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1

Toxicology of upper aerodigestive tract pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The field of environmental toxicology has become quite important to the study of environmental health in human beings. The stability of the ecosystem in which we live is threatened by the nearly 5 million chemical compounds that have been synthesized worldwide, many of which have real or potentially toxic effects on the environment and on life forms. Four major groups of chemicals--metallic elements, nonmetallic elements, organic compounds and inorganic compounds--have certain agents within them that are known toxins to human beings. Some of these agents have an as yet unknown effect, whereas others have been well characterized. They can be found in the workplace, home, and outdoors, and many are unseen and odorless. In the past, most agents have been described in terms of their carcinogenic potential or major toxic effects on organ systems. It is now likely that the important characterization of some of these agents referrable to the upper aerodigestive tract should be at their receptor sites and identify the very discrete and small effects on these sites and their cumulative effects. The concept of threshold is probably an arbitrary one because to date these discrete effects have not been studied. Susceptibility on an individual basis probably varies from low to high, depending on the patient's immunologic and defense mechanisms and the existence of congenital or acquired risk factors. New attention must be given to more subtle effects on the upper aerodigestive tract (i.e., sinusitis and laryngitis) in view of the potential effects of certain toxic agents on these tissues.

Holt, G.R. (Department of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States))

1992-06-01

2

Button batteries in the ear, nose and upper aerodigestive tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: With the miniaturization of electronic devices, the demand and usage of button batteries has risen. As a result, button batteries are more readily available for young children to handle and potentially mishandle. They are frequently inadvertently placed by children in their ears or noses. Occasionally they are swallowed and lodged along the upper aerodigestive tract. Methods: We outline the

Vincent Y. W Lin; S. J Daniel; B. C Papsin

2004-01-01

3

Concordance of Two Endoscopic Procedures for Diagnosis of Carcinoma of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Upper Aerodigestive Tract Lesions; Neoplasms, Oropharyngeal; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Neoplasms, Hypopharyngeal; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Head and Neck Neoplasms; UADT Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Papilloma

2014-08-15

4

Upper aerodigestive tract disorders and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of symptoms and diseases of the upper aerodigestive tract are associated to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). These disorders comprise a large variety of conditions such as asthma, chronic otitis media and sinusitis, chronic cough, and laryngeal disorders including paroxysmal laryngospasm. Laryngo-pharyngeal reflux disease is an extraoesophageal variant of GORD that can affect the larynx and pharynx. Despite numerous research efforts, the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux often remains elusive, unproven and controversial, and its treatment is then still empiric. Aim of this paper is to review the current literature on upper aerodigestive tract disorders in relation to pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux, focusing in particular on the pathophysiology base and results of the surgical treatment of GORD. PMID:25685756

Ciorba, Andrea; Bianchini, Chiara; Zuolo, Michele; Feo, Carlo Vittorio

2015-01-01

5

Aerodigestive Tract Burn from Ingestion of Microwaved Food  

PubMed Central

Aerodigestive tract burns represent a rare but potentially devastating injury pattern throughout the world. Although the majority of these injuries do not require intervention, these burns have the potential for poor outcomes. Traditionally this disease has been caused by superheated gases found in explosions or fire-related injury. However, as technology advances, it brings novel methods for injury that require physician awareness of potential hazards. We describe a case of laryngeal and esophageal thermal burn caused by a microwave heated food bolus. PMID:23606998

Silberman, Michael

2013-01-01

6

Delayed aerodigestive tract complications following combined therapy for thyroid cancer  

SciTech Connect

Radical surgery for papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid has been associated with a significant incidence of complications. In some instances, postoperative irradiation is given when there is some suspicion of persistent or occult disease, although thyroid suppression and ablative radioiodine therapy have proved to be very effective adjuvants to surgery. Three patients with papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid developed severe, delayed complications 25, 7, and 2 years, respectively, after treatment with primary radical surgery and postoperative irradiation. The degree of injury to the aerodigestive tract as a result of the surgery and irradiation therapy makes treatment difficult regardless of the modality. The possible mechanisms that cause these complications, along with proposed methods of treatment, are discussed.

Grossman, T.W.; Wilson, J.F.; Toohill, R.J.

1985-09-01

7

Upper Aerodigestive Tract Neurofunctional Mechanisms: Lifelong Evolution and Exercise  

PubMed Central

The transformation of the upper aerodigestive tract – oral cavity, pharynx and larynx – serves the functions of eating, speaking and breathing during sleeping and waking hours. These life-sustaining functions may be produced by a central neural sensorimotor system that shares certain neuroanatomic networks while maintaining separate neural functional systems and network structures. Current understanding of development, maturation, underlying neural correlates and integrative factors are discussed in light of currently available imaging modalities and recently emerging interventions. Exercise and an array of additional treatments together appear to provide promising translational pathways for evidence-based innovation, novel habilitation and rehabilitation strategies and delay, or even prevent neuromuscular decline cross-cutting functions and supporting quality of life throughout increasingly enduring lifespans. PMID:21910155

Robbins, JoAnne

2013-01-01

8

Pediatric upper aero-digestive and respiratory tract burns.  

PubMed

Upper aero-digestive and respiratory tract burns may occur in isolation or in association with cutaneous burn injury. Major respiratory burns have been linked with a high mortality and morbidity. Despite the importance of these injuries there have been few studies in children. A retrospective case note review between December 2000 and March 2011 of all pediatric upper aero-digestive and respiratory tract burns referred to the New South Wales Statewide Burn Injury Service was performed. Data were collected on patient characteristics, injury details, requirement for intubation, length of stay (LOS), morbidity and mortality. There were 33 patients diagnosed, with a median age of 5.4 years and a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. Mechanism of injury was ingestion of a caustic material (n=15), flame (n=11) or scald (n=7). Overall 14 (42%) patients were intubated; the majority associated with burns to the face (79%) and oropharynx (64%). Median LOS was 6 days (range 3 to 23). Of those patients admitted to intensive care, 50% had a positive bacterial culture. The most common sites of infection were tracheal/endotracheal (80%) and burn sites (44%). There were 2 (6%) deaths in the series. Whilst the majority of children with upper airway and respiratory tract burns required intubation, the overall morbidity and mortality was low compared to adult series. This may reflect that a number of children suffered an upper aero digestive tract burn following ingestion of a caustic material or hot liquids, rather than a lower tract, inhalational flame burn. PMID:24273696

Ofri, Adam; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

2013-01-01

9

Pediatric upper aero-digestive and respiratory tract burns  

PubMed Central

Upper aero-digestive and respiratory tract burns may occur in isolation or in association with cutaneous burn injury. Major respiratory burns have been linked with a high mortality and morbidity. Despite the importance of these injuries there have been few studies in children. A retrospective case note review between December 2000 and March 2011 of all pediatric upper aero-digestive and respiratory tract burns referred to the New South Wales Statewide Burn Injury Service was performed. Data were collected on patient characteristics, injury details, requirement for intubation, length of stay (LOS), morbidity and mortality. There were 33 patients diagnosed, with a median age of 5.4 years and a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. Mechanism of injury was ingestion of a caustic material (n=15), flame (n=11) or scald (n=7). Overall 14 (42%) patients were intubated; the majority associated with burns to the face (79%) and oropharynx (64%). Median LOS was 6 days (range 3 to 23). Of those patients admitted to intensive care, 50% had a positive bacterial culture. The most common sites of infection were tracheal/endotracheal (80%) and burn sites (44%). There were 2 (6%) deaths in the series. Whilst the majority of children with upper airway and respiratory tract burns required intubation, the overall morbidity and mortality was low compared to adult series. This may reflect that a number of children suffered an upper aero digestive tract burn following ingestion of a caustic material or hot liquids, rather than a lower tract, inhalational flame burn. PMID:24273696

Ofri, Adam; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

2013-01-01

10

Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Korea.  

PubMed

Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) constitute 3.5-4% of all malignancies. Since the majority of cases are squamous cell carcinomas which are related with epidemiologic factors, a different pattern of UADT cancer might be present between the Western and Asian populations. We performed a pathology based statistical study on UADT cancers in Korean patients. Cases from Korea Cancer Center Hospital, from January 1, 1988 through December 31, 1998, were subjected to the study. Among 2,842 cases, epithelial malignancies accounted for 87.8%, with squamous cell carcinoma as the major type (76.5%). The larynx was the most commonly affected site (26%), followed by the oral cavity (25.1%), oropharynx (13%), nasopharynx (9%), hypopharynx (8.4%), paranasal sinuses (6.4%), nasal cavity (6%) and salivary glands (6.1%). The percentage of squamous cell carcinoma was highest (98.7%) at the hypopharynx, and lowest at the nasal cavity (42.3%), which showed the most diverse tumor entities. Korean patients with UADT cancers presented with a higher incidence of non-epidermoid malignancy including sarcoma (1.5%) and malignant melanoma (1.4%), and a higher frequency of involvement of the sinonasal tract, compared with the Western patients. PMID:11850583

Cho, Kyung Ja; Khang, Shin Kwang; Lee, Seung Sook; Koh, Jae Soo; Chung, Jin Haeng; Lee, Yong Sik; Shim, Yoon Sang

2002-02-01

11

ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE  

E-print Network

'ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE (Specialite : GENIE DES PROCEDES) MODELISATION DE LA\\flNES DE SAINT-ETIENNE (Specialite : GENIE DES PROCEDES) MODELISATION DE LA CINETIQUE DE REDUCTION D Michele Yves Cahn Materiaux Productique Genie des procedes Environnement Materiaux Genie des procedes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

12

Dysphagia with a thyroid nodule: is there a primary aerodigestive malignancy?  

PubMed Central

Summary Three cases of laryngopharyngeal primary squamous cell carcinoma presenting with thyroid nodules are described. The key message to take away from these cases is that patients with advanced malignancy of the upper aerodigestive tract can present with a thyroid nodule. PMID:18344472

Michalopoulos, Konstantinos; Gunasekaran, Sinnappa; Moor, James W; Bem, Chris

2008-01-01

13

Statistical analysis of human papillomavirus in a subset of upper aerodigestive tract tumors.  

PubMed

Human papilloma virus (HPV) has been detected in some upper aerodigestive tract tumors, but the correlation between HPV and these tumors is not well understood. There is also some controversy regarding this correlation because a large variation in the prevalence of HPV in these tumors has been reported. To discuss the impact of HPV infection on upper aerodigestive tract tumors, this review estimated systematically the prevalence and risk of HPV in upper aerodigestive tract tumors from studies published between 1982 and 2012. In total, 418 articles were selected, which included 273 studies on the head and neck and 145 studies on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The overall prevalence of HPV in the 5,467 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma specimens was 36.3%. HPV was detected more frequently in the Americas (40%), than in Asia (38.6%), Europe (32%), or others regions (30.5%). The prevalence of HPV was significantly higher in oropharyngeal (48.5%) than in oral (32.5%), laryngeal (30.7%), and unselected head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (33.3%) (P?aerodigestive tract tumors. PMID:23861229

Liu, Hongwei; Li, Jintao; Diao, Mingkun; Cai, Zhenhai; Yang, Jun; Zeng, Yi

2013-10-01

14

ErbB receptors in the biology and pathology of the aerodigestive tract  

SciTech Connect

The most common sites of malignancies in the aerodigestive tract include the lung, head and neck and the esophagus. Esophageal adenocarcinomas (EA), esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC), and squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) are the primary focus of this review. Traditional treatment for aerodigestive tract cancers includes primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) or surgical resection followed by radiation (or CRT). Recent developments in treatment have focused increasingly on molecular targeting strategies including cetuximab (a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)). Cetuximab was FDA approved in 2006 for treatment of SCCHN, underscoring the importance of understanding the biology of these malignancies. EGFR is a member of the ErbB family of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases. The major pathways activated by ErbB receptors include Ras/Raf/MAPK; PI3K/AKT; PLC{gamma} and STATs, all of which lead to the transcription of target genes that may contribute to aerodigestive tumor progression. This review explores the expression of ErbB receptors in EA, ESCC and SCCHN and the signaling pathways of EGFR in SCCHN.

Morgan, Sarah [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 200 Lothrop Street (United States); Suite 500, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Grandis, Jennifer R. [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 200 Lothrop Street (United States); Suite 500, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)], E-mail: jgrandis@pitt.edu

2009-02-15

15

SIAM J. ScI. STAT. COMPUT. VOI. 9, NO. 5, September 1988  

E-print Network

SIAM J. ScI. STAT. COMPUT. VOI. 9, NO. 5, September 1988 (C) 1988 Society for Industrial RATZAN, NEIL POMPHREY, AND WONCHULL PARK Abstract. Diagonal Padd approximations to the time evolution. RATZAN, N. POMPHREY, AND W. PARK Although widely studied [31,[4],[71,[81,[9],[20],[21], high

16

Les kystes hydatiques du foie rompus dans les voies biliaires: à propos de 120 cas  

PubMed Central

Etude rétrospective rapportant une série de kystes hydatiques rompus dans les voies biliaires colligés dans le service de chirurgie de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne à Marrakech. Entre 1990 à 2008, sur 536 kystes hydatiques du foie opérés dans le service, 120 étaient compliqués de rupture dans les voies biliaires soit 22,38%. Il y avait 82hommes et 38 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 35 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 10 à 60 ans. La clinique était dominée par la crise d'angiocholite ou une douleur du flanc droit. L'ictère était isolé dans huit cas. La fistule biliokystique était latente dans plus de 50% des cas. Le traitement a consisté en une résection du dôme saillant dans103cas (85,84%), une périkystectomie chez 11 malades (9,16%) et une lobectomie gauche dans six cas (5%). Le traitement de la fistule bilio kystique a consisté en une suture chez 36malades et un drainage bipolaire dans 25 cas, La déconnexion kysto-biliaire ou cholédocotomie trans hépatico kystique selon Perdomo était pratiquée dans 49cas et une anastomose bilio-digestive cholédoco-duodénale dans 10 cas. La durée moyenne d'hospitalisation était de 20jours. Nous déplorons deux décès par choc septique et un troisième par encéphalopathie secondaire à une cirrhose biliaire. La morbidité était représentée par huit abcès sous phrénique, douze fistules biliaires prolongées et deux occlusions intestinales. Les kystes hydatiques rompus dans les voies biliaires représentent la complication la plus grave de cette pathologie bénigne. Le traitement repose sur des méthodes radicales qui sont d'une efficacité reconnue, mais de réalisation dangereuse et les méthodes conservatrices, en particulier la déconnexion kysto-biliaire qui est une méthode simple et qui donne de bons résultats à court et à long terme. PMID:22384289

Moujahid, Mountassir; Tajdine, Mohamed Tarik

2011-01-01

17

A Model for Predicting Gastrostomy Tube Placement in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Upper Aerodigestive Tract Lesions  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Identifying high-risk patients in the preoperative period can allow physicians to optimize nutritional status early for better outcomes after head and neck cancer resections. OBJECTIVE To develop a model to predict preoperatively the need for gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement in patients undergoing surgery of the upper aerodigestive tract. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This retrospective medical record review included all adult patients diagnosed with head and neck cancers who underwent tumor resection from 2007 through 2012 at Wake Forest Baptist Health, a level 1 tertiary care center. Records were screened for patient demographics, tumor characteristics, surgical treatment type, and postoperative placement of G-tube. A total of 743 patients underwent resection of head and neck tumors. Of these, 203 were excluded for prior G-tube placement, prior head and neck resection, G-tube placement for chemoradiotherapy, and resection for solely nodal disease, leaving 540 patients for analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Placement of postoperative G-tube. RESULTS Of the 540 included patients, 23% required G-tube placement. The following variables were significant and independent predictors of G-tube placement: preoperative irradiation (odds ratio [OR], 4.1; 95% CI, 2.4–6.9; P < .001), supracricoid laryngectomy (OR, 26.0; 95% CI, 4.9–142.9; P < .001), tracheostomy tube placement (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5–4.4; P < .001), clinical node stage N0 vs N2 (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4–4.2; P = .01), clinical node stage N1 vs N2 (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P = .01), preoperative weight loss (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2–3.2; P = .004), dysphagia (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2–3.2; P = .005), reconstruction type (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9; P = .02), and tumor stage (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–2.9; P = .03). A predictive model was developed based on these variables. In the validation analysis, we found that the average predicted score for patients who received G-tubes was statistically different than the score for the patients who did not receive G-tubes (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We present a validated and comprehensive model for preoperatively predicting the need for G-tube placement in patients undergoing surgery of the upper aerodigestive tract. Early enteral access in high-risk patients may prevent complications in postoperative healing and improve overall outcomes, including quality of life. PMID:25321077

Mays, Ashley C.; Moustafa, Farah; Worley, Mitch; Waltonen, Joshua D.; D'Agostino, Ralph

2015-01-01

18

Association of the GSTT1 polymorphism in upper aerodigestive tract cancer with tobacco smoking.  

PubMed

Polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes might explain differences in the susceptibility to upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers in individuals exposed to tobacco or other carcinogens. The present study aimed to evaluate the association of polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) candidate genes GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 with the risk of UADT cancers. GST gene polymorphisms were determined in 116 individuals with UADT cancer and 224 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction-based methods. The GSTT1-null polymorphism was found to be a protective factor for UADT cancer [(odds ratio (OR) = 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.27-0.93)], although this association was not confirmed when adjusted for gender, age, smoking, alcoholism, and self-reported skin color in the multivariate logistic regression model (OR = 0.61, 95%CI = 0.29-1.28). The combined effect of GSTT1-positive genotypes with either the GSTP1 wild-type genotype (Ile/Ile) or the GSTP1 variant genotypes (Ile/Val or Val/Val) increased the risk for UADT cancer (OR = 4.34, 95%CI = 1.06-17.78 and OR = 4.55, 95%CI = 1.12-18.42, respectively). A significant interaction was observed among moderate smokers carrying the GSTT1-positive genotype. In this population, the significant gene-gene and gene-environment interactions of GST polymorphisms may confer a substantial risk to UADT cancers. PMID:24535881

Silva, T M; Marques, C R; Marques Filho, M F; Marques, A B; Di Pietro, G; Rios-Santos, F

2014-01-01

19

A Rare Truncating BRCA2 Variant and Genetic Susceptibility to Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer.  

PubMed

Deleterious BRCA2 genetic variants markedly increase risk of developing breast cancer. A rare truncating BRCA2 genetic variant, rs11571833 (K3326X), has been associated with a 2.5-fold risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma but only a modest 26% increase in breast cancer risk. We analyzed the association between BRCA2 SNP rs11571833 and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk with multivariable unconditional logistic regression adjusted by sex and combinations of study and country for 5942 UADT squamous cell carcinoma case patients and 8086 control patients from nine different studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. rs11571833 was associated with UADT cancers (odds ratio = 2.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.89 to 3.38, P = 3x10(-10)) and was present in European, Latin American, and Indian populations but extremely rare in Japanese populations. The association appeared more apparent in smokers (current or former) compared with never smokers (P het = .026). A robust association between a truncating BRCA2 variant and UADT cancer risk suggests that treatment strategies orientated towards BRCA2 mutations may warrant further investigation in UADT tumors. PMID:25838448

Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Anantharaman, Devasena; Timofeeva, Maria N; Gaborieau, Valérie; Chabrier, Amélie; Vallée, Maxime P; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Thakker, Nalin S; Conway, David I; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Eluf-Neto, José; Boffetta, Paolo; Fernández Garrote, Leticia; Polesel, Jerry; Lener, Marcin; Jaworowska, Ewa; Lubi?ski, Jan; Boccia, Stefania; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja A; Mahimkar, Manoj B; Matsuo, Keitaro; Franceschi, Silvia; Byrnes, Graham; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D

2015-05-01

20

JOURNAL OF OPTIMIZATION THEORY AND APPLICATIONS: Voi.43, No. 2, JUNE 1984 Planar Quasi-Newton Algorithms for Unconstrained  

E-print Network

. zAssociate Professor, Department ofIndustrial Engineering and Operations Research, Univer- sityJOURNAL OF OPTIMIZATION THEORY AND APPLICATIONS: Voi.43, No. 2, JUNE 1984 Planar Quasi. As many well-known algorithms, quasi-Newton methods are based on a quadratic model of the objective

Oren, Shmuel S.

21

Cat'egories triangul'ees sup'erieures Georges MALTSINIOTIS  

E-print Network

Cat'egories triangul'ees sup'erieures Georges MALTSINIOTIS F'evrier 2006 Le but de ce texte est de d'ecrire la structure d'efinie sur la cat'egorie d'eriv'ee d'une cat'egorie ab'elienne (ou d'une cat une notion de cat'egorie n­triangul'ee (avec eventuellement n = 1, dans quel cas on dit qu'elle est

Maltsiniotis, Georges - Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu, Université Paris 7

22

Asymptomatic myocardial metastasis from cancers of upper aero-digestive tract detected on FDG PET/CT: a series of 4 cases  

PubMed Central

Metastatic involvement of the heart is a rare occurrence and remains undiagnosed until autopsy. In some instances, patients may have cardiac symptoms, leading to ante-mortem diagnosis. Although most primary cancers have been documented to metastasize to heart, the existing literature on cancers of upper aero-digestive tract is an exception, with only a few reports. We report four cases of upper aero-digestive tract cancers, three of which arise from oral cavity, one from lower esophagus, metastasising to the myocardium, detected on 18?F – Fluoro-deoxy-glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG PET/CT) study , in the absence of related symptoms. PMID:25608865

2014-01-01

23

Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers.  

PubMed

Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion-deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case-control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5-4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4-5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7-5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

2014-04-01

24

Effect of Aging on Hypopharyngeal Safe Volume and the Aerodigestive Reflexes Protecting the Airways  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis Studies on young volunteers have shown that aerodigestive reflexes are triggered before the maximum volume of fluid that can safely collect in the hypopharynx before spilling into the larynx is exceeded (hypopharyngeal safe volume [HPSV]). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of aging on HPSV and pharyngoglottal closure reflex (PGCR), pharyngo-UES contractile reflex (PUCR), and reflexive pharyngeal swallow (RPS). Study Design Comparison between two groups of different age ranges. Methods Ten young (25 ±3 standard deviation [SD] years) and 10 elderly (77 ±3 SD years) subjects were studied. PGCR, PUCR, and RPS were elicited by perfusing water into the pharynx rapidly and slowly. HPSV was determined by abolishing RPS with pharyngeal anesthesia. Results Frequency–elicitation of PGCR and PUCR were significantly lower in the elderly compared to the young during slow water perfusion (47% vs. 97% and 40% vs. 90%, respectively, P <.001). RPS was absent in five of the 30 (17%) slow injections in the elderly group. In these elderly subjects, HPSV was exceeded and laryngeal penetration of the water was seen. The threshold volume to elicit PGCR, PUCR, and RPS was significantly lower than the HPSV during rapid injections. Except for RPS, these volumes were also significantly lower than HPSV during slow injections. Conclusions PGCR, PUCR, and RPS reflexes are triggered at a threshold volume significantly lower than the HPSV in both young and elderly subjects. Lower frequency–elicitation of PGCR, PUCR, and RPS in the elderly can predispose them to the risks of aspiration. PMID:24281906

Dua, Kulwinder S.; Surapaneni, Sri Naveen; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Hafeezullah, Mohammed; Shaker, Reza

2014-01-01

25

Augmentation of Radiation Response by Panitumumab in Models of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the interaction between panitumumab, a fully human anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody, and radiation in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma and non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts. Methods and Materials: The head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma lines UM-SCC1 and SCC-1483, as well as the non-small-cell lung cancer line H226, were studied. Tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice were used to assess the in vivo activity of panitumumab alone and combined with radiation. In vitro assays were performed to assess the effect of panitumumab on radiation-induced cell signaling, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Results: Panitumumab increased the radiosensitivity as measured by the clonogenic survival assay. Radiation-induced epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation and downstream signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was inhibited by panitumumab. Panitumumab augmented radiation-induced DNA damage by 1.2-1.6-fold in each of the cell lines studied as assessed by residual {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX foci after radiation. Radiation-induced apoptosis was increased 1.4-1.9-fold by panitumumab, as evidenced by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining and flow cytometry. In vivo, the combination therapy of panitumumab and radiation was superior to panitumumab or radiation alone in the H226 xenografts (p = 0.01) and showed a similar trend in the SCC-1483 xenografts (p = 0.08). In vivo, immunohistochemistry demonstrated the ability of panitumumab to augment the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of radiation. Conclusion: These studies have identified a favorable interaction in the combination of radiation and panitumumab in upper aerodigestive tract tumor models, both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that clinical investigations examining the combination of radiation and panitumumab in the treatment of epithelial tumors warrant additional pursuit.

Kruser, Tim J.; Armstrong, Eric A.; Ghia, Amol J.; Huang Shyhmin; Wheeler, Deric L. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Radinsky, Robert; Freeman, Daniel J. [Department of Oncology Research, Amgen Incorporated, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Harari, Paul M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States)], E-mail: harari@humonc.wisc.edu

2008-10-01

26

Reduction in x-ray scatter and radiation dose for volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam breast CT—a phantom study  

PubMed Central

With volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging, one set of projection images are acquired with the VOI collimator at a regular or high exposure level and the second set of projection images are acquired without the collimator at a reduced exposure level. The high exposure VOI scan data inside the VOI and the low exposure full field scan data outside the VOI are then combined together to generate composite projection images for image reconstruction. To investigate and quantify scatter reduction, dose saving, and image quality improvement in VOI CBCT imaging, a flat panel detector based bench-top experimental CBCT system was built to measure the dose, the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), the image contrast, noise level, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and the figure of merits (FOMs) in the CBCT reconstructed images for two polycarbonate cylinders simulating the small and the large phantoms. The results showed that, compared to the FF CBCT technique, radiation doses for the VOI CBCT technique were reduced by a factor of 1.20 and 1.36 for the small and the large phantoms at the phantom center, respectively, and from 2.7 to 3.0 on the edge of the phantom, respectively. Inside the VOI, the SPRs were substantially reduced by a factor of 6.6 and 10.3 for the small and the large phantoms, the contrast signals were improved by a factor of 1.35 and 1.8, and the noise levels were increased by a factor of 1.27 and 1.6, respectively. As the result, the CNRs were improved by a factor of 1.06 and 1.13 for the small and the large phantoms and the FOMs were improved by a factor of 1.4 and 1.7, respectively. PMID:19841514

Lai, Chao-Jen; Chen, Lingyun; Zhang, Huojun; Liu, Xinming; Zhong, Yuncheng; Shen, Youtao; Han, Tao; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Whitman, Gary J.; Shaw, Chris C.

