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1

Concordance of Two Endoscopic Procedures for Diagnosis of Carcinoma of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Upper Aerodigestive Tract Lesions; Neoplasms, Oropharyngeal; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Neoplasms, Hypopharyngeal; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Head and Neck Neoplasms; UADT Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Papilloma

2014-08-15

2

Upper Aerodigestive Tract Neurofunctional Mechanisms: Lifelong Evolution and Exercise  

PubMed Central

The transformation of the upper aerodigestive tract – oral cavity, pharynx and larynx – serves the functions of eating, speaking and breathing during sleeping and waking hours. These life-sustaining functions may be produced by a central neural sensorimotor system that shares certain neuroanatomic networks while maintaining separate neural functional systems and network structures. Current understanding of development, maturation, underlying neural correlates and integrative factors are discussed in light of currently available imaging modalities and recently emerging interventions. Exercise and an array of additional treatments together appear to provide promising translational pathways for evidence-based innovation, novel habilitation and rehabilitation strategies and delay, or even prevent neuromuscular decline cross-cutting functions and supporting quality of life throughout increasingly enduring lifespans. PMID:21910155

Robbins, JoAnne

2013-01-01

3

Pediatric upper aero-digestive and respiratory tract burns  

PubMed Central

Upper aero-digestive and respiratory tract burns may occur in isolation or in association with cutaneous burn injury. Major respiratory burns have been linked with a high mortality and morbidity. Despite the importance of these injuries there have been few studies in children. A retrospective case note review between December 2000 and March 2011 of all pediatric upper aero-digestive and respiratory tract burns referred to the New South Wales Statewide Burn Injury Service was performed. Data were collected on patient characteristics, injury details, requirement for intubation, length of stay (LOS), morbidity and mortality. There were 33 patients diagnosed, with a median age of 5.4 years and a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. Mechanism of injury was ingestion of a caustic material (n=15), flame (n=11) or scald (n=7). Overall 14 (42%) patients were intubated; the majority associated with burns to the face (79%) and oropharynx (64%). Median LOS was 6 days (range 3 to 23). Of those patients admitted to intensive care, 50% had a positive bacterial culture. The most common sites of infection were tracheal/endotracheal (80%) and burn sites (44%). There were 2 (6%) deaths in the series. Whilst the majority of children with upper airway and respiratory tract burns required intubation, the overall morbidity and mortality was low compared to adult series. This may reflect that a number of children suffered an upper aero digestive tract burn following ingestion of a caustic material or hot liquids, rather than a lower tract, inhalational flame burn. PMID:24273696

Ofri, Adam; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

2013-01-01

4

Reduction in x-ray scatter and radiation dose for volume-of-interest (VOI) cone-beam breast CTa phantom study  

Microsoft Academic Search

With volume-of-interest (VOI) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging, one set of projection images are acquired with the VOI collimator at a regular or high exposure level and the second set of projection images are acquired without the collimator at a reduced exposure level. The high exposure VOI scan data inside the VOI and the low exposure full-field scan data outside

Chao-Jen Lai; Lingyun Chen; Huojun Zhang; Xinming Liu; Yuncheng Zhong; Youtao Shen; Tao Han; Shuaiping Ge; Ying Yi; Tianpeng Wang; Wei T. Yang; Gary J. Whitman; Chris C. Shaw

2009-01-01

5

L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius L.) III. Voies intrapinales de conduction  

E-print Network

L'organe pinéal du Brochet (Esox lucius L.) III. Voies intrapinéales de conduction des messages organ of the pike (Esox lucius, L.). II1. lntrapineal pathways for conduction of photosensory messages. In order to elucidate the sensory function of the pineal organ of the pike, Esox lucius

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

Tobacco Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Cumulative Risk of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper aerodigestive tract cancers are strongly related to smoking, and their incidence is substantially lower in former smokers than in continuing smokers. To estimate the effect of smoking cessation on the cumulative incidence of these cancers by age 75 years (in the absence of competing causes of death), the authors combined odds ratios for males from a network of Italian

Cristina Bosetti; Silvano Gallus; Richard Peto; Eva Negri; Renato Talamini; Alessandra Tavani; Silvia Franceschi; Carlo La Vecchia

2008-01-01

7

Long term survival of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in male patients in the Umbria region (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to make a study of the whole population of a central Italian region, the Umbria region – cancer survival rates for the upper aerodigestive tract, which includes cancers of the head and neck (tongue, oral cavity, pharynx), oesophagus and larynx. In Italy cancer survival rates do not cover entire regions but single municipalities or

F. La Rosa; A. M. Petrinelli; F. Stracci; C. Ammetto; P. Casucci; V. Mastrandrea

2000-01-01

8

ARTICLES Cyclin D1 Genotype, Response to Biochemoprevention, and Progression Rate to Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Altered cyclin D1 expression in advanced pre- invasive lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer and histologic progression during and after combination bioche- mopreventive therapy (13-cis-retinoic acid, -interferon, and -tocopherol). Both alleles of the adenine (A)\\/guanine (G) cyclin D1 polymorphism located at nucleotide 870 en- code two alternatively spliced transcripts,

Julie G. Izzo; Vassiliki A. Papadimitrakopoulou; Diane D. Liu; Petra L. C. den Hollander; Ilona M. Babenko; Jamie Keck; Adel K. El-Naggar; Dong M. Shin; Waun K. Hong; Walter N. Hittelman

2003-01-01

9

Correlates of health-related quality of life in upper aerodigestive tract cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflecting a limited understanding of the definition and determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), the majority of research in this field has concentrated upon the effect of disease- and treatment-related variables. That work specifically investigating HRQoL among upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer patients is no exception to this observation. Treating subject-related and non-subject-related variables separately, the aim of this

P. J. Allison; D. Locker; S. Wood-Dauphinee; M. Black; J. S. Feine

1998-01-01

10

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome caused by uncommon tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is always caused by anatomic abnormalities, including nasal cavity, pharynx, and neuromuscular dysfunctions, leading to airway narrowing. OSAS associated with a mass in the aerodigestive tract is rare. In the present study, we report OSAS caused by 9 cases of preoperative uncommon tumors in the aerodigestive tract. Two tumors in the parapharyngeal space were pleomorphic adenoma, one oropharyngeal tumor was mucoepidermoid carcinoma, one tumor in the right tonsil was schwannoma, and five tumors were non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Of the five NHL cases, one in the nasopharynx was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, two were mantle cell lymphoma, one was chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, and one was NHL. Tumors in the aerodigestive tract should be considered in the differential diagnosis of OSAS upon exacerbation of snoring or sudden gasping. Further examinations should be performed, including a routine workup (computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging) and positron emission tomography/CT. PMID:25400748

Zhu, Shao-Jun; Wang, Qin-Ying; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Bao, Yang-Yang; Wang, Shen-Qing

2014-01-01

11

Usefulness of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for supportive therapy of advanced aerodigestive cancer  

PubMed Central

Aerodigestive cancer, like esophageal cancer or head and neck cancer, is well known to have a poor prognosis. It is often diagnosed in the late stages, with dysphagia being the major symptom. Insufficient nutrition and lack of stimulation of the intestinal mucosa may worsen immune compromise due to toxic side effects. A poor nutritional status is a significant prognostic factor for increased mortality. Therefore, it is most important to optimize enteral nutrition in patients with aerodigestive cancer before and during treatment, as well as during palliative treatment. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) may be useful for nutritional support. However, PEG tube placement is limited by digestive tract stenosis and is an invasive endoscopic procedure with a risk of complications. There are three PEG techniques. The pull/push and introducer methods have been established as standard techniques for PEG tube placement. The modified introducer method, namely the direct method, allows for direct placement of a larger button-bumper-type catheter device. PEG tube placement using the introducer method or the direct method may be a much safer alternative than the pull/push method. PEG may be recommended in patients with aerodigestive cancer because of the improved complication rate. PMID:24244880

Ogino, Haruei; Akiho, Hirotada

2013-01-01

12

Aerodigestive Foreign Bodies in Adult Ethiopian Patients: A Prospective Study at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Foreign bodies (FBs) in the aerodigestive tract are important causes of morbidity and mortality and pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The best method of removal of an esophageal and tracheobronchial FB is endoscopic guided extraction. Objective. To present our experience of the removal of aerodigestive FBs in adult Ethiopian patients using rigid endoscopes. Methods. A hospital-based prospective study, at Tikur Anbessa Referral and Teaching Hospital, from January 2011 to December 2012 (over two years). Results. A total of 32 patients (18 males and 14 females) with a mean age of 28.0 ± 12.74 years were treated for FB ingestion and aspiration at Tikur Anbessa Hospital. The FBs were impacted at the esophagus in 18 (56.2%) patients, at the pharynx in 7 (21.8%), and at the air way in 7 (21.8%) patients. Pieces of bones were the commonest objects found in the esophagus (17/18 of the cases) and the pharynx (4/7), while fractured tracheostomy tubes and needles were frequently seen in the air way (3/7 cases each). The foreign bodies were visible in plain radiographs of 26 (81.2%) patients. Successful extraction of FBs was achieved by using Mc gill forceps in 11 cases, rigid esophagoscopes in 9 patients, and bronchoscopes in 4 cases. Four cases required open surgery to remove the foreign bodies. Two complications (one pneumothorax and one esophageal perforation) occurred. All patients were discharged cured. Discussion and Recommendations. Aerodigestive FBs are not so rare in the hospital and timely diagnosis and removal of accidentally ingested and aspirated foreign body should be performed so as to avoid the potentially lethal complications associated. Rigid esophagoscopy requires general anesthesia and is associated with its own complications, but our experience and outcome of its use are encouraging. PMID:24834074

Bekele, Abebe

2014-01-01

13

A new endotracheal tube for carbon dioxide and KTP laser surgery of the aerodigestive tract.  

PubMed

We have tested the fire-resistance of a new endotracheal tube designed for use in laser surgery of the upper aerodigestive tract. This Teflon/metallic-wrapped silicone tube seems capable of withstanding occasional, accidental pulsed laser impact at power settings used clinically (1 to 10 watts) without fire. On rare occasions when continuous mode is used, the tube seems capable of withstanding at least several seconds of continuous irradiation at clinical power settings without igniting. When used with other recommended safety procedures, this tube should minimize the risk of endotracheal tube fire from accidental laser impact. PMID:8437882

Ossoff, R H; Aly, A; Gonzales, D; Koriwchak, M J; Houchin, N

1993-01-01

14

Radiophysics and Quantum. Electronics, VoI. 2Z No. 7, 1994 PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS OF THE SOLAR CORONA USING  

E-print Network

to account for the heating of the entire corona. Noise storm sources or other microflares having energiesRadiophysics and Quantum. Electronics, VoI. 2Z No. 7, 1994 PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS OF THE SOLAR CORONA USING DECIMETRIC RADIO WAVES (Review) A. O. Benz The solar corona is a very dynamic plasma on time

15

Photodynamic therapy--1994: treatment of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 1983 to 1994 Phase II and III clinical studies at Henry Ford Hospital demonstrated complete or partial responses in 46 of 47 patients treated with hematoporphyrin-derivative photodynamic therapy (HPD-PDT) for a variety of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease: (1) superficial `condemned mucosa' or `field cancerization' of the oral cavity; (2) stage III/IV head and neck cancer; (3) mucocutaneous AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the upper aerodigestive tract; (4) recurrent laryngotracheal papillomatosis; (5) severe dysplasia/adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus; (6) partial or completely obstructing terminal esophageal cancer. HPD-PDT produced complete responses in 19 patients (follow up 6 months to 8 years) with `field cancerization' (CIS, T1) of the oral cavity and larynx (6), adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (2), mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (9), obstructing esophageal carcinoma (1), and stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx (1). PDT treatment protocols, results, complications, and application as adjunct or primary oncologic therapy for head and neck disease are reviewed.

Schweitzer, Vanessa G.

1994-10-01

16

Photodynamic therapy--1994: treatment of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 1983 to 1994 Phase II and III clinical studies at Henry Ford Hospital demonstrated complete or partial responses in 46 of 47 patients treated with hematoporphyrin-derivative photodynamic therapy (HPD-PDT) for a variety of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease: (1) superficial `condemned mucosa' or `field cancerization' of the oral cavity; (2) stage III/IV head and neck cancer; (3) mucocutaneous AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the upper aerodigestive tract; (4) recurrent laryngotracheal papillomatosis; (5) severe dysplasia/adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus; (6) partial or completely obstructing terminal esophageal cancer. HPD-PDT produced complete responses in 19 patients (follow up 6 months to 8 years) with `field cancerization' (CIS, T1) of the oral cavity and larynx (6), adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (2), mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (9), obstructing esophageal carcinoma (1), and stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx (1). PDT treatment protocols, results, complications, and application as adjunct or primary oncologic therapy for head and neck disease are reviewed.

Schweitzer, Vanessa G.

1995-03-01

17

The influence of alcohol consumption on worldwide trends in mortality from upper aerodigestive tract cancers in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess current trends in male mortality from cancers of the oral cavity\\/pharynx, oesophagus, and larynx (upper aerodigestive tract cancers), and relate these to past national consumption of alcohol and smoking of cigarettes. To assess the impact of current trends in alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking on likely future rates of these cancers. DESIGN: Mortality data for cancers

G J Macfarlane; T V Macfarlane; A B Lowenfels

1996-01-01

18

Is dextran infusion as an antithrombotic agent necessary in microvascular reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract?  

PubMed

Patent microvascular anastomoses are mandatory for a successful free tissue transfer. Dextran 40 is widely used by reconstructive microsurgeons in conjunction with free tissue transfer, to prevent flap loss. Unfortunately, dextran-induced adverse reactions, such as anaphylactoid reactions, adult respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac overload, hemorrhage, and renal damage, remain the major risks in routine use of dextran 40. The authors retrospectively analyzed the patency rates of 55 microvascular tissue transfers of a single microsurgeon after tumor ablation of malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract between August, 1997 and March, 2001. The patency rates of free flap reconstructions were 96 percent for the dextran-infusion group and 100 percent for the dextran-free group. There was no statistically significant difference between the patency rates of these two groups. The results showed that the routine use of dextran as an antithrombotic agent is not necessary in microvascular reconstruction. The disadvantages of dextran infusion can be effectively prevented. PMID:14634909

Sun, Tzong-Bor; Chien, Sou-Hsin; Lee, Jiunn-Tat; Cheng, Li-Fu; Hsu, Lee-Ping; Chen, Peir-Rong

2003-10-01

19

Rapid sequence treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: A pilot study  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature suggested that prolonged treatment time may lessen the probability of cure for patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. To shorten treatment time, rapid sequence treatment (RST) was devised in which chemotherapy, surgery, and irradation were administered in a total treatment time of 8 weeks. Twelve patients were treated and followed 3 years or longer. Medical complications were minor. Osteonecrosis occurred in each of the first five patients and was the only major complication of the protocol. Surgical techniques were modified, and no additional patient developed osteonecrosis. No patient developed local or regional recurrence. Two patients developed distant metastases and three other patients developed second primaries. Absolute survival was 50%. Rapid sequence treatment is an aggressive and potentially hazardous protocol that yielded encouraging results in this pilot study.

Moloy, P.J.; Moran, E.M.; Azawi, S. (Permanente Medical Group, Fresno, CA (USA))

1991-01-01

20

Protective Role of Aerodigestive Reflexes Against Aspiration: Study on Subjects With Impaired and Preserved Reflexes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND & AIMS Direct evidence to support the airway protective function of aerodigestive reflexes triggered by pharyngeal stimulation was previously demonstrated by abolishing these reflexes by topical pharyngeal anesthesia in normal subjects. Studies have also shown that these reflexes deteriorate in cigarette smokers. Aim of this study was to determine the influence of defective pharyngeal aerodigestive reflexes on airway protection in cigarette smokers. METHODS Pharyngoglottal Closure reflex; PGCR, Pharyngo-UES Contractile reflex; PUCR, and Reflexive Pharyngeal Swallow; RPS were studied in 15 healthy non-smokers (24.2 ± 3.3 SD y, 7 males) and 15 healthy chronic smokers (27.3 ± 8.1, 7 males). To elicit these reflexes and to evaluate aspiration, colored water was perfused into the hypopharynx at the rate of 1 mL/min. Maximum volume of water that can safely dwell in the hypopharynx before spilling into the larynx (Hypopharyngeal Safe Volume; HPSV) and the threshold volume to elicit PGCR, PUCR, and RPS were determined in smokers and results compared with non-smokers. RESULTS At baseline, RPS was elicited in all non-smokers (100%) and in only 3 of 15 smokers (20%; P < .001). None of the non-smokers showed evidence of laryngeal spillage of water, whereas 12 of 15 smokers with absent RPS had laryngeal spillage. Pharyngeal anesthesia abolished RPS reflex in all non-smokers resulting in laryngeal spillage. The HPSV was 0.61 ± 0.06 mL and 0.76 ± 0.06 mL in non-smokers and smokers respectively (P = .1). CONCLUSIONS Deteriorated reflexive pharyngeal swallow in chronic cigarette smokers predispose them to risks of aspiration and similarly, abolishing this reflex in non-smokers also results in laryngeal spillage. These observations directly demonstrate the airway protective function of RPS. PMID:21420407

DUA, KULWINDER; SURAPANENI, SRI NAVEEN; KURIBAYASHI, SHIKO; HAFEEZULLAH, MOHAMMED; SHAKER, REZA

2012-01-01

21

Investigation of a Broad-Spectrum PCR Assay for Human Papillomaviruses in Screening Benign Lesions of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A variety of different human papillomavirus (HPV) types can be found in benign and malignant lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Therefore a broad-spectrum assay is needed for screening reasons. Methods: A PCR system with degenerate consensus primers originating from a very conserved region (e.g. L1) of the HPV genome was applied. The sensitivity level was improved by combining

Markus Fischer

2005-01-01

22

FDOPA metabolism in the adult porcine brain: influence of tracer circulation time and VOI selection on estimates of striatal DOPA decarboxylation.  

PubMed

Different methodologies for PET data analysis influence the magnitude of estimates of blood-brain transfer coefficients and rate constants for the metabolism of FDOPA in living striatum. We now test the effects on several kinetic parameters of automatic procedures for volume of interest (VOI) selection. We also tested the sensitivity of the estimates to dynamic frame sequence duration, and produced a standard method for minimizing the variations in physiological estimates for FDOPA kinetics in minipig brain. We used minipigs because our previous work has shown them to provide an appropriate animal model for study normal and pathological cerebral DOPA metabolism using PET. Time-activity curves in striatum of adult minipigs were acquired in VOIs defined manually on MR-images, or alternatively on the basis of the radioactivity concentration based on the most radioactive voxel in the last scan frame. For all frame sequences, the relative decarboxylase activity (k(3)(D)) declined significantly (P < 0.006) as the VOI threshold declined from 95 to 70% of the most radioactive voxel. Irrespective of VOI size, the magnitude of k(3)(D) declined significantly (P < 0.001) from 0.074+/-0.008 to 0.045+/-0.005 per min (mean+/-S.E.M.) as total sequence length increased from 60 to 120 min circulation. The method of VOI selection had no significant effect on the striatum decarboxylation index of FDOPA calculated relative to the radioactivity in cerebellum (k(3)(S)). PMID:11595282

Danielsen, E H; Smith, D F; Andersen, F; Gee, A D; Bender, D; Hansen, S B; Hermansen, F; Østergaard, L; Cumming, P; Gjedde, A

2001-10-30

23

DNA methylation changes associated with risk factors in tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract  

PubMed Central

Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) are common forms of malignancy associated with tobacco and alcohol exposures, although human papillomavirus and nutritional deficiency are also important risk factors. While somatically acquired DNA methylation changes have been associated with UADT cancers, what triggers these events and precise epigenetic targets are poorly understood. In this study, we applied quantitative profiling of DNA methylation states in a panel of cancer-associated genes to a case-control study of UADT cancers. Our analyses revealed a high frequency of aberrant hypermethylation of several genes, including MYOD1, CHRNA3 and MTHFR in UADT tumors, whereas CDKN2A was moderately hypermethylated. Among differentially methylated genes, we identified a new gene (the nicotinic acetycholine receptor gene) as target of aberrant hypermethylation in UADT cancers, suggesting that epigenetic deregulation of nicotinic acetycholine receptors in non-neuronal tissues may promote the development of UADT cancers. Importantly, we found that sex and age is strongly associated with the methylation states, whereas tobacco smoking and alcohol intake may also influence the methylation levels in specific genes. This study identifies aberrant DNA methylation patterns in UADT cancers and suggests a potential mechanism by which environmental factors may deregulate key cellular genes involved in tumor suppression and contribute to UADT cancers. PMID:22430803

Cuenin, Cyrille; Zaridze, David; Balassiano, Karen; Lima, Sheila CS; Matos, Elena; Daudt, Alexander; Koifman, Sergio; Filho, Victor Wunsch; Menezes, Ana MB; Curado, Maria Paula; Ferro, Gilles; Vaissière, Thomas; Sylla, Bakary S; Tommasino, Massimo; Pinto, Luis Felipe Ribeiro; Boffetta, Paolo; Hainaut, Pierre; Brennan, Paul

2012-01-01

24

Measurement of SUVs-Maximum for Normal Region Using VOI in PET/MRI and PET/CT  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research is to establish an overall data set associated with the VOI (Volume of Interest), which is available for simultaneous assessment of PET/MRI and PET/CT regardless of the use of contrast media. The participants as objects of this investigation are 26 healthy examinees in Korea, SUV (standardized-uptake-value)s-maximum evaluation for whole-body F-18?FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) PET/MRI image using VOI of normal region has exhibited very significant difference to that for whole-body F-18?FDG PET/CT image (significant probability value (P) < 0.0001). However, there appeared high correlation between them in view of statistics (R-square (R) > 0.8). It is shown that one needs to decide SUVs-maximum for PET/MRI with the reduction of 25.0~26.4% from their evaluated value and needs to decide with the reduction of 28.8~29.4% in the same situation but with the use of contrast media. The use of SUVLBM-maximum (SUVLean Body Mass-maximum) is very advantageous in reading overall image of PET/CT and PET/MRI to medical doctors and researchers, if we consider its convenience and efficiency. We expect that this research enhances the level of the early stage accurate diagnosis with whole-body images of PET/MRI and PET/CT. PMID:24672297

Kim, Sung Kyu; Cho, Ihn Ho; Kong, Eun Jung

2014-01-01

25

Targeted expression of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme prevents upper aerodigestive tract carcinogenesis in p53-deficient mice  

PubMed Central

Upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers of the oral cavity and esophagus are a significant global health burden, and there is an urgent need to develop relevant animal models to identify chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies to combat these diseases. Antizyme (AZ) is a multifunctional negative regulator of cellular polyamine levels, and here, we evaluate the susceptibility of keratin 5 (K5)-AZ transgenic mice to tumor models that combine chemical carcinogenesis with dietary and genetic risk factors known to influence human susceptibility to UADT cancer and promote UADT carcinogenesis in mice. First, p53+/- and K5-AZ/p53+/- (AZ/p53+/-) mice were placed on a zinc-deficient (ZD) or zinc-sufficient (ZS) diet and chronically exposed to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. Tongue tumor incidence, multiplicity and size were substantially reduced in both ZD and ZS AZ/p53+/- mice compared with p53+/-. AZ expression also reduced progression to carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma and decreased expression of the squamous cell carcinoma biomarkers K14, cyclooxygenase-2 and metallothionein. Next, AZ-expressing p53+/- and p53 null mice were placed on the ZD diet and treated with a single dose of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine. Regardless of p53 status, forestomach (FST) tumor incidence, multiplicity and size were greatly reduced with AZ expression, which was also associated with a significant decrease in FST epithelial thickness along with reduced proliferation marker K6 and increased differentiation marker loricrin. These studies demonstrate the powerful tumor suppressive effects of targeted AZ expression in two distinct and unique mouse models and validate the polyamine metabolic pathway as a target for chemoprevention of UADT cancers. PMID:23222816

Feith, David J.

2013-01-01

26

Correlates of health-related quality of life in upper aerodigestive tract cancer patients.  

PubMed

Reflecting a limited understanding of the definition and determinants of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), the majority of research in this field has concentrated upon the effect of disease- and treatment-related variables. That work specifically investigating HRQoL among upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer patients is no exception to this observation. Treating subject-related and non-subject-related variables separately, the aim of this study was to investigate predictors of global HRQoL rating in a sample of UADT cancer patients, concentrating upon the relative importance of sociodemographic and clinical variables. A cross-sectional study design was used with a sample of 188 UADT cancer patients. Global HRQoL was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 instrument, global domain (global QoL). Other study variables were collected by subject interview and chart review. Two multivariate regression models were independently developed, containing, respectively, subject-rated and non-subject rated variables. In the model containing subject-rated predictors of global QoL, emotional, breathing, physical, financial, pain and appetite problems were significant predictors (F = 14.6, p < 0.0001 and r2 = 0.54). Among non-subject-rated sociodemographic and clinical variables tested, unemployment, older age, female gender, being dentate and a more advanced disease stage predicted worse global QoL rating, while oral as opposed to pharyngeal or laryngeal cancer predicted a better global QoL rating (F = 5.1, p < 0.0001 and r2 = 0.21). In the latter model, a greater proportion of the variance was explained by sociodemographic variables than by clinical variables. PMID:10097620

Allison, P J; Locker, D; Wood-Dauphinee, S; Black, M; Feine, J S

1998-12-01

27

Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers.  

PubMed

Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion-deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case-control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4-5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7-5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

2014-04-01

28

Augmentation of Radiation Response by Panitumumab in Models of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the interaction between panitumumab, a fully human anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody, and radiation in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma and non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts. Methods and Materials: The head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma lines UM-SCC1 and SCC-1483, as well as the non-small-cell lung cancer line H226, were studied. Tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice were used to assess the in vivo activity of panitumumab alone and combined with radiation. In vitro assays were performed to assess the effect of panitumumab on radiation-induced cell signaling, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Results: Panitumumab increased the radiosensitivity as measured by the clonogenic survival assay. Radiation-induced epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation and downstream signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was inhibited by panitumumab. Panitumumab augmented radiation-induced DNA damage by 1.2-1.6-fold in each of the cell lines studied as assessed by residual {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX foci after radiation. Radiation-induced apoptosis was increased 1.4-1.9-fold by panitumumab, as evidenced by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining and flow cytometry. In vivo, the combination therapy of panitumumab and radiation was superior to panitumumab or radiation alone in the H226 xenografts (p = 0.01) and showed a similar trend in the SCC-1483 xenografts (p = 0.08). In vivo, immunohistochemistry demonstrated the ability of panitumumab to augment the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of radiation. Conclusion: These studies have identified a favorable interaction in the combination of radiation and panitumumab in upper aerodigestive tract tumor models, both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that clinical investigations examining the combination of radiation and panitumumab in the treatment of epithelial tumors warrant additional pursuit.

Kruser, Tim J.; Armstrong, Eric A.; Ghia, Amol J.; Huang Shyhmin; Wheeler, Deric L. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Radinsky, Robert; Freeman, Daniel J. [Department of Oncology Research, Amgen Incorporated, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Harari, Paul M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States)], E-mail: harari@humonc.wisc.edu

2008-10-01

29

Effect of Aging on Hypopharyngeal Safe Volume and the Aerodigestive Reflexes Protecting the Airways  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis Studies on young volunteers have shown that aerodigestive reflexes are triggered before the maximum volume of fluid that can safely collect in the hypopharynx before spilling into the larynx is exceeded (hypopharyngeal safe volume [HPSV]). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of aging on HPSV and pharyngoglottal closure reflex (PGCR), pharyngo-UES contractile reflex (PUCR), and reflexive pharyngeal swallow (RPS). Study Design Comparison between two groups of different age ranges. Methods Ten young (25 ±3 standard deviation [SD] years) and 10 elderly (77 ±3 SD years) subjects were studied. PGCR, PUCR, and RPS were elicited by perfusing water into the pharynx rapidly and slowly. HPSV was determined by abolishing RPS with pharyngeal anesthesia. Results Frequency–elicitation of PGCR and PUCR were significantly lower in the elderly compared to the young during slow water perfusion (47% vs. 97% and 40% vs. 90%, respectively, P <.001). RPS was absent in five of the 30 (17%) slow injections in the elderly group. In these elderly subjects, HPSV was exceeded and laryngeal penetration of the water was seen. The threshold volume to elicit PGCR, PUCR, and RPS was significantly lower than the HPSV during rapid injections. Except for RPS, these volumes were also significantly lower than HPSV during slow injections. Conclusions PGCR, PUCR, and RPS reflexes are triggered at a threshold volume significantly lower than the HPSV in both young and elderly subjects. Lower frequency–elicitation of PGCR, PUCR, and RPS in the elderly can predispose them to the risks of aspiration. PMID:24281906

Dua, Kulwinder S.; Surapaneni, Sri Naveen; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Hafeezullah, Mohammed; Shaker, Reza

2014-01-01

30

Diet, alcohol, smoking and cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract: a prospective study among Hawaii Japanese men.  

PubMed

A cohort study of upper aerodigestive tract cancer was conducted among 7,995 Japanese-American men who were interviewed and examined from 1965 to 1968. Information was collected about smoking history and alcohol and dietary intake. After 24 years, 92 incident cases with histological confirmation of diagnosis were identified. Current cigarette smokers at time of examination had a 3-fold risk for upper aerodigestive tract cancer compared with never-smokers. A dose-response relationship was present with increasing amount and duration of cigarette use. Consumption of beer, wine, spirits and total alcohol was strongly associated with increased risk. Of 23 food and beverage categories, only candy/jelly/soda pop consumption had a statistically significant inverse trend. Frequent consumption of fruit was also inversely associated with this cancer. In contrast, the risk tended to be positively associated with consumption of rice, seaweed, tofu or tsukudani (a mixed dish of fish, sugar, soy sauce and seaweed), but the dose-response relationship was not statistically significant. For nutrient intake, increased calcium and fat intake decreased the risk for this cancer. PMID:7860134

Chyou, P H; Nomura, A M; Stemmermann, G N

1995-03-01

31

Toys in the upper aerodigestive tract: new evidence on their risk as emerging from the Susy Safe Study.  

PubMed

Foreign body (FB) inhalation, aspiration or ingestion are relatively common events in children. Despite many efforts made in several countries to achieve acceptable safety levels for consumer products devoted to children, small toys or toy parts are still frequently mentioned among risky foreign bodies. The aim of the present study is to characterize the risk of complications and prolonged hospitalization due to toys inhalation, aspiration or ingestion according to age and gender of patients, FB characteristics, circumstances of the accident, as emerging from the Susy Safe Registry. The Susy Safe Registry started in the 2005 to collect data to serve as a basis for a knowledge-based consumer protection activity. It is actually one of the wider databases collecting foreign body injuries in the upper aero-digestive tract in pediatric patients. It is distinguished by a deep characterization of objects which caused the injuries and a multi-step quality control procedure which assures its reliability. Preventive strategies imposing a regulation of industrial production, even if fundamental, are not sufficient and need to be integrated along with other intervention addressed to make aware caregivers toward a proper surveillance of children. PMID:22361527

Foltran, Francesca; Passali, Francesco Maria; Berchialla, Paola; Gregori, Dario; Pitkäranta, Anne; Slapak, Ivo; Jakubíková, Janka; Franchin, Laura; Ballali, Simonetta; Passali, Giulio Cesare; Bellussi, Luisa; Passali, Desiderio

2012-05-14

32

Risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in a case-cohort study of autoworkers exposed to metalworking fluids  

PubMed Central

Aims: To re-examine aerodigestive cancer risk in a cohort of autoworkers exposed to metal working fluids (MWF), using improved case definition and more recently diagnosed cases. Methods: The autoworker cohort included 31 100 hourly workers alive on 1 January 1985 who worked at three automobile plants in Michigan. A case-cohort design was carried out that included incident cases of cancers of the larynx, oesophagus, and stomach, and a 10% sample of the cohort. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate MWF exposure effects. The smoothing method of penalised splines was used to explore the shape of the underlying exposure-response curves. Results: The most important finding was the association between larynx cancer incidence and cumulative straight MWF exposure. The results for oesophageal cancer were less consistent. For stomach cancer there was no evidence of excess risk. Conclusion: This association between larynx cancer and straight MWF exposures was consistent with a previous finding in this cohort, providing further support for a causal relation. PMID:15090663

Zeka, A; Eisen, E; Kriebel, D; Gore, R; Wegman, D

2004-01-01

33

The association of sequence variants in DNA repair and cell cycle genes with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract.  

PubMed

Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), comprising the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and oesophagus, account for 5.2% of all cancers cases worldwide. The major risk factors, tobacco and alcohol can directly or indirectly generate DNA damage, which if unrepaired can give rise to mutations, unregulated cell growth and apoptosis induction. To clarify the role of DNA repair and cell cycle control proteins in UADT cancer susceptibility, we studied the risk in relation to 28 SNPs in 18 DNA repair enzymes and 9 SNPs in 7 cell cycle control genes. A case-control study was conducted from 2000 to 2002 in six centers from Romania, Poland, Russia, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the UADT (n=811) and controls with a recent diagnosis of diseases unrelated to tobacco and alcohol (n=1083) were recruited. For UADT cancer risk, associations were observed for the homozygous carriers of the variant alleles of MGMT L84F [odds ratio (OR) 2.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-4.20], MGMT 171C > T (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.20-4.17) and OGG1 S326C (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.15-3.73) whilst three variants were associated with a protective effect (XPA 23G > A, P for trend 0.022, APEX Q51H, P for trend 0.036, CHEK2 intron 9-200T > C, P for trend 0.009). Several other sequence variants showed associations with specific cancers without an overall association with UADT cancer. While some of these associations are consistent with previous studies, we cannot rule out the possibility of false-positive associations. The positive findings should be explored in another large-scale study on UADT cancers. PMID:17040931

Hall, Janet; Hashibe, Mia; Boffetta, Paolo; Gaborieau, Valerie; Moullan, Norman; Chabrier, Amelie; Zaridze, David; Shangina, Oxana; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Janout, Vladimir; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Holcatova, Ivana; Hung, Rayjean J; McKay, James; Canzian, Federico; Brennan, Paul

2007-03-01

34

A prognostic model based on pretreatment platelet lymphocyte ratio for stage IE/IIE upper aerodigestive tract extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.  

PubMed

Patients with stage IE/IIE natural killer T (NK/T) cell lymphomas have discrepant survival outcome. This study aims to establish a prognostic model based on the pretreatment platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) specifically for localized extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma to guide the therapy. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 252 patients with early-stage upper aerodigestive tract NK/T cell lymphoma. The 5-year overall survival rate in 252 patients was 67.1 %. Prognostic factors for survival were female (P = 0.025; relative risk, 0.51; 95 % CI 0.28-0.92), older age (P = 0.000; relative risk, 3.34; 95 % CI 1.94-5.75), stage II(P = 0.020; relative risk, 1.79; 95 % CI 1.10-2.91), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (P = 0.009; relative risk, 2.00; 95 % CI 1.19-3.35), and PLR (P = 0.020; relative risk, 1.77; 95 % CI 1.10-2.87). Based on these five parameters, we identified three different risk groups: group 1(106 cases, 43.4 %), no or one adverse factor; group 2(85 cases, 34.8 %), two factors; group 3(53 cases, 21.7 %), three to five factors. Five-year overall survival was 83.3 % for group 1, 62.2 % for group 2, and 43.1 % for group 3 (P = 0.000). Compared with International Prognostic Index and Korean Prognostic Index, the new model has a better prognostic discrimination for the patients of stage IE/IIE upper aerodigestive tract NK/T cell lymphoma. The PLR-based prognosis model is useful to stratify patients with localized extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma into different risk groups and guide the treatment modalities selection. PMID:25377661

Wang, Ke-Feng; Chang, Bo-Yang; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Liu, Pan-Pan; Wuxiao, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Zhi-Hui; Li, Su; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Xia, Zhong-Jun

2014-12-01

35

Aerodigestive cancers: pharyngeal cancer.  

PubMed

Cancers of the pharynx are malignant tumors that arise in the nasopharynx, oropharynx, or hypopharynx. In the United States, oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) is the most common, followed by nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and hypopharyngeal carcinoma (HPC), which is rare. Rates of tobacco-related OPC have declined in the past several decades, whereas rates of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OPC have increased. Compared with HPV-negative tumors, HPV-positive OPC is associated with a better prognosis, and testing for HPV subtypes, particularly HPV-16 and HPV-18, should be obtained for patients with any squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. NPC is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); therefore, EBV detection has been used as a clinical marker of disease. Plasma cell-free circulating EBV DNA can be measured to monitor management benefit and detect recurrence. Although HPC is rare, it is associated with a poor prognosis and has the highest mortality rate of all head and neck cancers. Management of pharyngeal cancers is based primarily on site and stage. Studies are under way to evaluate the role of less aggressive management regimens for HPV-related cancers. PMID:25198383

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

36

Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.  

PubMed

Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

37

Is aspiration as detected on pretreatment video fluorography, a harbinger of poor quality of life and early mortality in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract treated with radiotherapy?  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (head and neck cancer (HNC)) tend to aspirate, either due to disease or treatment. The association of aspiration (documented on video fluorography (VFG)) with quality of life (QOL) and unexpected mortality was studied prospectively in patients treated with simultaneous integrated boost technique of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT). Materials and Methods: Moderately advanced (stage III/IV) HNC were treated by SIB-IMRT delivering 66 Gy/30 fr, 60 Gy/30 fr, and 54 Gy/30 fr to high, intermediate, and low risk volumes, respectively. They underwent serial VFG and QOL assessments (Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (QLQ-C30) and head and neck-35 (HN35) European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) tools) at 0, 3, and 6 months. Pharyngeal musculature (PM) was additionally delineated on planning computed tomography (CT) scans as potential organs at risk (OARs). Results: Between November 2009 and May 2011, 20 HNC were treated as per protocol. All patients were fit (Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ? 80). Based on VFG findings, seven patients (4/9 oropharynx and 3/11 laryngopharynx) were grouped as aspirators (A) and remaining 13 as non-aspirators (NA). The QOL study showed that pretreatment coughing and swallowing difficulties were greater in group A versus NA and remained persistently higher. In group A, deaths attributable to aspiration were seen in 3/7 patients, while none occurred in the NA group (Fisher's exact P = 0.03). The mean PM dose was 60 Gy in both the groups and mean V60 was similar at 69 and 67% in A and NA groups, respectively. Conclusions: VFG helps identify patients who aspirate and are at risk of premature death due to its complications, alerting caregivers to direct attention appropriately.

Lal, Punita; Nautiyal, Vipul; Chaudhuri, Tamojit; Verma, Mranalini; Das, Koilpillai Joseph; Kumar, Shaleen

2014-01-01

38

Risk factors for developing a second upper aerodigestive cancer after radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancers: An exploratory outcomes analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The objective was to assess the influence of treatment-related and patient-related factors on the risk of developing a second primary tumor (SPT) of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) in patients with locoregionally advanced nonmetastatic carcinomas of the head-and-neck region. Methods and Materials: The data of 521 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were pooled: 224 patients from the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK) 10/94 trial, treated with 1.2 Gy b.i.d. to 74.4 Gy, and randomized to receive or not to receive simultaneous chemotherapy with cisplatin (excluding nasopharyngeal and maxillary sinus carcinomas); and 297 patients from Geneva, all treated with accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant boost to 69.9 Gy and predominantly cisplatin-based concomitant chemotherapy in 33% of patients (including 21 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas). An exploratory analysis using competing risk methodology was performed. Results: A total of 65 SPT of the UADT were observed after a median observation time of 4.7 years. The overall risk of experiencing an SPT of the UADT at 10 years in the presence of all other possible events was estimated to be 33%. There were no SPTs after treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, there was no difference in occurrence of SPT at 3 years with respect to the administration of chemotherapy (p = 0.31), age (p 0.62), performance status (p = 0.61), gender (p = 0.27), presence of nodal disease (p = 0.51), or T stage (p = 0.72). However, patients treated with concomitant boost had fewer SPTs (p = 0.0093). Conclusions: Our data do not suggest that addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy influences the incidence of second cancers in patients with head-and-neck cancer. The difference in the incidence of SPT between the two radiotherapy schedule groups merits further exploration.

Taussky, Daniel [Division of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: daniel.taussky.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca; Rufibach, Kaspar M.Sc. [Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAAK), Berne (Switzerland); Huguenin, Pia [Division of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Allal, Abdelkarim S. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

2005-07-01

39

The association between change in body mass index and upper aerodigestive tract cancers in the ARCAGE project: multicenter case-control study  

PubMed Central

Previous studies reported an inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers. Examining change in BMI over time may clarify these previous observations. We used data from 2048 cases and 2173 hospital-and population-based controls from 10 European countries (ARCAGE study) to investigate the relationship with BMI and adult change in BMI on UADT cancer risk. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between BMI at 3 time intervals and BMI change on UADT cancer development, adjusting for center, age, sex, education, fruit and vegetable intake, smoking, and alcohol consumption. We found an inverse relationship between UADT cancer and BMI at time of interview and 2 years prior to interview. No association was found with BMI at 30 years of age. Regarding BMI change between age 30 to 2 years prior to interview, BMI decrease (BMI change< ?5%) vs. BMI stability (?5%?BMI change<5%) showed no overall association with UADT cancer (OR=1.15; 95% CI=0.89, 1.49). An increase in BMI (BMI change ? +5%) was inversely associated with UADT cancers (OR=0.75; 95% CI= 0.62, 0.89). BMI gain remained inversely associated across all subsites except for esophageal cancer. When stratified by smoking, or by drinking, association with BMI gain was detected only in drinkers and smokers. In conclusion, BMI gain is inversely associated with UADT cancers. These findings may be influenced by smoking and/or drinking behaviors and/or the development of preclinical UADT cancers and should be corroborated in studies of a prospective nature. PMID:20506380

Park, Sungshim Lani; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Marron, Manuela; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Barzan, Luigi; Bencko, Vladimir; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Canova, Cristina; Castellsague, Xavier; Conway, David I.; Healy, Claire M.; Holcatova, Ivana; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lagiou, Pagona; Lowry, Raymond J.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Macfarlane, Gary J.; McCartan, Bernard E.; McKinney, Patricia A.; Merletti, Franco; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Sneddon, Linda; Talamini, Renato; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Znaor, Ariana; Brennan, Paul; Hashibe, Mia

2014-01-01

40

Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes modify the risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers: HapMap database analysis.  

PubMed

Although alcohol is associated with higher upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk, only a small fraction of alcoholics develop cancers. There is a lack of evidence proving the association of tag single nucleotide polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes with cancer risk. The aim of this study was to determine the association of these genetic polymorphisms with UADT cancer risk in a Chinese population. It was a hospital-based case-control candidate gene study. The databases of the International HapMap Project were searched for haplotype tag single nucleotide polymorphisms of the genes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)1B, ADH1C, and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)2. The genotyping was performed by the Sequenom MassARRAY system. Totally, 120 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, 138 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients, and 276 age- and gender-matched subjects were enrolled between June 2008 and June 2010.Minor alleles of ADH1B (rs1229984) and ALDH2(rs671) were not only associated with the risk of UADT cancers (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval, CI]: 3.53 [2.14-5.80] and 2.59 [1.79-3.75], respectively) but also potentiated the carcinogenic effects of alcohol (OR [95% CI]: 53.44 [25.21-113.29] and 70.08 [33.65-145.95], respectively). Similar effects were observed for head/neck and esophageal cancer subgroups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified four significant risk factors, including habitual use of cigarettes, alcohol, betel quid, and lower body mass index (P < 0.001). The haplotypes GAGC (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.08-2.40, P = 0.018) and CCAATG (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.24-2.30, P < 0.001) on chromosomes 4 and 12, respectively, were associated with higher cancer risk. These findings suggested that risk allele or haplotype carriers who consume alcohol and other carcinogens should be advised to undergo endoscopy screening. The information can be used to determine the degree of susceptibility of each subject and can be combined with other environmental factors, like carcinogen consumption, in the screening analysis. PMID:23088731

Chung, C-S; Lee, Y-C; Liou, J-M; Wang, C-P; Ko, J-Y; Lee, J-M; Wu, M-S; Wang, H-P

2014-07-01

41

LABORATOIRE DE PHYSIQUE THEORIQUE ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE  

E-print Network

'UNIVERSIT´E PARIS VI Specialit´e : Physique Th´eorique Present´ee par : Ioannis G. Florakis 1 Pour obtenir le grade´enom´enologiques et Cosmologiques 7 Juillet 2011 Jury Costas Bachas Massimo Bianchi (Rapporteur) Pierre Binetruy Costas Kounnas (Directeur de th`ese) Augusto Sagnotti Gabriele Veneziano (Rapporteur) 1. florakis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

Groupes convexes cocompacts en rang superieur  

E-print Network

th´eor`eme de Y. Guivarc'h, g´en´eralis´e par Y. Benoist dans [1, 3.6], poss`ede dans P un plus ferm´ee et ouverte de A associ´ee au choix de , il r´esulte d'un r´esultat de Y. Benoist dans [1, 3

Quint, Jean-François

43

The nature of the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone: Constraints from structural, microstructural and fabric analyses of metamorphic rocks from the Diancang Shan, Ailao Shan and Day Nui Con Voi massifs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural geology, timing of shearing, and tectonic implications of the ASRR shear zone, one of the most striking lineaments in Southeast Asia, have been the topics of extensive studies over the past few decades. The Xuelong Shan (XLS), Diancang Shan (DCS), Ailao Shan (ALS) and Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) metamorphic massifs along the shear zone have preserved important information on its structural and tectonic evolution. Our field structural analysis, detailed microstructural and fabric analysis, as well as the quartz, sillimanite and garnet fabric studies of the sheared rocks from the massifs demonstrate the dominant roles of three deformation episodes during Cenozoic tectonic evolution in the shear zone. Among the contrasting structural and microstructural associations in the shear zone, D2 structures, which were formed at the brittle to ductile transition during large-scale left-lateral shearing in the second deformation episode, predominate over the structural styles of the other two deformation episodes. Discrete micro-shear zones with intensive grain size reduction compose the characteristic structural style of D2 deformation. In addition, several types of folds (early shearing folds, F21, and late-shearing folds, F22) were formed in the sheared rocks, including discrete to distributed mylonitic foliation, stretching lineation and shear fabrics (e.g., mica fish, domino structures, as well as sigma and delta fabrics). A sequence of microstructures from syn-kinematic magmatic flow, high-temperature solid-state deformation, to brittle-ductile shearing is well-preserved in the syn-kinematic leucocratic intrusions. Deformation structures from the first episode (D1) are characterized by F1 folds and distributed foliations (S1) in rocks due to pure shearing at high temperatures. They are preserved in weakly sheared (D2) rocks along the eastern margin of the ALS belt or in certain low-strain tectonic enclaves within the shear zone. Furthermore, semi-brittle deformation structures, such as hot striae and discrete retrogression zones, are attributed to normal-slip shearing in the third deformation episode (D3), which was probably locally active, along the eastern flank of the DCS range, for example. There are four quartz c-axis fabric patterns in the mylonitic rocks, including type A point maxima, type B Y point maxima with crossed girdles superimposition, type C quadrant maxima, as well as type D point and quadrant maxima combination. They are consistent with microscopic observations of microstructures of high-temperature pure shearing, low-temperature simple shearing and their superimposition. Integrated microstructural analysis and fabric thermometer studies provide information on both high temperature (up to 750 °C) and dominant low-temperature (300-600 °C) deformations of quartz grains in different rock types. Sillimanite and garnet fabrics, especially the latter, were primarily formed at the peak metamorphism during high-temperature pure shearing. The above structural, microstructural and fabric associations were generated in the tectonic framework of the Indian-Eurasian collision. The low-temperature microstructures and fabrics are attributed to left-lateral shearing along the ASRR shear zone from 27 to 21 Ma during the southeastward extrusion of the Indochina block, which postdated high-temperature deformation at the peak metamorphism during the collision.

Liu, Junlai; Tang, Yuan; Tran, My-Dung; Cao, Shuyun; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Zhaochong; Zhao, Zhidan; Chen, Wen

2012-03-01

44

All Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Publications  

Cancer.gov

Berg AK, Allen Ziegler K, Harmsen WS, Green EM, McGovern RM, Szabo E, Ames MM, Boring D, Mandrekar SJ, Limburg PJ, Reid JM. Population pharmacokinetic model for cancer chemoprevention with sulindac in healthy subjects.

45

Chemoprevention of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head and neck cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths (1). In the United States alone, head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer, with approximately 45,400 cases anticipated\\u000a for the year 2002 and approx 12,600 deaths. We expect that more than 600,000 cases of head and neck cancer will have been\\u000a diagnosed worldwide in the year

Fadlo R. Khuri; Edward S. Kim; Waun Ki Hong

46

DEPARTEMENT DE PHYSIQUE DE L'ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE  

E-print Network

très reconnaissant à Gilbert Grynberg de l'étroite et fructueuse collaboration que nous avons eue à chaque fois que je les ai sollicités. Je remercie Jacob Reichel pour sa contribution à la phase

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

cole normale superieure de Lyon IRSTEA -UMR 5600  

E-print Network

Rapporteur M. Fr�d�ric LIEBAULT Chercheur � IRSTEA, UR ETGR/ETNA, TR RIVAGE, Saint-Martin-d'H�res Encadrant M (Environnement Ville Soci�t�) et l'IRSTEA de Grenoble (ETNA). Je remercie l'Office National des For�ts, en

Boyer, Edmond

48

Ecole Superieure d'Electricite Universitatea Politehnica Bucuresti  

E-print Network

to the following questions: Why GPUs should be used? Today, the potential of computational power that lies the help and support of many people. First I would like to express my special gratitude to my three teachers that I had at the Politehnica University of Bucharest. I could not omit people from Sup´elec, Metz

Vialle, Stéphane

49

Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Arts et Mtiers Description  

E-print Network

students for socialising are the Latin Quarter, Oberkampf and Bastille. #12;Living Costs Average rental.95 - 2.00 Cinema ticket: 5.00 - 10.00 The general cost of living in France is similar to the UK. The International Office at ENSAM provides guidance on living costs: http://www.ensam.eu/en/node_164/foreign

Bristol, University of

50

ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE  

E-print Network

la commission d'e~amen : MM. L. BOLLIET G. BAZERQUE S. GUlBOUD-RIBAUD C. OTRAGE R. MAHL Président Daniel BONNETAIN Lucien BONNIER Etienne BOUDOURIS Georges BRISSONNEAU Pierre BUYLE-BODIN Maurice COU~1ES

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

Pathologie vgtale Contribution l'tude des voies de pntration  

E-print Network

nectarines Monilia laxa (Ascomycète-Discomycète) et Rhizopus stolonifer (Zygomycète-Mucorale) C. Nguyen-The R - Rhizopus stolonifer- nectarine, pêche - microscopie électronique à balayage Summary — A contribution-Discomycete) and Rhizopus stolonifer (Zygomycete-Mucorale). Conidies of M. laxa and spores of R. stolonifer were deposited

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

An Integrated Digital Campus Delivers ROI and VOI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five years ago, North Shore Community College (NSCC) encountered rising enrollments in the face of lagging state funding. The addition of two new campuses stretched NSCC thin as it attempted to provide administrative and academic services across five (more recently consolidated to four) locations. Its students increasingly struggled to balance the…

Forsstrom, Jan; Ham, Gary

2007-01-01

53

presentee pour obtenir le grade de docteur de l'Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications  

E-print Network

plupart des contributions faites dans le contexte MIMO consid`erent que le canal de propagation est connu transmission et en r´eception dans les syst`emes `a antennes multiples Soutenue le 6 Novembre 2003 devant le´e en transmission et/ou en r´eception. L'objectif de cette th`ese est d'´etudier, de d´evelopper et de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

ECOLE SUPERIEURE DE PHYSIQUE ET DE CHIMIE INDUSTRIELLES DE LA VILLE DE PARIS  

E-print Network

social et téléphone : Code APE : Numéro de SIRET : Ville et numéro d'inscription au registre du commerce des clauses administratives particulières et du cahier des clauses techniques particulières et des documents qui y sont mentionnés, 2.1 JE M'ENGAGE, CONFORM�MENT AUX CLAUSES ET CONDITIONS DES DOCUMENTS VIS�S

Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, Université

55

THESE DE DOCTORAT DE L'ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE CACHAN  

E-print Network

VALEUR Professeur Laboratoire de Photophysique et de Photochimie Supramoléculaires et Macromoléculaires'avoir accordé une bourse d'études sur ces trois années. A l'issue de ces trois années passées au sein du son aide en fin de thèse. J'exprime toute ma gratitude envers le Professeur Bernard Valeur pour avoir

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

M1 de Physique Stage 2005-2006 Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon COILLET, Aurelien  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.2 Impedance measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 generation digital 'IT-Telescope' operating between 10 MHz and 250 MHz, a part of the spectrum range which active antennas, and by a huge network and a powerful computer which will coordinate all the information

57

Presentee pour obtenir le grade de docteur de l' Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications  

E-print Network

Teimoori #12;III Optical-logic-gate aided packet-switching in transparent optical networks Abstract-opticallogic functionsand second, the design and partially implementation of optoelectronic and all-optical packet switching systems. The optoelectronic packet switch is composed of a 4-bit time-to-wavelength converter in order

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

presentee `a l'Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan pour obtenir le grade de  

E-print Network

TH`ESE pr´esent´ee `a l'´Ecole Normale Sup´erieure de Cachan pour obtenir le grade de Docteur de l equational theories, trapdoor commitment and blind signatures is decidable in polynomial time. We also commitment) et la th´eorie de signature en aveugle (blind signatures), est d´ecidable en temps polynomial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

59

TH`ESE DE DOCTORAT DE L'ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE CACHAN  

E-print Network

applications `a la bioinformatique -- Learning algorithms and statistical software, with applications . . . 16 1.5 Review of current statistical software . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 I Segmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 6 Conclusions and future work 131 II Statistical software contributions 135 7 Adding direct labels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

MINISTRE DE L'DUCATION NATIONALE, DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR ET DE LA RECHERCHE  

E-print Network

. ALESSANDRONI Philippe IA-IPR NANCY METZ Mme AMIOT Martine IA-IPR CRETEIL M. ANDRIEUX Jean-Claude Professeur Agrégé DIJON M. AUBRY Pierre-Jean Professeur Agrégé CRETEIL Mme AUDOUIN Marie-Claude IA-IPR VERSAILLES Mme AYAX Sylvie Professeur Agrégé VERSAILLES M. AYMES Jean IA-IPR TOULOUSE M. BADRA Abdallah Maître de

Menichi, Luc

61

Ecole Nationale Superieure de Techniques Avancees fili`ere Finance Quantitative, 20062007  

E-print Network

· · · An = A pour tout k = 1, · · · , n, on consid`ere la distribution de probabilit´e µk = gk · µ = gk µ µ, gk o`u par d´efinition gk(x) = 1(x Ak), c'est­`a­dire que µk(dx) = P[X dx | X Ak] et Pk = µ, gk = P[X Ak] compte tenu que gk = gk gk-1, on remarque que µk = gk · µ = gk µ µ, gk = gk gk-1 µ µ, gk-1 µ, gk-1 µ, gk

LeGland, François

62

Ecole Nationale Superieure de Techniques Avancees fili`ere Finance Quantitative, 20072008  

E-print Network

´e µk = gk · µ = gk µ µ, gk o`u par d´efinition gk(x) = 1(x Ak), c'est­`a­dire que µk(dx) = P[X dx | X Ak] et Pk = µ, gk = P[X Ak] compte tenu que gk = gk gk-1, on remarque que µk = gk · µ = gk µ µ, gk = gk gk-1 µ µ, gk-1 µ, gk-1 µ, gk = gk µk-1 µk-1, gk = gk · µk-1 #12;7 (mesure de risque (VaR, CVa

LeGland, François

63

Ecole Nationale Superieure de Techniques Avancees fili`ere Commande des Syst`emes, 20082009  

E-print Network

, on consid`ere la distribution de probabilit´e µk = gk · µ = gk µ µ, gk o`u par d´efinition gk(x) = 1(x Ak), c­`a­d que µk(dx) = P[X dx | X Ak] et Pk = µ, gk = P[X Ak] compte tenu que gk = gk gk-1, on remarque que µk = gk · µ = gk µ µ, gk = gk gk-1 µ µ, gk-1 µ, gk-1 µ, gk = gk µk-1 µk-1, gk = gk · µk-1 #12

LeGland, François

64

From "Ecoles Superieures de Commerce" to "Management Schools": Transformations and Continuity in French Business Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the national system of grandes Ecoles, French Business schools have known radical changes since the 1980s, notably in size, and have become more attractive to students both at a national and an international level. As a consequence, the French elitist system has been questioned by the competition of foreign--especially Anglo-Saxon--models.…

Blanchard, Marianne

2009-01-01

65

Training in Human Relations for Engineers at the Ecole Superieure D'Informatique-Electronique-Automatique (ESIEA).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the need to provide engineers with training in human relations. Describes the process of developing a document defining the problem and steps to be taken toward solution, submitted to students for their evaluation. (JM)

Lafargue, M.; And Others

1986-01-01

66

Le francais fonde sur la competence, Superieur (Competency Based French, Superior).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional guide in French is intended for training Peace Corps volunteers serving in the Central African Republic. It includes 35 topical units at the superior level, each consisting of briefly stated competency objectives and a number of brief, related situational texts. Unit topics include: explaining how to do something; explaining…

Dimanche, Maurice

67

ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE N d'ordre : 375 GP DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE  

E-print Network

-ETIENNE (Spécialité : GENIE DES PROCEDES) CINETIQUE ET MECANISMES DE CORROSION SECHE D'UN CERMET A BASE Cu-Ni Soutenue2006 #12;- 5 - RESUME Mots clefs: cermet, oxydation, mécanismes, diffusion, interfaces. Dans la recherche de nouveaux matériaux d'anode inerte pour l'électrolyse de l'aluminium, les cermets sont de bons

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

THESE DE DOCTORAT DE L'ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE CACHAN  

E-print Network

and Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Based Composite Dissertation Submitted to Taiyuan PROPERTIES OF CARBON NANOTUBE BASED COMPOSITE ABSTRACT Since its discovery, carbon nanotube (CNT) has of carbon nanotube based nanoswitch structure are studied. A CNTs reinforced micro/nano multiscale hybrid

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris Universite Paris XI Orsay Schlumberger Doll Research  

E-print Network

Ecole Normale Sup´erieure de Paris Universit´e Paris XI Orsay Schlumberger Doll Research Etude num Orsay Schlumberger Doll Research Etude num´erique des propri´et´es m´ecaniques et des processus de d David L. Johnson ainsi que Larry M. Schwartz du centre Doll-Research de Ridgefield. J'ai également

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

Systèmes MIMO précodés optimisant la distance minimale : étude des performances et extension du nombre de voies.  

