitive diagnostic test?

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Gregory L; Beattie, John; Ing, Alvin; Falk, SE; Magee, Michael; Burton, Leticia; Van der Wall, Hans

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the utility of scintigraphic studies in predicting response to laparoscopic fundoplication (LF) for chronic laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms. METHODS: Patients with upper aero-digestive symptoms that remained undiagnosed after a period of 2 mo were studied with conventional pH and manometric studies. Patients mainly complained of cough, sore throat, dysphonia and globus. These patients were imaged after ingestion of 99m-technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid. Studies were quantified with time activity curves over the pharynx, upper and lower oesophagus and background. Late studies of the lungs were obtained for aspiration. Patients underwent LF with post-operative review at 3 mo after surgery. RESULTS: Thirty four patients (20 F, 14 M) with an average age of 57 years and average duration of symptoms of 4.8 years were studied. Twenty four hour pH and manometry studies were abnormal in all patients. On scintigraphy, 27/34 patients demonstrated pharyngeal contamination and a rising or flat pharyngeal curve. Lung aspiration was evident in 50% of patients. There was evidence of pulmonary aspiration in 17 of 34 patients in the delayed study (50%). Pharyngeal contamination was found in 27 patients. All patients with aspiration showed pharyngeal contamination. In the 17 patients with aspiration, graphical time activity curve showed rising activity in the pharynx in 9 patients and a flat curve in 8 patients. In those 17 patients without pulmonary aspiration, 29% (5 patients) had either a rising or flat pharyngeal graph. A rising or flat curve predicted aspiration with a positive predictive value of 77% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Over 90% of patients reported a satisfactory symptomatic response to LF with an acceptable side-effect profile. CONCLUSION: Scintigraphic reflux studies offer a good screening tool for pharyngeal contamination and aspiration in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:25834329

  6. Comparing histone deacetylase inhibitor responses in genetically engineered mouse lung cancer models and a window of opportunity trial in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian; Galimberti, Fabrizio; Erkmen, Cherie P; Memoli, Vincent; Chinyengetere, Fadzai; Sempere, Lorenzo; Beumer, Jan H; Anyang, Bean N; Nugent, William; Johnstone, David; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Kurie, Jonathan M; Li, Hua; Direnzo, James; Guo, Yongli; Freemantle, Sarah J; Dragnev, Konstantin H; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2013-08-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi; vorinostat) responses were studied in murine and human lung cancer cell lines and genetically engineered mouse lung cancer models. Findings were compared with a window of opportunity trial in aerodigestive tract cancers. In human (HOP62, H522, and H23) and murine transgenic (ED-1, ED-2, LKR-13, and 393P, driven, respectively, by cyclin E, degradation-resistant cyclin E, KRAS, or KRAS/p53) lung cancer cell lines, vorinostat reduced growth, cyclin D1, and cyclin E levels, but induced p27, histone acetylation, and apoptosis. Other biomarkers also changed. Findings from transgenic murine lung cancer models were integrated with those from a window of opportunity trial that measured vorinostat pharmacodynamic responses in pre- versus posttreatment tumor biopsies. Vorinostat repressed cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression in murine transgenic lung cancers and significantly reduced lung cancers in syngeneic mice. Vorinostat also reduced cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression, but increased p27 levels in post- versus pretreatment human lung cancer biopsies. Notably, necrotic and inflammatory responses appeared in posttreatment biopsies. These depended on intratumoral HDACi levels. Therefore, HDACi treatments of murine genetically engineered lung cancer models exert similar responses (growth inhibition and changes in gene expression) as observed in lung cancer cell lines. Moreover, enhanced pharmacodynamic responses occurred in the window of opportunity trial, providing additional markers of response that can be evaluated in subsequent HDACi trials. Thus, combining murine and human HDACi trials is a strategy to translate preclinical HDACi treatment outcomes into the clinic. This study uncovered clinically tractable mechanisms to engage in future HDACi trials. PMID:23686769

  7. Intra-cheek immunization as a novel vaccination route for therapeutic vaccines of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas using plasmo virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Rodney; Rochefort, Juliette; Guillot-Delost, Maude; Tanaka, Kae; Le Moignic, Aline; Noizat, Clara; Baillou, Claude; Mateo, Véronique; Carpentier, Antoine F; Tartour, Eric; Bertolus, Chloé; Bellier, Bertrand; Lescaille, Géraldine; Lemoine, François M

    2016-07-01

    Despite current therapy, head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) arising from various mucosal sites of the upper aero-digestive tract frequently relapse in a loco-regional manner and have a poor prognosis. Our objective was to validate an innovative mucosal route of vaccination using plasmo virus-like particles (pVLPs) in a pre-clinical orthotopic model of HNSCCs. For this purpose, we used pVLP-E7, that are plasmid DNA encoding retroviral virus-like particles carrying a truncated E7 oncoprotein from HPV-16 as antigen model, to vaccinate mice bearing pre-established TC-1 tumors implanted into the buccal mucosa. pVLP-E7 were combined with clinical grade TLR agonists (Imiquimod and CpG-ODN). In this pre-clinical orthotopic model, whose tumor microenvironment resembles to those of human HNSCCs, different mucosal vaccination routes were tested for their ability to elicit efficient immune and antitumoral responses. Results showed that mucosal intra-cheek (IC) vaccinations using pVLP-E7, comparatively to intradermic vaccinations (ID), gave rise to higher mobilization of mucosal (CD49a(+)) CD8(+) specific effector T cells in both tumor draining lymph nodes (TdLNs) and tumor microenvironment resulting in better antitumor effects and in a long-term protection against tumor rechallenge. In vivo CD8(+) depletion demonstrated that antitumoral effects were fully dependent upon the presence of CD8(+) T cells. Validation of IC mucosal vaccinations with pVLPs combined with adjuvants using a pre-clinical orthotopic model of HNSCC provides valuable pre-clinical data to rapidly envision the use of such therapeutic vaccines in patients with HNSCCs, inasmuch as vaccinal components and adjuvants can be easily obtained as clinical grade reagents. PMID:27622018

  8. Consensus recommendations for management of head and neck cancer in Asian countries: a review of international guidelines.

    PubMed

    D'cruz, A; Lin, T; Anand, A K; Atmakusuma, D; Calaguas, M J; Chitapanarux, I; Cho, B C; Goh, B C; Guo, Y; Hsieh, W S; Hu, C; Kwong, D; Lin, J C; Lou, P J; Lu, T; Prabhash, K; Sriuranpong, V; Tang, P; Vu, V V; Wahid, I; Ang, K K; Chan, A T

    2013-09-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a disease of the upper aerodigestive tract and is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide. A high rate of cancers involving the head and neck are reported across the Asian region, with notable variations between countries. Disease prognosis is largely dependent on tumor stage and site. Patients with early stage disease have a 60-95% chance of cure with local therapy. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important to increase the likelihood of cure and survival. However, the majority of patients present with locally advanced disease and require multimodality treatment. This necessitates, a multidisciplinary approach which is essential to make appropriate treatment decisions, particularly with regards to tolerability, costs, available infrastructure and quality of life issues. Unfortunately, majority of the studies that dictate current practice have been developed in the west where diseases biology, patient population and available infrastructure are very different from those in the Asian continent. With this in mind an expert panel of Head and Neck Oncologists was convened in May 2012 to review the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) clinical practice guidelines and develop practical recommendations on the applicability of these guidelines on the management of head and neck cancer for Asian patients. The objective of this review and consensus meeting was to suggest revisions, to account for potential differences in demographics and resources, to the NCCN and ESMO guidelines, to better reflect current clinical management of head and neck cancer within the Asian region for health care providers. These recommendations, which reflect best clinical practice within Asia, are expected to benefit practitioners when making decisions regarding optimal treatment strategies for their patients. PMID:23830839

  9. Early diagnosis of asymptomatic oral and oropharyngeal squamous cancers.

    PubMed

    Mashberg, A; Samit, A

    1995-01-01

    An examination of the oral cavity and oropharynx in asymptomatic patients at high risk requires an orderly visual inspection of the entire oral and oropharyngeal mucosa with particular attention to the tongue, floor of mouth, soft palate, uvula, tonsillar pillars, and the lingual aspects of the retromolar trigones. Completion and clear documentation of the entire examination should be recorded. Detected lesions that do not resolve in a reasonable length of time--two to three weeks--require intense and assiduous investigation. The following specifics should be considered. 1. Alcohol drinkers and cigarette smokers, especially those 40 years of age and older, are at very high risk for the development of upper aerodigestive tract and lung squamous carcinomas. 2. The floor of the mouth, the ventrolateral tongue, and the soft palate complex are the high-risk sites within the oral cavity and oropharynx. 3. Persistent mucosal erythroplasia rather than leukoplakia is the earliest visual sign of oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma. These lesions should not be regarded merely as precancerous changes. The evidence indicates that these lesions in high-risk sites should be considered to be invasive carcinoma or carcinoma in situ unless proven otherwise by biopsy. 4. Toluidine blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct, particularly as a method of ruling out false-negative clinical impressions. It may also be used as a rinse in high-risk patients to encompass the entire oral mucosa after a negative clinical examination and as a guide to improve biopsy yields. 5. If oral or oropharyngeal cancer is identified, evaluations of the larynx, hypopharynx, esophagus, and lungs should be performed to rule out multiple primary cancers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7583906