2010-01-01

27

A functional trinucleotide repeat polymorphism in the 5'-untranslated region of the glutathione biosynthetic gene GCLC is associated with increased risk for lung and aerodigestive tract cancers.  

PubMed

Glutathione (GSH), the major intracellular antioxidant, protects against cancer development by detoxifying carcinogens and free radicals and strengthening the immune system. Recently, a GAG-trinucleotide repeat polymorphism in the 5'-untranslated region of the gene for the rate-limiting enzyme for GSH biosynthesis, ?-glutamine cysteine ligase (GCL), was shown to be associated with lowered GCL activity and GSH levels in vitro and in vivo. We tested the hypothesis that this functional polymorphism in GCL is associated with the risk for lung and aerodigestive tract cancers. To this end, we conducted a case-control study that included 375 lung cancer cases, 200 aerodigestive tract cancer cases, and 537 controls. GAG repeat genotype (4, 7, 8, 9, and 10 repeat alleles) was determined by capillary electrophoresis of PCR products from the repeat region of the GCL catalytic subunit (GCLC). Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by logistic regression and adjusted for risk factors, including age, sex, body mass index, and smoking history. The GAG-7/7 genotype was associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of lung cancer and 2.6-fold increased risk of aerodigestive tract cancer compared to the wild-type GAG-9/9 (P?aerodigestive tract cancer (OR?=?2.3, P?aerodigestive tract cancers, and further implicates a role for oxidative stress in the development of these cancers. PMID:22610501

Nichenametla, Sailendra N; Muscat, Joshua E; Liao, Jason G; Lazarus, Philip; Richie, John P

2013-10-01

28

Multimodality Neurological Data Visualization with Multi-VOI Based DTI Fiber Dynamic Integration.  

PubMed

Brain lesions are usually located adjacent to critical spinal structures, so it will be a challenging task for neurosurgeons to precisely plan a surgical procedure without damaging healthy tissues and nerves. The advancement of medical imaging technologies produces a large amount of neurological data, which are capable of showing a wide variety of brain properties. Advanced algorithms of medical data computing and visualization are critically helpful in efficiently utilizing the acquired data for disease diagnosis and brain function and structure exploration, which will be helpful to treatment planning. In this paper, we describe new algorithms and a software framework for multiple volume of interest (VOI) specified diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber dynamic visualization. The displayed results have been integrated with a volume rendering pipeline for multimodality neurological data exploration. A depth texture indexing algorithm is used to detect DTI fiber tracts in graphics process units (GPUs), which makes fibers to be displayed and interactively manipulated with brain data acquired from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), T1- and T2- weighted anatomic imaging, and angiographic imaging. The developed software platform is built on an object-oriented structure, which is transparent and extensible. It provides a comprehensive human-computer interface for data exploration and information extraction. The GPU-accelerated high-performance computing kernels have been implemented to enable our software to dynamically visualize neurological data. The developed techniques will be useful in computer-aided neurological disease diagnosis, brain structure exploration, and general cognitive neuroscience. PMID:25376048

Zhang, Qi; Alexander, Murray; Ryner, Lawrence

2014-11-01

29

Low incidence of point mutation at codon 12 of K-ras proto-oncogene in squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract.  

PubMed

Forty-two cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising in the upper aerodigestive tract were examined to determine the incidence and type of point mutation in codon 12 of the c-K-ras gene by using the polymerase chain reaction and oligonucleotide hybridization techniques on DNA extracted from paraffin blocks. DNA sequencing, in addition, was performed in 4 cases. No point mutation was detected in codon 12 of c-K-ras in the 42 squamous cell carcinomas we examined. According to the results of DNA sequencing of 4 cases, codon 13 also revealed no point mutation. Thus, point mutational activation of codon 12 of c-K-ras oncogene is an uncommon event in human upper aerodigestive tract squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:2064275

Hirano, T; Steele, P E; Gluckman, J L

1991-07-01

30

Early or Up-Front Radiotherapy Improved Survival of Localized Extranodal NK\\/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal-Type in the Upper Aerodigestive Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the role of early or up-front radiotherapy (RT), the optimal RT dose required to achieve appropriate treatment outcome and prognostic factors for patients with localized extranodal NK\\/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type, in the upper aerodigestive tract. Methods and Materials: Eighty-two patients were reviewed. Eight patients were treated with chemotherapy (CT) alone, 9 patients received RT alone, and 65 patients

Mei-juan Huang; Yu Jiang; Wei-ping Liu; Zhi-ping Li; Mei Li; Lin Zhou; Yong Xu; Chun-hua Yu; Qiu Li; Feng Peng; Ji-Yan Liu; Feng Luo; You Lu

2008-01-01

31

Measurement of SUVs-Maximum for Normal Region Using VOI in PET/MRI and PET/CT  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research is to establish an overall data set associated with the VOI (Volume of Interest), which is available for simultaneous assessment of PET/MRI and PET/CT regardless of the use of contrast media. The participants as objects of this investigation are 26 healthy examinees in Korea, SUV (standardized-uptake-value)s-maximum evaluation for whole-body F-18?FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) PET/MRI image using VOI of normal region has exhibited very significant difference to that for whole-body F-18?FDG PET/CT image (significant probability value (P) < 0.0001). However, there appeared high correlation between them in view of statistics (R-square (R) > 0.8). It is shown that one needs to decide SUVs-maximum for PET/MRI with the reduction of 25.0~26.4% from their evaluated value and needs to decide with the reduction of 28.8~29.4% in the same situation but with the use of contrast media. The use of SUVLBM-maximum (SUVLean Body Mass-maximum) is very advantageous in reading overall image of PET/CT and PET/MRI to medical doctors and researchers, if we consider its convenience and efficiency. We expect that this research enhances the level of the early stage accurate diagnosis with whole-body images of PET/MRI and PET/CT. PMID:24672297

Kim, Sung Kyu; Cho, Ihn Ho; Kong, Eun Jung

2014-01-01

32

The 12p13.33/RAD52 Locus and Genetic Susceptibility to Squamous Cell Cancers of Upper Aerodigestive Tract  

PubMed Central

Genetic variants located within the 12p13.33/RAD52 locus have been associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Here, within 5,947 UADT cancers and 7,789 controls from 9 different studies, we found rs10849605, a common intronic variant in RAD52, to be also associated with upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) squamous cell carcinoma cases (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.15, p = 6x10?4). We additionally identified rs10849605 as a RAD52 cis-eQTL inUADT(p = 1x10?3) and LUSC (p = 9x10?4) tumours, with the UADT/LUSC risk allele correlated with increased RAD52 expression levels. The 12p13.33 locus, encompassing rs10849605/RAD52, was identified as a significant somatic focal copy number amplification in UADT(n = 374, q-value = 0.075) and LUSC (n = 464, q-value = 0.007) tumors and correlated with higher RAD52 tumor expression levels (p = 6x10?48 and p = 3x10?29 in UADT and LUSC, respectively). In combination, these results implicate increased RAD52 expression in both genetic susceptibility and tumorigenesis of UADT and LUSC tumors. PMID:25793373

Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Oliver, Javier; Timofeeva, Maria N.; Gaborieau, Valérie; Johansson, Mattias; Chabrier, Amélie; Wozniak, Magdalena B.; Brenner, Darren R.; Vallée, Maxime P.; Anantharaman, Devasena; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Thakker, Nalin S.; Conway, David I.; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M.; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Eluf-Neto, José; Boffetta, Paolo; Garrote, Leticia Fernández; Serraino, Diego; Lener, Marcin; Jaworowska, Ewa; Lubi?ski, Jan; Boccia, Stefania; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja A.; Mahimkar, Manoj B.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Franceschi, Silvia; Byrnes, Graham; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.

2015-01-01

33

Risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in a case-cohort study of autoworkers exposed to metalworking fluids  

PubMed Central

Aims: To re-examine aerodigestive cancer risk in a cohort of autoworkers exposed to metal working fluids (MWF), using improved case definition and more recently diagnosed cases. Methods: The autoworker cohort included 31 100 hourly workers alive on 1 January 1985 who worked at three automobile plants in Michigan. A case-cohort design was carried out that included incident cases of cancers of the larynx, oesophagus, and stomach, and a 10% sample of the cohort. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate MWF exposure effects. The smoothing method of penalised splines was used to explore the shape of the underlying exposure-response curves. Results: The most important finding was the association between larynx cancer incidence and cumulative straight MWF exposure. The results for oesophageal cancer were less consistent. For stomach cancer there was no evidence of excess risk. Conclusion: This association between larynx cancer and straight MWF exposures was consistent with a previous finding in this cohort, providing further support for a causal relation. PMID:15090663

Zeka, A; Eisen, E; Kriebel, D; Gore, R; Wegman, D

2004-01-01

34

Toys in the upper aerodigestive tract: new evidence on their risk as emerging from the Susy Safe Study.  

PubMed

Foreign body (FB) inhalation, aspiration or ingestion are relatively common events in children. Despite many efforts made in several countries to achieve acceptable safety levels for consumer products devoted to children, small toys or toy parts are still frequently mentioned among risky foreign bodies. The aim of the present study is to characterize the risk of complications and prolonged hospitalization due to toys inhalation, aspiration or ingestion according to age and gender of patients, FB characteristics, circumstances of the accident, as emerging from the Susy Safe Registry. The Susy Safe Registry started in the 2005 to collect data to serve as a basis for a knowledge-based consumer protection activity. It is actually one of the wider databases collecting foreign body injuries in the upper aero-digestive tract in pediatric patients. It is distinguished by a deep characterization of objects which caused the injuries and a multi-step quality control procedure which assures its reliability. Preventive strategies imposing a regulation of industrial production, even if fundamental, are not sufficient and need to be integrated along with other intervention addressed to make aware caregivers toward a proper surveillance of children. PMID:22361527

Foltran, Francesca; Passali, Francesco Maria; Berchialla, Paola; Gregori, Dario; Pitkäranta, Anne; Slapak, Ivo; Jakubíková, Janka; Franchin, Laura; Ballali, Simonetta; Passali, Giulio Cesare; Bellussi, Luisa; Passali, Desiderio

2012-05-14

35

Zgkt23,1991 VoI. 22, NO.34 754: Outside of D.C./Baltimore Areas THE GAY WEEKLY O F THE NATION'S CAPITAL  

E-print Network

Zgkt23,1991 VoI. 22, NO.34 754: Outside of D.C./Baltimore Areas THE GAY WEEKLY O F THE NATION'S CAPITAL . . . I I Soviet Gays sprang to action to help resist coup Printed and distributed Yeltsin's call for resistance by Lou Chibbaro Jr. Soviet Gay activists, realizing they had one of the few working laser printers

Brody, James P.

36

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 209 VoI. IV, No. 14. Washington, D.C. July 30, 1884.  

E-print Network

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 209 VoI. IV, No. 14. Washington, D.C. July 30, 1884;210 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. floor of the ladder. The ladder rests on strongbeams (7 that except in a high flood the diflerence of levo1 be- tween the water below the dam and that above is too

37

A new way for multidimensional medical data management: volume of interest (VOI)-based retrieval of medical images with visual and functional features.  

PubMed

The advances in digital medical imaging and storage in integrated databases are resulting in growing demands for efficient image retrieval and management. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) refers to the retrieval of images from a database, using the visual features derived from the information in the image, and has become an attractive approach to managing large medical image archives. In conventional CBIR systems for medical images, images are often segmented into regions which are used to derive two-dimensional visual features for region-based queries. Although such approach has the advantage of including only relevant regions in the formulation of a query, medical images that are inherently multidimensional can potentially benefit from the multidimensional feature extraction which could open up new opportunities in visual feature extraction and retrieval. In this study, we present a volume of interest (VOI) based content-based retrieval of four-dimensional (three spatial and one temporal) dynamic PET images. By segmenting the images into VOIs consisting of functionally similar voxels (e.g., a tumor structure), multidimensional visual and functional features were extracted and used as region-based query features. A prototype VOI-based functional image retrieval system (VOI-FIRS) has been designed to demonstrate the proposed multidimensional feature extraction and retrieval. Experimental results show that the proposed system allows for the retrieval of related images that constitute similar visual and functional VOI features, and can find potential applications in medical data management, such as to aid in education, diagnosis, and statistical analysis. PMID:16871730

Kim, Jinman; Cai, Weidong; Feng, Dagan; Wu, Hao

2006-07-01

38

A method of producing carcinoma in upper aerodigestive tree and esophagus of the Syrian golden hamster using wounding and instillation of N-methylnitrosourea.  

PubMed

Details of a method for producing carcinoma of the aerodigestive tree of the Syrian golden hamster and the use of this model to evaluate putative agents for chemoprevention of these carcinomas are described. The method produces a majority of squamous carcinomas of the trachea and glottis that follow squamous metaplasia of respiratory epithelium. In addition, seen are adenocarcinomas arising in glands of the respiratory tree. Squamous carcinomas of the digestive epithelium arise in primary squamous epithelium. These tumors of digestive epithelium have a growth pattern that differs from that of the respiratory epithelium in that they grow and invade without filling the epithelial layer with tumor cells. PMID:17684140

Estensen, Richard D; Anderson, W Robert; Galbraith, Arthur R; Hartle, Donna E; Jordan, Margaret M; Ondrey, Frank G; Wattenberg, Lee W

2007-08-01

39

Improved longitudinal [(18)F]-AV45 amyloid PET by white matter reference and VOI-based partial volume effect correction.  

PubMed

Amyloid positron-emission-tomography (PET) offers an important research and diagnostic tool for investigating Alzheimer's disease (AD). The majority of amyloid PET studies have used the cerebellum as a reference region, and clinical studies have not accounted for atrophy-based partial volume effects (PVE). Longitudinal studies using cerebellum as reference tissue have revealed only small mean increases and high inter-subject variability in amyloid binding. We aimed to test the effects of different reference regions and PVE-correction (PVEC) on the discriminatory power and longitudinal performance of amyloid PET. We analyzed [(18)F]-AV45 PET and T1-weighted MRI data of 962 subjects at baseline and two-year follow-up data of 258 subjects. Cortical composite volume-of-interest (VOI) values (COMP) for tracer uptake were generated using either full brain atlas VOIs, gray matter segmented VOIs or gray matter segmented VOIs after VOI-based PVEC. Standard-uptake-value ratios (SUVR) were calculated by scaling the COMP values to uptake in cerebellum (SUVRCBL), brainstem (SUVRBST) or white matter (SUVRWM). Mean SUV, SUVR, and changes after PVEC were compared at baseline between diagnostic groups of healthy controls (HC; N=316), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=483) and AD (N=163). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were calculated for the discriminations between HC, MCI and AD, and expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Finally, the longitudinal [(18)F]-AV45-PET data were used to analyze the impact of quantitation procedures on apparent changes in amyloid load over time. Reference region SUV was most constant between diagnosis groups for the white matter. PVEC led to decreases of COMP-SUV in HC (-18%) and MCI (-10%), but increases in AD (+7%). Highest AUCs were found when using PVEC with white matter scaling for the contrast between HC/AD (0.907) or with brainstem scaling for the contrast between HC/MCI (0.658). Longitudinal increases were greatest in all diagnosis groups with application of PVEC, and inter-subject variability was lowest for the white matter reference. Thus, discriminatory power of [(18)F]-AV45-PET was improved by use of a VOI-based PVEC and white matter or brainstem rather than cerebellum reference region. Detection of longitudinal amyloid increases was optimized with PVEC and white matter reference tissue. PMID:25482269

Brendel, Matthias; Högenauer, Marcus; Delker, Andreas; Sauerbeck, Julia; Bartenstein, Peter; Seibyl, John; Rominger, Axel

2015-03-01

40

Genetic variants in DNA repair pathways and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers: combined analysis of data from two genome-wide association studies in European populations.  

PubMed

DNA repair pathways are good candidates for upper aerodigestive tract cancer susceptibility because of their critical role in maintaining genome integrity. We have selected 13 pathways involved in DNA repair representing 212 autosomal genes. To assess the role of these pathways and their associated genes, two European data sets from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium were pooled, totaling 1954 cases and 3121 controls, with documented demographic, lifetime alcohol and tobacco consumption information. We applied an innovative approach that tests single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-sets within DNA repair pathways and then within genes belonging to the significant pathways. We showed an association between the polymerase pathway and oral cavity/pharynx cancers (P-corrected = 4.45 × 10(-) (2)), explained entirely by the association with one SNP, rs1494961 (P = 2.65 × 10(-) (4)), a missense mutation V306I in the second exon of HELQ gene. We also found an association between the cell cycle regulation pathway and esophagus cancer (P-corrected = 1.48 × 10(-) (2)), explained by three SNPs located within or near CSNK1E gene: rs1534891 (P = 1.27 × 10(-) (4)), rs7289981 (P = 3.37 × 10(-) (3)) and rs13054361 (P = 4.09 × 10(-) (3)). As a first attempt to investigate pathway-level associations, our results suggest a role of specific DNA repair genes/pathways in specific upper aerodigestive tract cancer sites. PMID:24658182

Babron, Marie-Claude; Kazma, Rémi; Gaborieau, Valérie; McKay, James; Brennan, Paul; Sarasin, Alain; Benhamou, Simone

2014-07-01

41

An algorithm to adjust a rigid CT-SPECT fusion so as to maximize tumor counts from CT VoI in I-131 therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of the estimate of tumor I-131 activity in therapy patients using CT-SPECT fusion is difficult to establish. In our work, we have had the impression that a tumor volume of interest (VoI) from CT sometimes does not perfectly overlay the true position of the tumor in the SPECT image set. However, the magnitude of the difference between the

Jia Li; Kenneth F. Koral

2001-01-01

42

Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogense-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, alcohol flushing, mean corpuscular volume, and aerodigestive tract neoplasia in Japanese drinkers.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) modulate exposure levels to ethanol/acetaldehyde. Endoscopic screening of 6,014 Japanese alcoholics yielded high detection rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 4.1%) and head and neck SCC (1.0%). The risks of upper aerodigestive tract SCC/dysplasia, especially of multiple SCC/dysplasia, were increased in a multiplicative fashion by the presence of a combination of slow-metabolizing ADH1B*1/*1 and inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 because of prolonged exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol/acetaldehyde. A questionnaire asking about current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass (?180 mL) of beer is a reliable tool for detecting the presence of inactive ALDH2. We invented a health-risk appraisal (HRA) model including the flushing questionnaire and drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. Esophageal SCC was detected at a high rate by endoscopic mass-screening in high HRA score persons. A total of 5.0% of 4,879 alcoholics had a history of (4.0%) or newly diagnosed (1.0%) gastric cancer. Their high frequency of a history of gastric cancer is partly explained by gastrectomy being a risk factor for alcoholism because of altered ethanol metabolism, e.g., by blood ethanol level overshooting. The combination of H. pylori-associated atrophic gastritis and ALDH2*1/*2 showed the greatest risk of gastric cancer in alcoholics. High detection rates of advanced colorectal adenoma/carcinoma were found in alcoholics, 15.7% of 744 immunochemical fecal occult blood test (IFOBT)-negative alcoholics and 31.5% of the 393 IFOBT-positive alcoholics. Macrocytosis with an MCV?106 fl increased the risk of neoplasia in the entire aerodigestive tract of alcoholics, suggesting that poor nutrition as well as ethanol/acetaldehyde exposure plays an important role in neoplasia. PMID:25427912

Yokoyama, Akira; Mizukami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

2015-01-01

43

Early or Up-Front Radiotherapy Improved Survival of Localized Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal-Type in the Upper Aerodigestive Tract  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate the role of early or up-front radiotherapy (RT), the optimal RT dose required to achieve appropriate treatment outcome and prognostic factors for patients with localized extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type, in the upper aerodigestive tract. Methods and Materials: Eighty-two patients were reviewed. Eight patients were treated with chemotherapy (CT) alone, 9 patients received RT alone, and 65 patients were given combined modality treatment of CT and RT (CMT). Of those 74 patients receiving RT, 31 patients were given up-front RT, whereas CT was the initial therapy for 43 patients and 41 of those 43 patients received early RT. Results: Five-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 52.3% and 39.2%, respectively. RT was the only independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS at both the univariate and multivariate level. The 5-year OS and DFS were better in patients receiving {>=}54 Gy of RT as compared with that of <54 Gy (5-year OS 75.5% vs. 46.1%, p = 0.019; 5-year DFS 60.3% vs. 33.4%, p = 0.004). Up-front RT presented better survival in Stage I patients when compared with that of initial CT followed by early RT (5-year OS 90.0% vs. 48.9%, p = 0.012; 5-year DFS 78.7% vs. 39.9%, p = 0.021). Conclusion: Early or up-front RT had an essential role in improved OS and DFS in patients with localized extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type, in the upper aerodigestive tract. The recommended tumor dose was at least 54 Gy. Up-front RT may yield more benefits on survival in patients with Stage I disease.

Huang Meijuan; Jiang Yu [Department of Biotherapy for Cancer, West China Hospital, Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Liu Weiping [Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Li Zhiping [Department of Radiotherapy for Cancer, West China Hospital, Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Li Mei; Zhou Lin [Department of Biotherapy for Cancer, West China Hospital, Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Xu Yong [Department of Radiotherapy for Cancer, West China Hospital, Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Yu Chunhua [Department of Biotherapy for Cancer, West China Hospital, Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Li Qiu; Peng Feng; Liu Jiyan; Luo Feng [Department of Biotherapy for Cancer, West China Hospital, Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Lu You [Department of Biotherapy for Cancer, West China Hospital, Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)], E-mail: radyoulu@hotmail.com

2008-01-01

44

Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.  

PubMed

Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

45

Aerodigestive cancers: pharyngeal cancer.  

PubMed

Cancers of the pharynx are malignant tumors that arise in the nasopharynx, oropharynx, or hypopharynx. In the United States, oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) is the most common, followed by nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and hypopharyngeal carcinoma (HPC), which is rare. Rates of tobacco-related OPC have declined in the past several decades, whereas rates of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OPC have increased. Compared with HPV-negative tumors, HPV-positive OPC is associated with a better prognosis, and testing for HPV subtypes, particularly HPV-16 and HPV-18, should be obtained for patients with any squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. NPC is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); therefore, EBV detection has been used as a clinical marker of disease. Plasma cell-free circulating EBV DNA can be measured to monitor management benefit and detect recurrence. Although HPC is rare, it is associated with a poor prognosis and has the highest mortality rate of all head and neck cancers. Management of pharyngeal cancers is based primarily on site and stage. Studies are under way to evaluate the role of less aggressive management regimens for HPV-related cancers. PMID:25198383

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

46

Radiotherapy in the treatment of mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: Analysis of 74 cases. A Rare Cancer Network study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To retrospectively analyze a series of mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract to determine the prognostic factors and contribute to understanding the role of radiotherapy in the therapeutic strategy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients were analyzed. The most frequent locations were nasal and oral, in 31 patients (41.9%) and 12 patients (16.2%), respectively. Sixty-three patients (85.1%) were in Stage I, 5 (6.8%) in Stage II, and 6 (8.1%) in Stage III. Treatment consisted of surgery in 17 patients (23.0%), surgery and radiotherapy in 42 (56.8%), radiotherapy in 11 (14.9%), and chemo-immunotherapy in 4 (5.4%). Median follow-up was 20 months. Results: Local control at 3 years was 57% after surgery alone and 71% after surgery and radiotherapy. Overall and disease-free survival rates, respectively, were 41% and 31% at 3 years and 14% and 22% at 10 years. After univariate analysis, female gender, melanosis, tumor size {<=}3 cm, Stage I, postoperative radiotherapy, and complete remission were favorable prognostic factors. Stage I and melanosis were confirmed by multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Local control was improved by postoperative radiotherapy, despite survival being as poor as in other published series. Stage I and melanosis at diagnosis were the most favorable prognostic factors.

Krengli, Marco [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy)]. E-mail: krengli@tera.it; Masini, Laura [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); Kaanders, Johannes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maingon, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre G. F. Leclerc, Dijon (France); Oei, Swan Bing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Instituut, Tilburg (Netherlands); Zouhair, Abderrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ozyar, Enis [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara (Turkey); Roelandts, Martine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Bruxelles (Belgium); Amichetti, Maurizio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ospedale Oncologico A. Businco, Cagliari (Italy); Bosset, Mathieu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besancon, Besancon (France); Mirimanoff, Rene-Olivier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2006-07-01

47

Photodetection of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi using photofrin II and colorectal adenocarcinoma with fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a fluorescence endoscope for the detection of early cancer is clinically evaluated. the apparatus is based on the imaging of the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of a dye which localizes in the tumor after IV injection with a higher concentration than in the surrounding normal tissue. The tests are carried out in several of the hollow organs, such as the upper aerodigestive tract, the bronchi, and the colon. In the two former cases the dye used is photofrin II, whereas in the latter case conjugates between monoclonal antibodies (Mab) directed against carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA) and fluorescein molecules are injected. The fluorescence contrast between tumor and surrounding tissue is enhanced by real-time image processing which eliminates most of the tissue autofluorescence as well as the fluorescence due to the relatively small amount of dye localized in the normal tissue. This is done by recording the fluorescence image in two spectral domains, after which these two images are digitized and manipulated with a mathematical operator (lookup-table). The sources of false positives and false negatives are evaluated in terms of the fluorescent dye and tissue optical properties.