E-print Network

??Les systèmes multi-antennaires (Multiple-Input Multiple-Ouput ou MIMO) dans le domaine des communications numériques permettent d'améliorer la transmission des données selon deux principaux paramètres souvent antagonistes… (more)

Vrigneau, Baptiste

2006-01-01

71

SIAM J. COMPUT. Voi. 18, No. 3, p. 559-578, June 1989  

E-print Network

Mathematics O09 TWO APPLICATIONS OF INDUCTIVE COUNTING FOR COMPLEMENTATION PROBLEMS* ALLAN BORODIN?, STEPHEN A pushdown automata or tree-size bounded alternat- ing Turing machines). As one consequence, it is shown by nondeterminis- tic Turing machines running in O(log n) space. Let STCON {(G, s, t)]G is a directed graph

Borodin, Allan

72

Systmes aminergiques des Gastropodes pulmons. II. Mise en vidence au carrefour des voies gnitales  

E-print Network

(Planorbarius corneus and Lymnaea stagnalis) and of Stylommatophora (Archachatina marginata and Helix aspersa récoltées dans la nature ou élevées au laboratoire :deux Basommatophores : la Limnée (Lymnaea stagnalis L

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

Extensive HPV-related carcinoma in situ of the upper aerodigestive tract with 'nonkeratinizing' histologic features.  

PubMed

Over the past several decades, it has become clear that human papillomavirus (HPV) is important for the development and progression of many head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, particularly those arising in the oropharyngeal tonsillar crypts. Yet, our understanding of HPV's role in premalignant squamous lesions remains relatively poor. This is in part because premalignant lesions of the oropharyngeal tonsillar crypt tissue, where most HPV-related carcinomas arise, are difficult if not impossible to identify. Recent evidence does suggest a role for HPV in a subset of premalignant lesions of the surface epithelium, especially the oral cavity, despite the rarity of HPV-related invasive squamous cell carcinomas at this site. Furthermore, these HPV-related oral cavity dysplasias appear to have unique, bowenoid histologic features described as 'basaloid' with full-thickness loss of squamous maturation, mitotic figures and apoptosis throughout. Here, we present a unique case of an HPV-related premalignant lesion (squamous cell carcinoma in situ) extensively involving the surface epithelium of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx that had 'nonkeratinizing' histologic features typical of HPV-related invasive squamous cell carcinoma. This case was strongly p16 positive by immunohistochemistry and harbored transcriptionally active HPV as demonstrated by E6/E7 RNA in situ hybridization. Furthermore, the patient had an excellent response to radiation treatment. PMID:24151062

Chernock, Rebecca D; Nussenbaum, Brian; Thorstad, Wade L; Luo, Yuling; Ma, Xiao-Jun; El-Mofty, Samir K; Lewis, James S

2014-09-01

74

The use of mini-organ cultures of human upper aerodigestive tract epithelia in ecogenotoxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carcinogenic potential of xenobiotics and possible confounders are often difficult to differentiate in in vivo studies. In contrast, in vitro studies allow investigation of the impact of carcinogens on human target cells under standardized conditions. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate whether three-dimensional mini organ-cultures (MOCs) of human inferior nasal turbinate epithelia may represent a useful

Norbert H. Kleinsasser; Jutta Juchhoff; Barbara C. Wallner; Albrecht Bergner; Ulrich A. Harréus; Fernando Gamarra; Michael Bührlen; Rudolf M. Huber; Albert W. Rettenmeier

2004-01-01

75

Indolent T-lymphblastic proliferation: report of a case involving the upper aerodigestive tract  

PubMed Central

T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBP) is a high-grade malignant lymphoma, which possesses the characteristic of high metastasis and high mortality without treatment. We are presenting a special T-lymphoblastic proliferation involving in the oropharynx, nasopharynx, sinus and trachea in a patient with local involved about 15-years without systemic dissemination. The immunophenotype of this case was similar to T-LBP. The proliferous cells were positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), CD3, and appeared co-expression CD4 and CD8. No clonal rearrangements of TCR? and/or TCR? gene were detected. Indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferations rarely occurred or unusually could not be diagnosed, combing with the relevant literature and clinically indolent manifestation, we interpreted this case as indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation (iT-LBPs). So far, the mechanism of the T-lymphoblastic proliferations is still uncertain and requires further study. PMID:25337290

Yang, Fang; Liu, Tengfei; Zhao, Haiyan; Hu, Zhiyan; Xiao, Liwei; Liu, Yanping; Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Zuguo

2014-01-01

76

Genotoxic effects of myosmine in human lymphocytes and upper aerodigestive tract epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Myosmine, 3-(1-pyrroline-2-yl)pyridine, is an alkaloid found in tobacco plants. Recently, it was also detected in various edibles and staple foods. Whereas other tobacco alkaloids such as nicotine and nornicotine and their nitrosation products, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been widely discussed, the mutagenic impact of myosmine has not been investigated in detail. In the present study, possible genotoxic effects of myosmine were studied in human lymphocytes and nasal mucosal cells using the alkaline single cell microgel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. DNA single strand breaks, alkali labile sites and incomplete excision repair sites were expressed using the Olive tail moment (OTM). One hour incubation with myosmine at 0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mM induced a low but significantly dose-dependent increase of DNA migration from 1.29 +/- 0.13 to 18.25 +/- 1.59 (OTM, mean +/- S.E., N=11) in lymphocytes. In nasal mucosal cells a similar although somewhat less extensive DNA damage from 1.17 +/- 0.12 to 21.67 +/- 2.97 (OTM, mean +/- S.E., N=10-11) was obtained after 1 h incubation with myosmine at 0, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mM. After prolonged incubation of human lymphocytes with 10mM myosmine for 1, 3, 6, and 24 h, a significant time-dependent increase of DNA migration from 3.45 +/- 0.43 to 57.77 +/- 8.24 (OTM, mean +/- S.E., N=4) was observed. Our data indicate that myosmine expresses significant genotoxic effects in human target cells of carcinogenesis. This result warrants further investigations on the impact of this dietary component on human health. PMID:14580784

Kleinsasser, Norbert H; Wallner, Barbara C; Harréus, Ulrich A; Zwickenpflug, Wolfgang; Richter, Elmar

2003-11-01

77

Solving the noncommutative Batalin-Vilkovisky Serguei BarannikovEcole Normale Superieure, 45, rue d'Ulm 75230, Paris France  

E-print Network

( ) _;e H are canonically de...ned. De...nition 1 I de...ne the tensor W as the contraction W ( N l2Leg that the summation over ribbon graphs with legs produces solutions to the noncommutative Batalin-Vilkovisky equation interieur edge e = (ff0 ) element al 2 B, for any exterier leg l; this gives a partition of the set

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

78

ANALYSE D'UN EXEMPLE D'INTEGRATION DES TICE DANS UNE FORMATION D'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR  

E-print Network

'Université en Ligne3 (UeL) et une plate-forme d'enseignement. 1 Durant le premier semestre 2001-2002, 40://www.deugspad.cicrp.jussieu.fr/deugspad 2 http://www.campuscience.org 3 L'Université en Ligne : http://www.uel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

LES ACCES PAR LA TELEPHONIE AUX URGENCES : Voies et difficults d'accs aux aides et soins en sant mentale  

E-print Network

, Urgences Psychiatriques, des médecins généralistes ou des centres pour adolescents. - Les numéros d les tentatives de suicide (T.S.) et des crises de démence ou de violence qui peuvent aller jusqu'à des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

Radiothérapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensité des cancers des voies aérodigestives supérieures avec irradiation bilatérale du cou : résultats préliminaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. – To report preliminary results of a prospective study of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNC) with bilateral irradiation of the neck.Patients and methods. – At the Alexis Vautrin Cancer Center, 23 patients have been treated with IMRT for HNC since January 2002–August 2003. The first 10 patients with a minimum follow-up of 3 months were analyzed.

M Lapeyre; V Marchesi; A Mege; P Aletti; P Graff; S Racadot; A Noel; C Marchal

2004-01-01

81

Influence des masques thermoformés de contention sur la dose à la peau en radiothérapie des tumeurs des voies aérodigestives supérieures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of thermoplastic masks used in clinical routine for patient immobilization in head and neck radiotherapy treatment on the absorbed skin dose has been investigated at Gustave-Roussy Institute. The measurements were performed in 60Co ?–rays, 4 and 6MV X-rays and in 8 and 10MeV electron beams. Initially, the measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF) and a NACP chamber

E. Amiel Halm; A. Tamri; A. Bridier; P. Wibault; F. Eschwège

2002-01-01

82

Variations nycthmrales de la lipmie et de la glycmie au niveau des voies affrentes et effrentes du foie  

E-print Network

± 71 g/j), la captation et la production de TG par le foie semblent s'équili- brer. En revanche, le nycthémère. Baird G. D., Symonds H. N., Ash R., 1975. Some observations on metabolite production of sorbitol intake. Can. J. anim. Sci., 64 lsuppl. 238-239. Lomax M. A., Baird G.

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

Granulomtrie et contamination compares des sdiments des voies navigables en Wallonie et Nord de la France, enjeux pour la  

E-print Network

la connaissance du gisement de sédiments en régions Wallonne et Nord Pas de Calais (ces deux régions Pas de Calais) dans le cadre de leurs campagnes régulières de caractérisation des stocks de sédiments

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

84

Genetic susceptibility to multiple primary neoplasms in the upper aero-digestive tract: genotype score and phenotype correlation.  

PubMed

Early detection and treatment of head and neck cancer has led to increased patient survival. However such patients are at a high risk for multiple primary neoplasm(s) (MPN). In order to study the genetic susceptibility to MPN, 22 candidate SNPs were genotyped based on which a distinctive Genotype Score was created using Additive, Dominant and Recessive models. Using lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) generated from these individuals, the Genotype Score was correlated with carcinogen sensitivity in vitro. LCLs from MPN patients exhibited significantly higher Genotype Score and showed resistance to genotoxic agents compared to matched controls. This report demonstrates quantitative assessment of cumulative effect of gene polymorphisms and its correlation with carcinogen sensitivity for predicting susceptibility to MPN. PMID:23348701

Hussain, Tabish; Kotnis, Ashwin; Sarin, Rajiv; Mulherkar, Rita

2013-05-10

85

Construction de la face superieure du Rubik's cube Toutes les figures de ce document representent le cube pose sur une table,  

E-print Network

Construction de la face sup´erieure du Rubik's cube Toutes les figures de ce document repr´es dont elle est constitu´ee, 1 ou 3 sont jaunes. En pivotant le Rubik's cube, on le place dans l'une des´esent´e (face invisible) est jaune. Si trois coins sont mal orient´es, on place le Rubik's cube dans l'une des 2

Deléglise, Marc

86

UNIVERSITE ALASSANE OUATTARA ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE D'ABIDJAN UFR Communication, Milieu et Socit / Dpartement des Sciences de l'Education  

E-print Network

Société / Département des Sciences de l'Education Mention: Sciences de l'Education Option : Psychologie de Psychologie, Département des Sciences de l'Education ENS d'Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) Composition du Jury : Pr and Poverty Reduction Strategy EDUCI : Editions Universitaires de Côte d'Ivoire ENP/TTC: Ecole Normale

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

WindVOiCe, a Self-Reporting Survey: Adverse Health Effects, Industrial Wind Turbines, and the Need for Vigilance Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Industrial wind turbines have been operating in many parts of the globe. Anecdotal reports of perceived adverse health effects relating to industrial wind turbines have been published in the media and on the Internet. Based on these reports, indications were that some residents perceived they were experiencing adverse health effects. The purpose…

Krogh, Carmen M. E.; Gillis, Lorrie; Kouwen, Nicholas; Aramini, Jeff

2011-01-01

88

Course Descriptions Page 381Sonoma State University 2008-2010 Catalog thAr 145A VOiCe fOr the ACtOr (1)  

E-print Network

techniques through the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), and methods for speaking clearly, articulation BAllet i (1-2) This course is designed to give the modern dancer a foundation for movement in classical tradition. The vocabulary of classical ballet is presented, with emphasis on alignment and placement

Ravikumar, B.

89

julY 2013 | jewiSh voiCe from germAnY REliGion | 23 By Rabbi Walter Homolka  

E-print Network

and renaissance man of Jewish studies leopold Zunz (1794­1886): "to fashion out of Judaism a new and freshly with christian- ity and Islam. true to the vision of abraham Geiger, Brandenburg has finally integrated

Potsdam, Universität

90

1124 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ACOUSl'ICS. SPEECH, AND SIGNAL PROCESSIKG, VOI.. ASSP-34, NO. 5 , OCTOBER 1986 Adaptive Comb Filtering for Harmonic Signal  

E-print Network

,andillustratetheperformanceinen- hancing noisy artificial periodic signals. S I. INTRODUCTION IGNALS thatconsistof a sum of sine waves- nals,musicalwaveforms,helicopterand boat sound waves, and outputsof nonlinear systems excited by a sin

Nehorai, Arye

91

Autofluorescence spectroscopy of normal and malignant tissues: both in-vivo and ex-vivo measurements in the upper aero-digestive tract and lung tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectroscopic system with flexible three optical fiber sensor had been developed to study tissue fluorescence for a clinical use. Autofluorescence spectra at 413 nm and 10 mW excitation light power from different tissues in oral cavity had been measured in vivo in 25 subjects. The correlation coefficient in spectral shape between individual spectra and the mean emission spectrum of each site was about 0.9 and fluorescence intensity variation ranged between 20% and 45% according to the examined site. The variation in fluorescence intensity of the main emission wavelength at about 520 nm between spectra of the lower part of tongue, gingiva, lips, floor of cavity, cheek and palate was not statistically significant. But the spectrum of the upper part of tongue had been characterized by an additional peak around 635 nm. Otherwise, autofluorescence spectra at 410 nm and 0.5 mW excitation light power of 8 carcinoma of buccal and lung tissues were measured. The fluorescence ratio at 520 emission peak between normal tissue and carcinoma was evaluated at a maximum value of 13 for a lung cancer (ex vivo measurement) and a minimum of 3.3 for a cancer of the oro-pharynx (in vivo measurement). On the other hand, a fluorescence peak at 635 nm had characterized the carcinoma of the floor of cavity and the upper part of tongue.

A'Amar, Ousama M.; Lignon, Dominique; Menard, O.; Begorre, Henri; Guillemin, Francois H.; Yvroud, Edouard

1996-04-01

92

EDUCAFRICA, December 1986. Special Issue: Case Studies on Higher Education in Africa. Special Volume 1=EDUCAFRICA, Decembre 1986. Etudes de cas sur L'Enseignement Superieur en Afrique, Tome 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of the development of higher education in 17 African countries are presented. Eleven of the case studies are written in French, and six are in English. The country reports that are in English are as follows: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania. The country reports in French are: Benin, Burkina Faso,…

EDUCAFRICA, 1986

1986-01-01

93

28 CFR 91.54 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability. 91.54 Section 91.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis...

2012-07-01

94

28 CFR 91.54 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability. 91.54 Section 91.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis...

2010-07-01

95

28 CFR 91.54 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability. 91.54 Section 91.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis...

2011-07-01

96

28 CFR 91.54 - Applicability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability. 91.54 Section 91.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Application to Voi/tis...

2013-07-01

97

PETER LEE OLSON Present Position: Professor of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics  

E-print Network

American Geophysical Union Frontiers of Geophysics Lecturer, 1988 W. Keck Scholar, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1990 Visiting Professor, Ecole Normale Superieure, 1995 Fellow, American Geophysical Union, 1997 Petrus Peregrinus Medal, EGU, 2011 MEMBERSHIP AND COMMITTEES: Currently: American Geophysical Union

Olson, Peter L.

98

Early Developmental Responses to Seedling Environment Modulate Later Plasticity to Light Spectral  

E-print Network

by light throughout the life cycle. Foliage shade reduces photosynethetically active radiation available Protection Agency STAR graduate fellowship (EvW), and a visiting fellowship from Ecole Nacional Superieure

Stinchcombe, John

99

Kyminlinnan maalinnoituksen päämuurin kunto- ja korjausselvitys.  

E-print Network

??Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on tehdä Kyminlinnan maalinnoituksen päämuurin korjaamattoman osan restaurointi- ja kuntoarvio. Tavoitteena on tuottaa käyttökelpoista materiaalia, jota Museovirasto voi hyödyntää korjaustoimenpiteen suunnittelussa. Opinnäytetyöhön kuuluu… (more)

Salo, Laura

2013-01-01

100

Computed tomography screening for lung diseases among asbestos-exposed workers.  

E-print Network

??Asbestille altistuminen voi aiheuttaa mm. keuhkopussin paksuuntumia ja syöpää, asbestoosia (asbestipölykeuhko) ja keuhkosyöpää. Asbestin käyttö kiellettiin Suomessa vuonna 1993 ja koko EU:ssa 2005, mutta vuosikymmenien… (more)

Vierikko, Tuula

2010-01-01

101

28 CFR 91.66 - Public participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.66...

2013-07-01

102

28 CFR 91.66 - Public participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.66...

2010-07-01

103

28 CFR 91.66 - Public participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.66...

2011-07-01

104

28 CFR 91.66 - Public participation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review Procedures § 91.66...

2012-07-01

105

Yrittänyttä ei laiteta : Oman yrityksen perustaminen ja markkinointi.  

E-print Network

??Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on oman yrityksen perustaminen ja markkinointi. Tavoitteenani on selvittää mitä oman yrityksen perustaminen vaatii ja miten omaa tuotetta voi markkinoida. Teoriaosiossa käsittelen yrityksen… (more)

Niskala, Vilma

2013-01-01

106

Vocational Opinion Index.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Vocational Opinion Index (VOI) is an instrument used to measure an individual's job readiness posture (JRP). JRP is a term used to define an individual's attitudes, perceptions, and motivations as they reflect on his ability to obtain and maintain a job. The VOI determines an individual's JRP by assessing three psychological diminsions:…

Benson, Stephen D.; Whittington, Marna C.

107

VOISE:LEARNINGTOSEGREGATEVOICES INEXPLICITANDIMPLICITPOLYPHONY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding multiple occurrences of themes and patterns in music can be hampered due to polyphonic textures. This is caused by the complexity of music that weaves multi- ple independent lines of music together. We present and demonstrate a system, VoiSe, that is capable of isolating individual voices in both explicit and implicit polyphonic music. VoiSe is designed to work on

Paul E. Utgoff

108

VOISE: Learning to Segregate Voices in Explicit and Implicit Polyphony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding multiple occurrences of themes and patterns in music can be hampered due to polyphonic textures. This is caused by the complexity of music that weaves multi- ple independent lines of music together. We present and demonstrate a system, VoiSe, that is capable of isolating individual voices in both explicit and implicit polyphonic music. VoiSe is designed to work on

Phillip B. Kirlin; Paul E. Utgoff

2005-01-01

109

August 28-29, 2002 Questions/Comments  

Cancer.gov

POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN MODIFICATION: NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER PREVENTION WORKSHOP Questions/Comments For additional information or questions about the conference please contact: Thea Kalebic, MD, PhD Lung and Upper Aerodigestive

110

Funding Opportunities  

Cancer.gov

Funding Opportunities Funding Related Resources DCP Funding Resources NCI Grant Application and Review Process Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Portfolio Search the NCI-Funded Research Portfolio for projects supported by the Division of

111

78 FR 70562 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program (MMTP), health reports have focused on disorders of the aerodigestive tract and mental health consequences...outcomes will be identified and reported, such as autoimmune disorders. This expanded surveillance system will...

2013-11-26

112

Page 1 of 2 Summary of Your Educational Experience by Years UNO  

E-print Network

, Grundschule, Volkschule, Mittelschule, gymnasium, Realgynasium, Ecole Superieure, Trade School, College to obtain is a chronological record of your school attendance, showing when you started school, how far you went, the classes you attended, the kind of schools you attended, the certificates you earned

Kulp, Mark

113

Reminiscences of Collaborations with Joel Scherk  

E-print Network

I had the privilege of collaborating with Joel Scherk on three separate occasions: in 1970 at Princeton, in 1974 at Caltech, and in 1978-79 at the Ecole Normale Superieure. In this talk I give some reminiscences of these collaborations.

John H. Schwarz

2000-07-14

114

111Technische Universitt Berlin Ec '{ r~ I >  

E-print Network

program (Regelstudienzeit). A Bachelor's degree is not awarded at this point in time. 2 #12;Upon on Cooperation Concerning the Exchange of Students Aiming for a Double Degree from Ecole Nationale Superieure de offer some of their best students the opportunity to join a Double Degree Programme and graduate both

Wichmann, Felix

115

Teaching with "Voix et Images de France"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report on the classroom use of Voix et Images de France," the French text prepared by the Centre de Recherche et d'Etude pourla Diffusion du Francais (CREDIF) at the Ecole Normale Superieure de Saint-Cloud in France. (FB)

Marrow, G. D.

1970-01-01

116

J. theor. Biol. (1998) 193, 485495 Article No. jt980717  

E-print Network

, Ecole Normale Superieure, 7 quai St. Bernard, Bax t. A, 7e` me e´ tage, CC237, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 of the dynamics of host­parasite­hyperparasite systems. Our aim is to compare the dynamics of these systems

Hochberg, Michael

117

Name: Dan Huttenlocher Title: Professor  

E-print Network

). · Mapping the World's Photos, Proceedings of the World Wide Web Conference (WWW), 2009 (with D. Crandall, L. Kleinberg and S. Suri). Lectures · Mapping the World's Photos School of Computer and Communications Science, EPFL Lausanne, June 2009 Computer Science Dept., Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, June 2009

Keinan, Alon

118

The Normative Effects of Higher Education Policy in France  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student survey was a response to the French youth unrest in 2005 and 2006. It considers the degree to which French higher and secondary education institutions create social cohesion. Focusing on three distinct higher-education institutions: "L'institut d'etudes politiques de Paris" (Sciences Po), "Ecole Normale Superieure," Paris 8, and a…

Langan, Elise

2012-01-01

119

A Prestigious Image: Advantage or Obstacle in Attracting Candidates to French Elite Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred and twenty students successful at entering four of the most famous French "grandes ecoles" ("Ecole Normale Superieure" Ulm, Polytechnique, HEC, Sciences Po) were questioned about their institution's image. We focus on how the prestige of these institutions in the French society played a role in students' attraction and contributed to…

Draelants, Hugues

2012-01-01

120

IA-Regional-Radio -social network for radio recommendation.  

E-print Network

Superieur d'Ingenieurs en Informatique et Genie des Telecommunicatiom, 77-215 Avon-Fontainebleau Cedex list diffused each day depended form the region, the year season, day hours and age of listeners. Our for recommendation part needed for recorded list creation. The principal task is the creation of popular intelligent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

121

The Acquisition of Stereochemical Knowledge by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work we evaluated the level of difficulty found in learning stereochemistry concepts, by students intending to teach physical sciences at the Ecole Normale Superieure (ENS) Kouba (Algeria). A paper and pencil questionnaire was administered to 170 students to evaluate: their familiarity with Newman representations; their ability of linking…

Boukhechem, Mohamed-Salah; Dumon, Alain; Zouikri, Mohamed

2011-01-01

122

Conceptual Integration of Hybridization by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work aims to assess the difficulties encountered by students of the Ecole Normale Superieure of Kouba (Algeria) intending to teach physical science in the integration of the hybridization of atomic orbitals. It is a concept that they should use in describing the formation of molecular orbitals ([sigma] and [pi]) in organic chemistry and gaps…

Salah, Hazzi; Dumon, Alain

2011-01-01

123

FARROKH K. LANGDANA Rutgers Business School  

E-print Network

. Professor, Department of Finance and Economics, Rutgers University, Rutgers Business School, Newark and New Brunswick, 2004 to present. Associate Professor, Department of Finance and Economics, Rutgers University), Department of Finance, ESCEM, Tours, France (formerly, Groupe Ecole Superieure de Commerce du Centre), 1993

Lin, Xiaodong

124

School Safety in France.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "Observatoire national de la securite des etablissements scolaires et d'enseignement superieur," a national agency established by the French government in 1995 to ensure safety in schools and colleges. Its annual reports, drawn up in conjunction with experts, are sent out to government, public authorities, and any stakeholders with…

PEB Exchange, 2003

2003-01-01

125

Chem. Rev. 1988, 88, 927-941 927 Interfacial Lifshitz-van der Waals and Polar Interactions in Macroscopic  

E-print Network

in Macroscopic Systems CAREL J. VAN OSS' Departments of Microbloiogy and Chemical Engineering, State Universityof;828 Chemical Reviews, 1988. VoI. 88. No. 6 van Oss et al. ...r , , Carel J. van Oss studied in The Netherlands

Chaudhury, Manoj K.

126

Cannelle Tanc, cartographe d'un imaginaire formel Par Caroline Perre  

E-print Network

armature naturelle, son squelette mobile de rues serpentines comme autant de voies à suivre, de chemins à les angles, dessinant les liens entre des sens souterrains et pourtant visibles. Cannelle Tanc n

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

127

Force Amplitude Modulation of Tongue and Hand Movements  

E-print Network

of Activation in Left Anterior Cingulate Cortex (Syllable VOI 8) ………………………………………………………………….…. 64 Figure 22. Spatial Extent of Activation in Left Posterior Cingulate Cortex (Syllable VOI 11) ……………………………………………………………………. 64 Figure 23. Spatial Extent... …………………………………. 49 Figure 9. Glass Brain of Syllable Repetition Volumes of Interest …………………………… 51 Figure 10. Left Primary Motor Cortex Activity in Hand Squeeze (S001) ……………...…… 53 Figure 11. Left Primary Motor Cortex Activity in Hand Squeeze (S002...

Dietsch, Angela M.

2011-12-31

128

Complex head and neck specimens and neck dissections. How to handle them  

PubMed Central

Dissecting surgical specimens from the upper aerodigestive tract is often difficult because of their complicated anatomy. The local environment dictates the routes of tumour spread and surgical margins at risk, and these features differ for various subsites within this part of the body. The examination of surgical specimens of the upper aerodigestive tract should disclose whether postoperative adjuvant treatment is needed and allow the evaluation of preoperatively performed diagnostic imaging. The aim of this article is to provide a concise guideline for the dissection of specimens from this part of the body. PMID:15735153

Slootweg, P J

2005-01-01

129

Explicit Substitutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ##-calculus is a re#nement of the #-calculus where substitutionsare manipulated explicitly. The ##-calculus provides a settingfor studying the theory of substitutions, with pleasant mathematicalproperties. It is also a useful bridge between the classical #-calculusand concrete implementations.#Digital Equipment Corporation, Systems Research Center.yEcole Normale Sup#erieure; part of this work was completed while at Digital EquipmentCorporation, Systems Research Center.z...

Martín Abadi; Luca Cardelli; Pierre-louis Curien; Jean-jacques Lévy

1991-01-01

130

Completeness map evaluation demonstrated with candidate next-generation cardiac CT architectures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this report, the authors introduce the general concept of the completeness map, as a means to evaluate the completeness of data acquired by a given CT system design (architecture and scan mode). They illustrate the utility of completeness map by applying the completeness map concept to a number of candidate CT system designs, as part of a study to advance the state-of-the-art in cardiac CT. Methods: In order to optimally reconstruct a point within a volume of interest (VOI), the Radon transform on all possible planes through that point should be measured. The authors quantified the extent to which this ideal condition is satisfied for the entire image volume. They first determined a Radon completeness number for each point in the VOI, as the percentage of possible planes that is actually measured. A completeness map is then defined as a 3D matrix of the completeness numbers for the entire VOI. The authors proposed algorithms to analyze the projection datasets in Radon space and compute the completeness number for a fixed point and apply these algorithms to various architectures and scan modes that they are evaluating. In this report, the authors consider four selected candidate architectures, operating with different scan modes, for a total of five system design alternatives. Each of these alternatives is evaluated using completeness map. Results: If the detector size and cone angle are large enough to cover the entire cardiac VOI, a single-source circular scan can have {>=}99% completeness over the entire VOI. However, only the central z-slice can be exactly reconstructed, which corresponds to 100% completeness. For a typical single-source architecture, if the detector is limited to an axial dimension of 40 mm, a helical scan needs about five rotations to form an exact reconstruction region covering the cardiac VOI, while a triple-source helical scan only requires two rotations, leading to a 2.5x improvement in temporal resolution. If the source and detector of an inverse-geometry (IGCT) system have the same axial extent, and the spacing of source points in the axial and transaxial directions is sufficiently small, the IGCT can also form an exact reconstruction region for the cardiac VOI. If the VOI can be covered by the x-ray beam in any view, a composite-circling scan can generate an exact reconstruction region covering the VOI. Conclusions: The completeness map evaluation provides useful information for selecting the next-generation cardiac CT system design. The proposed completeness map method provides a practical tool for analyzing complex scanning trajectories, where the theoretical image quality for some complex system designs is impossible to predict, without yet-undeveloped reconstruction algorithms.

Liu Baodong; Bennett, James; Wang Ge; De Man, Bruno; Zeng Kai; Yin Zhye; Fitzgerald, Paul; Yu Hengyong [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiologic Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 27157 (United States) and Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States); Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States) and Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); CT Systems and Applications Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Department of Radiology, Division of Radiologic Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States) and Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States)

2012-05-15

131

HUMORAL AND CELLULAR IMMUNITY PARAMETERS IN CHILDREN BEFORE AND AFTER ADENOTONSILLECTOMY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenoids and tonsils are active lymphoid organs and play an important role against invading antigens of upper aerodigestive tract in children. The present study analyzes the changes in cellular and humoral immunity of children six months after adenotonsillectomy. The study population consisted of 30 children whit chronic adenotonsillar hypertrophy and 30 age-matched healthy children. In all children serum level of

M. H. Baradaranfar; F. Dodangeh; S. Taghipour-Zahir; M. Atar

132

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the penis.  

PubMed

Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas are rare plasma cell malignancies, particularly outside the upper aerodigestive tract. A 90-year-old male presented with a penile mass suspicious for penile carcinoma. Pathology revealed the tumor to be an Epstein-Barr virus-associated plasmacytoma with no radiographic evidence of bone or other soft tissue involvement. There was no laboratory evidence of multiple myeloma. PMID:25125899

Scarberry, Kyle; Jegalian, Armin; Valent, Jason; Wood, Hadley M

2014-07-01

133

Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... esophageal cancer. However, their risks of developing gastric cancer and/or esophageal cancer were not affected by antioxidant supplementation ( 6 ). In ... cell (kidney), or upper aerodigestive tract (oral/pharyngeal, esophageal, or laryngeal) cancers ( 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). Carotene and Retinol Efficacy ...

134

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Family history of cancer, personal history of  

E-print Network

, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Results: Personal history of oral estimated by unconditional logistic regression and were adjusted for age, gender, area of residence for the other sites of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), tobacco and alcohol consumption are the main risk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

Feeding & Motor Functioning: Start at the Hips to Get to the Lips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Swallowing is one of the most complex movement patterns that people must use accurately throughout the day and night from the time they are born. These movement patterns are very closely integrated with breathing and movement of food through the aerodigestive tract. Malalignment or dysfunction in any part of these integrated patterns and systems…

Donato, Jessica; Fox, Cathy; Mormon, Johnnie; Mormon, Mike

2008-01-01

136

An audit of Bjork flap tracheostomies in head and neck plastic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients undergoing head and neck surgery for malignancy especially resection of parts of the upper aerodigestive tracts need a secure airway intra- and postoperatively. A tracheostomy is an effective method of achieving this objective. In our unit the Bjork flap technique' has been the preferred type of tracheostomy. Ninety-five consecutive Bjork flap tracheostomies performed by one surgeon preceding major head

C. M. Malata; I. T. H. Foo; K. H. Simpson; A. G. Batchelor

1996-01-01

137

Bazex Syndrome*  

PubMed Central

Acrokeratosis Paraneoplastica or Bazex syndrome is a dermatologic manifestation usually associated with the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. We report a case with exuberant clinical manifestations, exemplifying the typical cutaneous lesions in this rare syndrome, in a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. PMID:24346922

Rodrigues Junior, Ismael Alves; Gresta, Leticia Trivellato; Cruz, Rafaela Carolina; Carvalho, Giselly Gomes; Moreira, Melissa Heringer Chamon Barros Quintao

2013-01-01

138

Acetaldehyde-induced mutational pattern in the tumour suppressor gene TP53 analysed by use of a functional assay, the FASAY (functional analysis of separated alleles in yeast)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for upper aero-digestive tract cancers, including cancer of the esophagus. Whereas alcohol as such is not thought to be directly carcinogenic, acetaldehyde, its first metabolite, has been proven genotoxic and mutagenic in the HPRT gene. As mutations in the tumour suppressor gene TP53 are the most common genetic alterations involved in human

Vincent Paget; Mathilde Lechevrel; Francois Sichel

2008-01-01

139

Specializations of the human upper respiratory and upper digestive systems as seen through comparative and developmental anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human upper respiratory, or aerodigestive, tract serves as the crossroads of our breathing, swallowing and vocalizing pathways. Accordingly, developmental or evolutionary change in any of these functions will, of necessity, affect the others. Our studies have shown that the position in the neck of the mammalian larynx is a major factor in determining function in this region. Most mammals,

Jeffrey T. Laitman; Joy S. Reidenberg

1993-01-01

140

Caustic ingestion in adults: The role of endoscopic classification in predicting outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The ingestion of caustic substances induces an extensive spectrum of injuries to the aerodigestive tract which include extensive necrosis and perforation of the esophagus and stomach. The gold standard of safely assessing depth, extent of injury, and appropriate therapeutic regimen is esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The objective of this study was to report our clinical experience and to evaluate the role

Hao-Tsai Cheng; Chi-Liang Cheng; Cheng-Hui Lin; Jui-Hsiang Tang; Yin-Yi Chu; Nai-Jen Liu; Pang-Chi Chen

2008-01-01

141

Genotoxicity of Nitroso Compounds and Sodium Dichromate in a Model Combining Organ Cultures of Human Nasal Epithelia and the Comet Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotoxic effects of xenobiotics are a possible step in tumor initiation in the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Using the comet assay, detecting genotoxicity in human tissue has been restricted to single incubations in vitro, but in vivo most xenobiotics harm their target in a repetitive or chronic manner. Therefore, we propose a model, which provides repetitive incubations in

Norbert H. Kleinsasser; Fernando Gamarra; Albrecht Bergner; Barbara C. Wallner; Ulrich A. Harréus; Jutta Juchhoff; Ernst R. Kastenbauer; Rudolf M. Huber

2001-01-01

142

Organ Site-Specific SPOREs | Translational Research Program (TRP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Organ Site-Specific SPOREs By State By Organ Location Last Updated: 11/28/13 Thyroid SPOREs SPOREs in Head and Neck (H&N) cancer support translational research on cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract and on thyroid

143

Oral probiotic and prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in intensive care unit patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Preventing carriage of potentially pathogenic micro-organisms from the aerodigestive tract is an infection control strategy used to reduce the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care units. However, antibiotic use in selective decontamination protocols is controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of oral administration of a probiotic, namely Lactobacillus, on gastric and respiratory tract

Christiane Forestier; Dominique Guelon; Valérie Cluytens; Thierry Gillart; Jacques Sirot; Christophe De Champs

2008-01-01

144

Esophagopharyngeal distribution of refluxed gastric acid in patients with reflux laryngitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims A variety of otolaryngological abnormalities have been attributed to the contact of gastroesophageal refluxate with respective structures of the aerodigestive tract. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the pharyngoesophageal distribution of gastric acid refluxate between patients with proven laryngitis attributed clinically to gastroesophageal reflux and three control groups. Methods An ambulatory 24-hour simultaneous

Reza Shaker; Mary Milbrath; Junlong Ren; Robert Toohill; Walter J. Hogan; Qun Li; Candy L. Hofmann

1995-01-01

145

Application of value of information of tank waste characterization: A new paradigm for defining tank waste characterization requirements  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the rationale for adopting a recommended characterization strategy that uses a risk-based decision-making framework for managing the Tank Waste Characterization program at Hanford. The risk-management/value-of-information (VOI) strategy that is illustrated explicitly links each information-gathering activity to its cost and provides a mechanism to ensure that characterization funds are spent where they can produce the largest reduction in risk. The approach was developed by tailoring well-known decision analysis techniques to specific tank waste characterization applications. This report illustrates how VOI calculations are performed and demonstrates that the VOI approach can definitely be used for real Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) characterization problems.

Fassbender, L.L.; Brewster, M.E.; Brothers, A.J. [and others

1996-11-01

146

A Semi-Automated Technique Determining the Liver Standardized Uptake Value Reference for Tumor Delineation in FDG PET-CT  

PubMed Central

Background 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) has been an essential modality in oncology. We propose a semi-automated algorithm to objectively determine liver standardized uptake value (SUV), which is used as a threshold for tumor delineation. Methods A large spherical volume of interest (VOI) was placed manually to roughly enclose the right lobe (RL) of the liver. For each voxel in this VOI, a coefficient of variation of voxel values (CVv) was calculated for neighboring voxels within a radius of d/2. The voxel with the minimum CVv was then selected, where a 30-mm spherical VOI was placed at that voxel in accordance with PERCIST criteria. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently defined 30-mm VOIs manually on 124 studies in 62 patients to generate the standard values, against which the results from the new method were compared. Results The semi-automated method was successful in determining the liver SUV that was consistent between the two physicians in all the studies (d?=?80 mm). The liver SUV threshold (mean +3 SD within 30-mm VOI) determined by the new semi-automated method (3.12±0.61) was not statistically different from those determined by the manual method (Physician-1: 3.14±0.58, Physician-2: 3.15±0.58). The semi-automated method produced tumor volumes that were not statistically different from those by experts' manual operation. Furthermore, the volume change in the two sequential studies had no statistical difference between semi-automated and manual methods. Conclusions Our semi-automated method could define the liver SUV robustly as the threshold value used for tumor volume measurements according to PERCIST. The method could avoid possible subjective bias of manual liver VOI placement and is thus expected to improve clinical performance of volume-based parameters for prediction of cancer treatment response. PMID:25162396

Hirata, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Wong, Koon-Pong; Manabe, Osamu; Surmak, Andrew; Tamaki, Nagara; Huang, Sung-Cheng

2014-01-01

147

Fast, shape-directed, landmark-based deep gray matter segmentation for quantification of iron deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces image processing methods to automatically detect the 3D volume-of-interest (VOI) and 2D region-of-interest (ROI) for deep gray matter organs (thalamus, globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate nucleus) of patients with suspected iron deposition from MR dual echo images. Prior to the VOI and ROI detection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) region is segmented by a clustering algorithm. For the segmentation, we automatically determine the cluster centers with the mean shift algorithm that can quickly identify the modes of a distribution. After the identification of the modes, we employ the K-Harmonic means clustering algorithm to segment the volumetric MR data into CSF and non-CSF. Having the CSF mask and observing that the frontal lobe of the lateral ventricle has more consistent shape accross age and pathological abnormalities, we propose a shape-directed landmark detection algorithm to detect the VOI in a speedy manner. The proposed landmark detection algorithm utilizes a novel shape model of the front lobe of the lateral ventricle for the slices where thalamus, globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate nucleus are expected to appear. After this step, for each slice in the VOI, we use horizontal and vertical projections of the CSF map to detect the approximate locations of the relevant organs to define the ROI. We demonstrate the robustness of the proposed VOI and ROI localization algorithms to pathologies, including severe amounts of iron accumulation as well as white matter lesions, and anatomical variations. The proposed algorithms achieved very high detection accuracy, 100% in the VOI detection , over a large set of a challenging MR dataset.

Ekin, Ahmet; Jasinschi, Radu; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Buchem, Mark A.; van Muiswinkel, Arianne

2006-03-01

148

Enquter sur la religion : curiosit malsaine ou ncessit scientifique ?  

E-print Network

valeurs de l'Islam sont incompatibles avec celles de la R�publique, 46% que l'immigration est la source, professeur, �crit : � Haine et violence habitent le livre dans lequel tout musulman est �duqu�, le Coran. Comme aux temps de la guerre froide, violence et intimidation sont les voies utilis�es par une id

Boyer, Edmond

149

VACCINATION OF YOUNG FOXES (VULPES VULPES, L.) AGAINST RABIES  

E-print Network

VACCINATION OF YOUNG FOXES (VULPES VULPES, L.) AGAINST RABIES: TRIALS WITH INACTIVATED VACCINE ANTIRABIQUE DE RENARDEAUX (VULPES VULPES, L.) A L'AIDE D'UN VACCIN INACTIV� ADMINISTR� PAR VOIES ORALE ET l'épreuve virulente. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes, L.) is the main vector of rabies in Belgium

Boyer, Edmond

150

Health Services Queen's University Policy on Verification of Illness  

E-print Network

, commonly known as "sick notes" to students on September 1, 1998. The policy and practice surrounding Verification of Illness ("sick notes") 1. A "Verification of Illness" should only be required in situations of academic work. 2. Procedure: A VOI will be dated and signed by the issuing nurse or physician and also

Abolmaesumi, Purang

151

Actes de la confrence conjointe JEP-TALN-RECITAL 2012, volume 1: JEP, pages 561568, Grenoble, 4 au 8 juin 2012. c 2012 ATALA & AFCP  

E-print Network

, and children without any speech disorder. Results reveal differences in F2/F3 values between impaired children____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Cette étude vise à observer le lieu d'articulation des occlusives voisées produites par des locuteurs _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ F2/F3 of voiced plosives and F1/F2 of vowel in VCV Sequences in Children with a Cleft Palate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

Fuzzy hidden Markov chains segmentation for volume determination and quantitation in PET  

E-print Network

of PET in Intensity- Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) treatment planning renders equally vital1 Fuzzy hidden Markov chains segmentation for volume determination and quantitation in PET M. Hatt1;52(12):3467-91" DOI : 10.1088/0031-9155/52/12/010 #12;2 ABSTRACT Accurate volume of interest (VOI) estimation in PET

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

Histologic changes mimicking biliary disease in liver biopsies with venous outflow impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impairment of venous outflow from the liver manifests as zone 3 sinusoidal dilatation and congestion (SDC) in liver biopsy. The spectrum of histologic changes in portal tracts has not been described. We studied liver biopsies from 34 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of venous outflow impairment (VOI). Liver transplant recipients and biopsies with cirrhosis and hepatic neoplasms were excluded. Clinical

Sanjay Kakar; Kenneth P Batts; John J Poterucha; Lawrence J Burgart

2004-01-01

154

Aymeric Histace Traitement d Image  

E-print Network

Aymeric Histace Traitement d Image : Approche variationnelle en TI 1 "La nature agit toujours par les voies les plus courtes et les plus simples" Pierre de Fermat, 1657 #12;Aymeric Histace Plan n 1. Segmentation d'image par AV 2 #12;Aymeric Histace Plan n 1. Introduction n 2. Le problème du maître nageur n 3

Histace, Aymeric

155

The value of animal test information in environmental control decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Value of information (VOI) analytic techniques are used to evaluate the benefit of performing animal bioassays to provide information about the cancer potency of specific chemical compounds. These tools allow the identification of the conditions in which the cost of reducing uncertainty about potency, by performing a subchronic or chronic bioassay, is justified by the benefit of having improved information

Alison C. Taylor; John S. Evans; Thomas E. McKone

1993-01-01

156

J. Phys. III France 4 (1994) 2405-2411 DECEMBER 1994, PAGE 2405 Classification  

E-print Network

voies du systbme prises une par une. Abstract. We present an optoelectronic self-routing packet switch of reconfigurable interconnects I-e- switching networks. Several optical/optoelec- tronic switching network of active devices as switching node arrays [?-4]. In general, these networks are implemented

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

157

AVERAGE PERFORMANCE, IN TERM OF PRI MEASURE, OF SEVERAL SEGMENTATION (INTO REGIONS) ALGORITHMS (ABOVE PRI=0.75 AND RANKED ACCORDING TO THEIR MAXIMUM PRI SCORE) ON THE BSD300  

E-print Network

, and M. Hebert, "A measure for objective evaluation of image segmentation algorithms," in Proc1 TABLE I AVERAGE PERFORMANCE, IN TERM OF PRI MEASURE, OF SEVERAL SEGMENTATION (INTO REGIONS FOR DIFFERENT PERFORMANCE MEASURES (LOWER IS BETTER) ON THE BSD300 ALGORITHMS VoI GCE BDE HUMANS 1.10 0.08 4

Mignotte, Max

158

TOXINES D'ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS WILHELM III. —  

E-print Network

TOXINES D'ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS WILHELM III. — TOXICITÃ? AIGUÃ? DE L'OCHRATOXINE A CHEZ LE RAT aiguë de l'ochratoxine A est mesurée chez le Rat et la Souris adultes par les voies orale, intraveineuse importante transformation en ochratoxine ce. Par contre, on enregistre les pertes de poids les plus sensibles

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

Computing Z_top  

E-print Network

This is the text of my habilitation thesis defended at the \\'Ecole Normale Sup\\'erieure. The topological string presents an arena in which many features of string theory proper, such as the interplay between worldsheet and target space descriptions or open-closed duality, can be distilled into computational techniques which yield results beyond perturbation theory. In this thesis, I will summarize my research activity in this area. The presentation is organized around computations of the topological string partition function Z_top based on various perspectives on the topological string.

Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian

2014-01-01

160

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C l , supplkment au no 1, Tome 45, janvier 1984 page CI-541  

E-print Network

, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratis Lava, CzechosLovakia ' ~ c o ~ eNationale Supe'rieure des Techniques AvancEes, Centre de L'Yvette, Chemin de La HuniOre, 91120 Palaiseau, France R6sum6 - Cet a r t i c l e concerne 1 1 6 t u d e d e s param6tre.s c a r a c t 6 - r i s t i q u e s r e l i a n t l e champ g l e c

Boyer, Edmond

161

Computing Z_top  

E-print Network

This is the text of my habilitation thesis defended at the \\'Ecole Normale Sup\\'erieure. The topological string presents an arena in which many features of string theory proper, such as the interplay between worldsheet and target space descriptions or open-closed duality, can be distilled into computational techniques which yield results beyond perturbation theory. In this thesis, I will summarize my research activity in this area. The presentation is organized around computations of the topological string partition function Z_top based on various perspectives on the topological string.

Amir-Kian Kashani-Poor

2014-08-06

162

Cancers of the lung, head and neck on the rise: perspectives on the genotoxicity of air pollution  

PubMed Central

Outdoor air pollution has been recently classified as a class I human carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cumulative evidence from across the globe shows that polluted air is associated with increased risk of lung, head and neck, and nasopharyngeal cancers—all of which affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Importantly, these cancers have been previously linked to smoking. In this article, we review epidemiologic and experimental evidence of the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of air pollution on DNA, purportedly a key mechanism for cancer development. The alarming increase in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Asia suggests a need to focus government efforts and research on reducing air pollution, promoting clean energy, and investigating the carcinogenic effects of air pollution on humans. PMID:25011457

Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Ng, Yuen-Keng; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan

2014-01-01

163

Laryngeal lymphoma derived from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.  

PubMed

Extranodal lymphomas account for as many as 40% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and most arise in the gastrointestinal tract, but other mucosal organs may be involved, especially the upper aerodigestive tract. Low-grade B-cell lymphomas arising in the gastrointestinal tract and other mucosae have been found to recapitulate the structure and cytologic features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Histologically low-grade MALT lymphomas are characterized by centrocyte-like B-cells with a phenotype similar to that of so-called marginal zone B-cells. Tumors evolving from MALT are generally rare among lymphomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, but a few cases of laryngeal lymphomas derived from MALT have been reported. Primary MALT lymphoma of the larynx should always be considered in tumors with histopathologic features of low-grade B-cell lymphoma, or so-called pseudolymphoma. PMID:8678438

Horny, H P; Ferlito, A; Carbone, A

1996-07-01

164

Cancers of the lung, head and neck on the rise: perspectives on the genotoxicity of air pollution.  

PubMed

Outdoor air pollution has been recently classified as a class I human carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cumulative evidence from across the globe shows that polluted air is associated with increased risk of lung, head and neck, and nasopharyngeal cancers--all of which affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Importantly, these cancers have been previously linked to smoking. In this article, we review epidemiologic and experimental evidence of the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of air pollution on DNA, purportedly a key mechanism for cancer development. The alarming increase in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Asia suggests a need to focus government efforts and research on reducing air pollution, promoting clean energy, and investigating the carcinogenic effects of air pollution on humans. PMID:25011457

Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Ng, Yuen-Keng; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan

2014-10-01

165

The value of information for managing contaminated sediments.  

PubMed

Effective management of contaminated sediments is important for long-term human and environmental health, but site-management decisions are often made under high uncertainty and without the help of structured decision support tools. Potential trade-offs between remedial costs, environmental effects, human health risks, and societal benefits, as well as fundamental differences in stakeholder priorities, complicate decision making. Formal decision-analytic tools such as multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) move beyond ad hoc decision support to quantitatively and holistically rank management alternatives and add transparency and replicability to the evaluation process. However, even the best decisions made under uncertainty may be found suboptimal in hindsight, once additional scientific, social, economic, or other details become known. Value of information (VoI) analysis extends MCDA by systematically evaluating the impact of uncertainty on a decision. VoI prioritizes future research in terms of expected decision relevance by helping decision makers estimate the likelihood that additional information will improve decision confidence or change their selection of a management plan. In this study, VoI analysis evaluates uncertainty, estimates decision confidence, and prioritizes research to inform selection of a sediment capping strategy for the dibenzo-p-dioxin and -furan contaminated Grenland fjord system in southern Norway. The VoI model extends stochastic MCDA to model decisions with and without simulated new information and compares decision confidence across scenarios with different degrees of remaining uncertainty. Results highlight opportunities for decision makers to benefit from additional information by anticipating the improved decision confidence (or lack thereof) expected from reducing uncertainties for each criterion or combination of criteria. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of VoI analysis for environmental decisions by predicting when decisions can be made confidently, for prioritizing areas of research to pursue to improve decision confidence, and for differentiating between decision-relevant and decision-irrelevant differences in evaluation perspectives, all of which help guide meaningful deliberation toward effective consensus solutions. PMID:24957130

Bates, Matthew E; Sparrevik, Magnus; de Lichy, Nicolas; Linkov, Igor

2014-08-19

166

Prognostic significance of wound infections following major head and neck cancer surgery: an open non-comparative prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe evaluated the incidence, risk factors and consequences of wound infection (WI) following major head and neck cancer surgery in an open non-comparative study.Patients and methodsThe study group, comprising 95 patients who underwent clean-contaminated procedures with opening of the upper aerodigestive tract for biopsy-proven squamous cell cancer, were studied over a 1-year period. Antibiotic prophylaxis was amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.

Nicolas Penel; Charles Fournier; Micheline Roussel-Delvallez; Danièle Lefebvre; Ahmed Kara; Yann Mallet; Jean-Charles Neu; Jean-Louis Lefebvre

2004-01-01

167

Mechanisms and Modification of the Radiation Response of Gastrointestinal Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The alimentary canal extends from the mouth to the anus. It comprises the upper aerodigestive tract (oral cavity and pharynx),\\u000a the esophagus, and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract proper (stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, rectum, and anus). In\\u000a radiation therapy, toxicities of the small intestine, colon, and rectum are more important in terms of quantitative and clinical\\u000a significance than toxicities of

M. Hauer-Jensen; J. Wang; J. W. Denham

168

Smoking and Drinking in Relation to Cancers of the Oral Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, and Esophagus in Northern Italy1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hospital-based case-control study of upper aerodigestive tract tumors was conducted between June 1986 and June 1989 in Northern Italy. One hundred fifty-seven male cases of oral cavity cancer, 134 of pharyngeal cancer, 162 of laryngeal cancer, and 288 of esophageal cancer, and 1272 male inpatients with acute conditions unrelated to tobacco and alcohol were interviewed. Odds ratios for current

Silvia Franceschi; Renato Talamini; Salvatore Barra; Eva Negri; Ettore Bidoli; Diego Serraino; Carlo La Vecchia

1990-01-01

169

Esophageal reflexes modulate frontoparietal response in neonates: Novel application of concurrent NIRS and provocative esophageal manometry.  