  10. Association between Socioeconomic Factors and Cancer Risk: A Population Cohort Study in Scotland (1991-2006)

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Katharine H.; McMahon, Alex D.; Raab, Gillian M.; Brewster, David H.; Conway, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer risk are associated with low socioeconomic circumstances and routinely measured using area socioeconomic indices. We investigated effect of country of birth, marital status, one area deprivation measure and individual socioeconomic variables (economic activity, education, occupational social class, car ownership, household tenure) on risk associated with lung, UADT and all cancer combined (excluding non melanoma skin cancer). Methods We linked Scottish Longitudinal Study and Scottish Cancer Registry to follow 203,658 cohort members aged 15+ years from 1991–2006. Relative risks (RR) were calculated using Poisson regression models by sex offset for person-years of follow-up. Results 21,832 first primary tumours (including 3,505 lung, 1,206 UADT) were diagnosed. Regardless of cancer, economically inactivity (versus activity) was associated with increased risk (male: RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.10–1.18; female: RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.11). For lung cancer, area deprivation remained significant after full adjustment suggesting the area deprivation cannot be fully explained by individual variables. No or non degree qualification (versus degree) was associated with increased lung risk; likewise for UADT risk (females only). Occupational social class associations were most pronounced and elevated for UADT risk. No car access (versus ownership) was associated with increased risk (excluding all cancer risk, males). Renting (versus home ownership) was associated with increased lung cancer risk, UADT cancer risk (males only) and all cancer risk (females only). Regardless of cancer group, elevated risk was associated with no education and living in deprived areas. Conclusions Different and independent socioeconomic variables are inversely associated with different cancer risks in both sexes; no one socioeconomic variable captures all aspects of socioeconomic circumstances or life course. Association of multiple

  11. Epidemiology and pathology of HPV disease in males.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Anna R; Anic, Gabriella; Nyitray, Alan G

    2010-05-01

    It is currently recognized that besides the significant impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in females, HPV causes substantial disease in men as well. Genital warts are a common manifestation of male infection with HPV. Genital warts are highly infectious and approximately 65% of people who have sex with an infected partner will develop warts themselves. More than 90% of genital warts are caused by non-oncogenic HPV types 6 and 11. In addition, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a rare disease most often associated with HPV types 6 and 11. Several cancers of the anogenital tract and upper aero-digestive tract, and their precursor lesions in men are now understood to be caused by infection with sexually transmitted HPV. For example, there is increasing incidence of anal cancer in western countries; however, there are limited data on its primary cause, anal canal HPV infection. Genital HPV infection is very common in men with an ongoing international study estimating a prevalence of 65.2% in asymptomatic males aged 18-70 years. Lifetime number of sexual partners was the most significant risk factor for the acquisition of HPV infection (P<0.05), and circumcision has been associated with reduced detection of HPV infection in men. HPV infections may be less likely to persist in men than in women. In men, the median time to clearance of any HPV infection was 5.9 months, with 75% of infections clearing within 12 months. More data are needed to better understand the natural history of HPV infection. Although the quadrivalent HPV vaccine has been shown to be effective and safe in men, low awareness of HPV in males may be a barrier to its use for the prevention of HPV infection. PMID:20138345

  12. Cigarette smoking, educational level and total and site-specific cancer: a cohort study in men in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Everatt, Rūta; Kuzmickienė, Irena; Virvičiūtė, Dalia; Tamošiūnas, Abdonas

    2014-11-01

    Smoking is an established risk factor for cancer. However, most studies have been carried out on western populations, and less is known about the impact in central and eastern Europe. Our objective was to investigate the association between cigarette smoking, educational level and risk of cancer in a Lithuanian population-based cohort study. The study included 6976 men initially free from cancer. During the follow-up (1978-2008), 1780 cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). In addition, the burden of cancer attributable to smoking was assessed by the population attributable fraction. Following adjustment for age, education, alcohol consumption and BMI, for current compared with never smokers, highly significant and strongly elevated estimates were found for total (HR=1.79, 95% CI 1.59-2.02), tobacco-related (HR=2.52, 95% CI 2.16-2.95), upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) (HR=5.77, 95% CI 2.73-12.21), lung (HR=10.47, 95% CI 6.74-16.25), bladder (HR=3.31, 95% CI 1.71-6.41) and liver (HR=4.64, 95% CI 1.53-14.08) cancer. Findings suggest a lower risk of prostate cancer in current smokers. In addition, the occurrence of lung and UADT cancer was significantly elevated in men in the lowest educational attainment category. If smoking had not occurred, ∼23% of total cancer, 37% of tobacco-related, 77% of lung, 58% of UADT, 43% of liver and 45% of bladder cancer cases could have been prevented in this cohort of men. Cancer-control strategies focused on reducing smoking should be a public health priority. PMID:24589745

  13. Lifestyle and cancer: effect of parental divorce.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Chen, Bowang

    2006-12-01

    According to previous studies, divorced individuals have increased risks of cancers related to alcohol and tobacco consumption and sexual habits, but the increases are balanced with decreased risks of many common cancers. In the present study, cancer risks were analyzed for 0-70-year-old offspring of divorced parents, on the basis the Swedish Family-Cancer Database with cancer data from the years 1958 to 2002. We calculated standardized incidence ratios for cancer among offspring of divorced parents (19,000 cancer patients) and compared them with offspring of stably married parents (121,000 cancer patients). Standardized incidence ratios were adjusted for many factors, including socio-economic status. Offspring of divorced parents were divided into groups depending on whether their mothers, fathers or both had had children with different partners. Offspring of divorced parents had an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract, esophageal, anal, pancreatic, lung and cervical cancers. Decreased risks were noted for Hodgkin's disease and bone cancer. For Hodgkin's disease, the data suggest protective effects through early exposure to childhood pathogens but for bone cancer mechanisms remain to be established. The overall cancer risk for offspring of divorced parents was at or above unity. The results show that offspring of divorced parents have increased cancer risks at tobacco-related, alcohol-related and sex-related sites, in analogy to their parent, but they lack decreased risks at common sites, experienced by their parents. Divorce is becoming increasingly common in many countries and any deviant cancer patterns among offspring of divorced parents will have an impact on the population risk. PMID:17106333

  14. Impact of smoking on lung cancer risk is stronger in those with the homozygous aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 null allele in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Young; Matsuo, Keitaro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Kawase, Takakazu; Watanabe, Miki; Oze, Isao; Hida, Toyoaki; Yatabe, Yasushi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tajima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Hideo

    2010-04-01

    The main lifestyle contributor to acetaldehyde exposure is the drinking of alcoholic beverages, but tobacco smoke also makes some contribution. Although acetaldehyde is associated with upper aerodigestive tract cancer risk, in accordance with genetically determined acetaldehyde metabolism, it is unclear whether lung cancer, a representative smoking-related cancer, is associated with acetaldehyde or genes impacting its metabolism. We conducted a case-control study to examine possible interaction between smoking and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) Glu504Lys polymorphism (rs671) on the risk of lung cancer in Japanese. Subjects were 718 lung cancer cases and 1416 non-cancer controls enrolled in the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center. Lifestyle factors, including smoking, were determined by self-administered questionnaire. We applied pack-years (PY; categorized into five levels: never, <15, <30, <45 and > or =45) as a marker of cumulative exposure to smoking. The impact of smoking, ALDH2 genotype, and their interaction on lung cancer risk were assessed by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval adjusted for potential confounders. Adjusted ORs for PY <15, <30, <45 and > or =45 relative to never smokers among those with Glu/Glu or Glu/Lys were 1.39, 1.80, 3.44 and 6.25, respectively (P-trend = 1.4 x 10(-30)). In contrast, ORs among Lys/Lys were 1.01, 10.2, 11.4 and 23.2, respectively (P-trend = 2.6 x 10(-7)). Interaction between ALDH2 genotype (Glu/Glu + Glu/Lys versus Lys/Lys) and cumulative smoking dose was statistically significant (P = 0.036) and was consistently observed in the analysis among never-drinkers (interaction P = 0.041). These results suggest that ALDH2 Lys/Lys, a null enzyme activity genotype, modifies the impact of smoking on the risk of lung cancer. PMID:20093384

  15. Cancer incidence among alcoholic liver disease patients in Finland: A retrospective registry study during years 1996-2013.