Wagnieres, Georges A.; Braichotte, Daniel; Chatelain, Andre; Depeursinge, Christian D.; Monnier, Philippe; Savary, Jean-Francois; Fontolliet, Charlotte; Calmes, J.-M.; Givel, Jean-Claude; Chapuis, G.; Folli, S.; Pelegrin, A.; Buchegger, F.; Mach, J.-P.; van den Bergh, Hubert

1991-11-01

48

Tobacco Smoking, NBS1 Polymorphisms, and Survival in Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers with Semi-Bayes Adjustment for Hazard-ratio Variation  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NBS1 have been associated with susceptibility to lung and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers, their relations to cancer survival and measures of effect are largely unknown. Methods Using follow-up data from 611 lung-cancer cases and 601 UADT-cancer cases from a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles, we prospectively evaluated associations of tobacco smoking and 5 NBS1 SNPs with all-cause mortality. Mortality data were obtained from the Social Security Death Index. We used Cox regression to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for main effects and ratios of hazard ratios (RHR) derived from product terms to assess hazard-ratio variations by each SNP. Bayesian methods were used to account for multiple comparisons. Results We observed 406 (66%) deaths in lung-cancer cases and 247 (41%) deaths in UADT-cancer cases with median survival of 1.43 and 1.72 years, respectively. Ever tobacco smoking was positively associated with mortality for both cancers. We observed an upward dose-response association between smoking pack-years and mortality in UADT squamous cell carcinoma. The adjusted HR relating smoking to mortality in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was greater for cases with the GG genotype of NBS1 rs1061302 than for cases with AA/AG genotypes (semi-Bayes adjusted RHR = 1.97; 95% limits = 1.14, 3.41). Conclusions A history of tobacco smoking at cancer diagnosis was associated with mortality among patients with lung cancer or UADT squamous cell carcinoma. The HR relating smoking to mortality appeared to vary with the NBS1 rs1061302 genotype among NSCLC cases. PMID:24166361

Yang, Tingting; Chang, Po-Yin; Park, Sungshim Lani; Bastani, Delara; Chang, Shen-Chih; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald P.; Mao, Jenny T.; Papp, Jeanette C.; Rao, Jian-Yu; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas M.; Greenland, Sander; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

2013-01-01

49

Risk factors for developing a second upper aerodigestive cancer after radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancers: An exploratory outcomes analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The objective was to assess the influence of treatment-related and patient-related factors on the risk of developing a second primary tumor (SPT) of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) in patients with locoregionally advanced nonmetastatic carcinomas of the head-and-neck region. Methods and Materials: The data of 521 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were pooled: 224 patients from the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK) 10/94 trial, treated with 1.2 Gy b.i.d. to 74.4 Gy, and randomized to receive or not to receive simultaneous chemotherapy with cisplatin (excluding nasopharyngeal and maxillary sinus carcinomas); and 297 patients from Geneva, all treated with accelerated radiotherapy with concomitant boost to 69.9 Gy and predominantly cisplatin-based concomitant chemotherapy in 33% of patients (including 21 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinomas). An exploratory analysis using competing risk methodology was performed. Results: A total of 65 SPT of the UADT were observed after a median observation time of 4.7 years. The overall risk of experiencing an SPT of the UADT at 10 years in the presence of all other possible events was estimated to be 33%. There were no SPTs after treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, there was no difference in occurrence of SPT at 3 years with respect to the administration of chemotherapy (p = 0.31), age (p 0.62), performance status (p = 0.61), gender (p = 0.27), presence of nodal disease (p = 0.51), or T stage (p = 0.72). However, patients treated with concomitant boost had fewer SPTs (p = 0.0093). Conclusions: Our data do not suggest that addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy influences the incidence of second cancers in patients with head-and-neck cancer. The difference in the incidence of SPT between the two radiotherapy schedule groups merits further exploration.

Taussky, Daniel [Division of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail: daniel.taussky.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca; Rufibach, Kaspar M.Sc. [Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAAK), Berne (Switzerland); Huguenin, Pia [Division of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Allal, Abdelkarim S. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

2005-07-01

50

Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of head and neck and lung cancers. Clinical trials and the evaluation of new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and new technologies to identify premalignant lesions are developed and supported. Funding

51

Evaluation with mTHPC of early squamous cell carcinomas of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters as a model for clinical PDT of early cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophag  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for light induced fluorescence (LIF) photodetection and phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus, and the traecheo-bronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12-DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized meso-(tetrahydoxyphenyl) chlorin (mTHPC). This drug is currently in phase I and II clinical trials for ENT patients presenting superficial `early' squamous cell carcinomas. By means of LIF we measured in vivo the kinetics of the uptake and removal of mTHPC in the normal and tumoral cheek mucosa and in the skin. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) reaction of the tissue after excitation of the photosensitizer with laser light at 652 nm was studied. Both pharmacokinetics and PDT efficacy are compared between animal model and clinical results with special emphasis on selectivity between normal and tumoral mucosa. These first experiments show that this tumor model in the hamster cheek pouch seems to be suitable for testing new photosensitizers preceding their clinical application as well as for optimization of the multiple parameters of clinical PDT.

Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Forrer, Martin; Braichotte, Daniel; Wagnieres, Georges A.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe

1995-03-01

52

All Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Publications  

Cancer.gov

Berg AK, Allen Ziegler K, Harmsen WS, Green EM, McGovern RM, Szabo E, Ames MM, Boring D, Mandrekar SJ, Limburg PJ, Reid JM. Population pharmacokinetic model for cancer chemoprevention with sulindac in healthy subjects.

53

Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Publications  

Cancer.gov

Chen J, Lam S, Pilon A, McWilliams A, MacAulay C, Szabo E. Higher levels of the anti-inflammatory protein CC10 are associated with improvement in bronchial dysplasia and sputum cytometric assessment in individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res.

54

The nature of the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone: Constraints from structural, microstructural and fabric analyses of metamorphic rocks from the Diancang Shan, Ailao Shan and Day Nui Con Voi massifs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structural geology, timing of shearing, and tectonic implications of the ASRR shear zone, one of the most striking lineaments in Southeast Asia, have been the topics of extensive studies over the past few decades. The Xuelong Shan (XLS), Diancang Shan (DCS), Ailao Shan (ALS) and Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) metamorphic massifs along the shear zone have preserved important information on its structural and tectonic evolution. Our field structural analysis, detailed microstructural and fabric analysis, as well as the quartz, sillimanite and garnet fabric studies of the sheared rocks from the massifs demonstrate the dominant roles of three deformation episodes during Cenozoic tectonic evolution in the shear zone. Among the contrasting structural and microstructural associations in the shear zone, D2 structures, which were formed at the brittle to ductile transition during large-scale left-lateral shearing in the second deformation episode, predominate over the structural styles of the other two deformation episodes. Discrete micro-shear zones with intensive grain size reduction compose the characteristic structural style of D2 deformation. In addition, several types of folds (early shearing folds, F21, and late-shearing folds, F22) were formed in the sheared rocks, including discrete to distributed mylonitic foliation, stretching lineation and shear fabrics (e.g., mica fish, domino structures, as well as sigma and delta fabrics). A sequence of microstructures from syn-kinematic magmatic flow, high-temperature solid-state deformation, to brittle-ductile shearing is well-preserved in the syn-kinematic leucocratic intrusions. Deformation structures from the first episode (D1) are characterized by F1 folds and distributed foliations (S1) in rocks due to pure shearing at high temperatures. They are preserved in weakly sheared (D2) rocks along the eastern margin of the ALS belt or in certain low-strain tectonic enclaves within the shear zone. Furthermore, semi-brittle deformation structures, such as hot striae and discrete retrogression zones, are attributed to normal-slip shearing in the third deformation episode (D3), which was probably locally active, along the eastern flank of the DCS range, for example. There are four quartz c-axis fabric patterns in the mylonitic rocks, including type A point maxima, type B Y point maxima with crossed girdles superimposition, type C quadrant maxima, as well as type D point and quadrant maxima combination. They are consistent with microscopic observations of microstructures of high-temperature pure shearing, low-temperature simple shearing and their superimposition. Integrated microstructural analysis and fabric thermometer studies provide information on both high temperature (up to 750 °C) and dominant low-temperature (300-600 °C) deformations of quartz grains in different rock types. Sillimanite and garnet fabrics, especially the latter, were primarily formed at the peak metamorphism during high-temperature pure shearing. The above structural, microstructural and fabric associations were generated in the tectonic framework of the Indian-Eurasian collision. The low-temperature microstructures and fabrics are attributed to left-lateral shearing along the ASRR shear zone from 27 to 21 Ma during the southeastward extrusion of the Indochina block, which postdated high-temperature deformation at the peak metamorphism during the collision.

Liu, Junlai; Tang, Yuan; Tran, My-Dung; Cao, Shuyun; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Zhaochong; Zhao, Zhidan; Chen, Wen

2012-03-01

55

Squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: a review.  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa) is the most common head and neck malignancy. The radiologist has several roles in the long-term management of patients with SCCa, the first of which is determining the extent of local disease spread and the presence of nodal metastases. The most widely used tumor staging system is the American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor node metastasis system, which creates the initial staging of SCCa patients. In this review the relevant reportable findings of pharyngeal SCCa are explored, and each subsite of the pharynx and larynx is addressed, from the nasopharynx to the hypopharynx. PMID:25476174

Landry, David; Glastonbury, Christine M

2015-01-01

56

Presented at: ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE CACHAN  

E-print Network

............................. 20 1.3. Rheology of pastes and granular materials BETWEEN THE ADHESIVE PROPERTIES AND RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS OF FRESH MORTARS Defended on 22/10/2012 before................................................................... 23 1.3.1. Basic notions of Rheology

57

PHYSICS DEPARTMENT OF THE ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE  

E-print Network

.1.12 The effects of Bose statistics on the thermal cloud . . . . . . . . 30 1.1.13 Boson-fermion mixtures gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 2.4 The vacuum system-out procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 2.4.3 The main chamber

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

An Integrated Digital Campus Delivers ROI and VOI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five years ago, North Shore Community College (NSCC) encountered rising enrollments in the face of lagging state funding. The addition of two new campuses stretched NSCC thin as it attempted to provide administrative and academic services across five (more recently consolidated to four) locations. Its students increasingly struggled to balance the…

Forsstrom, Jan; Ham, Gary

2007-01-01

59

__ joumalof Printed in India Voi. 42, No. 3,  

E-print Network

to be a highly useful and sensitive method for detecting transitions of excited states of atoms and molecules [1 in the gaseous discharge, a change in impedance of the plasma can occur. This change in impedance of the discharge is monitored as a function of the irradiating laser wavelength. Such laser-induced impedance

Harilal, S. S.

60

UNIVERSITE D'ANTANANARIVO ECOLE SUPERIEURE DES SCIENCES AGRONOMIQUES  

E-print Network

...................................... 22 Par Christian A. KULL Joelisoa RATSIRARSON Gidehona RANDRIAMBOAVONJY CARACTERISATION DES HUILES ESSENTIELLES INDUSTRIELLES DE NIAOULI (MELALEUCA QV1NQVENERVIA) DE MADAGASCAR - PROPOSITIONS D'AVANT-PROJET DE

Richner, Heinz

61

Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Arts et Mtiers Description  

E-print Network

teaching and research centres across France, including Paris, Aix-en-Provence, Angers, Bordeaux, Châlons in the general principles of engineering with a focus on Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Power to the three pillars of sustainable development, the environment, social development and economic development

Bristol, University of

62

ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE  

E-print Network

-00879730,version1-4Nov2013 #12;tel-00879730,version1-4Nov2013 #12;Ce mémo~~e ~end eomp~e d'un ~~ava~i e66ee~e~vé dan~ ~on labo~a~o~~e e~ pou~ l'~n~é~ê~ qu'~l a eon~~ammen~ po~~é à ee ~~ava~l. Ce~~e ~eehe~ehe a é~e~e de nou~ avo~~ 6a~~ béné6~e~e~ de ~on expé~~enee à laquelle ee ~~ava~l do~~ beaueoup. Mon~~eu~ le P~o6

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

Departement de Physique Laboratoire Kastler Brossel Ecole Normale Superieure  

E-print Network

. SALOMON . . . . . . . . . . . . . Directeur de th`ese M. G. SHLYAPNIKOV . . . . . . . Membre invit´e #12 Gora Shlyapnikov, Dimitri Petrov, Yvan Castin, Lincoln Carr, Sandro #12;Stringari et Roland Combescot Jacques Vigu´e, Chris Westbrook, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Jacques Treiner, Rudolf Grimm et Gora Shlyapnikov

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

64

ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE  

E-print Network

.PEROCHE R.CAUBET Y.GARDAN Y. AHRONOVITZ B.ARNALDI D. MICHELUCCI Président Rapporteurs Examinateurs ( tel Saint-Etienne le 24 Juin 1994 Messieurs Madame Messieurs COMPOSITION DU JURY B. PEROCHE Président R'Université Paul Sabatier de Toulouse et Yvon Gardan, Professeur à l'Université de Metz, pour avoir accepter de

Boyer, Edmond

65

prsente L'ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE PARIS  

E-print Network

obtenir LE TITRE DE DOCTEUR EN ENERGETIQUE DETERMINATlON DU RAYONNEMENT SOLAIRE A L'AIDE D-adjoint du CTAMN, J.-L. Plazy à l'Agence Française pour la Maîtrise de l'Energie, pour leur soutien et leur

66

Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan pour obtenir le grade de  

E-print Network

-qian, Chen Jian, Chen Ying-Ying, Gao Jia-Yi, Liu Jia- gui, Luo Ling, Pen Ya-Xin, Qu xing-tai, Ren Hua, Ruan Yi-bing, Shi Fei-fei, Sun Zhe, Wang Yao, Wu Ting, Wu Xiao, Yang Fan, Yang Yu-heng, Yi Hua, Yi Zhen

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

ECQE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE  

E-print Network

\\ND Michel mNDER Gilbert BONNET Roland B0ItNt\\RD Guy C:\\L.\\\\ET Jacques Année universitaire 1985 ENSIMAG ENSEEG MOREAU René ENSHG ENSHG MORET 1 Roger ENSIEG ENSIEG MOSSIERE Jacques ENSIMAG ENSIEG OBLED Charles ENSHG ENSERG PARIAUD Jean-Charles ENSEEG ENSHG PAUTHENET René . ENSIEG ENSIEG PERRET René ENSIEG

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE  

E-print Network

MOREAU René ENSIEG MORET Roger ENSIMAG MOSSIERE Jacques ENSHMG OBLED Charles ENSEEG OZIL Patrick ENSEEG-Ff'ançois ENSERG DEPEY Maurice ENSPG DEPORTES Jacques ENSEEG DEROO Daniel ENSEEG DESRE Pierre ENSERG DOLMAZON Jean. ENSERG POUPOT Christian ENSEEG RAMEAU Jean-Jacques ENSPC REINISCH Raymond UFR PCP RENAUD Maurice UFR PCP

Boyer, Edmond

69

ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE  

E-print Network

'ORGANIQUE AU MINERAL: ETUDE EXPERIMENTALE ET MODELISATION DE LA TRANSFORMATION D'UN PRECURSEUR POLYSILAZANE EN EXPERIMENTALE ET MODELISATION DE LA TRANSFORMATION D'UN PRECURSEUR POLYSILAZANE EN "CARBONITRURE DE SILICIUM

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

CENTRE INTERNATIONAL D'ETUDES SUPERIEURES EN SCIENCES AGRONOMIQUES  

E-print Network

sol a été financé par l'Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR, programme OGM). Ma bourse de thèse les OGM, sujet d'actualité à cheval sur la santé publique, l'environnement et aux enjeux sociétaux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE  

E-print Network

THERMIQUE DE L' HYDROXYCARBONATE DE CERIUM ID (CeOHC03) EN DIOXYDE DE CERIUM IV Soutenue à Saint-Etienne le) ETUDE DE LA TRANSFORMATION THERMIQUE DE L' HYDROXYCARBONATE DE CERIUM fi (CeOHC03) EN DIOXYDE DE CERIUM

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

Endoscopic tissue autofluorescence measurements in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single multimode optical fiber is used to excite and collect tissue autofluorescence as well as the fluorescence of an IV-injected fluorescent tumor marker. Measurements of the relative fluorescence intensity of a tumor marker as a function of the time after IV injection permit measurement of the kinetics of this substance in tumor, normal tissue, and skin. The authors believe that these are the first measurements of this kind in patients. Furthermore, the autofluorescence spectrum generated at several excitation wavelengths in different tissues is compared, for instance in the oesophagus, the bronchi, and the tongue. The measuring system is based on an optical multichannel analyzer which measures the fluorescence excited by monochromatic radiation from a spectrally filtered Xe lamp. A correlation between the observed pharmacokinetics and tumor properties like the degree of vascularization is of fundamental importance for each selected tumor marker. Also, the results of these measurements are used for the optical detection of tumors.

Braichotte, Daniel; Wagnieres, Georges A.; Monnier, Philippe; Savary, Jean-Francois; Bays, Roland; van den Bergh, Hubert; Chatelain, Andre

1991-11-01

73

MRI-PET Correlation in Three Dimensions Using a Volume-of-Interest (VOI) Atlas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Quantitative interpretation of functional images (PET or SPECT) is hampered by poor spatial resolution, low counting statistics, and, for many tracers, low contrast between different brain structures of interest. Furthermore, normal tracer distributions can be severely disrupted by such gross pathologies as stroke, tumor, and dementia. Hence, the complementary anatomical information provided by CT or MRI is essential for

A. C. Evans; S. Marrett; J. Torrescorzo; S. Ku; L. Collins

1991-01-01

74

Systmes aminergiques des Gastropodes pulmons. II. Mise en vidence au carrefour des voies gnitales  

E-print Network

(Planorbarius corneus and Lymnaea stagnalis) and of Stylommatophora (Archachatina marginata and Helix aspersa récoltées dans la nature ou élevées au laboratoire :deux Basommatophores : la Limnée (Lymnaea stagnalis L

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius L.) III. Voies intrapinales de conduction  

E-print Network

associée au CNRS n! 230 40, Avenue du Recteur Pineau 86022 Poitiers Cédex, France. Summary. The pineal. In order to elucidate the sensory function of the pineal organ of the pike, Esox lucius, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reaction of Karnovsky and Roots (1964) was used to demonstrate the pineal neurons. Thirty

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

76

Intérêt des huiles essentielles GAE® dans la prise en charge des affections virales des voies respiratoires en officine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  En hiver les infections respiratoires sont fréquentes. Ces épidémies saisonnières, très souvent sans gravité, ont principalement\\u000a une origine virale. Les symptômes de ces affections virales sont toutefois gênants et ont un impact sur la qualité de vie\\u000a des patients. L’objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer l’impact d’une prise en charge par les huiles essentielles GAE® sur\\u000a la qualité de vie

J.-M. Morel; P. Bruel; V. Labouyrie; P.-L. Priolet; L. Liégard

2010-01-01

77

Community VoiCesVolume 4, 2013-14University Neighborhood Partners Artwork by Bad Dog Arts and displayed  

E-print Network

for Youth, Education and Families. During their visit, I was struck, there are many that are not restricted by geographical boundaries. Ethnic, racial, religious, social, financial, political, educational, and technological communities transcend traditional

Tipple, Brett

78

0893-6080(95)00041-0 Neural Networks, Voi. 8, No. 9, pp. 1359-1365, 1995  

E-print Network

-time recurrent neural network architectures which has tapped delays both on the input and on the feedback functions, for example delay lines, latches, flip-flops, etc. All SMs described in this paper

Giles, C. Lee

79

TH`ESE DE DOCTORAT DE L'ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE CACHAN  

E-print Network

applications `a la bioinformatique -- Learning algorithms and statistical software, with applications . . . 16 1.5 Review of current statistical software . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 I Segmentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 6 Conclusions and future work 131 II Statistical software contributions 135 7 Adding direct labels

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

Training in Human Relations for Engineers at the Ecole Superieure D'Informatique-Electronique-Automatique (ESIEA).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the need to provide engineers with training in human relations. Describes the process of developing a document defining the problem and steps to be taken toward solution, submitted to students for their evaluation. (JM)

Lafargue, M.; And Others

1986-01-01

81

THESE DE DOCTORAT DE L'ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE CACHAN  

E-print Network

CEA-INES (Institut Nationale de l'Energie Solaire), en étroite collaboration avec le laboratoire SATIE Franck Barruel Co-encadrant Réalisée au sein du Laboratoire des Systèmes Solaires (L2S) du CEA-INES, 50 d'énergie primaire sur l'ensemble de leur cycle de vie (pertes + énergie grise = Gross Energy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

Groupes de Chow superieurs, applications classe de cycle et regulateurs etales  

E-print Network

'expliquer la premi`ere partie du § 2 de l'article d'Asakura et Saito [1]. Le plan est comme suit : (1) Soit X´eor`eme d'Asakura et Saito Asakura et Saito [1] ´etudient le groupe de z´ero-cycles CH0(X) = CH2 (X) d.1 (Asakura et Saito [1]). Soit p un nombre premier, et soit K une extension finie de Qp. On note ZK l

Hille, Sander

83

THESE DE DOCTORAT DE l'ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE CACHAN  

E-print Network

677777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777776F1 B!E961 "B6#E34BDE3BEA65D24DBE969A6EDCE967777777777777777777777777768$1 B!E961 "B6#E34BDE3BEA65D24DBE96BA36D%9A39ECA959A63E9AE&E'496777777776(1 B!E9681 )3BC96936DCEE9D3696#E34BDE3BEA65D24DBE96BA936936DCEE9D3696#E34BDE3BEA65D24DBE96 BA36D%24BEA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

84

presentee pour obtenir le grade de Docteur de l'Ecole Nationale Superieure  

E-print Network

´elisation de canal pour les syst`emes de communications multi-antennes Th`ese soutenue le 8 Juillet 2005 for their love, care and educa- tion, which shaped my mind in many ways. #12;ii Acknowledgements #12;Abstract iii

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

ECOLE SUPERIEURE DE PHYSIQUE ET DE CHIMIE INDUSTRIELLES DE LA VILLE DE PARIS  

E-print Network

social et téléphone : Code APE : Numéro de SIRET : Ville et numéro d'inscription au registre du commerce des clauses administratives particulières et du cahier des clauses techniques particulières et des documents qui y sont mentionnés, 2.1 JE M'ENGAGE, CONFORM�MENT AUX CLAUSES ET CONDITIONS DES DOCUMENTS VIS�S

Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, Université

86

d'ordre : 2006 -03 Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Arts et Metiers  

E-print Network

Tricot et Daniel Piccoz qui ont ´et´e les initiateurs du projet et m'ont fait confiance pour le mener remercier la soci´et´e Dupont, fabricant du POM, principalement messieurs Daniel Ayglon et Alain Picou pour

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

PROF. J. BROSSEL THSES Loboratoire de PhyslqueCOLE NORMALE SUPERIEUR  

E-print Network

T Physique (optique). TEISSIER T Zoologie COUTEAUX T Cytologie MANGENOT .T Biologie vegetale (Orsay). MAY. logie MONNIER T Physiologie génerale. FEI DMANN T Biologie vegétale marine PIVETEAU T Paléontologie T Physiologievegetale. MIle COUSIN T Biologie animale (S P C N ) MAI AV ARD T Aviation (tech aeronant ) CHRÉTIEN

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

MINISTERE DE L'AGRICULTURE ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE AGRONOMIQUE DE MONTPELLIER  

E-print Network

BIOLOGIE DES SYSTEMES INTEGRES - AGRONOMIE - ENVIRONNEMENT THESE présentée à l'Ecole Nationale Supérieure CARBONE DANS UN SOL FERRALUriQUE SOUS SYSTEMES EN SEMIS DIRECT AVEC COUVERTURE VEGETALE DES HAUTES TERRES

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

From "Ecoles Superieures de Commerce" to "Management Schools": Transformations and Continuity in French Business Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of the national system of grandes Ecoles, French Business schools have known radical changes since the 1980s, notably in size, and have become more attractive to students both at a national and an international level. As a consequence, the French elitist system has been questioned by the competition of foreign--especially Anglo-Saxon--models.…

Blanchard, Marianne

2009-01-01

90

Autofluorescence spectroscopy of normal and malignant tissues: both in-vivo and ex-vivo measurements in the upper aero-digestive tract and lung tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectroscopic system with flexible three optical fiber sensor had been developed to study tissue fluorescence for a clinical use. Autofluorescence spectra at 413 nm and 10 mW excitation light power from different tissues in oral cavity had been measured in vivo in 25 subjects. The correlation coefficient in spectral shape between individual spectra and the mean emission spectrum of each site was about 0.9 and fluorescence intensity variation ranged between 20% and 45% according to the examined site. The variation in fluorescence intensity of the main emission wavelength at about 520 nm between spectra of the lower part of tongue, gingiva, lips, floor of cavity, cheek and palate was not statistically significant. But the spectrum of the upper part of tongue had been characterized by an additional peak around 635 nm. Otherwise, autofluorescence spectra at 410 nm and 0.5 mW excitation light power of 8 carcinoma of buccal and lung tissues were measured. The fluorescence ratio at 520 emission peak between normal tissue and carcinoma was evaluated at a maximum value of 13 for a lung cancer (ex vivo measurement) and a minimum of 3.3 for a cancer of the oro-pharynx (in vivo measurement). On the other hand, a fluorescence peak at 635 nm had characterized the carcinoma of the floor of cavity and the upper part of tongue.

A'Amar, Ousama M.; Lignon, Dominique; Menard, O.; Begorre, Henri; Guillemin, Francois H.; Yvroud, Edouard

1996-04-01

91

Chemopreventive effects of the polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 on the carcinogenesis process of the upper aerodigestive tract induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide in Swiss mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the potential chemopreventive effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 in Swiss mice submitted to oral and oesophageal carcinogenesis induction by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO). Study design: The animals underwent carcinogenesis induction with 50 µg/mL 4-NQO for eight weeks. The animals were divided into groups: Group I—4-NQO induction without chemoprevention, Group II—chemoprevention with the addition of 5% fish oil (FO) in their diet after 4-NQO carcinogenesis induction, and Group III—chemoprevention with 5% FO in their diet during and after 4-NQO carcinogenesis induction. Results: The incidence of invasive oral carcinoma was: Group I (72.9%), Group II (84.2%), and Group III (64.7%); p = 0.34. The difference in the incidence of invasive oesophageal carcinoma was statistically significant: Group I (37.8%), Group II (68.4%), and Group III (29.4%); p = 0.02. Conclusions: 4-NQO induction led to cancer in the majority of animals. Chemoprevention with FO brought no benefit in preventing the carcinogenesis process initiated by 4-NQO for oral cancer. The suggestive pro-tumour action of FO when given after tumour post-initiation seems to demonstrate that this fatty acid can potentialise the action of 4-NQO in the oesophagus carcinogenesis of the Swiss mice. PMID:24605132

Gama, Ricardo Ribeiro; Giovanini, Allan; de Rosa, Fernanda Scarmato; Ogata, Daniel Cury; de Oliveira, André Luiz Vettore; Cardoso Costa, Ana Flávia; Talini, Carolina; Feniman, Denise; Kamei, Douglas; Júnior, Celso Felipe; Coco, Allan; Carvalho, André Lopes

2014-01-01

92

Force Amplitude Modulation of Tongue and Hand Movements  

E-print Network

Figure 19. Spatial Extent of Activation in Left Posterior Cingulate Cortex (Tongue VOI 9) ………………………………………………………….…... 62 Figure 20. Spatial Extent of Activation in Left Putamen (Tongue VOI 12) ……………..…. 62 Figure 21. Spatial Extent... of Activation in Left Anterior Cingulate Cortex (Syllable VOI 8) ………………………………………………………………….…. 64 Figure 22. Spatial Extent of Activation in Left Posterior Cingulate Cortex (Syllable VOI 11) ……………………………………………………………………. 64 Figure 23. Spatial Extent...