PubMed

Central and peripheral neural regulation of swallowing and aerodigestive reflexes is unclear in human neonates. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method to measure changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD). Pharyngoesophageal manometry permits evaluation of aerodigestive reflexes. Modalities were combined to investigate feasibility and to test neonatal frontoparietal cortical changes during pharyngoesophageal (visceral) stimulation and/or swallowing. Ten neonates (45.6 ± 3.0 wk postmenstrual age, 4.1 ± 0.5 kg) underwent novel pharyngoesophageal manometry concurrent with NIRS. To examine esophagus-brain interactions, we analyzed cortical hemodynamic response (HDR) latency and durations during aerodigestive provocation and esophageal reflexes. Data are presented as means ± SE or percent. HDR rates were 8.84 times more likely with basal spontaneous deglutition compared with sham stimuli (P = 0.004). Of 182 visceral stimuli, 95% were analyzable for esophageal responses, 38% for HDR, and 36% for both. Of analyzable HDR (n = 70): 1) HbO concentration (?mol/l) baseline 1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 poststimulus was significant (P = 0.02), 2) HbD concentration (?mol/l) between baseline 0.1 ± 0.4 vs. poststimulus -0.5 ± 0.4 was not significant (P = 0.73), and 3) hemispheric lateralization was 21% left only, 29% right only, and 50% bilateral. During concurrent esophageal and NIRS responses (n = 66): 1) peristaltic reflexes were present in 74% and HDR in 61% and 2) HDR was 4.75 times more likely with deglutition reflex vs. secondary peristaltic reflex (P = 0.016). Concurrent NIRS with visceral stimulation is feasible in neonates, and frontoparietal cortical activation is recognized. Deglutition contrasting with secondary peristalsis is related to cortical activation, thus implicating higher hierarchical aerodigestive protective functional neural networks. PMID:24789204

Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Pakiraih, Joanna F; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Dar, Irfaan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Bates, D Gregory; Kashou, Nasser H

2014-07-01

170

Resistance of Human Squamous Carcinoma Cells to Transforming Growth Factor beta1 is a Recessive Trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because most human squamous carcinoma cell lines of the aerodigestive and genital tracts are refractory to the antiproliferative action of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFbeta 1) in vitro, we have begun to identify the causes for resistance of squamous carcinoma cell lines to TGFbeta 1 by using somatic cell genetics. Two stable hybrid cell lines (FaDu-HKc.1 and FaDu-HKc.2) were

Michael Reiss; Teresita Munoz-Antonia; Janet M. Cowan; Perry C. Wilkins; Zhao-Ling Zhou; Vincent F. Vellucci

1993-01-01

171

Lung cancer: From single-gene methylation to methylome profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA methylation as part of the epigenetic gene-silencing complex is a universal occurring change in lung cancer. Numerous\\u000a studies investigated methylation of specific genes in primary tumors, in serum or plasma samples, and in specimens from the\\u000a aerodigestive tract epithelium of lung cancer patients. In most studies, single genes or small numbers of genes were analyzed.\\u000a Moreover, it has been

Gerwin Heller; Christoph C. Zielinski; Sabine Zöchbauer-Müller

2010-01-01

172

Chevalier Jackson's contributions to direct laryngoscopy.  

PubMed

Chevalier Jackson championed rigid endoscopy of the upper aerodigestive tract and facilitated its development and popularity at the beginning of the 20th century. He realized that endoscopy and open surgery are inextricably linked for effective management of diseases of the upper air and food passages. Toward this end, Jackson contributed a number of important innovations to direct laryngoscopy, while developing a unique mastery of the technique. Ultimately, he combined this endoscopic proficiency with open surgical techniques. PMID:9619973

Zeitels, S M

1998-03-01

173

DCTD — Cancer Diagnosis Program (CDP)  

Cancer.gov

Barbara A. Conley, M.D., is Associate Director of the Cancer Diagnosis Program (CDP) in the Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD), National Cancer Institute. She is also a member of the Division’s Experimental Therapeutics Clinic. Her previous positions at the Institute included Chief of the CDP Diagnostics Research Branch, Senior Investigator in the Cancer Therapy and Evaluation Program Clinical Investigations Branch, and Head, Aerodigestive Diseases in the intramural Medicine Branch.

174

Uncommon CHEK2 mis-sense variant and reduced risk of tobacco-related cancers: case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

CHEK2 is a key cell cycle control gene encoding a pluripotent kinase that can cause arrest or apoptosis in response to unrepaired DNA damage. We report a large case-control study of a non-functional variant that had previously been expected to increase cancer rates. Four thousand and fifteen cancer patients (2250 lung, 811 squamous upper aero-digestive and 954 kidney) and 3052

Paul Brennan; James McKay; Lee Moore; David Zaridze; Anush Mukeria; Neonilia Szeszenia-Dabrowska; Jolanta Lissowska; Peter Rudnai; Eleonora Fabianova; Dana Mates; Vladimir Bencko; Lenka Foretova; Vladimir Janout; Wong-Ho Chow; Nathanial Rothman; Amelie Chabrier; Valerie Gaborieau; Fabrice Odefrey; Melissa Southey; Mia Hashibe; Janet Hall; Paolo Boffetta; Julian Peto; Richard Peto; R. J. Hung

2007-01-01

175

Alcohol Metabolism and Its Implications for Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As described in Chap. 1, alcohol has been classified as carcinogenic to humans at several sites in the body by the International\\u000a Agency for Research on Cancer (Secretan et al. 2009). These include the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT), liver, colon\\/rectum,\\u000a and female breast. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed for these multiple carcinogenic effects (Zakhari 2006). In this\\u000a chapter, we discuss

Gary J. Murray; Philip J. Brooks; Samir Zakhari

176

Impacted radio-opaque glass in the oesophagus of a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most ingested foreign bodies in the aero-digestive tracts in both children and adults are not radio-opaque, and as a result, a preoperative plain radiograph may not be helpful. However, incorporating radio-opaque markers into such potential foreign bodies like toys, beads, and dentures during manufacture (as illustrated in this case of a 6-year-old boy who ingested a piece of glass mirror

Titus S Ibekwe; James A Fasunla; Moronke D Akinola; Onyekwere G B Nwaorgu

177

DCTD Program Accomplishments 2010  

Cancer.gov

Barbara A. Conley, M.D., is the newly appointed Associate Director of the Cancer Diagnosis Program (CDP). She is an NCI veteran who has held previous positions at the Institute. From 1997 to 2004, she participated in several key programs within the NCI, including Senior Investigator in the Clinical Investigations Branch of CTEP and Chief of the CDP Diagnostics Research Branch, as well as Head, Aerodigestive Diseases, in the intramural medicine branch.

178

Optical biopsy fiber-based fluorescence spectroscopy instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Native fluorescence spectroscopy of biomolecules has emerged as a new modality to the medical community in characterizing the various physiological conditions of tissues. In the past several years, many groups have been working to introduce the spectroscopic methods to diagnose cancer. Researchers have successfully used native fluorescence to distinguish cancerous from normal tissue samples in rat and human tissue. We have developed three generations of instruments, called the CD-scan, CD-ratiometer and CD-map, to allow the medical community to use optics for diagnosing tissue. Using ultraviolet excitation and emission spectral measurements on both normal and cancerous tissue of the breast, gynecology, colon, and aerodigestive tract can be separated. For example, from emission intensities at 340 nm to 440 nm (300 nm excitation), a statistically consistent difference between malignant tissue and normal or benign tissue is observed. In order to utilize optical biopsy techniques in a clinical setting, the CD-scan instrument was developed, which allows for rapid and reliable in-vitro and in-vivo florescence measurements of the aerodigestive tract with high accuracy. The instrumentation employs high sensitivity detection techniques which allows for lamp excitation, small diameter optical fiber probes; the higher spatial resolution afforded by the small diameter probes can increase the ability to detect smaller tumors. The fiber optic probes allow for usage in the aerodigestive tract, cervix and colon. Needle based fiber probes have been developed for in-vivo detection of breast cancer.

Katz, Alvin; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Yang, Yuanlong; Tang, Gui C.; Budansky, Yury; Celmer, Edward J.; Savage, Howard E.; Schantz, Stimson P.; Alfano, Robert R.

1996-04-01

179

Exact Interior Reconstruction with Cone-Beam CT  

PubMed Central

Using the backprojection filtration (BPF) and filtered backprojection (FBP) approaches, respectively, we prove that with cone-beam CT the interior problem can be exactly solved by analytic continuation. The prior knowledge we assume is that a volume of interest (VOI) in an object to be reconstructed is known in a subregion of the VOI. Our derivations are based on the so-called generalized PI-segment (chord). The available projection onto convex set (POCS) algorithm and singular value decomposition (SVD) method can be applied to perform the exact interior reconstruction. These results have many implications in the CT field and can be extended to other tomographic modalities, such as SPECT/PET, MRI. PMID:18299705

Ye, Yangbo; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

2007-01-01

180

Geometria I. Gruppo AL. Anno accademico 1999/2000. Soluzioni per il compito del 20/12/99.  

E-print Network

allora data mettendo nella prima colonna ` ! (1; 0); (3; 1) ? ! (3; 1); (3; 1) ? ' (3; 1) e nella seconda colonna ` ! (0; 1); (3; 1) ? ! (3; 1); (3; 1) ? ' (3; 1): Lascio a voi i conti. Sol. Es. 6. Un vettore. Per determinare la base f scegliamo f 1 = (1= p 2; 1= p 2; 0). Fissiamo poi un vettore g 2 a caso in Ã?

Piazza, Paolo

181

Use of east Texas reservoirs by wintering bald eagles  

E-print Network

. They soar and loaf during the day and seek out secluded night perches around the rese. voi r in late afternoon; this researcher found no communa1 night roosts. The eagles prefer the least disturbed areas of each east Texas reservoir on which... Survey Results First Winter Second Winter Evaluation of Survey Methods Trapping Results Winter Movements Food Habits Hunting Methods Daily Activities Winter Roosts Habitat Use Intraspecific Behavior Interactions with Other Birds Responses...

Russell, Sandra Joy

2012-06-07

182

Rôle du microbiote dans les maladies inflammatoires de l’intestin  

Microsoft Academic Search

RésuméLa maladie de Crohn et la rectocolite ulcéro-hémorragique sont des affections inflammatoires des voies digestives et représentent ensemble un spectre de maladies appelées maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l’intestin (MICI). L’intestin humain est colonisé par un microbiote commensal à des concentrations excédant le nombre de cellules de la totalité de l’organisme. Dans des conditions physiologiques normales, il existe une interaction entre

Irit Chermesh; Raanan Shamir

2009-01-01

183

Quantification of Tumor Vessels in Glioblastoma Patients Using Time-of-Flight Angiography at 7 Tesla: A Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze if tumor vessels can be visualized, segmented and quantified in glioblastoma patients with time of flight (ToF) angiography at 7 Tesla and multiscale vessel enhancement filtering. Materials and Methods Twelve patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma were examined with ToF angiography (TR?=?15 ms, TE?=?4.8 ms, flip angle?=?15°, FOV?=?160×210 mm2, voxel size: 0.31×0.31×0.40 mm3) on a whole-body 7 T MR system. A volume of interest (VOI) was placed within the border of the contrast enhancing part on T1-weighted images of the glioblastoma and a reference VOI was placed in the non-affected contralateral white matter. Automated segmentation and quantification of vessels within the two VOIs was achieved using multiscale vessel enhancement filtering in ImageJ. Results Tumor vessels were clearly visible in all patients. When comparing tumor and the reference VOI, total vessel surface (45.3±13.9 mm2 vs. 29.0±21.0 mm2 (p<0.035)) and number of branches (3.5±1.8 vs. 1.0±0.6 (p<0.001) per cubic centimeter were significantly higher, while mean vessel branch length was significantly lower (3.8±1.5 mm vs 7.2±2.8 mm (p<0.001)) in the tumor. Discussion ToF angiography at 7-Tesla MRI enables characterization and quantification of the internal vascular morphology of glioblastoma and may be used for the evaluation of therapy response within future studies. PMID:25415327

Radbruch, Alexander; Eidel, Oliver; Wiestler, Benedikt; Paech, Daniel; Burth, Sina; Kickingereder, Philipp; Nowosielski, Martha; Bäumer, Philipp; Wick, Wolfgang; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Bendszus, Martin; Ladd, Mark; Nagel, Armin Michael; Heiland, Sabine

2014-01-01

184

DbitVisu est un banc exprimental pour les T.P. en Mcanique des Fluides. Il a t ralis avec les objectifs suivants  

E-print Network

/s (conduite droite PVC DN 53,6mm) Cuve principale 600 L et cuve pesée 200 L Conduites collées GF PVC-U PN16 �ext 63 mm, DN 53,6 mm. Robinets à bille GF PVC-U type 546 �63 Vanne 3 voies pneumatique Valpes d63 : manchons union PVC-U d63 (GF 721 510 111) - Prises de pression et purges : trous G1/4, connectique rapide

185

UNIVERSITE DES SCIENCES ET TECHNOLOGIES DE LILLE 1 E. D. SCIENCE DE LA MATIERE, DU RAYONNEMENT ET DE L'ENVIRONNEMENT  

E-print Network

reconnaissance. Cette thèse initiée et financée par la Région Nord-Pas-de-Calais et Voies Navigables de France (INERIS) et Jacques Bureau (INERIS), Claire Albin (VNF), Calire Bugner (Région Nord-Pas-de-Calais). Les, j'espère que vous comprendrez que je ne cite pas tout le monde, mais sachez que je garderai

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

Congresul Euprera 24-25 septembrie 2009  

E-print Network

private. Vã vorbesc deci dintr-un alt punct de vedere. In cadrul asociaiei mele de cercetare în comunicare deschise ale Centrului naional de cercetare tiinificã. Voi preciza, plecând de la acest corpus, câmpul comunicãrii organizaionale în cadrul tiinelor Informãrii i Comunicãrii ca ansamblu de învããmânt i cercetare în

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

Partial-Volume Correction in PET: Validation of an Iterative Postreconstruction Method with Phantom and Patient Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial-volume errors (PVEs) in PET can cause incorrect estima- tion of radiopharmaceutical uptake in small tumors. An iterative postreconstruction method was evaluated that corrects for PVEs without a priori knowledge of tumor size or background. Methods:Volumes of interest (VOIs) were drawn on uncorrected PET images. PVE-corrected images were produced using an it- erative 3-dimensional deconvolution algorithm and a local point

Boon-Keng Teo; Youngho Seo; Stephen L. Bacharach; Jorge A. Carrasquillo; Steven K. Libutti; Himanshu Shukla; Bruce H. Hasegawa; Randall A. Hawkins; Benjamin L. Franc

2007-01-01

188

Courte note Dtection du virus de l'arthrite encphalite caprine  

E-print Network

contaminations liées à l'inges- tion de colostrum contaminé, la voie orale étant considérée comme la voie de contamination que le colostrum [5]. En dépit de différents travaux réalisés en vue de préciser d'autres voies de

Boyer, Edmond

189

A study to improve the engineering properties of limestone rock asphalt paving mixtures  

E-print Network

; and limestone rock asphalt paving mixtures have inherently hi gh ai r voi ds content. Six typical mixture designs were prepared in the lab- oratory and cured in differing environments. The effect of curing environment on weight loss, Hveem Stability, resil... conditions; low air voids content results in high Hveem stability and resilient modulus; stability gain coin- cides with weight loss of the mixtures; higher strengths are obtained when 1 ess flux oil is used in the mixture; and more arid curing...

Goodwin, Philip Wayne

2012-06-07

190

Characterisation of partial volume effect and region-based correction in small animal positron emission tomography (PET) of the rat brain.  

PubMed

Accurate quantification of PET imaging data is required for a useful interpretation of the measured radioactive tracer concentrations. The partial volume effect (PVE) describes signal dilution and mixing due to spatial resolution and sampling limitations, which introduces bias in quantitative results. In the present study we investigated the magnitude of PVE for volumes of interest (VOIs) in the rat brain and the effect of positron range. In simulated (11)C-raclopride studies we examined the influence of PVE on time activity curves in striatal and cerebellar VOIs and binding potential estimation. The performance of partial volume correction (PVC) was studied using the region-based geometric transfer matrix (GTM) method including the question of whether a spatially variant point spread function (PSF) is necessary for PVC of a rat brain close to the centre of the field of view. Furthermore, we determined the effect of spillover from activity outside the brain. The results confirmed that PVE is significant in rat brain PET and showed that positron range is an important factor that needs to be included in the PSF. There was considerable bias in time activity curves for the simulated (11)C-raclopride studies and significant underestimation of binding potential even for very small centred VOIs. Good activity recovery was achieved with the GTM PVC using a spatially invariant simulated PSF when no activity was present outside the brain. PVC using a simple Gaussian fit point spread function was not sufficiently accurate. Spillover from regions outside the brain had a significant impact on measured activity concentrations and reduced the accuracy of PVC with the GTM method using rat brain regions alone, except for the smallest VOI size but at the cost of increased noise. Voxel-based partial volume correction methods which inherently compensate for spillover from outside the brain might be a more suitable choice. PMID:22387126

Lehnert, Wencke; Gregoire, Marie-Claude; Reilhac, Anthonin; Meikle, Steven R

2012-05-01

191

Au-delà de Kyoto : enjeux d'équité et d'efficacité dans la négociation sur le changement climatique  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Ce papier développe des éléments méthodologiques pouvant contribuer à une double réflexion, sur les voies équitables d'une insertion des pays en développement dans un programme mondial à long terme de limitation de la croissance des émissions de gaz à effet de serre, et sur les apports, en termes d'efficacité économique, des systèmes de permis d'émission négociables. Sur le premier

Laurent Viguier; Michel Trommetter; Patrick Criqui; Odile Blanchard

2000-01-01

192

Evaluating radiation-induced white matter changes in patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery using diffusion tensor imaging: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been an effective treatment method for brain tumors; however, few data are available regarding radiation-induced white matter (WM) damage by SRS. In this work, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to investigate WM changes following SRS. Fifteen patients with gliomas were enrolled, with prescription doses ranging 18-25 Gy. Patients were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including DTI before and after SRS. Diffusion tensors were calculated and fiber tracking was performed. Non-irradiated WM volumes and irradiated WM volumes receiving ? 12 Gy and ? Gy were contoured as volumes of interest (VOI). Apparent diffusion coefficient (?D?), fractional anisotropy (FA) and number of fibers (NF) were calculated and assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Compared with those of non-irradiated VOIs, FA and NF decreased considerably after two months of SRS in the irradiated WM VOIs. The variation in (?D? was however small and was not statistically significant. The preliminary results suggested that FA and NF might potentially be more sensitive indicators than (?D? in measuring radiation-induced WM changes and DTI could be a valuable tool to assess radiation-induced WM changes in SRS. Although it is still preliminary, this pilot study may be useful to provide insights for future studies. PMID:23862743

Chang, Zheng; Kirkpatrick, John P; Wang, Zhiheng; Cai, Jing; Adamson, Justus; Yin, Fang-Fang

2014-02-01

193

Incidence and localization of abnormal mucosa findings in patients consulting ENT outpatient clinics and data analysis of a cancer registry.  

PubMed

For patients without symptoms and at risk, there is no established early detection program to discover carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract in the sense of secondary prevention. Such type of prevention seems even more desirable because the chances for a cure and the quality of life are strongly dependent on the stage of the tumor and the time of the initial diagnosis. Six hundred and eight patients without symptoms but at least one of the self-reported risk factors "smoking", "alcohol consumption" or "reflux" were examined with an endoscope or an optical microscope for pathological findings in the upper aerodigestive tract once a year. In addition, the incidence of malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract between 2001 and 2010 was determined through the Cancer Registry of Schleswig-Holstein. Tissue samples were taken from 18 of the 608 patients. Eleven patients (1.8%) had a squamous cell carcinoma. Another patient suffered from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and one from larynx tuberculosis. The ratio of detected malignancies in the oral cavity and the oropharynx on the one hand and the hypopharynx and larynx, which can only be examined by endoscopes, on the other hand were in our cohorts and in our survey according to the cancer registry was 5/6. The above-described methods allow examining risk patients easily and safely. According to current publications, the ratio of the found malignancies exceeds the expected ratio significantly, which presumably was caused by the examination targeting patients at risk. Due to the expanded examination area using optical instruments more than doubles the rate of discoverable malignancies compared to the limitations posed by the examination of directly visible areas of the oral cavity of the oropharynx. PMID:24114062

Löhler, J; Gerstner, A O H; Bootz, F; Walther, L E

2014-05-01

194

Simulation of an electromagnetic health monitoring concept for composite materials: comparison with experimental data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new concept of Structural Health Monitoring System for composite materials, (CFRP and GFRP) using electromagnetic properties of the material, has been developed at ONERA (Office National d"Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales, France). This concept, based on the detection of local electric conductivity variations and/or local dielectric permittivity variations, has allowed to design a demonstrator having a great sensitivity to detect main defects such as delaminations, fiber breaking, burning and liquid ingress. However, this technique at the present state, does not presently allow to perform quantitative measurements of electric conductivity and dielectric permittivity. In order to remedy to this disadvantage, a numerical simulation with an original method developed at ENS-Cachan (Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, France) by D. Placko and N. Liebeaux, has been performed. Various results obtained by simulation are presented discussed and compared with experimental measurements.

Lemistre, Michel B.; Placko, Dominique; Liebeaux, Nicolas

2003-07-01

195

Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the trachea.  

PubMed

Extramedullary plasmacytomas are plasma cell tumors that occur outside the bone marrow. They constitute around 4 % of all plasma cell neoplasms. The most common site of extramedullary plasmacytoma is the upper aerodigestive tract-nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and oronasopharynx. We are presenting a case of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the trachea. Trachea is an extremely rare site of plasmacytoma. When extraosseous plasmacytoma occur in uncommon sites, the distinction from B cell lymphomas showing extensive plasmacytic differentiation can be difficult and diagnostically challenging. PMID:24046059

Sukumaran, Renu; Nair, Rekha A; Jacob, Priya Mary; Koshy, Sumod Mathew; Mathew, Arun Peter

2014-06-01

196

Primary myxoid liposarcoma of the supraglottic larynx  

PubMed Central

Sarcomas are a rare occurrence accounting for roughly 1% of all cancer cases reported. Of these, 9–18% will be identified as liposarcoma. Overall, only 4–9% of all liposarcomas occur in the head and neck region. As such, it is a rare event to see a primary liposarcoma of the aerodigestive tract. These tumors are typically misdiagnosed secondary to their indolent, asymptomatic course and similarities in appearance to other benign lesions. An understanding of these lesions will help clinicians appropriately manage their patients. We present a case of a 60-year male with a primary supraglottic myxoid liposarcoma, and provide relevant information about liposarcomas. PMID:21139957

Gleinser, David M; Font, Jean Paul; Clement, Cecilia G; Mohammed, Basim S; Underbrink, Michael P

2010-01-01

197

Heterogeneous 18F-FDG uptake in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.  

PubMed

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) describes an infection of the upper aerodigestive tract by the human papilloma virus most commonly affecting the larynx with rare lung involvement in 1%-2% of affected patients. We describe an unusual case of a 28-year-old male patient with a longstanding history of RRP where a whole-body PET/CT obtained for disease staging revealed multiple cavitary pulmonary nodules in addition to the more typical tracheobronchial papillomas. In the case described herein, we report heterogeneous uptake of 18F-FDG among these RRP lesions, suggesting significant unexpected variability in the underlying metabolic behavior of these lesions. PMID:23486321

Yu, John-Paul J; Barajas, Ramon F; Olorunsola, Dare; Sugrue, Leo P; Hernandez-Pampaloni, Miguel

2013-05-01

198

Infected Internal Jugular Vein Thrombus in a Case of Infected Arterio-Venous Fistula for Dialysis Access  

PubMed Central

Infected internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombus is rare and is sometimes seen in association with jugular vein catheterization and rarely with suppurative upper aero-digestive tract infection. We describe a very rare association of left Infected Internal jugular vein thrombus with an infected arterio-venous fistula in the left elbow region created for dialysis access in a renal failure patient. The infected arterio-venous fistula was addressed surgically by excision and a reverse saphenous vein graft was placed between proximal and distal brachial artery just above it’s bifurcation. The patient was put on i.v Clindamycin and Metronidazole for six weeks. Patient recovered uneventfully. PMID:25298841

Chakrabart, Ushnish; Mazumder, Pinaki; Pal, Madhusudan; Dasbaksi, Kallol; Mukherjee, Plaban

2014-01-01

199

NK/T cell lymphoma with inverted papilloma: A rare coexistence.  

PubMed

Natural killer/T-cell (NK/T) lymphomas are an infrequent tumour type of NK and NK-T cells commonly occurring in the upper aero-digestive tract. Most reported cases in the literature are random solitary cases of NK/T-cell lymphoma. A 35-year-old male farmer from Sikkim reported to our institution with NK/T-cell lymphoma (nasal type) with coexistent inverted papilloma of the nose. This case is being reported due to the unique and unusual simultaneous occurrence of these two tumour entities. PMID:25279007

Roy, Asitava Deb; Tuli, Isha Preet; Joshi, Deepti

2014-01-01

200

Infected internal jugular vein thrombus in a case of infected arterio-venous fistula for dialysis access.  

PubMed

Infected internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombus is rare and is sometimes seen in association with jugular vein catheterization and rarely with suppurative upper aero-digestive tract infection. We describe a very rare association of left Infected Internal jugular vein thrombus with an infected arterio-venous fistula in the left elbow region created for dialysis access in a renal failure patient. The infected arterio-venous fistula was addressed surgically by excision and a reverse saphenous vein graft was placed between proximal and distal brachial artery just above it's bifurcation. The patient was put on i.v Clindamycin and Metronidazole for six weeks. Patient recovered uneventfully. PMID:25298841

Mukherjee, Kaushik; Chakrabart, Ushnish; Mazumder, Pinaki; Pal, Madhusudan; Dasbaksi, Kallol; Mukherjee, Plaban

2014-01-01

201

Laryngopharyngeal reflux and GERD.  

PubMed

In patients with laryngopharygeal reflux (LPR), gastric contents exhibit retrograde flow into the upper aero-digestive tract, causing extraesophageal symptoms including chronic cough, hoarseness, indigestion, difficulty swallowing, globus pharyngis, and asthma. The following on laryngopharyngeal reflux includes commentaries on the use of patient-completed questionaires and anti-human pepsin antibodies and other non-invasive tests in diagnosis; the role of pepsin and acid in the etiologies of laryngeal cancers; and the application of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy for the treatment of LPR. PMID:24117635

Johnston, Nikki; Dettmar, Peter W; Strugala, Vicki; Allen, Jacqui E; Chan, Walter W

2013-10-01

202

Hematoporphyrin-mediated photodynamic therapy for treatment of head and neck cancer: clinical update 1996  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 1983 to 1996 Phase II and III clinical studies at Henry Ford Hospital demonstrated complete or partial responses in 55 of 56 patients treated with hematoporphyrin-derivative or PHOTOFRIN-mediated photodynamic therapy (HPD-PDT) for a variety of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease: (1) superficial 'condemned mucosa' or 'field cancerization' of the oral cavity and larynx (7 cases); (2) Stage III/IV head and neck cancer (25 cases); (3) mucocutaneous AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma of the upper aerodigestive tract and non AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the lower extremity (15 cases); (4) recurrent laryngotracheal papillomatosis (3 cases); (5) severe dysplasia/adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (4 cases); (6) partial or completely obstructing terminal esophageal cancer (9 cases). At the time of this report, HPD-PDT produced complete responses in 24 patients (follow up 6 months to 9 years) with 'field cancerization' (CIS, T1N0M0) of the oral cavity and larynx (6 cases), adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (3 cases), mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (12 cases), obstructing esophageal carcinoma (1 case), and stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx (1 case), and radiation therapy or solar-induced basal cell/squamous cell carcinomas (2 cases). PDT treatment protocols, results, complications, and application as adjunct or primary oncologic therapy for head and neck cancer are reviewed in this article.

Schweitzer, Vanessa G.

1996-04-01

203

Retinoid modulation of biomarkers in oral leukoplakia/dysplasia.  

PubMed

Among the tissue, cellular, and molecular changes which take place during the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper aerodigestive tract, only a limited number can be used as surrogate endpoint biomarkers (SEBs) in cancer chemoprevention trials. Molecular SEBs will be genes or gene products which can be measured accurately and reliably, are altered in intraepithelial neoplasia (dysplasia), correlate strongly with the true outcome (invasive cancer), and are modulated by a chemoprevention agent(s). To identify and modulate molecular SEBs in intraepithelial neoplasia of the upper aerodigestive tract, we studied expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), and HER-2/neu genes in oral leukoplakia before, during, and after treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid, a vitamin A derivative. Four of nine patients treated for 3 months with 1 mg/kg/day of 13-cis-retinoic acid had complete resolution of their leukoplakia. Biopsies were taken of leukoplakia and adjacent normal-appearing mucosa before, during, and after treatment. Immunohistochemistry was performed using the BioGenex Super Sensitive Biotin-Streptavidin horseradish peroxidase detection system. Pretreatment expression of EGFR, TGF-alpha, and HER-2/neu in leukoplakia was increased when compared to normal-appearing mucosa. TGF-alpha expression decreased during treatment in leukoplakia, but not in normal-appearing mucosa, suggesting that TGF-alpha may serve as an intermediate endpoint in cancer chemoprevention trials. PMID:7823600

Beenken, S W; Huang, P; Sellers, M; Peters, G; Listinsky, C; Stockard, C; Hubbard, W; Wheeler, R; Grizzle, W

1994-01-01

204

Strawberry gingivitis: A diagnostic feature of gingival Wegener's granulomatosis!  

PubMed Central

Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is an immunologically mediated inflammatory disease characterized by granulomatous vasculitis of the upper and lower aerodigestive tracts together with glomerulonephritis. We are reporting a rare case of gingival WG that presented with erythematous and painful generalized gingival enlargement. Correlation of histopathology with routine hematoxylin and eosin and special stains [Grocott-Gomori methenamine-silver nitrate and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS)], Mantoux test, peripheral blood smear and clinical presentation were established in diagnosing this rare entity. By the above-mentioned procedures and methodology, we have arrived at the diagnosis of Wegner's granulomatosis limited to the upper aerodigestive tract. Therefore, the aim of reporting this case was to emphasize that, the dental surgeon often being the first person to examine the oral cavity, should be familiar with the typical appearance of gingival WG as “strawberry gingivitis,” its clinical course as well as diagnostic parameters and adequate management. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of WG manifesting as “strawberry gingivitis” in the Indian population. PMID:23814553

Heera, R.; Choudhary, Kanaram; Beena, V. T.; Simon, Rency

2012-01-01

205

Cancer incidence and mortality due to alcohol: an analysis of 10-year data.  

PubMed

Alcohol consumption is causally related to cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract, liver, colon, rectum, female breast and pancreas. The dose response relationship varies for each site. We calculated Ireland's cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol over a 10-year period. Between 2001 and 2010, 4,585 (4.7%) male and 4,593 (4.2%) female invasive cancer diagnoses were attributable to alcohol. The greatest risk was for the upper aero-digestive tract where 2,961 (52.9%) of these cancers in males and 866 (35.2%) in females were attributable to alcohol. Between 2001 and 2010, 2,823 (6.7%) of male cancer deaths and 1,700 (4.6%) of female cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol. Every year approximately 900 new cancers and 500 cancer deaths are attributable to alcohol. Alcohol is a major cause of cancer after smoking, obesity and physical inactivity. Public awareness of risk must improve. Over half of alcohol related cancers are preventable by adhering to Department of Health alcohol consumption guidelines. PMID:24579406

Laffoy, M; McCarthy, T; Mullen, L; Byrne, D; Martin, J

2013-01-01

206

Changes in Socioeconomic Inequalities in Cancer Mortality Rates Among French Men Between 1968 and 1996  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated changes in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality rates among men in France between 1968 and 1996. Methods. We used a representative sample of 1% of the French population and studied 4 periods (1968–1974, 1975–1981, 1982–1988, and 1990–1996). Causes of death were obtained by direct linkage with the French national death registry. The socioeconomic position of men aged 35 to 59 years was measured by using the occupational class reported at the time of the census at the beginning of each period. Analyses were conducted for all cancers and specifically for lung, upper aerodigestive tract, esophageal, colorectal, and other cancers. Results. In all analyses, we observed socioeconomic inequalities during the 4 periods considered; the inequalities increased between the first and the last period. Most of the total increase occurred between 1968 and 1981, and inequalities remained stable thereafter. Inequalities were larger when men out of the labor force were included in the analysis. The strongest increase in socioeconomic inequalities over time was observed for upper aerodigestive tract cancer. Conclusions. Although cancer mortality rates have decreased, substantial socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality among men remain. PMID:17395842

Menvielle, Gwenn; Leclerc, Annette; Chastang, Jean-Francois; Melchior, Maria; Luce, Daniele

2007-01-01

207

The Role of Narrow Band Imaging in the Detection of Recurrent Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer after Curative Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Narrow band imaging is considered a significant improvement in the possibility of detecting early mucosal lesion of the upper aerodigestive tract. Early detection of mucosal neoplastic lesions is of utmost importance for patients survival. There is evidence that, especially in patients previously treated by means of curative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, the early detection rate of recurrent disease is quite low. The aim of this study was to prove whether the videoendoscopy coupled with NBI might help detect recurrent or secondary tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract. 66 patients previously treated by means of RT or CRT with curative intent were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent transnasal flexible videoendoscopy with NBI mode under local anesthesia. When a suspicious lesion was identified in an ambulatory setting, its nature was proved histologically. Many of these changes were not identifiable by means of conventional white light (WL) endoscopy. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of the method are very high (88%, 92%, 76%, 96%, and 91%, resp.). Results demonstrate that outpatient transnasal endoscopy with NBI is an excellent method for the follow-up of patients with carcinomas of the larynx and the hypopharynx primarily treated with radiotherapy. PMID:25101264

Zabrodsky, Michal; Plzak, Jan

2014-01-01

208

The Economic Value of Climate Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While demonstrating the economic value of science is challenging, it can be more direct for some Earth observations. For example, suppose a climate science mission can yield decisive information on climate change within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) provides a standard for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, stipulating uncertainty in climate sensitivity, using discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate response (DICE Optimal), and a strong response (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we would switch from BAU to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain also depends on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The resolving power of a climate observing system cannot exceed climate system natural variability. All climate observations add noise to natural variability caused by observing limitations, including calibration errors and space/time sampling uncertainty. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can advance the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems, exceeds the NPV of the system costs. We present illustrative results comparing the proposed CLARREO advance in satellite absolute calibration for climate change records to an existing system for detecting decadal temperature change and cloud feedback (i.e. climate sensitivity uncertainty). While CLARREO is used as an example, the value should be considered as relevant to an improved climate observing system, since societal decisions are unlikely to be based on one or a few observations. The VOI is found to depend on the required confidence level, the trigger value at which we would abandon the BAU emissions path, the path to which we switch, and the date at which the new system is launched. The VOI of CLARREO in this decision context is the surfeit of NPV of averted damages, relative to the existing system. Over all it is in the order of tens of trillions of US dollars. Among the noteworthy conclusions are (1) switching to either the DICE optimal or Stern emissions paths makes only a modest difference in the VOI of CLARREO, (2) raising the trigger value from 0.2C to 0.3C/decade, increases the VOI of CLARREO, while increasing the total NPV of climate damages, and (3) the choice of discount rate affects the VOI by a factor ~ 5. The results conclude that the economic value of advanced climate observing systems is dramatically larger than their cost, and argues for the continual enhancement of the SCC assessment process.

Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

2012-12-01

209

Three-dimensional image registration of MR proximal femur images for the analysis of trabecular bone parameters  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the feasibility of automatic image registration of MR high-spatial resolution proximal femur trabecular bone images as well as the effects of gray-level interpolation and volume of interest (VOI) misalignment on MR-derived trabecular bone structure parameters. For six subjects in a short-term study, a baseline scan and a follow-up scan of the proximal femur were acquired on the same day. For ten subjects in a long-term study, a follow-up scan of the proximal femur was acquired 1 year after the baseline. An automatic image registration technique, based on mutual information, utilized a baseline and a follow-up scan to compute transform parameters that aligned the two images. In the short-term study, these parameters were subsequently used to transform the follow-up image with three different gray-level interpolators. Nearest-neighbor interpolation and B-spline approximation did not significantly alter bone parameters, while linear interpolation significantly modified bone parameters (p<0.01). Improvement in image alignment due to the automatic registration for the long-term and short-term study was determined by inspecting difference images and 3D renderings. This work demonstrates the first application of automatic registration, without prior segmentation, of high-spatial resolution trabecular bone MR images of the proximal femur. Additionally, inherent heterogeneity in trabecular bone structure and imprecise positioning of the VOI along the slice (anterior–posterior) direction resulted in significant changes in bone parameters (p<0.01). Results suggest that automatic mutual information registration using B-spline approximation or nearest neighbor gray-level interpolation to transform the final image ensures VOI alignment between baseline and follow-up images and does not compromise the integrity of MR-derived trabecular bone parameters used in this study. PMID:18975709

Blumenfeld, Janet; Studholme, Colin; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Carpenter, Dana; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila

2008-01-01

210

Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various {open_quotes}constraint levels{close_quotes} have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the {open_quotes}costs{close_quote} of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria.

Harper, B.L.; Gajewski, S.J.; Glantz, C.L. [and others

1996-09-01

211

3D temporal subtraction on multislice CT images using nonlinear warping technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of very subtle lesions and/or lesions overlapped with vessels on CT images is a time consuming and difficult task for radiologists. In this study, we have developed a 3D temporal subtraction method to enhance interval changes between previous and current multislice CT images based on a nonlinear image warping technique. Our method provides a subtraction CT image which is obtained by subtraction of a previous CT image from a current CT image. Reduction of misregistration artifacts is important in the temporal subtraction method. Therefore, our computerized method includes global and local image matching techniques for accurate registration of current and previous CT images. For global image matching, we selected the corresponding previous section image for each current section image by using 2D cross-correlation between a blurred low-resolution current CT image and a blurred previous CT image. For local image matching, we applied the 3D template matching technique with translation and rotation of volumes of interests (VOIs) which were selected in the current and the previous CT images. The local shift vector for each VOI pair was determined when the cross-correlation value became the maximum in the 3D template matching. The local shift vectors at all voxels were determined by interpolation of shift vectors of VOIs, and then the previous CT image was nonlinearly warped according to the shift vector for each voxel. Finally, the warped previous CT image was subtracted from the current CT image. The 3D temporal subtraction method was applied to 19 clinical cases. The normal background structures such as vessels, ribs, and heart were removed without large misregistration artifacts. Thus, interval changes due to lung diseases were clearly enhanced as white shadows on subtraction CT images.

Ishida, Takayuki; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Kawashita, Ikuo; Kim, Hyounseop; Itai, Yoshinori; Awai, Kazuo; Li, Qiang; Doi, Kunio

2007-03-01

212

Experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT using digital beam attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tailoring CT scan acquisition parameters to individual patients is a topic of much research in the CT imaging community. It is now common place to find automatically adjusted tube current options for modern CT scanners. In addition, the use of beam shaping filters, commonly called bowtie filters, is available on most CT systems and allows for different body regions to receive different incident x-ray fluence distributions. However, no method currently exists which allows for the form of the incident x-ray fluence distribution to change as a function of the view angle. This study represents the first experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) for a c-arm geometry CT scan. X-ray fluence modulation is accomplished using a digital beam attenuator (DBA). The device is composed of ten iron wedge pairs that modulate the thickness of iron, the x-rays must traverse before reaching a patient. Using this device, experimental data was taken using a Siemens Zeego c-arm scanner. Scans were performed on a cylindrical polyethylene phantom and on two different sections of an anthropomorphic phantom. The DBA was used to equalize the x-ray fluence striking the detector for each scan. Non DBA, or ‘flat field’ scans were also acquired of the same phantom objects for comparison. In addition, a scan was performed in which the DBA was used to enable volume of interest (VOI) imaging. In VOI, only a small sub-volume within a patient receives full dose and the rest of the patient receives a much lower dose. Data corrections unique to using a piece-wise constant modulator were also developed. The feasibility of FFMCT implemented using a DBA device has been demonstrated. Initial results suggest dose reductions of up to 3.6 times relative to ‘flat field’ CT. In addition to dose reduction, the DBA enables a large improvement in image noise uniformity and the ability to provide regionally enhanced signal to noise using VOI imaging techniques. The results presented in this paper take the field of FFMCT from the theoretical stage to that of possible clinical implementation. FFMCT, as shown in this paper, can reduce the patient dose while maintaining or improving image quality. In addition, the DBA has been experimentally shown to be well suited to implement entirely new imaging methods like photon counting and VOI imaging.

Szczykutowicz, T. P.; Mistretta, C. A.

2014-03-01

213

The in-situ effects of soil water potential on Phymatotrichum omnivorum sclerotial formation and germination  

E-print Network

THE IN-SITU EFFECTS OF SOIL WATER POTENTIAL ON PHPPfA TOTRICHMCY1iVI VORLP1 SCLEROT I AL FORMATION AND GERMINATION A Thesis by TIFF LYNN WHITE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A@1 University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Plant Pathology THE IN-SITU EFFECTS OF SOIL WATER POTENTIAL ON PHYLA TOTRICHg1 CYfiVI VOiPLP1 SCLEROT I AL FORMATION AND GERMINAT ION A Thesis by TAMMY LYNN WHITE Approved...

White, Tammy Lynn

2012-06-07

214

Corps étranger métallique inhalé: 36 mois d’évolution intrabronchique chez un enfant de 8 ans  

PubMed Central

Les corps étrangers dans les voies respiratoires constituent une urgence relativement fréquente chez les enfants. Nous présentons ici le cas d'une fillette de 8 ans qui avait inhalé un clou que la radiographie avait localisé dans la bronche droite. L’évolution est marquée par une symptomatologie muette et une migration vers le bas de ce clou. Ne disposant pas d’équipement pour une chirurgie adaptée, le malade vit encore avec ce corps étranger en lui. La nature et l’évolution clinique et paraclinique rapportées ici en constituent l'intérêt. PMID:25422700

Mupepe, Alexis Kumba; Mukuku, Olivier; Bagale, Yves; Ruhindiza, Bienvenu Mukuku

2014-01-01

215

Effects of Reusing Baseline Volumes of Interest by Applying (Non-)Rigid Image Registration on Positron Emission Tomography Response Assessments  

PubMed Central

Objectives Reusing baseline volumes of interest (VOI) by applying non-rigid and to some extent (local) rigid image registration showed good test-retest variability similar to delineating VOI on both scans individually. The aim of the present study was to compare response assessments and classifications based on various types of image registration with those based on (semi)-automatic tumour delineation. Methods Baseline (n?=?13), early (n?=?12) and late (n?=?9) response (after one and three cycles of treatment, respectively) whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans were acquired in subjects with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies. Lesions were identified for early and late response scans. VOI were drawn independently on all scans using an adaptive 50% threshold method (A50). In addition, various types of (non-)rigid image registration were applied to PET and/or CT images, after which baseline VOI were projected onto response scans. Response was classified using PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors for maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), average SUV (SUVmean), peak SUV (SUVpeak), metabolically active tumour volume (MATV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and the area under a cumulative SUV-volume histogram curve (AUC). Results Non-rigid PET-based registration and non-rigid CT-based registration followed by non-rigid PET-based registration (CTPET) did not show differences in response classifications compared to A50 for SUVmax and SUVpeak,, however, differences were observed for MATV, SUVmean, TLG and AUC. For the latter, these registrations demonstrated a poorer performance for small lung lesions (<2.8 ml), whereas A50 showed a poorer performance when another area with high uptake was close to the target lesion. All methods were affected by lesions with very heterogeneous tracer uptake. Conclusions Non-rigid PET- and CTPET-based image registrations may be used to classify response based on SUVmax and SUVpeak. For other quantitative measures future studies should assess which method is valid for response evaluations by correlating with survival data. PMID:24489860

van Velden, Floris H. P.; Nissen, Ida A.; Hayes, Wendy; Velasquez, Linda M.; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Boellaard, Ronald

2014-01-01

216

Cerebral metabolic changes in neurologically presymptomatic patients undergoing haemodialysis: in vivo proton MR spectroscopic findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To prospectively investigate and detect early cerebral metabolic changes in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by\\u000a using in vivo proton MR spectroscopy (MRS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We enrolled 32 patients with ESRD and 32 healthy controls between the ages of 26 and 50 years. Short echo time single-voxel\\u000a proton MRS was acquired from volumes of interest (VOIs) located in the frontal grey and

Ming-Lun Chiu; Chun-Wei Li; Jer-Ming Chang; I-Chan Chiang; Chih-Hung Ko; Hung-Yi Chuang; Reu-Sheng Sheu; Chen-Chang Lee; Tsyh-Jyi Hsieh

2010-01-01

217

Risk estimation and value-of-information analysis for three proposed genetic screening programs for chronic beryllium disease prevention  

SciTech Connect

Genetic differences (polymorphisms) among members of a population are thought to influence susceptibility to various environmental exposures. In practice, however, this information is rarely incorporated into quantitative risk assessment and risk management. The authors describe an analytic framework for predicting the risk reduction and value-of-information (VOI) resulting from specific risk management applications of genetic biomarkers, and they apply the framework to the example of occupational chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an immune-mediated pulmonary granulomatous disease. One described Human Leukocyte Antigen gene variant, HLA-DP{beta}1*0201, contains a substitution of glutamate for lysine at position 69 that appears to have high sensitivity ({approximately}94%) but low specificity ({approximately}70%) with respect to CBD among individuals occupationally exposed to respirable beryllium. The expected postintervention CBD prevalence rates for using the genetic variant (1) as a required job placement screen, (2) as a medical screen for semiannual in place of annual lymphocyte proliferation testing, or (3) as a voluntary job placement screen are 0.08%, 0.8%, and 0.6%, respectively, in a hypothetical cohort with 1% baseline CBD prevalence. VOI analysis is used to examine the reduction in total social cost, calculated as the net value of disease reduction and financial expenditures, expected for proposed CBD intervention programs based on the genetic susceptibility test. For the example cohort the expected net VOI per beryllium worker for genetically based testing and intervention is $13,000, $1,800, and $5,100, respectively, based on a health valuation of $1.45 million per CBD case avoided. VOI results for alternative CBD valuations are also presented. Despite large parameter uncertainty, probabilistic analysis predicts generally positive utility for each of the three evaluated programs when avoidance of a CBD case is valued at $1 million or higher. Although the utility of a proposed risk management program may be evaluated solely in terms of risk reduction and financial costs, decisions about genetic testing and program implementation must also consider serious social, legal, and ethical factors.

Bartell, S.M.; Ponce, R.A.; Takaro, T.K.; Zerbe, R.O.; Omenn, G.S.; Faustman, E.M.

2000-02-01

218

Evaluation of ROI methods for quantitative FDOPA PET images  

SciTech Connect

Issues about the accuracy of region of interest (ROI) definition methods for FDOPA PET studies were investigated. An MRI-based ROI method and manually defined ROI method were compared using a computer simulated brain phantom and four real PET studies. The results indicate the error or discrepancy between MRI-based ROI and manually defined ROI is small ({le} 5%) at different head orientations and different noise levels. The VOI is not sensitive to the orientation, but the mid-plane ROI is also fairly reliable.

Yu, D.C.; Lin, K.P.; Yang, J.; Huang, S.C. [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Biophysics

1995-12-31

219

CO2 Geological Storage Field Development - Application of Baseline, Monitoring and Verification Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creation of a robust Baseline, Monitoring, and Verification (BMV)plan is key to assuring containment integrity in CO2 geological storage projects. A BMV plan has three main aims: Monitor CO2 movement in the subsurface, Calibrate dynamic earth models and finally, Verify volume of stored CO2. Wide ranges of potential BMV technologies available are currently tested in CCS pilots and industrial scale projects. This paper describes how to optimize the BMV plan design by adopting a risk-based approach and how the value of information (VOI) of specific monitoring technologies needs to be assessed to meet program objectives.

Simone, A.; Mackie, E.; Jenvey, N.

2009-04-01

220

ESA's Venus Express to reach final destination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First step: catching Venus To begin to explore our Earth’s hot and hazy sister planet, Venus Express must complete a critical first step, the most challenging one following launch. This involves a set of complex operations and manoeuvres that will inject the spacecraft into orbit. The Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI) manoeuvre allows the spacecraft to reduce its speed relative to Venus, so that it can be captured by the planet’s gravitation. The manoeuvre is a critical one which must proceed at precisely the right place and time. The VOI phase officially started on 4 April and will not be completed until 13 April. It is split into three main sub-phases. The first consists in preparing or initialising the spacecraft for the actual capture manoeuvre so as to avoid the risk of the spacecraft going into safe mode, should parameters unrelated to VOI go off-range. The capture manoeuvre itself consists of a main-engine burn lasting about 50 minutes on the morning of 11 April starting at 09:17 (Central European Summer Time). This is the second main VOI sub-phase. The final sub-phase will be restoring all spacecraft functions, notably resuming communications with Earth and uplinking the commands to be executed during the preliminary ‘capture’ orbit. Orbital capture is controlled by an automatic sequence of predefined commands, uploaded to the spacecraft four days prior to VOI. This sequence is the minimum set needed to perform the main-engine burn. All spacecraft operations are controlled and commanded by the ground control team located at ESA’s European Spacecraft Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany. Timeeline of major VOI events (some times subject to change) 4 Aprilacecraft transmitter connected to low gain antenna is switched on. During its interplanetary cruise and during the scientific part of the mission to come, Venus Express communicates with Earth by means of its two high gain antennas. However, during the orbit capture phase (11 April), these two antennas become unusable because of the spacecraft’s required orientation at that time. The low gain antenna, carrying a feeble but instantly recognisable signal, will be transmitting throughout all VOI manoeuvres. This will allow ground controllers to monitor the velocity change during the burn, using NASA’s Deep Space Network’s 70-metre antenna near Madrid, Spain. No other means of communication with the Earth is possible during the capture burn. 5 and 9 April, targeting control manoeuvres. Two time slots are available to adjust course if needed. Given the high accuracy of the course correction performed end of March, Venus Express is currently on the right trajectory for a successful capture into orbit and it is therefore unlikely that either of these two extra slots will be required. 10 to 11 April, final preparations for VOI manoeuvre. 24 to 12 hours before VOI, spacecraft controllers will command Venus Express into its final configuration for the burn. Over the final 12 hours, they will monitor its status, ready to deal with any contingencies requiring last-minute trajectory correction or any revising of the main-engine burn duration. 11 April, 08:03 (CEST), ‘slew’ manoeuvre. This manoeuvre lasts about half an hour and rotates Venus Express so that the main engine faces the direction of motion. Thanks to this, the burn will slow down (rather than accelerate) the spacecraft. 11 April, 09:17 (CEST), main-engine burn starts. A few minutes after firing of the spacecraft thrusters to make sure the propellant settles in the feed lines to the main engine, the latter will begin its 50-minute long burn, ending at 10:07. This thrust will reduce the initial velocity of 29 000 kilometres per hour (in relation to Venus) by 15 percent, allowing capture. Venus Express will settle into its preliminary, elongated nine-day orbit. On capture, it will be at about 120 million kilometres from the Earth and, at its nearest point, within 400 km of the surface of Venus. During the burn, at 09:45 (CEST), Venus Express will disappear behind the planet and will not be visi

2006-04-01

221

When is enough evidence enough? - Using systematic decision analysis and value-of-information analysis to determine the need for further evidence.  

PubMed

Decision analysis (DA) and value-of-information (VOI) analysis provide a systematic, quantitative methodological framework that explicitly considers the uncertainty surrounding the currently available evidence to guide healthcare decisions. In medical decision making under uncertainty, there are two fundamental questions: 1) What decision should be made now given the best available evidence (and its uncertainty)?; 2) Subsequent to the current decision and given the magnitude of the remaining uncertainty, should we gather further evidence (i.e., perform additional studies), and if yes, which studies should be undertaken (e.g., efficacy, side effects, quality of life, costs), and what sample sizes are needed? Using the currently best available evidence, VoI analysis focuses on the likelihood of making a wrong decision if the new intervention is adopted. The value of performing further studies and gathering additional evidence is based on the extent to which the additional information will reduce this uncertainty. A quantitative framework allows for the valuation of the additional information that is generated by further research, and considers the decision maker's objectives and resource constraints. Claxton et al. summarise: "Value of information analysis can be used to inform a range of policy questions including whether a new technology should be approved based on existing evidence, whether it should be approved but additional research conducted or whether approval should be withheld until the additional evidence becomes available." [Claxton K. Value of information entry in Encyclopaedia of Health Economics, Elsevier, forthcoming 2014.] The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce the framework of systematic VoI analysis to guide further research. In our tutorial article, we explain the theoretical foundations and practical methods of decision analysis and value-of-information analysis. To illustrate, we use a simple case example of a foot ulcer (e.g., with diabetes) as well as key references from the literature, including examples for the use of the decision-analytic VoI framework by health technology assessment agencies to guide further research. These concepts may guide stakeholders involved or interested in how to determine whether or not and, if so, which additional evidence is needed to make decisions. PMID:24315327

Siebert, Uwe; Rochau, Ursula; Claxton, Karl

2013-01-01

222

Simulating the contribution of a biospecimen and clinical data repository in a phase II clinical trial: a value of information analysis  

PubMed Central

The potential contributions of a centralized data warehouse or repository in clinical research include the expedited accrual of subjects for phase II trials. Understanding the contribution of data warehouses that integrate clinical, biospecimen, and molecular data for the conduct of clinical trials is essential to inform private and public decisions on resource allocation and investment. We conducted a value of information analysis using data from recent trials at the Moffitt Cancer Center and simulated the potential reductions in trial size due to possible alternative scenarios of expedited accrual. In this study, we compared alternative data sets using a single model to assess VOI. Our findings suggest that the reductions in trial size range from 0% to 43%, depending on the amount of censoring in overall survival. The ability to expedite the accrual of patients for clinical trial studies using large data repositories that store data on inclusion/exclusion criteria and response to standard of care therapies demonstrated significant improvement in reducing the number of subjects needed to achieve similar end-results, as evaluated using VOI analysis with a limited number of parameters and a parsimonious model of OS. PMID:23503303

Craig, Benjamin M.; Han, Gang; Munkin, Murat K.; Fenstermacher, David

2013-01-01

223

Information-theoretic approach for automated white matter fiber tracts reconstruction.  