    PubMed

    Sahlman, Perttu; Nissinen, Markku; Pukkala, Eero; Färkkilä, Martti

    2016-06-01

    Both alcohol abuse and liver cirrhosis are known risk factors for various cancers. This article was aimed to assess the long-term risk of malignancies among patients with severe alcoholic liver disease (ALD), i.e., alcoholic liver cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis. A cohort of 8,796 male and 3,077 female ALD patients from 1996 to 2012 was identified from the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register. This nationwide cohort was combined with the data from the Finnish Cancer Registry for incidence of malignancies during the years 1996-2013. The cancer cases diagnosed were compared with the number of cancers in the general population. The number of malignancies in our cohort was 1,052 vs. 368 expected. There was statistically significant excess of cancers of the liver, (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 59.20; 95% CI 53.11-65.61), pancreas (SIR 3.71; 95% CI 2.72-4.94), pharynx (SIR 9.25; 95% CI 6.05-13.56), mouth (SIR 8.31; 95% CI 4.84-13,29), oesophagus (SIR 7.92; 95% CI 5.49-11.07), tongue (SIR 7,21; 95% CI 3.60-12.89), larynx (SIR 5.20; 95% CI 2.77-8.89), lung (SIR 2.77; 95% CI 2.27-3.32), stomach (SIR 2.76; 95% CI 1.79-4.07), kidney (SIR 2.69; 95% CI 1.84-3.79) and colon (SIR 2.33; 95% CI 1.70-3.11). There was no decreased risk of any cancer among ALD patients. Severe ALD is associated with markedly increased risk of malignancies. The risk is especially high for hepatocellular carcinoma, but also significantly increased for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, pancreas and kidneys, and warrants cancer surveillance in selected cases. PMID:26756434

  16. Predictors of Pain among Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Andrew G.; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Light, Emily; Wolf, Gregory T.; Bradford, Carol R.; Chepeha, Douglas; Jiang, Yunyun; McLean, Scott; Ghanem, Tamer A.; Duffy, Sonia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pain is a strong contributor to cancer patients’ quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of pain 1 year after the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. Design Prospective, multi-site cohort study. Setting Three academically-affiliated medical centers. Patients Previously untreated patients with carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (n=374). Main Outcome Measures Participants were surveyed pre-treatment and 1 year thereafter. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine predictors of the SF-36 bodily pain score 1 year after diagnosis. Results The mean SF-36 bodily pain score at 1 year was 65, compared to 61 at diagnosis (p=.004), compared to 75 among population norms (lower scores indicate worse pain). Variables independently associated with pain included pre-treatment pain score (p<0.001), less education (p=0.02), neck dissection (p=0.001), feeding tube (p=0.05), xerostomia (p<0.001), depressive symptoms (p<0.001), taking more pain medication (p<0.001), less physical activity (p=.02), and poor sleep quality (p=0.006). Current smoking and problem drinking were marginally significant (p=0.07 and 0.08, respectively). Conclusions Aggressive pain management may be indicated for head and neck cancer patients who undergo neck dissections, complain of xerostomia, require feeding tubes, and have medical comorbidities. Treatment of modifiable risk factors such as depression, poor sleep quality, tobacco and alcohol abuse may also reduce pain and improve quality of life among head and neck cancer patients. PMID:23165353

  17. Chronic Cigarette Smoke Extract Treatment Selects For Apoptotic Dysfunction and Mitochondrial mutations in Minimally Transformed Oral Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Steven S.; Jiang, Wei Wen; Smith, Ian; Glazer, Chad; Sun, Wen-Yue; Mithani, Suhail; Califano, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoke demonstrates a carcinogenic effect through chronic exposure, not acute exposures. However, current cell line models study only the acute effects of cigarette smoke. Using a cell line model, we compared the effects of acute versus chronic cigarette-smoke-extract (CSE) on mitochondria in minimally-transformed oral keratinocytes (OKF6). OKF6 cells were treated with varying concentrations of CSE for 6-months. Cells were analyzed monthly by flow cytometry for mitochondrial-membrane-potential (MMP), cytochrome-c release, caspase-3 activation and viability after CSE-exposure. At each time point the same assays were performed after 24hrs of valinomycin (MMP depolarizing agent) treatment. The mitochondrial-DNA of chronically CSE-treated cells was sequenced. After 6-months of CSE-treatment, the cells were increasingly resistant to CSE-mediated and valinomycin induced cell death. In addition, chronic CSE-treatment caused chronic depolarization of MMP, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. Cells grown in the presence of only CSE vapor also exhibited the same resistance and chronic baseline apoptotic activation. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing found that chronic CSE treated cells had more amino acid changing mitochondrial mutations than acutely treated cells. CSE treatment of normal cells select for apoptotic dysfunction as well as mitochondrial mutations. These findings suggest that chronic tobacco exposure induce carcinogenesis via selection of apoptosis resistance and mitochondrial mutation in addition to previously known genotoxic effects that were found by acute treatments. Chronic models of tobacco exposure on upper aerodigestive epithelia may be more insightful than models of acute exposure in studying head and neck carcinogenesis PMID:19634139

  18. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6 activates NF-kappaB, induces cIAP-2 expression, and protects against apoptosis in a PDZ binding motif-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    James, Michael A; Lee, John H; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J

    2006-06-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of most cervical cancers and some aerodigestive cancers. The HPV E6 oncoprotein from high-risk HPV types contributes to the immortalization and transformation of cells by multiple mechanisms, including degradation of p53, transcriptional activation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and degradation of several proteins containing PDZ domains. The ability of E6 to bind PDZ domain-containing proteins is independent of p53 degradation or hTERT activation but does correlate with oncogenic potential (R. A. Watson, M. Thomas, L. Banks, and S. Roberts, J. Cell Sci. 116:4925-4934, 2003) and is essential for induction of epithelial hyperplasia in vivo (M. L. Nguyen, M. M. Nguyen, D. Lee, A. E. Griep, and P. F. Lambert, J. Virol. 77:6957-6964, 2003). In this study, we found that HPV type 16 E6 was able to activate NF-kappaB in airway epithelial cells through the induction of nuclear binding activity of p52-containing NF-kappaB complexes in a PDZ binding motif-dependent manner. Transcript accumulation for the NF-kappaB-responsive antiapoptotic gene encoding cIAP-2 and binding of nuclear factors to the proximal NF-kappaB binding site of the cIAP-2 gene promoter are induced by E6 expression. Furthermore, E6 is able to protect cells from TNF-induced apoptosis. All of these E6-dependent phenotypes are dependent on the presence of the PDZ binding motif of E6. Our results imply a role for targeting of PDZ proteins by E6 in NF-kappaB activation and protection from apoptosis in airway epithelial cells. PMID:16699010

  19. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

  20. Mate Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer in Uruguay: a Case- Control Study.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; Stefani, Eduardo De; Mendoza, Beatriz; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Vazquez, Alvaro; Abbona, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Regarding 'mate' intake (infusion of Ilex paraguariensis herb, a staple beverage in temperate South American regions), most epidemiologic studies showed positive associations with risk of some cancers, (e.g. upper aerodigestive tract), but evidence on breast cancer (BC) risk is limited to a previous multi-site study, which reported a non significant odds ratio [OR]=0.85, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.67-1.09, p for trend=0.31) for the highest quartile of intake. The present study was conducted in order to further assess associations of 'mate' intake with BC risk. We combined two databases of women belonging to public and private healthcare hospitals. The sample included 572 BC incident cases and 889 controls interviewed with a specific questionnaire featured by socio-demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, and a food frequency questionnaire of 64 items, also analyzing 'mate' intake (consumer status, daily intake, age at start, age at quit, duration of habit, intensity of intake). ORs and their 95%CI were calculated through unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant potential confounders. The highest quartile of 'mate' intake was inversely associated with BC risk (OR=0.40, 95%CI 0.26-0.57, p for trend <0.001). Stratified analyses also displayed strong significant inverse associations for 'mate' in frequent tea drinkers (OR=0.22), high energy intake (OR=0.23), high body mass index (OR=0.29) and in postmenopausal women (OR=0.36), among other results. As conclusions, we found evidence of a significant inverse association for 'mate' intake and BC risk. PMID:27039789

  1. Comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the Practice of Otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Heloisa Sobreira; Pinto, José Antonio; Zavanela, Adma Roberta; Cavallini, André Freitas; Freitas, Gabriel Santos; Garcia, Fabiola Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease has a prevalence of ∼12% of the urban population in Brazil. Koufman proposed the term to designate Laryngeal Pharyngeal Reflux (LPR) symptoms, signs or tissue damage resulting from aggression of the gastrointestinal contents in the upper aerodigestive tract. Belafsky et al proposed a score that points to inflammatory laryngeal signs through videolaryngoscopic findings, the Reflux Finding Score (RFS). Moreover, in 2002, they published the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). Objective  The objective of this study is to provide a comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the practice of Otorhinolaryngology. Methods  Our study involved a total of 135 patients who visited the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) clinic Núcleo de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço de São Paulo between April 2014 and May 2015 with suspected LPR. We excluded nine patients and the study group was 126 patients. All patients were ranked by their RSI and RFS scores. Results  The study group consisted of 126 patients (88 women and 38 men). Their main complaints were cough (40.4%), globus (21.4%), dysphonia (19.8%), throat clearing (15.8%), postnasal drip (3.17%), snoring (1.5%), dysphagia (1.5%), cacosmia (0.7%), and regurgitation (1.5%). The RSI ranges from 13 to 42 with a mean of 20.7 (SD = 6.67). The RFS ranged from 3 to 19 with a mean of 9.53 (SD = 2.64). Conclusion  The RSI and RFS can easily be included in ENT routines as objective parameters, with low cost and high practicality. Based on the clinical index, the specialist can evaluate the need for further tests.

  2. Specializations of the human upper respiratory and upper digestive systems as seen through comparative and developmental anatomy.