Dietsch, Angela M.

2011-12-31

93

Similarities in blow-up approaches between semilinear heat and wave CNRS UMR 8553 Ecole Normale Superieure  

E-print Network

Similarities in blow-up approaches between semilinear heat and wave equations Hatem Zaag CNRS UMR-up solutions of the semilinear heat equation works for blow-up solutions of the semilinear wave equation. We feel this fact surprising because for the linear equations, everything separates the heat and the wave

Zaag, Hatem

94

Programs and Projects  

Cancer.gov

Programs and Projects Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancers Research Group Research Portfolio Search the NCI-Funded Research Portfolio for projects supported by the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group. Use the Advanced Search to choose Division

95

2008 Research Highlights  

Cancer.gov

Alcohol, a known risk factor for upper aerodigestive cancers, is metabolized by several enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The genes in the ADH pathway are important candidate genes for aerodigestive cancers.

96

julY 2013 | jewiSh voiCe from germAnY REliGion | 23 By Rabbi Walter Homolka  

E-print Network

and con- servative Judaism signed a con- tract with Germany's University of potsdam to establish that was conscious again of its Judaism was gradually created." By Geiger's time, a de jure civil emancipation had and renaissance man of Jewish studies leopold Zunz (1794­1886): "to fashion out of Judaism a new and freshly

Potsdam, Universität

97

[Experimental hybridization of voies of the genus Microtus s.l. M. socialis with species of the group arvalis (Mammalia, Rodentia)].  

PubMed

The results of interspecific crosses of the social vole Microtus socialis with the Altai vole M. obscurus, the East European vole M. rossiaemeridionalis, and the Transcaspian vole M. transcaspicus are presented. The role of the sperm head structure in the reproductive isolation of this species was studied. Hybrids were obtained in five of the six crossing combinations. It is established that significant differences in the sperm head shape in the social vole and in arvalis group species do not prevent fertilization. The sterility of hybrids indicates the existence of postcopulative mechanisms of reproductive isolation. PMID:25739313

Koval'skaia, Iu M; Savinetskaia, L E; Aksenova, T G

2014-01-01

98

GEOPHYSICS. VOI.. 51. NO. 7 (JULY 1986): P. 14X&1493, 18 FIGS., 2 TABLES Evaluation of the BGM-3 sea gravity meter system  

E-print Network

in February, 1984. The BGM-3 system consists of a forced feedback accelero- meter mounted on a gyrostabilized accelerations due to wave motion. Stabilization was maintained either by gyrostabilized plat- forms or by free

Watts, A. B. "Tony"

99

WindVOiCe, a Self-Reporting Survey: Adverse Health Effects, Industrial Wind Turbines, and the Need for Vigilance Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Industrial wind turbines have been operating in many parts of the globe. Anecdotal reports of perceived adverse health effects relating to industrial wind turbines have been published in the media and on the Internet. Based on these reports, indications were that some residents perceived they were experiencing adverse health effects. The purpose…

Krogh, Carmen M. E.; Gillis, Lorrie; Kouwen, Nicholas; Aramini, Jeff

2011-01-01

100

Developmental Psychology Copyright 1990bythe American PsyeholosiealAssociation, Inc. 1990,Voi.26,No. I, 15-23 0012-1649/90/$00.75  

E-print Network

. I, 15-23 0012-1649/90/$00.75 Face-to-Face Interactions of Postpartum Depressed and Nondepressed University of Pittsburgh Depression'sinfluenceon mother-infant interactious at 2 months postpartum's development. Postpartum depression would be expected to interfere with optimal mothering

Cohn, Jeffrey F.

101

Value of Information References  

DOE Data Explorer

This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

Morency, Christina

102

Value of Information References  

SciTech Connect

This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

Morency, Christina

2014-12-12

103

Local network interconnection through a satellite point-to-multipoint link. Ph.D. Thesis - Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, 6 Jul. 1985  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four architectures to implement a point to multipoint satellite link protocol for communication services offered by the Telecom 1 satellite network are presented. A safe communication service with error correction and flow control facilities is described. It is shown that a time transparent communication system combines simplicity and cost advantages.

Duarte, O. Muniz Bandeira

1986-01-01

104

1EICETRANS Fllh'nAC1FWl'hI.N. VOI,.W2 A. YO I J!i.\\vnnr rctl'l On Some Properties of M-Ary Sidel'nikov Sequ~  

E-print Network

third gencrittion wireless communi- calion s y s ~ c m ~ .M-ary phasc shift kcying (PSK) modulatiozl ( . ) 01' order M in F,. and the indicator.fi~nczion1(+3 MOLAR, Knrea. ifirrwyh the fbhtering project

No, Jong-Seon

105

1056 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSrLMS, MAN. AND CYBtKNEl ICs. VOI.. 18, NO. 6. NOVt~l.1HEK/I)~.CE.MBER19x8 with conventional expert systems, it is clear that  

E-print Network

/I)~.CE.MBER19x8 with conventional expert systems, it is clear that 1) 2) 3) AARS can reduce the size of the rule expert systems," Cvhernetics und Stwenis Reseurch. R. Trappl. Ed.. vol. 2, pp. 581-586, 1984. J. Rockville, MD: Computer Science Press, 1987. M. Togai and H. Watanabe. "Expert system on a chip: An engine

Pal, Sankar Kumar

106

Diffusional homogenization of light REE in garnet from the Day Nui Con Voi Massif in N-Vietnam: Implications for SmNd geochronology and timing of metamorphism in  

E-print Network

-Vietnam: Implications for Sm­Nd geochronology and timing of metamorphism in the Red River shear zone Robert Anczkiewicz early Oligocene metamorphism. Older Sm­Nd ages reflect mixed analyses of variably reset individual geochronology offers a quantitative link between isotopic ages and metamorphic conditions. Most commonly

Demouchy, Sylvie

107

3-D scalable medical image compression with optimized volume of interest coding.  

PubMed

We present a novel 3-D scalable compression method for medical images with optimized volume of interest (VOI) coding. The method is presented within the framework of interactive telemedicine applications, where different remote clients may access the compressed 3-D medical imaging data stored on a central server and request the transmission of different VOIs from an initial lossy to a final lossless representation. The method employs the 3-D integer wavelet transform and a modified EBCOT with 3-D contexts to create a scalable bit-stream. Optimized VOI coding is attained by an optimization technique that reorders the output bit-stream after encoding, so that those bits belonging to a VOI are decoded at the highest quality possible at any bit-rate, while allowing for the decoding of background information with peripherally increasing quality around the VOI. The bit-stream reordering procedure is based on a weighting model that incorporates the position of the VOI and the mean energy of the wavelet coefficients. The background information with peripherally increasing quality around the VOI allows for placement of the VOI into the context of the 3-D image. Performance evaluations based on real 3-D medical imaging data showed that the proposed method achieves a higher reconstruction quality, in terms of the peak signal-to-noise ratio, than that achieved by 3D-JPEG2000 with VOI coding, when using the MAXSHIFT and general scaling-based methods. PMID:20562038

Sanchez, Victor; Abugharbieh, Rafeef; Nasiopoulos, Panos

2010-10-01

108

Four-dimensional volume-of-interest reconstruction for cone-beam computed tomography-guided radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Data sufficiency are a major problem in four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) on linear accelerator-integrated scanners for image-guided radiotherapy. Scan times must be in the range of 4-6 min to avoid undersampling artifacts. Various image reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to accommodate undersampled data acquisitions, but these algorithms are computationally expensive, may require long reconstruction times, and may require algorithm parameters to be optimized. The authors present a novel reconstruction method, 4D volume-of-interest (4D-VOI) reconstruction which suppresses undersampling artifacts and resolves lung tumor motion for undersampled 1-min scans. The 4D-VOI reconstruction is much less computationally expensive than other 4D-CBCT algorithms. Methods: The 4D-VOI method uses respiration-correlated projection data to reconstruct a four-dimensional (4D) image inside a VOI containing the moving tumor, and uncorrelated projection data to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) image outside the VOI. Anatomical motion is resolved inside the VOI and blurred outside the VOI. The authors acquired a 1-min. scan of an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing a moving water-filled sphere. The authors also used previously acquired 1-min scans for two lung cancer patients who had received CBCT-guided radiation therapy. The same raw data were used to test and compare the 4D-VOI reconstruction with the standard 4D reconstruction and the McKinnon-Bates (MB) reconstruction algorithms. Results: Both the 4D-VOI and the MB reconstructions suppress nearly all the streak artifacts compared with the standard 4D reconstruction, but the 4D-VOI has 3-8 times greater contrast-to-noise ratio than the MB reconstruction. In the dynamic chest phantom study, the 4D-VOI and the standard 4D reconstructions both resolved a moving sphere with an 18 mm displacement. The 4D-VOI reconstruction shows a motion blur of only 3 mm, whereas the MB reconstruction shows a motion blur of 13 mm. With graphics processing unit hardware used to accelerate computations, the 4D-VOI reconstruction required a 40-s reconstruction time. Conclusions: 4D-VOI reconstruction effectively reduces undersampling artifacts and resolves lung tumor motion in 4D-CBCT. The 4D-VOI reconstruction is computationally inexpensive compared with more sophisticated iterative algorithms. Compared with these algorithms, our 4D-VOI reconstruction is an attractive alternative in 4D-CBCT for reconstructing target motion without generating numerous streak artifacts.

Ahmad, Moiz; Balter, Peter; Pan, Tinsu [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2011-10-15

109

High resolution dual detector volume-of-interest cone beam breast CT - Demonstration with a bench top system  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this study, we used a small field high resolution detector in conjunction with a full field flat panel detector to implement and investigate the dual detector volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam breast computed tomography (CBCT) technique on a bench-top system. The potential of using this technique to image small calcifications without increasing the overall dose to the breast was demonstrated. Significant reduction of scatter components in the high resolution projection image data of the VOI was also shown. Methods: With the regular flat panel based CBCT technique, exposures were made at 80 kVp to generate an air kerma of 6 mGys at the isocenter. With the dual detector VOI CBCT technique, a high resolution small field CMOS detector was used to scan a cylindrical VOI (2.5 cm in diameter and height, 4.5 cm off-center) with collimated x-rays at four times of regular exposure level. A flat panel detector was used for full field scan with low x-ray exposures at half of the regular exposure level. The low exposure full field image data were used to fill in the truncated space in the VOI scan data and generate a complete projection image set. The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct high resolution images for the VOI. Two scanning techniques, one breast centered and the other VOI centered, were implemented and investigated. Paraffin cylinders with embedded thin aluminum (Al) wires were imaged and used in conjunction with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dose measurements to demonstrate the ability of this technique to image small calcifications without increasing the mean glandular dose (MGD). Results: Using exposures that produce an air kerma of 6 mGys at the isocenter, the regular CBCT technique was able to resolve the cross-sections of Al wires as thin as 254 {mu}m in diameter in the phantom. For the specific VOI studied, by increasing the exposure level by a factor of 4 for the VOI scan and reducing the exposure level by a factor of 2 for the full filed scan, the dual-detector CBCT technique was able to resolve the cross-sections of Al wires as thin as 152 {mu}m in diameter. The CNR evaluated for the entire Al wire cross-section was found to be improved from 5.5 in regular CBCT to 14.4 and 16.8 with the breast centered and VOI centered scanning techniques, respectively. Even inside VOI center, the VOI scan resulted in significant dose saving with the dose reduced by a factor of 1.6 at the VOI center. Dose saving outside the VOI was substantial with the dose reduced by a factor of 7.3 and 7.8 at the breast center for the breast centered and VOI centered scans, respectively, when compared to full field scan at the same exposure level. The differences between the two dual detector techniques in terms of dose saving and scatter reduction were small with VOI scan at 4x exposure level and full field scan at 0.5x exposure level. The MGDs were only 94% of that from the regular CBCT scan. Conclusions: For the specific VOI studied, the dual detector VOI CBCT technique has the potential to provide high quality images inside the VOI with MGD similar to or even lower than that of full field breast CBCT. It was also found that our results were compromised by the use of inadequate detectors for the VOI scan. An appropriately selected detector would better optimize the image quality improvement that can be achieved with the VOI CBCT technique.

Shen Youtao; Yi Ying; Zhong Yuncheng; Lai Chaojen; Liu Xinming; You Zhicheng; Ge Shuaiping; Wang Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C. [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2011-12-15

110

Highlighting the Impacts of North-South Research Collaboration among Canadian and Southern Higher Education Partners (Principaux impacts des collaborations de recherche Nord-Sud entre les partenaires des etablissements d'enseignement superieur du Canada et du Sud)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) felt it was timely to create an academic forum in which university researchers have the opportunity to engage with their peers and relevant stakeholders and document the impacts of their North-South research collaboration in a peer-reviewed publication. The Association achieved this by…

Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2006

2006-01-01

111

EDUCAFRICA, December 1986. Special Issue: Case Studies on Higher Education in Africa. Special Volume 1=EDUCAFRICA, Decembre 1986. Etudes de cas sur L'Enseignement Superieur en Afrique, Tome 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of the development of higher education in 17 African countries are presented. Eleven of the case studies are written in French, and six are in English. The country reports that are in English are as follows: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania. The country reports in French are: Benin, Burkina Faso,…

EDUCAFRICA, 1986

1986-01-01

112

From Higher Education to Employment. Volume III: Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway = De l'enseignement superieur a l'emploi. Volume III: Finlande, France, Italie, Japan, Norrege, Pays-Bas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents statistical data from the countries of France, Finland, the Netherlands, Japan, Italy, and Norway regarding the flows of graduates from higher education and their entry into the workforce. Among the statistical data presented are the trends and current situation in each country for such areas as college enrollments and…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

113

From Higher Education To Employment. Volume II: Canada, Denmark, Spain, United States = De l'enseignement superieur a l'emploi. Volume II: Canada, Danemark, Expagne, Etats-Unis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents reports on the flows of graduates from higher education and on their entry into working life in Canada, Denmark, Spain and the United States. Each paper is written according to detailed guidelines designed to assemble information from many sources, to reflect the state of the art, and to illustrate a variety of approaches,…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

114

Elsevier Editorial System(tm) for Journal of Voice Manuscript Draft  

E-print Network

in the Greek language. Article Type: Full Length Article Keywords: VHI; VoiSS; benign laryngeal lesions: CHANIA GENERAL HOSPITAL First Author: Devora E Kiagiadaki, M.D Order of Authors: Devora E Kiagiadaki, M of the Greek version of Voice Handicap Index (VHI) in comparison with Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS) in terms

Stylianou, Yannis

115

Funding Opportunities  

Cancer.gov

Funding Opportunities Funding Related Resources DCP Funding Resources NCI Grant Application and Review Process Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Portfolio Search the NCI-Funded Research Portfolio for projects supported by the Division of

116

August 28-29, 2002 Questions/Comments  

Cancer.gov

POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN MODIFICATION: NOVEL TECHNOLOGIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER PREVENTION WORKSHOP Questions/Comments For additional information or questions about the conference please contact: Thea Kalebic, MD, PhD Lung and Upper Aerodigestive

117

JOHN E. TILTON Division of Economics and Business Tel: 303.273.3485  

E-print Network

, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris #12;2 1991-1991 Visiting Fellow, Resources for the Future on Trade and Development 1972-1975 Associate Professor of Mineral Economics, The Pennsylvania State

118

La Transmission de l'information dans une ecole (Information Transmission in a School Situation)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected portions of a longer paper entitled "Incidence relationnelle et institutionelle de la transmission de l'information dans une ecole," presented at the Institut Superieur de Pedagogie, 1973. (HW)

Versel, Simone

1973-01-01

119

A Polynomial Time Incremental Algorithm for Learning DFA  

E-print Network

, and Vasant Honavar 3 1 Allstate Research and Planning Center 321 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park CA 94025, USA rpare@allstate.com 2 Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon 46 Allee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France

Honavar, Vasant

120

Spatial Learning and Localization in Rodents: A Computational Model of the Hippocampus and its Implications for Mobile Robots  

E-print Network

Implications for Mobile Robots Karthik Balakrishnan Allstate Research and Planning Center 321 Middlefield Road Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA kbala@allstate.com Olivier Bousquet Ecole Normale Sup'erieure des T

Honavar, Vasant

121

1952 AIAA JOURNAL,VOL. 34, NO. 9: TECHNICAL NOTES for a given element size at a specific surfacelocation occurred as the  

E-print Network

-656. Pressure Fluctuations in an Unstable Confined Jet Patricia Ern* and Jose Eduardo Wesfreid^ Ecole Superieure on a study of pressure fluctuations at the exit of a two-dimensionaljet confined in a rectangular cavity. Ex

Wesfreid, José Eduardo

122

FINDING CYCLES WITH TOPOLOGICAL PROPERTIES IN EMBEDDED GRAPHS  

E-print Network

of Mathematics, IMFM, and Department of Mathematics, FMF, University of Ljubl- jana, Slovenia; sergio.cabello@fmf.uni-lj.si; http://www.fmf.uni-lj.si/~cabello/. Laboratoire d'informatique, ´Ecole normale sup´erieure, CNRS, Paris

Colin de Verdière, Éric

123

Phenylketonuria: brain phenylalanine concentrations relate inversely to cerebral protein synthesis.  

PubMed

In phenylketonuria, elevated plasma phenylalanine concentrations may disturb blood-to-brain large neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport and cerebral protein synthesis (CPS). We investigated the associations between these processes, using data obtained by positron emission tomography with l-[1-(11)C]-tyrosine ((11)C-Tyr) as a tracer. Blood-to-brain transport of non-Phe LNAAs was modeled by the rate constant for (11)C-Tyr transport from arterial plasma to brain tissue (K1), while CPS was modeled by the rate constant for (11)C-Tyr incorporation into cerebral protein (k3). Brain phenylalanine concentrations were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in three volumes of interest (VOIs): supraventricular brain tissue (VOI 1), ventricular brain tissue (VOI 2), and fluid-containing ventricular voxels (VOI 3). The associations between k3 and each predictor variable were analyzed by multiple linear regression. The rate constant k3 was inversely associated with brain phenylalanine concentrations in VOIs 2 and 3 (adjusted R(2)=0.826, F=19.936, P=0.021). Since brain phenylalanine concentrations in these VOIs highly correlated with each other, the specific associations of each predictor with k3 could not be determined. The associations between k3 and plasma phenylalanine concentration, K1, and brain phenylalanine concentrations in VOI 1 were nonsignificant. In conclusion, our study shows an inverse association between k3 and increased brain phenylalanine concentrations. PMID:25352046

de Groot, Martijn J; Sijens, Paul E; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Paans, Anne M; van Spronsen, Francjan J

2015-02-01

124

Interactive annotation of textures in thoracic CT scans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes a system for interactive annotation of thoracic CT scans. Lung volumes in these scans are segmented and subdivided into roughly spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) with homogeneous texture using a clustering procedure. For each 3D VOI, 72 features are calculated. The observer inspects the scan to determine which textures are present and annotates, with mouse clicks, several VOIs of each texture. Based on these annotations, a k-nearest-neighbor classifier is trained, which classifies all remaining VOIs in the scan. The algorithm then presents a slice with suggested annotations to the user, in which the user can correct mistakes. The classifier is retrained, taking into account these new annotations, and the user is presented another slice for correction. This process continues until at least 50% of all lung voxels in the scan have been classified. The remaining VOIs are classified automatically. In this way, the entire lung volume is annotated. The system has been applied to scans of patients with usual and non-specific interstitial pneumonia. The results of interactive annotation are compared to a setup in which the user annotates all predefined VOIs manually. The interactive system is 3.7 times as fast as complete manual annotation of VOIs and differences between the methods are similar to interobserver variability. This is a first step towards precise volumetric quantitation of texture patterns in thoracic CT in clinical research and in clinical practice.

Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; de Jong, Pim A.; Gietema, Hester A.; Grutters, Jan C.; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

2010-03-01

125

PATHOLOGIE VGTALE La maladie de la tache de la carotte due  

E-print Network

. Plusieurs voies de recherche de moyens de lutte sont envisagées. Mots clés additionnels : Daucus carota the incidence of the problem are now being investigated. Additional key words : Daucus carota, soil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

Courte note Dtection du virus de l'arthrite encphalite caprine  

E-print Network

contaminations liées à l'inges- tion de colostrum contaminé, la voie orale étant considérée comme la voie de contamination que le colostrum [5]. En dépit de différents travaux réalisés en vue de préciser d'autres voies de

Boyer, Edmond

127

Instructions: Submit pages 3-4 of this form to the Associate Dean of Students, Student Life Office, Student Center 218, or email dmorgan@mines.edu. Keep pages 1-2 for your information.  

E-print Network

and the subsequent criminal justice process. If you report to police, a VOI victim advocate can be requested choose to do nothing more. You may file an Anonymous Report whether or not you later file a criminal

128

Universit a degli studi di Genova Facolt a di Scienze Matematiche Fisiche e Naturali  

E-print Network

"Old Pic" Picarelli, Luca \\Lemonface" Tricerri, Michele "Goodfella" Moretti ed i fratellini Berna & Berna. Ragazzi come #18;e pi#18;u dura la vita senza di voi. E quanti kilometri in pi#19;u! 5 #12; 6 Un

Mascardi, Viviana

129

Planning the efficient allocation of research funds: an adapted application of a non-parametric Bayesian value of information analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of the efficient allocation of research funds has been addressed using various quantitative methods. Bayesian value of information (VoI) analysis provides an explicit and comprehensive analytic process for the comparison of alternative sources of research. This paper presents an adapted non-parametric application of a VoI analysis of prospective trials comparing alternative adjuvant therapies for postmenopausal women with node

Jonathan Karnon

2002-01-01

130

Head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

Early detection of upper aerodigestive tract cancer improves prognosis. The primary care physician plays an important role in early detection of these cancers. Most upper aerodigestive tract cancers are squamous cell carcinomas that are linked to tobacco, alcohol, or human papillomavirus exposure. These cancers produce nonspecific symptoms; thus, any persistent oral cavity lesion or neck mass or other unexplainable ear, nose, and throat symptoms should prompt an evaluation for malignancy. Although overall survival has not improved, nonsurgical treatment approaches have led to higher rates of organ preservation and rehabilitation after treatment has improved the quality of life of survivors. PMID:20736111

Crozier, Emily; Sumer, Baran D

2010-09-01

131

Gaussian process models of dynamic PET for functional volume definition in radiation oncology.  

PubMed

In routine oncologic positron emission tomography (PET), dynamic information is discarded by time-averaging the signal to produce static images of the "standardised uptake value" (SUV). Defining functional volumes of interest (VOIs) in terms of SUV is flawed, as values are affected by confounding factors and the chosen time window, and SUV images are not sensitive to functional heterogeneity of pathological tissues. Also, SUV iso-contours are highly affected by the choice of threshold and no threshold, or other SUV-based segmentation method, is universally accepted for a given VOI type. Gaussian Process (GP) time series models describe macro-scale dynamic behavior arising from countless interacting micro-scale processes, as is the case for PET signals from heterogeneous tissue. We use GPs to model time-activity curves (TACs) from dynamic PET and to define functional volumes for PET oncology. Probabilistic methods of tissue discrimination are presented along with novel contouring methods for functional VOI segmentation. We demonstrate the value of GP models for voxel classification and VOI contouring of diseased and metastatic tissues with functional heterogeneity in prostate PET. Classification experiments reveal superior sensitivity and specificity over SUV calculation and a TAC-based method proposed in recent literature. Contouring experiments reveal differences in shape between gold-standard and GP VOIs and correlation with kinetic models shows that the novel VOIs contain extra clinically relevant information compared to SUVs alone. We conclude that the proposed models offer a principled data analysis technique that improves on SUVs for oncologic VOI definition. Continuing research will generalize GP models for different oncology tracers and imaging protocols with the ultimate goal of clinical use including treatment planning. PMID:22498690

Shepherd, Tony; Owenius, Rikard

2012-08-01

132

Completeness map evaluation demonstrated with candidate next-generation cardiac CT architectures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this report, the authors introduce the general concept of the completeness map, as a means to evaluate the completeness of data acquired by a given CT system design (architecture and scan mode). They illustrate the utility of completeness map by applying the completeness map concept to a number of candidate CT system designs, as part of a study to advance the state-of-the-art in cardiac CT. Methods: In order to optimally reconstruct a point within a volume of interest (VOI), the Radon transform on all possible planes through that point should be measured. The authors quantified the extent to which this ideal condition is satisfied for the entire image volume. They first determined a Radon completeness number for each point in the VOI, as the percentage of possible planes that is actually measured. A completeness map is then defined as a 3D matrix of the completeness numbers for the entire VOI. The authors proposed algorithms to analyze the projection datasets in Radon space and compute the completeness number for a fixed point and apply these algorithms to various architectures and scan modes that they are evaluating. In this report, the authors consider four selected candidate architectures, operating with different scan modes, for a total of five system design alternatives. Each of these alternatives is evaluated using completeness map. Results: If the detector size and cone angle are large enough to cover the entire cardiac VOI, a single-source circular scan can have {>=}99% completeness over the entire VOI. However, only the central z-slice can be exactly reconstructed, which corresponds to 100% completeness. For a typical single-source architecture, if the detector is limited to an axial dimension of 40 mm, a helical scan needs about five rotations to form an exact reconstruction region covering the cardiac VOI, while a triple-source helical scan only requires two rotations, leading to a 2.5x improvement in temporal resolution. If the source and detector of an inverse-geometry (IGCT) system have the same axial extent, and the spacing of source points in the axial and transaxial directions is sufficiently small, the IGCT can also form an exact reconstruction region for the cardiac VOI. If the VOI can be covered by the x-ray beam in any view, a composite-circling scan can generate an exact reconstruction region covering the VOI. Conclusions: The completeness map evaluation provides useful information for selecting the next-generation cardiac CT system design. The proposed completeness map method provides a practical tool for analyzing complex scanning trajectories, where the theoretical image quality for some complex system designs is impossible to predict, without yet-undeveloped reconstruction algorithms.