PubMed

Fiber tracking is the most popular technique for creating white matter connectivity maps from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This approach requires a seeding process which is challenging because it is not clear how and where the seeds have to be placed. On the other hand, to enhance the interpretation of fiber maps, segmentation and clustering techniques are applied to organize fibers into anatomical structures. In this paper, we propose a new approach to automatically obtain bundles of fibers grouped into anatomical regions. This method applies an information-theoretic split-and-merge algorithm that considers fractional anisotropy and fiber orientation information to automatically segment white matter into volumes of interest (VOIs) of similar FA and eigenvector orientation. For each VOI, a number of planes and seeds is automatically placed in order to create the fiber bundles. The proposed approach avoids the need for the user to define seeding or selection regions. The whole process requires less than a minute and minimal user interaction. The agreement between the automated and manual approaches has been measured for 10 tracts in a DTI brain atlas and found to be almost perfect (kappa >?0.8) and substantial (kappa >?0.6). This method has also been evaluated on real DTI data considering 5 tracts. Agreement was substantial (kappa >?0.6) in most of the cases. PMID:22467471

Prados, Ferran; Boada, Imma; Feixas, Miquel; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Blasco, Gerard; Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salvador

2012-07-01

224

Using anisotropic 3D Minkowski functionals for trabecular bone characterization and biomechanical strength prediction in proximal femur specimens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of Anisotropic Minkowski Functionals (AMFs) to capture local anisotropy while evaluating topological properties of the underlying gray-level structures has been previously demonstrated. We evaluate the ability of this approach to characterize local structure properties of trabecular bone micro-architecture in ex vivo proximal femur specimens, as visualized on multi-detector CT, for purposes of biomechanical bone strength prediction. To this end, volumetric AMFs were computed locally for each voxel of volumes of interest (VOI) extracted from the femoral head of 146 specimens. The local anisotropy captured by such AMFs was quantified using a fractional anisotropy measure; the magnitude and direction of anisotropy at every pixel was stored in histograms that served as a feature vectors that characterized the VOIs. A linear multi-regression analysis algorithm was used to predict the failure load (FL) from the feature sets; the predicted FL was compared to the true FL determined through biomechanical testing. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each feature set. The best prediction performance was obtained from the fractional anisotropy histogram of AMF Euler Characteristic (RMSE = 1.01 ± 0.13), which was significantly better than MDCT-derived mean BMD (RMSE = 1.12 ± 0.16, p<0.05). We conclude that such anisotropic Minkowski Functionals can capture valuable information regarding regional trabecular bone quality and contribute to improved bone strength prediction, which is important for improving the clinical assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk.

Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; De, Titas; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Eckstein, Felix; Wismüller, Axel

2014-04-01

225

The Value of Information from a GRACE-Enhanced Drought Severity Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage anomalies derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Data Assimilation System (GRACE-DAS) have been used to enhance the information contained in drought indicators. The potential value of this information is to inform local and regional decisions to improve economic welfare in the face of drought. Based on a characterization of current drought evaluations, a modeling framework has been structured to analyze the contributed value of the Earth observations in the assessment of the onset and duration of droughts and their regional impacts. The analysis focuses on (1) characterizing how GRACE-DAS provides Earth observation information for a drought warning, (2) assessing how a GRACE-DAS-enhanced U.S. Drought Monitor would improve economic outcomes in a region, and (3) applying this enhancement process in a decision framework to illustrate the potential role of GRACE data products in a recent drought and response scenario for a value-of-information (VOI) analysis. The VOI analysis quantifies the relative contribution of enhanced understanding and communication of the societal benefits associated with GRACE Earth observation science. Our emphasis is to illustrate the role of an enhanced National Integrated Drought Information System outlook on three key societal outcomes: effects on particular economic sectors, changes in land management decisions, and reductions in damages to ecosystem services.

Kuwayama, Y.; Bernknopf, R.; Macauley, M.; Brookshire, D.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Rodell, M.

2013-12-01

226

Estimating the benefits of land imagery in environmental applications: a case study in nonpoint source pollution of groundwater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is crucial to a more complete assessment of the cumulative, landscape-level effect of agricultural land use and land cover on environmental quality. If this improved assessment yields a net social benefit, then that benefit reflects the value of information (VOI) from MRLI. Environmental quality and the capacity to provide ecosystem services evolve because of human actions, changing natural conditions, and their interaction with natural physical processes. The human actions, in turn, are constrained and redirected by many institutions and regulations such as agricultural, energy, and environmental policies. We present a general framework for bringing together sociologic, biologic, physical, hydrologic, and geologic processes at meaningful scales to interpret environmental implications of MRLI applications. We set out a specific application using MRLI observations to identify crop planting patterns and thus estimate surface management activities that influence groundwater resources over a regional landscape. We tailor the application to the characteristics of nonpoint source groundwater pollution hazards in Iowa to illustrate a general framework in a land use-hydrologic-economic system. In the example, MRLI VOI derives from reducing the risk of both losses to agricultural production and damage to human health and other consequences of contaminated groundwater.

Bernknopf, Richard L.; Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Mishra, Shruti K.

2012-01-01

227

Effects of Metformin on the Cerebral Metabolic Changes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

Metformin, a widely used antidiabetic drug, has numerous effects on human metabolism. Based on emerging cellular, animal, and epidemiological studies, we hypothesized that metformin leads to cerebral metabolic changes in diabetic patients. To explore metabolism-influenced foci of brain, we used 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography for type 2 diabetic patients taking metformin (MET, n = 18), withdrawing from metformin (wdMET, n = 13), and not taking metformin (noMET, n = 9). Compared with the noMET group, statistical parametric mapping showed that the MET group had clusters with significantly higher metabolism in right temporal, right frontal, and left occipital lobe white matter and lower metabolism in the left parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In volume of interest (VOI-) based group comparisons, the normalized FDG uptake values of both hypermetabolic and hypometabolic clusters were significantly different between groups. The VOI-based correlation analysis across the MET and wdMET groups showed a significant negative correlation between normalized FDG uptake values of hypermetabolic clusters and metformin withdrawal durations and a positive but nonsignificant correlation in the turn of hypometabolic clusters. Conclusively, metformin affects cerebral metabolism in some white matter and semantic memory related sites in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24782665

Huang, Yung-Cheng; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Lin, Wei-Che; Yin, Tang-Kai; Huang, Chi-Wei; Wang, Pei-Wen; Chang, Han-Hsuan

2014-01-01

228

A homogeneous superconducting magnet design using a hybrid optimization algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper employs a hybrid optimization algorithm with a combination of linear programming (LP) and nonlinear programming (NLP) to design the highly homogeneous superconducting magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The whole work is divided into two stages. The first LP stage provides a global optimal current map with several non-zero current clusters, and the mathematical model for the LP was updated by taking into account the maximum axial and radial magnetic field strength limitations. In the second NLP stage, the non-zero current clusters were discretized into practical solenoids. The superconducting conductor consumption was set as the objective function both in the LP and NLP stages to minimize the construction cost. In addition, the peak-peak homogeneity over the volume of imaging (VOI), the scope of 5 Gauss fringe field, and maximum magnetic field strength within superconducting coils were set as constraints. The detailed design process for a dedicated 3.0 T animal MRI scanner was presented. The homogeneous magnet produces a magnetic field quality of 6.0 ppm peak-peak homogeneity over a 16 cm by 18 cm elliptical VOI, and the 5 Gauss fringe field was limited within a 1.5 m by 2.0 m elliptical region.

Ni, Zhipeng; Wang, Qiuliang; Liu, Feng; Yan, Luguang

2013-12-01

229

Mesiotemporal Volume Loss Associated with Disorder Severity: A VBM Study in Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Results of MRI volumetry in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are inconsistent. Some, but not all, studies reported decreased hippocampus, amygdala, and/or prefrontal volumes. In the current study, we used rater-independent voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 33 female BPD patients and 33 healthy women. We measured gray matter (GM) volumes of the whole brain and of three volumes of interest (VOI), i.e., the hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC). Analyses were conducted using lifetime diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MD) as covariates. We used adversive childhood experiences and the numbers of BPD criteria (as an indicator of disorder severity) to investigate associations with GM volumes. We did not find volume differences between BPD patients and healthy subject, neither of the whole brain nor of the three VOIs, independent of presence or absence of comorbid PTSD and MD. We also did not find a relationship between childhood maltreatment and the patients’ brain volumes. However, within the patient group, the number of BPD criteria fulfilled was inversely correlated with left hippocampal/parahippocampal volume (x=-32, y=-23, z=-18, k=496, t=5.08, p=.007). Consequently, mesiotemporal GM volumes do not seem to differentiate patients from healthy subjects, but might be associated with symptom severity within the BPD group. PMID:24367606

Beblo, Thomas; Mertens, Markus; Kurlandchikov, Oleg; Bien, Christian G.; Driessen, Martin; Woermann, Friedrich G.

2013-01-01

230

Scalable active learning for multiclass image classification.  

PubMed

Machine learning techniques for computer vision applications like object recognition, scene classification, etc., require a large number of training samples for satisfactory performance. Especially when classification is to be performed over many categories, providing enough training samples for each category is infeasible. This paper describes new ideas in multiclass active learning to deal with the training bottleneck, making it easier to train large multiclass image classification systems. First, we propose a new interaction modality for training which requires only yes-no type binary feedback instead of a precise category label. The modality is especially powerful in the presence of hundreds of categories. For the proposed modality, we develop a Value-of-Information (VOI) algorithm that chooses informative queries while also considering user annotation cost. Second, we propose an active selection measure that works with many categories and is extremely fast to compute. This measure is employed to perform a fast seed search before computing VOI, resulting in an algorithm that scales linearly with dataset size. Third, we use locality sensitive hashing to provide a very fast approximation to active learning, which gives sublinear time scaling, allowing application to very large datasets. The approximation provides up to two orders of magnitude speedups with little loss in accuracy. Thorough empirical evaluation of classification accuracy, noise sensitivity, imbalanced data, and computational performance on a diverse set of image datasets demonstrates the strengths of the proposed algorithms. PMID:22997129

Joshi, Ajay J; Porikli, Fatih; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos P

2012-11-01

231

Elaboration d'un dosimetre a fibres scintillantes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le but de ce travail est de developper un dosimetre constitue d'une matrice de petits scintillateurs plastiques. Ce dosimetre doit presenter une bonne precision et reproductibilite pour satisfaire aux exigences imposees par des techniques de radiotherapie de pointe comme la radiotherapie d'intensite modulee, la radiochirurgie et la tomotherapie. Le desavantage majeur de cette forme de dosimetrie est la presence de bruit produit par l'effet de la radiation sur la fibre optique transportant la lumiere de scintillation jusqu'au photodetecteur. Pour en reduire l'impact, une etude approfondie des dosimetres a scintillation a ete effectuee. Commencant par une modelisation theorique de la collecte et du guidage lumineux, ce travail a ete suivi d'une comparaison experimentale de plusieurs scintillateurs plastiques, de methodes de couplage, de photodetecteurs et de techniques de filtrage. Ces etudes ont permis de choisir les fibres scintillantes pour leur gain de signal de 50% relativement aux autres scintillateurs plastiques. La camera CCD est le photodetecteur le plus adapte pour ce projet etant donne une sensibilite et une stabilite suffisantes, une capacite d'evaluer 3000 signaux dosimetriques simultanement et un systeme de separation chromatique. Apres la selection des meilleures composantes, un dosimetre a ete developpe pour etudier la performance des techniques de filtrage. Il a ete demontre que, apres utilisation du meilleur filtrage, une precision superieure a 1% pouvait etre atteinte. Un dosimetre a trois detecteurs de volumes differents (0,0014, 0,0034 et 0,0083 cm 3) a demontre une linearite face a des taux de doses allant de 10 a 600 cGy/min et pour des temps d'integration entre 0,05 et 50 s. Une reproductibilite superieure a 1% a ete observee pour des doses minimales de 45, 35 et 20 cGy respectivement pour le petit, le moyen et le grand detecteur. Une matrice de 10 detecteurs espaces de 5 mm sur une ligne a ensuite ete realisee. Ce dosimetre s'est montre adapte pour l'evaluation precise et rapide de patrons de doses. Meme si un modele abordable de camera CCD a ete utilise, il a ete possible de developper un dosimetre precis, reproductible et de haute resolution spatiale possedant les excellentes proprietes des scintillateurs plastiques.

Archambault, Louis

232

Young adults with head and neck cancer express increased susceptibility to mutagen-induced chromosome damage  

SciTech Connect

Factors that contribute to an increased prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract among young adults in the United States remain unknown. A potential etiologic factor may relate to a genetically controlled sensitivity to environmental carcinogens. This study, therefore, examined 20 young adult patients who had squamous cell carcinoma for mutagen-induced chromosome sensitivity. Lymphocytes from respective patients were cultured, exposed to the clastogen bleomycin, arrested during metaphase, and examined quantitatively for chromosome breakage. The young adult population with squamous cell carcinoma expressed a significantly increased number of bleomycin-induced chromosome breaks per cell. Furthermore, among the study patients, chromosome sensitivity was most apparent in the non-tobacco users and in patients less than 30 years of age. The expression of such chromosome fragility following mutagen exposure should be considered in epidemiologic studies that intend to define risk factors for development of head and neck cancer.

Schantz, S.P.; Hsu, T.C.; Ainslie, N.; Moser, R.P. (Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA))

1989-12-15

233

Spindle cell carcinoma of the gingiva: A rare occurrence  

PubMed Central

Of the many neoplasms known, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common to affect the oral cavity. Spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC) is considered a rare high malignant variant of SCC occurring predominantly in the upper aerodigestive tract. Soft-tissue spindle cell neoplasms are quite uncommon in the oral cavity reportedly accounting for lesser than 1% of all tumors in the oral region. Our case shows an unusual presentation of SpCC involving the mandibular gingiva in a 46-year-old smoker patient, which presented as a firm, erythematous swelling with surface necrosis. An incisional biopsy was performed for microscopic evaluation to confirm the clinical diagnosis and for treatment planning. PMID:24403796

Ramamurti, Anjana; Venkataraman, Madhumathi; Narasimhan, Malathi; Rao, Suresh Ranga

2013-01-01

234

Argon laser and soft tissue interaction  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of the argon laser with the mucous membrane of the upper aerodigestive tract was studied. The advantages of the argon laser are a small spot that can be varied in size and intensity, selective vascular absorption, the capability of being incorporated into a flexible delivery system, and a coincident aiming beam. The acute soft tissue effects are characterized by subepithelial extension, with a variable delayed reaction between the application of the laser and a detectable break in the epithelium. Postoperative edema persisted, with an increase in the lateral spread of the lesion over 3 days and an acute inflammatory reaction extending over 7 days. By 21 days the lesions were reepithelialized and healed, but their width was 30% greater than the original defect. The unpredictable interaction with soft tissue, the postoperative edema, and the quality of wound healing are disadvantages. The argon laser appears to have limited clinical potential as a surgical tool for the air and food passages.

Gillis, T.M.; Strong, M.S.; Shapshay, S.M.; Incze, J.; Simpson, G.

1984-02-01

235

Hypoxia Imaging Endoscopy Equipped with Laser Light Source from Preclinical Live Animal Study to First-In-Human Subject Research  

PubMed Central

A goal in next-generation endoscopy is to develop functional imaging techniques to open up new opportunities for cancer diagnosis. Although spatial and temporal information on hypoxia is crucial for understanding cancer physiology and expected to be useful for cancer diagnosis, existing techniques using fluorescent indicators have limitations due to low spatial resolution and invasive administration. To overcome these problems, we developed an imaging technology based on hemoglobin oxygen saturation in both the tumor and surrounding mucosa using a laser endoscope system, and conducted the first human subject research for patients with aero-digestive tract cancer. The oxygen saturation map overlapped the images of cancerous lesions and indicated highly heterogeneous features of oxygen supply in the tumor. The hypoxic region of the tumor surface was found in both early cancer and cancer precursors. This technology illustrates a novel aspect of cancer biology as a potential biomarker and can be widely utilized in cancer diagnosis. PMID:24915532

Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Takaaki; Yano, Tomonori; Oono, Yasuhiro; Ikematsu, Hiroaki; Nomura, Shogo; Sato, Akihiro; Kojima, Motohiro; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Ochiai, Atsushi

2014-01-01

236

Quality of life in relation to upper and lower respiratory conditions among retired 9\\/11-exposed firefighters with pulmonary disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and World Trade Center (WTC) cough syndrome conditions in male firefighters\\u000a who retired due to a 9\\/11-related pulmonary disability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From 3\\/1\\/2008 to 1\\/31\\/2009, we contacted 275 disability-retired firefighters and compared their HRQoL and current aerodigestive\\u000a conditions to those from WTC-exposed non-disabled retired and active firefighters. Relationships between HRQoL and explanatory\\u000a variable(s) were examined

Amy Berninger; Mayris P. Webber; Jessica Weakley; Jackson Gustave; Rachel Zeig-Owens; Roy Lee; Fairouz Al-Othman; Hillel W. Cohen; Kerry Kelly; David J. Prezant

2010-01-01

237

Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging.  

PubMed

Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2012-10-01

238

Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging  

PubMed Central

Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

2012-01-01

239

Ablation of dermal and mucosal lesions with a new CO2 laser application system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser treatment of skin changes has become common practice in recent years. The high absorption of the wavelength of the carbon-dioxide laser (10600 nm) is responsible for its low penetration depth in biological tissue. Shortening the exposure time minimizes thermic side effects such as carbonization and coagulation. This effect can be achieved with the SilkTouchTM scanner 767, since the focused laser beam is moved over a defined area by rapidly rotating mirrors. This enables controlled and reliable removal of certain dermal lesions, particularly hypertrophic scars, scars after common acne, wrinkles, rhinophyma and benign neoplasms like verruca vulgaris. Cosmetically favorable reepithelialization of the lasered surfaces results within a very short period of time. Benign mucosal changes of the upper aerodigestive tract can also be treated. Ablation is less traumatic for papillomas, fibromas, hyperplasias in the area of Waldeyer's tonsillar ring and certain laryngotracheal pathologies. Clinical examples demonstrate the advantages of this new mode of application.

Jovanovic, Sergije; Sedlmaier, Benedikt W.; Fuehrer, Ariane

1997-05-01

240

Revisiting the association between candidal infection and carcinoma, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Tobacco and alcohol are risk factors associated with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, but increasingly the role of infection and chronic inflammation is recognized as being significant in cancer development. Bacteria, particularly Helicobacter pylori, and viruses such as members of the human papilloma virus family and hepatitis B and C are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. There is less evidence for an association between fungi and cancer, although it has been recognized for many years that white patches on the oral mucosa, which are infected with Candida, have a greater likelihood of undergoing malignant transformation than those that are not infected. Objective This article reviews the association between the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic candidal infection and describes mechanisms that may be involved in Candida-associated malignant transformation. PMID:21523221

Mohd Bakri, Marina; Mohd Hussaini, Haizal; Rachel Holmes, Ann; David Cannon, Richard; Mary Rich, Alison

2010-01-01

241

Effects of radiation and chemical exposures on cancer mortality among Rocketdyne workers: a review of three cohort studies.  

PubMed

The purpose of the UCLA Rocketdyne Study was to estimate the effects of occupational exposures to low-level ionizing radiation and selected chemicals on cancer mortality among nuclear and aerospace workers who were employed at Rocketdyne/Atomics International between 1950 and 1993. The results of this retrospective cohort study suggest that: (1) exposure to external radiation, especially doses greater than 200 mSv, increased the risk of dying from lymphopoietic cancers, lung cancer, and possibly other solid cancers; (2) exposure to internal radiation increased the risk of dying from lymphopoietic cancers and upper-aerodigestive-tract cancers; and (3) exposure to hydrazine or other chemicals associated with the same jobs at rocket-engine test stands increased the risk of dying from lung cancer and possibly other cancers. PMID:11319049

Morgenstern, H; Ritz, B

2001-01-01

242

Migration of a swallowed blunt foreign body to the neck.  

PubMed

Ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem in the otolaryngology practice. Reports of extraluminal migration of the foreign bodies from the upper aerodigestive tract are rare. Penetration and extraluminal migration of ingested foreign bodies may cause severe vascular and suppurative complications, even death. We report a 4-year-old girl who presented with a mass and partial extrusion of a foreign body in the neck. She had a history of ingesting the plastic top piece of a knitting needle approximately 1 year ago. She had been asymptomatic until the present time. The examination revealed a red, blunt, rectangular plastic foreign body half embedded in the skin of the right neck. Esophagography with barium swallow, cervical X-rays, and computed tomography scans were obtained. The foreign body was easily removed under general anesthesia. Primary closure and direct laryngoscopy was also performed. The patient recovered very well without any complications. PMID:24592347

Ozturk, Kerem; Turhal, Goksel; Gode, Sercan; Yavuzer, Atilla

2014-01-01

243

Migration of a Swallowed Blunt Foreign Body to the Neck  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem in the otolaryngology practice. Reports of extraluminal migration of the foreign bodies from the upper aerodigestive tract are rare. Penetration and extraluminal migration of ingested foreign bodies may cause severe vascular and suppurative complications, even death. We report a 4-year-old girl who presented with a mass and partial extrusion of a foreign body in the neck. She had a history of ingesting the plastic top piece of a knitting needle approximately 1 year ago. She had been asymptomatic until the present time. The examination revealed a red, blunt, rectangular plastic foreign body half embedded in the skin of the right neck. Esophagography with barium swallow, cervical X-rays, and computed tomography scans were obtained. The foreign body was easily removed under general anesthesia. Primary closure and direct laryngoscopy was also performed. The patient recovered very well without any complications. PMID:24592347

Ozturk, Kerem; Turhal, Goksel; Gode, Sercan; Yavuzer, Atilla

2014-01-01

244

Confocal laser endomicroscopy for non-invasive head and neck cancer imaging: a comprehensive review.  

PubMed

Histological assessment is an essential tool in the diagnosis and guidance of the treatment of various diseases, in particular cancer, of the head and neck. Recent major advances in optical imaging techniques have made it possible to acquire high-resolution in vivo images at the cellular scale. Confocal endomicroscopy is a non-invasive technique, which can be highly useful whenever meaningful in situ histological information is required. The technical aspects of confocal endomicroscopy are introduced, followed by an overview of major clinical studies in the field of head and neck cancer. Ongoing technical developments, contributing to improvements in imaging of the upper aero-digestive tract, are also discussed. Finally, the potential complementarities of functional and molecular imaging, as compared to morphological endomicroscopy, are highlighted. PMID:24932530

Abbaci, Muriel; Breuskin, Ingrid; Casiraghi, Odile; De Leeuw, Frederic; Ferchiou, Malek; Temam, Stephane; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne

2014-08-01

245

Hypoxia imaging endoscopy equipped with laser light source from preclinical live animal study to first-in-human subject research.  

PubMed

A goal in next-generation endoscopy is to develop functional imaging techniques to open up new opportunities for cancer diagnosis. Although spatial and temporal information on hypoxia is crucial for understanding cancer physiology and expected to be useful for cancer diagnosis, existing techniques using fluorescent indicators have limitations due to low spatial resolution and invasive administration. To overcome these problems, we developed an imaging technology based on hemoglobin oxygen saturation in both the tumor and surrounding mucosa using a laser endoscope system, and conducted the first human subject research for patients with aero-digestive tract cancer. The oxygen saturation map overlapped the images of cancerous lesions and indicated highly heterogeneous features of oxygen supply in the tumor. The hypoxic region of the tumor surface was found in both early cancer and cancer precursors. This technology illustrates a novel aspect of cancer biology as a potential biomarker and can be widely utilized in cancer diagnosis. PMID:24915532

Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Takaaki; Yano, Tomonori; Oono, Yasuhiro; Ikematsu, Hiroaki; Nomura, Shogo; Sato, Akihiro; Kojima, Motohiro; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Ochiai, Atsushi

2014-01-01

246

Basaloid squamous cell carcimoma: A rare case report with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a distinct variant of conventional squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), predominantly localized in the upper aerodigestive tract. In the head and neck region, the tumor has a strong predilection for extra-laryngeal sites, such as the base of the tongue, tonsil, hypopharynx and supraglottic larynx. BSCC has well-defined histological features, characterized by nesting, lobular and trabecular arrangement of basaloid cells. Central comedonecrosis within the cell nests, cells with nuclear palisading and high-grade dysplasia in overlying mucosa are the main characteristics. The tumor is considered to be highly aggressive and often presents itself as an advanced stage lesion, thus demanding early diagnosis and prompt treatment. We here report a case of 72-year-old male diagnosed with BSCC involving the right tonsillar region.

Shivakumar, BN; Dash, Bishwajeet; Sahu, Anshuta; Nayak, Barakha

2014-01-01

247

Comparison of PET/CT with conventional imaging modalities (USG, CECT) in evaluation of N0 neck in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Evaluation of a clinically N0 neck is mandatory in cases of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck region in order to determine the need to address the neck. The study was designed to compare the accuracy of PET/CT scan with that of USG and CECT Neck in assessing clinically N0 neck in cases of squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract. Methods Single center, prospective, study over a 2 year period. All Cases of squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract with no palpable neck lymphadenopathy and who were scheduled for surgery were evaluated with USG, CECT and 18F-FDG PET/CT, of the neck. Post operative histopathology was correlated with pre-operative nodal status. Statistical analysis was done using the chi square test. Results In the 49 patients enrolled, 51 neck sides underwent dissections. Sensitivity of USG, CECT and PET-CT was 4.76%, 23.80% and 71.43% respectively while the specificity was 93.33%, 93.33% and 96.67% respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) calculated for USG, CECT and PET-CT was 33.33%, 71%, 93.5% respectively while the negative predictive value (NPV) 58.33%, 63.63% and 82.85% respectively. Conclusions In N0 neck in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, though FDG-PET-CT is more accurate than either USG or CECT in staging of the neck, it is not accurate enough to alter the current treatment paradigm. PMID:24532898

Chauhan, Ashutosh; Kulshrestha, Pranjal; Kapoor, Sanjay; Singh, Harkirat; Jacob, M.J.; Patel, Maneel; Ganguly, Manomoy

2012-01-01

248

The effects of internal radiation exposure on cancer mortality in nuclear workers at Rocketdyne/Atomics International.  

PubMed Central

We examined the effects of chronic exposure to radionuclides, primarily uranium and mixed-fission products, on cancer mortality in a retrospective cohort study of workers enrolled in the radiation-monitoring program of a nuclear research and development facility. Between 1950 and 1994, 2,297 workers were monitored for internal radiation exposures, and 441 workers died, 134 (30.4%) of them from cancer as the underlying cause. We calculated internal lung-dose estimates based on urinalysis and whole-body and lung counts reported for individual workers. We examined cancer mortality of workers exposed at different cumulative lung-dose levels using complete risk-set analysis for cohort data, adjusting for age, pay type, time since first radiation monitored, and external radiation. In addition, we examined the potential for confounding due to chemical exposures and smoking, explored whether external radiation exposure modifies the effects of internal exposure, and estimated effects after excluding exposures likely to have been unrelated to disease onset. Dose-response relations were observed for death from hemato- and lymphopoietic cancers and from upper aerodigestive tract cancers, adjusting for age, time since first monitored, pay type, and external (gamma) radiation dose. No association was found for other cancers, including cancers of the lung. Despite the small number of exposed deaths from specific cancer types and possible bias due to measurement error and confounding, the positive findings and strong dose-response gradients observed suggest carcinogenic effects of internal radiation to the upper aerodigestive tract and the blood and lymph system in this occupational cohort. However, causal inferences require replication of our results in other populations or confirmation with an extended follow-up of this cohort. PMID:10964795

Ritz, B; Morgenstern, H; Crawford-Brown, D; Young, B

2000-01-01

249

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): is there more to the story?  

PubMed

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) affects both men and women worldwide, with the most common symptom of GERD being frequent heartburn. If left untreated, more serious diseases including esophagitis and/or esophageal cancer may result. GERD has been commonly held to be the result of gastric acid refluxing into the esophagus. Recent work, however, has shown that there are acid-producing cells in the upper aerodigestive tract. In addition, acid-producing bacteria located within the upper gastrointestinal tract and oral cavity may also be a contributing factor in the onset of GERD. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly prescribed for treating GERD; these drugs are designed to stop the production of gastric acid by shutting down the H(+)/K(+)-ATPase enzyme located in parietal cells. PPI treatment is systemic and therefore significantly different than traditional antacids. Although a popular treatment choice, PPIs exhibit substantial interpatient variability and commonly fail to provide a complete cure to the disease. Recent studies have shown that H(+)/K(+)-ATPases are expressed in tissues outside the stomach, and the effects of PPIs in these nongastric tissues have not been fully explored. Likewise, acid-producing bacteria containing proton pumps are present in both the oral cavity and esophagus, and PPI use may also adversely affect these bacteria. The use of PPI therapy is further complicated by the two philosophical approaches to treating this disease: to treat only symptoms or to treat continuously. The latter approach frequently results in unwanted side effects which may be due to the PPIs acting on nongastric tissues or the microbes which colonize the upper aerodigestive tract. PMID:18076011

Vesper, Benjamin J; Altman, Kenneth W; Elseth, Kim M; Haines, G Kenneth; Pavlova, Sylvia I; Tao, Lin; Tarjan, Gabor; Radosevich, James A

2008-04-01

250

Consumption of alcohol and risk of cancer among men: a 30 year cohort study in Lithuania.  

PubMed

Studies have indicated hazardous consumption of large quantities of alcohol among adults in Lithuania. We assessed the associations of alcohol consumption at baseline with cancer incidence among men in a population-based cohort study, using Cox models adjusted for smoking, education and body mass index. Attained age was used as a time-scale. During follow-up (1978-2008) 1,698 men developed cancer. A higher amount of alcohol consumption (?140.1 g/week vs. 0.1-10.0 g/week) was positively associated with increased risk of total cancer [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 1.11, 1.65], upper aerodigestive tract cancer (HR = 2.79, 95 % CI 1.23, 6.34) and alcohol-related cancers (i.e. oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, colorectal and liver cancer) (HR = 1.88, 95 % CI 1.25, 2.85). Compared to occasional drinkers (a few times/year), drinkers 2-7 times/week showed an increased risk of total (HR = 1.45, 95 % CI 1.16, 1.83), alcohol-related (HR = 1.83 95 % CI 1.14, 2.93) and other cancers (HR = 1.35, 95 % CI 1.04, 1.76). Our results showed no statistically significant associations between quantity of alcohol intake per one occasion and risk of cancer. About 13 % of total, 35 % of upper aerodigestive tract, 22 % of alcohol-related and 10 % of other cancer cases were due to alcohol consumption in this cohort of men. PMID:23700027

Everatt, Ruta; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Virviciute, Dalia; Kuzmickiene, Irena; Reklaitiene, Regina

2013-05-01

251

Mucosal swabs detect HPV in laryngeal papillomatosis patients but not family members.  

PubMed

Seven patients, aged 2-7 years, with active recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) attending the University of Michigan Pediatric Otolaryngology Clinic were studied to determine if human papillomavirus (HPV) is harbored in sites of the upper aerodigestive tract other than in the laryngeal papilloma itself. We also determined if close family members had detectable virus in their oral cavities. Noninvasive swabs of buccal mucosa, posterior pharynx, nasal vestibule, and tonsillar pillar of patients, as well as buccal mucosa and posterior pharyngeal swabs of family members were studied. Swabs of the patients' papillomas served as the positive controls. HPV was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Southern hybridization techniques. Six of seven patients had detectable HPV in papilloma and endolaryngeal swabs. Four were HPV type 6, and two were HPV type 11. The patient whose swab was negative for HPV was found to be biopsy negative for papilloma 3 weeks after a single laser excision which was performed 6 months prior to the endolaryngeal swab. HPV types 16, 18 and 31 were not found in any of the patients. No swabs from other sites in patients or family members were HPV positive despite the presence of adequate DNA in the swabbed material for successful amplification of beta-actin sequences. The absence of HPV (other than in the papilloma itself) in the upper aerodigestive tract of patients and caregivers is consistent with the absence of reported cases of horizontal transmission to siblings or other family members. The findings are also consistent with the conventional view that juvenile respiratory HPV is transmitted vertically from vaginal condylomas in the mother. PMID:10906514

Sun, J D; Weatherly, R A; Koopmann, C F; Carey, T E

2000-06-30

252

Design and fabrication of intake manifold for formula SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) race car  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, a group of students from Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) in Montreal design and build a formula-type race car and compete in the Formula SAE competition. In this paper, we examine the design and fabrication of the ir intake system, A number of constraints challenge the designers. For example, to ensure the security of amateur drivers, motors are restrained to 600 cc and a circular restriction of 20 mm in diameter is placed at the entry of the system. Under these conditions, it is important to optimize the quality of the air/fuel mixture which depends mostly on the air intake system. A theoretical analysis reduced the field of possible runner length. However, the influence of runner configuration, plenum shape and size can only be determined experimentally. Polyacrylic functional prototypes were produced and tested on a dynamometric bench. A stereolithography model representing the inner passageways of the optimal intake manifold was built and used as a positive for a polyurethane mold. A composite lamination process was used to laminate the pre-production prototype over a molded wax plug. The major advantage of this approach over craftsmanship or even machining is the time saved to make the mold and the unlimited complexity of the shape permitted by the rapid prototyping systems.

Dore, Sylvie; Lavallee, Patrice

1997-01-01

253

Developpement d'un modele zonal pour la simulation thermo-aeraulique des batiments multizones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis focuses on modeling of thermal movements and air quality inside buildings using the Euler equations. The main objective is to compare the numerical results obtained with the Euler model (inviscid model) to a model based on Navier-Stokes equations (viscous model) for different scenarios of heating, ventilation and air conditioning. To achieve this aim, this study is divided into three parts. The first part presents the results of a two-dimensional study which contains two scenarios: heating by natural convection and ventilation by the floor. The second part of the thesis is a three-dimensional study for evaluation of flow velocities, temperatures and thermal comfort indices PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) and PPD (Percentage of Dissatisfied Persons) for two cases of simulation: heating and ventilation by the floor and an air conditioning case. Numerical results from the two previously described parts of this thesis were compared to experimental measurements; performed in a model room situated at the center of thermal technology (CTT) at the Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS). The last part of the present thesis is dedicated, first, to study the dispersion of a contaminant gas (SF6) in a ventilated room using two ventilation strategies. Finally, the Euler model's ability to determine the field velocity, temperature and local concentration of a contaminant gases is verified through a simple multizone modeling.

Chafi, Fatima Zohra

254

Construction and Evaluation of Quantitative Small-Animal PET Probabilistic Atlases for [18F]FDG and [18F]FECT Functional Mapping of the Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

Automated voxel-based or pre-defined volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis of small-animal PET data in mice is necessary for optimal information usage as the number of available resolution elements is limited. We have mapped metabolic ([18F]FDG) and dopamine transporter ([18F]FECT) small-animal PET data onto a 3D Magnetic Resonance Microscopy (MRM) mouse brain template and aligned them in space to the Paxinos co-ordinate system. In this way, ligand-specific templates for sensitive analysis and accurate anatomical localization were created. Next, using a pre-defined VOI approach, test-retest and intersubject variability of various quantification methods were evaluated. Also, the feasibility of mouse brain statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was explored for [18F]FDG and [18F]FECT imaging of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned (6-OHDA) mice. Methods Twenty-three adult C57BL6 mice were scanned with [18F]FDG and [18F]FECT. Registrations and affine spatial normalizations were performed using SPM8. [18F]FDG data were quantified using (1) an image-derived-input function obtained from the liver (cMRglc), using (2) standardized uptake values (SUVglc) corrected for blood glucose levels and by (3) normalizing counts to the whole-brain uptake. Parametric [18F]FECT binding images were constructed by reference to the cerebellum. Registration accuracy was determined using random simulated misalignments and vectorial mismatch determination. Results Registration accuracy was between 0.21–1.11 mm. Regional intersubject variabilities of cMRglc ranged from 15.4% to 19.2%, while test-retest values were between 5.0% and 13.0%. For [18F]FECT uptake in the caudate-putamen, these values were 13.0% and 10.3%, respectively. Regional values of cMRglc positively correlated to SUVglc measured within the 45–60 min time frame (spearman r?=?0.71). Next, SPM analysis of 6-OHDA-lesioned mice showed hypometabolism in the bilateral caudate-putamen and cerebellum, and an unilateral striatal decrease in DAT availability. Conclusion MRM-based small-animal PET templates facilitate accurate assessment and spatial localization of mouse brain function using VOI or voxel-based analysis. Regional intersubject- and test-retest variations indicate that for these targets accuracy comparable to humans can be achieved. PMID:23762335

Casteels, Cindy; Vunckx, Kathleen; Aelvoet, Sarah-Ann; Baekelandt, Veerle; Bormans, Guy; Van Laere, Koen; Koole, Michel

2013-01-01

255

An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38.1 billion ±$8.8 billion for that flow of benefits in perpetuity. Given that these economic estimates are derived from one case study in a part of only one State, the estimates provide a lower estimate related to the potential value of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission.

Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

2012-01-01

256

Errors in MR-based attenuation correction for brain imaging with PET/MR scanners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AimAttenuation correction of PET data acquired by hybrid MR/PET scanners remains a challenge, even if several methods for brain and whole-body measurements have been developed recently. A template-based attenuation correction for brain imaging proposed by our group is easy to handle and delivers reliable attenuation maps in a short time. However, some potential error sources are analyzed in this study. We investigated the choice of template reference head among all the available data (error A), and possible skull anomalies of the specific patient, such as discontinuities due to surgery (error B). Materials and methodsAn anatomical MR measurement and a 2-bed-position transmission scan covering the whole head and neck region were performed in eight normal subjects (4 females, 4 males). Error A: Taking alternatively one of the eight heads as reference, eight different templates were created by nonlinearly registering the images to the reference and calculating the average. Eight patients (4 females, 4 males; 4 with brain lesions, 4 w/o brain lesions) were measured in the Siemens BrainPET/MR scanner. The eight templates were used to generate the patients' attenuation maps required for reconstruction. ROI and VOI atlas-based comparisons were performed employing all the reconstructed images. Error B: CT-based attenuation maps of two volunteers were manipulated by manually inserting several skull lesions and filling a nasal cavity. The corresponding attenuation coefficients were substituted with the water's coefficient (0.096/cm). ResultsError A: The mean SUVs over the eight templates pairs for all eight patients and all VOIs did not differ significantly one from each other. Standard deviations up to 1.24% were found. Error B: After reconstruction of the volunteers' BrainPET data with the CT-based attenuation maps without and with skull anomalies, a VOI-atlas analysis was performed revealing very little influence of the skull lesions (less than 3%), while the filled nasal cavity yielded an overestimation in cerebellum up to 5%. ConclusionsThe present error analysis confirms that our template-based attenuation method provides reliable attenuation corrections of PET brain imaging measured in PET/MR scanners.

Rota Kops, Elena; Herzog, Hans

2013-02-01

257

Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.  

SciTech Connect

The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging survivability issues. Our findings indicate that packaging represents the most significant technical challenge associated with application of sensors in the downhole environment for long periods (5+ years) of time. These issues are described in detail within the report. The impact of successful reservoir monitoring programs and coincident improved reservoir management is measured by the production of additional oil and gas volumes from existing reservoirs, revitalization of nearly depleted reservoirs, possible re-establishment of already abandoned reservoirs, and improved economics for all cases. Smart Well monitoring provides the means to understand how a reservoir process is developing and to provide active reservoir management. At the same time it also provides data for developing high-fidelity simulation models. This work has been a joint effort with Sandia National Laboratories and UT-Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, and the Institute of Computational and Engineering Mathematics.

Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

2006-11-01

258

In vivo FID-based 3D Multivoxel Longitudinal Hadamard Spectroscopic Imaging In the Human Brain at 3 T  

PubMed Central

We propose and demonstrate a full 3D longitudinal Hadamard Spectroscopic Imaging (L-HSI) scheme for obtaining chemical shift maps, by employing adiabatic inversion pulses to encode the spins’ positions. The approach offers several advantages over conventional Fourier-based encoding methods, including a localized point spread function; no aliasing, allowing for VOIs smaller than the object being imaged; an option for acquiring non-contiguous voxels; and inherent outer volume rejection. The latter allows for doing away with conventional outer volume suppression schemes, such as PRESS or STEAM, and acquiring non spin-echo spectra with short acquisition delay times, limited only by the excitation pulse’s duration. This, in turn, minimizes T2 decay, maximizes the signal to noise ratio, and reduces J-coupling induced signal decay. Results are presented for both a phantom and an in-vivo healthy volunteer at 3T. PMID:22576419

Tal, Assaf; Goelman, Gadi; Gonen, Oded

2012-01-01

259

Effects of atmospheric conditions and control surface deflections on vortex characteristics  

E-print Network

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Shenkir, Calvin Edward

2012-06-07

260

Mthodes de Monte Carlo en Finance Notes de cours  

E-print Network

des matières 1 Généralités et nombres aléatoires 7 IFI xotions générles F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F U IFP voi uniforme F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F W IFQ eutres lois F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F

Bouchard, Bruno

261

La pr?vention de l'infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial  

PubMed Central

L’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS) est la principale cause d’infection des voies respiratoires inférieures chez les jeunes enfants et pour cette raison, bon nombre des prématurés et des enfants présentant d’autres facteurs de risque doivent être hospitalisés chaque année au Canada. Le palivizumab, un anticorps monoclonal anti-VRS, peut réduire le taux d’hospitalisation et la gravité de la maladie d’un petit groupe de prématurés ou de nourrissons à haut risque pendant leur première saison de VRS. Le présent document de principes contient une analyse des publications ainsi que des recommandations à l’intention des médecins canadiens au sujet de son utilisation chez les prématurés et les autres nourrissons à risque.

Samson, L

2009-01-01

262

Computer determination of bacterial volume  

E-print Network

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Griffis, David William

2012-06-07

263

Role of pharmacoeconomic analysis in R&D decision making: when, where, how?  

PubMed

Pharmacoeconomics is vitally important to drug manufacturers in terms of communicating to external decision-makers (payers, prescribers, patients) the value of their products, achieving regulatory and reimbursement approval and contributing to commercial success. Since development of new drugs is long, costly and risky, and decisions must be made how to allocate considerable research and development (R&D) resources, pharmacoeconomics also has an essential role informing internal decision-making (within a company) during drug development. The use of pharmacoeconomics in early development phases is likely to enhance the efficiency of R&D resource use and also provide a solid foundation for communicating product value to external decision-makers further downstream, increasing the likelihood of regulatory (reimbursement) approval and commercial success. This paper puts the case for use of pharmacoeconomic analyses earlier in the development process and outlines five techniques (clinical trial simulation [CTS], option pricing [OP], investment appraisal [IA], threshold analysis [TA] and value of information [VOI] analysis) that can provide useful input into the design of clinical development programmes, portfolio management and optimal pricing strategy. CTS can estimate efficacy and tolerability profiles before clinical data are available. OP can show the value of different clinical programme designs, sequencing of studies and stop decisions. IA can compare expected net present value (NPV) of different product profiles or study designs. TA can be used to understand development drug profile requirements given partial data. VOI can assist risk management by quantifying uncertainty and assessing the economic viability of gathering further information on the development drug. No amount of pharmacoeconomic data can make a bad drug good; what it can do is enhance the drug developers understanding of the characteristics of that drug. Decision-making, in light of this information, is likely to be better than that without it, whether it leads to faster termination of uneconomic projects or the allocation of more appropriate resources to attractive projects. PMID:15693724

Miller, Paul

2005-01-01

264

Selective coding with controlled quality decay for 2D and 3D images in a JPEG2000 framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents some ideas which extend the functionality and the application fields of a spatially selective coding within a JPEG2000 framework. At first, the image quality drop between the Regions of Interest (ROI) and the background (BG) is considered. In a conventional approach, the reconstructed image quality steeply drops along the ROI boundary; however, this effect could be considered or perceived objectionable in some use cases. A simple quality decay management is proposed here, which makes use of concentric ROI with different scaling factors. This allows the technique to be perfectly consistent with the JPEG2000 part 2 ROI definition and description. Another considered issue is the extension of the selective ROI coding to a 3D Volume of Interest coding. This extension is currently under consideration for the part 10 of JPEG2000, JP3D. An easy and effective 2D to 3D extension for the VOI definition and description is proposed here: a VOI is defined by a set composition of ROI generated solids, where ROI are defined along one or more volume cutting direction, and is described by the relative set of ROI parameters. Moreover, the quality decay management can be applied to this extension. The proposed techniques could have a significant impact on the selective coding of medical images and volumes. Image quality issues are very important but very critical factors in that field, which also constitutes the dominant market for 3D applications. Therefore, some experiments are presented on medical images and volumes in order evaluate the benefits of the proposed approaches in terms of diagnostic quality improvement with respect to a conventional ROI coding usage.

Signoroni, Alberto; Lazzaroni, Fabio; Leonardi, Riccardo

2003-06-01

265

Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [18F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach.

Xiong, Guoming; Cumming, Paul; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

2012-12-01

266

Computerized detection of pulmonary embolism in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA): improvement of vessel segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately when the vessel is occluded by PEs and/or surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases. In this study, we developed a method that combines MHES with level set refinement (MHES-LSR) to improve vessel segmentation accuracy. The level set was designed to propagate the initial object contours to the regions with relatively high gray-level, high gradient, and high compactness as measured by the smoothness of the curvature along vessel boundaries. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOI) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 31.7+/-10.9% using the MHES method to 7.7+/-4.7% using the MHES-LSR method. The correlation between the computer-segmented vessel volume and the reference standard was improved from 0.954 to 0.986. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (p<0.05). The MHES-LSR method may have the potential to improve PE detection.

Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Chughtai, Aamer; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A.

2011-03-01

267

In Vivo Measurement of Brain GABA Concentrations by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Smelters Occupationally Exposed to Manganese  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to excessive levels of manganese (Mn) is known to induce psychiatric and motor disorders, including parkinsonian symptoms. Therefore, finding a reliable means for early detection of Mn neurotoxicity is desirable. Objectives Our goal was to determine whether in vivo brain levels of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and other brain metabolites in male smelters were altered as a consequence of Mn exposure. Methods We used T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize Mn deposition in the brain. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to quantify concentrations of NAA, glutamate, and other brain metabolites in globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, and frontal cortex from a well-established cohort of 10 male Mn-exposed smelters and 10 male age-matched control subjects. We used the MEGA-PRESS MRS sequence to determine GABA levels in a region encompassing the thalamus and adjacent parts of the basal ganglia [GABA-VOI (volume of interest)]. Results Seven of 10 exposed subjects showed clear T1-hyperintense signals in the globus pallidus indicating Mn accumulation. We found a significant increase (82%; p = 0.014) in the ratio of GABA to total creatine (GABA/tCr) in the GABA-VOI of Mn-exposed subjects, as well as a distinct decrease (9%; p = 0.04) of NAA/tCr in frontal cortex that strongly correlated with cumulative Mn exposure (R = ?0.93; p < 0.001). Conclusions We demonstrated elevated GABA levels in the thalamus and adjacent basal ganglia and decreased NAA levels in the frontal cortex, indicating neuronal dysfunction in a brain area not primarily targeted by Mn. Therefore, the noninvasive in vivo MRS measurement of GABA and NAA may prove to be a powerful tool for detecting presymptomatic effects of Mn neurotoxicity. PMID:20876035

Dydak, Ulrike; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Long, Li-Ling; Zhu, He; Chen, Jian; Li, Wen-Mei; Edden, Richard A.E.; Hu, Shuguang; Fu, Xue; Long, Zaiyang; Mo, Xue-An; Meier, Dieter; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Aschner, Michael; Murdoch, James B.; Zheng, Wei

2011-01-01

268

The Prognostic Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE)  

PubMed Central

18F-Fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT can be used to monitor the biological behavior of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Baseline PET/CT has prognostic value in HCC patients, but there is litter knowledge of the PET/CT changes after treatment. We evaluated 27 HCC patients treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) from June 2011 to July 2012, and we investigated the prognostic value of PET/CT. Patients were followed up with regular clinical and laboratory examinations and contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography (CT). Furthermore, PET/CT assessments were collected and analyzed before (range 1~15 d) and after the first month of TACE (range, 27~45d). We tested the prognostic value of the tumor standardized uptake value (TSUV) and normal liver SUV(LSUV) according to the VOI (volume of interest). The SUVs were used to assess the relationship between the treatment response and survival. To assess their prognostic value, we evaluated the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of different SUVs for predicting survival. Finally, the median overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP) for 27 patients were 15.4 months (95%CI, 3.3-27.5 months) and 11.4 months (95%CI, 6.7-16.1 months), respectively. The ?TSUVmax%, based on the VOI, had the highest discriminative prognostic value and the cutoff PET/CT response was 0.1 with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95.2%. The OS was significantly better in the PET/CT response group than in the PET/CT non-response group (p=0.025). In conclusion, an early interim PET/CT after TACE may have prognostic value for HCC patients treated with TACE, and the ?TSUVmax% may help in determining the HCCs viability in patients with high baseline and follow-up18F-FDG uptake. PMID:24883123

Ma, Wenhui; Jia, Jia; Wang, Shengjun; Bai, Wei; Yi, Jingwei; Bai, Ming; Quan, Zhiyong; Yin, Zhanxin; Fan, Daiming; Wang, Jing; Han, Guohong

2014-01-01

269

A Multi-Atlas Based Method for Automated Anatomical Rat Brain MRI Segmentation and Extraction of PET Activity  

PubMed Central

Introduction Preclinical in vivo imaging requires precise and reproducible delineation of brain structures. Manual segmentation is time consuming and operator dependent. Automated segmentation as usually performed via single atlas registration fails to account for anatomo-physiological variability. We present, evaluate, and make available a multi-atlas approach for automatically segmenting rat brain MRI and extracting PET activies. Methods High-resolution 7T 2DT2 MR images of 12 Sprague-Dawley rat brains were manually segmented into 27-VOI label volumes using detailed protocols. Automated methods were developed with 7/12 atlas datasets, i.e. the MRIs and their associated label volumes. MRIs were registered to a common space, where an MRI template and a maximum probability atlas were created. Three automated methods were tested: 1/registering individual MRIs to the template, and using a single atlas (SA), 2/using the maximum probability atlas (MP), and 3/registering the MRIs from the multi-atlas dataset to an individual MRI, propagating the label volumes and fusing them in individual MRI space (propagation & fusion, PF). Evaluation was performed on the five remaining rats which additionally underwent [18F]FDG PET. Automated and manual segmentations were compared for morphometric performance (assessed by comparing volume bias and Dice overlap index) and functional performance (evaluated by comparing extracted PET measures). Results Only the SA method showed volume bias. Dice indices were significantly different between methods (PF>MP>SA). PET regional measures were more accurate with multi-atlas methods than with SA method. Conclusions Multi-atlas methods outperform SA for automated anatomical brain segmentation and PET measure’s extraction. They perform comparably to manual segmentation for FDG-PET quantification. Multi-atlas methods are suitable for rapid reproducible VOI analyses. PMID:25330005

Lancelot, Sophie; Roche, Roxane; Slimen, Afifa; Bouillot, Caroline; Levigoureux, Elise; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Zimmer, Luc; Costes, Nicolas

2014-01-01

270

Cerebellar metabolic involvement and its correlations with clinical parameters in vestibular neuritis.  

PubMed

Although vestibular neuritis (VN) cortical models are described in the literature, there is lack of knowledge regarding the exclusive cerebellar involvement. The aim of the present study was to analyze, by [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computer tomography, regional cerebellar FDG uptake in eight right-handed VN patients (five females; three males; mean age 48 ± 7 years) during the first few days (PET0) and after 1 month (PET1) since symptoms onset. At both phases, patients underwent otoneurological examination and filled in a battery of validated questionnaires. Twenty-six cerebellar volumes of interest (VOI) were identified by the automated anatomical labeling library and normalized to thalamus FDG-PET uptake. Mean intensity within VOIs was calculated in both phases and processed by within-subjects ANOVA. A significantly lower (p < 0.005) FDG uptake distribution was found in bilateral lobules III, VI and X and in vermis 1-2, 3, 6 and 10 at PET0 as compared to PET1 and a significant higher FDG uptake distribution was found in right crus I in the same comparison. Significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations were found between Anxiety and Bucket test scores, and normalized metabolism in right crus I (at PET0) and vermis 10 (at PET1), respectively. A negative correlation was found at PET0 between slow-phase velocity scores and normalized metabolism in right lobule X. These data show relevant changes in the pattern of cerebellar metabolism that might unravel additional central aspects of early and late VN associated to bilateral cortical responses to sensory conflict during the acute VN-related controversial inflow. PMID:25082627

Alessandrini, Marco; Micarelli, Alessandro; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Candidi, Matteo; Bruno, Ernesto; Di Pietro, Barbara; Oberg, Johanna; Schillaci, Orazio; Pagani, Marco

2014-10-01

271

Dissociable Roles of Right Inferior Frontal Cortex and Anterior Insula in Inhibitory Control: Evidence from Intrinsic and Task-Related Functional Parcellation, Connectivity, and Response Profile Analyses across Multiple Datasets.  

PubMed

The right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) and the right anterior insula (rAI) have been implicated consistently in inhibitory control, but their differential roles are poorly understood. Here we use multiple quantitative techniques to dissociate the functional organization and roles of the rAI and rIFC. We first conducted a meta-analysis of 70 published inhibitory control studies to generate a commonly activated right fronto-opercular cortex volume of interest (VOI). We then segmented this VOI using two types of features: (1) intrinsic brain activity; and (2) stop-signal task-evoked hemodynamic response profiles. In both cases, segmentation algorithms identified two stable and distinct clusters encompassing the rAI and rIFC. The rAI and rIFC clusters exhibited several distinct functional characteristics. First, the rAI showed stronger intrinsic and task-evoked functional connectivity with the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas the rIFC had stronger intrinsic and task-evoked functional connectivity with dorsomedial prefrontal and lateral fronto-parietal cortices. Second, the rAI showed greater activation than the rIFC during Unsuccessful, but not Successful, Stop trials, and multivoxel response profiles in the rAI, but not the rIFC, accurately differentiated between Successful and Unsuccessful Stop trials. Third, activation in the rIFC, but not rAI, predicted individual differences in inhibitory control abilities. Crucially, these findings were replicated in two independent cohorts of human participants. Together, our findings provide novel quantitative evidence for the dissociable roles of the rAI and rIFC in inhibitory control. We suggest that the rAI is particularly important for detecting behaviorally salient events, whereas the rIFC is more involved in implementing inhibitory control. PMID:25355218

Cai, Weidong; Ryali, Srikanth; Chen, Tianwen; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Menon, Vinod

2014-10-29

272

Progressive White Matter Microstructure Damage in Male Chronic Heroin Dependent Individuals: A DTI and TBSS Study  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the WM microstructure deficits in heroin dependent individuals (HDIs) with different length of heroin dependence, and to investigate whether these WM deficits can be related to the duration of heroin use and to decision-making deficits in HDIs. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-six HDIs [including eighteen sHDIs (duration of heroin dependent is less than 10 years) and eighteen lHDIs (duration of dependent is between 10?20 years)] and sixteen healthy controls participated in this study. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (Da) and radial diffusivity (Dr) were performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to localize abnormal WM regions among groups. TBSS demonstrated that sHDIs had significantly lower FA than controls in right orbito-frontal WM, bilateral temporal WM and right parietal WM. The lHDIs had significantly lower FA throughout the brain compared with the controls and sHDIs. The lHDIs had significantly lower Da than controls in bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus, bilateral splenium of corpus callosum, left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and had significantly higher Dr than controls in bilateral uncinatus fasciculus, bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus and bilateral cortical spinal fasciculus. Volume-of-interest (VOI) analyses detect the changes of diffusivity indices in the regions with FA abnormalities revealed by control vs sHDIs. In most VOIs, FA reductions were caused by the increase in Dr as well as the decrease in Da. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between FA and behavioral measures in HDIs and controls available. Significantly positively correlations were found between the FA values in the right orbital-frontal WM, right parietal WM and IGT performance. Conclusions The extent and severity of WM integrity deficits in HDIs was associated with the length of heroin dependent. Furthermore, abnormal WM microstructure may correlate with decision-making impairments in HDIs. PMID:23650554

Su, Huanhuan; Lv, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xuelin; Tian, Junzhang; Zhuo, Fuzhen

2013-01-01

273

Stochastic climate dynamics: Random attractors and time-dependent invariant measures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk reports on attempts at the unification of two approaches that have dominated theoretical climate dynamics since its inception in the 1960s: the nonlinear deterministic (Lorenz, JAS, 1963) approach and the linear stochastic one (Hasselmann, Tellus, 1976). This unification, via the theory of random dynamical systems (RDS), allows one to consider the detailed geometric structure of the random attractors associated with nonlinear, stochastically perturbed systems. These attractors extend the concept of strange attractors from autonomous dynamical systems to non-autonomous systems with random forcing. A high-resolution numerical study of two "toy" models is carried out in their respective phase spaces; it allows one to obtain a good approximation of their global random attractors, as well as of the time-dependent invariant measures supported by these attractors. The latter measures are shown to be random Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen (SRB) measures; such measures have an intuitive, physical interpretation, obtained essentially by "flowing" the entire phase space onto the attractor. The first of the two models studied herein is a stochastically forced version of the classical Lorenz (1963) model. The second one is a low-dimensional, nonlinear stochastic model of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), based on that of Timmermann and Jin (GRL, 2002). In spite of their highly idealized character, both these models are of fundamental interest for climate dynamics and provide insight into its predictability. This talk represents joint work with Mickael D. Chekroun (Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, France, and University of California, Los Angeles, USA; chekro@lmd.ens.fr) and Eric Simonnet (Institut Non-Lineaire de Nice, Sophia Antipolis, France; Eric.Simonnet@inln.cnrs.fr).