    PubMed

    Laitman, J T; Reidenberg, J S

    1993-01-01

    The human upper respiratory, or aerodigestive, tract serves as the crossroads of our breathing, swallowing and vocalizing pathways. Accordingly, developmental or evolutionary change in any of these functions will, of necessity, affect the others. Our studies have shown that the position in the neck of the mammalian larynx is a major factor in determining function in this region. Most mammals, such as our closest relatives the nonhuman primates, exhibit a larynx positioned high in the neck. This permits an intranarial larynx to be present and creates largely separate respiratory and digestive routes. While infant humans retain this basic mammalian pattern, developmental descent of the larynx considerably alters this configuration. Adult humans have, accordingly, lost separation of the respiratory and digestive routes, but have gained an increased supralaryngeal region of the pharynx which allows for the production of the varied sounds of human speech. How this region has changed during human evolution has been difficult to assess due to the absence of preserved soft-tissue structures. Our studies have shown that the relationship between basicranial shape and laryngeal position in living mammals can be a valuable guide to reconstruct the region in ancestral humans. Based on these findings we have examined the basicrania of fossil ancestors--from over two million years ago to near recent times--and have reconstructed the position of the larynx and pharyngeal region in these early forms. This has allowed us insight into how our ancestors may have breathed and swallowed, and when the anatomy necessary for human speech evolved. PMID:8269722

  3. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khader, A.; Rosenberg, D.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrate pollution poses a health risk for infants whose freshwater drinking source is groundwater. This risk creates a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include: (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, pollution transport processes, and climate (Khader and McKee, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine where methemoglobinemia is the main health problem associated with the principal pollutant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not-use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs include healthcare for methemoglobinemia, purchase of bottled water, and installation and maintenance of the groundwater monitoring system. At current

  4. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khader, A. I.; Rosenberg, D. E.; McKee, M.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs

  5. Economic Value of an Advanced Climate Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific missions increasingly need to show the monetary value of knowledge advances in budget-constrained environments. For example, suppose a climate science mission promises to yield decisive information on the rate of human caused global warming within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) creates a standard yardstick for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, setting uncertainty in climate sensitivity to a truncated Roe and Baker (2007) distribution, setting discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate mitigation response DICE Optimal, and a strong response scenario (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we are on the BAU emissions scenario, and that we would switch to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on the uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain that it happens depends, in addition, on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can shorten the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems, exceeds the NPV of the system costs. Our results (Cooke et al. 2013

  6. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna

  7. Monitoring of Tumor Growth with [18F]-FET PET in a Mouse Model of Glioblastoma: SUV Measurements and Volumetric Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Holzgreve, Adrien; Brendel, Matthias; Gu, Song; Carlsen, Janette; Mille, Erik; Böning, Guido; Mastrella, Giorgia; Unterrainer, Marcus; Gildehaus, Franz J.; Rominger, Axel; Bartenstein, Peter; Kälin, Roland E.; Glass, Rainer; Albert, Nathalie L.

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive tumor growth monitoring is of particular interest for the evaluation of experimental glioma therapies. This study investigates the potential of positron emission tomography (PET) using O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([18F]-FET) to determine tumor growth in a murine glioblastoma (GBM) model—including estimation of the biological tumor volume (BTV), which has hitherto not been investigated in the pre-clinical context. Fifteen GBM-bearing mice (GL261) and six control mice (shams) were investigated during 5 weeks by PET followed by autoradiographic and histological assessments. [18F]-FET PET was quantitated by calculation of maximum and mean standardized uptake values within a universal volume-of-interest (VOI) corrected for healthy background (SUVmax/BG, SUVmean/BG). A partial volume effect correction (PVEC) was applied in comparison to ex vivo autoradiography. BTVs obtained by predefined thresholds for VOI definition (SUV/BG: ≥1.4; ≥1.6; ≥1.8; ≥2.0) were compared to the histologically assessed tumor volume (n = 8). Finally, individual “optimal” thresholds for BTV definition best reflecting the histology were determined. In GBM mice SUVmax/BG and SUVmean/BG clearly increased with time, however at high inter-animal variability. No relevant [18F]-FET uptake was observed in shams. PVEC recovered signal loss of SUVmean/BG assessment in relation to autoradiography. BTV as estimated by predefined thresholds strongly differed from the histology volume. Strikingly, the individual “optimal” thresholds for BTV assessment correlated highly with SUVmax/BG (ρ = 0.97, p < 0.001), allowing SUVmax/BG-based calculation of individual thresholds. The method was verified by a subsequent validation study (n = 15, ρ = 0.88, p < 0.01) leading to extensively higher agreement of BTV estimations when compared to histology in contrast to predefined thresholds. [18F]-FET PET with standard SUV measurements is feasible for glioma imaging in the GBM mouse model

  8. Impact of uncertainty in longitudinal T1 measurements on quantification of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Madhava P; Chenevert, Thomas L; Cao, Yue

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the uncertainty in T1 measurement, by estimating the repeatability coefficient (RC) from two repeated scans, in normal appearing brain tissues employing two different T1 mapping methods. All brain MRI scans were performed on a 3 T MR scanner in 10 patients who had low grade/benign tumors and partial brain radiation therapy (RT) without chemotherapy, at pre-RT, 3 weeks into RT, end RT (6 weeks) and 11, 33, and 85 weeks after RT. T1-weighted images were acquired using (1) a spoiled gradient echo sequence with two flip angles (2FA: 5° and 15°) and (2) a progressive saturation recovery sequence (pSR) with five different TR values (100-2000 ms). Manually drawn volumes of interest (VOIs) included left and right normal putamen and thalamus in gray matter, and frontal and parietal white matter, which were distant from tumors and received a total of accumulated radiation doses less than 5 Gy at 3 weeks. No significant changes or even trends in mean T1 from pre-RT to 3 weeks into RT in these VOIs (p ≥ 0.11, Wilcoxon sign test) allowed us to calculate the repeatability statistics of between-subject means of squares, within-subject means of squares, F-score, and RC. The 2FA method produced RCs in the range of (9.7-11.7)% in gray matter and (12.2-14.5)% in white matter; while the pSR method led to RCs ranging from 10.9 to 17.9% in gray matter and 7.5 to 10.3% in white matter. The overall mean (±SD) RCs produced by the two methods, 12.0 (±1.6)% for 2FA and 12.0 (±3.8)% for pSR, were not significantly different (p = 0.97). A similar repeatability in T1 measurement produced by the time efficient 2FA method compared with the time consuming pSR method demonstrates that the 2FA method is desirable to integrate into dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for rapid acquisition. PMID:27358934

  9. SU-E-J-263: Repeatability of SUV and Texture Parameters in Serial PET Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J; Humm, J; Nehmeh, S; Schoder, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Standardized uptake values (SUV) are standard quantitative PET measures of FDG tumor uptake used,and are used as a tool to monitor response to therapy. Textural analysis is emerging as a new tool for assessing intratumoral heterogeneity which may allow better tissue characterization and improved prediction of response and survival rate.Understanding what variations may be expected in these parameters is key in order to make decisions based on how the change throughout the course of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess repeatability in SUV measures and texture parameters,and establish criteria that differentiate changes associated with treatment rather than statistical variability. Methods: Eighty patients,167 random lesions total,were scanned in a GE Discovery STE PET/CT Scanner. One field-of-view was chosen centered on the largest lesion observed in a clinical whole-body FDG PET.Immediately following,a gated 9 min scan was acquired in list mode,without changing the patient’s position between any scans. Data was replayed into 3 time bins,3 min each,in order to insure equivalent noise characteristics in each replicate.Data was reconstructed into 128×128×47 square matrices.One VOI was drawn over each lesion for each patient and used to segment all 3 replicates. The mean.max and peak SUV were calculated for each VOI and replicate. First-order textural features were also calculated (skewness and kurtosis). Repeatability was calculated as the average standard deviation over the mean for the 3 repeated measurements for each lesion. Results: The average percent error in the SUV max,peak and mean were 3.4%(0– 12.9%),1.9% (0–7.5%),2.8% (0–12.2%),respectively.For skewness and kurtosis they were 10.9% and 17.8%. Conclusion: We have shown that there is a large variation in %error in SUV measures across patients. SUVpeak is the least variable and kurtosis and skewness parameters are less reliable thatn SUVs.Higher order textures are be.

  10. In vivo MRS and MRSI: Performance analysis, measurement considerations and evaluation of metabolite concentration images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikhoff-Baaz, Barbro

    2000-10-01

    The doctoral thesis concerns development, evaluation and performance of quality assessment methods for volume- selection methods in 31P and 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS). It also contains different aspects of the measurement procedure for 1H MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) with application on the human brain, image reconstruction of the MRSI images and evaluation methods for lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Two complementary two-compartment phantoms and evaluation methods for quality assessment of 31P MRS in small-bore MR systems were presented. The first phantom consisted of an inner cube inside a sphere phantom where measurements with and without volume selection where compared for various VOI sizes. The multi-centre showed that the evaluated parameters provide useful information of the performance of volume-selective MRS at the MR system. The second phantom consisted of two compartments divided by a very thin wall and was found useful for measurements of the appearance and position of the VOI profile in specific gradient directions. The second part concerned 1H MRS and MRSI of whole-body MR systems. Different factors that may degrade or complicate the measurement procedure like for MRSI were evaluated, e.g. the volume selection performance, contamination, susceptibility and motion. Two interpolation methods for reconstruction of MRSI images were compared. Measurements and computer simulations showed that Fourier interpolation correctly visualizes the information inherent in the data set, while the results were dependent on the position of the object relative the original matrix using Cubic spline interpolation. Application of spatial filtering may improve the image representation of the data. Finally, 1H MRSI was performed on healthy volunteers and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Metabolite concentration images were used for lateralization of TLE, where the signal intensity in the two hemispheres were compared. Visual analysis of the