Liu Baodong; Bennett, James; Wang Ge; De Man, Bruno; Zeng Kai; Yin Zhye; Fitzgerald, Paul; Yu Hengyong [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiologic Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 27157 (United States) and Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States); Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States) and Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); CT Systems and Applications Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Department of Radiology, Division of Radiologic Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States) and Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States)

2012-05-15

133

Fluorometric analysis for neoplasm diagnostics and localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents methods of laser-induced fluorescence with the use of endo- and exogenous dyes for diagnosis of early tumors of aerodigestive tracts, colons, bladder, GYN, and skin, as well as a review of equipment developed during laboratory examination, construction of diagnostic instruments and clinical use of fluorometric methods with application of various devices, from simple fluorometers to sophisticated endoscopic

Miroslaw Kwasny; Zygmunt Mierczyk

1997-01-01

134

Alcohol and oral cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol, particularly when associated with tobacco use, has been recognized as an important risk factor for mouth cancer for almost 50 years. Together, they are associated with approximately 75% of upper aerodigestive tract cancers. However, intake of alcohol remains high in many countries. The rising incidence of oral cancer has prompted a revaluation of the role of alcohol (both alone

Graham R. Ogden

2005-01-01

135

A RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF AN INTERVENTION TO INCREASE FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INTAKE IN DURATIVELY TREATED PATIENTS WITH EARLY STAGE HEAD AND NECK CANCER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The leading cause of death in patients who have had curatively treated early stage head and neck (H&N) cancer is a second primary cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract(lung, esophagus, larynx, pharynx and oral cavity cancers). Low fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake has been associated with increased...

136

Caustic ingestion in adults: The role of endoscopic classification in predicting outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The ingestion of caustic substances induces an extensive spectrum of injuries to the aerodigestive tract which include extensive necrosis and perforation of the esophagus and stomach. The gold standard of safely assessing depth, extent of injury, and appropriate therapeutic regimen is esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The objective of this study was to report our clinical experience and to evaluate the role

Hao-Tsai Cheng; Chi-Liang Cheng; Cheng-Hui Lin; Jui-Hsiang Tang; Yin-Yi Chu; Nai-Jen Liu; Pang-Chi Chen

2008-01-01

137

Esophageal replacement in children who have caustic pharyngoesophageal strictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caustic injury to the upper aerodigestive system with scarring of the pharynx, hypopharynx, and esophagus is a challenging reconstructive problem. The authors report on seven patients who required total esophageal replacement from the pharynx to the stomach. Injury occurred from alkali in six and acid in one. Age at injury ranged from 14 months to 14 years (mean, 4.5 years.)

Rosa S Choi; Craig W Lillehei; Dennis P Lund; Gerald B Healy; Carlo Buonomo; Joseph Upton; W. Hardy Hendren

1997-01-01

138

Gastric tubes in children with caustic esophageal injury: A 32-year review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Caustic injury to the upper aerodigestive system with scarring of the pharynx, hypopharynx, and esophagus is a challenging reconstructive problem. The author has used the gastric tube for this purpose for three decdes.Methods: During the last 32 years (1965 to 1996 inclusive) the author treated 11 patients who required esophageal replacement with a gastric tube conduit, which was anastomosed

Sigmund H. Ein

1998-01-01

139

Esophagopharyngeal distribution of refluxed gastric acid in patients with reflux laryngitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims A variety of otolaryngological abnormalities have been attributed to the contact of gastroesophageal refluxate with respective structures of the aerodigestive tract. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the pharyngoesophageal distribution of gastric acid refluxate between patients with proven laryngitis attributed clinically to gastroesophageal reflux and three control groups. Methods An ambulatory 24-hour simultaneous

Reza Shaker; Mary Milbrath; Junlong Ren; Robert Toohill; Walter J. Hogan; Qun Li; Candy L. Hofmann

1995-01-01

140

ALCOHOL AND CANCER: CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF ACTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of epidemiological studies have indicated that long-term and excessive alcohol consumption is a significant risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers and liver cancer. High alcohol consumption also increases the risk for other types of cancer, such as colorectal, lung and breast. In...

141

Organ Site-Specific SPOREs | Translational Research Program (TRP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Organ Site-Specific SPOREs By State By Organ Location Last Updated: 11/28/13 Head & Neck SPOREs SPOREs in Head and Neck (H&N) cancer support translational research on cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract and on

142

Organ Site-Specific SPOREs | Translational Research Program (TRP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Organ Site-Specific SPOREs By State By Organ Location Last Updated: 11/28/13 Thyroid SPOREs SPOREs in Head and Neck (H&N) cancer support translational research on cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract and on thyroid

143

Bazex Syndrome*  

PubMed Central

Acrokeratosis Paraneoplastica or Bazex syndrome is a dermatologic manifestation usually associated with the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. We report a case with exuberant clinical manifestations, exemplifying the typical cutaneous lesions in this rare syndrome, in a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. PMID:24346922

Rodrigues Júnior, Ismael Alves; Gresta, Letícia Trivellato; Cruz, Rafaela Carolina; Carvalho, Giselly Gomes; Moreira, Melissa Heringer Chamon Barros Quintão

2013-01-01

144

Feeding & Motor Functioning: Start at the Hips to Get to the Lips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Swallowing is one of the most complex movement patterns that people must use accurately throughout the day and night from the time they are born. These movement patterns are very closely integrated with breathing and movement of food through the aerodigestive tract. Malalignment or dysfunction in any part of these integrated patterns and systems…

Donato, Jessica; Fox, Cathy; Mormon, Johnnie; Mormon, Mike

2008-01-01

145

Specializations of the human upper respiratory and upper digestive systems as seen through comparative and developmental anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human upper respiratory, or aerodigestive, tract serves as the crossroads of our breathing, swallowing and vocalizing pathways. Accordingly, developmental or evolutionary change in any of these functions will, of necessity, affect the others. Our studies have shown that the position in the neck of the mammalian larynx is a major factor in determining function in this region. Most mammals,

Jeffrey T. Laitman; Joy S. Reidenberg

1993-01-01

146

Teleconsultation in otolaryngology: Live versus store and forward consultations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of interactive and delayed teleconsultations in otolaryngology. Setting: Ambulatory clinic at an urban tertiary care facility. Subjects: Forty-five adult patients with known or suspected upper aerodigestive tract pathology. Intervention: Patients were interviewed by an otolaryngology chief resident (CR) using a standardized protocol; the results were presented to a board-certified otolaryngologist present locally

ANTHONY P. SCLAFANI; CONOR HENEGHAN; JEFFREY GINSBURG; PAUL SABINI; JORDAN STERN; JAY N. DOLITSKY

1999-01-01

147

Dental considerations in management of head and neck cancer  

SciTech Connect

The successful management of patients with squamous cell cancer of the aerodigestive tract requires a multispecialty team. Cooperation among these individuals will ensure that the patient has the best possible chance for a favorable outcome. The role of the dentist as a member of this team is discussed.

Hurst, P.S.

1985-08-01

148

EDITORIAL Etiology of the Mutational Spectrum of ras Genes in Human Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the many human behaviors that are associated with increased risk of malignancy, the smoking of tobacco has the most incontrovertible epidemiologic evidence linking it to ma- lignancies of the upper aerodigestive and urinary systems. Sus- tained by nicotine addiction, tobacco smokers inhale a complex mixture of more than 60 known or suspected carcinogens, in- cluding polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrosamines,

Michael J. Kelley; Susan J. Littman

149

The Idea of a Normal University in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The establishment of normal colleges and universities is an important component of building a modern country, which possesses different value ethos with the universities. The emergence of the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris and the local normal schools has set a new model for teacher education around the world and promoted values and knowledge…

Hayhoe, Ruth; Li, Jun

2010-01-01

150

Copyright by SIAM. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. SIAM J. APPL. MATH. c 2008 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics  

E-print Network

2008 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Vol. 68, No. 4, pp. 1146­1167 EFFECTIVE MOTION, a macroscopic model has been developed to describe the dynamics of Received by the editors October 20, 2006://www.siam.org/journals/siap/68-4/67282.html Department of Biology, Ecole Normale Sup´erieure, 75005 Paris, France (lagache

Lagache, Thibault

151

GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 62, NO. 5 (SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 1997); P. 13551358, 4 FIGS. Humility and nonlinearity  

E-print Network

to industrial practice are rewarded by some humility." At the Ecole Normal Sup´erieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris a group working under the leadership of Mathias Fink has taken up this challenge. This group has pioneered the development of acoustic Time Rever- sal Mirrors (TRM) [for

Scales, John

152

Didier Sornette Department of Management, Technology and Economics  

E-print Network

;Industrial experience · Director of Research in the X-RS research & development company in Orsay, France Zurich Education and academic experience · Graduate from Ecole Normale Sup´erieure (ENS Ulm, Paris); Ecole Polytechnique, Paris (1986-1990); Santa Barbara, CA (1992). · Research director at CNRS, France

Leonardo, Degiorgi

153

Curriculum Vitae Alexandru Iosup ( A.Iosup@tudelft.nl ) Page 1 of 4  

E-print Network

-1980 in Bucharest, Romania. Romanian (EU citizen, US visitor visa). Main Goals 1. Design, build, deploy Computing Management Earning Power Academic Record Awards International experience Top graduation committee (diploma) Ecole Superieure d'Electricite (Supelec), Metz, France (co-tutor, scholarship) Thesis

Iosup, Alexandru

154

Curriculum Vitae Alexandru Iosup ( A.Iosup@tudelft.nl ) Page 1 of 4  

E-print Network

-1980 in Bucharest, Romania. Romanian (EU citizen, US visitor visa). Main Goals 1. Design, build, deploy in Scalable Computing Management Earning Power Academic Record Awards International experience Top graduation, Romania (diploma) Ecole Superieure d'Electricite (Supelec), Metz, France (co-tutor, scholarship) Thesis

Iosup, Alexandru

155

Curriculum Vitae Alexandru Iosup ( A.Iosup@tudelft.nl ) Page 1 of 4  

E-print Network

-1980 in Bucharest, Romania. Romanian (EU citizen, US visitor visa). Main Goals 1. Design, build, deploy Computing Management Earning Power Academic Record Awards International experience Top graduation committee, Romania (diploma) Ecole Superieure d'Electricite (Supelec), Metz, France (co-tutor, scholarship) · Thesis

Iosup, Alexandru

156

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS, VOL. c-27, NO. 4, APRIL 1978 [13] J. Kittler and P. C. Young, "Discriminant function implementation  

E-print Network

, "Discriminant function implementation of a minimum risk classifier," Bio. Cybern., vol. 18, pp. 169-179, 1975," in Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Pattern Recog- nition, Lyngby, 1974, pp. 476-478. [23] B. G. Batchelor, D. Beck Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, Paris, France, as a Royal Society European Exchange Programme

Ahuja, Narendra

157

Curriculum Vitae for Thierry Coquand Born 18/04/1961, Jallieu (Is`ere, France)  

E-print Network

´Ecole Normale Sup´erieure Ulm, Paris (ranked 1st) · 1982 Agr´egation de mathematique (ranked 1st) · 1985 2012-2013. · Program comittee member 14th congress of logic, methodology, and philosophy, Nancy, 2011 Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Sci- ence, Uppsala, 1991 and Spain, 2003 · Foundations

Coquand, Thierry

158

de recherche ISSN0249-6399ISRNINRIA/RR--7583--FR+ENG  

E-print Network

sont valid´ees au travers de nombreuses simulations, mod´elisant `a la fois une configuration mat. Ces simulations montrent que VERTICAL est la politique la plus adapt´ee `a de petits fichiers, tandis sup´erieures aux autres politiques test´ees. Mots-cl´es : Stockage sur bande, syst`eme d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

On the Minimum Size of a Contraction-Universal Tree  

E-print Network

On the Minimum Size of a Contraction-Universal Tree Olivier Bodini LIP, ´Ecole Normale Sup´erieure de Lyon, 46 All´ee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 05, France. Abstract. A tree Tuni is m-universal for the class of trees if for every tree T of size m, T can be obtained from Tuni by successive contractions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

160

VOLUME 88, NUMBER 5 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 4 FEBRUARY 2002 Minimal Model for Sand Dunes  

E-print Network

for Sand Dunes Klaus Kroy,* Gerd Sauermann, and Hans J. Herrmann PMMH, Ã?cole Superieure de Physique et; published 16 January 2002) We propose a minimal model for aeolian sand dunes. It combines an analytical for saturation transients in the sand flux. The model provides a qualitative understanding of important features

161

Introduction to the special issue Special issue on Behavioral Public Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workshop of the Association for Public Economic Theory on behavioral and experimental public economics was held at Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, from June 24 to June 26, 2008. Thirty papers were presented in addition to keynotes by Charlie Plott and John List. The focus of the workshop was to test theoretical models using experimental methods

Charles R. Plott; Jean-Louis Rullière; Marie-Claire Villeval

2011-01-01

162

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30 (1997) 49915008. Printed in the UK PII: S0953-4075(97)79419-7 Experimental study of caesium 6PJ + 6PJ 7PJ + 6S  

E-print Network

: Laboratoire Aim´e Cotton, CNRS II, Bat. 505, Campus d'Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France. Permanent address-Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, Rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. + Also at: Dipartimento di Fisica. Permanent address: Automated Production Technology Division, SOUND A147, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA

Huennekens, John

1997-01-01

163

Introducing Pierre Colmez Our first Emil-Artin-lecturer is Pierre Colmez, Directeur de recherche l'institut de mathmatiques  

E-print Network

Introducing Pierre Colmez Our first Emil-Artin-lecturer is Pierre Colmez, Directeur de recherche à Gabrielle Sand et Guido Triossi de l'Académie des Sciences and, moreover, he won the 2005-Fermat l'institut de mathématiques de Jussieu. He studied at Ecole Normale Superieure and obtained his

164

Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode

Simon Belanger

2010-01-01

165

The Acquisition of Stereochemical Knowledge by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work we evaluated the level of difficulty found in learning stereochemistry concepts, by students intending to teach physical sciences at the Ecole Normale Superieure (ENS) Kouba (Algeria). A paper and pencil questionnaire was administered to 170 students to evaluate: their familiarity with Newman representations; their ability of linking…

Boukhechem, Mohamed-Salah; Dumon, Alain; Zouikri, Mohamed

2011-01-01

166

The Normative Effects of Higher Education Policy in France  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student survey was a response to the French youth unrest in 2005 and 2006. It considers the degree to which French higher and secondary education institutions create social cohesion. Focusing on three distinct higher-education institutions: "L'institut d'etudes politiques de Paris" (Sciences Po), "Ecole Normale Superieure," Paris 8, and a…

Langan, Elise

2012-01-01

167

N d'ordre : 2010 EMSE 0572 PRESENTEE PAR  

E-print Network

SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ÉTIENNE SPECIALITE : GENIE INDUSTRIEL Combinatorial optimization and Markov : SCIENCES ET GENIE DES MATERIAUX MECANIQUE ET INGENIERIE GENIE DES PROCEDES SCIENCES DE LA TERRE SCIENCES ET GENIE DE L'ENVIRONNEMENT MATHEMATIQUES APPLIQUEES INFORMATIQUE IMAGE, VISION, SIGNAL GENIE INDUSTRIEL

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

168

CUT&PASTE ATTACKS WITH JAVA Serge Lefranc  

E-print Network

by the programming language Java. When a user loads an html page containing an applet (a Java program used in a web an unprecedented level of compatibility between different operating systems (which is, in turn, the reason why JavaCUT­&­PASTE ATTACKS WITH JAVA Serge Lefranc ' Ecole Nationale Sup'erieure des Techniques Avanc

169

February, 2010 Curriculum Vitae  

E-print Network

/Decision Science 9/83 6/84 Sorbonne Diplome Superieur 6/83 8/83 Harvard University A.B. Applied Mathematics Magna/99 ­ Affiliate Member, MIT Computer Science and AI Laboratory 1/99 ­ Member, Time Magazine Board of Economists 9-90 Magna cum Laude in field of Applied Mathematics at Harvard College 1984 Magna cum Laude on Undergraduate

170

UNIVERSITE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES FACULTE DE PHARMACIE  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES FACULTE DE PHARMACIE AGREGATION DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR SECTION PHARMACIE Année académique : DECOMPTE DES HEURES DE STAGE (N° 12) Règles générales : Tel qu'indiqué au programme des cours de l'Agrégation de l'Enseignement Secondaire Supérieur ­ Orientation Pharmacie, les

Cerf, Nicolas

171

LPTENS-08/06 UUITP-01/08  

E-print Network

, pointing perhaps to some underlying lattice structure in the sigma model on AdS5 × S5 . The semiclassicalLPTENS-08/06 UUITP-01/08 Quantum Giant Magnons K. Zarembo Department of Physics and Astronomy´eorique de l'Ecole Normale Sup´erieure 24 rue Lhomond, Paris CEDEX 75231, France Abstract The giant magnons

172

Conceptual Integration of Hybridization by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work aims to assess the difficulties encountered by students of the Ecole Normale Superieure of Kouba (Algeria) intending to teach physical science in the integration of the hybridization of atomic orbitals. It is a concept that they should use in describing the formation of molecular orbitals ([sigma] and [pi]) in organic chemistry and gaps…

Salah, Hazzi; Dumon, Alain

2011-01-01

173

Teaching with "Voix et Images de France"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report on the classroom use of Voix et Images de France," the French text prepared by the Centre de Recherche et d'Etude pourla Diffusion du Francais (CREDIF) at the Ecole Normale Superieure de Saint-Cloud in France. (FB)

Marrow, G. D.

1970-01-01

174

A Prestigious Image: Advantage or Obstacle in Attracting Candidates to French Elite Higher Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred and twenty students successful at entering four of the most famous French "grandes ecoles" ("Ecole Normale Superieure" Ulm, Polytechnique, HEC, Sciences Po) were questioned about their institution's image. We focus on how the prestige of these institutions in the French society played a role in students' attraction and contributed to…

Draelants, Hugues

2012-01-01

175

Print this Page for Your RecordsClose Window Program#/Poster#: 768.4  

E-print Network

-classical receptive field properties from natural image statistics Location: San Diego Convention Center: Room 32A Normale Superieure, Group for Neural Theory, Paris, France Experimental studies have demonstratedRF properties emerge from natural image statistics, as a byproduct of a learning process which seeks to find

Kreiter, Andreas K.

176

Observation of the Nonlinear Dispersion Relation and Spatial Statistics of Wave Turbulence on the Surface of a Fluid  

E-print Network

Observation of the Nonlinear Dispersion Relation and Spatial Statistics of Wave Turbulence (MSC), Universite´ Paris Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 75 013 Paris, France 2 Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, E´cole Normale Supe´rieure, CNRS, 24, rue Lhomond, 75 005 Paris, France (Received 5 May 2010

Falcon, Eric

177

UNIVERSITE BLAISE PASCAL UFR SCIENCES et TECHNOLOGIES  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITE BLAISE PASCAL UFR SCIENCES et TECHNOLOGIES ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DE CHIMIE DE Blaise Pascal Master Recherche de Chimie UFR SCIENCES et TECHNOLOGIES Département de Chimie 24, Avenue;Fiche de renseignements pour inscription au Master de Chimie (M2) de l'Université Blaise Pascal

Heurteaux, Yanick

178

Geometry and Color in Natural Images Vicent Caselles \\Lambda  

E-print Network

invariance. \\Lambda Dep. of Technology, University Pompeu Fabra, La Rambla, 30­32, 08002 Barcelona, Spain Palma de Mallorca, Spain, tomeu.coll@uib.es z Ecole Normale Sup'erieure de Cachan, 61 Avenue du Pdt adopted towards color in art and science (Section 1) We then focus on image analysis algorithms and define

Caselles, Vicent

179

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE IV Colloque C7, supplkment au Journal de Physique 111, Volume 5, novembre 1995  

E-print Network

and phosphorus additions were prepared from high purity base metals in the laboratory of the Ecole des Mines de Steels Under Transpassive Conditions J. Stolarz Ecole Nationale Supe'rieure des Mines de Saint temperature heat treatment). Therefore, the origin of the phenomenon is different from

Boyer, Edmond

180

The CENTRE for EDUCATION in MATHEMATICS and COMPUTING  

E-print Network

Dunbar Mike Eden Barry Ferguson Barb Forrest Judy Fox Steve Furino John Galbraith Sandy Graham Angie Jeff Anderson Terry Bae Steve Brown Ersal Cahit Serge D'Alessio Frank DeMaio Jennifer Doucet Fiona probl`emes Canadian Senior Mathematics Contest / Concours canadien de niveau sup´erieur Mike Eden (Chair

Le Roy, Robert J.

181

The CENTRE for EDUCATION in MATHEMATICS and COMPUTING  

E-print Network

Mike Eden Barry Ferguson Barb Forrest Judy Fox Steve Furino John Galbraith Sandy Graham Angie Terry Bae Steve Brown Ersal Cahit Karen Cole Serge D'Alessio Frank DeMaio Jennifer Doucet Fiona Dunbar probl`emes Canadian Senior Mathematics Contest / Concours canadien de niveau sup´erieur Mike Eden (Chair

Le Roy, Robert J.

182

PRPARATION ET PROPRITS OPTIQUES DE COUCHES MINCES D'ARSNIURE DE GALLIUM ET DE TELLURURE DE CADMIUM  

E-print Network

and cadmium telluride. We have studied their optical and photoelectrical properties : the results obtained for reflexion and transmis- sion factors, while the photoelectric properties of thin layers of cadmium telluride nettement superieure a celle n6ces- saire a 1'evaporation du compose sous la meme pression ; - soit 6vaporer

Boyer, Edmond

183

Application of value of information of tank waste characterization: A new paradigm for defining tank waste characterization requirements  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the rationale for adopting a recommended characterization strategy that uses a risk-based decision-making framework for managing the Tank Waste Characterization program at Hanford. The risk-management/value-of-information (VOI) strategy that is illustrated explicitly links each information-gathering activity to its cost and provides a mechanism to ensure that characterization funds are spent where they can produce the largest reduction in risk. The approach was developed by tailoring well-known decision analysis techniques to specific tank waste characterization applications. This report illustrates how VOI calculations are performed and demonstrates that the VOI approach can definitely be used for real Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) characterization problems.

Fassbender, L.L.; Brewster, M.E.; Brothers, A.J. [and others

1996-11-01

184

Théorie de la cohérence de polarisation avec les matrices de Jones et la sphère de Poincaré Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On exprime simplement le comportement de la fonction de cohérence et des intensités émergentes des voies d'un interféromètre quelconque, en fonction de la polarisation incidente, à l'aide de ses coordonnées dans la sphère de Poincaré sur des axes déterminés par l'interféromètre. On discute la possibilité d'obtenir une parfaite cohérence ou une parfaite incohérence de polarisation. On montre que, en dehors du cas scalaire, deux cas particuliers sont notables: celui où les deux voies ne sont pas dichroïques, et celui où les deux voies sont des polariseurs ou analyseurs. On analyse des cas d'interférences classiques en lumière polarisée, on actualise l'interprétation d'autres expériences anciennes moins connues, mais on montre aussi comment concevoir les interféromètres correspondants à tous les comportements possibles de la cohérence de polarisation, ce qui permet de proposer des idées d'expériences inédites.

Dettwiller, L.

185

CBCT with specification of imaging dose and CNR by anatomical volume of interest  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: A novel method has been developed for volume of interest (VOI) cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging using a 2.35 MV/Carbon target linac imaging beam line combined with dynamic multileaf collimator sequences. Methods: The authors demonstrate the concept of acquisition of multiple, separate imaging volumes, where volumes can be either completely separated or nested, and are associated with predetermined imaging dose and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) characteristics. Two individual MLC sequences were established in the planning system (Eclipse, Varian Medical) to collimate the beam according to a defined inner VOI (e.g., containing a target volume under image guidance) and an outer VOI (e.g., including surrounding landmarks or organs-at-risk). MLC sequences were interleaved as a function of gantry angle to produce a reconstructed CBCT image with nested VOIs. By controlling the ratio of inner-to-outer ratio of MLC segments (and thus Monitor Units) during acquisition, the relative dose and CNR in the two volumes can be controlled. Inner-to-outer ratios of 2:1 to 6:1 were examined. Results: The concept was explored using an anatomical head phantom to assess image quality. A geometric phantom was used to quantify absolute dose and CNR values for the various sequences. The authors found that the dose in the outer VOI decreased by a functional relationship dependent on the inner-to-outer sequence ratio, while the CNR varied by the square root of dose, as expected. Conclusions: In this study the authors demonstrate flexibility in VOI CBCT by tailoring the imaging dose and CNR distribution in separate volumes within the patient anatomy. This would allow for high quality imaging of a target volume for alignment purposes, with simultaneous low dose imaging of the surrounding anatomy (e.g., for coregistration)

Leary, Del, E-mail: dleary@dal.ca [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada); Robar, James L., E-mail: james.robar@cdha.nshealth.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada)

2014-01-15

186

Pulmonary airways tree segmentation from CT examinations using adaptive volume of interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airways tree segmentation is an important step in quantitatively assessing the severity of and changes in several lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis. It can also be used in guiding bronchoscopy. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated scheme for segmenting the airways tree structure depicted on chest CT examinations. After lung volume segmentation, the scheme defines the first cylinder-like volume of interest (VOI) using a series of images depicting the trachea. The scheme then iteratively defines and adds subsequent VOIs using a region growing algorithm combined with adaptively determined thresholds in order to trace possible sections of airways located inside the combined VOI in question. The airway tree segmentation process is automatically terminated after the scheme assesses all defined VOIs in the iteratively assembled VOI list. In this preliminary study, ten CT examinations with 1.25mm section thickness and two different CT image reconstruction kernels ("bone" and "standard") were selected and used to test the proposed airways tree segmentation scheme. The experiment results showed that (1) adopting this approach affectively prevented the scheme from infiltrating into the parenchyma, (2) the proposed method reasonably accurately segmented the airways trees with lower false positive identification rate as compared with other previously reported schemes that are based on 2-D image segmentation and data analyses, and (3) the proposed adaptive, iterative threshold selection method for the region growing step in each identified VOI enables the scheme to segment the airways trees reliably to the 4th generation in this limited dataset with successful segmentation up to the 5th generation in a fraction of the airways tree branches.

Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Won Pil; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph K.; Pu, Jiantao; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

2009-02-01

187

A Semi-Automated Technique Determining the Liver Standardized Uptake Value Reference for Tumor Delineation in FDG PET-CT  

PubMed Central

Background 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) has been an essential modality in oncology. We propose a semi-automated algorithm to objectively determine liver standardized uptake value (SUV), which is used as a threshold for tumor delineation. Methods A large spherical volume of interest (VOI) was placed manually to roughly enclose the right lobe (RL) of the liver. For each voxel in this VOI, a coefficient of variation of voxel values (CVv) was calculated for neighboring voxels within a radius of d/2. The voxel with the minimum CVv was then selected, where a 30-mm spherical VOI was placed at that voxel in accordance with PERCIST criteria. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently defined 30-mm VOIs manually on 124 studies in 62 patients to generate the standard values, against which the results from the new method were compared. Results The semi-automated method was successful in determining the liver SUV that was consistent between the two physicians in all the studies (d?=?80 mm). The liver SUV threshold (mean +3 SD within 30-mm VOI) determined by the new semi-automated method (3.12±0.61) was not statistically different from those determined by the manual method (Physician-1: 3.14±0.58, Physician-2: 3.15±0.58). The semi-automated method produced tumor volumes that were not statistically different from those by experts' manual operation. Furthermore, the volume change in the two sequential studies had no statistical difference between semi-automated and manual methods. Conclusions Our semi-automated method could define the liver SUV robustly as the threshold value used for tumor volume measurements according to PERCIST. The method could avoid possible subjective bias of manual liver VOI placement and is thus expected to improve clinical performance of volume-based parameters for prediction of cancer treatment response. PMID:25162396

Hirata, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Wong, Koon-Pong; Manabe, Osamu; Surmak, Andrew; Tamaki, Nagara; Huang, Sung-Cheng

2014-01-01

188

Volume of interest-based [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET discriminates MCI converting to Alzheimer's disease from healthy controls. A European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) study  

PubMed Central

An emerging issue in neuroimaging is to assess the diagnostic reliability of PET and its application in clinical practice. We aimed at assessing the accuracy of brain FDG-PET in discriminating patients with MCI due to Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. Sixty-two patients with amnestic MCI and 109 healthy subjects recruited in five centers of the European AD Consortium were enrolled. Group analysis was performed by SPM8 to confirm metabolic differences. Discriminant analyses were then carried out using the mean FDG uptake values normalized to the cerebellum computed in 45 anatomical volumes of interest (VOIs) in each hemisphere (90 VOIs) as defined in the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) Atlas and on 12 meta-VOIs, bilaterally, obtained merging VOIs with similar anatomo-functional characteristics. Further, asymmetry indexes were calculated for both datasets. Accuracy of discrimination by a Support Vector Machine and the AAL VOIs was tested against a validated method (PALZ). At the voxel level SMP8 showed a relative hypometabolism in the bilateral precuneus, and posterior cingulate, temporo-parietal and frontal cortices. Discriminant analysis classified subjects with an accuracy ranging between .91 and .83 as a function of data organization. The best values were obtained from a subset of 6 meta-VOIs plus 6 asymmetry values reaching an area under the ROC curve of .947, significantly larger than the one obtained by the PALZ score. High accuracy in discriminating MCI converters from healthy controls was reached by a non-linear classifier based on SVM applied on predefined anatomo-functional regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetries. Data pre-processing was automated and simplified by an in-house created Matlab-based script encouraging its routine clinical use. Further validation toward nonconverter MCI patients with adequately long follow-up is needed. PMID:25610765

Pagani, M.; De Carli, F.; Morbelli, S.; Öberg, J.; Chincarini, A.; Frisoni, G.B.; Galluzzi, S.; Perneczky, R.; Drzezga, A.; van Berckel, B.N.M.; Ossenkoppele, R.; Didic, M.; Guedj, E.; Brugnolo, A.; Picco, A.; Arnaldi, D.; Ferrara, M.; Buschiazzo, A.; Sambuceti, G.; Nobili, F.

2014-01-01

189

Volume of interest-based [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET discriminates MCI converting to Alzheimer's disease from healthy controls. A European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC) study.  

PubMed

An emerging issue in neuroimaging is to assess the diagnostic reliability of PET and its application in clinical practice. We aimed at assessing the accuracy of brain FDG-PET in discriminating patients with MCI due to Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. Sixty-two patients with amnestic MCI and 109 healthy subjects recruited in five centers of the European AD Consortium were enrolled. Group analysis was performed by SPM8 to confirm metabolic differences. Discriminant analyses were then carried out using the mean FDG uptake values normalized to the cerebellum computed in 45 anatomical volumes of interest (VOIs) in each hemisphere (90 VOIs) as defined in the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) Atlas and on 12 meta-VOIs, bilaterally, obtained merging VOIs with similar anatomo-functional characteristics. Further, asymmetry indexes were calculated for both datasets. Accuracy of discrimination by a Support Vector Machine and the AAL VOIs was tested against a validated method (PALZ). At the voxel level SMP8 showed a relative hypometabolism in the bilateral precuneus, and posterior cingulate, temporo-parietal and frontal cortices. Discriminant analysis classified subjects with an accuracy ranging between .91 and .83 as a function of data organization. The best values were obtained from a subset of 6 meta-VOIs plus 6 asymmetry values reaching an area under the ROC curve of .947, significantly larger than the one obtained by the PALZ score. High accuracy in discriminating MCI converters from healthy controls was reached by a non-linear classifier based on SVM applied on predefined anatomo-functional regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetries. Data pre-processing was automated and simplified by an in-house created Matlab-based script encouraging its routine clinical use. Further validation toward nonconverter MCI patients with adequately long follow-up is needed. PMID:25610765

Pagani, M; De Carli, F; Morbelli, S; Öberg, J; Chincarini, A; Frisoni, G B; Galluzzi, S; Perneczky, R; Drzezga, A; van Berckel, B N M; Ossenkoppele, R; Didic, M; Guedj, E; Brugnolo, A; Picco, A; Arnaldi, D; Ferrara, M; Buschiazzo, A; Sambuceti, G; Nobili, F

2015-01-01

190

HEAD MIRA900 WP5.0OP2 POWER SUPPLY  

E-print Network

..4096 (2V) Vers FPGA OPTION C 105MHz OPTION B 100MHz 2.2 Vpp 0 +1.1V -1.1V 00 0000 0000 0000 01 1111 1111.7GHz DDR SDRAM 1GB cPCI Interface PICMG 2.0, R3.0 Ultra ATA 100 PMC Mezzanine COMPACT FLASH ATA slotPCI bus FPGA XC2V8000 ADC 8 voies DAC 8 voies Ext CLK Vin1 Vin2 Vin3 Vin4 Vin5 Vin6 Vin7 Vin8 Vout1 Vout2

191

Processing sequence for non-destructive inspection based on 3D terahertz images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an innovative data and image processing sequence to perform non-destructive inspection from 3D terahertz (THz) images. We develop all the steps starting from a 3D tomographic reconstruction of a sample from its radiographs acquired with a monochromatic millimetre wave imaging system. Thus an automated segmentation provides the different volumes of interest (VOI) composing the sample. Then a 3D visualization and dimensional measurements are performed on these VOI, separately, in order to provide an accurate nondestructive testing (NDT) of the studied sample. This sequence is implemented onto an unique software and validated through the analysis of different objects

Balacey, H.; Perraud, Jean-Baptiste; Bou Sleiman, J.; Guillet, Jean-Paul; Recur, B.; Mounaix, P.

2014-11-01

192

D o s s i e r Second and Third Generation Biofuels: Towards Sustainability and Competitiveness  

E-print Network

the needs of the transport sector for petroleum oils, transformation of lignocellulosic bio- mass Fractionation of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil and Impact of its Presence on a Petroleum Gas Oil Hydrotreatment A voies principales sont actuellement e´ tudie´ es pour transformer cette matie` re en carburants liquides

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

193

Fuzzy hidden Markov chains segmentation for volume determination and quantitation in PET  

E-print Network

1 Fuzzy hidden Markov chains segmentation for volume determination and quantitation in PET M. Hatt1;52(12):3467-91" DOI : 10.1088/0031-9155/52/12/010 #12;2 ABSTRACT Accurate volume of interest (VOI) estimation in PET is concerned. inserm-00150348,version1-6Apr2009 #12;3 1. Introduction Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

Aymeric Histace Traitement d Image  

E-print Network

Aymeric Histace Traitement d Image : Approche variationnelle en TI 1 "La nature agit toujours par les voies les plus courtes et les plus simples" Pierre de Fermat, 1657 #12;Aymeric Histace Plan n 1. Segmentation d'image par AV 2 #12;Aymeric Histace Plan n 1. Introduction n 2. Le problème du maître nageur n 3

Histace, Aymeric

195

UNIVERSIT DE LIGE Facult des Sciences Appliques  

E-print Network

-2010 Résumé Les techniques les plus courantes permettant de diagnostiquer les problèmes d'obstructions nasales voies nasales et ce de façon objective, rapide, non invasive et précise. Le principe par lequel il est conduit nasal d'un point de vue physiologique afin d'avoir quelques notions de vocabulaire propres au

Wolper, Pierre

196

plateforme dynamique multimodale de transport social La situation du transport dans la rgion de Montral est  

E-print Network

ensuite la redevance au conducteur. #12;Tarifs comparables Netlift Auto solo TEC Train (zone 5 AMT) 0 :: origine, destination, jonction. Google maps :: utilisation de l'API pour les calculs et données. Micro transport multimodal (auto ­ TEC ­ train­ marche) Augmenter la fidélité des usagers Partager les voies

Charette, André

197

A study of the stresses in a tapered cantilever beam due to a load applied at a distance from the end  

E-print Network

. London, 1941, VoI II, pg. 83. London~ 1941, Vol. II, pg. l. (4) The of Rlastfcft, by S. P. Tlmoehenko, McGraw-E111 Sock Co. , Sew York, 1934, Articly 64 ~ (5) P~Pltaelult1 1tby , M. M. 7 ht, Jobn Mti y ~ Sall, I London, 1941, Vol. I, pg. 364. ...

Niemeyer, Edward Rupert

1950-01-01

198

The value of animal test information in environmental control decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Value of information (VOI) analytic techniques are used to evaluate the benefit of performing animal bioassays to provide information about the cancer potency of specific chemical compounds. These tools allow the identification of the conditions in which the cost of reducing uncertainty about potency, by performing a subchronic or chronic bioassay, is justified by the benefit of having improved information

Alison C. Taylor; John S. Evans; Thomas E. McKone

1993-01-01

199

ISDA 2010, Montpellier 28-30 Juin 2010 1 LA LUTTE CONTRE LA DESERTIFICATION  

E-print Network

. This paper shows the first results of a project on participatory action research which is testing a bottom up envisager de nouvelles voies de penser et de mettre d nt. Ce -action participative qui expérimente une with a group of agro-pastoralists experimenters. Key words: Steppe, grazing, desertification, participatory

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

200

UNIVERSITE SCIENTIFIQUE ET MEDICALE DE GRENOBLE U.E.R DES SCIENCES PHARMACEUTIQUES  

E-print Network

SCIENCES PHARMACEUTIQUES Domaine de La Merci LA TRONCHE ·' Année : 1984- N° D'ORDRE :3 HETEROCYCLES DERIVES thèse sera soutenue publiquement le 23 Mars 1984- Devant la commission d'examen : C. LUU DUC Président: 1984- N° D'ORDRE :3 HETEROCYCLES DERIVES DE L'IMIDAZOLINE ET DE LA PYRIMIDINE Nouvelles voies de

Boyer, Edmond

201

ENHANCEMENT OF SPIRAMYCIN CONCENTRATION BY BROMHEXIN IN THE BOVINE NASAL SECRETIONS  

E-print Network

maladies infectieuses des voies respiratoires. Spiramycin (Suanovil') is a medium spec- trum macrolide antibiotic. It is often used for infections of gram positive cocci of the respi- ratory tract where high. It is usually accompanied by antibiotic therapy. The suggested regime is to use injections for two days

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

202

Fast and Automatic Segmentation of Ascending Aorta in MSCT Volume Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The segmentation of the ascending aorta from multislice computed tomography (MSCT) volume data is one of the critical steps for the quantitative analysis coronary artery. In this paper, a fast and automatic iterative method is presented. The method locates the volume of interest (VOI) of the ascending aorta and detects the seed point automatically. Then an automatic iterative procedure is

Shengjun Wang; Ling Fu; Yong Yue; Yan Kang; Jiren Liu

2009-01-01

203

VACCINATION OF YOUNG FOXES (VULPES VULPES, L.) AGAINST RABIES  

E-print Network

described the use of modified-live rabies vaccines given by the oral route (Winkler and Baer, 1976; DubreuilVACCINATION OF YOUNG FOXES (VULPES VULPES, L.) AGAINST RABIES: TRIALS WITH INACTIVATED VACCINE ANTIRABIQUE DE RENARDEAUX (VULPES VULPES, L.) A L'AIDE D'UN VACCIN INACTIVÃ? ADMINISTRÃ? PAR VOIES ORALE ET

Boyer, Edmond

204

ORIENTAÇÃO DE VALORES PEDAGÓGICOS DE LICENCIANDOS EM EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers' beliefs, values and implicit theories are forms of personal knowledge and they have serious implications for the teaching-learning process because model its attitudes and teaching behavior. The objective of this research was characterize preservice teachers' value orientations in physical education. The questionnaire VOI-2 was used to characterize five value orientations. For the total sample, the ecological integration was the

José Henrique; Rosineide Cristina de Freitas

205

Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 31 Seminar Volume Rules for submissions, publications, backcover  

E-print Network

(Pari L IT and HI) Hard Bound per VOI\\Hlle Paper Back per vululTle ) 9. KADAlVI BUCHO (Part I and IT) Part I Part II 20 PJNCHEN TERZOD (Part Ka, Kha, Oa and Ngf!) Hard Bound per VolulTle Paper Back KMchag (indt:x) .2 I Hu-Lan-Deb-Ther dMar-Po RED...

Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

1995-01-01

206

Assessing the Value of Information of Geophysical Data For Groundwater Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective groundwater management requires hydrogeologic models informed by various data sources. The long-term goal of our research is to develop methodologies that quantify the value of information (VOI) of geophysical data for water managers. We present an initial sensitivity study on assessing the reliability of airborne electro-magnetic (EM) data for detecting channel orientation. The reliability results are used to calculate VOI regarding decisions of artificial recharge to mitigate seawater intrusion. To demonstrate how a hydrogeologic problem can be framed in decision analysis terms, a hypothetical example is built, where water managers are considering artificial recharge to remediate seawater intrusion. Is the cost of recharge justified given the large uncertainty of subsurface heterogeneity that may interfere in a successful recharge? Thus, the decision is should recharge be performed, and if yes, where should recharge wells be located? This decision is difficult because of the large uncertainty of the aquifer heterogeneity that influences flow. The expected value of all possible outcomes to the decision without gathering additional EM information is the prior value VPRIOR. The value of information (VOI) is calculated as the expected gain in value after including the relevant new information, or the difference between the value after a free experiment (VFE) and the value prior (VPRIOR): VOI = VFE - VPRIOR Airborne EM has been used to detect confining clay layers and flow barriers. However, geophysical information rarely identifies the subsurface perfectly. Many challenges impact data quality and the resulting models (interpretation uncertainty). To evaluate how well airborne EM data detect the orientation of subsurface channel systems, 125 alternative binary, fluvial lithology models are generated, each categorized into one of three subsurface scenarios: northwest, southwest and mixed channel orientation. Using rock property relations, the lithology models are converted into electrical resistivity models for EM forward modeling, to generate time-domain EM data. Noise is added to the late times of the EM data to better represent typical airborne acquisition. Inversions are performed to obtain 125 inverted resistivity images. From the images, we calculate the angle of maximum spatial correlation at every cell, and compare it with the truth - the original lithology model. These synthetic models serve as a proxy to estimate misclassification probabilities of channel orientation from actual EM data. The misclassification probabilities are then used in the VOI calculations. Results are presented demonstrating how the reliability measure and the pumping schedule can impact VOI. Lastly, reliability and VOI are calculated and compared for land-based EM data, which has different spatial sampling and resolution than air-borne data.

Trainor, W. J.; Caers, J. K.; Mukerji, T.; Auken, E.; Knight, R. J.

2008-12-01

207

Laryngeal lymphoma derived from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.  

PubMed

Extranodal lymphomas account for as many as 40% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and most arise in the gastrointestinal tract, but other mucosal organs may be involved, especially the upper aerodigestive tract. Low-grade B-cell lymphomas arising in the gastrointestinal tract and other mucosae have been found to recapitulate the structure and cytologic features of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Histologically low-grade MALT lymphomas are characterized by centrocyte-like B-cells with a phenotype similar to that of so-called marginal zone B-cells. Tumors evolving from MALT are generally rare among lymphomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, but a few cases of laryngeal lymphomas derived from MALT have been reported. Primary MALT lymphoma of the larynx should always be considered in tumors with histopathologic features of low-grade B-cell lymphoma, or so-called pseudolymphoma. PMID:8678438

Horny, H P; Ferlito, A; Carbone, A

1996-07-01

208

Localization of site of obstruction in snorers and patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a comparison of fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy and pressure measurements.  

PubMed

The site of obstruction in the upper aerodigestive tract in 20 snorers and/or patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was determined by two methods: fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy with the Müller manoeuvre and continuous, nocturnal pressure measurements in the upper aerodigestive tract supplemented with recording of O2 saturation and oro-nasal air-flow. Identical results were obtained by both methods in only 5 (25%) of the patients, whilst in 11 (55%) obstruction was recorded in the pharynx by the pressure method which could not be demonstrated by the Müller manoeuvre. The latter method is not sufficiently accurate and should no longer be used in the pre-treatment assessment of this group of patients. Measurement of pharyngeal pressure, O2 saturation and air-flow are recommended in the diagnostic work-up. PMID:8475738

Skatvedt, O

1993-03-01

209

Cancers of the lung, head and neck on the rise: perspectives on the genotoxicity of air pollution  

PubMed Central

Outdoor air pollution has been recently classified as a class I human carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cumulative evidence from across the globe shows that polluted air is associated with increased risk of lung, head and neck, and nasopharyngeal cancers—all of which affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Importantly, these cancers have been previously linked to smoking. In this article, we review epidemiologic and experimental evidence of the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of air pollution on DNA, purportedly a key mechanism for cancer development. The alarming increase in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Asia suggests a need to focus government efforts and research on reducing air pollution, promoting clean energy, and investigating the carcinogenic effects of air pollution on humans. PMID:25011457

Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Ng, Yuen-Keng; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan

2014-01-01

210

Cancers of the lung, head and neck on the rise: perspectives on the genotoxicity of air pollution.  

PubMed

Outdoor air pollution has been recently classified as a class I human carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cumulative evidence from across the globe shows that polluted air is associated with increased risk of lung, head and neck, and nasopharyngeal cancers--all of which affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Importantly, these cancers have been previously linked to smoking. In this article, we review epidemiologic and experimental evidence of the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of air pollution on DNA, purportedly a key mechanism for cancer development. The alarming increase in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Asia suggests a need to focus government efforts and research on reducing air pollution, promoting clean energy, and investigating the carcinogenic effects of air pollution on humans. PMID:25011457

Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Ng, Yuen-Keng; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan

2014-10-01

211

Lingual tonsil hypertrophy causing severe dysphagia: treatment with plasma-mediated radiofrequency-based ablation (Coblation).  

PubMed

Lingual tonsil hypertrophy is an uncommon cause of upper aerodigestive tract pathology. We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who developed severe dysphagia and subsequent weight loss as a result of lingual tonsil hypertrophy. He was successfully treated with plasma-mediated radiofrequency-based ablation (Coblation). In the past, traditional surgical procedures for lingual tonsil hypertrophy were difficult to perform and recovery was difficult, but the introduction of Coblation has made lingual tonsillectomy much easier. PMID:20229480

Mowry, Sarah E; Ament, Marvin; Shapiro, Nina L

2010-03-01

212

Colon interposition in a patient with total postcricoid stenosis after caustic ingestion and preservation of full laryngeal function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caustic burns of the upper aerodigestive tract continue to be a significant clinical problem. However, the available literature\\u000a uncommonly mentions changes affecting the larynx. We could find only one publication in which four cases of high hypopharyngeal\\u000a stenosis were described in detail and where the functional outcome of the laryngeal function was stated as partially saved.\\u000a We describe here a

Mieke B. J. Moerman; Kathy G. W. Bouche; Xavier Branquaer; Hubert F. E. Vermeersch

2000-01-01

213

DCTD Program Accomplishments 2010  

Cancer.gov

Barbara A. Conley, M.D., is the newly appointed Associate Director of the Cancer Diagnosis Program (CDP). She is an NCI veteran who has held previous positions at the Institute. From 1997 to 2004, she participated in several key programs within the NCI, including Senior Investigator in the Clinical Investigations Branch of CTEP and Chief of the CDP Diagnostics Research Branch, as well as Head, Aerodigestive Diseases, in the intramural medicine branch.

214

Lipoid proteinosis (Urbach-Wiethe disease) in two siblings  

PubMed Central

Lipoid proteinosis is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by deposition of hyaline material in the skin and the upper aerodigestive tract. Hoarseness of voice occurs very early in life and airway obstruction may occur. Characteristic skin lesions include multiple brown atrophic scars over face and distal extremities, beaded papules over the margins of the eyelids and verrucous nodules over the friction bearing areas (elbows, knees). The overall prognosis is good. There is no definitive treatment. PMID:25593816

Thaddanee, Rekha; Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar; Pandya, Purna; Chaturvedi, Mayank

2014-01-01

215

Lipoid proteinosis (Urbach-Wiethe disease) in two siblings.  

PubMed

Lipoid proteinosis is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by deposition of hyaline material in the skin and the upper aerodigestive tract. Hoarseness of voice occurs very early in life and airway obstruction may occur. Characteristic skin lesions include multiple brown atrophic scars over face and distal extremities, beaded papules over the margins of the eyelids and verrucous nodules over the friction bearing areas (elbows, knees). The overall prognosis is good. There is no definitive treatment. PMID:25593816

Thaddanee, Rekha; Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar; Pandya, Purna; Chaturvedi, Mayank

2014-12-01

216

DCTD — Cancer Diagnosis Program (CDP)  

Cancer.gov

Barbara A. Conley, M.D., is Associate Director of the Cancer Diagnosis Program (CDP) in the Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD), National Cancer Institute. She is also a member of the Division’s Experimental Therapeutics Clinic. Her previous positions at the Institute included Chief of the CDP Diagnostics Research Branch, Senior Investigator in the Cancer Therapy and Evaluation Program Clinical Investigations Branch, and Head, Aerodigestive Diseases in the intramural Medicine Branch.

217

Disorders of Cranial Nerves IX and X  

PubMed Central

The glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves mediate the complex interplay between the many functions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Defects may occur anywhere from the brainstem to the peripheral nerve and can result in significant impairment in speech, swallowing, and breathing. Multiple etiologies can produce symptoms. This review will broadly examine the normal functions, clinical examination, and various pathologies of cranial nerves IX and X. PMID:19214937

Erman, Audrey B.; Kejner, Alexandra E.; Hogikyan, Norman D.; Feldman, Eva L.

2014-01-01

218

Long-term Outcomes of Reversal of Laryngotracheal Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of the reversal of laryngotracheal separation (LTS) in patients\\u000a who underwent extensive resection of tumors located in the upper aerodigestive tract. We performed a retrospective analysis\\u000a of the medical records of eight patients who had LTS reversal. The operation was successful in six patients who were followed\\u000a up for

Orlando B. ZocrattoPaulo; Paulo R. Savassi-Rocha; Rafael M. Paixão

2011-01-01

219

Chronotherapy for human solid tumors other than colorectal.  

PubMed

Available data regarding the application of chronobiological concepts to the medical treatment of various human solid tumors are reviewed. In the majority of reported trials, an improvement of therapeutic index has been observed with an increase in overall drug dose intensities, despite reduced overall toxicity and an excellent level of tumor response and survival. This assessment was obvious for ovarian, lung (non small cell), renal cell, pancreas, breast and upper aerodigestive tract carcinomas. PMID:8726800

Focan, C

1995-01-01

220

Demonstration of dual resolution cone beam CT technique with an a-Si/a-Se flat panel detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we demonstrated volume of interest (VOI) scanning technique in dual resolution cone beam CT (CBCT) breast imaging. A paraffin cylinder with a diameter of 130 mm was used to simulate breast. A wire phantom with a diameter of 15 mm was constructed as VOI. The phantom contains 8 vertically aluminum wires of various diameters surrounded by paraffin. The wire phantom was inserted into the breast phantom 45 mm away from the center. The phantoms were first scanned with a bench top experimental CBCT system at a low exposure level with the detector operated in a binning mode. Then a VOI mask was placed between the x-ray source and the phantoms. The phantoms were scanned again with high exposure level and the detector operated in the non-binning mode. The VOI mask was moved to follow the wire phantom during the whole CT scan to limit the exposures to cover the VOI only. The low resolution and high resolution images were then combined together for reconstruction with FDK algorithm. Visual review of the regular and dual resolution CBCT images shows that thinnest resolvable wire in the dual resolution CBCT images has a diameter of 152 ?m. The thinnest resolvable wire in regular CBCT images has a diameter of 254 ?m. The estimated dose to the phantom for dual resolution CBCT is 123% of that with regular CBCT at low exposure level. The dual resolution CBCT technique greatly enhances the CT image quality while still remains a low exposure level to the phantom.

Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Chen, Lingyun; Lai, Chao-Jen; Liu, Xinming; Han, Tao; Yi, Ying; You, Zhicheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

2010-04-01

221

RapidArc treatment verification in 3D using polymer gel dosimetry and Monte Carlo simulation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to verify the advanced inhomogeneous dose distribution produced by a volumetric arc therapy technique (RapidArc) using 3D gel measurements and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The TPS (treatment planning system)-calculated dose distribution was compared with gel measurements and MC simulations, thus investigating any discrepancy between the planned dose delivery and the actual delivery. Additionally, the reproducibility of the delivery was investigated using repeated gel measurements. A prostate treatment plan was delivered to a 1.3 liter nPAG gel phantom using one single arc rotation and a target dose of 3.3 Gy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the gel was carried out using a 1.5 T scanner. The MC dose distributions were calculated using the VIMC-Arc code. The relative absorbed dose differences were calculated voxel-by-voxel, within the volume enclosed by the 90% isodose surface (VOI(90)), for the TPS versus gel and TPS versus MC. The differences between the verification methods, MC versus gel, and between two repeated gel measurements were investigated in the same way. For all volume comparisons, the mean value was within 1% and the standard deviation of the differences was within 2.5% (1SD). A 3D gamma analysis between the dose matrices were carried out using gamma criteria 3%/3 mm and 5%/5 mm (% dose difference and mm distance to agreement) within the volume enclosed by the 50% isodose surface (VOI(50)) and the 90% isodose surface (VOI(90)), respectively. All comparisons resulted in very high pass rates. More than 95% of the TPS points were within 3%/3 mm of both the gel measurement and MC simulation, both inside VOI(50) and VOI(90). Additionally, the repeated gel measurements showed excellent consistency, indicating reproducible delivery. Using MC simulations and gel measurements, this verification study successfully demonstrated that the RapidArc plan was both accurately calculated and delivered as planned. PMID:20679702

Ceberg, Sofie; Gagne, Isabelle; Gustafsson, Helen; Scherman, Jonas Bengtsson; Korreman, Stine S; Kjaer-Kristoffersen, Flemming; Hilts, Michelle; Bäck, Sven A J

2010-09-01

222

Epidurale neuroplastiek of Racz-procedure en caudale epiduroscopie als behandeling voor het Failed Back Surgery Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Radiculaire pijn is een complex probleem waarbij adhesies een belangrijke rol spelen. Conservatieve behandelingen hebben vaak\\u000a een teleurstellend resultaat. Zowel de Racz-procedure als de caudale epiduroscopie is erop gericht epidurale adhesies te verwijderen\\u000a en gericht geneesmiddelen in de epidurale ruimte achter te laten. Beide technieken zijn nog onvoldoende onderzocht om tot\\u000a een uitspraak te komen of de één superieur is

J. W. Kallewaard

223

Evaluation of systems specified to work at a high level of reliability  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Systems Specified. to Mork at a High Level of Reliability. (August 1974) I Luc Perrouin, Ingenieur civil des Telecommunications Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. H. 0. Hartley In order to evaluate the reliability of a system to a high... of my committee: Dr. A. M. Kshirsagar and. Dr, L. F, Guseman. I would s1so like to acknowledge Monsieur Lefrsngois, I I Director of the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications who together with Dr. Hartley made this experience possible...