Ghil, Michael

2010-05-01

274

Physicochemical characterization of the thermal aging of insulating paper in power transformers  

SciTech Connect

Paper is a low-cost base material with outstanding mechanical and electrical properties, which is why it is still a key element in the insulation of electrical apparatus. Under the effect of a variety of factors including temperature, paper can substantially lose its properties, thus jeopardizing the service life of costly equipment. To remedy this situation, new so-called thermally upgraded papers are being made by certain manufacturers. A study carried out jointly by Hydro-Quebec, Electricite de France and the Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Toulouse has allowed researchers to qualify the thermal resistance of three different types of thermostable paper. These papers have been selected as being representative of what is available on the market today. The paper samples were subjected to a thermal aging test in the presence of mineral oil to represent normal conditions of operation (150 C). The thermal degradation of the paper insulation is characterized by various physicochemical methods including measurement of the degree of polymerization, determination of 2-furfural in mineral oil by HPLC as well as determination of various sugars (monosaccharides, polysaccharides and anhydrosugars) in the paper using ion chromatography. This last method allows the authors to verify the formation of cellobiose, which is the real repeat unit of cellulose, as well as that of levoglucosan, which is an anhydrosugar and a precursor of 2-furfural. The evolution of all of these parameters, measured as a function of time, has allowed them to compare the thermal resistance of various insulating papers. The results of this study seem to show that, compared to traditional kraft paper, certain paper types are more susceptible to being thermally upgraded than others. This study also allowed the authors to demonstrate that the use of an inhibitor in mineral oil (DBPC) does not seem to influence the thermal degradation of these papers.

Lessard, M.C.; Van Nifterik, L.; Masse, M. [Inst. de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Penneau, J.F. [Electricite de France, Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Grob, R. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Toulouse (France). Inst. National Polytechnique

1996-12-31

275

Voltammetry of L-cysteine and 2-mercaptopyridine on a self-assembled phospholipid monolayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The redox behaviour of 2-mercaptopyridine and the aminoacid L-cysteine was studied through a self-assembled monolayer of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine adsorbed on mercury by using cyclic voltammetry. 2-Mercaptopyridine penetrates into monolayer in the zone of stability of the phospholipid layer and shows an quasi-reversible behaviour while reversibility is observed in the absence of a monolayer. This fact is reflected in the occurrence of voltammetric peaks in the above mentioned region of potentials. Conversely, cysteine was found not to penetrate in the lipid layer as long as the latter behaves like a half-membrane. Voltammetric signal of cysteine was only obtained when the potential was scanned to values positive to -0.2 V. Beyond this potential the cyclic voltammograms show a series of anodic peaks, due to a rearrangement of the lipid film and to the formation of Hg(RS)2, followed by three cathodic peaks when the scan is reversal. The behaviour of these peaks was analized. Le comportement voltampérometrique de la 2-mercaptopyridine et de l'aminoacid L-cysteine a eté etudié sur l'électrode de mercure couverte par une monocouche de dioleoylphosphatidylcholine. Pour la 2-mercaptopyridine on peut constater la pénétration de ce composé dans la zone de stabilité de la monocouche. La constante de vitesse a eté calculée seulement pour des basses concentrations. Lorsque la concentration augmente le comportement devient très compliqué. Par contre, pour la cysteine on observe seulement un signal de courant pour des potentiels superieurs à -0.2V oú la monocouche de phospholipide ne peut pas être considerée très stable. La differente structure chimique des deux substances permet de rendre compte du different comportement voltammetrique observé.

Herrero, R.; Barriada, J. L.; Moncelli, M. R.; López-Fonseca, J. M.; Sastre de Vicente, M. E.

1999-09-01

276

Activity of the Vascular-Disrupting Agent 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-Acetic Acid against Human Head and Neck Carcinoma Xenografts1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) constitute a majority of the tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and continue to present a significant therapeutic challenge. To explore the potential of vascular-targeted therapy in HNSCC, we investigated the antivascular, antitumor activity of the potent vascular-disrupting agent (VDA) 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) against two HNSCC xenografts with markedly different morphologic and vascular characteristics. Athymic nude mice bearing subcutaneous FaDu (human pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma) and A253 (human submaxillary gland epidermoid carcinoma) tumors were administered a single dose of DMXAA (30 mg/kg, i.p). Changes in vascular function were evaluated 24 hours after treatment using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and immunohistochemistry (CD31). Signal enhancement (E) and change in longitudinal relaxation rates (?R1) were calculated to measure alterations in vascular perfusion. MRI showed a 78% and 49% reduction in vascular perfusion in FaDu and A253 xenografts, respectively. CD31-immunostaining of tumor sections revealed three-fold (FaDu) and two-fold (A253) reductions in microvessel density (MVD) 24 hours after treatment. DMXAA was equally effective against both xenografts, with significant tumor growth inhibition observed 30 days after treatment. These results indicate that DMXAA may be beneficial in the management of HNSCC, alone or in combination with other treatments. PMID:16867215

Seshadri, Mukund; Mazurchuk, Richard; Spernyak, Joseph A; Bhattacharya, Arup; Rustum, Youcef M; Bellnier, David A

2006-01-01

277

Incidence and prognostic impact of high-risk HPV tumor infection in cervical esophageal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical esophageal carcinoma (CEC) is an uncommon malignancy. Limited data supports the use of definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) as primary treatment. Furthermore, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) tumor infection in CEC remains unknown. This study retrospectively analyzes both outcomes of CEC patients treated with CRT and the incidence and potential role of HPV tumor infection in CEC lesions. Methods A total of 37 CEC patients were treated with definitive CRT at our institution between 1987 and 2013. Of these, 19 had tumor samples available for high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) pathological analysis. Results For all patients (n=37), 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and loco-regional control (LRC) rates were 34.1%, 40.2%, and 65.6%, respectively. On pathological analysis, 1/19 (5.3%) patients had an HPV-positive lesion. Conclusions Definitive CRT provides disease-related outcomes comparable to surgery. Moreover, HPV tumor infection in CEC is uncommon and its prognostic role is unclear. Our data contribute to the construction of an anatomical map of HPV tumor infection in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the upper aerodigestive tract, and suggest a steep drop in viral infection rates at sites distal to the oropharynx, including the cervical esophagus.

Ludmir, Ethan B.; Palta, Manisha; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wu, Yuan; Willett, Christopher G.

2014-01-01

278

Alcohol, DNA Methylation, and Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cancer is one of the most significant diseases associated with chronic alcohol consumption, and chronic drinking is a strong risk factor for cancer, particularly of the upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectum, and breast. Several factors contribute to alcohol-induced cancer development (i.e., carcinogenesis), including the actions of acetaldehyde, the first and primary metabolite of ethanol, and oxidative stress. However, increasing evidence suggests that aberrant patterns of DNA methylation, an important epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional control, also could be part of the pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to alcohol-induced cancer development. The effects of alcohol on global and local DNA methylation patterns likely are mediated by its ability to interfere with the availability of the principal biological methyl donor, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), as well as pathways related to it. Several mechanisms may mediate the effects of alcohol on DNA methylation, including reduced folate levels and inhibition of key enzymes in one-carbon metabolism that ultimately lead to lower SAMe levels, as well as inhibition of activity and expression of enzymes involved in DNA methylation (i.e., DNA methyltransferases). Finally, variations (i.e., polymorphisms) of several genes involved in one-carbon metabolism also modulate the risk of alcohol-associated carcinogenesis. PMID:24313162

Varela-Rey, Marta; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Martinez-Chantar, Maria-Luz; Mato, Jose M.; Lu, Shelly C.

2013-01-01

279

Cytogenetic damage in the oral mucosa cells of bladder cancer patients exposed to tobacco in Southern Tunisia.  

PubMed

Bladder cancer was associated to exposure to several pollutants which can be absorbed, inhaled, or possibly ingested. We analyzed the frequency of micronuclei (MNC) and binucleated cells (BNC) in exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa of 24 bladder cancer (BC) patients and 48 controls residing in Southern Tunisia. An assessment was carried out on the incidence of MNC and BNC in 1,000 cells per individual. The data were analyzed with SPSS, using the chi-square and the Mann-Whitney U test, ??=?0.05. The frequency of MN cells in BC cases was 2.5-fold higher, than in the control group (P?aerodigestive tract, such as BC. Further scrupulous investigations are certainly warranted in order to implement this assay as a routine test in the planning and validation of cancer surveillance and prevention programs. PMID:24981033

Feki-Tounsi, Molka; Khlifi, Rim; Mhiri, Mohamed-Nabil; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

2014-11-01

280

Long-term survival after liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Currently, alcoholic cirrhosis is the second leading indication for liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. The quality of life and survival after a liver transplantation (LT) in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are similar to those in patients with other cirrhosis etiologies. The alcoholic relapse rate after a LT varies from 10%-50%, and these relapse patients are the ones who present a reduced long-term survival, mainly due to cardiovascular diseases and the onset of de novo neoplasms, including lung and upper aerodigestive tract. Nearly 40% of ALD recipients resume smoking and resume it early post-LT. Therefore, our pre-and post-LT follow-up efforts regarding ALD should be focused not only on alcoholic relapse but also on treating and avoiding other modifiable risk factors such as tobacco. The psychiatric and psychosocial pre-LT evaluation and the post-LT follow-up with physicians, psychiatrists and addiction specialists are important for reversing these problems because these professionals help to identify patients at risk for relapse as well as those patients who have relapsed, thus enabling responsive actions. PMID:24409048

Iruzubieta, Paula; Crespo, Javier; Fabrega, Emilio

2013-01-01

281

Aspects of nitrogen dioxide toxicity in environmental urban concentrations in human nasal epithelium  

SciTech Connect

Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) as part of urban exhaust pollution are widely discussed as potential hazards to human health. This study focuses on toxic effects of NO{sub 2} in realistic environmental concentrations with respect to the current limit values in a human target tissue of volatile xenobiotics, the epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract. Nasal epithelial cells of 10 patients were cultured as an air-liquid interface and exposed to 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2}, 0.1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 10 ppm NO{sub 2} and synthetic air for half an hour. After exposure, genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell microgel electophoresis (Comet) assay and by induction of micronuclei in the micronucleus test. Depression of proliferation and cytotoxic effects were determined using the micronucleus assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. The experiments revealed genotoxic effects by DNA fragmentation starting at 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2} in the Comet assay, but no micronucleus inductions, no changes in proliferation, no signs of necrosis or apoptosis in the micronucleus assay, nor did the trypan blue exclusion assay show any changes in viability. The present data reveal a possible genotoxicity of NO{sub 2} in urban concentrations in a screening test. However, permanent DNA damage as indicated by the induction of micronuclei was not observed. Further research should elucidate the effects of prolonged exposure.

Koehler, C.; Ginzkey, C.; Friehs, G.; Hackenberg, S.; Froelich, K.; Scherzed, A.; Burghartz, M.; Kessler, M. [Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Kleinsasser, N., E-mail: Kleinsasser_N@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.d [Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

2010-06-01

282

Diagnosis of second primary tumor and long-term survival after single initial triple endoscopy in patients with head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) have a high risk of developing second primary tumors (SPTs). Most of the studies concerning triple endoscopy (laryngoscopy, digestive tract endoscopy and bronchoscopy) describe the frequency and stage of the SPT, but not its impact on survival. This study is a matched pair analysis that included patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the UADT who were subjected to a triple endoscopy before the first treatment, matched with patients who did not undergo triple endoscopy. One hundred and thirty-five patients were included in each group. The diagnosis of an SPT was more frequent in the initial triple endoscopy group than in the control group (34 and 20 cases, respectively). In the initial triple endoscopy group, 50.0 % of these tumors were diagnosed simultaneously, whereas in the control, only 5.0 %. No significant differences in the survival rates or in clinical stage of the SPTs were found in the two groups. There was no difference in the clinical stage of the SPT and the survival rates of the patient groups who underwent triple endoscopy at the initial evaluation and those subjected to only a routine evaluation and follow-up. PMID:24136478

Priante, Antonio Vitor Martins; Gross, Jefferson Luiz; Sztokfisz, Claudia Zitron; Nishimoto, Inês Nobuko; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

2014-08-01

283

Curcumin and Other Polyphenolic Compounds in Head and Neck Cancer Chemoprevention  

PubMed Central

Despite clear results of observational studies linking a diet rich in fruits and vegetables to a decreased cancer risk, large interventional trials evaluating the impact of dietary micronutrient supplementation, mostly vitamins, could not show any beneficial effects. Today it has become clear that a single micronutrient, given in supernutritional doses, cannot match cancer preventive effects of whole fruits and vegetables. In this regard polyphenols came into focus, not only because of their antioxidant potential but also because of their ability to interact with molecular targets within the cells. Because polyphenols occur in many foods and beverages in high concentration and evidence for their anticancer activity is best for tissues they can come into direct contact with, field cancerization predestines upper aerodigestive tract epithelium for cancer chemoprevention by polyphenols. In this paper, we summarize cancer chemopreventive attempts with emphasis on head and neck carcinogenesis and discuss some methodological issues. We present data regarding antimutagenic effects of curcumin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human oropharyngeal mucosa cultures exposed to cigarette smoke condensate. PMID:22690273

Baumeister, Philipp; Reiter, Maximilian; Harreus, Ulrich

2012-01-01

284

Button Battery Foreign Bodies in Children: Hazards, Management, and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Objective. The demand and usage of button batteries have risen. They are frequently inadvertently placed by children in their ears or noses and occasionally are swallowed and lodged along the upper aerodigestive tract. The purpose of this work is to study the different presentations of button battery foreign bodies and present our experience in the diagnosis and management of this hazardous problem in children. Patients and Methods. This study included 13 patients. The diagnostic protocol was comprised of a thorough history, head and neck physical examination, and appropriate radiographic evaluation. The button batteries were emergently extracted under general anesthesia. Results. The average follow-up period was 4.3 months. Five patients had a nasal button battery. Four patients had an esophageal button battery. Three patients had a button battery in the stomach. One patient had a button battery impacted in the left external ear canal. Apart from a nasal septal perforation and a tympanic membrane perforation, no major complications were detected. Conclusion. Early detection is the key in the management of button battery foreign bodies. They have a distinctive appearance on radiography, and its prompt removal is mandatory, especially for batteries lodged in the esophagus. Physicians must recognize the hazardous potential and serious implications of such an accident. There is a need for more public education about this serious problem. PMID:23936851

Thabet, Mohammed Hossam; Basha, Waleed Mohamed; Askar, Sherif

2013-01-01

285

Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy in head and neck malignancies: early preclinical experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: Malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) are conventionally diagnosed by white light endoscopy, biopsy and histopathology. Probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a novel non-invasive technique which offers in vivo surface and sub-surface imaging of tissue. It produces pictures of cellular architecture comparable to histology without the need for biopsy. It has already been successfully used in different clinical subspecialties to help in the diagnosis and treatment planning of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. PCLE needs to be used in combination with specific or non-specific contrast agents. In this study we evaluated the potential use of pCLE in combination with non-specific and specific contrast agents to distinguish between healthy mucosa and invasive carcinoma. Methods: Tissue samples from healthy mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were taken during surgery. After topical application of three different contrast agents, samples were examined using different pCLE-probes and a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). Images were then compared to the corresponding histological slides and cryosections. Results: Initial results show that pCLE in combination with fluorophores allows visualization of cellular and structural components. Imaging of different layers was possible using three distinct pCLEprobes. Conclusion: pCLE is a promising non-invasive technique that may be a useful adjunct in the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment planning of head and neck malignancies.

Englhard, Anna; Girschick, Susanne; Mack, Brigitte; Volgger, Veronika; Gires, Oliver; Conderman, Christian; Stepp, Herbert; Betz, Christian Stephan

2013-06-01

286

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin cytotoxicity occurs through bilayer destabilization  

PubMed Central

Summary The Gram-negative bacterium, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, is a common inhabitant of the human upper aerodigestive tract. The organism produces an RTX (Repeats in ToXin) toxin (LtxA) that kills human white blood cells. LtxA is believed to be a membrane-damaging toxin, but details of the cell surface interaction for this and several other RTX toxins have yet to be elucidated. Initial morphological studies suggested that LtxA was bending the target cell membrane. Because the ability of a membrane to bend is a function of its lipid composition, we assessed the proficiency of LtxA to release of a fluorescent dye from a panel of liposomes composed of various lipids. Liposomes composed of lipids that form nonlamellar phases were susceptible to LtxA-induced damage while liposomes composed of lipids that do not form non-bilayer structures were not. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the toxin decreased the temperature at which the lipid transitions from a bilayer to a nonlamellar phase, while 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the LtxA-induced transition from a bilayer to an inverted hexagonal phase occurs through the formation of an isotropic intermediate phase. These results indicate that LtxA cytotoxicity occurs through a process of membrane destabilization. PMID:22309134

Brown, Angela C.; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Du, Yurong; Stefano, Frank P.; Kieba, Irene R.; Epand, Raquel F.; Kakalis, Lazaros; Yeagle, Philip L.; Epand, Richard M.; Lally, Edward T.

2012-01-01

287

Head and Neck Cancer: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Ablative surgery for malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract is the most common reason why the reconstructive surgeon is called upon to reconstruct adult head and neck defects. An understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of head and neck malignancy is vital to the reconstructive surgeon so that restoration of both form and function can be achieved. It is important to understand the behavior of cancers of each head and neck subsite, as staging and ultimately the treatment of tumors from each subsite is different. Historically, the standard treatment of head and neck cancer was surgery and/or primary radiation therapy with surgical salvage for failure. Beginning in the 1980s, advances in chemotherapy and concurrent delivery with radiation offered new options to standard surgical therapy. Over the past two decades, the concept of organ preservation using chemotherapy together with radiation therapy has been definitively established. Yet, even with the strides made over these two decades with chemoradiation, surgical treatment of head and neck cancer and reconstruction thereof will be an important treatment option for the foreseeable future. Therefore, the relationship between the extirpative and reconstructive surgeon is vital, and a clear understanding of the biology and behavior of head and neck malignancy is crucial to successful patient outcomes. PMID:22550431

Stepnick, David; Gilpin, David

2010-01-01

288

Oral squamous cell cancer: early detection and the role of alcohol and smoking  

PubMed Central

Objective Oral squamous cell carcinoma has a remarkable incidence worldwide and a fairly onerous prognosis, encouraging further research on factors that might modify disease outcome. Data sources A web-based search for all types of articles published was initiated using Medline/Pub Med, with the key words such as oral cancer, alcohol consumption, genetic polymorphisms, tobacco smoking and prevention. The search was restricted to articles published in English, with no publication date restriction (last update 2010). Review Methods In this review article, we approach the factors for a cytologic diagnosis during OSCC development and the markers used in modern diagnostic technologies as well. We also reviewed available studies of the combined effects of alcohol drinking and genetic polymorphisms on alcohol-related cancer risk. Results The interaction of smoking and alcohol significantly increases the risk for aero-digestive cancers. The interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption seems to be responsible for a significant amount of disease. Conclusion Published scientific data show promising pathways for the future development of more effective prognosis. There is a clear need for new prognostic indicators, which could be used in diagnostics and, therefore a better selection of the most effective treatment can be achieved. PMID:21211041

2011-01-01

289

Membrane Association and Destabilization by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Leukotoxin Requires Changes in Secondary Structures  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a common inhabitant of the upper aerodigestive tract of humans and non-human primates and is associated with disseminated infections, including lung and brain abscesses, pediatric infective endocarditis in children, and localized aggressive periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans secretes a repeats-in-toxin protein, leukotoxin, which exclusively kills lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1-bearing cells. The toxin's pathological mechanism is not fully understood; however, experimental evidence indicates that it involves the association with and subsequent destabilization of the target cell's plasma membrane. We have long hypothesized that leukotoxin secondary structure is strongly correlated with membrane association and/or destabilization. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by analyzing lipid-induced changes in leukotoxin conformation. Upon incubation of leukotoxin with lipids that favor leukotoxin-membrane association, we observed an increase in leukotoxin ?-helical content that was not observed with lipids that favor membrane destabilization. The change in leukotoxin conformation after incubation with these lipids suggests that membrane binding and membrane destabilization have distinct secondary structural requirements, suggesting that they are independent events. These studies thus provide insight into the mechanism of cell damage that leads to disease progression by A. actinomycetemcomitans. PMID:23678967

Walters, Michael J.; Brown, Angela C.; Edrington, Thomas C.; Baranwal, Somesh; Du, Yurong; Lally, Edward T.; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

2013-01-01

290

The use of the anatomic 'zones' of the neck in the assessment of penetrating neck injury.  

PubMed

The traditional classification of neck injuries uses an anatomic description of Zones I through III. The objective of this article was to characterize the association between external wounds and the corresponding internal injuries after penetrating neck trauma to identify the clinical use of the anatomic zones of the neck. Patients who sustained penetrating neck trauma from December 2008 to March 2011 were analyzed. All patients underwent structured clinical examination documenting the external zone where the wound(s) were located. All internal injuries were then correlated with the external wounds. An internal injury was defined as "unexpected" if it was located outside the borders of the neck zone corresponding to the external wound. In total, 146 patients sustaining a penetrating neck injury were analyzed; 126 (86%) male. The mechanism of injury was stab wounds in 74 (51%) and gunshot wounds in 69 (47%). Mean age was 31 years (range, nine to 62 years). Thirty-seven (25%) patients sustained had a total of 50 internal injuries. There was a high incidence of noncorrelation between the location of the external injury and the internal structures that were damaged in patients with hard signs of vascular or aerodigestive injury. The use of the anatomic zones and their role in the workup of penetrating neck injury are questionable. PMID:25264641

Low, Garren M I; Inaba, Kenji; Chouliaras, Konstantinos; Branco, Bernardino; Lam, Lydia; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Menaker, Jay; Demetriades, Demetrios

2014-10-01

291

The anatomical compartments and their connections as demonstrated by ectopic air.  

PubMed

Air/gas outside the aero-digestive tract is abnormal; depending on its location, it is usually called emphysema, referring to trapped air/gas in tissues, or ectopic air/gas. It can be associated to a wide range of disorders, and although it usually is an innocuous condition, it should prompt a search for the underlying aetiology, since some of its causes impose an urgent treatment. In rare instances, it may itself represent a life-threatening condition, depending on the site involved and how quickly it evolves. Abnormal air/gas beyond viscera and serosal spaces, reaches its location following some anatomic boundaries, such as fascia, which may help search the source; however if the air pressure exceeds the strength of the tissues, or the time between the aggression and the imaging is too long, the air/gas is almost everywhere, which may hinder its cause. Good knowledge of the anatomic spaces and how they connect between them facilitates the quick detection of the cause. Teaching points • Ectopic air can be depicted on conventional radiographs; but CT is more sensitive and accurate • Visceral and retropharyngeal spaces directly communicate with mediastinum • Renal fascia is a single multilaminated structure, which contains potential space. PMID:24065628

Frias Vilaça, Ana; Reis, Alcinda M; Vidal, Isabel M

2013-12-01

292

EVIDENCE FOR MESENCHYMAL-LIKE SUBPOPULATIONS WITHIN SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMAS POSSESSING CHEMORESISTANCE AND PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY  

PubMed Central

Variable drug responses among malignant cells within individual tumors may represent a barrier to their eradication using chemotherapy. Carcinoma cells expressing mesenchymal markers resist conventional and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted chemotherapy. Here we evaluated whether mesenchymal-like subpopulations within human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) with predominantly epithelial features contribute to overall therapy resistance. We identified a mesenchymal-like subset expressing low E-cadherin (Ecad-lo) and high vimentin (Vim-hi) within upper aerodigestive tract SCCs. This subset was both isolated from cell lines and identified in xenografts and primary clinical specimens. The Ecad-lo subset contained more low-turnover cells, correlating with resistance to the conventional chemotherapeutic paclitaxel in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced less stimulation of the MAP kinase and PI3-kinase pathways in Ecad-lo cells, which was likely due to lower EGFR expression in this subset and correlated with in vivo resistance to the EGFR-targeted antibody cetuximab. The Ecad-lo and high E-cadherin (Ecad-hi) subsets were dynamic in phenotype, showing the capacity to repopulate each other from single cell clones. Taken together, these results provide evidence for a low-turnover, mesenchymal-like subpopulation in SCCs with diminished EGFR pathway function and intrinsic resistance to conventional and EGFR-targeted chemotherapies. PMID:20498638

Basu, Devraj; Nguyen, Thierry-Thien K.; Montone, Kathleen T.; Zhang, Gao; Wang, Li-Ping; Diehl, J. Alan; Rustgi, Anil K.; Lee, John T.; Weinstein, Gregory S.; Herlyn, Meenhard

2010-01-01

293

Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis: A Rare Chronic Disease, Difficult to Treat, with Potential to Lung Cancer Transformation: Apropos of Two Cases and a Brief Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), which is caused exclusively by human papilloma virus (HPV), is a rare condition characterized by recurrent growth of benign papillomata in the respiratory tract. The papillomata can occur anywhere in the aerodigestive tract but most frequently in the larynx, affecting both children and adults. The management of this entity remains still challenging since no specific definitive treatment exists. Nevertheless, novel surgical interventions as well as several adjuvant therapies have shown promising results in the long-term palliative management of this debilitating disease. Despite its mostly benign nature, RRP may cause significant morbidity and mortality because of its unpredictable clinical course and especially its tendency, albeit infrequent, for malignant transformation. In this article, we present two patients with RRP; one underwent bronchoscopic laser ablation in combination with inhaled interferon-alpha administration that led to a long-term regression of the disease while the other patient was diagnosed with transformation to squamous cell lung carcinoma with fatal outcome. We include a review of the current literature with special emphasis on RRP management and the potential role of HPV in the development of lung cancer. PMID:21526134

Katsenos, Stamatis; Becker, Heinrich D.

2011-01-01

294

Radiotherapy Alone With Curative Intent in Patients With Stage I Extranodal Nasal-Type NK/T-Cell Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the outcome and pattern of failure in a large cohort of patients with Stage I NK/T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: The pathological diagnosis was confirmed using standard criteria. All patients were treated with high-dose extended-field radiotherapy alone. The median dose was 50 Gy. The primary tumor was located in the nasal cavity (n = 80), Waldeyer ring (n = 5), or oral cavity (n = 2). Results: The overall response to radiotherapy was achieved in 85 of 87 (97.7%) patients, with a complete response rate of 95.4% and a partial response rate of 2.3%. The 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control rates for all patients were 80%, 69%, and 93%, respectively. Twenty patients (23%) had disease progression or relapse. Of these, 15 patients (17%) developed systemic extranodal disseminations, whereas only 4 (5%) patients had local relapse and 4 (5%) patients had lymph node relapse. Conclusions: Our study suggests that high-dose extended-field radiotherapy alone is a curative therapy and shows favorable clinical outcome in patients with Stage I disease. With the high possibility of local control and primary failure of systemic dissemination, the integration of optimal radiotherapy with more effective systematic therapy is warranted to bring additional improvement to the outcome for these patients.

Li Yexiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Wang Hua; Jin Jing; Wang Weihu; Liu Qingfeng; Song Yongwen; Wang Zhaoyang; Qi Shunan; Wang Shulian; Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Yu Zihao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China)

2012-04-01

295

Polymeric implant materials for the reconstruction of tracheal and pharyngeal mucosal defects in head and neck surgery  

PubMed Central

The existing therapeutical options for the tracheal and pharyngeal reconstruction by use of implant materials are described. Inspite of a multitude of options and the availability of very different materials none of these methods applied for tracheal reconstruction were successfully introduced into the clinical routine. Essential problems are insufficiencies of anastomoses, stenoses, lack of mucociliary clearance and vascularisation. The advances in Tissue Engineering (TE) offer new therapeutical options also in the field of the reconstructive surgery of the trachea. In pharyngeal reconstruction far reaching developments cannot be recognized at the moment which would allow to give a prognosis of their success in clinical application. A new polymeric implant material consisting of multiblock copolymers was applied in our own work which was regarded as a promising material for the reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract (ADT) due to its physicochemical characteristics. In order to test this material for applications in the ADT under extreme chemical, enzymatical, bacterial and mechanical conditions we applied it for the reconstruction of a complete defect of the gastric wall in an animal model. In none of the animals tested either gastrointestinal complications or negative systemic events occurred, however, there was a multilayered regeneration of the gastric wall implying a regular structured mucosa. In future the advanced stem cell technology will allow further progress in the reconstruction of different kind of tissues also in the field of head and neck surgery following the principles of Tissue Engineering. PMID:22073099

Rickert, Dorothee

2011-01-01

296

Estimating the optimal threshold for a diagnostic biomarker in case of complex biomarker distributions  

PubMed Central

Background Estimating the optimal threshold (and especially the confidence interval) of a quantitative biomarker to be used as a diagnostic test is essential for medical decision-making. This is often done with simple methods that are not always reliable. More advanced methods work well but only for biomarkers with very simple distributions. In fact, biomarker distributions are often complex because of a natural heterogeneity in marker expression and other heterogeneities due to various disease stages, laboratory equipments, etc. Methods are required to estimate a biomarker optimal threshold in case of heterogeneity and complex distributions. Methods A previously described Bayesian method developed for normally distributed biomarkers is applied to two flexible distributions; namely, a Student-t and a mixture of Dirichlet processes. Here, numerical studies assess the adequacy of the previous method with both distributions. Two applications are presented: the diagnosis of treatment failure after prostate cancer treated by ultrasound and the early diagnosis of cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. Results Bayesian inference provided reliable credible intervals in terms of bias and coverage probability. The two distributions analysed gave meaningful clinical interpretations in both applications. Conclusions Reliable methods can be used to estimate a biomarker optimal threshold, even in case of complex distributions. PMID:24927622

2014-01-01

297

Management of globus pharyngeus: review of 699 cases.  

PubMed

The principal reason for performing investigations in patients with globus pharyngeus is to detect a pharyngeal or upper oesophageal malignancy presenting this way. There is uncertainty regarding both the necessity for investigation in globus patients and the first line investigation of choice in the screening of such patients. The authors therefore undertook a retrospective study of 699 patients who presented with globus sensation. Of these, 451 patients (64.5 per cent) had a typical history and in these patients, outpatient examination, including fibre-optic nasendoscopy was able to detect all pathologies, except one insignificant pharyngeal pouch, which required no intervention and one patient with a distal peptic stricture. In patients with atypical symptoms the combination of fibre-optic nasendoscopy and barium swallow identified all pathologies (five aerodigestive tract malignancies) except one distal peptic stricture. The authors concluded that if out-patient examination is adequate, no further investigation of typical globus symptoms is required. Such a policy would produce significant savings for both out-patient and radiology services. PMID:15318958

Harar, R P S; Kumar, S; Saeed, M A; Gatland, D J

2004-07-01

298

Id2 regulates the proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma in vitro via the NF-?B/Cyclin D1 pathway  

PubMed Central

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide, with an incidence of up to 166 cases per 100 000 population. It arises in the skin, upper aerodigestive tract, lung, and cervix and affects more than 200 000 Americans each year. We report here that a microarray experiment comparing 41 SCC and 13 normal tissue specimens showed that Id2, a gene that controls the cell cycle, was significantly up-regulated in SCC. Enforced expression of Id2 in vitro stimulated the proliferation of SCC cells and up-regulated the transcription of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) and cyclin D1. Enhancement of the NF-?B activity with p65 significantly increased the cell proliferation and the transcription of cyclin D1, whereas inhibition of the NF-?B activity with I kappa B alpha mutant (I?B? M) and pyrroline dithiocarbamate (PDTC) abrogated cell proliferation and transcription of cyclin D1. Furthermore, a mutated NF-?B binding site in the cyclin D1 promoter fully abrogated the Id2-induced transcription of cyclin D1. Taken together, these data indicate that Id2 induces SCC tumor growth and proliferation through the NF-?B/cyclin D1 pathway. PMID:22835384

Wang, Chuan; Chen, Qiang; Hamajima, Yuki; Sun, Wei; Zheng, Yi-Qing; Hu, Xiao-Hua; Ondrey, Frank G.; Lin, Ji-Zhen

2012-01-01

299

Changing trends in oesophageal endoscopy: a systematic review of transnasal oesophagoscopy.  

PubMed

The safety, efficacy, and economic implications of using transnasal oesophagoscopy (TNE) are compared with conventional rigid or flexible oesophagoscopy for oesophageal disorders in otorhinolaryngology (ORL) clinics in this systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were searched for articles on transnasal oesophagoscopy. A total of 67 relevant titles were identified and 39 abstracts were screened of which 17 full- text articles were included in this report. There was fair level of evidence to suggest that TNE was effective for screening examination in patients with dysphagia, globus pharyngeus, and reflux symptoms and for detection of metachronous oesophageal carcinoma. TNE can also be used to biopsy suspicious lesions in the upper aerodigestive tract, placement of wireless pH capsule, transnasal balloon dilation of the oesophagus, secondary tracheoesophageal puncture, and management of foreign bodies. TNE was well tolerated and can be safely performed in an office setting with topical anaesthesia. Complications associated with TNE were mild and uncommon. There was evidence to suggest potential cost savings by performing TNE in the office setting compared with conventional investigation and examination for dysphagia. TNE may lead to a change in practice from investigation and treatment in the operating theatre or day care center to an office-based practice. PMID:23984101

Sabirin, Junainah; Abd Rahman, Maharita; Rajan, Philip

2013-01-01

300

Changing Trends in Oesophageal Endoscopy: A Systematic Review of Transnasal Oesophagoscopy  

PubMed Central

The safety, efficacy, and economic implications of using transnasal oesophagoscopy (TNE) are compared with conventional rigid or flexible oesophagoscopy for oesophageal disorders in otorhinolaryngology (ORL) clinics in this systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were searched for articles on transnasal oesophagoscopy. A total of 67 relevant titles were identified and 39 abstracts were screened of which 17 full- text articles were included in this report. There was fair level of evidence to suggest that TNE was effective for screening examination in patients with dysphagia, globus pharyngeus, and reflux symptoms and for detection of metachronous oesophageal carcinoma. TNE can also be used to biopsy suspicious lesions in the upper aerodigestive tract, placement of wireless pH capsule, transnasal balloon dilation of the oesophagus, secondary tracheoesophageal puncture, and management of foreign bodies. TNE was well tolerated and can be safely performed in an office setting with topical anaesthesia. Complications associated with TNE were mild and uncommon. There was evidence to suggest potential cost savings by performing TNE in the office setting compared with conventional investigation and examination for dysphagia. TNE may lead to a change in practice from investigation and treatment in the operating theatre or day care center to an office-based practice. PMID:23984101

Sabirin, Junainah; Abd Rahman, Maharita; Rajan, Philip

2013-01-01

301

Extracellular protease ADAMTS9 suppresses esophageal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumor formation by inhibiting angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

ADAMTS metalloprotease family member ADAMTS9 maps to 3p14.2 and shows significant associations with the aerodigestive tract cancers esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the functional impact of ADAMTS9 on cancer development has not been explored. In this study, we evaluated hypothesized anti-angiogenic and tumor suppressive functions of ADAMTS9 in ESCC and NPC, in stringent tumorigenicity and matrigel plug angiogenesis assays. ADAMTS9 activation suppressed tumor formation in nude mice. Conversely, knockdown of ADAMTS9 resulted in clones reverting to the tumorigenic phenotype of the parental cells. In vivo angiogenesis assays revealed a reduction in microvessel numbers in gel plugs injected with tumor-suppressive cell transfectants. Similarly, conditioned media from cell transfectants dramatically reduced the tube-forming capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These activities were associated with a reduction in expression levels of the pro-angiogenic factors MMP9 and VEGFA, which were consistently reduced in ADAMTS9 transfectants derived from both cancers. Taken together, our results indicate that ADAMTS9 contributes an important function in the tumor microenvironment that acts to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth in both ESCC and NPC. PMID:20551050

Lo, Paulisally Hau Yi; Lung, Hong Lok; Cheung, Arthur Kwok Leung; Apte, Suneel S.; Chan, Kwok Wah; Kwong, Fung Mei; Ko, Josephine Mun Yee; Cheng, Yue; Law, Simon; Srivastava, Gopesh; Zabarovsky, Eugene R.; Tsao, Sai Wah; Tang, Johnny Cheuk On; Stanbridge, Eric J.; Lung, Maria Li

2010-01-01

302

Secondary extramedullary plasmacytoma causing small bowel intussusception in a patient with multiple myeloma - A case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Multiple myeloma is a monoclonal, immunoproliferative plasma-cell neoplasm of the B lymphoid cells. Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a type of plasma-cell neoplasm that can present as a primary tumour or secondary to another plasma-cell neoplasm, such as multiple myeloma. Secondary extramedullary plasmacytoma is usually noted in the advanced stages of the disease with ileum involvement being very rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a rare case of a 58-year-old man, with known multiple myeloma, re-presenting with evidence of small bowel obstruction, secondary to an intussusception due to a malignant plasma cell deposit, which was successfully resected at laparotomy. Previous two similar admissions, prior to this index admission, failed to arrive at this difficult rare diagnosis. DISCUSSION Primary and secondary extramedullary plasmacytoma mainly affects the upper aero-digestive tract. Involvement of the ileum, as in this case, is a rare complication. Prognosis of secondary extramedullary plasmacytoma affecting the gastrointestinal tracts is unknown, due to the small number of cases reported in the literature, but suggestive of a poor prognosis. The role of surgery is often palliative to deal with resolvable life-threatening emergencies and where possible to prolong life. CONCLUSION The case adds to the current literature of the rare event of visceral secondary extramedullary plasmacytoma involving the gastrointestinal tract, in the course of multiple myeloma and highlights the need for a high index of suspicion for such uncommon complications, to avoid delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23562898

Ariyarathenam, Arun; Galvin, Nick; Akoh, Jacob A.

2013-01-01

303

[Recent advances in the treatment of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma].  

PubMed

The prognosis of squamous epithelial cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract has improved considerably in the last 30 years. Patients presenting with stage I or II disease are treated with surgery or radiation therapy with curative intent. Although the efficacy is comparable between the two methods, surgery is usually preferred so that the side effects and late toxic effects of radiation can be avoided. For the treatment of advanced stages of disease, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy are usually combined. The introduction of concurrent administration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemoradiotherapy) has been a major advancement. This has resulted in local control and survival rates comparable to those seen following radical surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, but with preservation of the larynx in most patients. However, recent epidemiological observations have shown declining survival rates in laryngeal cancer patients, raising concern about uncritical and too frequent use of this approach. The rationale for choosing treatment options for patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma is discussed. PMID:22282006

Eckel, H E

2012-01-01

304

Oral potentially malignant disorders: Is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?  

PubMed Central

Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented. Furthermore, follow-up programs are of questionable value in this respect. Cessation of smoking habits may result in regression or even disappearance of the leukoplakia and will diminish the risk of cancer development either at the site of the leukoplakia or elsewhere in the mouth or the upper aerodigestive tract. The debate on the allegedly potentially malignant character of oral lichen planus is going on already for several decades. At present, there is a tendency to accept its potentially malignant behaviour, the annual malignant transformation rate amounting less than 0.5%. As in leukoplakia, there are no reliable predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented either. Follow-up visits, e.g twice a year, may be of some value. It is probably beyond the scope of most dentists to manage patients with these lesions in their own office. Timely referral to a specialist seems most appropriate, indeed. Key words:Oral potentially malignant disorders, oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus. PMID:24905952

van der Waal, Isaac

2014-01-01

305

Traditional and modern uses of natural honey in human diseases: a review.  

PubMed

Honey is a by-product of flower nectar and the upper aero-digestive tract of the honey bee, which is concentrated through a dehydration process inside the bee hive. Honey has a very complex chemical composition that varies depending on the botanical source. It has been used both as food and medicine since ancient times. Human use of honey is traced to some 8000 years ago as depicted by Stone Age paintings. In addition to important role of natural honey in the traditional medicine, during the past few decades, it was subjected to laboratory and clinical investigations by several research groups and it has found a place in modern medicine. Honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on around 60 species of bacteria, some species of fungi and viruses. Antioxidant capacity of honey is important in many disease conditions and is due to a wide range of compounds including phenolics, peptides, organic acids, enzymes, and Maillard reaction products. Honey has also been used in some gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neoplastic states. This review covers the composition, physico-chemical properties and the most important uses of natural honey in human diseases. PMID:23997898

Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Najafi, Moslem

2013-06-01

306

Penetrating neck trauma: a review of management strategies and discussion of the 'No Zone' approach.  

PubMed

The evaluation and management of hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating neck injury has evolved considerably over the previous four decades. Algorithms developed in the 1970s focused on anatomic neck "zones" to distinguish triage pathways resulting from the operative constraints associated with very high or very low penetrations. During that era, mandatory endoscopy and angiography for Zone I and III penetrations, or mandatory neck exploration for Zone II injuries, became popularized, the so-called "selective approach." Currently, modern sensitive imaging technology, including computed tomographic angiography (CTA), is widely available. Imaging triage can now accomplish what operative or selective evaluation could not: a safe and noninvasive evaluation of critical neck structures to identify or exclude injury based on trajectory, the key to penetrating injury management. In this review, we discuss the use of CTA in modern screening algorithms introducing a "No Zone" paradigm: an evidence-based method eliminating "neck zone" differentiation during triage and management. We conclude that a comprehensive physical examination, combined with CTA, is adequate for triage to effectively identify or exclude vascular and aerodigestive injury after penetrating neck trauma. Zone-based algorithms lead to an increased reliance on invasive diagnostic modalities (endoscopy and angiography) with their associated risks and to a higher incidence of nontherapeutic neck exploration. Therefore, surgeons evaluating hemodynamically stable patients with penetrating neck injuries should consider departing from antiquated, invasive algorithms in favor of evidence-based screening strategies that use physical examination and CTA. PMID:23317595

Shiroff, Adam M; Gale, Stephen C; Martin, Niels D; Marchalik, Daniel; Petrov, Dmitriy; Ahmed, Hesham M; Rotondo, Michael F; Gracias, Vicente H

2013-01-01

307

A Case-Control Study of the Role of Human Papillomavirus in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Australia  

PubMed Central

Objective. We investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues compared to oesophageal tissue from healthy controls, in an Australian cohort. Methods. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 99 patients with OSCC and 100 healthy controls to examine the presence of HPV DNA. Paraffin tissues were tested using the PapType high-risk HPV detection and genotyping kit and with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra. The biopsy samples were tested for HPV using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 consensus primer set PGMY09-PGMY11. Results. HPV DNA of the oncogenic genotype 16 was detected in 1/99 case specimens, a rate of 1010 per 100,000 (95% CI: 30–5500). All control specimens were negative for HPV. Significantly higher rates of smoking, other aerodigestive cancers, and mortality were seen among cases than controls. A pooled analysis of this study and the only other Australian case-control study found that 9/321 cases and 0/155 controls were positive for HPV. The pooled odds ratio for HPV being a risk factor for OSCC was 9.35 (95% CI: 0.47–190.33). Conclusion. Our results suggest that in this multifactorial cancer HPV may be an additional risk factor; although a larger, better powered study is needed. PMID:24872815

Liyanage, Surabhi S.; Malik, Aisha; Garland, Suzanne M.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Rahman, Bayzidur; Barbour, Andrew P.; Crowe, Philip J.; MacIntyre, C. Raina

2014-01-01

308

De Novo Malignancy Post Liver Transplantation: A Single Center, Population Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Background With the growing numbers of liver transplant recipients, it is increasingly important to understand the risks of de novo malignancy after liver transplantation. Aim To characterize the incidence of de novo malignancy after liver transplantation compared to a control non-transplant population. Methods We studied 534 Indiana state residents undergoing liver transplantation at our center between 1997 and 2004, followed through August 2010 The incidence and predictors of malignancy were determined. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of cancer in our cohort was compared to age, gender and period matched state population using the Indiana State Cancer Registry. Results After a mean follow up of 5.7 ± 3.2 years, 73 patients (13.7%) developed 80 cancers, with 5 and 10 year incidence rates of 11.7%, and 24.8%, respectively. These included 24 (30%) skin, 16 (20%) hematologic and 40 (50%) solid tumors. The most common solid cancers were aerodigestive. Compared to matched state population, liver transplant recipients had significantly higher incidence of all cancers (SIR:3.1, 95%CI:2.9–3.2), skin (melanoma) (SIR:5.8, 95%CI:4.7–7.0), hematologic (SIR:7.1, 95%CI:6.3–8.0), and solid (SIR:2.7, 95%CI:2.5–2.8) tumors. Conclusion There is a significantly increased risk of de novo malignancies after liver transplantation, highlighting the need for surveillance strategies in this population. PMID:23808800

Chatrath, Hemant; Berman, Kenneth; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Slaven, James; Kwo, Paul; Tector, A Joseph; Chalasani, Naga; Ghabril, Marwan

2013-01-01

309

New Insights into the Enigma of Immunoglobulin D  

PubMed Central

Summary Immunoglobulin D (IgD) has remained a mysterious antibody class for almost half a century. IgD was initially thought to be a recently evolved Ig isotype expressed only by some mammalian species, but recent discoveries in fishes and amphibians demonstrate that IgD was present in the ancestor of all jawed vertebrates and has important immunological functions. The structure of IgD has been very dynamic throughout evolution. Mammals can express IgD through alternative splicing and class switch recombination (CSR). Active cell-dependent and T-cell-independent IgM-to-IgD class switching takes place in a unique subset of human B cells from the upper aerodigestive mucosa, which provides a layer of mucosal protection by interacting with many pathogens and their virulence factors. Circulating IgD can bind to myeloid cells such as basophils and induce antimicrobial, inflammatory, and B-cell-stimulating factors upon cross-linking, which contributes to immune surveillance but also inflammation and tissue damage when this pathway is overactivated under pathological conditions. Recent research shows that IgD is an important immunomodulator that orchestrates an ancestral surveillance system at the interface between immunity and inflammation. PMID:20727035

Chen, Kang; Cerutti, Andrea

2011-01-01

310

Otolaryngologic manifestations of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.  

PubMed

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is characterized by formation of large cervical osteophytes that may compress the posterior wall of the aerodigestive tract. It is a rare cause of dysphagia in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the various otolaryngologic manifestations of DISH. Eleven elderly patients with DISH were included in the study. All patients presented with dysphagia that was graded on the swallowing screening tool (EAT-10), and the diagnosis of DISH was based on computed tomographic criteria. The patients were subjected to otolaryngologic examination and flexible laryngoscopy. Polysomnography was used for patients with excessive daytime sleepiness for detection of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In addition to dysphagia of varying severity, OSA was found in nine patients, change of voice in six, globus sensation in seven, aspiration in three, and cervical pain in seven. Flexible laryngoscopy showed bulging of the posterior pharyngeal wall in all patients. DISH may be an unrecognized contributory factor to both dysphagia and OSA in the elderly. Change of voice, aspiration, globus sensation, and cervical pain are other otolaryngologic manifestations that may be encountered symptoms of the disease. An otolaryngologist should be aware of the disease that may be overlooked, and computed tomography is a confirmatory diagnostic method. PMID:24264765

Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; Azab, Noha A; Rashed, Mohammed; Talaat, Ahmed

2014-06-01

311

Otolaryngologic symptoms in persons exposed to World Trade Center dust and particle pollutants: a case for caution in declaring a diagnosis of WTC syndrome.  

PubMed

Since the Sept. 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center (WTC), the health status of survivors, rescue and cleanup workers, and residents of Lower Manhattan has been monitored. Exposure to dust and particulate matter resulted in numerous complaints of both upper and lower aerodigestive tract irritation. The symptoms, diagnoses, and management of affected persons have previously been described in the literature. However, evidence establishing causation is scarce, especially with regard to the purported long-term effects of such exposure. Many persons who were exposed to the Ground Zero site have otolaryngologic conditions that are common in persons who were not so exposed. Therefore, otolaryngologists involved in the care of such patients should be cautious about assigning a diagnosis of "WTC syndrome" without a comprehensive examination to look for other possible etiologies. A diagnosis of a treatable, potentially serious health problem should not be missed simply because a patient who was exposed to WTC irritants was presumed to have WTC syndrome. In this review, we discuss the reported otolaryngologic manifestations of exposure to the WTC site, and we describe the specific cases of 2 workers there who continue to have otolaryngologic complaints. Considerable research is needed to establish the existence and nature of any long-term sequelae of exposure to WTC fallout. PMID:19688717

Chandran, Swapna K; Hawkshaw, Mary J; Sataloff, Robert T

2009-08-01

312

[Sternoclavicular dislocations: clinical and therapeutic study. A report of 9 cases].  

PubMed

Sterno-clavicular dislocations represent an uncommon pathology in shoulder trauma. The authors describe the anatomical and clinical forms observed between January 1999 and December 2002, and evaluate the treatment process. The retrospective study addressed 9 patients (men only) with an average age of 26.6. Based on the duration of the consulting period, one could distinguish old forms from more recent ones. Diagnosis would help to see anterior forms from posterior forms. Evaluation criteria were: pain, mobility of the shoulder, visibility of the deformation of the sterno-clavicular joint. Six types of anterior dislocations were listed, including 4 recent and 2 old ones. There were 3 recent posterior forms. The anterior recent forms, which were treated in orthopedics, showed a positive evolution. As there was no functional disability, it was wiser to refrain from any treatment of the anterior old forms. The posterior forms, two of them were operated (osteosynthesis) revealed no functional deficit after treatment. However, one of the patients had a broken implant. Scanner facilitated the diagnosis of sterno-clavicular dislocations. The anterior forms, which are more frequent and benign, are different from the posterior forms, which are emergency cases due to the proximity of the aero-digestive and cardiovascular elements. Their surgical stabilization requires techniques related to ligamentoplasty rather than using osteo-synthesis equipment which may move away or break off. PMID:15779137

Sy, M H; Ndiaye, A; Dieme, C; Konate, I; Ndiaye, A S; Sane, A; Diarra, O; Dansokho, A; Ndiaye, M; Seye, S

2004-01-01

313

Correlation of Glottal Closure Using Concurrent Ultrasonography and Nasolaryngoscopy in Children: A Novel Approach to Evaluate Glottal Status  

PubMed Central

Objectives Endoscopic procedures to assess aerodigestive symptoms by evaluating glottal motion are not practical in neonates because of small nares, respiratory difficulties, or additional stress. Our objective was to determine the temporal correlation between concurrent nasolaryngoscopy (NLS) and ultrasonography (USG) evaluation of glottal motion. Methods Simultaneous USG of the glottis was performed in 10 subjects (5 males, 5 females, age = 4.5 months to 7.1 years) that underwent diagnostic flexible outpatient NLS. The USG transducer was placed on the anterior neck at the level of the vocal cords. The video signals from NLS and USG were integrated and synchronized into real-time cine loops of 1-min duration. Results Frame-by-frame evaluation of 10,800 frames identifying glottal opening and closure time was compared between the two modalities by three observers and the timing of glottal closure was marked. Two investigators, blinded to NLS images, identified ultrasonographically determined glottal closure with 99% and 100% accuracy, and the mean probability of missing a closure frame was 0.007 (95% CI = 0.0008–0.024). Conclusions Temporal characteristics of glottal motion can be quantified by USG with perfect reliability and safety. This method can be useful in measuring the presence and the duration of laryngeal adduction. PMID:16786412

Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.; Gupta, Alankar; Stoner, Erin; Coley, Brian D.; Wiet, Gregory J.; Shaker, Reza

2014-01-01

314

Successful imatinib therapy of neuroendocrine carcinoma with activating KIT mutation: a case study  

PubMed Central

Neuroendocrine (NET) and gastro-intestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are believed to originate from the cells of Cajal [1-3] that are randomly dispersed along the aero-digestive tract. Despite distinct morphological appearance, NET and GIST may share oncogenic mechanisms. Presenting often in the metastatic setting, treatment options for patients with NET are limited. We are reporting a case of a patient with refractory metastatic NET who did not respond conventional chemotherapy. The patient was treated with a KIF11 inhibitor in a Phase I clinical trial and had a prolonged and clinically meaningful partial response. Upon progression at 20 months, the patient’s tumor was sequenced to reveal a KIT exon 11 mutation. Institution of imatinib therapy achieved a rapid and sustained anti-tumor effect with profound clinical benefit. Despite previously reported KIT expression in NET, this is the first documented case of an activating KIT mutation in NET and of successful treatment with both a KIF11 inhibitor and imatinib, each of which was elucidated through molecular profiling of the patient's tumor. Imatinib may be a valuable therapy in NET harboring activating KIT mutations. PMID:24925195

Perkins, James; Boland, Patrick; Cohen, Steven J.; Olszanski, Anthony; Zhou, Yan; Engstrom, Paul; Astsaturov, Igor

2014-01-01

315

Mutagen sensitivity as measured by induced chromatid breakage as a marker of cancer risk.  