  11. PET/CT imaging evidence of FUS-mediated (18)F-FDG uptake changes in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyungmin; Park, Mi-Ae; Wang, Shuyan; Chiu, Alan; Fischer, Krisztina; Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) delivers highly focused acoustic energy to a small region of the brain in a noninvasive manner. Recent studies have revealed that FUS, which is administered either in pulsed or continuous waves, can elicit or suppress neural tissue excitability. This neuromodulatory property of FUS has been demonstrated via direct motion detection, electrophysiological recordings, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), confocal imaging, and microdialysis sampling of neurotransmitters. This study presents new evidence of local increase in glucose metabolism induced by FUS to the rat brain using FDG (18-fludeoxyglucose) positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats underwent sonication to a unilateral hemispheric area of the brain prior to PET scan. The pulsed sonication (350 kHz, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, and duration of 300 ms) was applied in 2 s intervals for 40 min immediately after the FDG injection via tail vein. Subsequently, the PET was acquired in dynamic list-mode to image FDG activity for an hour, and reconstructed into a single volume representing standardized uptake value (SUV). The raw SUV as well as its asymmetry index (AI) were measured from five different volume-of-interests (VOIs) of the brain for both hemispheres, and compared between sonicated and unsonicated groups. Results: Statistically significant hemispheric changes in SUV were observed only at the center of sonication focus within the FUS group [paired t-test; t(7) = 3.57, p < 0.05]. There were no significant hemispheric differences in SUV within the control group in any of the VOIs. A statistically significant elevation in AI (t-test; t(7) = 3.40, p < 0.05) was observed at the center of sonication focus (7.9 ± 2.5%, the deviations are in standard error) among the FUS group when compared to the control group (−0.8 ± 1.2%). Conclusions: Spatially distinct increases in the glucose metabolic

  12. Monitoring of Tumor Growth with [(18)F]-FET PET in a Mouse Model of Glioblastoma: SUV Measurements and Volumetric Approaches.

    PubMed

    Holzgreve, Adrien; Brendel, Matthias; Gu, Song; Carlsen, Janette; Mille, Erik; Böning, Guido; Mastrella, Giorgia; Unterrainer, Marcus; Gildehaus, Franz J; Rominger, Axel; Bartenstein, Peter; Kälin, Roland E; Glass, Rainer; Albert, Nathalie L

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive tumor growth monitoring is of particular interest for the evaluation of experimental glioma therapies. This study investigates the potential of positron emission tomography (PET) using O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ([(18)F]-FET) to determine tumor growth in a murine glioblastoma (GBM) model-including estimation of the biological tumor volume (BTV), which has hitherto not been investigated in the pre-clinical context. Fifteen GBM-bearing mice (GL261) and six control mice (shams) were investigated during 5 weeks by PET followed by autoradiographic and histological assessments. [(18)F]-FET PET was quantitated by calculation of maximum and mean standardized uptake values within a universal volume-of-interest (VOI) corrected for healthy background (SUVmax/BG, SUVmean/BG). A partial volume effect correction (PVEC) was applied in comparison to ex vivo autoradiography. BTVs obtained by predefined thresholds for VOI definition (SUV/BG: ≥1.4; ≥1.6; ≥1.8; ≥2.0) were compared to the histologically assessed tumor volume (n = 8). Finally, individual "optimal" thresholds for BTV definition best reflecting the histology were determined. In GBM mice SUVmax/BG and SUVmean/BG clearly increased with time, however at high inter-animal variability. No relevant [(18)F]-FET uptake was observed in shams. PVEC recovered signal loss of SUVmean/BG assessment in relation to autoradiography. BTV as estimated by predefined thresholds strongly differed from the histology volume. Strikingly, the individual "optimal" thresholds for BTV assessment correlated highly with SUVmax/BG (ρ = 0.97, p < 0.001), allowing SUVmax/BG-based calculation of individual thresholds. The method was verified by a subsequent validation study (n = 15, ρ = 0.88, p < 0.01) leading to extensively higher agreement of BTV estimations when compared to histology in contrast to predefined thresholds. [(18)F]-FET PET with standard SUV measurements is feasible for glioma imaging in the GBM mouse model

  13. Pulmonary vessel segmentation utilizing curved planar reformation and optimal path finding (CROP) in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for CAD applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Guo, Yanhui; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2012-03-01

    Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately under suboptimal conditions, such as vessels occluded by PEs, surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases, and crossing with other vessels. In this study, we developed a new vessel refinement method utilizing curved planar reformation (CPR) technique combined with optimal path finding method (MHES-CROP). The MHES segmented vessels straightened in the CPR volume was refined using adaptive gray level thresholding where the local threshold was obtained from least-square estimation of a spline curve fitted to the gray levels of the vessel along the straightened volume. An optimal path finding method based on Dijkstra's algorithm was finally used to trace the correct path for the vessel of interest. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOIs) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 32.9+/-10.2% using the MHES method to 9.9+/-7.9% using the MHES-CROP method. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (p<0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the segmented vessel volume between the automated segmentation and the reference standard was improved from 0.919 to 0.988. Quantitative comparison of the MHES method and the MHES-CROP method with the

  14. [18F]Fallypride PET measurement of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D 2/3 receptor availability in recently abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Rominger, Axel; Cumming, Paul; Xiong, Guoming; Koller, Gabriele; Böning, Guido; Wulff, Melanie; Zwergal, Andreas; Förster, Stefan; Reilhac, Anthonin; Munk, Ole; Soyka, Michael; Wängler, Björn; Bartenstein, Peter; la Fougère, Christian; Pogarell, Oliver

    2012-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) shows reduced binding of the dopamine D(2/3) antagonist [(11) C]raclopride in striatum of withdrawn psychostimulant abusers, but not consistently in patients with alcohol dependence (AD). We make first use of the high affinity ligand [(18) F]fallypride to obtain serial measures of D(2/3) receptor availability in striatal and extrastriatal regions of AD patients undergoing detoxification. Seventeen patients (mean age 44 ± 5y) with AD and 14 age-matched healthy volunteers participated. Each patient underwent [(18) F]fallypride PET upon hospital admission, and again 1-2 weeks later; two patients achieving abstinence, and two with substantial harm reduction had additional PET follow-up at 1 year. Dynamic 180-minute PET recordings were used for volume of interest (VOI)-based and voxel-wise analysis of [(18) F]fallypride binding potential (BP(ND) ). Mean baseline BP(ND) in striatum of the AD patients (15.7 ± 3.6) was unaltered during short-term follow-up, and did not differ from that in healthy controls (16.8 ± 3.0); however, BP(ND) was 10-20% lower in thalamus, hippocampus, and insular and temporal cortex of the AD patients (P < 0.05). Age-dependent declines in BP(ND) were very small in controls, but more pronounced and widespread in the AD group. Striatal and thalamic BP(ND) increased by 30% in four patients with long-term abstinence or reduced alcohol consumption. VOI-based [(18) F]fallypride PET analyses revealed group differences in D(2/3) receptor availability primarily in extra-striatal regions. Age-related loss of dopamine D(2/3) receptors was more pronounced in AD patients. Receptor availability was unaltered by acute withdrawal, but increased in the subgroup of patients with long-term follow-up, suggesting reversibility of receptor changes. PMID:22023291

  15. Imaging of Carrageenan-Induced Local Inflammation and Adjuvant-Induced Systemic Arthritis with [11C]PBR28 PET

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xia; Wang, Xueding; English, Sean J; Desmond, Timothy; Sherman, Phillip S; Quesada, Carole A; Piert, Morand R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction [11C]PBR28 binding to translocator protein (TSPO) was evaluated for imaging of acute and chronic inflammation using two established rat models. Methods Acute inflammation was induced by local Carrageenan-injection into the paw of Fisher 344 rats (model A). T-cell mediated adjuvant arthritis was induced by heat-inactivated Mycobacterium butyricum injection in Lewis rats (model B). Micro-PET scan was performed after injection of approximately 35 MBq [11C]PBR28. In model A, volumes of interest (VOIs) were defined in the paw of Fisher 344 rats (n=6) with contralateral sham treatment as control. For model B, VOIs were defined in the tail, sacroiliac joints, hips, knees and thigh muscles of M. butyricum treated animals (n=8) and compared with sham-treated controls (n=4). The peak 11C-PBR28 SUV (SUVpeak) and area under the curve (AUCSUV) of 60-minute time-activity data were calculated. Immunohistochemistry for CD68, a macrophage stain, was performed from paw tissues. In addition, the [11C]PBR28 cell uptake was measured in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated and non-stimulated macrophage cultures. Results LPS-stimulated macrophages displayed dose-dependent increased [11C]PBR28 uptake, which was blocked by non-labeled PBR28. In both models, radiotracer uptake of treated lesions increased rapidly within minutes and displayed overall accumulative kinetics. The SUVpeak and AUCSUV of Carrageenan-treated paws was significantly increased compared to controls. Also, the [11C]PBR28 uptake ratio of Carrageenan-treated vs. sham-treated paw correlated significantly with CD68 staining ratios of the same animals. In adjuvant arthritis, significantly increased [11C]PBR28 SUVpeak and AUCSUV values were identified at the tail, knees, and sacroiliac joints, while no significant differences were identified in the lumbar spine and hips. Conclusions Based on our initial data, [11C]PBR28 PET appears to have potential for imaging of various inflammatory processes involving