Perrouin, Luc Victor

1974-01-01

224

Universite de Nice Master 2 Enseignement de mathematiques 2012-2013  

E-print Network

´eelle ou complexe et o`u (an) est une suite de nombres r´eels ou complexes. 1.1 Rayon de convergence D´efinition 1.1 Soit anzn une s´erie enti`ere. Le rayon de convergence de cette s´erie est la borne sup´erieure de l'ensemble des t 0 tels que la suite (|an|tn)n est born´ee. Remarque(s) 1.2 Le rayon de

Douai, Antoine

225

Universite de NICE Master 1 Enseignement de mathematiques 2011-2012  

E-print Network

fois que l'on connait son rayon de convergence. 1.1 Rayon de convergence Le rayon de convergence caract rayon de convergence de cette s´erie est la borne sup´erieure de l'ensemble des t 0 tels que la suite (|an|tn)n est born´ee. Remarque(s) 1.2 Le rayon de convergence d'une s´erie enti`ere peut ^etre ´egal

Douai, Antoine

226

Universite de NICE Master 1 Enseignement de mathematiques 2012-2013  

E-print Network

fois que l'on connait son rayon de convergence. 1.1 Rayon de convergence Le rayon de convergence caract rayon de convergence de cette s´erie est la borne sup´erieure de l'ensemble des t 0 tels que la suite (|an|tn)n est born´ee. Remarque(s) 1.2 Le rayon de convergence d'une s´erie enti`ere peut ^etre ´egal

Douai, Antoine

227

A study of the properties of functional parameters of spatial processes for spectral estimation  

E-print Network

Mathematiques, Unversite d'Aix-Marseille, Marseille, France; Eleve Ingenieur, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications de Paris, France, Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. H. J. Newton This study deals mainly with a method known as Kriging... of the covariogram and its estimators for spectral domain estimation. It also provides a computer program to perform Kriging. To my parents, my friends and all those who supported me during this work. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Dr...

Fayolle, Jean-Michel

1992-01-01

228

Wavelet-based progressive image and video coding using trellis-coded space-frequency quantization  

E-print Network

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Zixiang Xiong (Chair of Committee) Melvi R. Mercer (Member) itin H. Vaidya (Member) stas N. Georghiades (Member) anan Singh (Head... Superieure d'Ingenieurs Electriciens de Grenoble, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, France Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Zixiang Xiong Images and video are a very challenging topic in multimedia applications. Recently, with the explosion...

Seigneurbieux, Pierre

2000-01-01

229

Completeness map evaluation demonstrated with candidate next-generation cardiac CT architectures  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In this report, the authors introduce the general concept of the completeness map, as a means to evaluate the completeness of data acquired by a given CT system design (architecture and scan mode). They illustrate the utility of completeness map by applying the completeness map concept to a number of candidate CT system designs, as part of a study to advance the state-of-the-art in cardiac CT. Methods: In order to optimally reconstruct a point within a volume of interest (VOI), the Radon transform on all possible planes through that point should be measured. The authors quantified the extent to which this ideal condition is satisfied for the entire image volume. They first determined a Radon completeness number for each point in the VOI, as the percentage of possible planes that is actually measured. A completeness map is then defined as a 3D matrix of the completeness numbers for the entire VOI. The authors proposed algorithms to analyze the projection datasets in Radon space and compute the completeness number for a fixed point and apply these algorithms to various architectures and scan modes that they are evaluating. In this report, the authors consider four selected candidate architectures, operating with different scan modes, for a total of five system design alternatives. Each of these alternatives is evaluated using completeness map. Results: If the detector size and cone angle are large enough to cover the entire cardiac VOI, a single-source circular scan can have ?99% completeness over the entire VOI. However, only the central z-slice can be exactly reconstructed, which corresponds to 100% completeness. For a typical single-source architecture, if the detector is limited to an axial dimension of 40 mm, a helical scan needs about five rotations to form an exact reconstruction region covering the cardiac VOI, while a triple-source helical scan only requires two rotations, leading to a 2.5x improvement in temporal resolution. If the source and detector of an inverse-geometry (IGCT) system have the same axial extent, and the spacing of source points in the axial and transaxial directions is sufficiently small, the IGCT can also form an exact reconstruction region for the cardiac VOI. If the VOI can be covered by the x-ray beam in any view, a composite-circling scan can generate an exact reconstruction region covering the VOI. Conclusions: The completeness map evaluation provides useful information for selecting the next-generation cardiac CT system design. The proposed completeness map method provides a practical tool for analyzing complex scanning trajectories, where the theoretical image quality for some complex system designs is impossible to predict, without yet-undeveloped reconstruction algorithms. PMID:22559610

Liu, Baodong; Bennett, James; Wang, Ge; De Man, Bruno; Zeng, Kai; Yin, Zhye; Fitzgerald, Paul; Yu, Hengyong

2012-01-01

230

The impact of 3D volume of interest definition on accuracy and precision of activity estimation in quantitative SPECT and planar processing methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and precise estimation of organ activities is essential for treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. We have previously evaluated the impact of processing methodology, statistical noise and variability in activity distribution and anatomy on the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates obtained with quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) and planar (QPlanar) processing. Another important factor impacting the accuracy and precision of organ activity estimates is accuracy of and variability in the definition of organ regions of interest (ROI) or volumes of interest (VOI). The goal of this work was thus to systematically study the effects of VOI definition on the reliability of activity estimates. To this end, we performed Monte Carlo simulation studies using randomly perturbed and shifted VOIs to assess the impact on organ activity estimates. The 3D NCAT phantom was used with activities that modeled clinically observed 111In ibritumomab tiuxetan distributions. In order to study the errors resulting from misdefinitions due to manual segmentation errors, VOIs of the liver and left kidney were first manually defined. Each control point was then randomly perturbed to one of the nearest or next-nearest voxels in three ways: with no, inward or outward directional bias, resulting in random perturbation, erosion or dilation, respectively, of the VOIs. In order to study the errors resulting from the misregistration of VOIs, as would happen, e.g. in the case where the VOIs were defined using a misregistered anatomical image, the reconstructed SPECT images or projections were shifted by amounts ranging from -1 to 1 voxels in increments of with 0.1 voxels in both the transaxial and axial directions. The activity estimates from the shifted reconstructions or projections were compared to those from the originals, and average errors were computed for the QSPECT and QPlanar methods, respectively. For misregistration, errors in organ activity estimations were linear in the shift for both the QSPECT and QPlanar methods. QPlanar was less sensitive to object definition perturbations than QSPECT, especially for dilation and erosion cases. Up to 1 voxel misregistration or misdefinition resulted in up to 8% error in organ activity estimates, with the largest errors for small or low uptake organs. Both types of VOI definition errors produced larger errors in activity estimates for a small and low uptake organs (i.e. -7.5% to 5.3% for the left kidney) than for a large and high uptake organ (i.e. -2.9% to 2.1% for the liver). We observed that misregistration generally had larger effects than misdefinition, with errors ranging from -7.2% to 8.4%. The different imaging methods evaluated responded differently to the errors from misregistration and misdefinition. We found that QSPECT was more sensitive to misdefinition errors, but less sensitive to misregistration errors, as compared to the QPlanar method. Thus, sensitivity to VOI definition errors should be an important criterion in evaluating quantitative imaging methods.

He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.

2010-06-01

231

Computerized detection of diffuse lung disease in MDCT: the usefulness of statistical texture features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate detection of diffuse lung disease is an important step for computerized diagnosis and quantification of this disease. It is also a difficult clinical task for radiologists. We developed a computerized scheme to assist radiologists in the detection of diffuse lung disease in multi-detector computed tomography (CT). Two radiologists selected 31 normal and 37 abnormal CT scans with ground glass opacity, reticular, honeycombing and nodular disease patterns based on clinical reports. The abnormal cases in our database must contain at least an abnormal area with a severity of moderate or severe level that was subjectively rated by the radiologists. Because statistical texture features may lack the power to distinguish a nodular pattern from a normal pattern, the abnormal cases that contain only a nodular pattern were excluded. The areas that included specific abnormal patterns in the selected CT images were then delineated as reference standards by an expert chest radiologist. The lungs were first segmented in each slice by use of a thresholding technique, and then divided into contiguous volumes of interest (VOIs) with a 64 × 64 × 64 matrix size. For each VOI, we determined and employed statistical texture features, such as run-length and co-occurrence matrix features, to distinguish abnormal from normal lung parenchyma. In particular, we developed new run-length texture features with clear physical meanings to considerably improve the accuracy of our detection scheme. A quadratic classifier was employed for distinguishing between normal and abnormal VOIs by the use of a leave-one-case-out validation scheme. A rule-based criterion was employed to further determine whether a case was normal or abnormal. We investigated the impact of new and conventional texture features, VOI size and the dimensionality for regions of interest on detecting diffuse lung disease. When we employed new texture features for 3D VOIs of 64 × 64 × 64 voxels, our system achieved the highest performance level: a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 90% for the detection of abnormal VOIs, and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 90% for the detection of abnormal cases. Our computerized scheme would be useful for assisting radiologists in the diagnosis of diffuse lung disease.

Wang, Jiahui; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio; Li, Qiang

2009-11-01

232

Prostate MRI segmentation using learned semantic knowledge and graph cuts.  

PubMed

We propose a fully automated method for prostate segmentation using random forests (RFs) and graph cuts. A volume of interest (VOI) is automatically selected using supervoxel segmentation, and its subsequent classification using image features and RF classifiers. The VOIs probability map is generated using image and context features, and a second set of RF classifiers. The negative log-likelihood of the probability maps acts as the penalty cost in a second-order Markov random field cost function. Semantic information from the second set of RF classifiers is an important measure of each feature to the classification task, which contributes to formulating the smoothness cost. The cost function is optimized using graph cuts to get the final segmentation of the prostate. With average dice metric (DM) (on the training set) and DM (on the test set), our experimental results show that inclusion of the context and semantic information contributes to higher segmentation accuracy than other methods. PMID:24235297

Mahapatra, Dwarikanath; Buhmann, Joachim M

2014-03-01

233

Résorption des déséquilibres de l'économie française : une exploration à l'horizon 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Résorption des déséquilibres de l'économie française : une exploration à l'horizon 2001 . L'élaboration de scénarios à moyen terme permet traditionnellement d'identifier les voies de résolution, ou les risques d'aggravation, des déséquilibres d'une économie. L'interprétation des évolutions récentes de l'économie française montre à quel point les comportements de demande des agents privés semblent avoir subi des modifications substantielles depuis

Eric Dubois; Sandrine Duchêne; Alain Jacquot; Xavier Bonnet; Annabelle Mourougane

1996-01-01

234

A novel scheme for detection of diffuse lung disease in MDCT by use of statistical texture features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful development of high performance computer-aided-diagnostic systems has potential to assist radiologists in the detection and diagnosis of diffuse lung disease. We developed in this study an automated scheme for the detection of diffuse lung disease on multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). Our database consisted of 68 CT scans, which included 31 normal and 37 abnormal cases with three kinds of abnormal patterns, i.e., ground glass opacity, reticular, and honeycombing. Two radiologists first selected the CT scans with abnormal patterns based on clinical reports. The areas that included specific abnormal patterns in the selected CT images were then delineated as reference standards by an expert chest radiologist. To detect abnormal cases with diffuse lung disease, the lungs were first segmented from the background in each slice by use of a texture analysis technique, and then divided into contiguous volumes of interest (VOIs) with a 64×64×64 matrix size. For each VOI, we calculated many statistical texture features, including the mean and standard deviation of CT values, features determined from the run length matrix, and features from the co-occurrence matrix. A quadratic classifier was employed for distinguishing between normal and abnormal VOIs by use of a leave-one-case-out validation scheme. A rule-based criterion was employed to further determine whether a case was normal or abnormal. For the detection of abnormal VOIs, our CAD system achieved a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 90%. For the detection of abnormal cases, it achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 90%. This preliminary study indicates that our CAD system would be useful for the detection of diffuse lung disease.

Wang, Jiahui; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio; Li, Qiang

2009-02-01

235

Warping of a computerized 3-D atlas to match brain image volumes for quantitative neuroanatomical and functional analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the implementation, experience and preliminary results obtained with a 3-D computerized brain atlas for topographical and functional analysis of brain sub-regions. A volume-of-interest (VOI) atlas was produced by manual contouring on 64 adjacent 2 mm-thick MRI slices to yield 60 brain structures in each hemisphere which could be adjusted, originally by global affine transformation or local interactive adjustments,

Alan C. Evans; Weiqian Dai; D. L. Collins; Peter Neelin; Sean Marrett

1991-01-01

236

A New 2.5D Representation for Lymph Node Detection using Random Sets of Deep Convolutional Neural Network Observations  

PubMed Central

Automated Lymph Node (LN) detection is an important clinical diagnostic task but very challenging due to the low contrast of surrounding structures in Computed Tomography (CT) and to their varying sizes, poses, shapes and sparsely distributed locations. State-of-the-art studies show the performance range of 52.9% sensitivity at 3.1 false-positives per volume (FP/vol.), or 60.9% at 6.1 FP/vol. for mediastinal LN, by one-shot boosting on 3D HAAR features. In this paper, we first operate a preliminary candidate generation stage, towards ~100% sensitivity at the cost of high FP levels (~40 per patient), to harvest volumes of interest (VOI). Our 2.5D approach consequently decomposes any 3D VOI by resampling 2D reformatted orthogonal views N times, via scale, random translations, and rotations with respect to the VOI centroid coordinates. These random views are then used to train a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier. In testing, the CNN is employed to assign LN probabilities for all N random views that can be simply averaged (as a set) to compute the final classification probability per VOI. We validate the approach on two datasets: 90 CT volumes with 388 mediastinal LNs and 86 patients with 595 abdominal LNs. We achieve sensitivities of 70%/83% at 3 FP/vol. and 84%/90% at 6 FP/vol. in mediastinum and abdomen respectively, which drastically improves over the previous state-of-the-art work. PMID:25333158

Lu, Le; Seff, Ari; Cherry, Kevin M.; Hoffman, Joanne; Wang, Shijun; Liu, Jiamin; Turkbey, Evrim; Summers, Ronald M.

2015-01-01

237

DbitVisu est un banc exprimental pour les T.P. en Mcanique des Fluides. Il a t ralis avec les objectifs suivants  

E-print Network

/s (conduite droite PVC DN 53,6mm) Cuve principale 600 L et cuve pesée 200 L Conduites collées GF PVC-U PN16 �ext 63 mm, DN 53,6 mm. Robinets à bille GF PVC-U type 546 �63 Vanne 3 voies pneumatique Valpes d63 : manchons union PVC-U d63 (GF 721 510 111) - Prises de pression et purges : trous G1/4, connectique rapide

238

Quantification of Tumor Vessels in Glioblastoma Patients Using Time-of-Flight Angiography at 7 Tesla: A Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze if tumor vessels can be visualized, segmented and quantified in glioblastoma patients with time of flight (ToF) angiography at 7 Tesla and multiscale vessel enhancement filtering. Materials and Methods Twelve patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma were examined with ToF angiography (TR?=?15 ms, TE?=?4.8 ms, flip angle?=?15°, FOV?=?160×210 mm2, voxel size: 0.31×0.31×0.40 mm3) on a whole-body 7 T MR system. A volume of interest (VOI) was placed within the border of the contrast enhancing part on T1-weighted images of the glioblastoma and a reference VOI was placed in the non-affected contralateral white matter. Automated segmentation and quantification of vessels within the two VOIs was achieved using multiscale vessel enhancement filtering in ImageJ. Results Tumor vessels were clearly visible in all patients. When comparing tumor and the reference VOI, total vessel surface (45.3±13.9 mm2 vs. 29.0±21.0 mm2 (p<0.035)) and number of branches (3.5±1.8 vs. 1.0±0.6 (p<0.001) per cubic centimeter were significantly higher, while mean vessel branch length was significantly lower (3.8±1.5 mm vs 7.2±2.8 mm (p<0.001)) in the tumor. Discussion ToF angiography at 7-Tesla MRI enables characterization and quantification of the internal vascular morphology of glioblastoma and may be used for the evaluation of therapy response within future studies. PMID:25415327

Radbruch, Alexander; Eidel, Oliver; Wiestler, Benedikt; Paech, Daniel; Burth, Sina; Kickingereder, Philipp; Nowosielski, Martha; Bäumer, Philipp; Wick, Wolfgang; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Bendszus, Martin; Ladd, Mark; Nagel, Armin Michael; Heiland, Sabine

2014-01-01

239

Degraded water suppression in small volume 1 H MRS due to localised shimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object  High quality, artifact free, 1H MRS require a homogeneous magnetic field over the volume of interest (VOI) and an effective global water suppression (WS).\\u000a However, the shim coils act globally and, hence, affect the resonance frequency over the entire object, making the frequency\\u000a selective WS spatially selective. Unsuppressed water signal may cause spurious echo artifacts. Aim: Study and visualise the

Åsa Carlsson; Maria Ljungberg; Göran Starck; Eva Forssell-Aronsson

2011-01-01

240

charnay@in2p3.fr Mai 2009 2  

E-print Network

/s sur le réseau. 1 Châssis MSE 8000 CODIAN 2 cartes MCU SD de 40 voies chacune 1 carte gateway ISDN version du logiciel du MSE 8000 permettant de banaliser les cartes MCU (avant l'été ?) 90 accès en ou xAMP) Indépendant de la plate-forme matériel (a fonctionné avec le MCU ACCOR) Le point d

van Tiggelen, Bart

241

Rôle du microbiote dans les maladies inflammatoires de l’intestin  

Microsoft Academic Search

RésuméLa maladie de Crohn et la rectocolite ulcéro-hémorragique sont des affections inflammatoires des voies digestives et représentent ensemble un spectre de maladies appelées maladies inflammatoires chroniques de l’intestin (MICI). L’intestin humain est colonisé par un microbiote commensal à des concentrations excédant le nombre de cellules de la totalité de l’organisme. Dans des conditions physiologiques normales, il existe une interaction entre

Irit Chermesh; Raanan Shamir

2009-01-01

242

Les multiples emplois ?imatinib dans les tumeurs solides  

Microsoft Academic Search

?imatinib mésylate (STI-571) est un inhibiteur sélectif des tyrosines kinases KIT, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptors (PDGFRs), BCR-ABL, ABL, c-FMS et ARG (1). ?imatinib est une petite molécule orale qui agit par inhibition compétitive avec le site de fixation de ?ATP dans la kinase,\\u000a inhibant de ce fait ?activité de la kinase et bloquant ?activation des voies de la transduction du

F. Duffaud; A. Le Cesne

243

Apnée lors d'une intubation difficile prévisible pour un volumineux kyste laryngé  

PubMed Central

Les auteurs présentent un cas d'obstruction aiguë des voies aériennes supérieures au moment de la tentative d'une intubation endotrachéale difficile prévisible en rapport avec un volumineux kyste du larynx. A travers ce cas clinique, les auteurs insistent sur la coopération étroite entre médecin anesthésiste et chirurgien ORL en termes d’échanges d'informations pré-opératoires, en particulier les données de la fibroscopie et la tomodensitométrie.

Zalagh, Mohammed; Hachimi, Moulay Ahmed; Boukhari, Ali; Attifi, Hicham; Hmidi, Mounir; Messary, Abdelhamid

2014-01-01

244

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplkment au no 8, Tome 39, aozit 1978, page C6-391 F.J. Cadieu and M. Chencinski  

E-print Network

and M. Chencinski Department of Physisc, w e n s College of Cuny, Flushing, New York 11367, U.S.A. R6sumb.- Diverses phases 1 haut Tc dgrivant de NbsGe par substitution d'blbments de transition voi- sins, Mo, Ti, Zr ont 6tb synth6tis6e.s par "sputtering" sur substrat chauffb. Le changement de Tc est relie

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

245

Cardiac Imaging Using a Four-Segment Slant-Hole Collimator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is to evaluate four-segment slant-hole (FSSH) SPECT for cardiac imaging. FSSH is a slant-hole collimator that is divided into four segments and arranged such that the photons from the volume of interest (VOI) are projected four times for every location of the detector. These multiple projections help to improve the sensitivity of the photons

G. Bal; E. V. R. DiBella; G. T. Gullberg; G. L. Zeng

2006-01-01

246

A new 2.5D representation for lymph node detection using random sets of deep convolutional neural network observations.  

PubMed

Automated Lymph Node (LN) detection is an important clinical diagnostic task but very challenging due to the low contrast of surrounding structures in Computed Tomography (CT) and to their varying sizes, poses, shapes and sparsely distributed locations. State-of-the-art studies show the performance range of 52.9% sensitivity at 3.1 false-positives per volume (FP/vol.), or 60.9% at 6.1 FP/vol. for mediastinal LN, by one-shot boosting on 3D HAAR features. In this paper, we first operate a preliminary candidate generation stage, towards -100% sensitivity at the cost of high FP levels (-40 per patient), to harvest volumes of interest (VOI). Our 2.5D approach consequently decomposes any 3D VOI by resampling 2D reformatted orthogonal views N times, via scale, random translations, and rotations with respect to the VOI centroid coordinates. These random views are then used to train a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier. In testing, the CNN is employed to assign LN probabilities for all N random views that can be simply averaged (as a set) to compute the final classification probability per VOI. We validate the approach on two datasets: 90 CT volumes with 388 mediastinal LNs and 86 patients with 595 abdominal LNs. We achieve sensitivities of 70%/83% at 3 FP/vol. and 84%/90% at 6 FP/vol. in mediastinum and abdomen respectively, which drastically improves over the previous state-of-the-art work. PMID:25333158

Roth, Holger R; Lu, Le; Seff, Ari; Cherry, Kevin M; Hoffman, Joanne; Wang, Shijun; Liu, Jiamin; Turkbey, Evrim; Summers, Ronald M

2014-01-01

247

Applied Use Value of Scientific Information for Management of Ecosystem Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey has developed and applied methods for quantifying the value of scientific information (VOI) that are based on the applied use value of the information. In particular the applied use value of U.S. Geological Survey information often includes efficient management of ecosystem services. The economic nature of U.S. Geological Survey scientific information is largely equivalent to that of any information, but we focus application of our VOI quantification methods on the information products provided freely to the public by the U.S. Geological Survey. We describe VOI economics in general and illustrate by referring to previous studies that use the evolving applied use value methods, which includes examples of the siting of landfills in Louden County, the mineral exploration efficiencies of finer resolution geologic maps in Canada, and improved agricultural production and groundwater protection in Eastern Iowa possible with Landsat moderate resolution satellite imagery. Finally, we describe the adaptation of the applied use value method to the case of streamgage information used to improve the efficiency of water markets in New Mexico.

Raunikar, R. P.; Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R.; Mishra, S.

2012-12-01

248

Infected Internal Jugular Vein Thrombus in a Case of Infected Arterio-Venous Fistula for Dialysis Access  

PubMed Central

Infected internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombus is rare and is sometimes seen in association with jugular vein catheterization and rarely with suppurative upper aero-digestive tract infection. We describe a very rare association of left Infected Internal jugular vein thrombus with an infected arterio-venous fistula in the left elbow region created for dialysis access in a renal failure patient. The infected arterio-venous fistula was addressed surgically by excision and a reverse saphenous vein graft was placed between proximal and distal brachial artery just above it’s bifurcation. The patient was put on i.v Clindamycin and Metronidazole for six weeks. Patient recovered uneventfully. PMID:25298841

Chakrabart, Ushnish; Mazumder, Pinaki; Pal, Madhusudan; Dasbaksi, Kallol; Mukherjee, Plaban

2014-01-01

249

Pulmonary patch repair of tracheobronchial necrosis with perforation secondary to caustic ingestion.  

PubMed

Corrosive aerodigestive injury complicated by tracheobronchial necrosis is a rare complication after caustic ingestion that carries a high risk of mortality and morbidity. If left untreated, tracheobronchial necrosis results in perforation, mediastinitis, and death. Pulmonary patch repair is a safe, effective, and easily performed surgical technique for the treatment of tracheobronchial necrosis with perforation. Frequent endoscopic surveillance leads to early diagnosis and prompt operative management to prevent significant morbidity. We describe a pulmonary patch repair of a patient who had stage 3b necrosis of the esophagus and the stomach with tracheobronchial necrosis and perforation after caustic ingestion. PMID:24882314

Chiba, Shintaro; Brichkov, Igor

2014-06-01

250

Rhinolith in the fossa of Rosenmüller – a hidden stone  

PubMed Central

This is a case report of an 80-year-old woman who presented to the ENT services with multiple non-specific upper aerodigestive tract symptoms. Despite extensive investigation and treatment, her symptoms remained unalleviated with significant impact on the psychological morbidity. During a routine flexible nasoendoscopy for worsening globus pharnygis, a mass was noted in the right Rosenmüller's fossa, where the Eustachian tube leaves the lateral wall of the nasopharynx. A CT scan showed this to be a 10 mm calcified entity within the right Eustachian tube. It was subsequently removed under local anaesthesia providing much relief to the patient. Histology showed this mass to be a rhinolith. PMID:22715230

Shilston, J; Foo, S H; Oko, M

2011-01-01

251

Impact of partial volume effect correction on cerebral ?-amyloid imaging in APP-Swe mice using [(18)F]-florbetaben PET.  