PubMed

Risk assessment is now recognized as a multidisciplinary process, extending beyond the scope of traditional epidemiologic methodology to include biological evaluation of interindividual differences in carcinogenic susceptibility. Modulation of environmental exposures by host genetic factors may explain much of the observed interindividual variation in susceptibility to carcinogenesis. These genetic factors include, but are not limited to, carcinogen metabolism and DNA repair capacity. This chapter describes a standardized method for the functional assessment of mutagen sensitivity. This in vitro assay measures the frequency of mutagen-induced breaks in the chromosomes of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Mutagen sensitivity assessed by this method has been shown to be a significant risk factor for tobacco-related maladies, especially those of the upper aerodigestive tract. Mutagen sensitivity may therefore be a useful member of a panel of susceptibility markers for defining high-risk subgroups for chemoprevention trials. This chapter describes methods for and discusses results from studies of mutagen sensitivity as measured by quantifying chromatid breaks induced by clastogenic agents, such as the ?-radiation mimetic DNA cross-linking agent bleomycin and chemicals that form so-called bulky DNA adducts, such as 4-nitroquinoline and the tobacco smoke constituent benzo[a]pyrene, in short-term cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. PMID:24623229

Wu, Xifeng; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Hsu, T C

2014-01-01

316

Influenza and SARS-Coronavirus Activating Proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT Are Expressed at Multiple Sites in Human Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Tracts  

PubMed Central

The type II transmembrane serine proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT activate influenza viruses and the SARS-coronavirus (TMPRSS2) in cell culture and may play an important role in viral spread and pathogenesis in the infected host. However, it is at present largely unclear to what extent these proteases are expressed in viral target cells in human tissues. Here, we show that both HAT and TMPRSS2 are coexpressed with 2,6-linked sialic acids, the major receptor determinant of human influenza viruses, throughout the human respiratory tract. Similarly, coexpression of ACE2, the SARS-coronavirus receptor, and TMPRSS2 was frequently found in the upper and lower aerodigestive tract, with the exception of the vocal folds, epiglottis and trachea. Finally, activation of influenza virus was conserved between human, avian and porcine TMPRSS2, suggesting that this protease might activate influenza virus in reservoir-, intermediate- and human hosts. In sum, our results show that TMPRSS2 and HAT are expressed by important influenza and SARS-coronavirus target cells and could thus support viral spread in the human host. PMID:22558251

Gierer, Stefanie; Danisch, Simon; Perin, Paula; Lucas, Jared M.; Nelson, Peter S.; Pohlmann, Stefan; Soilleux, Elizabeth J.

2012-01-01

317

A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs include healthcare for methemoglobinemia, purchase of bottled water, and installation and maintenance of the groundwater monitoring system. At current methemoglobinemia and bottled water costs of 150/person and 0.6/baby/day, the decision tree results show that the expected cost of establishing the proposed groundwater quality monitoring network exceeds the expected costs of the uninformed alternatives and there is no value to the information the monitoring system provides. However, the monitoring system will be preferred to ignoring the health risk or using alternative sources if the methemoglobinemia cost rises to 300/person or the bottled water cost increases to 2.3/baby/day. Similarly, the monitoring system has value if the system can more accurately report actual aquifer concentrations and the public more fully abides by manager recommendations to use/not use the aquifer. The system also has value if it will serve a larger population or if its installation costs can be reduced, for example using a smaller number of monitoring wells. The VOI analysis shows how monitoring system design, accuracy, installation and operating costs, public awareness of health risks, costs of alternatives, and demographics together affect the value of implementing a system to monitor groundwater quality.

Khader, A. I.; Rosenberg, D. E.; McKee, M.

2013-05-01

318

Pulmonary vessel segmentation utilizing curved planar reformation and optimal path finding (CROP) in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for CAD applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately under suboptimal conditions, such as vessels occluded by PEs, surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases, and crossing with other vessels. In this study, we developed a new vessel refinement method utilizing curved planar reformation (CPR) technique combined with optimal path finding method (MHES-CROP). The MHES segmented vessels straightened in the CPR volume was refined using adaptive gray level thresholding where the local threshold was obtained from least-square estimation of a spline curve fitted to the gray levels of the vessel along the straightened volume. An optimal path finding method based on Dijkstra's algorithm was finally used to trace the correct path for the vessel of interest. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOIs) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 32.9+/-10.2% using the MHES method to 9.9+/-7.9% using the MHES-CROP method. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (p<0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the segmented vessel volume between the automated segmentation and the reference standard was improved from 0.919 to 0.988. Quantitative comparison of the MHES method and the MHES-CROP method with the reference standard was also evaluated by the Bland-Altman plot. This preliminary study indicates that the MHES-CROP method has the potential to improve PE detection.

Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Guo, Yanhui; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A.

2012-03-01

319

Tissue stresses and strain in trabeculae of a canine proximal femur can be quantified from computer reconstructions.  

PubMed

A quantitative assessment of bone tissue stresses and strains is essential for the understanding of failure mechanisms associated with osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, loosening of implants and cell-mediated adaptive bone-remodeling processes. According to Wolff's trajectorial hypothesis, the trabecular architecture is such that minimal tissue stresses are paired with minimal weight. This paradigm at least suggests that, normally, stresses and strains should be distributed rather evenly over the trabecular architecture. Although bone stresses at the apparent level were determined with finite element analysis (FEA), by assuming it to be continuous, there is no data available on trabecular tissue stresses or strains of bones in situ under physiological loading conditions. The objectives of this project were to supply reasonable estimates of these quantities for the canine femur, to compare trabecular-tissue to apparent stresses, and to test Wolff's hypothesis in a quantitative sense. For that purpose, the newly developed method of large-scale micro-FEA was applied in conjunction with micro-CT structural measurements. A three-dimensional high-resolution computer reconstruction of a proximal canine femur was made using a micro-CT scanner. This was converted to a large-scale FE-model with 7.6 million elements, adequately refined to represent individual trabeculae. Using a special-purpose FE-solver, analyses were conducted for three different orthogonal hip-joint loading cases, one of which represented the stance-phase of walking. By superimposing the results, the tissue stress and strain distributions could also be calculated for other force directions. Further analyses of results were concentrated on a trabecular volume of interest (VOI) located in the center of the head. For the stance phase of walking an average tissue principal strain in the VOI of 279 strain was found, with a standard deviation of 212 microstrain. The standard deviation depended not only on the hip-force magnitude, but also on its direction. In more than 95% of the tissue volume the principal stresses and strains were in a range from zero to three times the averages, for all hip-force directions. This indicates that no single load creates even stress or strain distributions in the trabecular architecture. Nevertheless, excessive values occurred at few locations only, and the maximum tissue stress was approximately half the value reported for the tissue fatigue strength. These results thus indicate that trabecular bone tissue has a safety factor of approximately two for hip-joint loads that occur during normal activities. PMID:10052922

Van Rietbergen, B; Müller, R; Ulrich, D; Rüegsegger, P; Huiskes, R

1999-02-01

320

Tissue stresses and strain in trabeculae of a canine proximal femur can be quantified from computer reconstructions.  

PubMed

A quantitative assessment of bone tissue stresses and strains is essential for the understanding of failure mechanisms associated with osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, loosening of implants and cell- mediated adaptive bone-remodeling processes. According to Wolff's trajectorial hypothesis, the trabecular architecture is such that minimal tissue stresses are paired with minimal weight. This paradigm at least suggests that, normally, stresses and strains should be distributed rather evenly over the trabecular architecture. Although bone stresses at the apparent level were determined with finite element analysis (FEA), by assuming it to be continuous, there is no data available on trabecular tissue stresses or strains of bones in situ under physiological loading conditions. The objectives of this project were to supply reasonable estimates of these quantities for the canine femur, to compare trabecular-tissue to apparent stresses, and to test Wolff's hypothesis in a quantitative sense. For that purpose, the newly developed method of large-scale micro-FEA was applied in conjunction with micro-CT structural measurements. A three-dimensional high-resolution computer reconstruction of a proximal canine femur was made using a micro-CT scanner. This was converted to a large-scale FE-model with 7.6 million elements, adequately refined to represent individual trabeculae. Using a special-purpose FE-solver, analyses were conducted for three different orthogonal hip-joint loading cases, one of which represented the stance-phase of walking. By superimposing the results, the tissue stress and strain distributions could also be calculated for other force directions. Further analyses of results were concentrated on a trabecular volume of interest (VOI) located in the center of the head. For the stance phase of walking an average tissue principal strain in the VOI of 279 strain was found, with a standard deviation of 212 microstrain. The standard deviation depended not only on the hip-force magnitude, but also on its direction. In more than 95% of the tissue volume the principal stresses and strains were in a range from zero to three times the averages, for all hip-force directions. This indicates that no single load creates even stress or strain distributions in the trabecular architecture. Nevertheless, excessive values occurred at few locations only, and the maximum tissue stress was approximately half the value reported for the tissue fatigue strength. These results thus indicate that trabecular bone tissue has a safety factor of approximately two for hip-joint loads that occur during normal activities. PMID:10213036

Van Rietbergen, B; Müller, R; Ulrich, D; Rüegsegger, P; Huiskes, R

1999-04-01

321

Effect of surrounding vasculature on intravoxel BOLD signal  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The nonlocal influence from distant magnetization will affect the magnetic field at a voxel in question. Existing reports on BOLD simulation only consider vasculature inside a single voxel, thus omitting the contribution from the surrounding regions. In this article, the authors study the effect of the surrounding vasculature on the magnetic field and the BOLD signal at a cortical voxel by numerical simulation. Methods: A cortical voxel is generated as a cubic bin filled with randomly networked capillary vessels. First, the authors generate a cortical voxel with a random vessel network and embed it in a greater voxel by filling its surrounding region with vasculatures by different strategies. Next, they calculate the blood-susceptibility-induced magnetic field (BOLD field) at the voxel of interest (VOI) by a Fourier transform technique for different surrounding scenarios and varying surrounding extent. The BOLD field inhomogeneity is described by a radial distribution with a collection of cubic shell masks. The surrounding extent is defined by a collection of concentric cubes, which encase the VOI. Given a BOLD field in the presence of surrounding vasculature, they calculate BOLD signals by intravoxel dephasing. Results: The influence from the surroundings on the BOLD field at a voxel in question mainly happens at the boundary. The most influence to the BOLD signal is from the inner surroundings. For a 160×160×160 ?m3 voxel embedded in a 480×480×480 ?m3 greater region, the surroundings could disturb the magnetic field by an amount in the range of [?0.002, 0.010] ppmT and could change the BOLD signal ratio in the range of [2.5%, 10%]. (These results were generated from the setting of ??bB0=3 ppmT, capillary={2.5,6,9} ?m, and relaxation time=60 ms). Conclusions: The surrounding vasculature will impose a magnetic field disturbance at the voxel in question due to the nonlocal influence of magnetization. Simulation results show that the surrounding vasculature significantly alters the magnetic field (up to 0.01 ppmT) and BOLD signal (typically no more than 10%) at the central voxel and thus should be considered in accurate BOLD modeling. PMID:20443500

Chen, Zikuan; Caprihan, Arvind; Calhoun, Vince

2010-01-01

322

Lower peripheral circulation in eumenorrheic young women with premenstrual symptoms  

PubMed Central

Background A majority of women from all cultures and socioeconomic levels experience diverse psychosomatic and behavioral symptoms premenstrually, a phenomenon commonly termed premenstrual syndrome, although symptoms and discomfort levels vary from woman to woman. The underlying pathological mechanisms of premenstrual syndrome remain unknown; however, altered function or even slight disorder of the blood circulation system, which contributes to the orchestrations of the human internal environment, could cause bio-psychological changes leading to complaints and ultimately compromising a woman's overall health. The present study, therefore, investigates to what extent and how the menstrual cyclicity of peripheral circulation is associated with premenstrual symptomatology. Methods Twenty-one eumenorrheic young women participated in this study. All subjects were investigated during the follicular and late luteal phases. Cycle phase was determined by the onset of menstruation and oral temperature and was verified by concentrations of ovarian hormones, estrone, and pregnanediol in a urine sample taken early in the morning. Peripheral circulation was evaluated with the Astrim (Sysmex, Kobe), a portable non-invasive monitoring device using the principle of near-infrared spectroscopy, which calculates the venous oxygenation index (VOI) based on the ratio of light absorption of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, a proven reliable indicator of peripheral blood circulation. The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was applied to measure physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms accompanying the menstrual cycle of the subjects. Results The oral temperature and urinary ovarian hormones adjusted for creatinine significantly increased in the late luteal phase in all subjects. While 10 subjects experienced no symptoms during the menstrual cycle, 11 subjects had apparent physical and psychological discomfort in the late luteal phase. We found that VOI decreased more significantly in the late luteal phase than in the follicular phase only in women with premenstrual discomfort although the symptoms were not unbearable enough to cause the disruption of daily activities. Conclusion Several models have tried to explain the etiopathogenesis of premenstrual syndrome. Although causes and consequences remain enigmatic, our data suggest that the peripheral circulation could alter in the luteal phase, which might be partly associated with premenstrual psychosomatic symptoms in eumenorrheic young women. PMID:17391537

Matsumoto, Tamaki; Ushiroyama, Takahisa; Tatsumi, Noriyuki

2007-01-01

323

Error analysis of tumor blood flow measurement using dynamic contrast-enhanced data and model-independent deconvolution analysis.  

PubMed

We performed error analysis of tumor blood flow (TBF) measurement using dynamic contrast-enhanced data and model-independent deconvolution analysis, based on computer simulations. For analysis, we generated a time-dependent concentration of the contrast agent in the volume of interest (VOI) from the arterial input function (AIF) consisting of gamma-variate functions using an adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model under various plasma flow (F(p)), mean capillary transit time (T(c)), permeability-surface area product (PS) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values. Deconvolution analyses based on truncated singular value decomposition with a fixed threshold value (TSVD-F), with an adaptive threshold value (TSVD-A) and with the threshold value determined by generalized cross validation (TSVD-G) were used to estimate F(p) values from the simulated concentration-time curves in the VOI and AIF. First, we investigated the relationship between the optimal threshold value and SNR in TSVD-F, and then derived the equation describing the relationship between the threshold value and SNR for TSVD-A. Second, we investigated the dependences of the estimated F(p) values on T(c), PS, the total duration for data acquisition and the shape of AIF. Although TSVD-F with a threshold value of 0.025, TSVD-A with the threshold value determined by the equation derived in this study and TSVD-G could estimate the F(p) values in a similar manner, the standard deviation of the estimates was the smallest and largest for TSVD-A and TSVD-G, respectively. PS did not largely affect the estimates, while T(c) did in all methods. Increasing the total duration significantly improved the variations in the estimates in all methods. TSVD-G was most sensitive to the shape of AIF, especially when the total duration was short. In conclusion, this study will be useful for understanding the reliability and limitation of model-independent deconvolution analysis when applied to TBF measurement using an extravascular contrast agent. PMID:17473352

Murase, Kenya; Miyazaki, Shohei

2007-05-21

324

Changes in Functional Integration with the Non-Epileptic Temporal Lobe of Patients with Unilateral Mesiotemporal Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate epilepsy-induced changes in effective connectivity between the non-epileptic amygdalo-hippocampal complex (AHC) and the rest of the brain in patients with unilateral mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Methods Thirty-three patients with unilateral MTLE associated with HS (20 females, mean age: 36 years, 19 left HS) and 33 adult controls matched for age and gender underwent 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Right-HS patients' FDG-PET data were flipped to obtain a left–epileptic–focus–lateralized group of patients. Voxels of interest (VOI) were selected within the cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of the non-epileptic AHC (probability level ?=?100%, SPM8 Anatomy toolbox v1.7). Patients and controls were compared using VOI metabolic activity as covariate of interest to search for epilepsy-induced changes in the contribution of the non-epileptic AHC to the level of metabolic activity in other brain areas. Age, gender, duration of epilepsy, seizure type and frequency were used as covariates of no-interest for connectivity analyses. Key findings Significant decrease in effective connectivity was found between the non-epileptic AHC and ventral prefrontal cortical areas bilaterally, as well as with the temporal pole and the posterior cingulate cortex contralateral to HS. Significant increase in connectivity was found between the non-epileptic AHC and midline structures, such as the anterior cingulate and dorsal medial prefrontal cortices, as well as the temporo-parietal junction bilaterally. Connectivity analyses also revealed a preserved positive connectivity between the non-epileptic and the epileptic AHC in the patients' group. Significance This study evidences epilepsy-induced changes in connectivity between the non-epileptic AHC and some limbic and default mode network areas. These changes in connectivity probably account for emotional, cognitive and decision-making impairments frequently observed in MTLE patients. The preserved neurometabolic connectivity between the non-epileptic and the epileptic AHC in MTLE patients is pivotal to explain the epilepsy-induced changes found in this study. PMID:23818976

Trotta, Nicola; Goldman, Serge; Legros, Benjamin; Baete, Kristof; Van Laere, Koen; Van Bogaert, Patrick; De Tiège, Xavier

2013-01-01

325

Ressources en ligne en pédiatrie  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ Question Depuis les dernières années, les parents d’enfants que je vois en clinique font souvent des recherches en ligne concernant des questions médicales. Dans quelle mesure les ressources en ligne sontelles fiables dans le domaine de la pédiatrie et quels conseils puis-je donner aux parents qui s’informent en ligne concernant la santé de leurs enfants? Réponse Le recours à Internet pour trouver des renseignements médicaux a connu une hausse dramatique au cours de la dernière décennie, y compris dans le domaine de la pédiatrie. Les quantités énormes d’information sont sources de confusion autant pour les parents que pour les professionnels de la santé et les moteurs généraux de recherche n’ont pas ce qu’il faut pour permettre de discerner les renseignements fiables de ceux qui sont biaisés. Les médecins peuvent élaborer des sites web présentant des renseignements fiables, conseiller les parents sur les façons de cerner les sources d’information dignes de confiance et donner des exemples de sites web à consulter sur des sujets reliés à la santé des enfants.

Goldman, Ran D.

2014-01-01

326

A fully automated method for tissue segmentation and CSF-correction of proton MRSI metabolites corroborates abnormal hippocampal NAA in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe the implementation and application of a fully automated segmentation routine using SPM99 algorithms and MATLAB for clinical Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) studies. By segmenting high-resolution 3-D image data and coregistering the results to the spatial localizer slices of a spectroscopy examination, the program offers the possibility to easily calculate segmentation maps for a large variety of MRSI experiments. The segmented data are corrected for the individual point-spread function, slice and VOI profiles for measurement sequences with selective pulses as well as for the chemical shifts of different metabolites. The new method was applied to investigate discrete hippocampal metabolite abnormalities in a small sample of schizophrenic patients in comparison to healthy controls (15 patients, 15 controls). Only after correction was the N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) signal significantly lower in patients compared to controls. No differences were found for the corrected signals from the creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr) or choline-containing compounds (Ch). These results are in good agreement with neuropathological and previous MR spectroscopy studies of the hippocampus in schizophrenic patients. PMID:11969317

Weber-Fahr, W; Ende, G; Braus, D F; Bachert, P; Soher, B J; Henn, F A; Büchel, C

2002-05-01

327

Papillome invers?: ?tude r?trospective ? propos de 22 cas  

PubMed Central

Le papillome inversé est une tumeur bénigne naso-sinusienne rare, marquée par une forte agressivité locale, un taux élevé de récidive après chirurgie et un risque imprévisible d'association à un carcinome épidermoïde. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective de 22 cas de papillome inversé, colligés entre janvier 2000 et décembre 2012 au service d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et chirurgie cervico-faciale de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. L'objectif de ce travail est d’étudier le profil épidémiologique, clinique, endoscopique, radiologique, thérapeutique et évolutif du papillome inversé. Le sex-ratio a été de 3,7 en faveur du sexe masculin avec une moyenne d’âge de 44 ans et un pic de fréquence entre la quatrième et la cinquième décade. Les symptômes cliniques ont été dominés par l'obstruction nasale. Le bilan radiologique faisant appel au couple TDM et IRM naso-sinusiennes constitue un moyen essentiel pour le diagnostic positif et dans choix de la technique opératoire. La voie vestibulaire sous labiale de Rouge Denker a été utilisée chez 4 patients, 12 patients ont bénéficié d'une chirurgie endoscopique endonasale et 6 patients d'une combinaison des deux voies précédentes. Cinq patients ont eu une récidive du papillome inversé, après un délai moyen de 26 mois. PMID:25161752

Chihani, Mehdi; Nadour, Karim; Touati, Mohamed; Darouassi, Youssef; Ammar, Haddou; Bouaity, Brahim

2014-01-01

328

Road map to a patient-centered research agenda at the intersection of hospital medicine and geriatric medicine.  

PubMed

As the United States ages, the patient population in acute care hospitals is increasingly older and more medically complex. Despite evidence of a high burden of disease, high costs, and often poor outcomes of care, there is limited understanding of the presentation, diagnostic strategies, and management of acute illness in older adults. In this paper, we present a strategy for the development of a research agenda at the intersection of hospital and geriatric medicine. This approach is informed by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) framework for identification and prioritization of research areas, emphasizing input from patients and caregivers. The framework's four components are: 1) Topic generation, 2) Gap Analysis in Systematic Review, 3) Value of information (VOI) analysis, and 4) Peer Review. An inclusive process for topic generation requiring the systematic engagement of multiple stakeholders, especially patients, is emphasized. In subsequent steps, researchers and stakeholders prioritize research topics in order to identify areas that optimize patient-centeredness, population impact, impact on clinical decision making, ease of implementation, and durability. Finally, next steps for dissemination of the research agenda and evaluation of the impact of the patient-centered research prioritization process are described. PMID:24557516

Wald, Heidi L; Leykum, Luci K; Mattison, Melissa L P; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Meltzer, David O

2014-06-01

329

[Development of an automated patient recognition method for chest CT images using a template-matching technique].  

PubMed

If patient information, such as identification number or patient name, has been entered incorrectly in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment, the image may be stored in the wrong place. To prevent such cases of misfiling, we have developed an automated patient recognition system for chest CT images. The image database consisted of 100 cases with present and previous chest CT images. A volume of interest (VOI) measuring 40 × 40 pixels was selected from the left lung region, bronchus region, and right lung region. Next, the overall lung region and these three regions in a current chest CT image were used as a template for determining the residual value with the corresponding four regions in previous chest CT images. To ensure separation between the same and different patients, we applied a combined analysis that employed the ruled-based plus artificial neural network (ANN) method. The overall performance of the method developed was examined in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The performance of the rule-based plus ANN method using a combination of the four regions was higher than obtained using a rule-based method using these four regions separately. The automated patient recognition system using the rule-based plus ANN method achieved an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.987. This automated patient recognition method for chest CT images is promising for helping to retrieve misfiled patient images, especially in a PACS environment. PMID:25327422

Okumura, Eiichiro; Aridome, Kazushige; Iwakiri, Chika; Oda, Kenji; Nakamura, Keita; Yamamoto, Masateru

2014-10-01

330

Capsules de d?tersif ? lessive et empoisonnement p?diatrique  

PubMed Central

Résumé Question Une fillette de 4 ans est amenée à l’urgence car elle vomissait après avoir avalé une capsule de détersif à lessive (CDL) trouvée chez elle sous l’évier. Quel est le risque d’empoisonnement par des CDL? Quel traitement donne-t-on à ces enfants? Réponse Les capsules de détersif à lessive sont relativement nouvelles sur les étagères des supermarchés nord-américains et on constate une émergence de rapports de cas dans les ouvrages médicaux décrivant l’empoisonnement aux CDL, qui est plus grave que l’empoisonnement par d’autres détergents à lessive. On en sait très peu à propos des mécanismes causant ces réactions sévères qui incluent une atteinte aux voies aériennes et la perforation de l’œsophage, mais l’apparence attrayante de ces capsules et leur accessibilité facile à la maison préoccupent les gouvernements et les responsables de la santé au sujet de la hausse des empoisonnements. Aucun problème résiduel n’a été associé avec ces cas jusqu’à présent, mais des recherches plus approfondies sont nécessaires pour évaluer les effets à long terme.

Bonney, Asha G.; Mazor, Suzan; Goldman, Ran D.

2013-01-01

331

Ulc?rations buccales et p?ri-anales: un mode de r?v?lation inhabituel d'une granulomatose avec polyang?ite - ? propos d'un cas  

PubMed Central

La granulomatose avec polyangéite, est une vascularite systémique rare qui touche avec prédilection les voies aériennes supérieures, les poumons et les reins. L'atteinte cutanéo-muqueuse ainsi que l'atteinte digestive ne sont pas inhabituelles mais elles sont rarement inaugurales de la maladie. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une femme âgée de 57 ans, ayant une granulomatose avec polyangéite multi-systémique avec comme premières manifestations une atteinte cutanéo-muqueuse à type de nécrose de la langue et d'ulcérations péri-anales ainsi que des rectorragies. La présence de signes radiologiques orientant vers une hémmorragie intra-alvéolaire, l'atteinte rénale, l'atteinte neurologique périphérique ainsi que la positivité des C-ANCA de type anti-PR3 ont permis de rattacher les manifestations dermatologiques à cette vascularite. Des manifestations cutanéo-muqueuses atypiques, au cours d'une granulomateuse avec polyangéite, doivent être connues par le clinicien pour un diagnostic et une prise en charge adéquate.

Jaafoura, Neirouz Ghannouchi; Thaljaoui, Wathek; Atig, Amira; Bouker, Ahmed; Khalifa, Mabrouk; Bahri, Fathi

2014-01-01

332

Histogram analysis reveals a better delineation of tumor volume from background in 18F-FET PET compared to CBV maps in a hybrid PET-MR studie in gliomas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anatomical imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the method of first choice for diagnostic investigation of glial tumors. However, different MR sequences may over- or underestimate tumor size and thus it may not be possible to delineate tumor from adjacent brain. In order to compensate this confinement additonal MR sequences like perfusion weighted MRI (PWI) with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) or positron emission tomography (PET) with aminoacids are used to gain further information. Recent studies suggest that both of theses image modalities provide similar diagnostic information. For comparison tumor to brain ratios (TBR) with mean and maximum values are frequently used but results from different studies can often not be checked against each other. Furthermore, especially the maximum TBR in rCBV is at risk to be falsified by artifacts (e.g. blood vessels). These confinements are reduced by the use of histograms since all information of the VOIs are equally displayed. In this study we measured and compared the intersection of tumor and reference tissue histograms in 18F-FET PET and rCBV maps in glioma patients.

Filss, Christian P.; Stoffels, Gabriele; Galldiks, Norbert; Sabel, Michael; Wittsack, Hans J.; Coenen, Heinz H.; Shah, Nadim J.; Herzog, Hans; Langen, Karl-Josef

2014-01-01

333

Prolonged rote learning produces delayed memory facilitation and metabolic changes in the hippocampus of the ageing human brain  

PubMed Central

Background Repeated rehearsal is one method by which verbal material may be transferred from short- to long-term memory. We hypothesised that extended engagement of memory structures through prolonged rehearsal would result in enhanced efficacy of recall and also of brain structures implicated in new learning. Twenty-four normal participants aged 55-70 (mean = 60.1) engaged in six weeks of rote learning, during which they learned 500 words per week every week (prose, poetry etc.). An extensive battery of memory tests was administered on three occasions, each six weeks apart. In addition, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to measure metabolite levels in seven voxels of interest (VOIs) (including hippocampus) before and after learning. Results Results indicate a facilitation of new learning that was evident six weeks after rote learning ceased. This facilitation occurred for verbal/episodic material only, and was mirrored by a metabolic change in left posterior hippocampus, specifically an increase in NAA/(Cr+Cho) ratio. Conclusion Results suggest that repeated activation of memory structures facilitates anamnesis and may promote neuronal plasticity in the ageing brain, and that compliance is a key factor in such facilitation as the effect was confined to those who engaged fully with the training. PMID:19930568

2009-01-01

334

Anatomical-Functional Correlative Analysis Of The Human Brain Using Three Dimensional Imaging Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative interpretation of functional images (PET or SPECT) is hampered by poor spatial resolution, low counting statistics and, for many tracers, low contrast between different brain structures of interest. Further, normal tracer distributions can be severely distorted by such gross pathologies as stroke, tumor and dementia. Hence, the complementary anatomical information provided by CT or MRI is essential for accurate and reproducible regional analysis of functional data. We have developed methods for the three-dimensional integration and simultaneous display of image volumes from MRI and PET. PET data was collected from an older Therascan 3-slice scanner with 12 mm resolution and a 15-slice Scanditronix PC-2048 system having 5-6 mm resolution in each dimension. MRI data was obtained from a Philips 1.5 Tesla Gyroscan scanner. The image volumes were loaded into a PIXAR 3-D image computer for simultaneous display. A general algorithm for finding the optimal transformation between two ensembles of equivalent points was implemented and investigated through simulation studies. Using a locally-developed 3-D image/graphics analysis package, equivalent points in the two image volumes were identified, either manually or via an adjustable computerized volume-of-interest (VOI) atlas. The MRI data were then re-sampled along planes parallel to the PET planes and the two volumes overlaid using opacity-weighted composition. Arbitrary oblique planes through the two volumes were obtained in interactive sessions.

Evans, Alan C.; Marrett, Sean; Collins, D. L.; Peters, Terence M.

1989-05-01

335

Shimming with permanent magnets for the x-ray detector in a hybrid x-ray/MR system  

PubMed Central

In this x-ray?MR hybrid system an x-ray flat panel detector is placed under the patient cradle, close to the MR volume of interest (VOI), where the magnetic field strength is ?0.5 T. Immersed in this strong field, several electronic components inside the detector become magnetized and create an additional magnetic field that is superimposed on the original field of the MR scanner. Even after linear shimming, the field homogeneity of the MR scanner remains disrupted by the detector. The authors characterize the field due to the detector with the field of two magnetic dipoles and further show that two sets of permanent magnets (NdFeB) can withstand the main magnetic field and compensate for the nonlinear components of the additional field. The ideal number of magnets and their locations are calculated based on a field map measured with the detector in place. Experimental results demonstrate great promise for this technique, which may be useful in many settings where devices with magnetic components need to be placed inside or close to an MR scanner. PMID:18841840

Wen, Zhifei; Fahrig, Rebecca; Williams, Scott T.; Pelc, Norbert J.

2008-01-01

336

La biogen?se des m?lanosomes  

PubMed Central

Les mélanocytes situés à la base de l’épiderme produisent des mélanosomes qui sont transférés aux kératinocytes pour assurer la pigmentation de l’épiderme et sa photoprotection contre les rayons ultraviolets. Les mélanosomes, organites apparentés aux lysosomes, sont le lieu de synthèse et de stockage d’un pigment, la mélanine. Leur formation dépend de protéines mélanosomales qui transitent par les voies de biosynthèse et d’endocytose et exploitent les mécanismes moléculaires du trafic intracellulaire. Les acteurs moléculaires impliqués dans le transport des protéines mélanosomales et la biogenèse des mélanosomes sont la cible de mutations dans des maladies génétiques accompagnées d’hypopigmentation comme l’albinisme et les maladies lysosomales. Les études menées sur les mélanocytes issus de souris modèles de ces maladies permettent de comprendre certaines des étapes-clés de la mélanogenèse ainsi que les dysfonctionnements associés à ces pathologies. De plus, décrypter la mélanogenèse facilite également la compréhension d’autres processus physiologiques, comme l’illustrent les similitudes inattendues avec l’amyloïdogenèse dans les maladies neurodégénératives. PMID:21382323

Delevoye, Cedric; Giordano, Francesca; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graca

2012-01-01

337

La prise en charge ? long terme de l'asthme chez les enfants inuits et des Premi?res nations : un outil de transfert du savoir fond? sur les lignes directrices canadiennes pour l'asthme p?diatrique, con?u pour ?tre utilis? par les professionnels de la sant? de premi?re ligne qui travaillent dans des communaut?s isol?es  

PubMed Central

L’asthme est un grave problème de santé pour les enfants inuits et des Premières nations. Chez les enfants de moins d’un an, il faut distinguer l’asthme de la bronchiolite virale, anormalement fréquente chez les enfants autochtones du Canada. Chez les enfants de moins de six ans, le diagnostic dépend de la présence de symptômes classiques, de l’absence de caractéristiques atypiques et de la consignation de la réponse au traitement, notamment la réponse rapide et transitoire aux bronchodilatateurs. Chez les enfants plus âgés, il faut, dans la mesure du possible, déterminer la présence d’une obstruction réversible des voies aériennes par spirométrie afin de confirmer le diagnostic, ainsi qu’évaluer et corriger les déclencheurs environnementaux. L’utilisation régulière de corticoïdes en aérosol est la principale mesure à prendre pour maintenir un bon contrôle de l’asthme chez les enfants asthmatiques. Les clients et leur famille devraient recevoir une formation sur l’asthme. Il faut réévaluer régulièrement le contrôle aux visites de suivi dans des centres de santé et rajuster le traitement à la dose la plus basse possible pour le maintien de ce contrôle.

Kovesi, Tom; Giles, Brenda Louise; Pasterkamp, Hans

338

Image characterization metrics for muon tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muon tomography uses naturally occurring cosmic rays to detect nuclear threats in containers. Currently there are no systematic image characterization metrics for muon tomography. We propose a set of image characterization methods to quantify the imaging performance of muon tomography. These methods include tests of spatial resolution, uniformity, contrast, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and vertical smearing. Simulated phantom data and analysis methods were developed to evaluate metric applicability. Spatial resolution was determined as the FWHM of the point spread functions in X, Y and Z axis for 2.5cm tungsten cubes. Uniformity was measured by drawing a volume of interest (VOI) within a large water phantom and defined as the standard deviation of voxel values divided by the mean voxel value. Contrast was defined as the peak signals of a set of tungsten cubes divided by the mean voxel value of the water background. SNR was defined as the peak signals of cubes divided by the standard deviation (noise) of the water background. Vertical smearing, i.e. vertical thickness blurring along the zenith axis for a set of 2 cm thick tungsten plates, was defined as the FWHM of vertical spread function for the plate. These image metrics provided a useful tool to quantify the basic imaging properties for muon tomography.

Luo, Weidong; Lehovich, Andre; Anashkin, Edward; Bai, Chuanyong; Kindem, Joel; Sossong, Michael; Steiger, Matt

2014-05-01

339

Photoreflectance et Photoconductivite des Couches Minces de Antimoinure de Indium Deposees Sur Arsenure de Gallium Par Pulverisation Cathodique avec Magnetron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'attrait d'un systeme d'imagerie infrarouge integre, ou les detecteurs et l'electronique peuvent etre construits sur la meme gaufre, a motive l'etude de couches minces d'antimoniure d'indium (InSb) deposees sur des substrats d'arseniure de gallium (GaAs). La croissance epitaxiale de ces couches minces a ete realisee par pulverisation cathodique avec magnetron, en utilisant une approche multi -cibles (MSE) ou sous atmosphere d'un organometallique (MOMS). Malgre la grande difference des mailles cristallines des deux semiconducteurs, la qualite des couches minces est bonne et s'ameliore avec l'epaisseur, comme le demontrent les mesures de diffraction des rayons-X, d'effets Raman et Hall, et de microscopie electronique a transmission et a balayage. Les spectres de photoconductivite resolus en energie et en temps des couches deposees par MOMS ont demontre la coexistence de deux phenomenes de photoconduction en presence d'absorption interbande. Pour les energies de photon inferieures a environ 0.35 eV, la photoconductivite usuelle, due au piegeage rapide du porteur minoritaire excedentaire, est observee. Cependant, pour les energies superieures, une composante negative plus lente coexiste avec la composante positive. Elle est due au piegeage d'electrons chauds generes optiquement, dans les echantillons de type n, par des centres situes a haute energie, principalement dans la region de l'interface. Les mesures de photoreflectance dans la region des transitions E_1 et E _1 + Delta_1 ont ete realisees sur des couches deposees par MSE et des echantillons massifs de InSb. Les variations des elargissements de lignes spectrales ont confirme l'amelioration des couches avec l'epaisseur. De plus, l'analyse des lignes spectrales indique la presence d'effets excitoniques. La photoreflectance dans les echantillons massifs de haute purete de InSb a mis en evidence la presence d'une resonance sous les transitions etudiees. L'allure de la ligne spectrale, la position en energie et l'elargissement de la transition sont en accord avec les predictions des modeles theoriques pour un exciton de point de selle.

Beaulieu, Yves

340

Acoustic Emissions, Velocities And Permeability Evolution During Formation Of Compaction Bands In Sandstone.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compaction bands are zones of localized deformation observed in high porosity rock (Mollema et al. [1996], Klein et al. [2001], Fortin et al. [2003]). These planar bands form perpendicular to the direction of maximum compression. Compaction bands display significantly reduced porosity and are potentially important permeability barriers in reservoir rocks and aquifers. To investigate localized compaction and changes in physical properties of porous sandstone, we performed triaxial tests on Bleurswiller sandstone, (50% quartz 30% feldspars and 20% clay, 25% porosity), on Fontainebleau sandstone (100% quartz, 25% porosity) and on Flechtingen sandstone (65-75% quartz, calcite and illite 15%, porosity 5.5-7%). Experiments were performed under wet conditions at a pore pressure of 10 MPa. Thirteen experiments were performed at the Laboratoire de Geologie (Ecole Normal Superieur Paris) and at GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. Evolution of volumetric strain, elastic wave velocities and permeability were recorded at confining pressures of 12 and 180 MPa. Acoustic Emission (AE) characteristics during deformation were studied at GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. To monitor velocity change and microcracking of sandstone, 10 P-wave sensors and 8 polarized S-wave piezoelectric sensors were glued to the cylindrical surface of the samples. To monitor fracture-induced anisotropy, two additional P sensors were installed in axial direction. Fully digitized waveforms were recorded by 10 MHz/16bit Data Acquisition System with an accuracy of AE hypocenters determination of about 2.5 mm. Location of acoustic emission events reveal the evolution of localized compaction bands in sandstone subjected to axial compression. The formation of the bands depends on rock type and effective pressure. Our experiments show a reduction of permeability across compaction bands by about one to two orders of magnitude (Vajdova et al. [2004]; Holcomb et al., [2003]) suggesting that the bands may act as barriers to fluid flow in porous rocks. Samples were first subjected to increasing confining pressure and subsequently loaded axially. During hydrostatic compression, elastic wave velocities first increased up to 10% due to crack closure and compaction. After onset of axial loading, transverse velocities decreased by 10%-20% owing to induced crack damage and depending on rock type and confining pressure. Axial velocity component first increased slightly with increasing mean stress and dropped to starting value.

Fortin, J.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Schubnel, A.; Gueguen, Y.

2004-12-01

341

Conception, fabrication et validation d'un capteur de direction instantanee d'ecoulement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Flow Direction Probe was designed and built at the Thermo-Fluids for Transport (TFT) laboratory of Ecole de technologie superieure to enable the study of instantaneous flow reversals in a turbulent separation bubble. The probe's general form is based on the thermal-tuft probe introduced by Eaton et al. (1979). It consists of three parallel wires (one central wire and two sensing wires placed on each side) mounted close to the test surface, perpendicular to the main flow direction. The middle wire is heated by an electric current which generates a heated wake. The heated wake increases the electrical resistance of the sensing wire that is placed downstream of the central wire. Therefore, the flow direction near the wall can be determined by comparing the resistances of the two sensing wires. For that purpose, the two sensing wires are mounted in a Wheatstone bridge and a signal conditioning circuitry, which is a simplification of the one proposed by Eaton et al. (1979), delivers an output voltage that is readable by a digital data acquisition system (1 if the flow moves downstream and 0 otherwise). Therefore, the fraction of time the flow moves downstream (gamma) and the intermittent frequency (fc) can easily be computed. The probe measurement's principle has been evaluated in an acoustic resonator by generating an oscillating flow at about 200Hz. The probe was shown to be in good agreement with the acoustic reference velocity. Then, the signal conditioner performances have been tested by simulating an oscillating flow at 20Hz thanks to a mechanical shaker. A small delay has been highlighted between the sign change of the voltage across the bridge and the actual commutation of the output signal. However, this delay didn't infer the value of gamma. Finally, the probe has been implemented in the TFT's wind tunnel facility where a pressure-driven turbulent separation bubble had been created. The distributions of gamma and fc have been measured below the test surface and were in accordance with oil film visualizations.

Schwaab, Quentin

342

Processus mis en jeu dans l'evolution morpho-dynamique de Roberts Bank (Delta du Fraser): Observation et modelisation hydrodynamiques et sedimentaires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roberts Bank couvre le delta intertidal entre le bras principal du fleuve Fraser et la pointe du Cap Roberts en Colombie Britannique, Canada. Sous la pression du developpement urbain et la modification du regime sedimentaire, cette plage de sable fin est soumise a une erosion significative. L'identification des forces hydrodynamiques, leur importance et leur interaction permettent de determiner les zones de transport, et donc la stabilite de Roberts Bank. Deux periodes de mesures associees a des phases de modelisation de la houle et des courants ont ete effectuees lors de ce travail. La premiere periode de mesure, entre le 29 juin et le 8 juillet 2001, a permis l'identification de processus hydrodynamiques et sedimentaires associes aux forts courants de maree presents le long de Roberts Bank. La seconde phase de mesure, entre le 1er mars et le 26 mars 2002, a permis d'etudier les processus de remise en suspension associes a la houle. Des phases de modelisation ont ete menees a partir des connaissances acquises sur le terrain, afin d'affiner la comprehension des processus sedimentaires et notamment les interactions houle - courant - sediment. Les mecanismes, mis en evidence dans cette etude, participent au faconnage de Roberts Bank, contribuent a son erosion et a la mise en place de nouvelles structures sedimentaires. Les courants de flot de maree vont initier la creation de nuages de resuspension de sediment depuis le fond. En eau peu profonde, la composante " onshore" du courant de maree induit un transport a la cote, tandis qu'en eau plus profonde une faible composante " offshore" du courant peut favoriser un transport au large le long de la pente. Les chenaux, les dunes subaquatiques et les surfaces d'erosion affleurantes fournissent une rugosite de fond suffisante a la generation de turbulence et donc de nuages de sediment en suspension. Lors de la maree de jusant, les sediments resuspendus en eau peu profonde, sont transportes vers le large a partir d'un panache de surface et par les chenaux deltaiques. Une forte turbulence favorisera un processus dit de "sedimentation convective induite par un melange turbulent" ("mixing-induced convective sedimentation "). Le comportement des vagues de tempete qui se propagent sur la partie superieure de la pente du Delta du Fraser depend du marnage, de l'incidence de propagation et de la morphologie sous-marine. Ces facteurs controlent une divergence dans le transport sedimentaire au niveau de la rupture de pente deltaique. A maree haute, le transport sedimentaire sera essentiellement "onshore".

Meule, Samuel

343

Physics in France Circa 1850-1914; its National Organisation, Characteristics and Content.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The thesis begins with an examination of what was understood by the term 'physics' in France circa. 1850. The development of the centralised state educational system and the physics research which was produced within this system in Paris and the provinces, is then considered. Although all the relevant institutions, where some form of physics or physical science was taught, have been examined, the Ecole Polytechnique, and the Ecole Normale Superieure have a particular importance in the early period of this study. As time passed and as a result of reforms put in hand by the republican regime which came out of the defeat of the Franco -Prussian war of 1870-71, the universite system grew in importance, while the role of the Polytechnique declined. The Ecole Normale, the Paris Faculty and the provincial faculties form part of the universite system and participated in its growth. A knowledge of the objectives of the physics courses in these institutions helps in the understanding of the characteristics of physics in France in this period. The central objective was, largely, to produce either science teachers, or (in the case of the Polytechnique), a type of elite 'technocrat', for the state, i.e. men who could communicate clearly, or technically utilise knowledge, which was already established on a firm theoretical basis. This is not to say that research had no place in the institutions of higher education, on the contrary, and this research, carried out by both teachers and students, is examined here to try to relate its form and content to the particular institution in which it was carried out. The role of national organisations like the Societe de physique and the Association Francaise pour l'avancement des sciences in the development of physics in France is also considered, as is the role of the Academie des sciences. The predominantly experimental nature of physics research in France is related to the interests of these organisations, to the requirements of the licence programme, and to the increasingly fierce competition for membership of the physics section of the Academie.

Davis, John L.

1990-01-01

344

Utilisation de la Fibre a Deux Coeurs Non-Lineaire dans les Lasers EN Fibre et Lignes de Transmission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'utilisation des proprietes non-lineaires de la fibre optique a deux coeurs identiques constitue l'objet de cette etude numerique. Les effets non-lineaires dans les fibres optiques ainsi que la theorie des modes couples sont abordes pour decrire le comportement de la fibre a deux coeurs non-lineaire. On a d'abord analyse les proprietes de transmission d'une telle fibre autour de la puissance critique lorsqu'elle est recouplee a elle-meme dans une configuration Sagnac pour differentes valeurs de dispersion. Nous avons observe des effets simultanes de compression et de filtrage non-lineaire des impulsions injectees. On a ensuite considere configuration de laser en fibre incluant une fibre a deux coeurs comme element passif de synchronisation modale adjoint a un mileu amplificateur externe ayant une largeur de gain finie. On a demontre qu'il etait possible de generer ainsi des solitons fondamentaux de puissance variable et ce, avec tres peu d'ondes dispersives. Ces solitons possedent un spectre qui est de l'ordre de grandeur de la largeur du milieu de gain du laser et ils ne sont amplifies que faiblement a chaque passage. La combinaison d'une fibre a deux coeurs et d'un milieu de gain de largeur de bande finie peut egalement etre utilisee pour controler certains effets non-lineaires d'ordre superieur comme l'auto -glissement en frequence du soliton (diffusion Raman intra -impulsion) qui deplace le spectre d'un soliton vers les basses frequences. Pour une certaine plage de parametres on obtient une stabilisation periodique du deplacement en frequence du soliton. La zone de stabilite correspondant a une longueur de fibre de l'ordre de quelques kilometres et a une duree de soliton d'environ deux a cinq picosecondes. Un tel dispositif semble bien adapte pour la transmission d'information par solitons sur de longues distances dans un nouveau regime d'operation. Enfin, tout au long de l'ouvrage, on retrouve des analyses reliees a des systemes deja existants et on situe les resultats de nos travaux dans le cadre des resultats obtenus par d'autres groupes.

Essiambre, Rene-Jean

345

Conception de lois de pilotage robustes et sequencement de gains par l'approche de systemes lineaires a parametres variants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette recherche s'inscrit dans le cadre du projet de recherche Active Control Technology entre l'Ecole de Technologie Superieure et le constructeur Bombardier Aeronautique . Le but est de concevoir des strategies de commandes multivariables et robustes pour des modeles dynamiques d'avions. Ces strategies de commandes devraient assurer a l'avion une haute performance et satisfaire des qualites de vol desirees en l'occurrence, une bonne manoeuvrabilite, de bonnes marges de stabilite et un amortissement des mouvements phugoides et rapides de l'avion. Dans un premier temps, nous nous sommes principalement interesses aux methodes de synthese LTI et plus exactement a l'approche Hinfinity et la mu-synthese. Par la suite, nous avons accorde un interet particulier aux techniques de commande LPV. Pour mener a bien ce travail, nous avons envisage une approche frequentielle, typiquement Hinfinity. Cette approche est particulierement interessante, dans la mesure ou le modele de synthese est construit directement a partir des differentes specifications du cahier des charges. En effet, ces specifications sont traduites sous forme de gabarits frequentiels, correspondant a des ponderations en entree et en sortie que l'on retrouve dans la synthese Hinfinity classique. Par ailleurs, nous avons utilise une representation de type lineaire fractionnelle (LFT), jugee mieux adaptee pour la prise en compte des differents types d'incertitudes, qui peuvent intervenir sur le systeme. De plus, cette representation s'avere tres appropriee pour l'analyse de la robustesse via les outils de la mu-analyse. D'autre part, afin d'optimiser le compromis entre les specifications de robustesse et de performance, nous avons opte pour une structure de commande a 2 degres de liberte avec modele de reference. Enfin, ces techniques sont illustrees sur des applications realistes, demontrant ainsi la pertinence et l'applicabilite de chacune d'elle. Mots cles. Commande de vol, qualites de vol et manoeuvrabilite, commande robuste, approche Hinfinity , mu-synthese, systemes lineaires a parametres variants, sequencement de gains, transformation lineaire fractionnelle, inegalite matricielle lineaire.

Hentabli, Kamel

346

Delineating Metabolic Signatures of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Phospholipase A2, a Potential Therapeutic Target  

PubMed Central

A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in malignant transformation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is essential for the development of novel and efficient anti-cancer drugs. To delineate the global metabolism of HNSCC, we report 1H NMR-based metabolic profiling of HNSCC cells from five different patients that were derived from various sites of the upper aerodigestive tract, including the floor of mouth, tongue and larynx. Primary cultures of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK) from three different donors were used for comparison. 1H NMR spectra of polar and non-polar extracts of cells were used to identify more than thirty-five metabolites. Principal component analysis performed on the NMR data revealed a clear classification of NHOK and HNSCC cells. HNSCC cells exhibited significantly altered levels of various metabolites that clearly revealed dysregulation in multiple metabolic events, including Warburg effect, oxidative phosphorylation, energy metabolism, TCA cycle anaplerotic flux, glutaminolysis, hexosamine pathway, osmo-regulatory and anti-oxidant mechanism. In addition, significant alterations in the ratios of phosphatidylcholine/lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphocholine/glycerophosphocholine, and elevated arachidonic acid observed in HNSCC cells reveal an altered membrane choline phospholipid metabolism (MCPM). Furthermore, significantly increased activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), particularly cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) observed in all the HNSCC cells confirm an altered MCPM. In summary, the metabolomic findings presented here can be useful to further elucidate the biological aspects that lead to HNSCC, and also provide a rational basis for monitoring molecular mechanisms in response to chemotherapy. Moreover, cPLA2 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for anti-cancer therapy of HNSCC. PMID:22743333

Tripathi, Pratima; Kamarajan, Pachiyappan; Somashekar, Bagganahalli S.; MacKinnon, Neil; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Kapila, Yvonne L.; Rajendiran, Thekkelnaycke M.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

2012-01-01

347

Volatile nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in the smoke of Thai cigarettes: a risk factor for lung cancer and a suspected risk factor for liver cancer in Thailand.  

PubMed

In Thailand, smoking of commercial cigarettes and of handmade cigarettes has drastically increased in recent decades. Cancer of the lung and of the upper aero-digestive tract have also increased in Thailand as they have in many other countries. It is our working hypothesis that the increase of primary cancer of the liver, especially of cholangiocarcinoma in the north-eastern provinces of Thailand is associated with the use of tobacco in men infested with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (OV). Bioassays have shown that volatile nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines induce cholangiocarcinoma in laboratory animals and that the hepatocarcinogenic action of nitrosodimethylamine in hamsters is significantly increased by infestation with the liver fluke OV. The endogenous formation of nitrosamines is significantly increased by OV infestation. This report presents analytical data on the concentration of volatile nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream smoke of nine leading brands of commercially produced Thai cigarettes which represent approximately 85% of the market share in Thailand. Observed ranges (ng/cigarette) were 8.5-31.9 for nitrosodimethylamine, 8.8-49.6 for nitrosopyrrolidine and 4.2-18.9 for nitrosodi-n-butylamine. These values are exceptionally high compared with the smoke of light and blended cigarettes from North America and Western Europe. Among the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, the range was 28-730 for nitrosonornicotine and 16-370 for 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. There was a correlation between volatile and tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and tar and nicotine deliveries in the mainstream smoke. The analytical data are in line with the rate for lung cancer and support our working hypothesis that nitrosamines, and especially the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, are associated with the increased risk for primary liver cancer among those Thai people who smoke cigarettes and also carry OV infestation. PMID:9934860

Mitacek, E J; Brunnemann, K D; Hoffmann, D; Limsila, T; Suttajit, M; Martin, N; Caplan, L S

1999-01-01

348

Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

1997-01-01

349

Identification of mutations in the PYRIN-containing NLR genes (NLRP) in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.  

PubMed

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) encompasses malignancies that arise in the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Recent high throughput DNA sequencing revealed HNSCC genes mutations that contribute to several cancer cell characteristics, including dysregulation of cell proliferation and death, intracellular proinflammatory signaling, and autophagy. The PYRIN-domain containing NLR (Nucleotide-binding domain, Leucine rich Repeats - containing) proteins have recently emerged as pivotal modulators of cell death, autophagy, inflammation, and metabolism. Their close physiologic association with cancer development prompted us to determine whether mutations within the NLRP (PYRIN-containing NLR) gene family were associated with HNSCC genome instability and their clinicopathologic correlations. Catastrophic mutational events underlie cancer cell genome instability and mark a point-of-no-return in cancer cell development and generation of heterogeneity. The mutation profiles of 62 patients with primary conventional type HNSCC excluding other histologic variants were analyzed. Associations were tested using Fisher's Exact test or Mann-Whitney U test. Mutations in NLRP were associated with elevated genome instability as characterized by higher mutation rates. Clinically, NLRP mutations were more frequently found in HNSCC arising in the floor of mouth (50.0%) in comparison with HNSCC at other head and neck locations (14.8%). These mutations were clustered at the leucine rich repeats region of NLRP proteins, and affected NLRP genes were mostly localized at chromosomes 11p15.4 and 19q13.42-19q13.43. Twenty novel NLRP mutations were identified in HNSCC, and mutations in this group of genes were correlated with increased cancer cell genome mutation rates, and such features could be a potential molecular biomarker of HNSCC genome instability. PMID:24465623

Lei, Yu; Lui, Vivian W Y; Grandis, Jennifer R; Egloff, Ann Marie

2014-01-01

350

Intranasal delivery of Norwalk virus-like particles formulated in an in-situ gelling, dry powder vaccine  

PubMed Central

The development of a vaccine to prevent norovirus infections has been focused on immunization at a mucosal surface, but has been limited by the low immunogenicity of self-assembling Norwalk virus-like particles (NV VLPs) delivered enterically or at nasal surfaces. Nasal immunization, which offers the advantage of ease of immunization, faces obstacles imposed by the normal process of mucociliary clearance, which limits residence time of applied antigens. Herein, we describe the use of a dry powder formulation (GelVac) of an inert in-situ gelling polysaccharide (GelSite) extracted from Aloe vera for nasal delivery of NV VLP antigen. Powder formulations, with or without NV VLP antigen, were similar in structure in dry form or when rehydrated in simulated nasal fluids. Immunogenicity of the dry powder VLP formulation was compared to equivalent antigen/adjuvant liquid formulations in animals. For the GelVac powder, we observed superior NV-specific serum and mucosal (aerodigestive and reproductive tracts) antibody responses relative to liquid formulations. Incorporation of TLR7 agonist gardiquimod in dry powder formulations did not enhance antibody responses, although its inclusion in liquid formulations did enhance VLP immunogenicity irrespective of the presence or absence of GelSite. We interpret these data as showing that GelSite-based dry powder formulations 1.) stabilize the immunogenic structural properties of VLPs and 2.) induce systemic and mucosal antibody titers which are equal or greater than those achieved by VLPs plus adjuvant in a liquid formulation. We conclude that in-situ gelation of the GelVac dry powder formulation at nasal mucosal surfaces delays mucociliary clearance and thereby prolongs VLP antigen exposure to immune effector sites. PMID:21640778

Velasquez, Lissette S.; Shira, Samantha; Berta, Alice N.; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Medi, Babu M.; Tizard, Ian; Ni, Yawei; Arntzen, Charles J.; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M.