  16. The economic value of remote sensing information: a case study of agricultural production and groundwater vulnerability using applied environmental science and hydrogeospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Mishra, S.; Raunikar, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    William M. Forney1*, Richard L. Bernknopf1, Shruti K. Mishra2, Ronald P. Raunikar1. 1=Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. 2=Contractor, Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California *=Contact author, wforney@usgs.gov, 650-329-4237. Does remote sensing information provide economic benefits to society and can those benefits be valued? Can resource management and policy be better informed by coupling past and present earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the USGS's research applies an established conceptual framework to answer these questions as well as estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate resolution land imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the US Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, we model the relationship between a population of the CDL's land uses and the evolution of nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Using source data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and the USGS's National Water Quality Assessment Program, the approach uses multi-scaled, environmental science models to address dynamic, biophysical process models of nitrogen fate and transport at specific sites (wells) and at landscape scale (35 counties) in order to assess groundwater vulnerability. In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on particular agricultural goods and land uses: corn, soybeans and livestock manure management. Results of this four-year study will be presented, including: 1) the integrated models of the assessment approach, 2) mapping the range of vulnerabilities

  17. Pre-therapeutic 124I PET(/CT) dosimetry confirms low average absorbed doses per administered 131I activity to the salivary glands in radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Robert F.; Stahl, Alexander; Knust, Jochen; Sgouros, George; Bockisch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Salivary gland impairment following high activity radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a severe side effect. Dosimetric calculations using planar gamma camera scintigraphy (GCS) with 131I and ultrasonography (US) provided evidence that the average organ dose per administered 131I activity (ODpA) is too low to account for observed radiation damages to the salivary glands. The objective of this work was to re-estimate the ODpA using 124I PET(/CT) as a more reliable approach than 131I GCS/US. Methods Ten DTC patients underwent a series of six (or seven) PET scans and one PET/CT scan after administration of ~23 MBq 124I-iodide. Volumes of interest (VOIs) drawn on the CT and serial PET images were used to determine the glandular volumes and the imaged 124I activities. To enable identical VOIs to be drawn on serial PET images, each PET was co-registered with the CT image. To correct for partial volume effect and for the artificial bias in the activity concentration due to cascading gamma coincidences occurring in 124I decay, the imaged activity was effectively corrected using isovolume recovery coefficients (RCs) based on recovery phantom measurements. A head-neck phantom, which contained 124I-filled spheres, was manufactured to validate the isovolume recovery correction method with a realistic patient-based phantom geometry and for a range of activity concentration regimes. The mean±standard deviation (range) ODpA projected for 131I was calculated using the absorbed dose fraction method. Results The ODpAs (in Gy/GBq) for the submandibular and parotid glands were 0.32±0.13 (0.18–0.55) and 0.31±0.10 (0.13–0.46), respectively. No significant differences (p>0.2) in the mean ODpA between 124I PET(/CT) and 131I GCS/US dosimetry was found. The validation experiment showed that the percentage deviations between RC-corrected and true activity concentrations were <10%. Conclusion 124I PET(/CT) dosimetry also corroborates the low ODpAs to

  18. Volumetric characterization of human patellar cartilage matrix on phase contrast x-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Anas Z.; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Checefsky, Walter A.; Coan, Paola; Diemoz, Paul C.; Hobbs, Susan K.; Huber, Markus B.; Wismüller, Axel

    2015-03-01

    Phase contrast X-ray computed tomography (PCI-CT) has recently emerged as a novel imaging technique that allows visualization of cartilage soft tissue, subsequent examination of chondrocyte patterns, and their correlation to osteoarthritis. Previous studies have shown that 2D texture features are effective at distinguishing between healthy and osteoarthritic regions of interest annotated in the radial zone of cartilage matrix on PCI-CT images. In this study, we further extend the texture analysis to 3D and investigate the ability of volumetric texture features at characterizing chondrocyte patterns in the cartilage matrix for purposes of classification. Here, we extracted volumetric texture features derived from Minkowski Functionals and gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) from 496 volumes of interest (VOI) annotated on PCI-CT images of human patellar cartilage specimens. The extracted features were then used in a machine-learning task involving support vector regression to classify ROIs as healthy or osteoarthritic. Classification performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). The best classification performance was observed with GLCM features correlation (AUC = 0.83 +/- 0.06) and homogeneity (AUC = 0.82 +/- 0.07), which significantly outperformed all Minkowski Functionals (p < 0.05). These results suggest that such quantitative analysis of chondrocyte patterns in human patellar cartilage matrix involving GLCM-derived statistical features can distinguish between healthy and osteoarthritic tissue with high accuracy.

  19. Léiomyome vésical entraînant la destruction d'un rein

    PubMed Central

    Kehila, Mehdi; Mekni, Karima; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Chtourou, Maher; Zeghal, Dorra; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2016-01-01

    Le léiomyome de la vessie est une tumeur bénigne rare réputée avoir un bon pronostic après traitement chirurgical. Ceci n'est malheureusement pas toujours vrai. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 33 ans qui a consulté pour des douleurs lombaires droites. Les explorations réalisées ont conclu à une tumeur solide du plancher vésical avec, en amont, un rein droit non fonctionnel et des voies urinaires gauches dilatées. La cystoscopie a objectivé une tumeur solide de la vessie périméatique droite. Des biopsies tumorales ont été faites en même temps qu'une montée de sonde double J gauche. L’étude anatomopathologique a conclu à un léiomyome vésical. Elle a eu une myomectomie par voie transvésicale. Les suites opératoires étaient simples. La patiente a toutefois gardé comme séquelle un rein totalement détruit.

  20. PH Measurements of the Brain Using Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31PMRS) in Healthy Men – Comparison of Two Analysis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cichocka, Monika; Kozub, Justyna; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Intracellular pH provides information on homeostatic mechanisms in neurons and glial cells. The aim of this study was to define pH of the brain of male volunteers using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31PMRS) and to compare two methods of calculating this value. Material/Methods In this study, 35 healthy, young, male volunteers (mean age: 25 years) were examined by 31PMRS in 1.5 T MR system (Signa Excite, GE). The FID CSI (Free Induction Decay Chemical Shift Imaging) sequence was used with the following parameters: TR=4000 ms, FA=90°, NEX=2. Volume of interest (VOI) was selected depending on the size of the volunteers’ brain (11–14 cm3, mean 11.53 cm3). Raw data were analyzed using SAGE (GE) software. Results Based on the chemical shift of peaks in the 31PMRS spectrum, intracellular pH was calculated using two equations. In both methods the mean pH was slightly alkaline (7.07 and 7.08). Results were compared with a t-test. Significant difference (p<0.05) was found between these two methods. Conclusions The 31PMRS method enables non-invasive in vivo measurements of pH. The choice of the calculation method is crucial for computing this value. Comparing the results obtained by different teams can be done in a fully credible way only if the calculations were performed using the same formula. PMID:26692912

  1. Histogram analysis reveals a better delineation of tumor volume from background in 18F-FET PET compared to CBV maps in a hybrid PET-MR studie in gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filss, Christian P.; Stoffels, Gabriele; Galldiks, Norbert; Sabel, Michael; Wittsack, Hans J.; Coenen, Heinz H.; Shah, Nadim J.; Herzog, Hans; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the method of first choice for diagnostic investigation of glial tumors. However, different MR sequences may over- or underestimate tumor size and thus it may not be possible to delineate tumor from adjacent brain. In order to compensate this confinement additonal MR sequences like perfusion weighted MRI (PWI) with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) or positron emission tomography (PET) with aminoacids are used to gain further information. Recent studies suggest that both of theses image modalities provide similar diagnostic information. For comparison tumor to brain ratios (TBR) with mean and maximum values are frequently used but results from different studies can often not be checked against each other. Furthermore, especially the maximum TBR in rCBV is at risk to be falsified by artifacts (e.g. blood vessels). These confinements are reduced by the use of histograms since all information of the VOIs are equally displayed. In this study we measured and compared the intersection of tumor and reference tissue histograms in 18F-FET PET and rCBV maps in glioma patients.

  2. On the Effect of Sex on Prefrontal and Cerebellar Neurometabolites in Healthy Adults: An MRS Study.

    PubMed

    Endres, Dominique; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Feige, Bernd; Backenecker, Stephan; Nickel, Kathrin; Bubl, Anna; Lange, Thomas; Mader, Irina; Maier, Simon; Perlov, Evgeniy

    2016-01-01

    In neuropsychiatric research, the aspects of sex have received increasing attention over the past decade. With regard to the neurometabolic differences in the prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum of both men and women, we performed a magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS) study of a large group of healthy subjects. For neurometabolic measurements, we used single-voxel proton MRS. The voxels of interest (VOI) were placed in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Absolute quantification of creatine (Cre), total choline (t-Cho), glutamate and glutamine (Glx), N-acetylaspartate, and myo-inositol (mI) was performed. Thirty-three automatically matched ACCs and 31 cerebellar male-female pairs were statistically analyzed. We found no significant neurometabolic differences in the pACC region (Wilks' lambda: p = 0.657). In the left cerebellar region, we detected significant variations between the male and female groups (p = 0.001). Specifically, we detected significantly higher Cre (p = 0.005) and t-Cho (p = 0.000) levels in men. Additionally, males tended to have higher Glx and mI concentrations. This is the first study to report neurometabolic sex differences in the cerebellum. The effects of sexual hormones might have influenced our findings. Our data indicates the importance of adjusting for the confounding effects of sex in MRS studies. PMID:27531975

  3. Efficient curve-skeleton computation for the analysis of biomedical 3d images - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Brun, Francesco; Dreossi, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Advances in three dimensional (3D) biomedical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT), make it easy to reconstruct high quality 3D models of portions of human body and other biological specimens. A major challenge lies in the quantitative analysis of the resulting models thus allowing a more comprehensive characterization of the object under investigation. An interesting approach is based on curve-skeleton (or medial axis) extraction, which gives basic information concerning the topology and the geometry. Curve-skeletons have been applied in the analysis of vascular networks and the diagnosis of tracheal stenoses as well as a 3D flight path in virtual endoscopy. However curve-skeleton computation is a crucial task. An effective skeletonization algorithm was introduced by N. Cornea in [1] but it lacks in computational performances. Thanks to the advances in imaging techniques the resolution of 3D images is increasing more and more, therefore there is the need for efficient algorithms in order to analyze significant Volumes of Interest (VOIs). In the present paper an improved skeletonization algorithm based on the idea proposed in [1] is presented. A computational comparison between the original and the proposed method is also reported. The obtained results show that the proposed method allows a significant computational improvement making more appealing the adoption of the skeleton representation in biomedical image analysis applications. PMID:20467122

  4. 3DVIEWNIX-AVS: a software package for the separate visualization of arteries and veins in CE-MRA images.