2011-01-01

351

Prediagnostic serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers are correlated with future development of lung and esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

This study tests the hypothesis that prediagnostic serum levels of 20 cancer-associated inflammatory biomarkers correlate directly with future development of head and neck, esophageal, and lung cancers in a high-risk prospective cohort. This is a nested case-control pilot study of subjects enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study, an ongoing epidemiologic project assessing cancer trends in Golestan, Iran. We measured a panel of 20 21cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory molecules using Luminex technology in serum samples collected 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis in 78 aerodigestive cancer cases and 81 controls. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon rank sum test, odds ratios, receiver operating characteristic areas of discrimination, and multivariate analysis. Biomarkers were profoundly and globally elevated in future esophageal and lung cancer patients compared to controls. Odds ratios were significant for association between several biomarkers and future development of esophageal cancer, including interleukin-1R? (IL-1Ra; 35.9), interferon ?2 (IFN-a2; 34.0), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2; 17.4), and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF; 17.4). The same pattern was observed among future lung cancer cases for G-CSF (27.7), GM-CSF (13.3), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-a; 8.6). By contrast, the majority of biomarkers studied showed no significant correlation with future head and neck cancer development. This study provides the first direct evidence that multiple inflammatory biomarkers are coordinately elevated in future lung and esophageal cancer patients 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis. PMID:25040886

Keeley, Brieze R; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Pak, Jamie S; Brennan, Paul; Khademi, Hooman; Genden, Eric M; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Sikora, Andrew G

2014-09-01

352

Biological, diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of the MET receptor signaling in head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Head and neck cancer constitutes the 6th most common malignancy worldwide and affects the crucial anatomical structures and physiological functions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Classical therapeutic strategies such as surgery and radiotherapy carry substantial toxicity and functional impairment. Moreover, the loco-regional control rates as well as overall survival still need to be improved in subgroups of patients. The scatter-factor/hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase MET is an established effector in the promotion, maintenance and progression of malignant transformation in a wide range of human malignancies, and has been gaining considerable interest in head and neck cancer over the last 15 years. Aberrant MET activation due to overexpression, mutations, tumor-stroma paracrine loops, and cooperative/redundant signaling has been shown to play prominent roles in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, and responses to anti-cancer therapeutic modalities. Accumulating preclinical and translational evidence highly supports the increasing interest of MET as a biomarker for lymph node and distant metastases, as well as a potential marker of stratification for responses to ionizing radiation. The relevance of MET as a therapeutic molecular target in head and neck cancer described in preclinical studies remains largely under-evaluated in clinical trials, and therefore inconclusive. Also in the context of anti-cancer targeted therapy, a large body of preclinical data suggests a central role for MET in treatment resistance towards multiple therapeutic modalities in malignancies of the head and neck region. These findings, as well as the potential use of combination therapies including MET inhibitors in these tumors, need to be further explored. PMID:24786972

Nisa, Lluís; Aebersold, Daniel Matthias; Giger, Roland; Zimmer, Yitzhak; Medová, Michaela

2014-09-01

353

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for stage I-II natural killer/T-cell lymphoma nasal type: dosimetric and clinical results  

PubMed Central

Background This study was to compare radiotherapy treatment planning and treatment outcomes following three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in stage I-II natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma. Methods The cases of 94 patients with stage I-II NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type in the upper aerodigestive tract who treated between May 2005 and Dec 2008 were reviewed. These patients received radiotherapy with or without induction chemotherapy. Definitive radiotherapy was conducted using 3DCRT in 47 patients and IMRT in the other 47 patients with a regional field and a total dose of 50 Gy. Dosimetric pmeters of radiation treatment plans, local control probability (LCP), overall survival (OS), and toxicities were analyzed and compared between 3DCRT and IMRT. Results From the dosimetric analysis, IMRT demonstrated significantly better dose coverage and homogeneity than 3DCRT. However, after a median follow-up of 46 months, IMRT was not associated with improvements in 4y-OS (80.9% for 3DCRT vs. 82.7% for IMRT, p=0.87) or 4y-LCP (86.3% for 3DCRT vs. 88.9% for IMR p=0.85). Of the 18 patients who received cervical lymph node irradiation, those in the IMRT group received a lower mean parotid dose. Furthermore, at-risk organs were strictly kept within the safe dose range in both groups, and no severe late toxicity was observed. Conclusions IMRT provided better dose coverage than 3DCRT, although it failed to provide LCP and OS benefits. Definitive radiotherapy with a regional field and a total dose of 50 Gy is efficient and safe for NK/T-cell lymphoma using either IMRT or 3DCRT. However, IMRT may have the potential to reduce parotid gland hypofunction following cervical irradiation. PMID:23800149

2013-01-01

354

Association between Socioeconomic Factors and Cancer Risk: A Population Cohort Study in Scotland (1991-2006)  

PubMed Central

Background Lung and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer risk are associated with low socioeconomic circumstances and routinely measured using area socioeconomic indices. We investigated effect of country of birth, marital status, one area deprivation measure and individual socioeconomic variables (economic activity, education, occupational social class, car ownership, household tenure) on risk associated with lung, UADT and all cancer combined (excluding non melanoma skin cancer). Methods We linked Scottish Longitudinal Study and Scottish Cancer Registry to follow 203,658 cohort members aged 15+ years from 1991–2006. Relative risks (RR) were calculated using Poisson regression models by sex offset for person-years of follow-up. Results 21,832 first primary tumours (including 3,505 lung, 1,206 UADT) were diagnosed. Regardless of cancer, economically inactivity (versus activity) was associated with increased risk (male: RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.10–1.18; female: RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.11). For lung cancer, area deprivation remained significant after full adjustment suggesting the area deprivation cannot be fully explained by individual variables. No or non degree qualification (versus degree) was associated with increased lung risk; likewise for UADT risk (females only). Occupational social class associations were most pronounced and elevated for UADT risk. No car access (versus ownership) was associated with increased risk (excluding all cancer risk, males). Renting (versus home ownership) was associated with increased lung cancer risk, UADT cancer risk (males only) and all cancer risk (females only). Regardless of cancer group, elevated risk was associated with no education and living in deprived areas. Conclusions Different and independent socioeconomic variables are inversely associated with different cancer risks in both sexes; no one socioeconomic variable captures all aspects of socioeconomic circumstances or life course. Association of multiple socioeconomic variables is likely to reflect the complexity and multifaceted nature of deprivation as well as the various roles of these dimensions over the life course. PMID:24586838

Sharpe, Katharine H.; McMahon, Alex D.; Raab, Gillian M.; Brewster, David H.; Conway, David I.

2014-01-01

355

Expression of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) in neuroendocrine tumors & adenocarcinomas of pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and lung.  

PubMed

Human aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) was initially identified as an enzyme in reducing 5?-dihydrotestosterone (5?-DHT) to 5?-androstane-3?, 17?-diol (3?-diol) and oxidizing 3?-diol to androsterone. It was subsequently demonstrated to possess ketosteroid reductase activity in metabolizing other steroids including estrogen and progesterone, 11-ketoprostaglandin reductase activity in metabolizing prostaglandins, and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase x (DDx) activity in metabolizing xenobiotics. AKR1C3 was demonstrated in sex hormone-dependent tissues including testis, breast, endometrium, and prostate; in sex hormone-independent tissues including kidney and urothelium. Our previous study described the expression of AKR1C3 in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma but not in small cell carcinoma. In this report, we studied the expression of AKR1C3 in normal tissue, adenocarcinomas (43 cases) and neuroendocrine (NE) tumors (40 cases) arising from the aerodigestive tract and pancreas. We demonstrated wide expression of AKR1C3 in superficially located mucosal cells, but not in NE cells. AKR1C3-positive immunoreactivity was detected in 38 cases (88.4%) of adenocarcinoma, but only in 7 cases (17.5%) of NE tumors in all cases. All NE tumors arising from the pancreas and appendix and most tumors from the colon and lung were negative. The highest ratio of positive AKR1C3 in NE tumors was found in tumors arising from the small intestine (50%). These results raise the question of AKR1C3's role in the biology of normal mucosal epithelia and tumors. In addition, AKR1C3 may be a useful adjunct marker for the exclusion of the NE phenotype in diagnostic pathology. PMID:24228104

Chang, Theodore S; Lin, Hsueh-Kung; Rogers, Kyle A; Brame, Lacy S; Yeh, Matthew M; Yang, Qing; Fung, Kar-Ming

2013-01-01

356

Expression of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) in neuroendocrine tumors & adenocarcinomas of pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and lung  

PubMed Central

Human aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) was initially identified as an enzyme in reducing 5?-dihydrotestosterone (5?-DHT) to 5?-androstane-3?, 17?-diol (3?-diol) and oxidizing 3?-diol to androsterone. It was subsequently demonstrated to possess ketosteroid reductase activity in metabolizing other steroids including estrogen and progesterone, 11-ketoprostaglandin reductase activity in metabolizing prostaglandins, and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase x (DDx) activity in metabolizing xenobiotics. AKR1C3 was demonstrated in sex hormone-dependent tissues including testis, breast, endometrium, and prostate; in sex hormone-independent tissues including kidney and urothelium. Our previous study described the expression of AKR1C3 in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma but not in small cell carcinoma. In this report, we studied the expression of AKR1C3 in normal tissue, adenocarcinomas (43 cases) and neuroendocrine (NE) tumors (40 cases) arising from the aerodigestive tract and pancreas. We demonstrated wide expression of AKR1C3 in superficially located mucosal cells, but not in NE cells. AKR1C3-positive immunoreactivity was detected in 38 cases (88.4%) of adenocarcinoma, but only in 7 cases (17.5%) of NE tumors in all cases. All NE tumors arising from the pancreas and appendix and most tumors from the colon and lung were negative. The highest ratio of positive AKR1C3 in NE tumors was found in tumors arising from the small intestine (50%). These results raise the question of AKR1C3’s role in the biology of normal mucosal epithelia and tumors. In addition, AKR1C3 may be a useful adjunct marker for the exclusion of the NE phenotype in diagnostic pathology. PMID:24228104

Chang, Theodore S; Lin, Hsueh-Kung; Rogers, Kyle A; Brame, Lacy S; Yeh, Matthew M; Yang, Qing; Fung, Kar-Ming

2013-01-01

357

IgG4-Related Sclerosing Disease, an Emerging Entity: A Review of a Multi-System Disease  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin G4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) is a recently defined emerging entity characterized by a diffuse or mass forming inflammatory reaction rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with fibrosclerosis and obliterative phlebitis. IgG4-RSD usually affects middle aged and elderly patients, with a male predominance. It is associated with an elevated serum titer of IgG4, which acts as a marker for this recently characterized entity. The prototype is IgG4-related sclerosing pancreatitis or autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Other common sites of involvement are the hepatobiliary tract, salivary gland, orbit, and lymph node, however practically any organ can be involved, including upper aerodigestive tract, lung, aorta, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, soft tissue, skin, central nervous system, breast, kidney, and prostate. Fever or constitutional symptoms usually do not comprise part of the clinical picture. Laboratory findings detected include raised serum globulin, IgG and IgG4. An association with autoantibody detection (such as antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor) is seen in some cases. Steroid therapy comprises the mainstay of treatment. Disease progression with involvement of multiple organ-sites may be encountered in a subset of cases and may follow a relapsing-remitting course. The principal histopathologic findings in several extranodal sites include lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, lymphoid follicle formation, sclerosis and obliterative phlebitis, along with atrophy and destruction of tissues. Immunohistochemical staining shows increased IgG4+ cells in the involved tissues (>50 per high-power field, with IgG4/IgG ratio >40%). IgG4-RSD may potentially be rarely associated with the development of lymphoma and carcinoma. However, the nature and pathogenesis of IgG4-RSD are yet to be fully elucidated and provide immense scope for further studies. PMID:22187229

Divatia, Mukul; Kim, Sun A

2012-01-01

358

Non-invasive assessment of human tumour hypoxia with 123I-iodoazomycin arabinoside: preliminary report of a clinical study.  

PubMed Central

Non-invasive predictive assays which can confirm the presence or absence of hypoxic cells in human tumours show promise for understanding the natural history of tumour oxygenation, and improving the selection of patient subsets for novel radiotherapeutic strategies. Sensitiser adducts have been proposed as markers for hypoxic cells. Misonidazole analogues radiolabelled with iodine-123 have been developed for the detection of tumour hypoxia using conventional nuclear medicine techniques. In this pilot study, we have investigated one such potential marker, 123I-iodoazomycin arabinoside (123I-IAZA). Patients with advanced malignancies have undergone planar and single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging after intravenous administration of 123I-IAZA. We have observed radiotracer avidity in three out of ten tumours studied to date. Normal tissue activity of variable extent was also seen in the thyroid and salivary glands, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, intestine, and urinary bladder. Quantitative analysis of those images showing radiotracer avidity revealed tumour/normal tissue (T/N) ratios of 2.3 (primary small cell lung carcinoma), 1.9 (primary malignant fibrous histiocytoma) and 3.2 (brain metastasis from small cell lung carcinoma) at 18-24 h post injection. These preliminary data suggest that the use of gamma-emitter labelled 2-nitroimidazoles as diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals is feasible and safe, and that metabolic binding of 123I-IAZA is observed in some, but not all tumours. The inference that tumour 123I-IAZA avidity could be a non-invasive measure of tumour hypoxia deserves independent confirmation with needle oximetry. Images p92-a Figure 2 PMID:1310253

Parliament, M. B.; Chapman, J. D.; Urtasun, R. C.; McEwan, A. J.; Golberg, L.; Mercer, J. R.; Mannan, R. H.; Wiebe, L. I.

1992-01-01

359

Genetic variants at 4q23 and 12q24 are associated with head and neck cancer risk in China.  

PubMed

A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported significant associations of several novel genetic variants with risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers including head and neck cancer (HNC) in Europeans. However, these findings have not been confirmed in other populations including Chinese. According to the findings from the GWAS and other publications, we genotyped six genetic variants (rs1494961, rs1229984, rs1789924, rs971074, rs4767364, and rs671) in a case-control study with 397 HNC cases and 900 controls in China, by using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. We found that rs1229984 at 4q23 significantly increased the risk of HNC [dominant model: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.71; additive model: adjusted OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.04-1.50], while rs671 at 12q24 significantly decreased the risk of HNC (recessive model: adjusted OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.25-0.85). Furthermore, when these two loci were evaluated together by the number (0-4) of putative risk alleles (rs1229984 G and rs671 G), a significant locus-dosage effect was found between the groups and risk of HNC (Ptrend ?= 0.016). Compared with the "0-1" group, groups with "2" risk alleles and "3-4" risk alleles significantly increased the risk of HNC with adjusted ORs of 1.17 (95% CI = 0.84-1.64) and 1.51 (95% CI = 1.06-2.15), respectively. However, no significant association was detected between other four variants (rs1494961, rs1789924, rs971074, and rs4767364) and HNC risk. These findings suggest that rs1229984 at 4q23 and rs671 at 12q24 may serve as candidate markers for susceptibility to HNC in Chinese population. PMID:22674868

Yuan, Hua; Ma, Hongxia; Lu, Feng; Yuan, Zhiyao; Wang, Ruixia; Jiang, Hongbing; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Ning

2013-11-01

360

Assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of tissue-specific-based and anatomical-based optical biomarkers for rapid detection of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objectives We propose the use of morphological optical biomarkers for rapid detection of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by leveraging the underlying tissue characteristics in aerodigestive tracts. Materials and Methods Diffuse reflectance spectra were obtained from malignant and contra-lateral normal tissues of 57 patients undergoing panendoscopy and biopsy. Oxygen saturation, total hemoglobin concentration, and the reduced scattering coefficient were extracted. Differences in malignant and normal tissues were examined based on two different groupings: anatomical site and morphological tissue type. Results and Conclusions Measurements were acquired from 252 sites, of which 51 were pathologically classified as SCC. Optical biomarkers exhibited statistical differences between malignant and normal samples. Contrast was enhanced when parsing tissues by morphological classification rather than anatomical subtype for unpaired comparisons. Corresponding linear discriminant models using multiple optical biomarkers showed improved predictive ability when accounting for morphological classification, particularly in node-positive lesions. The false-positive rate was retrospectively found to decrease by 34.2% in morphologically- vs. anatomically-derived predictive models. In glottic tissue, the surgeon exhibited a false-positive rate of 45.7% while the device showed a lower false-positive rate of 12.4%. Additionally, comparisons of optical parameters were made to further understand the physiology of tumor staging and potential causes of high surgeon false-positive rates. Optical spectroscopy is a user-friendly, non-invasive tool capable of providing quantitative information to discriminate malignant from normal head and neck tissues. Predictive models demonstrated promising results for real-time diagnostics. Furthermore, the strategy described appears to be well suited to reduce the clinical false-positive rate. PMID:25037162

Beumer, H. Wolfgang; Puscas, Liana; Afshari, Hamid R.; Esclamado, Ramon M.; Scher, Richard; Fisher, Samuel; Lo, Justin; Mulvey, Christine; Ramanujam, Nirmala; Lee, Walter T.

2014-01-01

361

The neck mass.  

PubMed

Many head and neck disease processes are manifest as neck masses. These conditions are treated by surgical excision except for some inflammatory masses, and often those too must be excised before a diagnosis can be made. The real question is when to excise the lesion to expedite treatment in the most cost-effective manner. In general, when signs of inflammation are associated with the mass, antibiotic treatment with short-term observation is acceptable. Persistence of the mass or an increase in mass size during observation mandates for their evaluation. Biopsy of a mass is considered for progressive growth, isolated nature or asymmetry of the mass, location (supraclavicular), development of symptoms associated with lymphoma (fever and hypertrophy of the spleen, liver, or Waldeyer's ring), or static size (if > 3 cm). In the adult patient, a complete head and neck physical examination is mandatory before biopsy. Needle biopsy of the neck mass is the current standard of care if no cause of the mass is found on examination. Identified benign cystic lesions or lymphomas indicate a need for excision, either as definitive treatment or for diagnostic reasons. If results of the needle biopsy are positive, equivocal, or even negative in the presence of a high index of suspicion for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma, an endoscopic examination is mandatory before open excision. If no discrete lesion is seen, guided biopsy of the upper aerodigestive tract is performed. Open biopsy of the mass should be accompanied by a frozen-section examination of the mass. A concomitant definitive neck dissection should be performed if the mass proves to be metastatic carcinoma. PMID:9927971

McGuirt, W F

1999-01-01

362

Prophylactic cervical lymph node irradiation provides no benefit for patients of stage IE extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma, nasal type.  

PubMed

Radiation therapy (RT) may cure many patients with stage IE extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL), but the real benefit of prophylactic cervical node irradiation (PCNI) for this patient population has not been defined yet. We retrospectively reviewed 126 patients who were diagnosed as stage IE ENKTL and treated with chemoradiotherapy in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The RT dose was 36-72 Gy (median 54 Gy), with 1.8-2.0 Gy a day and 5 fractions each week. 35 patients (27.8 %) in this cohort received PCNI. At a median follow-up time of 94.59 months (range 14.59-182.08 months), the systemic failure rate and locoregional failure rate in patients with PCNI were 76.5 and 23.5 %, respectively, compared with 62.9 and 37.1 % in those without PCNI, and there was no significant difference between those two groups (P = 0.505). Whether patients received PCNI or not did not affect the survival outcome (P > 0.05). Also, PCNI did not improve the survival outcome for neither patients with primary tumor site localized to nasal cavity nor those localized to upper aerodigestive tract beyond nasal cavity (P > 0.05), and PCNI did not provide survival benefit for neither patients with local tumor invasion nor those without (P > 0.05). In conclusion, in a large cohort of 126 patients with stage IE ENKTL, we found that PCNI provided no benefit for PFS and OS, regardless of the primary tumor site or local tumor invasiveness. PMID:25429828

Wang, Liang; Xia, Zhong-Jun; Lu, Yue; Zhang, Yu-Jing

2015-01-01

363

Photodynamic therapy: a promising new modality for the treatment of cancer.  

PubMed

The first reports on photodynamic therapy (PDT) date back to the 1970s. Since then, several thousands of patients, both with early stage and advanced stage solid tumours, have been treated with PDT and many claims have been made regarding its efficacy. Nevertheless, the therapy has not yet found general acceptance by oncologists. Therefore it seems legitimate to ask whether PDT can still be described as "a promising new therapy in the treatment of cancer". Clinically, PDT has been mainly used for bladder cancer, lung cancer and in malignant diseases of the skin and upper aerodigestive tract. The sensitizer used in the photodynamic treatment of most patients is Photofrin, (Photofrin, the commercial name of dihematoporphyrin ether/ester, containing > 80% of the active porphyrin dimers/oligomers (A.M.R. Fisher, A.L. Murphee and C.J. Gomer, Clinical and preclinical photodynamictherapy, Review Series Article, Lasers Surg. Med., 17 (1995) 2-31). It is a complex mixture of porphyrins derived from hematoporphyrin. Although this sensitizer is effective, it is not the most suitable photosensitizer for PDT. Prolonged skin photosensitivity and the relatively low absorbance at 630 nm, a wavelength where tissue penetration of light is not optimal, have been frequently cited as negative aspects hindering general acceptance. A multitude of new sensitizers is currently under evaluation. Most of these "second generation photosensitizers" are chemically pure, absorb light at around 650 nm or greater and induce no or less general skin photosensitivity. Another novel approach is the photosensitization of neoplasms by the induction of endogenous photosensitizers through the application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). This article addresses the use of PDT in the disciplines mentioned above and attempts to indicate developments of PDT which could be necessary for this therapy to gain a wider acceptance in the various fields. PMID:8765658

Schuitmaker, J J; Baas, P; van Leengoed, H L; van der Meulen, F W; Star, W M; van Zandwijk, N

1996-06-01

364

Cigarette smoking, educational level and total and site-specific cancer: a cohort study in men in Lithuania.  

PubMed

Smoking is an established risk factor for cancer. However, most studies have been carried out on western populations, and less is known about the impact in central and eastern Europe. Our objective was to investigate the association between cigarette smoking, educational level and risk of cancer in a Lithuanian population-based cohort study. The study included 6976 men initially free from cancer. During the follow-up (1978-2008), 1780 cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). In addition, the burden of cancer attributable to smoking was assessed by the population attributable fraction. Following adjustment for age, education, alcohol consumption and BMI, for current compared with never smokers, highly significant and strongly elevated estimates were found for total (HR=1.79, 95% CI 1.59-2.02), tobacco-related (HR=2.52, 95% CI 2.16-2.95), upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) (HR=5.77, 95% CI 2.73-12.21), lung (HR=10.47, 95% CI 6.74-16.25), bladder (HR=3.31, 95% CI 1.71-6.41) and liver (HR=4.64, 95% CI 1.53-14.08) cancer. Findings suggest a lower risk of prostate cancer in current smokers. In addition, the occurrence of lung and UADT cancer was significantly elevated in men in the lowest educational attainment category. If smoking had not occurred, ?23% of total cancer, 37% of tobacco-related, 77% of lung, 58% of UADT, 43% of liver and 45% of bladder cancer cases could have been prevented in this cohort of men. Cancer-control strategies focused on reducing smoking should be a public health priority. PMID:24589745

Everatt, R?ta; Kuzmickien?, Irena; Virvi?i?t?, Dalia; Tamoši?nas, Abdonas

2014-11-01

365

Carnosol, a constituent of Zyflamend, inhibits aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transcription and mutagenesis.  

PubMed

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, plays a significant role in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced carcinogenesis. In the upper aerodigestive tract of humans, tobacco smoke, a source of PAHs, activates the AhR leading to increased expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which encode proteins that convert PAHs to genotoxic metabolites. Inhibitors of Hsp90 ATPase cause a rapid decrease in levels of AhR, an Hsp90 client protein, and thereby block PAH-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. The main objective of this study was to determine whether Zyflamend, a polyherbal preparation, suppressed PAH-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and inhibited DNA adduct formation and mutagenesis. We also investigated whether carnosol, one of multiple phenolic antioxidants in Zyflamend, had similar inhibitory effects. Treatment of cell lines derived from oral leukoplakia (MSK-Leuk1) and skin (HaCaT) with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a prototypic PAH, induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transcription, resulting in enhanced levels of message and protein. Both Zyflamend and carnosol suppressed these effects of B[a]P. Notably, both Zyflamend and carnosol inhibited Hsp90 ATPase activity and caused a rapid reduction in AhR levels. The formation of B[a]P-induced DNA adducts and mutagenesis was also inhibited by Zyflamend and carnosol. Collectively, these results show that Zyflamend and carnosol inhibit Hsp90 ATPase leading to reduced levels of AhR, suppression of B[a]P-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, and inhibition of mutagenesis. Carnosol-mediated inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase activity can help explain the chemopreventive activity of herbs such as Rosemary, which contain this phenolic antioxidant. PMID:22374940

Mohebati, Arash; Guttenplan, Joseph B; Kochhar, Amit; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Dannenberg, Andrew J

2012-04-01

366

Clinical significance of intensive endoscopic screening for synchronous esophageal neoplasm in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives. Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) often develop second primary tumors in the upper aerodigestive tract. Early detection of synchronous esophageal squamous cell neoplasm (ESCN) is important because the prognosis of HNSCC can be affected by the statuses of second primary tumors. Methods. In a prospective study, 308 patients with HNSCC were screened for synchronous ESCN between May 2010 and April 2012. All patients underwent conventional white-light endoscopic examination with Lugol chromoendoscopy and narrow band image. Results. The median age was 61 years (range, 26-87 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 4.2:1. Two hundred and thirty-four patients (76.0%) were current or ex-smokers, 207 patients (67.2%) had a history of alcohol consumption and 56 patients (18.2%) had previous history of cancer. Synchronous ESCN was detected in 22 patients (7.1%), and most patients were at an early stage. The locations of index HNSCC in these patients were as follows: hypopharynx (n = 12), larynx (n = 6), oropharynx (n = 2) and oral cavity (n = 2). Synchronous ESCN was detected in 25.5% (12/47) of hypopharyngeal cancer and in 27.8% (15/54) of HNSCC involving the pyriform sinus. Multivariate analysis showed that smoking (current smoker vs. never smoker, Odds Ratio [OR] 8.3, p = 0.028), a history of cancer (OR 5.0, p = 0.002) and pyriform sinus involvement (OR 9.2, p < 0.0001) increased the risk of developing synchronous ESCN. Conclusions. Patients with HNSCC, especially those who are current smokers, have a history of cancer and have pyriform sinus involvement, should undergo intensive endoscopic screening to detect synchronous ESCN. PMID:25372595

Kim, Do Hoon; Gong, Eun Jeong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Lim, Hyun; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin Ho; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon; Baek, Seunghee

2014-12-01

367

A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging  

PubMed Central

Quantitative Yttrium-90 (90Y) bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of90Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for90Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure-of-merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as90Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In90Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues, in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error (RMSE) of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were derived for calculating the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the VOI activity estimates, respectively. To obtain the optimal acquisition energy window for general situations of interest in clinical90Y microsphere imaging, we generated phantoms with multiple tumors of various sizes and various tumor-to-normal activity concentration ratios using a digital phantom that realistically simulates human anatomy, simulated90Y microsphere imaging with a clinical SPECT system and typical imaging parameters using a previously validated Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code, and used a previously-proposed method for modeling the image degrading effects in quantitative SPECT reconstruction. The obtained optimal acquisition energy window was 100–160 keV. The values of the proposed FOM were much larger than the FOM taking into account only the variance of the activity estimates, thus demonstrating in our experiment that the bias of the activity estimates due to model-mismatch was a more important factor than the variance in terms of limiting the reliability of activity estimates. PMID:22617760

Rong, Xing; Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C

2013-01-01

368

A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative Yttrium-90 (90Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of 90Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for 90Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as 90Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In 90Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were derived for calculating the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the VOI activity estimates, respectively. To obtain the optimal acquisition energy window for general situations of interest in clinical 90Y microsphere imaging, we generated phantoms with multiple tumors of various sizes and various tumor-to-normal activity concentration ratios using a digital phantom that realistically simulates human anatomy, simulated 90Y microsphere imaging with a clinical SPECT system and typical imaging parameters using a previously validated Monte Carlo simulation code, and used a previously proposed method for modeling the image degrading effects in quantitative SPECT reconstruction. The obtained optimal acquisition energy window was 100-160 keV. The values of the proposed FOM were much larger than the FOM taking into account only the variance of the activity estimates, thus demonstrating in our experiment that the bias of the activity estimates due to model-mismatch was a more important factor than the variance in terms of limiting the reliability of activity estimates.

Rong, Xing; Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C.

2012-06-01

369

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and cognition in patients with spastin mutations.  

PubMed

The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness in the lower limbs. Axonal loss in the long corticospinal tracts has been shown. Supraspinal symptoms and findings in the most common dominant HSP type, SPG4, support the theory that the disease also causes cerebral neuronal damage in specific parts of the brain. To investigate whether SPG4-HSP is associated with neuronal biochemical changes detectable on MR spectroscopy (MRS), single-voxel proton MRS of the brain was performed in eight subjects from four families with genetically confirmed SPG4-type HSP and eight healthy age-matched controls. Volumes of interest (VOI) were located in the frontal white matter and motor cortex. N-acetyl-aspartate-to-creatine ratio (NAA/Cr), N-acetyl-aspartate-to-choline (NAA/Cho), cholin to creatin (Cho/Cr) and myo-inositol-to-creatine (Ins/Cr) ratios were calculated for both locations. Neuropsychological tests were performed to support the neuroradiological findings. The Cho/Cr ratio in motor cortex (MC) of SPG4-HSP subjects was significantly lower than in controls. This reduction of the Cho/Cr ratio in SPG4 subjects was significantly associated with age-related verbal learning- and memory (CVLT) reduction. Our findings support involvement of motor cortex in SPG4-HSP. Proton MRS could be a useful tool for detecting metabolite abnormalities in areas of brain that appear normal on MRI. Cho/Cr ratio may be a marker of neurodegenerative process in SPG4-HSP. PMID:19084842

Erichsen, A K; Server, A; Landrø, N I; Sandvik, L; Tallaksen, C M E

2009-02-15

370

Phosphorus Spectroscopy of Calf Muscles before and after Exercise  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The aim of this study was to determine 31PMRS reference spectrum and intracellular pH of calf muscles in the dominant limb of healthy, young, male volunteers before and after intense physical effort. Material/Methods Examinations were performed with a 1.5 T MR system. FID CSI (Free Induction Decay Chemical Shift Imaging) sequence was used with the following parameters: TR=4000 ms, FA=90°, NEX=2 and VOI (Volume Of Interest)=8×8×8 cm3 (512 cm3) involving in calf muscles. Raw data was preprocessed using SAGE (GE) software. Authors analyzed relative concentrations ratios of selected metabolites: PCr/ATP and PCr/Pi. Intracellular pH and relative concentrations ratios of each metabolite (Pi, PCr, ?-ATP, ?-ATP, ?-ATP, ATP) were also calculated relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites. Results were compared with a t-test. Results Based on statistical analysis of results significant differences (p<0.05) were demonstrated for some of the studied metabolites and for intracellular pH. Increase in PCr concentration in relation to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites and to ATP concentration was noted. However, ?-ATP, ?-ATP and ATP concentrations relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites become reduced. Decrease in pH after physical effort was demonstrated. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) in concentrations of remaining metabolites before and after exercise. Increase in PCr concentration relative to Pi concentration and decrease of Pi and ?-ATP concentration relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites were demonstrated. Conclusions The 31PMRS method enables assessment of concentrations of phosphorus-containing metabolites as well as intercellular pH before and after exercise. This method is still under examination, but it has already shown promise as a diagnostic tool for the future. PMID:25276259

Wcislo, Bozena; Cichocka, Monika; Urbanik, Andrzej

2014-01-01

371

Using normalization 3D model for automatic clinical brain quantative analysis and evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional medical imaging, such as PET or SPECT, is capable of revealing physiological functions of the brain, and has been broadly used in diagnosing brain disorders by clinically quantitative analysis for many years. In routine procedures, physicians manually select desired ROIs from structural MR images and then obtain physiological information from correspondent functional PET or SPECT images. The accuracy of quantitative analysis thus relies on that of the subjectively selected ROIs. Therefore, standardizing the analysis procedure is fundamental and important in improving the analysis outcome. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a normalization procedure with a standard 3D-brain model to achieve precise quantitative analysis. In the normalization process, the mutual information registration technique was applied for realigning functional medical images to standard structural medical images. Then, the standard 3D-brain model that shows well-defined brain regions was used, replacing the manual ROIs in the objective clinical analysis. To validate the performance, twenty cases of I-123 IBZM SPECT images were used in practical clinical evaluation. The results show that the quantitative analysis outcomes obtained from this automated method are in agreement with the clinical diagnosis evaluation score with less than 3% error in average. To sum up, the method takes advantage of obtaining precise VOIs, information automatically by well-defined standard 3-D brain model, sparing manually drawn ROIs slice by slice from structural medical images in traditional procedure. That is, the method not only can provide precise analysis results, but also improve the process rate for mass medical images in clinical.

Lin, Hong-Dun; Yao, Wei-Jen; Hwang, Wen-Ju; Chung, Being-Tau; Lin, Kang-Ping

2003-05-01

372

Localization of language-related cortex with 15O-labeled water PET in patients with gliomas.  

PubMed

Measurement of relative cerebral blood flow (CBF) with 15O-labeled water PET has been widely used for brain mapping experiments on language functions in normal volunteers and patients with epilepsy. We focused on the question of whether PET during speech activation is an appropriate method for noninvasive determination of language-related cortex in patients with brain tumors. Furthermore, the suitability of the method for determination of hemispheric language dominance was examined and compared to the results of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Ten right-handed and six left-handed patients with gliomas were examined prior to surgery while repeatedly performing word repetition and verb generation tasks. A set of volumes of interest (VOIs) was drawn on coregistered MRI in order to account for anatomic variability as well as anatomical alterations due to tumor mass effect. Repetition of nouns did not produce significant hemispheric differences. During stimulation by verb generation, reliable lateralized activations of Broca's area and supplementary motor area were detected in all right-handed patients. Of the left-handed patients, two showed clear right lateralization, two activated Broca's area bilaterally, and two had a pattern similar to that of right-handers. Patients with bilateral activations showed the strongest tendency toward bihandedness according to the handedness inventory. Lateralization of supplementary motor area in left-handers corresponded to lateralized activity in Broca's area. Tumors in the vicinity of language-related regions did not alter activation responses. In conclusion, measurement of CBF changes during verb generation permits identification of language-related areas in patients with gliomas with strong lateralization related to hemispheric dominance. These findings may be of particular clinical interest for left-handed patients. PMID:9626669

Thiel, A; Herholz, K; von Stockhausen, H M; van Leyen-Pilgram, K; Pietrzyk, U; Kessler, J; Wienhard, K; Klug, N; Heiss, W D

1998-05-01

373

False positive reduction for lung nodule CAD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms 'automatically' identify lung nodules on thoracic multi-slice CT scans (MSCT) thereby providing physicians with a computer-generated 'second opinion'. While CAD systems can achieve high sensitivity, their limited specificity has hindered clinical acceptance. To overcome this problem, we propose a false positive reduction (FPR) system based on image processing and machine learning to reduce the number of false positive lung nodules identified by CAD algorithms and thereby improve system specificity. To discriminate between true and false nodules, twenty-three 3D features were calculated from each candidate nodule's volume of interest (VOI). A genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) were then used to select an optimal subset of features from this pool of candidate features. Using this feature subset, we trained an SVM classifier to eliminate as many false positives as possible while retaining all the true nodules. To overcome the imbalanced nature of typical datasets (significantly more false positives than true positives), an intelligent data selection algorithm was designed and integrated into the machine learning framework, thus further improving the FPR rate. Three independent datasets were used to train and validate the system. Using two datasets for training and the third for validation, we achieved a 59.4% FPR rate while removing one true nodule on the validation datasets. In a second experiment, 75% of the cases were randomly selected from each of the three datasets and the remaining cases were used for validation. A similar FPR rate and true positive retention rate was achieved. Additional experiments showed that the GA feature selection process integrated with the proposed data selection algorithm outperforms the one without it by 5%-10% FPR rate. The methods proposed can be also applied to other application areas, such as computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules.

Zhao, Luyin; Boroczky, Lilla; Drysdale, Jeremy; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Lee, Michael C.

2007-03-01

374

Warping of a computerized 3-D atlas to match brain image volumes for quantitative neuroanatomical and functional analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the implementation, experience and preliminary results obtained with a 3-D computerized brain atlas for topographical and functional analysis of brain sub-regions. A volume-of-interest (VOI) atlas was produced by manual contouring on 64 adjacent 2 mm-thick MRI slices to yield 60 brain structures in each hemisphere which could be adjusted, originally by global affine transformation or local interactive adjustments, to match individual MRI datasets. We have now added a non-linear deformation (warp) capability (Bookstein, 1989) into the procedure for fitting the atlas to the brain data. Specific target points are identified in both atlas and MRI spaces which define a continuous 3-D warp transformation that maps the atlas on to the individual brain image. The procedure was used to fit MRI brain image volumes from 16 young normal volunteers. Regional volume and positional variability were determined, the latter in such a way as to assess the extent to which previous linear models of brain anatomical variability fail to account for the true variation among normal individuals. Using a linear model for atlas deformation yielded 3-D fits of the MRI data which, when pooled across subjects and brain regions, left a residual mis-match of 6 - 7 mm as compared to the non-linear model. The results indicate a substantial component of morphometric variability is not accounted for by linear scaling. This has profound implications for applications which employ stereotactic coordinate systems which map individual brains into a common reference frame: quantitative neuroradiology, stereotactic neurosurgery and cognitive mapping of normal brain function with PET. In the latter case, the combination of a non-linear deformation algorithm would allow for accurate measurement of individual anatomic variations and the inclusion of such variations in inter-subject averaging methodologies used for cognitive mapping with PET.

Evans, Alan C.; Dai, Weiqian; Collins, D. Louis; Neelin, Peter; Marrett, Sean

1991-06-01

375

L'Infection Nosocomiale en Reanimation des Brules  

PubMed Central

Summary L'infection nosocomiale bactérienne étant l'une des principales causes de morbidité et de mortalité chez le brûlé, nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 84 patients hospitalisés au sein du service de réanimation des brûlés de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat, sur une période de 3 ans, du premier janvier 2001 au 31 décembre 2003. Les critères d'infection nosocomiale étaient ceux du Center for Disease Control d'Atlanta de 1988. Les taux d'incidence ont été calculés. La population infectée a été comparée à celle non infectée. L'écologie bactérienne du service a été décrite comme aussi l'antibiotype. Il ressort de cette étude la survenue de 87 infections nosocomiales chez 27 patients. L'incidence cumulative était de 103 infections pour 1000 jours de traitement. Pour ce qui est des caractéristiques des infections bactériennes, les sites infectés étaient la peau (77%), le sang (13,8%), les voies urinaires (8%) et les poumons (1,1%). Les principaux germes étaient: Staphylococcus sp. (33,3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23%), Enterococcus faecalis et Acinetobacter (8%). Les staphylocoques étaient méticillo-résistants dans 22,2% des cas. Le Pseudomonas et l'Acinetobacter étaient multirésistants (60%). Dans notre étude les facteurs prédictifs de survenue des infections nosocomiales que nous avons retenus après l'étude comparative des populations infectées et non infectées ont été l'âge, le body mass index, l'abbreviated burn severity index et le remplissage initial. En isolant ces paramètres, nous avons pu établir une équation à valeur prédictive de survenue d'infection nosocomiale chez le patient brûlé. PMID:21991158

Siah, S.; Belefqih, R.; Elouennass, M.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ihrai, I.

2009-01-01

376

Longitudinal Restriction Spectrum Imaging is Resistant to Pseudoresponse in Patients with High-Grade Gliomas treated with Bevacizumab  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Antiangiogenic therapies, such as bevacizumab, decrease contrast enhancement and FLAIR hyperintensity (FLAIR-HI) in patients with high-grade gliomas in a manner that may not correlate with actual tumor response. This study evaluated the ability of an advanced DWI technique, restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), to improve conspicuity within regions of restricted diffusion (RD) compared to ADC in patients treated with bevacizumab, and to demonstrate that unlike ADC, RSI is less affected by bevacizumab-induced reductions in FLAIR-HI. Materials and Methods RSI cellularity maps (RSI-CMs) and DWI were available for 12 patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas at baseline and following initiation of bevacizumab. VOIs were drawn for regions of RD, surrounding FLAIR-HI, and normal appearing white matter (NAWM), and intensity values within regions of RD and FLAIR-HI were normalized to NAWM. Normalized values were compared between RSI-CMs and ADC at baseline and on-treatment using repeated measures (RM) ANOVA. Results All patients exhibited decreases in contrast enhancement and FLAIR-HI following treatment. Normalized intensity values were higher on RSI-CMs compared to ADC in regions of RD, whereas intensity values were higher on ADC compared to RSI-CMs in regions of FLAIR-HI. Bevacizumab-induced decreases in FLAIR-HI had a greater effect on ADC than on the RSI-CMs, with the relative sensitivity of ADC to changes in FLAIR-HI being over 20 times higher than that on RSI-CMs. Conclusion RSI is less influenced by reductions in FLAIR-HI compared to ADC, which may confer an advantage of RSI over ADC for interpreting tumor response on imaging following antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:23578667

Kothari, Pranay; White, Nathan S.; Farid, Nikdokht; Chung, Romy; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Girard, Holly M.; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Kesari, Santosh

2014-01-01

377

Combined PET Imaging and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Intermediate and High-Risk Primary Prostate Carcinomas with Simultaneous [18F] Choline PET/MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize intermediate and high-risk prostate carcinomas with measurements of standardized uptake values (SUVs) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values by means of simultaneous [18F] choline PET/MRI. Materials and Methods 35 patients with primary prostate cancer underwent simultaneous [18F] choline PET/MRI. From these, 21 patients with an intermediate and high risk constellation who were not under ongoing hormonal therapy were included. Altogether 32 tumor lesions with a focal uptake of [18F] choline could be identified. Average ADC values (ADCaver) minimum ADC values (ADCmin) as well as maximum and mean SUVs (SUVmax, SUVmean) of tumor lesions were assessed with volume-of-interest (VOI) and Region-of-interest (ROI) measurements. As a reference, also ADCaver, ADCmin and SUVmax and SUVmean of non-tumorous prostate tissue were measured. Statistical analysis comprised calculation of descriptive parameters and calculation of Pearson’s product moment correlations between ADC values and SUVs of tumor lesions. Results Mean ADCaver and ADCmin of tumor lesions were 0.94±0.22×10?3 mm2/s and 0.65±0.21×10?3 mm2/s, respectively. Mean SUVmax and SUVmean of tumor lesions were 6.3±2.3 and 2.6±0.8, respectively. These values were in each case significantly different from the reference values (p<0.001). There was no significant correlation between the measured SUVs and ADC values (SUVmax vs. ADCaver: R?=??0.24, p?=?0.179; SUVmax vs. ADCmin: R?=??0.03, p?=?0.877; SUVmean vs. ADCaver: R?=??0.27, p?=?0.136; SUVmean vs. ADCmin: R?=??0.08, p?=?0.679). Conclusion Both SUVs and ADC values differ significantly between tumor lesions and healthy tissue. However, there is no significant correlation between these two parameters. This might be explained by the fact that SUVs and ADC values characterize different parts of tumor biology. PMID:25033396

Wetter, Axel; Nensa, Felix; Schenck, Marcus; Heusch, Philipp; Poppel, Thorsten; Bockisch, Andreas; Forsting, Michael; Schlosser, Thomas W.; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Nagarajah, James

2014-01-01

378

Graphics hardware based volumetric medical dataset visualization and classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct volumetric visualization of medical datasets has important application in areas such as minimally-invasive therapies and surgical simulation. In popular fixed-slice-distance hardware-based volume rendering algorithms, such as 2D and 3D texture mapping, the non-isotropic nature of the volumetric medical images and the constantly changed viewing rays make it difficult to render medical datasets without disturbing or slicing artifacts during volume rotation. We have developed a hardware accelerated 3D medical image visualization system based on a commodity graphics unit, in which a viewing-direction based dynamic texture slice resampling scheme is descirbed and implemented on an Nvidia graphics processing unit (GPU). In our algorithm, we utilize graphics hardware to dynamically slice the volume texture according to the viewing directions during the rendering process, in which the slice number can be dynamically changed without consuming additional video memory. Near-uniform effective slice spacing can be achieved in real-time and updated as the viewing angles change, so improved uniform visual quality is achieved with high rendering performance. To further improve rendering efficiency, we have implemented a multi-resolution scheme within our rendering system, which offers the user the option to highlight the volume of interest (VOI) and render it with higher resolution than the surrounding structures. This system also incorporates a fragment-level interactive post-classification algorithm that modifies the texture directly within the texture unit on graphics card, making it possible to interactively change transfer function parameters and navigate medical datasets in real-time during the 3D medical image visualization process.

Zhang, Qi; Eagleson, Roy; Peters, Terry M.

2006-03-01

379

EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. The conference The third conference on "Nonlinear VAriability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes" (NVAG 3) was held in Cargese, Corsica, Sept. 10-17, 1993. NVAG3 was joint American Geophysical Union Chapman and European Geophysical Society Richardson Memorial conference, the first specialist conference jointly sponsored by the two organizations. It followed NVAG1 (Montreal, Aug. 1986), NVAG2 (Paris, June 1988; Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991), five consecutive annual sessions at EGS general assemblies and two consecutive spring AGU meeting sessions. As with the other conferences and workshops mentioned above, the aim was to develop confrontation between theories and experiments on scaling/multifractal behaviour of geophysical fields. Subjects covered included climate, clouds, earthquakes, atmospheric and ocean dynamics, tectonics, precipitation, hydrology, the solar cycle and volcanoes. Areas of focus included new methods of data analysis (especially those used for the reliable estimation of multifractal and scaling exponents), as well as their application to rapidly growing data bases from in situ networks and remote sensing. The corresponding modelling, prediction and estimation techniques were also emphasized as were the current debates about stochastic and deterministic dynamics, fractal geometry and multifractals, self-organized criticality and multifractal fields, each of which was the subject of a specific general discussion. The conference started with a one day short course of multifractals featuring four lectures on a) Fundamentals of multifractals: dimension, codimensions, codimension formalism, b) Multifractal estimation techniques: (PDMS, DTM), c) Numerical simulations, Generalized Scale Invariance analysis, d) Advanced multifractals, singular statistics, phase transitions, self-organized criticality and Lie cascades (given by D. Schertzer and S. Lovejoy, detailed course notes were sent to participants shortly after the conference). This was followed by five days with 8 oral sessions and one poster session. Overall, there were 65 papers involving 74 authors. In general, the main topics covered are reflected in this special issue: geophysical turbulence, clouds and climate, hydrology and solid earth geophysics. In addition to AGU and EGS, the conference was supported by the International Science Foundation, the Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique, Meteo-France, the Department of Energy (US), the Commission of European Communities (DG XII), the Comite National Francais pour le Programme Hydrologique International, the Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche (France). We thank P. Hubert, Y. Kagan, Ph. Ladoy, A. Lazarev, S.S. Moiseev, R. Pierrehumbert, F. Schmitt and Y. Tessier, for help with the organization of the conference. However special thanks goes to A. Richter and the EGS office, B. Weaver and the AGU without whom this would have been impossible. We also thank the Institut d' Etudes Scientifiques de Cargese whose beautiful site was much appreciated, as well as the Bar des Amis whose ambiance stimulated so many discussions. 2. Tribute to L.F. Richardson With NVAG3, the European geophysical community paid tribute to Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) on the 40th anniversary of his death. Richardson was one of the founding fathers of the idea of scaling and fractality, and his life reflects the European geophysical community and its history in many ways. Although many of Richardson's numerous, outstanding scientific contributions to geophysics have been recognized, perhaps his main contribution concerning the importance of scaling and cascades has still not received the attention it deserves. Richardson was the first not only to suggest numerical integration of the equations of motion of the atmosphere, but also to attempt to do so by hand, during the First World War. This work, as well as a presentation of a broad vision of future developments in the field, appeared in his famous, pioneering book "Weather prediction by numerical processes" (1922). As

Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

380

PREFACE: Special section on Computational Fluid Dynamics—in memory of Professor Kunio Kuwahara Special section on Computational Fluid Dynamics—in memory of Professor Kunio Kuwahara  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This issue includes a special section on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in memory of the late Professor Kunio Kuwahara, who passed away on 15 September 2008, at the age of 66. In this special section, five articles are included that are based on the lectures and discussions at `The 7th International Nobeyama Workshop on CFD: To the Memory of Professor Kuwahara' held in Tokyo on 23 and 24 September 2009. Professor Kuwahara started his research in fluid dynamics under Professor Imai at the University of Tokyo. His first paper was published in 1969 with the title 'Steady Viscous Flow within Circular Boundary', with Professor Imai. In this paper, he combined theoretical and numerical methods in fluid dynamics. Since that time, he made significant and seminal contributions to computational fluid dynamics. He undertook pioneering numerical studies on the vortex method in 1970s. From then to the early nineties, he developed numerical analyses on a variety of three-dimensional unsteady phenomena of incompressible and compressible fluid flows and/or complex fluid flows using his own supercomputers with academic and industrial co-workers and members of his private research institute, ICFD in Tokyo. In addition, a number of senior and young researchers of fluid mechanics around the world were invited to ICFD and the Nobeyama workshops, which were held near his villa, and they intensively discussed new frontier problems of fluid physics and fluid engineering at Professor Kuwahara's kind hospitality. At the memorial Nobeyama workshop held in 2009, 24 overseas speakers presented their papers, including the talks of Dr J P Boris (Naval Research Laboratory), Dr E S Oran (Naval Research Laboratory), Professor Z J Wang (Iowa State University), Dr M Meinke (RWTH Aachen), Professor K Ghia (University of Cincinnati), Professor U Ghia (University of Cincinnati), Professor F Hussain (University of Houston), Professor M Farge (École Normale Superieure), Professor J Y Yong (National Taiwan University), and Professor H S Kwak (Kumoh National Institute of Technology). For his contributions to CFD, Professor Kuwahara received Awards from the Japan Society of Automobile Engineers and the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1992, the Computational Mechanics Achievement Award from the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1993, and the Max Planck Research Award in 1993. He received the Computational Mechanics Award from the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers again in 2008. Professor Kuwahara also supported the development of the Japan Society of Fluid Mechanics, whose office is located in the same building as ICFD. In the proceedings of the 6th International Nobeyama Workshop on CFD to commemorate the 60th birthday of Professor Kuwahara, Professor Jae Min Hyun of KAIST wrote 'The major professional achievement of Professor Kuwahara may be compressed into two main categories. First and foremost, Professor Kuwahara will long be recorded as the front-line pioneer in using numerical computations to tackle complex problems in fluid mechanics. ...Another important contribution of Professor Kuwahara was in the training and fostering of talented manpower of computational mechanics research.'[1] Among the various topics of the five papers in this special section are examples of Professor Kuwahara's works mentioned by Professor Hyun. The main authors of all papers have grown up in the research circle of Professor Kuwahara. All the papers demostrate the challenge of new aspects of computational fluid dynamics; a new numerical method for compressible flows, thermo-acoustic flows of helium gas in a small tube, electro-osmic flows in a micro/nano channel, MHD flows over a wavy disk, and a new extraction method of multi-object aircraft design rules. Last but not least, this special section is cordially dedicated to the late Professor Kuwahara and his family. Reference [1] Hyun J M 2005 Preface of New Developments in Computational Fluid Dynamics vol 90 Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design ed K Fujii et al (Berlin: Springer)

Ishii, Katsuya

2011-08-01

381

Crush-2: Communicating research through a science-art collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, the Earth's environment and dynamics have influenced and inspired the arts. Art in turn is a powerful vehicle for expression of the natural world. It lends itself to public presentation in many forms and appeals to a diverse audience. Science-art collaborations provide a unique opportunity to connect with the public by taking science out of the classroom and into museums, galleries and public spaces. Here we investigate the use of contemporary digital sound-art in communicating geoscience research to the general public through the installation Crush-2. Crush-2, is an interactive sound-art installation exploring the microscopic forces released during the crushing of rock. Such processes have a strong influence on the sliding behaviour and hence earthquake potential of active faults. This work is a collaboration between sound artist and composer Natasha Barrett (Oslo) and geoscientists Karen Mair (University of Oslo), Alexandre Schubnel (Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris) and Steffen Abe (RWTH Aachen). Using a sonification technique, Barrett has assigned sound recorded from rocks, of different pitches, timbres and durations, to individual fracturing events produced in our 3D fault fragmentation models and laboratory rock breaking experiments. In addition, ultrasonic acoustic emissions recorded directly in the laboratory are made audible for our hearing and feature in the work. The installation space comprises a loudspeaker array and sensor enabled helmet with wireless headphones. By wearing the helmet, moving and listening, the audience explores an artistic interpretation of the scientific data in physical space. On entering the space, one is immediately immersed in a 3D cacophony of sound. Sustained or intermittent pings, burrs, plops and tingles jostle for position in our heads whilst high pitched delicate cascades juxtapose with deep thunder like rumbles. Depending on the user's precise path through the soundscape, the experience changes accordingly, so every visitor has a unique sound adventure. The experience is intensely engaging, playful and yet a little unsettling and provides a truly unique way to explore our scientific data and present geoscience research to the public. Crush-2 has featured in an exhibition on Sonic Interaction Design at the Norwegian Museum of Science, Technology and Medicine, Oslo, Norway (27 May - 21 August 2011) and forms part of a solo exhibition by Barrett at Galleri ROM, Oslo in fall 2011. Visitor feedback from the Museum exhibition suggests that users were initially attracted to the exhibit by its interactive 'hands-on' nature and dramatic sounds, but as they 'explored' the soundspace, became curious to ask questions about the underlying science. The concept of using sound rather than visual gives an unusual and therefore highly memorable experience. This science-art collaboration provides a novel and highly enjoyable way to present our work to the public - that is particularly attractive to youngsters. Visitors to this poster presentation will be able to explore the Crush-2 soundscape using a laptop and headphone interactive mode.

Mair, K.; Barrett, N.; Schubnel, A. J.; Abe, S.