    PubMed

    Lei, Tianhu; Udupa, Jayaram K; Odhner, Dewey; Nyúl, László G; Saha, Punam K

    2003-01-01

    Our earlier study developed a computerized method, based on fuzzy connected object delineation principles and algorithms, for artery and vein separation in contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography (CE-MRA) images. This paper reports its current development-a software package-for routine clinical use. The software package, termed 3DVIEWNIX-AVS, consists of the following major operational parts: (1) converting data from DICOM3 to 3DVIEWNIX format, (2) previewing slices and creating VOI and MIP Shell, (3) segmenting vessel, (4) separating artery and vein, (5) shell rendering vascular structures and creating animations. This package has been applied to EPIX Medical Inc's CE-MRA data (AngioMark MS-325). One hundred and thirty-five original CE-MRA data sets (of 52 patients) from 6 hospitals have been processed. In all case studies, unified parameter settings produce correct artery-vein separation. The current package is running on a Pentium PC under Linux and the total computation time per study is about 3 min. The strengths of this software package are (1) minimal user interaction, (2) minimal anatomic knowledge requirements on human vascular system, (3) clinically required speed, (4) free entry to any operational stages, (5) reproducible, reliable, high quality of results, and (6) cost effective computer implementation. To date, it seems to be the only software package (using an image processing approach) available for artery and vein separation of the human vascular system for routine use in a clinical setting. PMID:12821028

  5. PIRATE: pediatric imaging response assessment and targeting environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Russell; Zhang, Yong; Krasin, Matthew; Hua, Chiaho

    2010-02-01

    By combining the strengths of various imaging modalities, the multimodality imaging approach has potential to improve tumor staging, delineation of tumor boundaries, chemo-radiotherapy regime design, and treatment response assessment in cancer management. To address the urgent needs for efficient tools to analyze large-scale clinical trial data, we have developed an integrated multimodality, functional and anatomical imaging analysis software package for target definition and therapy response assessment in pediatric radiotherapy (RT) patients. Our software provides quantitative tools for automated image segmentation, region-of-interest (ROI) histogram analysis, spatial volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis, and voxel-wise correlation across modalities. To demonstrate the clinical applicability of this software, histogram analyses were performed on baseline and follow-up 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET images of nine patients with rhabdomyosarcoma enrolled in an institutional clinical trial at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. In addition, we combined 18F-FDG PET, dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR, and anatomical MR data to visualize the heterogeneity in tumor pathophysiology with the ultimate goal of adaptive targeting of regions with high tumor burden. Our software is able to simultaneously analyze multimodality images across multiple time points, which could greatly speed up the analysis of large-scale clinical trial data and validation of potential imaging biomarkers.

  6. Le sumatriptan intranasal pour la migraine chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.; Meckler, Garth D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Je vois de plus en plus d’enfants et d’adolescents qui souffrent de céphalées pouvant se classer dans la catégorie des migraines. J’ai fait des lectures sur le sumatriptan par voie intranasale comme thérapie abortive. Est-ce un traitement efficace? Réponse La migraine aiguë chez les enfants et les adolescents est fréquente et difficile à traiter. Le sumatriptan intranasal est une option sûre et généralement efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents. La dose actuellement recommandée est de 20 mg pour les enfants qui pèsent plus de 40 kg et de 10 mg pour ceux dont le poids se situe entre 20 et 39 kg. Il faudrait faire des études de plus grande envergure pour contrecarrer les limitations des échantillons de petite taille et mieux comprendre la faible concentration plasmique et les effets placebo observés dans les études jusqu’à présent.

  7. L’acyclovir pour la gingivostomatite herpétique chez l’enfant

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Je vois chaque année des enfants d’âge préscolaire souffrant de gingivostomatite. Ce problème semble causer une charge de morbidité assez considérable. Parce que la maladie est attribuable au virus herpès simplex de type 1, faudrait-il prescrire une thérapie antiherpétique à l’acyclovir par voie orale? Réponse Bien que la plupart des enfants souffrant de gingivostomatite soient asymptomatiques, certains auront des douleurs et un inconfort importants, et sont à risque de déshydratation. Il n’existe pas d’études d’envergure bien conçues permettant de déterminer clairement la thérapie appropriée chez tous les enfants. Selon la seule étude randomisée, le traitement ne doit être administré que dans les 72 premières heures suivant l’apparition des symptômes si des douleurs substantielles ou une déshydratation sont documentées.

  8. Can Na18F PET/CT Be Used to Study Bone Remodeling in the Tibia When Patients Are Being Treated with a Taylor Spatial Frame?

    PubMed Central

    Lundblad, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q.; Olivecrona, Henrik; Jonsson, Cathrine; Jacobsson, Hans; Noz, Marilyn E.; Zeleznik, Michael P.; Weidenhielm, Lars; Sundin, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring and quantifying bone remodeling are of interest, for example, in correction osteotomies, delayed fracture healing pseudarthrosis, bone lengthening, and other instances. Seven patients who had operations to attach an Ilizarov-derived Taylor Spatial Frame to the tibia gave informed consent. Each patient was examined by Na18F PET/CT twice, at approximately six weeks and three months after the operation. A validated software tool was used for the following processing steps. The first and second CT volumes were aligned in 3D and the respective PET volumes were aligned accordingly. In the first PET volume spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) were delineated for the crural fracture and normal bone and transferred to the second PET volume for SUVmax evaluation. This method potentially provides clinical insight into questions such as, when has the bone remodeling progressed well enough to safely remove the TSF? and when is intervention required, in a timelier manner than current methods? For example, in two patients who completed treatment, the SUVmax between the first and second PET/CT examination decreased by 42% and 13%, respectively. Further studies in a larger patient population are needed to verify these preliminary results by correlating regional Na18F PET measurements to clinical and radiological findings. PMID:24778581

  9. On the Effect of Sex on Prefrontal and Cerebellar Neurometabolites in Healthy Adults: An MRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Dominique; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Feige, Bernd; Backenecker, Stephan; Nickel, Kathrin; Bubl, Anna; Lange, Thomas; Mader, Irina; Maier, Simon; Perlov, Evgeniy

    2016-01-01

    In neuropsychiatric research, the aspects of sex have received increasing attention over the past decade. With regard to the neurometabolic differences in the prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum of both men and women, we performed a magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS) study of a large group of healthy subjects. For neurometabolic measurements, we used single-voxel proton MRS. The voxels of interest (VOI) were placed in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) and the left cerebellar hemisphere. Absolute quantification of creatine (Cre), total choline (t-Cho), glutamate and glutamine (Glx), N-acetylaspartate, and myo-inositol (mI) was performed. Thirty-three automatically matched ACCs and 31 cerebellar male–female pairs were statistically analyzed. We found no significant neurometabolic differences in the pACC region (Wilks' lambda: p = 0.657). In the left cerebellar region, we detected significant variations between the male and female groups (p = 0.001). Specifically, we detected significantly higher Cre (p = 0.005) and t-Cho (p = 0.000) levels in men. Additionally, males tended to have higher Glx and mI concentrations. This is the first study to report neurometabolic sex differences in the cerebellum. The effects of sexual hormones might have influenced our findings. Our data indicates the importance of adjusting for the confounding effects of sex in MRS studies. PMID:27531975

  10. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  11. Un lymphangiome kystique rétropéritonéal révélé par des coliques néphrétiques

    PubMed Central

    El anzaoui, Jihad; Ghoundale, Omar; Touiti, Driss; El barni, Rachid; Mejdane, Abdelhadi; Fihri, Jawad Fassi; Lahkim, Mohammed; Achour, Abdsamad

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Le lymphangiome kystique (LK) est une tumeur rare des voies lymphatiques caractérisée par son évolution bénigne. La fréquence de la localisation rétropéritonéale est controversée. La découverte se fait le plus souvent dès l’enfance. L’évolution de la maladie peut être marquée par des complications graves, notamment compressives. Nous faisons état de l’observation médicale d’une femme de 30 ans chez qui l’on a découvert, à la suite de l’apparition de coliques néphrétiques récidivantes, un LK énorme occupant tout l’espace rétropéritonéal droit. Le diagnostic a été évoqué par l’urotomodensitométrie et confirmé par l’histologie. L’évolution après exérèse chirurgicale de la masse a été favorable, avec la disparition des coliques néphrétiques. PMID:25844099