2011-12-01

382

PREFACE: International Conference on Optics of Excitons in Confined Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OECS11 (International Conference on Optics of Excitons in Confined Systems) was the eleventh of a very successful series of conferences that started in 1987 in Rome (Italy). Afterwards the conference was held at Naxos (Sicily, Italy, 1991), Montpellier (France, 1993), Cortona (Italy, 1995), Göttingen (Germany, 1997), Ascona (Switzerland, 1999), Montpellier (France, 2001), Lecce (Italy, 2003), Southampton (UK, 2005) and Patti (Sicily, Italy, 2007). It is addressed to scientists who lead fundamental and applied research on the optical properties of excitons in novel condensed-matter nanostructures. The 2009 meeting (7-11 September 2009) has brought together a large representation of the world leading actors in this domain, with the aim of stimulating the exchange of ideas, promoting international collaborations, and coordinating research on the newest exciton-related issues such as quantum information science and exciton quantum-collective phenomena. The meeting has included invited lectures, contributed oral presentations and posters, covering the following general topics: low-dimensional heterostructures: quantum wells, quantum wires and quantum dots polaritons quantum optics with excitons and polaritons many-body effects under coherent and incoherent excitation coherent optical spectroscopy quantum coherence and quantum-phase manipulation Bose-Einstein condensation and other collective phenomena excitons in novel materials The OECS 11 was held at the campus of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in Cantoblanco. The scientific program was composed of more than 200 contributions divided into 16 invited talks, 44 oral contributions and 3 poster sessions with a total of 150 presentations. The scientific level of the presentations was guaranteed by a selection process where each contribution was rated by three members of the Program Committee. The Conference has gathered 238 participants from 21 different countries, with the following distribution: Germany (43), France (41), Spain (33), UK (24), Switzerland (21), Italy (14), The Netherlands (12), USA (11), other (23). The conference was made possible by generous sponsors, whom we thank earnestly: Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spanish Ministry of 'Educación y Ciencia', Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, European Union (ITN- 235114), Europhysics Letters, Semiconductor Science and Technology, Consolider Research Project 'Quantum Optical Information Technology', Lasing S A, Newport, Innova Scientific, Foundation Madrid-2016 and European Physical Society. We would like to acknowledge the members of the Organizing and Program Committees, who are responsible for the success of the Conference (names are listed below). Finally, the authors are thanked for the quality of their contributions. Luis Viña Carlos Tejedor José M Calleja EDITORS Organizing Committee Luis Viña-Chair, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid María D Martín-Scientific Secretary, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid José M Calleja, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Luisa González, Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid Herko van der Meulen, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Enrique Calleja, Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnología Madrid Daniele Sanvitto, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Program Committee Carlos Tejedor-Chair, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Israel Bar-Joseph, Weizmann Institute of Science Jeremy J Baumberg, Cambridge University Manfred Bayer, Universität Dortmund Jacqueline Bloch, Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures - CNRS Wolfgang Langbein, Cardiff University Marek Potemski, Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory Antonio Quattropani, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Salvatore Savasta, Università di Messina Vincenzo Savona, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne David Snoke, University of Pittsburgh Jerome Tignon, Ecole Normale Superieure Paris

Viña, Luis; Tejedor, Carlos; Calleja, José M.

2010-01-01

383

Archean Pb Isotope Evolution: Implications for the Early Earth.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U-Pb isotope system provides us with a powerful tool for understanding the chemical evolution of the Earth. Pb isotopes in Archean rocks, however, have not been widely utilized because U mobility makes initial Pb isotope ratios from old silicate rocks difficult, if not impossible, to determine. Galenas in syngenetic volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, however, provide snapshots of initial Pb ratios because their Pb isotopic composition is time invariant at their formation (U/Pb=0). The Pb isotopic record from galenas from rocks of all age have been utilized for over 70 years to answer a wide range of scientific problems beginning with Al Nier's pioneering work analyzing Pb isotopes in the 1930's but are no longer widely used by the isotopic community because they have been produced by older TIMS techniques. We have begun a re-examination of Archean Pb by an extensive analysis of over 100 galena samples from Archean VMS deposits throughout the Superior and Slave Provinces in Canada as well as from other VMS deposits in Finland, South Africa and Western Australia. The goal of this work is to provide modern, high precision measurements and update an old, but venerable, Pb isotopic data set. We feel these data provide important constraints on not only the Pb isotopic evolution of the Earth, but planetary differentiation and recycling processes operating in the first 2 b.y. of Earth's history. Our analytical techniques include dissolving the Pb sulfide minerals, purifying them with ion chromatography, and analyzing them using MC-ICPMS at both Washington State University (Neptune) and Ecole Normale Superieure in Lyon, France (Nu). All Pb solutions are doped with Tl in order to correct for mass fractionation. In this abstract we report preliminary galena Pb isotope data from 6 VMS deposits in the Abitibi greenstone belt: Chibougamu, Matagami, Noranda, Normetal, Timmins, and Val d"Or. These deposits are all approximately 2.7 Ga in age but in detail vary from 2.728 Ga (Normetal) to 2.70 Ga (Noranda). The Pb isotopic compositions from these galenas, when normalized to a common age of 2.7 Ga, define a highly linear array in 207Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb. This array is nearly coincident with the 2.7 Ga geochron with a slope that corresponds to an age of ~4.4 Ga and with an extraordinary large range of 207Pb/204Pb, about the same magnitude as modern MORB. These data have important implications for the evolution of the Archean mantle. First, the slope of the Abitibi Pb-Pb array and its coincidence with the 2.7 Ga geochron suggests widespread U-Pb differentiation within the first hundred million years of Earth's history. This may have been due to either core formation or silicate/melt differentiation due to widespread melting of the mantle (e.g., formation of a magma ocean). Second, variations in ? in the Abitibi mantle and the subsequent Pb isotopic heterogeneities, whatever their cause, have not been significantly changed from 4.4 until 2.7 Ga. This implies that changes in ? in the Abitibi mantle source between 4.4 and 2.7 Ga, such as would be caused by crust extraction or recycling of older crust into this region of the mantle, were insufficient to destroy the original ? variations created at 4.4 Ga. Therefore, it appears that this portion of the mantle had essentially remained isolated and undisturbed from the early Hadean until the late Archean.

Vervoort, J. D.; Thorpe, R.; Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

2008-12-01

384

Cutaneous signs of systemic disease.  

PubMed

Commonly used dermatologic eponyms and characteristic skin signs are enormously helpful in guiding a diagnosis, even though they may not be pathonemonic. They include, on the nails, Aldrich-Mees' lines (syn.: Mees' lines), Beau's lines, Muehrcke's lines, Terry's nails, and half and half nails, often associated, respectively, with arsenic poisoning, acute stress or systemic illness, severe hypertension, liver disease and uremia, and, around the nails, Braverman's sign, associated with collagen-vascular disease. Elsewhere, one may see the Asboe-Hansen and Nikolsky's signs, indicative of the pemphigus group of diseases, Auspitz's sign, a classic finding in psoriasis, Borsieri's and Pasita's signs, seen in early scarlet fever, the butterfly rash, indicative of systemic lupus erythematosus, and the buffalo hump, seen in Cushing's disease and also in the more common corticosteroid toxicity. Gottron's papules and the heliotrope rash are signs of dermatomyositis. Janeway's lesions and Osler's nodes are seen in bacterial endocarditis. A Dennie-Morgan fold under the eye is seen in association with atopic disease. Koplik's spots are an early sign of rubeola. Fitzpatrick's sign is indicative of a benign lesion (dermatofibroma), whereas Hutchinson's sign is indicative of a malignant one (subungual melanoma). Petechiae are seen in many diseases, including fat embolization, particularly from a large bone fracture following trauma. Palpable purpura is indicative of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and is an early, critical sign in Rickettsial diseases, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, which must be diagnosed and treated early. Hyperpigmentation of areolae and scars is seen in Addison's disease. Acanthosis nigricans may indicate internal cancer, especially stomach cancer, whereas Bazex's syndrome occurs in synchrony with primary, usually squamous cancer, in the upper aerodigestive tract or metastatic cancer in cervical lymph nodes. Perioral pigmented macules or one or more cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms may be a sign of the Peutz-Jeghers or Muir-Torre syndrome, respectively, both associated also with intestinal polyps that have a malignant potential. Telangiectasiae in the perioral region may be associated with similar lesions internally in Osler-Weber-Rendu disease. Kerr's sign is indicative of spinal cord injury and Darier's sign of mastocytosis. Post proctoscopic periobital purpura (PPPP) is a phenomenon observed in some patients with systemic amyloidosis. Koebner's isomorphic response refers to the tendency of an established dermatosis, such as psoriasis, to arise in (a) site(s) of trauma, whereas Wolf's isotrophic response refers to a new dermatosis, such as tinea, not yet seen in the patient, arising in (a) site(s) of a former but different dermatosis, such as zoster. PMID:21855727

Patel, Laju M; Lambert, Phelps J; Gagna, Claude E; Maghari, Amin; Lambert, W Clark

2011-01-01

385

Proton pump inhibitor-associated pneumonia: Not a breath of fresh air after all?  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have emerged as highly effective and relatively safe agents for the treatment of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. Unfortunately, this desirable pharmacological profile has also contributed to superfluous and widespread use in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. While generally well-tolerated, research published over the last decade has associated these agents with increased risks of Clostridium difficile disease, fractures likely due to calcium malabsorption and both community-acquired (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonias (HAP). The mechanism behind PPI-associated pneumonia may be multifactorial, but is thought to stem from compromising the stomach’s “acid mantle” against gastric colonization of acid-labile pathogenic bacteria which then may be aspirated. A secondary postulate is that PPIs, through their inhibition of extra-gastric H+/K+-ATPase enzymes, may reduce the acidity of the upper aerodigestive tract, thus resulting in increased bacterial colonization of the larynx, esophagus and lungs. To date, several retrospective case control studies have been published looking at the association between PPI use and CAP. Some studies found a temporal relationship between PPI exposure and the incidence of pneumonia, but only two could define a dose-response relationship. Furthermore, other studies found an inverse correlation between duration of PPI use and risk of CAP. In terms of HAP, we reviewed two retrospective cohort studies and one prospective study. One retrospective study in a medical ICU found no increased association of HAP in PPI-exposed patients compared to no acid-lowering therapy, while the other in cardiothoracic surgery patients showed a markedly increased risk compared to those receiving H2RAs. The one prospective study in ICU patients showed an increased risk of HAP with PPIs, but not with H2RAs. In conclusion, the current literature shows a slight trend toward an association between PPI use and pneumonia and an increased risk with PPIs over H2RAs, but the findings are not consistent across all studies. Larger controlled trials still need to be done to better identify the risk that PPIs impart towards patients contracting CAP or HAP. Until these are completed, we will have to continue to extrapolate across smaller controlled trials to predict the associated risks in our respective patient populations. In the interim, it appears prudent to limit the use of PPIs to situations where they are clinically indicated and, in such cases, use them at the lowest effective dose. In the case of prescribing for stress ulcer prophylaxis in ICU patients, perhaps H2RAs should be used as the preferred agents over PPIs. PMID:21731913

Fohl, Alexander L; Regal, Randolph E

2011-01-01

386

Comparative Genomic Hybridization Analysis of Natural Killer Cell Lymphoma/Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Putative natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma/leukemia is a rare group of recently characterized hematolymphoid malignancies. They are highly aggressive and frequently present in extranodal sites, including the nasal area and the upper aerodigestive system, and nonnasal areas such as the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. According to clinicopathological features, they can be classified into nasal NK cell lymphoma, nasal-type NK cell lymphoma occurring in nonnasal areas, and NK cell lymphoma/leukemia. Genetic alterations in NK cell lymphoma/leukemia are not well defined. In this study, we have performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on DNA extracted from fresh or frozen tissues of 10 patients with NK cell lymphoma/leukemia. They comprised four nasal NK cell lymphomas, one nasal-type NK cell lymphoma, and five NK cell lymphomas/leukemias. CGH showed frequent deletions at 6q16-q27 (four cases), 13q14-q34 (three cases), 11q22-q25 (two cases), 17p13 (two cases), and loss of the whole chromosome X (two cases). DNA amplification was observed in a majority of the chromosomes. Five cases showed DNA gains at region 1p32-pter. Frequent DNA gains were also found in chromosomes 6p, 11q, 12q, 17q, 19p, 20q, and Xp (three cases each). Interestingly, DNA gains were more frequent in nasal/nasal-type NK cell lymphomas than NK cell lymphoma/leukemia. These genetic alterations correlated well with karyotypic features found in some of the cases. The frequent DNA losses at 6q and 13q suggest that the presence of tumor suppressor genes at these regions is important in NK cell transformation. In addition to establishing novel patterns of genomic imbalances in these rare NK cell malignancies, which may be targets for future molecular analysis, this study also provides important information on genetic alterations in NK cell lymphomas that may be useful in defining their positions in current lymphoma classification schemes, which are increasingly focusing on phenotypic and genotypic correlations. PMID:10550295

Siu, Lisa L. P.; Wong, Kit-Fai; Chan, John K. C.; Kwong, Yok-Lam

1999-01-01

387

Associations between variants of the 8q24 chromosome and nine smoking-related cancer sites  

PubMed Central

Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies identified key single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 8q24 region to be associated with prostate cancer. 8q24 SNPs have also been associated with colorectal cancer, suggesting this region may not be specifically associated to just prostate cancer. To date, the association between these polymorphisms and tobacco smoking-related cancer sites remains unknown. Using epidemiological data and biological samples previously collected in three case-control studies from U.S. and Chinese populations, we selected and genotyped one SNP from each of the three previously determined “regions” within the 8q24 loci: rs1447295 (region 1), rs16901979 (region 2), and rs6983267 (region 3), and examined their association with cancers of the lung, oropharynx, nasopharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, bladder, and kidney. We observed noteworthy associations between rs6983267 and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers (ORadj=1.69, 95% CI=1.28, 2.24), particularly in oropharynx (ORadj=1.80, 95% CI=1.30, 2.49) and larynx (ORadj=2.04, 95% CI=1.12, 3.72). We also observed a suggestive association between rs6983267 and liver cancer (ORadj=1.51, 95% CI=0.99, 2.31). When we stratified our analysis by smoking status, rs6983267 was positively associated with lung cancer among ever-smokers (ORadj=1.45, 95% CI=1.05, 2.00) and inversely associated with bladder cancer among ever-smokers (ORadj=0.35, 95% CI=0.14, 0.83). Associations were observed between rs16901979 and UADT cancer among never-smokers, and between rs1447295 and liver cancer among ever-smokers. Our results suggest variants of the 8q24 chromosome may play an important role in smoking-related cancer development. Functional and large epidemiological studies should be conducted to further investigate the association of 8q24 SNPs with smoking-related cancers. PMID:18990762

Park, Sungshim Lani; Chang, Shen-Chih; Cai, Lin; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Ding, Bao-Guo; Greenland, Sander; Hussain, Shehnaz K.; Jiang, Qingwu; Liu, Simin; Lu, Ming-Lan; Mao, Jenny T.; Morgenstern, Hal; Mu, Li-Na; Ng, Leslie J.; Pantuck, Allan; Rao, Jianyu; Reuter, Victor E.; Tashkin, Donald P.; You, Nai-Chieh Y.; Yu, Can-Qing; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Zhao, Jin-Kou; Belldegrun, Arie; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

2008-01-01

388

Caustic ingestion in adults: The role of endoscopic classification in predicting outcome  

PubMed Central

Background The ingestion of caustic substances induces an extensive spectrum of injuries to the aerodigestive tract which include extensive necrosis and perforation of the esophagus and stomach. The gold standard of safely assessing depth, extent of injury, and appropriate therapeutic regimen is esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The objective of this study was to report our clinical experience and to evaluate the role of a 6-point EGD classification system of injury in predicting outcomes in adult patients diagnosed with caustic agent ingestion. Methods The study was a retrospective medical chart review from 273 patients admitted to the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Tao-Yuan, Taiwan between June 1999 and July 2006 for treatment of caustic ingestion. The patients underwent EGD within 24 hours of admission and mucosal damage was graded using Zagar's modified endoscopic classification scheme. After treatment, patients were followed in the outpatient clinic for a minimum of 6 months. Results A total of 273 patients were included for analysis. Grade 3b injury was the most common caustic injury (n = 82, 30.03%), followed by grade 2b injuries (n = 62, 22.71%). Stricture was the most common complication (n = 66, 24.18%), followed by aspiration pneumonia (n = 31, 11.36%), and respiratory failure (n = 21, 7.69%). Compared to grade 3a mucosal injury, grade 3b mucosal injuries were at greater risk of prolonged hospital stay (odds ratio [OR]: 2.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25–4.80), ICU admission (OR: 10.82; 95% CI: 2.05–200.39), and gastrointestinal (OR: 4.15; 95% CI: 1.55–13.29) and systemic complications (OR: 4.07; 95% CI: 1.81–14.07). Conclusion In patients with caustic ingestion, EGD should be performed within 12 to 24 hours and categorized according to a 6-point scale. Patients with grade 3b burns identified on endoscopy have high rates of morbidity. The 6-point scale is useful for predicting immediate and long-term complications, and guiding appropriate therapy. PMID:18655708

Cheng, Hao-Tsai; Cheng, Chi-Liang; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Tang, Jui-Hsiang; Chu, Yin-Yi; Liu, Nai-Jen; Chen, Pang-Chi

2008-01-01

389

Toll-like receptor 3 in Epstein-Barr virus-associated nasopharyngeal carcinomas: consistent expression and cytotoxic effects of its synthetic ligand poly(A:U) combined to a Smac-mimetic  

PubMed Central

Background Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are consistently associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Though NPCs are more radiosensitive and chemosensitive than other tumors of the upper aero-digestive tract, many therapeutic challenges remain. In a previous report, we have presented data supporting a possible therapeutic strategy based on artificial TLR3 stimulation combined to the inhibition of the IAP protein family (Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins). The present study was designed to progress towards practical applications of this strategy pursuing 2 main objectives: 1) to formally demonstrate expression of the TLR3 protein by malignant NPC cells; 2) to investigate the effect of poly(A:U) as a novel TLR3-agonist more specific than poly(I:C) which was used in our previous study. Methods TLR3 expression was investigated in a series of NPC cell lines and clinical specimens by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The effects on NPC cells growth of the TLR3 ligand poly(A:U) used either alone or in combination with RMT5265, an IAP inhibitor based on Smac-mimicry, were assessed using MTT assays and clonogenic assays. Results TLR3 was detected at a high level in all NPC cell lines and clinical specimens. Low concentrations of poly(A:U) were applied to several types of NPC cells including cells from the C17 xenograft which for the first time have been adapted to permanent propagation in vitro. As a single agent, poly(A:U) had no significant effects on cell growth and cell survival. In contrast, dramatic effects were obtained when it was combined with the IAP inhibitor RMT5265. These effects were obtained using concentrations as low as 0.5 ?g/ml (poly(A:U)) and 50 nM (RMT5265). Conclusion These data confirm that TLR3 expression is a factor of vulnerability for NPC cells. They suggest that in some specific pathological and pharmacological contexts, it might be worth to use Smac-mimetics at very low doses, allowing a better management of secondary effects. In light of our observations, combined use of both types of compounds should be considered for treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinomas. PMID:23198710

2012-01-01

390

Joint and independent effects of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on oral cancer: a large case-control study.  

PubMed

Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking are assumed to have significant independent and joint effects on oral cancer (OC) development. This assumption is based on consistent reports from observational studies, which, however, overestimated the independent effects of smoking and drinking, because they did not account for the interaction effect in multivariable analyses. This case-control study sought to investigate the independent and the joint effects of smoking and drinking on OC in a homogeneous sample of adults. Case patients (N?=?1,144) were affected by invasive oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma confirmed histologically, diagnosed between 1998 and 2008 in four hospitals of São Paulo (Brazil). Control patients (N?=?1,661) were not affected by drinking-, smoking-associated diseases, cancers, upper aero-digestive tract diseases. Cumulative tobacco and alcohol consumptions were assessed anamnestically. Patients were categorized into never/ever users and never/level-1/level-2 users, according to the median consumption level in controls. The effects of smoking and drinking on OC adjusted for age, gender, schooling level were assessed using logistic regression analysis; Model-1 did not account for the smoking-drinking interaction; Model-2 accounted for this interaction and included the resultant interaction terms. The models were compared using the likelihood ratio test. According to Model-1, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for smoking, drinking, smoking-drinking were 3.50 (95% confidence interval -95CI, 2.76-4.44), 3.60 (95CI, 2.86-4.53), 12.60 (95CI, 7.89-20.13), respectively. According to Model-2 these figures were 1.41 (95CI, 1.02-1.96), 0.78 (95CI, 0.48-1.27), 8.16 (95CI, 2.09-31.78). Analogous results were obtained using three levels of exposure to smoking and drinking. Model-2 showed statistically significant better goodness-of-fit statistics than Model-1. Drinking was not independently associated with OC, while the independent effect of smoking was lower than expected, suggesting that observational studies should be revised adequately accounting for the smoking-drinking interaction. OC control policies should focus on addictive behaviours rather than on single lifestyle risk factors. PMID:23874521

Ferreira Antunes, José Leopoldo; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Scully, Crispian; Petti, Stefano

2013-01-01

391

Impact of XRCC2 Arg188His Polymorphism on Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Association between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs3218536 (known as Arg188His) located in the X-ray repair cross complementing group 2 (XRCC2) gene and cancer susceptibility has been widely investigated. However, results thus far have remained controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to identify the impact of this polymorphism on cancer susceptibility. Methods PubMed and Embase databases were searched systematically until September 7, 2013 to obtain all the records evaluating the association between the XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphism and the risk of all types of cancers. We used the odds ratio (OR) as measure of effect, and pooled the data in a Mantel-Haenszel weighed random-effects meta-analysis to provide a summary estimate of the impact of this polymorphism on breast cancer, ovarian cancer and other cancers. All the analyses were carried out in STATA 12.0. Results With 30868 cases and 38656 controls, a total of 45 case-control studies from 26 publications were eventually included in our meta-analysis. No significant association was observed between the XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility (dominant model: OR?=?0.94, 95%CI?=?0.86–1.04, P?=?0.232). However, a significant impact of this polymorphism was detected on decreased ovarian cancer risk (dominant model: OR?=?0.83, 95%CI?=?0.73–0.95, P?=?0.007). In addition, we found this polymorphism was associated with increased upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer susceptibility (dominant model: OR?=?1.51, 95%CI?=?1.04–2.20, P?=?0.032). Conclusion The Arg188His polymorphism might play different roles in carcinogenesis of various cancer types. Current evidence did not suggest that this polymorphism was directly associated with breast cancer susceptibility. However, this polymorphism might contribute to decreased gynecological cancer risk and increased UADT cancer risk. More preclinical and epidemiological studies were still imperative for further evaluation. PMID:24621646

Deng, Xiangbing; Wei, Mingtian; Wu, Qingbin; Yang, Tinghan; Zhou, Yanhong; Wang, Ziqiang

2014-01-01

392

Computer-aided detection of pulmonary embolism in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA): Performance evaluation with independent data sets  

PubMed Central

The authors are developing a computer-aided detection system for pulmonary emboli (PE) in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) scans. The pulmonary vessel tree is extracted using a 3D expectation-maximization segmentation method based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices at multiple scales. A parallel multiprescreening method is applied to the segmented vessels to identify volume of interests (VOIs) that contained suspicious PE. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier with feature selection is designed to reduce false positives (FPs). Features that characterize the contrast, gray level, and size of PE are extracted as input predictor variables to the LDA classifier. With the IRB approval, 59 CTPA PE cases were collected retrospectively from the patient files (UM cases). With access permission, 69 CTPA PE cases were randomly selected from the data set of the prospective investigation of pulmonary embolism diagnosis (PIOPED) II clinical trial. Extensive lung parenchymal or pleural diseases were present in 22?59 UM and 26?69 PIOPED cases. Experienced thoracic radiologists manually marked 595 and 800 PE as the reference standards in the UM and PIOPED data sets, respectively. PE occlusion of arteries ranged from 5% to 100%, with PE located from the main pulmonary artery to the subsegmental artery levels. Of the 595 PE identified in the UM cases, 245 and 350 PE were located in the subsegmental arteries and the more proximal arteries, respectively. The detection performance was assessed by free response ROC (FROC) analysis. The FROC analysis indicated that the PE detection system could achieve an overall sensitivity of 80% at 18.9 FPs?case for the PIOPED cases when the LDA classifier was trained with the UM cases. The test sensitivity with the UM cases was 80% at 22.6 FPs?cases when the LDA classifier was trained with the PIOPED cases. The detection performance depended on the arterial level where the PE was located and on the percentage of occlusion. The sensitivity was lower for PE in the subsegmental arteries than in more proximal arteries and was lower for PE with less than 20% occlusion. The results indicate that the PE detection system achieves high sensitivity for PE detection on independent CTPA scans for both the PIOPED and UM data sets and demonstrate the potential that the automated PE detection approach can be generalized to unknown cases. PMID:19746771

Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chughtai, Aamer; Patel, Smita; Wei, Jun; Cascade, Philip N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

2009-01-01

393

A journey to Semantic Web query federation in the life sciences  

PubMed Central

Background As interest in adopting the Semantic Web in the biomedical domain continues to grow, Semantic Web technology has been evolving and maturing. A variety of technological approaches including triplestore technologies, SPARQL endpoints, Linked Data, and Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets have emerged in recent years. In addition to the data warehouse construction, these technological approaches can be used to support dynamic query federation. As a community effort, the BioRDF task force, within the Semantic Web for Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group, is exploring how these emerging approaches can be utilized to execute distributed queries across different neuroscience data sources. Methods and results We have created two health care and life science knowledge bases. We have explored a variety of Semantic Web approaches to describe, map, and dynamically query multiple datasets. We have demonstrated several federation approaches that integrate diverse types of information about neurons and receptors that play an important role in basic, clinical, and translational neuroscience research. Particularly, we have created a prototype receptor explorer which uses OWL mappings to provide an integrated list of receptors and executes individual queries against different SPARQL endpoints. We have also employed the AIDA Toolkit, which is directed at groups of knowledge workers who cooperatively search, annotate, interpret, and enrich large collections of heterogeneous documents from diverse locations. We have explored a tool called "FeDeRate", which enables a global SPARQL query to be decomposed into subqueries against the remote databases offering either SPARQL or SQL query interfaces. Finally, we have explored how to use the vocabulary of interlinked Datasets (voiD) to create metadata for describing datasets exposed as Linked Data URIs or SPARQL endpoints. Conclusion We have demonstrated the use of a set of novel and state-of-the-art Semantic Web technologies in support of a neuroscience query federation scenario. We have identified both the strengths and weaknesses of these technologies. While Semantic Web offers a global data model including the use of Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI's), the proliferation of semantically-equivalent URI's hinders large scale data integration. Our work helps direct research and tool development, which will be of benefit to this community. PMID:19796394

Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Frost, H Robert; Marshall, M Scott; Prud'hommeaux, Eric; Samwald, Matthias; Zhao, Jun; Paschke, Adrian

2009-01-01

394

Conception et caracterisation d'un magnetoplasma produit par une onde de surface pour la pulverisation d'echantillons solides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suite a l'extraordinaire explosion de l'informatique de la derniere decennie, la science et la technologie des materiaux ont pris un essor extraordinaire. Par exemple, il est devenu crucial de concevoir des materiaux a haut degre de purete. Ce besoin a fortement motive le developpement de methodes d'analyse de solides. Traditionnellement, la methode adoptee est l'analyse par torche ICP, mais pour de nombreuses raisons, dont la lenteur de cette methode, la communaute scientifique oeuvrant en chimie analytique recherche des techniques d'analyse de solides directes, rapides et plus sensibles. Parmi les voies possibles, on trouve les methodes basees sur la pulverisation par plasma. Dans ce contexte, nous avons etudie la possibilite et la pertinence d'utiliser un magnetoplasma entretenu par une onde de surface pour pulveriser des solides dans le but de les analyser. Nos travaux portent principalement sur l'etude du comportement du plasma lors de la pulverisation. Nous avons montre que la pulverisation affecte la decharge de diverses facons. En premier lieu, la concentration d'especes provenant du materiau pulverise dans le plasma augmente avec la tension de polarisation. De plus, la concentration d'especes pulverisees diminue lorsque la pression croit, possiblement a cause du redepot. Nous avons aussi montre qu'il etait possible de pulveriser des solides isolants en exploitant le phenomene d'autopolarisation du a l'application d'une tension RF. Nous avons aussi etudie l'effet de la pulverisation sur la temperature et la densite electronique. Ainsi, lors de la pulverisation de metaux tels que le cuivre, la temperature electronique diminue lorsque la tension de polarisation augmente. Ceci est attribuable a l'augmentation de la densite d'especes metalliques neutres facilement ionisables par impact electronique. Nous avons aussi note que la densite electronique augmente avec la concentration d'especes metalliques dans le plasma, ce qui resulte d'un meilleur bilan de puissance. Une etude des caracteristiques du plasma seul a revele que le champ magnetique confine si bien le plasma que le maximum de densite electronique se trouve hors axe, plus exactement a la position radiale correspondant au rayon du cylindre dielectrique servant a former l'interface dielectrique-plasma dans la zone source du reacteur. Ce phenomene indique une tres nette superiorite du coefficient de diffusion axial par rapport au coefficient de diffusion radial. Notre reacteur a un potentiel interessant pour l'analyse elementaire de materiaux solides puisque le taux de pulverisation y est eleve et que les especes pulverisees sont aisement excitees et ionisees par le plasma.

Masse, Louis Philippe

395

New constraints on the structure, thermochronology, and timing of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone, SE Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New structural, petrographic, and 40Ar/39Ar data constrain the kinematics of the ASRR (Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone). In the XueLong Shan (XLS), geochronological data reveal Triassic, Early Tertiary, and Oligo-Miocene thermal events. The latter event (33-26 Ma) corresponds to cooling during left-lateral shear. In the FanSiPan (FSP) range, thrusting of the SaPa nappe, linked to left-lateral deformation, and cooling of the FSP granite occurred at ?35 Ma. Rapid cooling resumed at 25-29 Ma as a result of uplift within the transtensive ASRR. In the DayNuiConVoi (DNCV), foliation trends NW-SE, but is deflected near large-scale shear planes. Stretching lineation is nearly horizontal. On steep foliations, shear criteria indicate left-lateral shear sense. Zones with flatter foliations show compatible shear senses. Petrographic data indicate decompression from ?6.5 kbar during left-lateral shear (temperatures >700°C). 40Ar/39Ar data imply rapid cooling from above 350°C to below 150°C between 25 and 22 Ma without diachronism along strike. Along the whole ASRR cooling histories show two main episodes: (1) rapid cooling from peak metamorphism during left-lateral shear; (2) rapid cooling from greenschist conditions during right-lateral reactivation of the ASRR. In the NW part of the ASRR (XLS, Diancang Shan), we link rapid cooling 1 to local denudations in a transpressive environment. In the SW part (Ailao Shan and DNCV), cooling 1 resulted from regional denudation by zipper-like tectonics in a transtensive regime. The induced cooling diachronism observed in the Ailao Shan suggests left-lateral rates of 4 to 5 cm/yr from 27 Ma until ?17 Ma. DNCV rocks always stayed in a transtensive regime and do not show cooling diachronism. The similarities of deformation kinematics along the ASRR and in the South China Sea confirms the causal link between continental strike-slip faulting and marginal basin opening.

Leloup, P. H.; Arnaud, N.; Lacassin, R.; Kienast, J. R.; Harrison, T. M.; Trong, T. T. Phan; Replumaz, A.; Tapponnier, P.

2001-04-01

396

Motor and memory function in rat models of cyanide toxicity and vascular occlusion induced ischemic injury.  

PubMed

Although oxidative stress is characteristic of global vascular occlusion and cyanide toxicity, the pattern of cerebral metabolism reconditioning and rate of progression or reversal of neural tissue damage differ for both forms of ischemia. Thus, it is important to compare cognitive and motor functions in both models of ischemia involving cyanide treatment (CN) and vascular occlusion (VO). Adult Wistar rats (N=30) were divided into three groups; VO (n=12), CN (n=12) and Control-CO (n=6). The CN was treated with 30mg/Kg of potassium cyanide (KCN); VO was subjected to global vascular occlusion-both for duration of 10 days. The control (CO) was fed on normal rat chow and water for the same duration. At day 10, the test and control groups (CN, VO and CO) were subjected to motor function tests (Table edge tests and Open Field Test) and memory function tests (Y-Maze and Novel object recognition) while the withdrawal groups CN-I and VO-I were subjected to the same set of tests at day 20 (the withdrawal phase). The results show that both cyanide toxicity and vascular occlusion caused a decline in motor and memory function when compared with the control. Also, the cyanide treatment produced a more rapid decline in these behavioral parameters when compared with the vascular occlusion during the treatment phase. After the withdrawal phase, cyanide treatment (CN-I) showed either an improvement or restoration of motor and memory function when compared to the CN and control. Withdrawal of vascular occlusion caused no improvement, and in some cases a decline in motor and memory function. In conclusion, cyanide toxicity caused a decline in motor and memory function after the treatment while vascular occlusion caused no significant decline in cognition and motor function at this time. After the withdrawal phase, the effect of cyanide toxicity was reduced and significant improvements were observed in the behavioral tests (motor and cognitive), while a decline in these functions were seen in the vascular occlusion group after this phase. PMID:25127448

Ogundele, Olalekan Michael; Adeniyi, Philip Adeyemi; Ajonijebu, Duyilemi Chris; Abdulbasit, Amin; Cobham, Ansa Emmanuel; Ishola, Azeez Olakunle; Balogun, Gbolahan Wasiu

2014-09-01

397

A methodology for direct quantification of over-ranging length in helical computed tomography with real-time dosimetry.  

PubMed

In helical computed tomography (CT), reconstruction information from volumes adjacent to the clinical volume of interest (VOI) is required for proper reconstruction. Previous studies have relied upon either operator console readings or indirect extrapolation of measurements in order to determine the over-ranging length of a scan. This paper presents a methodology for the direct quantification of over-ranging dose contributions using real-time dosimetry. A Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 multislice helical CT scanner is used with a novel real-time "point" fiber-optic dosimeter system with 10 ms temporal resolution to measure over-ranging length, which is also expressed in dose-length-product (DLP). Film was used to benchmark the exact length of over-ranging. Over-ranging length varied from 4.38 cm at pitch of 0.5 to 6.72 cm at a pitch of 1.5, which corresponds to DLP of 131 to 202 mGy-cm. The dose-extrapolation method of Van der Molen et al. yielded results within 3%, while the console reading method of Tzedakis et al. yielded consistently larger over-ranging lengths. From film measurements, it was determined that Tzedakis et al. overestimated over-ranging lengths by one-half of beam collimation width. Over-ranging length measured as a function of reconstruction slice thicknesses produced two linear regions similar to previous publications. Over-ranging is quantified with both absolute length and DLP, which contributes about 60 mGy-cm or about 10% of DLP for a routine abdominal scan. This paper presents a direct physical measurement of over-ranging length within 10% of previous methodologies. Current uncertainties are less than 1%, in comparison with 5% in other methodologies. Clinical implantation can be increased by using only one dosimeter if codependence with console readings is acceptable, with an uncertainty of 1.1% This methodology will be applied to different vendors, models, and postprocessing methods--which have been shown to produce over-ranging lengths differing by 125%. PMID:21587174

Tien, Christopher J; Winslow, James F; Hintenlang, David E

2011-01-01

398

Immunohistochemical expression of CD44s in human neuroblastic tumors: Moroccan experience and highlights on current data  

PubMed Central

Background Peripheral neuroblastic tumors (pNTs), including neuroblastoma (NB), ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB) and ganglioneuroma (GN), are extremely heterogeneous pediatric tumors responsible for 15 % of childhood cancer death. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of CD44s (‘s’: standard form) cell adhesion molecule by comparison with other specific prognostic markers. Methods An immunohistochemical profile of 32 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pNTs tissues, diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2010, was carried out. Results Our results have demonstrated the association of CD44s negative pNTs cells to lack of differentiation and tumour progression. A significant association between absence of CD44s expression and metastasis in human pNTs has been reported. We also found that expression of CD44s defines subgroups of patients without MYCN amplification as evidenced by its association with low INSS stages, absence of metastasis and favorable Shimada histology. Discussion These findings support the thesis of the role of CD44s glycoprotein in the invasive growth potential of neoplastic cells and suggest that its expression could be taken into consideration in the therapeutic approaches targeting metastases. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1034403150888863 Résumé Introduction les tumeurs neuroblastiques périphériques (TNPs), comprenant le neuroblastome (NB), le ganglioneuroblastome (GNB) et le ganglioneurome (GN), sont des tumeurs pédiatriques extrêmement hétérogènes responsables de 15% des décès par cancer chez les enfants. Le but de cette étude était d’évaluer l’expression de la molécule d’adhésion cellulaire CD44s (‘s’: pour standard) par rapport à d’autres facteurs pronostiques spécifiques. Méthodes Un profil immunohistochimique de 32 TNPs fixées au formol et incluses en paraffine, diagnostiquées entre Janvier 2007 et Décembre 2010, a été réalisé. Résultats Nos résultats ont mis en évidence l’association des TNPs n’exprimant pas le CD44s avec une perte de différenciation et une progression tumorale et nous avons rapporté une association significative entre l’absence d’expression du CD44s et la présence de métastases. Nous avons également constaté que l’expression du CD44s définit des sous-groupes de patients dans les tumeurs n’amplifiant pas le MYCN, comme en témoigne son association avec les stades INSS bas, l’absence de métastases et l’histologie favorable de Shimada. Discussion Ces résultats appuient l’hypothèse du rôle de la glycoprotéine CD44s dans le potentiel de croissance invasive des cellules néoplasiques et suggèrent que son expression pourrait être prise en considération dans des voies thérapeutiques ciblant les métastases. PMID:23445749

2013-01-01

399

Brain Imaging of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Type 2 in Healthy Aging Subjects by 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ PET  

PubMed Central

18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ is a novel PET radiotracer targeting vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2). The goal was to explore the image features in normal human brains with 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ as a reference of molecular landmark for clinical diagnosis in Parkinson's disease (PD) and related disorders. Materials and Methods A total of 22 healthy subjects (59.3±6.0 years old) including 7 men and 15 women were recruited for MRI and 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ PET scans. A total number of 55 brain VOIs were selected for quantitation analysis. The regional specific uptake ratio (SUR) was calculated with occipital as reference from MRI-based spatially normalized 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ images. Regional percentage SUR to that of anterior putamen was calculated. Average SUR images were displayed in 2D and 3D space to illustrate the image patterns. The correlation between age and regional VMAT2 uptake was also examined. Results Visual assessment showed symmetric uptake of 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ and obviously highest in striatum, followed by nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, and raphe nuclei. Quantification analysis revealed striatal VMAT2 density of anterior putamen>posterior putamen>caudate nucleus. Other subcortical regions were with moderate VMAT2 distribution (6?51% SUR of anterior putamen), while slightly lower VMAT2 was observed in cerebellum (10.60% SUR) and much lower in neocortex (<5% SUR). No significant correlation of SUR to age was found in subcortical regions. Conclusion Using 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ PET, we showed the 2D and 3D imaging features of the VMAT2 distribution in vivo in healthy aging brains. The in vivo imaging characteristics of VMAT2 is consistent with the expression of VMAT2 in a recent autopsy study. Therefore, 3D visualization and higher image quality of 18F-FP-(+)-DTBZ PET imaging might potentially be a powerful biomarker in detecting VMAT2 distribution of subcortical regions, and for Parkinson's disease and related neuropsychiatric disorders involving related monoaminergic systems. PMID:24098749

Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Lin, Wey-Yil; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Kung, Mei-Ping; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Lu, Chin-Song; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung

2013-01-01

400

Generalized five-dimensional dynamic and spectral factor analysis  

SciTech Connect

We have generalized the spectral factor analysis and the factor analysis of dynamic sequences (FADS) in SPECT imaging to a five-dimensional general factor analysis model (5D-GFA), where the five dimensions are the three spatial dimensions, photon energy, and time. The generalized model yields a significant advantage in terms of the ratio of the number of equations to that of unknowns in the factor analysis problem in dynamic SPECT studies. We solved the 5D model using a least-squares approach. In addition to the traditional non-negativity constraints, we constrained the solution using a priori knowledge of both time and energy, assuming that primary factors (spectra) are Gaussian-shaped with full-width at half-maximum equal to gamma camera energy resolution. 5D-GFA was validated in a simultaneous pre-/post-synaptic dual isotope dynamic phantom study where {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I activities were used to model early Parkinson disease studies. 5D-GFA was also applied to simultaneous perfusion/dopamine transporter (DAT) dynamic SPECT in rhesus monkeys. In the striatal phantom, 5D-GFA yielded significantly more accurate and precise estimates of both primary {sup 99m}Tc (bias=6.4%{+-}4.3%) and {sup 123}I (-1.7%{+-}6.9%) time activity curves (TAC) compared to conventional FADS (biases=15.5%{+-}10.6% in {sup 99m}Tc and 8.3%{+-}12.7% in {sup 123}I, p<0.05). Our technique was also validated in two primate dynamic dual isotope perfusion/DAT transporter studies. Biases of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 123}I-DAT activity estimates with respect to estimates obtained in the presence of only one radionuclide (sequential imaging) were significantly lower with 5D-GFA (9.4%{+-}4.3% for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and 8.7%{+-}4.1% for {sup 123}I-DAT) compared to biases greater than 15% for volumes of interest (VOI) over the reconstructed volumes (p<0.05). 5D-GFA is a novel and promising approach in dynamic SPECT imaging that can also be used in other modalities. It allows accurate and precise dynamic analysis while compensating for Compton scatter and cross-talk.

El Fakhri, Georges; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Zimmerman, Robert E.; Ouyang Jinsong [Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Functional Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

2006-04-15

401

Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Human Regional Cerebral Blood Flow  

PubMed Central

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can up- and down-regulate cortical excitability depending on current direction, however our abilities to measure brain-tissue effects of the stimulation and its after-effects have been limited so far. We used regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), a surrogate measure of brain activity, to examine regional brain-tissue and brain-network effects during and after tDCS. We varied the polarity (anodal and cathodal) as well as the current strength (0.8 to 2.0 mA) of the stimulation. Fourteen healthy subjects were randomized into receiving either anodal or cathodal stimulation (two subjects received both, one week apart) while undergoing Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) in the MRI scanner with an alternating off-on sampling paradigm. The stimulating, MRI-compatible electrode was placed over the right motor region and the reference electrode over the contralateral supraorbital region. SPM5 was used to process and extract the rCBF data using a 10mm spherical volume-of-interest (VOI) placed in the motor cortex directly underneath the stimulating scalp electrode. Anodal stimulation induced a large increase (17.1%) in rCBF during stimulation, which returned to baseline after the current was turned off, but exhibited an increase in rCBF again in the post-stimulation period. Cathodal stimulation induced a smaller increase (5.6%) during stimulation, a significant decrease compared to baseline (?6.5%) after cessation, and a continued decrease in the post-stimulation period. These changes in rCBF were all significant when compared to the pre-stimulation baseline or to a control region. Furthermore, for anodal stimulation, there was a significant correlation between current strength and the increase in rCBF in the on-period relative to the pre-stimulation baseline. The differential rCBF after-effects of anodal (increase in resting state rCBF) and cathodal (decrease in resting state rCBF) tDCS support findings of behavioral and cognitive after-effects after cathodal and anodal tDCS. We also showed that tDCS not only modulates activity in the brain region directly underlying the stimulating electrode but also in a network of brain regions that are functionally related to the stimulated area. Our results indicate that ASL may be an excellent tool to investigate the effects of tDCS and its stimulation parameters on brain activity. PMID:21703350

Zheng, Xin; Alsop, David C.; Schlaug, Gottfried

2011-01-01

402

Alcohol and cause-specific mortality in Russia: a retrospective case-control study of 48 557 adult deaths  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Alcohol is an important determinant of the high and fluctuating adult mortality rates in Russia, but cause-specific detail is lacking. Our case–control study investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on male and female cause-specific mortality. Methods In three Russian industrial cities with typical 1990s mortality patterns (Tomsk, Barnaul, Biysk), the addresses of 60?416 residents who had died at ages 15–74 years in 1990–2001 were visited in 2001–05. Family members were present for 50?066 decedents; for 48?557 (97%), the family gave proxy information on the decedents' past alcohol use and on potentially confounding factors. Cases (n=43?082) were those certified as dying from causes we judged beforehand might be substantially affected by alcohol or tobacco; controls were the other 5475 decedents. Case versus control relative risks (RRs; calculated as odds ratios by confounder-adjusted logistic regression) were calculated in ever-drinkers, defining the reference category by two criteria: usual weekly consumption always less than 0·5 half-litre bottles of vodka (or equivalent in total alcohol content) and maximum consumption of spirits in 1 day always less than 0·5 half-litre bottles. Other ever-drinkers were classified by usual weekly consumption into three categories: less than one, one to less than three, and three or more (mean 5·4 [SD 1·4]) bottles of vodka or equivalent. Findings In men, the three causes accounting for the most alcohol-associated deaths were accidents and violence (RR 5·94, 95% CI 5·35–6·59, in the highest consumption category), alcohol poisoning (21·68, 17·94–26·20), and acute ischaemic heart disease other than myocardial infarction (3·04, 2·73–3·39), which includes some misclassified alcohol poisoning. There were significant excesses of upper aerodigestive tract cancer (3·48, 2·84–4·27) and liver cancer (2·11, 1·64–2·70). Another five disease groups had RRs of more than 3·00 in the highest alcohol category: tuberculosis (4·14, 3·44–4·98), pneumonia (3·29, 2·83–3·83), liver disease (6·21, 5·16–7·47), pancreatic disease (6·69, 4·98–9·00), and ill-specified conditions (7·74, 6·48–9·25). Although drinking was less common in women, the RRs associated with it were generally more extreme. After correction for reporting errors, alcohol-associated excesses accounted for 52% of all study deaths at ages 15–54 years (men 8182 [59%] of 13968, women 1565 [33%] of 4751) and 18% of those at 55–74 years (men 3944 [22%] of 17?536, women 1493 [12%] of 12?302). Allowance for under-representation of extreme drinkers would further increase alcohol-associated proportions. Large fluctuations in mortality from these ten strongly alcohol-associated causes were the main determinants of recent fluctuations in overall mortality in the study region and in Russia as a whole. Interpretation Alcohol-attributable mortality varies by year; in several recent years, alcohol was a cause of more than half of all Russian deaths at ages 15–54 years. Alcohol accounts for most of the large fluctuations in Russian mortality, and alcohol and tobacco account for the large difference in adult mortality between Russia and western Europe. Funding UK Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, British Heart Foundation, International Agency for Research on Cancer, and European Commission Directorate-General for Research. PMID:19560602

Zaridze, David; Brennan, Paul; Boreham, Jillian; Boroda, Alex; Karpov, Rostislav; Lazarev, Alexander; Konobeevskaya, Irina; Igitov, Vladimir; Terechova, Tatiana; Boffetta, Paolo; Peto, Richard

2009-01-01

403

Controle sismique d'un batiment en acier de 1 etage par amortisseurs elastomeres et contreventements en Chevron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Actuellement, le principe de dimensionnement a la capacite est fortement utilise dans le domaine du genie parasismique. De maniere simplifiee, cette methode de dimensionnement consiste a dissiper l'energie injectee a une structure lors d'une secousse sismique par la deformation inelastique d'un element structural sacrificiel. Cette methode de dimensionne-ment permet d'obtenir des structures economiques, car cette dissipation d'energie permet de reduire substantiellement les efforts qui se retrouvent a l'interieur de la structure. Or, la consequence de ce dimensionnement est la presence de degats importants a la structure qui suivent a la secousse sismique. Ces degats peuvent engendrer des couts superieurs aux couts d'erection de la structure. Bien entendu, sachant que les secousses sismiques d'importances sont des phenomenes rares, l'ingenieur est pret a accepter ce risque afin de diminuer les couts initiaux de construction. Malgre que cette methode ait permis d'obtenir des constructions economiques et securitaires, il serait interessant de developper un systeme qui permettrait d'obtenir des performances de controle des efforts sismiques comparables a un systeme dimensionne selon un principe de dimensionnement a la capacite sans les consequences negatives de ces systemes. En utilisant les principes d'isolation a la base, il a ete possible de developper un systeme de reprise des forces sismiques (SRFS). qui permet d'obtenir un controle des efforts sismiques concurrentiels tout en gardant une structure completement elastique. Ce systeme consiste u inserer un materiel elastomere entre l'assemblage de la poutre et des contreventements a l'interieur d'un cadre contrevente conventionnel. Cette insertion permet de diminuer substantiellement la rigidite laterale du batiment, ce qui a pour consequence d'augmenter la valeur de la periode fondamentale du batiment dans lequel ces cadres sont inseres. Ce phenomene est appele le saut de periode. Ce saut de periode permet de reduire grandement l'amplification dynamique essuyee lors d'un seisme du au contenu frequentiel particulier des secousses sismiques. Toutefois, la reduction de la rigidite globale a pour consequence d'augmenter grandement les deplacements de fonctionnement de la structure, ce phenomene etant mitige par les proprietes amortissantes de l'elastomere utilise. Le SRFS propose a ete etudie dans le cadre de la presente maitrise. Les objectifs de l'etude consistent a demontrer l'efficacite et la faisabilite du systeme propose ainsi que de developper une methode de dimensionnement efficace et securitaire pour ce genre de systeme. Afin de faciliter l'obtention des objectifs, l'approche qui a ete utilisee est l'etude comparative d'un meme batiment dimensionne selon deux principes. Le premier est le dimensionnement a la capacite. Le second est un dimensionnement employant le systeme propose. La presente etude a ete scindee en quatre parties distinctes. La premiere est l'etude du materiel elastomere afin de determiner les proprietes utiles lors d'un dimensionnement. La seconde est le dimensionnement et l'etude en laboratoire du comportement d'un cadre contrevente selon un principe de dimensionnement a la capacite. La troisieme partie est le dimensionnement et l'etude en laboratoire du comportement d'un cadre contrevente integrant des amortisseurs elastomeres. La quatrieme et derniere partie est l'etude comparative des performances sismiques d'un batiment qui emploie des cadres amortis avec des amortisseurs elastomeres avec les performances d'un batiment qui emploie un SRFS par contreventements classiques. A la suite des differentes analyses, il a ete possible de conclure sur les performances du systeme propose employant des amortisseurs elastomeres. Le systeme possede un excellent comportement quant aux sollicitations sismiques. Le controle des efforts sismiques est du meme ordre qu'un SRFS par contreventements de ductilite moderee (reduction des efforts elastiques par un facteur de 3). Bien que la demande en deplacement soit plus grande pour le systeme propose que pour un syst

Girard, Olivier

404

Investigation of the usability of conebeam CT data sets for dose calculation  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the feasibility and accuracy of dose calculation in cone beam CT (CBCT) data sets. Methods Kilovoltage CBCT images were acquired with the Elekta XVI system, CT studies generated with a conventional multi-slice CT scanner (Siemens Somatom Sensation Open) served as reference images. Material specific volumes of interest (VOI) were defined for commercial CT Phantoms (CATPhan® and Gammex RMI®) and CT values were evaluated in CT and CBCT images. For CBCT imaging, the influence of image acquisition parameters such as tube voltage, with or without filter (F1 or F0) and collimation on the CT values was investigated. CBCT images of 33 patients (pelvis n = 11, thorax n = 11, head n = 11) were compared with corresponding planning CT studies. Dose distributions for three different treatment plans were calculated in CT and CBCT images and differences were evaluated. Four different correction strategies to match CT values (HU) and density (D) in CBCT images were analysed: standard CT HU-D table without adjustment for CBCT; phantom based HU-D tables; patient group based HU-D tables (pelvis, thorax, head); and patient specific HU-D tables. Results CT values in the CBCT images of the CATPhan® were highly variable depending on the image acquisition parameters: a mean difference of 564 HU ± 377 HU was calculated between CT values determined from the planning CT and CBCT images. Hence, two protocols were selected for CBCT imaging in the further part of the study and HU-D tables were always specific for these protocols (pelvis and thorax with M20F1 filter, 120 kV; head S10F0 no filter, 100 kV). For dose calculation in real patient CBCT images, the largest differences between CT and CBCT were observed for the standard CT HU-D table: differences were 8.0% ± 5.7%, 10.9% ± 6.8% and 14.5% ± 10.4% respectively for pelvis, thorax and head patients using clinical treatment plans. The use of patient and group based HU-D tables resulted in small dose differences between planning CT and CBCT: 0.9% ± 0.9%, 1.8% ± 1.6%, 1.5% ± 2.5% for pelvis, thorax and head patients, respectively. The application of the phantom based HU-D table was acceptable for the head patients but larger deviations were determined for the pelvis and thorax patient populations. Conclusion The generation of three HU-D tables specific for the anatomical regions pelvis, thorax and head and specific for the corresponding CBCT image acquisition parameters resulted in accurate dose calculation in CBCT images. Once these HU-D tables are created, direct dose calculation on CBCT datasets is possible without the need of a reference CT images for pixel value calibration. PMID:19087250

Richter, Anne; Hu, Qiaoqiao; Steglich, Doreen; Baier, Kurt; Wilbert, Jurgen; Guckenberger, Matthias; Flentje, Michael

2008-01-01

405

Modeling microbial processes in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The incorporation of microbial processes into reactive transport models has generally proceeded along two separate lines of investigation: (1) transport of bacteria as inert colloids in porous media, and (2) the biodegradation of dissolved contaminants by a stationary phase of bacteria. Research over the last decade has indicated that these processes are closely linked. This linkage may occur when a change in metabolic activity alters the attachment/detachment rates of bacteria to surfaces, either promoting or retarding bacterial transport in a groundwater-contaminant plume. Changes in metabolic activity, in turn, are controlled by the time of exposure of the microbes to electron acceptors/donor and other components affecting activity. Similarly, metabolic activity can affect the reversibility of attachment, depending on the residence time of active microbes. Thus, improvements in quantitative analysis of active subsurface biota necessitate direct linkages between substrate availability, metabolic activity, growth, and attachment/detachment rates. This linkage requires both a detailed understanding of the biological processes and robust quantitative representations of these processes that can be tested experimentally. This paper presents an overview of current approaches used to represent physicochemical and biological processes in porous media, along with new conceptual approaches that link metabolic activity with partitioning of the microorganism between the aqueous and solid phases. Résumé L'introduction des processus microbiologiques dans des modèles de transport réactif a généralement suivi deux voies différentes de recherches: (1) le transport de bactéries sous forme de colloïdes inertes en milieu poreux, et (2) la biodégradation de polluants dissous par une phase stationnaire de bactéries. Les recherches conduites au cours des dix dernières années indiquent que ces processus sont intimement liés. Cette liaison peut intervenir lorsqu'un changement dans l'activité métabolique modifie les taux de fixation/libération de bactéries des surfaces, soit en facilitant, soit en retardant le transport bactérien dans le panache de polluant de l'eau souterraine. Des changements de l'activité métabolique peuvent en retour être contrôlés par le temps d'exposition des microbes à des donneurs ou à des accepteurs d'électrons et à d'autres composés affectant cette activité. De façon similaire, l'activité métabolique peut affecter la réversibilité de la fixation, en fonction du temps de séjour des microbes actifs. Ainsi, les améliorations de l'analyse quantitative des organismes souterrains nécessitent d'établir des liens directs entre les possibilités du substrat, l'activité métabolique, la croissance et les taux de fixation/libération. Cette liaison nécessite à la fois une compréhension détaillée des processus biologiques et des représentations quantitatives robustes de ces processus qui puissent être testées expérimentalement. Cet article présente une revue des approches courantes utilisées pour représenter les processus physio-chimiques et biologiques en milieu poreux, en même temps que de nouvelles approches conceptuelles qui associent l'activité métabolique à la répartition des micro-organismes entre les phases aqueuse et solide. Resumen La incorporación de los procesos microbianos en los modelos de transporte reactivos ha procedido tradicionalmente a lo largo de dos líneas de investigación independientes: (1) el transporte de bacterias como coloides inertes en el medio poroso, y (2) la biodegradación de los contaminantes disueltos por una fase estacionaria de bacterias. En los últimos años se ha comprobado que estos dos procesos están muy interrelacionados. En concreto, un cambio en la actividad metabólica puede alterar la relación de adsorción/desorción de las bacterias, favoreciendo o retardando el transporte bacteriano en un penacho de contaminación. A su vez, los cambios en la actividad metabólica están controlados, entre otros factores, por el tiempo

Murphy, Ellyn M.; Ginn, Timothy R.