  12. The Effect of Aromatase Inhibition on the Cognitive Function of Older Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hurria, Arti; Patel, Sunita K.; Mortimer, Joanne; Luu, Thehang; Somlo, George; Katheria, Vani; Ramani, Rupal; Hansen, Kurt; Feng, Tao; Chuang, Carolyn; Geist, Cheri L.; Silverman, Daniel H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy and cognitive function (over a 6-month time period) in a cohort of patients age ≥ 60 compared with an age-matched healthy control group, and to evaluate changes in regional cerebral metabolism as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) scans of the brain done in a subset of the patient cohort. Patients and Methods Thirty-five patients (32 evaluable) and 35 healthy controls were recruited to this study. Patients with breast cancer completed a neuropsychological battery, self-reported memory questionnaire, and geriatric assessment prior to initiation of AI therapy and again 6 months later. Age-matched healthy control participants completed the same assessments at the same time points as the patient group. Results No significant decline in cognitive function was seen among individuals receiving an AI from pre-treatment to 6 months later compared with healthy controls. In the PET cohort over the same period, both standardized volume of interest (sVOI) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses detected specific changes in metabolic activity between baseline and follow-up uniquely in the AI patients, uniquely, most significantly in medial temporal lobes. Conclusion While patients undergoing AI treatment demonstrated few changes in neuropsychologic performance compared with healthy controls over a 6-month period during this interval, regionally specific changes in cerebral metabolic activity were identified in the patient group. Additional longitudinal follow-up is needed to understand the potential clinical implications of these findings. PMID:24291380

  13. Emotional discrimination during viewing unpleasant pictures: timing in human anterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Satoru; Noriuchi, Madoka; Iguchi, Yoshinobu; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Hoshi, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and amygdala have critical roles in the generation and regulation of unpleasant emotions, and in this study the dynamic neural basis of unpleasant emotion processing was elucidated by using paired-samples permutation t-tests to identify the timing of emotional discrimination in various brain regions. We recorded the temporal dynamics of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals in those brain regions during the viewing of unpleasant pictures by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with high temporal resolution, and we compared the time course of the signal within the volume of interest (VOI) across emotional conditions. Results show that emotional discrimination in the right amygdala precedes that in the left amygdala and that emotional discrimination in both those regions precedes that in the right anterior VLPFC. They support the hypotheses that the right amygdala is part of a rapid emotional stimulus detection system and the left amygdala is specialized for sustained stimulus evaluation and that the right anterior VLPFC is implicated in the integration of viscerosensory information with affective signals between the bilateral anterior VLPFCs and the bilateral amygdalae. PMID:25713527

  14. Une complication exceptionnelle de la pose d'une voie veineuse centrale jugulaire interne: pneumothorax, pneumo médiastin et retro pneumopéritoine et emphysème sous cutané géant

    PubMed Central

    Belkouch, Ahmed; Sirbou, Rachid; Zidouh, Saad; Chouaib, Naoufal; Rafai, Mostafa; Belyamani, Lahcen

    2015-01-01

    L'association: pneumothorax, pneumo médiastin, retro pneumopéritoine et emphysème sous cutané est connue de longue date comme complication de l'intubation et la ventilation mécanique, de l'endoscopie digestive ou de la chirurgie laparoscopique. En dehors de ce contexte, elle demeure inhabituelle surtout dans le cadre de La pose de voies veineuses centrales puisque le risque encouru est celui d'une brèche pleurale avec pneumothorax, il est surtout lié à la mise en place d'un cathéter central sous-clavier plus que lors de la pose d'une voie centrale par voie jugulaire. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente qui a souffert d'un pneumothorax associé à, un pneumo médiastin, un rétro pneumopéritoine et un emphysème sous cutané géant, suite à une tentative de catéthérisation de la veine jugulaire interne par voie postérieure. L'intérêt de cette observation réside dans la rareté exceptionnelle de cette association chez une patiente en ventilation spontanée et dans le mécanisme physiopathologique qu'elle suggère. PMID:26140069

  15. Hybrid RGSA and Support Vector Machine Framework for Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Brain Tumor Classification

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh Sharma, R.; Marikkannu, P.

    2015-01-01

    A novel hybrid approach for the identification of brain regions using magnetic resonance images accountable for brain tumor is presented in this paper. Classification of medical images is substantial in both clinical and research areas. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modality outperforms towards diagnosing brain abnormalities like brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, hemorrhage, and many more. The primary objective of this work is to propose a three-dimensional (3D) novel brain tumor classification model using MRI images with both micro- and macroscale textures designed to differentiate the MRI of brain under two classes of lesion, benign and malignant. The design approach was initially preprocessed using 3D Gaussian filter. Based on VOI (volume of interest) of the image, features were extracted using 3D volumetric Square Centroid Lines Gray Level Distribution Method (SCLGM) along with 3D run length and cooccurrence matrix. The optimal features are selected using the proposed refined gravitational search algorithm (RGSA). Support vector machines, over backpropagation network, and k-nearest neighbor are used to evaluate the goodness of classifier approach. The preliminary evaluation of the system is performed using 320 real-time brain MRI images. The system is trained and tested by using a leave-one-case-out method. The performance of the classifier is tested using the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.986 (±002). The experimental results demonstrate the systematic and efficient feature extraction and feature selection algorithm to the performance of state-of-the-art feature classification methods. PMID:26509188

  16. Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    The “value of information” (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004;24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration.

  17. Magellan Prelaunch Mission Operations Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft will be launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) within a 31-day overall launch period extending from April 28 to May 28, 1989. The launch will use the Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis to lift an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) and the Magellan Spacecraft into low Earth orbit. After the Shuttle achieves its parking orbit, the IUS and attached Magellan spacecraft are deployed from the payload bay. After a short coast time, the two-stage IUS is fired to inject the Magellan spacecraft into an Earth-Venus transfer trajectory. The Magellan spacecraft is powered by single degree of freedom, sun-tracking, solar panels charging a set of nickel-cadmium batteries. The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized by reaction wheels using gyros and a star sensor for attitude reference. The spacecraft carries a solid rocket motor for Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI). A hydrazine propulsion system allows trajectory correction and prevents saturation of the reaction wheels. Communication with Earth through the Deep Space Network (DSN) is provided by S- and X-band telemetry channels, through alternatively a low, medium, or 3.7 m high-gain parabolic antenna rigidly attached to the spacecraft. The high-gain antenna also serves as the radar and radiometer antenna during orbit around Venus.

  18. Estimation of the breast skin-line in mammograms using multidirectional Gabor filters.

    PubMed

    Casti, P; Mencattini, A; Salmeri, M; Ancona, A; Mangeri, F; Pepe, M L; Rangayyan, R M

    2013-11-01

    Segmentation of the breast region is a fundamental step in any system for computerized analysis of mammograms. In this work, we propose a novel procedure for the estimation of the breast skin-line based upon multidirectional Gabor filtering. The method includes an adaptive values-of-interest (VOI) transformation, extraction of the skin-air ribbon by Otsu's thresholding method and the Euclidean distance transform, Gabor filtering with 18 real kernels, and a step for suppression of false edge points using the magnitude and phase responses of the filters. On a test set of 361 images from different acquisition modalities (screen-film and full-field digital mammograms), the average Hausdorff and polyline distances obtained were 2.85 mm and 0.84 mm, respectively, with reference to the ground-truth boundaries provided by an expert radiologist. When compared with the results obtained by other state-of-the-art methods on the same set of images and with respect to the same ground-truth boundaries, our method mostly outperformed the other approaches. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24209932

  19. La prévention de l’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial

    PubMed Central

    Samson, L

    2009-01-01

    L’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS) est la principale cause d’infection des voies respiratoires inférieures chez les jeunes enfants et pour cette raison, bon nombre des prématurés et des enfants présentant d’autres facteurs de risque doivent être hospitalisés chaque année au Canada. Le palivizumab, un anticorps monoclonal anti-VRS, peut réduire le taux d’hospitalisation et la gravité de la maladie d’un petit groupe de prématurés ou de nourrissons à haut risque pendant leur première saison de VRS. Le présent document de principes contient une analyse des publications ainsi que des recommandations à l’intention des médecins canadiens au sujet de son utilisation chez les prématurés et les autres nourrissons à risque.

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-D texture analysis of lung parenchyma is better than 2-D for discrimination of lung pathology in stage 0 COPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; Sonka, Milan; McLennan, Geoffrey; Guo, Junfeng; Hoffman, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Lung parenchyma evaluation via multidetector-row CT (MDCT), has significantly altered clinical practice in the early detection of lung disease. Our goal is to enhance our texture-based tissue classification ability to differentiate early pathologic processes by extending our 2-D Adaptive Multiple Feature Method (AMFM) to 3-D AMFM. We performed MDCT on 34 human volunteers in five categories: emphysema in severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as EC, emphysema in mild COPD (MC), normal appearing lung in COPD (NC), non-smokers with normal lung function (NN), smokers with normal function (NS). We volumetrically excluded the airway and vessel regions, calculated 24 volumetric texture features for each Volume of Interest (VOI); and used Bayesian rules for discrimination. Leave-one-out and half-half methods were used for testing. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the four-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: EC: 84.9%/70.7%, MC: 89.8%/82.7%; NC: 87.5.0%/49.6%; NN: 100.0%/60.0%. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the two-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: NN: 99.3%/71.6%; NS: 99.7%/74.5%. We conclude that 3-D AMFM analysis of the lung parenchyma improves discrimination compared to 2-D analysis of the same images.