PubMed

We previously investigated the progression of ?-amyloid deposition in brain of mice over-expressing amyloid-precursor protein (APP-Swe), a model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in a longitudinal PET study with the novel ?-amyloid tracer [(18)F]-florbetaben. There were certain discrepancies between PET and autoradiographic findings, which seemed to arise from partial volume effects (PVE). Since this phenomenon can lead to bias, most especially in the quantitation of brain microPET studies of mice, we aimed in the present study to investigate the magnitude of PVE on [(18)F]-florbetaben quantitation in murine brain, and to establish and validate a useful correction method (PVEC). Phantom studies with solutions of known radioactivity concentration were performed to measure the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) resolution of the Siemens Inveon DPET and to validate a volume-of-interest (VOI)-based PVEC algorithm. Several VOI-brain-masks were applied to perform in vivo PVEC on [(18)F]-florbetaben data from C57BL/6(N=6) mice, while uncorrected and PVE-corrected data were cross-validated with gamma counting and autoradiography. Next, PVEC was performed on longitudinal PET data set consisting of 43 PET scans in APP-Swe (13-20months) and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice using the previously defined masks. VOI-based cortex-to-cerebellum ratios (SUVR) were compared for uncorrected and PVE-corrected results. Brains from a subset of transgenic mice were ultimately examined by autoradiography ex vivo and histochemistry in vitro as gold standard assessments, and compared to VOI-based PET results. The phantom study indicated a FWHM of 1.72mm. Applying a VOI-brain-mask including extracerebral regions gave robust PVEC, with increased precision of the SUVR results. Cortical SUVR increased with age in APP-Swe mice compared to baseline measurements (16months: +5.5%, p<0.005; 20months: +15.5%, p<0.05) with uncorrected data, and to a substantially greater extent with PVEC (16months: +12.2% p<0.005; 20months: +36.4% p<0.05). WT animals showed no binding changes, irrespective of PVEC. Relative to autoradiographic results, the error [%] for uncorrected cortical SUVR was 18.9% for native PET data, and declined to 4.8% upon PVEC, in high correlation with histochemistry results. We calculate that PVEC increases by 10% statistical power for detecting altered [(18)F]-florbetaben uptake in aging APP-Swe mice in planned studies of disease modifying treatments on amyloidogenesis. PMID:24055703

Brendel, Matthias; Delker, Andreas; Rötzer, Christina; Böning, Guido; Carlsen, Janette; Cyran, Clemens; Mille, Erik; Gildehaus, Franz Josef; Cumming, Paul; Baumann, Karlheinz; Steiner, Harald; Haass, Christian; Herms, Jochen; Bartenstein, Peter; Rominger, Axel

2014-01-01

252

Accuracy of 131I Tumor Quantification in Radioimmunotherapy Using SPECT Imaging with an Ultra-High-Energy Collimator: Monte Carlo Study  

PubMed Central

Accuracy of 131I tumor quantification after radioimmunotherapy (RIT) was investigated for SPECT imaging with an ultra-highenergy (UHE) collimator designed for imaging 511-keV photons. Methods First, measurements and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to compare the UHE collimator with a conventionally used, high-energy collimator. On the basis of this comparison, the UHE collimator was selected for this investigation, which was carried out by simulation of spherical tumors in a phantom. Reconstruction was by an expectation–maximization algorithm that included scatter and attenuation correction. Keeping the tumor activity constant, simulations were carried out to assess how volume-of-interest (VOI) counts vary with background activity, radius of rotation (ROR), tumor location, and size. The constant calibration factor for quantification was determined from VOI counts corresponding to a 3.63-cm-radius sphere of known activity. Tight VOIs corresponding to the physical size of the spheres or tumors were used. Results Use of the UHE collimator resulted in a large reduction in 131I penetration, which is especially significant in RIT where background uptake is high. With the UHE collimator, typical patient images showed an improvement in contrast. Considering the desired geometric events, sensitivity was reduced, but only by a factor of 1.6. Simulation results for a 3.63-cm-radius tumor showed that VOI counts vary with background, location, and ROR by less than 3.2%, 3%, and 5.3%, respectively. The variation with tumor size was more significant and was a function of the background. Good quantification accuracy (<6.5% error) was achieved when tumor size was the same as the sphere size used in the calibration, irrespective of the other parameters. For smaller tumors, activities were underestimated by up to ?15% for the 2.88-cm-radius sphere, ?23% for the 2.29-cm-radius sphere, and ?47% for the 1.68-cm-radius sphere. Conclusion Reasonable accuracy can be achieved for VOI quantification of 131I using SPECT with an UHE collimator and a constant calibration factor. Difference in tumor size relative to the size of the calibration sphere had the biggest effect on accuracy, and recovery coefficients are needed to improve quantification of small tumors. PMID:11038009

Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Ljungberg, Michael; Koral, Kenneth F.

2010-01-01

253

Computing Z_top  

E-print Network

This is the text of my habilitation thesis defended at the \\'Ecole Normale Sup\\'erieure. The topological string presents an arena in which many features of string theory proper, such as the interplay between worldsheet and target space descriptions or open-closed duality, can be distilled into computational techniques which yield results beyond perturbation theory. In this thesis, I will summarize my research activity in this area. The presentation is organized around computations of the topological string partition function Z_top based on various perspectives on the topological string.

Amir-Kian Kashani-Poor

2014-08-06

254

Scattering properties of weakly-bound dimers of Fermi atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the behavior of weakly bound bosonic dimers formed in a two-component Fermi gas with a large positive scattering length for the interspecies interaction. We present a theoretical approach for solving a few-body scattering problem and describe the physics of dimer-dimer elastic and inelastic scattering. We explain why these diatomic molecules, while in the highest ro-vibrational level, are characterized by remarkable collisional stability. Co-authors are Christophe Salomon, LKB, Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, France; Georgy Shlyapnikov, LPTMS, University of South Paris, Orsay, France.

Petrov, Dmitry

2005-03-01

255

Discretisation and solution of quasi-diffusion equations  

E-print Network

of the Quasi-Diffusion Equations. (August 2002) Nicolas Dominique Valette, Diplome d'nigenieur, Ecole Nanonale Superieure de Physique dc Grenoblc, Grenoblc ? l'rance Chan of Advisory Committee: Dr. Matvin Adams We show how thc Quasi-diffusion method.... TABLE, OE C:ONTENTS Page A. B STRA CT A CI~OWLED G EMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS. LIST OF FIGURES . . vn LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION . . CHAPTER II SPATIAL DISCRETISA'I'ION . . 5 A. B. C. D. Inctoduction. Transport discretization...

Valette, Nicolas Dominique

2002-01-01

256

Performance Analysis of Fully Joint Diversity Combining, Adaptive Modulation, and Power Control Schemes  

E-print Network

Sup?erieure des Communications de Tunis Co?Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Khalid A. Qaraqe Dr. Jean-Francois Chamberland Adaptive modulation and diversity combining represent very important adap- tive solutions for future generations of wireless... of this thesis. First, I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Khalid Qaraqe, Dr. Mohamed-Slim Alouini, and Dr. Jean-Francois Chamberland, whom I was fortunate enough to have as advisors. I would like to thank Dr. M-S. Alouini and Dr. K. Qaraqe for giving me...

Bouida, Zied

2010-01-14

257

Retinoid modulation of biomarkers in oral leukoplakia/dysplasia.  

PubMed

Among the tissue, cellular, and molecular changes which take place during the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper aerodigestive tract, only a limited number can be used as surrogate endpoint biomarkers (SEBs) in cancer chemoprevention trials. Molecular SEBs will be genes or gene products which can be measured accurately and reliably, are altered in intraepithelial neoplasia (dysplasia), correlate strongly with the true outcome (invasive cancer), and are modulated by a chemoprevention agent(s). To identify and modulate molecular SEBs in intraepithelial neoplasia of the upper aerodigestive tract, we studied expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), and HER-2/neu genes in oral leukoplakia before, during, and after treatment with 13-cis-retinoic acid, a vitamin A derivative. Four of nine patients treated for 3 months with 1 mg/kg/day of 13-cis-retinoic acid had complete resolution of their leukoplakia. Biopsies were taken of leukoplakia and adjacent normal-appearing mucosa before, during, and after treatment. Immunohistochemistry was performed using the BioGenex Super Sensitive Biotin-Streptavidin horseradish peroxidase detection system. Pretreatment expression of EGFR, TGF-alpha, and HER-2/neu in leukoplakia was increased when compared to normal-appearing mucosa. TGF-alpha expression decreased during treatment in leukoplakia, but not in normal-appearing mucosa, suggesting that TGF-alpha may serve as an intermediate endpoint in cancer chemoprevention trials. PMID:7823600

Beenken, S W; Huang, P; Sellers, M; Peters, G; Listinsky, C; Stockard, C; Hubbard, W; Wheeler, R; Grizzle, W

1994-01-01

258

Tyrosine phosphorylation as a marker for aberrantly regulated growth-promoting pathways in cell lines derived from head and neck malignancies.  

PubMed

We have utilized a broad approach to address whether tyrosine kinases and the growth pathways they regulate might be functionally aberrant in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the upper aerodigestive tract. This strategy involved assaying for evidence of tyrosine kinase action in lysates of cell lines representing SCC. Our findings revealed a spectrum of elevated tyrosine phosphorylation in SCC lines ranging from less than 2-fold to more than 10-fold above that of control human epidermal keratinocytes. Thus the ability to regulate growth and other pathways controlled by tyrosine phosphorylation was impaired in all the 19 lines examined. Assessment of the receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) revealed that its activity was elevated above normal in 14 of the 19 cell lines examined, suggesting that at least a portion of the increased tyrosine phosphorylation observed could be attributed to excessive EGF receptor activity. Our findings provide functional evidence that growth pathways are aberrantly regulated in cell lines representing SCC of the upper aerodigestive tract. PMID:7705939

Cardinali, M; Pietraszkiewicz, H; Ensley, J F; Robbins, K C

1995-03-29

259

Prostate Cancer Metastatic to the Cervical Lymph Nodes  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, often presenting with regional lymph node or bone metastasis and rarely with supradiaphragmatic lymph node involvement. Most metastatic cancers involving the cervical lymph nodes are from cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. In this report, we describe two cases with cervical lymph node enlargement due to metastatic prostate cancer as the initial clinical presentation: a 43-year-old male, initially misdiagnosed with a tumor of the upper aerodigestive tract and an 87-year-old male with right lobe pneumonia and cervical lymph node enlargement, initially attributed to be an acute inflammatory lymph node reaction. To the best of our knowledge, there are less than 50 cases reported in the literature of adenocarcinoma of prostate metastatic to the cervical lymph nodes and only one case presenting in men younger than 45 years. The authors intend to highlight the importance of digital rectal exam and PSA test in case of persistent left cervical lymph node enlargement, including men younger than 45 years of age.

Sepúlveda, Luis; Gorgal, Tiago; Pires, Vanessa; Rodrigues, Filipe

2015-01-01

260

Preliminary clinical studies of PDT with meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin (m-THPC) as a photosensitizing agent for the treatment of early pharyngeal, esophageal, and bronchial carcinomas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new photosensitizer (PS), meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl-chlorin(m-THPC), has been clinically evaluated for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early squamous cell carcinomas located in the upper aerodigestive tract, the oesophagus and the tracheobronchial tree. The injected doses ranged between 0.1 - 0.3 mg/kg m-THPC and the wavelength of the excitation light was either at 514 nm or 652 nm. The evaluation of the m-THPC induced phototoxicity was carried out on healthy mucosae of the bronchi, the oral cavity and the skin, using various `frontal' light distributors. Skin photosensitization tests were performed with a filtered Xenon white light source which simulates the solar emission spectrum at noon on a clear summer day at sea level at our latitude. At the present time, we are still searching for conditions where effective PDT with m-THPC of early carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, the oesophagus and the tracheobronchial tree would show a real selectivity, i.e., destruction of the neoplastic tissue without necrosis of the surrounding normal tissue.

Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnieres, Georges A.; Braichotte, Daniel; Fontolliet, Charlotte; van den Bergh, Hubert

1994-03-01

261

The Role of Narrow Band Imaging in the Detection of Recurrent Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer after Curative Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Narrow band imaging is considered a significant improvement in the possibility of detecting early mucosal lesion of the upper aerodigestive tract. Early detection of mucosal neoplastic lesions is of utmost importance for patients survival. There is evidence that, especially in patients previously treated by means of curative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, the early detection rate of recurrent disease is quite low. The aim of this study was to prove whether the videoendoscopy coupled with NBI might help detect recurrent or secondary tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract. 66 patients previously treated by means of RT or CRT with curative intent were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent transnasal flexible videoendoscopy with NBI mode under local anesthesia. When a suspicious lesion was identified in an ambulatory setting, its nature was proved histologically. Many of these changes were not identifiable by means of conventional white light (WL) endoscopy. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of the method are very high (88%, 92%, 76%, 96%, and 91%, resp.). Results demonstrate that outpatient transnasal endoscopy with NBI is an excellent method for the follow-up of patients with carcinomas of the larynx and the hypopharynx primarily treated with radiotherapy. PMID:25101264

Zabrodsky, Michal; Plzak, Jan

2014-01-01

262

Treatment response assessment of breast masses on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance scans using fuzzy c-means clustering and level set segmentation  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to develop an automated method to segment breast masses on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) scans and to evaluate its potential for estimating tumor volume on pre- and postchemotherapy images and tumor change in response to treatment. A radiologist experienced in interpreting breast MR scans defined a cuboid volume of interest (VOI) enclosing the mass in the MR volume at one time point within the sequence of DCE-MR scans. The corresponding VOIs over the entire time sequence were then automatically extracted. A new 3D VOI representing the local pharmacokinetic activities in the VOI was generated from the 4D VOI sequence by summarizing the temporal intensity enhancement curve of each voxel with its standard deviation. The method then used the fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm followed by morphological filtering for initial mass segmentation. The initial segmentation was refined by the 3D level set (LS) method. The velocity field of the LS method was formulated in terms of the mean curvature which guaranteed the smoothness of the surface, the Sobel edge information which attracted the zero LS to the desired mass margin, and the FCM membership function which improved segmentation accuracy. The method was evaluated on 50 DCE-MR scans of 25 patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Each patient had pre- and postchemotherapy DCE-MR scans on a 1.5 T magnet. The in-plane pixel size ranged from 0.546 to 0.703 mm and the slice thickness ranged from 2.5 to 4.5 mm. The flip angle was 15°, repetition time ranged from 5.98 to 6.7 ms, and echo time ranged from 1.2 to 1.3 ms. Computer segmentation was applied to the coronal T1-weighted images. For comparison, the same radiologist who marked the VOI also manually segmented the mass on each slice. The performance of the automated method was quantified using an overlap measure, defined as the ratio of the intersection of the computer and the manual segmentation volumes to the manual segmentation volume. Pre- and postchemotherapy masses had overlap measures of 0.81±0.13 (mean±s.d.) and 0.71±0.22, respectively. The percentage volume reduction (PVR) estimated by computer and the radiologist were 55.5±43.0% (mean±s.d.) and 57.8±51.3%, respectively. Paired Student’s t test indicated that the difference between the mean PVRs estimated by computer and the radiologist did not reach statistical significance (p=0.641). The automated mass segmentation method may have the potential to assist physicians in monitoring volume change in breast masses in response to treatment. PMID:19994516

Shi, Jiazheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Paramagul, Chintana; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Helvie, Mark; Chenevert, Thomas

2009-01-01

263

Treatment response assessment of breast masses on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance scans using fuzzy c-means clustering and level set segmentation.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to develop an automated method to segment breast masses on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) scans and to evaluate its potential for estimating tumor volume on pre- and postchemotherapy images and tumor change in response to treatment. A radiologist experienced in interpreting breast MR scans defined a cuboid volume of interest (VOI) enclosing the mass in the MR volume at one time point within the sequence of DCE-MR scans. The corresponding VOIs over the entire time sequence were then automatically extracted. A new 3D VOI representing the local pharmacokinetic activities in the VOI was generated from the 4D VOI sequence by summarizing the temporal intensity enhancement curve of each voxel with its standard deviation. The method then used the fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm followed by morphological filtering for initial mass segmentation. The initial segmentation was refined by the 3D level set (LS) method. The velocity field of the LS method was formulated in terms of the mean curvature which guaranteed the smoothness of the surface, the Sobel edge information which attracted the zero LS to the desired mass margin, and the FCM membership function which improved segmentation accuracy. The method was evaluated on 50 DCE-MR scans of 25 patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Each patient had pre- and postchemotherapy DCE-MR scans on a 1.5 T magnet. The in-plane pixel size ranged from 0.546 to 0.703 mm and the slice thickness ranged from 2.5 to 4.5 mm. The flip angle was 15 degrees, repetition time ranged from 5.98 to 6.7 ms, and echo time ranged from 1.2 to 1.3 ms. Computer segmentation was applied to the coronal T1-weighted images. For comparison, the same radiologist who marked the VOI also manually segmented the mass on each slice. The performance of the automated method was quantified using an overlap measure, defined as the ratio of the intersection of the computer and the manual segmentation volumes to the manual segmentation volume. Pre- and postchemotherapy masses had overlap measures of 0.81 +/- 0.13 (mean +/- s.d.) and 0.71 +/- 0.22, respectively. The percentage volume reduction (PVR) estimated by computer and the radiologist were 55.5 +/- 43.0% (mean +/- s.d.) and 57.8 +/- 51.3%, respectively. Paired Student's t test indicated that the difference between the mean PVRs estimated by computer and the radiologist did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.641). The automated mass segmentation method may have the potential to assist physicians in monitoring volume change in breast masses in response to treatment. PMID:19994516

Shi, Jiazheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Paramagul, Chintana; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M; Helvie, Mark; Chenevert, Thomas

2009-11-01

264

Nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck trabecular architecture and its relationship to locomotor mode.  

PubMed

Functional analyses of human and nonhuman anthropoid primate femoral neck structure have largely ignored the trabecular bone. We tested hypotheses regarding differences in the relative distribution and structural anisotropy of trabecular bone in the femoral neck of quadrupedal and climbing/suspensory anthropoids. We used high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to analyze quantitatively the femoral neck trabecular structure of Ateles geoffroyi, Symphalangus syndactylus, Alouatta seniculus, Colobus guereza, Macaca fascicularis, and Papio cynocephalus (n = 46). We analyzed a size-scaled superior and inferior volume of interest (VOI) in the femoral neck. The ratio of the superior to inferior VOI bone volume fraction indicated that the distribution of trabecular bone was inferiorly skewed in most (but not all) quadrupeds and evenly distributed the climbing/suspensory species, but interspecific comparisons indicated that all taxa overlapped in these measurements. Degree of anisotropy values were generally higher in the inferior VOI of all species and the results for the two climbing/suspensory taxa, A. geoffroyi (1.71 +/- 0.30) and S. syndactylus (1.55 +/- 0.04), were similar to the results for the quadrupedal anthropoids, C. guereza (male = 1.64 +/- 0.13; female = 1.68 +/- 0.07) and P. cynocephalus (1.47 +/- 0.13). These results suggest strong trabecular architecture similarity across body sizes, anthropoid phylogenetic backgrounds, and locomotor mode. This structural similarity might be explained by greater similarity in anthropoid hip joint loading mechanics than previously considered. It is likely that our current models of anthropoid hip joint mechanics are overly simplistic. PMID:17514766

Fajardo, Roberto J; Müller, Ralph; Ketcham, Rich A; Colbert, Matthew

2007-04-01

265

Differences in Brainstem Fiber Tract Response to Radiation: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether radiation-induced changes in white matter tracts are uniform across the brainstem. Methods and Materials: We analyzed serial diffusion tensor imaging data, acquired before radiation therapy and over 48 to 72 months of follow-up, from 42 pediatric patients (age 6-20 years) with medulloblastoma. FSL software (FMRIB, Oxford, UK) was used to calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial, radial, and mean diffusivities. For a consistent identification of volumes of interest (VOIs), the parametric maps of each patient were transformed to a standard brain space (MNI152), on which we identified VOIs including corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus (ML), transverse pontine fiber (TPF), and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) at the level of pons. Temporal changes of DTI parameters in VOIs were compared using a linear mixed effect model. Results: Radiation-induced white matter injury was marked by a decline in FA after treatment. The decline was often accompanied by decreased axial diffusivity, increased radial diffusivity, or both. This implied axonal damage and demyelination. We observed that the magnitude of the changes was not always uniform across substructures of the brainstem. Specifically, the changes in DTI parameters for TPF were more pronounced than in other regions (P<.001 for FA) despite similarities in the distribution of dose. We did not find a significant difference among CST, ML, and MCP in these patients (P>.093 for all parameters). Conclusions: Changes in the structural integrity of white matter tracts, assessed by DTI, were not uniform across the brainstem after radiation therapy. These results support a role for tract-based assessment in radiation treatment planning and determination of brainstem tolerance.

Uh, Jinsoo, E-mail: jinsoo.uh@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li, Yimei; Feng, Tianshu [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Gajjar, Amar [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Ogg, Robert J.; Hua, Chiaho [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2013-06-01

266

In vitro and in vivo repeatability of abdominal diffusion-weighted MRI  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the in vitro and in vivo (abdomen) variability of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements at 1.5 T using a free-breathing multislice diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI sequence. Methods DW MRI images were obtained using a multislice spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with b-values=0, 100, 200, 500, 750 and 1000 s mm?2. A flood-field phantom was imaged at regular intervals over 100 days, and 10 times on the same day on 2 occasions. 10 healthy volunteers were imaged on two separate occasions. Mono-exponential ADC maps were fitted excluding b=0. Paired analysis was carried out on the liver, spleen, kidney and gallbladder using multiple regions of interest (ROIs) and volumes of interest (VOIs). Results The in vitro coefficient of variation was 1.3% over 100 days, and 0.5% and 1.0% for both the daily experiments. In vivo, there was no statistical difference in the group mean ADC value between visits for any organ. Using ROIs, the coefficient of reproducibility was 20.0% for the kidney, 21.0% for the gallbladder, 24.7% for the liver and 28.0% for the spleen. For VOIs, values fall to 7.7%, 6.4%, 8.6% and 9.6%, respectively. Conclusion Good in vitro repeatability of ADC measurements provided a sound basis for in vivo measurement. In vivo variability is higher and when considering single measurements in the abdomen as a whole, only changes in ADC value greater than 23.1% would be statistically significant using a two-dimensional ROI. This value is substantially lower (7.9%) if large three-dimensional VOIs are considered. PMID:22674704

Miquel, M E; Scott, A D; Macdougall, N D; Boubertakh, R; Bharwani, N; Rockall, A G

2012-01-01

267

Estimation of dynamic time activity curves from dynamic cardiac SPECT imaging.  

PubMed

Whole-heart coronary flow reserve (CFR) may be useful as an early predictor of cardiovascular disease or heart failure. Here we propose a simple method to extract the time-activity curve, an essential component needed for estimating the CFR, for a small number of compartments in the body, such as normal myocardium, blood pool, and ischemic myocardial regions, from SPECT data acquired with conventional cameras using slow rotation.We evaluated the method using a realistic simulation of (99m)Tc-teboroxime imaging. Uptake of (99m)Tc-teboroxime based on data from the literature were modeled. Data were simulated using the anatomically-realistic 3D NCAT phantom and an analytic projection code that realistically models attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. The proposed method was then applied to estimate time activity curves (TACs) for a set of 3D volumes of interest (VOIs) directly from the projections. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of estimated TACs and studied the effects of the presence of perfusion defects that were and were not modeled in the estimation procedure.The method produced good estimates of the myocardial and blood-pool TACS organ VOIs, with average weighted absolute biases of less than 5% for the myocardium and 10% for the blood pool when the true organ boundaries were known and the activity distributions in the organs were uniform. In the presence of unknown perfusion defects, the myocardial TAC was still estimated well (average weighted absolute bias <10%) when the total reduction in myocardial uptake (product of defect extent and severity) was ?5%. This indicates that the method was robust to modest model mismatch such as the presence of moderate perfusion defects and uptake nonuniformities. With larger defects where the defect VOI was included in the estimation procedure, the estimated normal myocardial and defect TACs were accurate (average weighted absolute bias ?5% for a defect with 25% extent and 100% severity). PMID:25813219

Hossain, J; Du, Y; Links, J; Rahmim, A; Karakatsanis, N; Akhbardeh, A; Lyons, J; Frey, E C

2015-04-21

268

Risk constraint measures developed for the outcome-based strategy for tank waste management  

SciTech Connect

This report is one of a series of supporting documents for the outcome-based characterization strategy developed by PNNL. This report presents a set of proposed risk measures with risk constraint (acceptance) levels for use in the Value of Information process used in the NCS. The characterization strategy has developed a risk-based Value of Information (VOI) approach for comparing the cost-effectiveness of characterizing versus mitigating particular waste tanks or tank clusters. The preference between characterizing or mitigating in order to prevent an accident depends on the cost of those activities relative to the cost of the consequences of the accident. The consequences are defined as adverse impacts measured across a broad set of risk categories such as worker dose, public cancers, ecological harm, and sociocultural impacts. Within each risk measure, various {open_quotes}constraint levels{close_quotes} have been identified that reflect regulatory standards or conventionally negotiated thresholds of harm to Hanford resources and values. The cost of consequences includes the {open_quotes}costs{close_quote} of exceeding those constraint levels as well as a strictly linear costing per unit of impact within each of the risk measures. In actual application, VOI based-decision making is an iterative process, with a preliminary low-precision screen of potential technical options against the major risk constraints, followed by VOI analysis to determine the cost-effectiveness of gathering additional information and to select a preferred technical option, and finally a posterior screen to determine whether the preferred option meets all relevant risk constraints and acceptability criteria.

Harper, B.L.; Gajewski, S.J.; Glantz, C.L. [and others

1996-09-01

269

Effect of denoising on supervised lung parenchymal clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Denoising is a critical preconditioning step for quantitative analysis of medical images. Despite promises for more consistent diagnosis, denoising techniques are seldom explored in clinical settings. While this may be attributed to the esoteric nature of the parameter sensitve algorithms, lack of quantitative measures on their ecacy to enhance the clinical decision making is a primary cause of physician apathy. This paper addresses this issue by exploring the eect of denoising on the integrity of supervised lung parenchymal clusters. Multiple Volumes of Interests (VOIs) were selected across multiple high resolution CT scans to represent samples of dierent patterns (normal, emphysema, ground glass, honey combing and reticular). The VOIs were labeled through consensus of four radiologists. The original datasets were ltered by multiple denoising techniques (median ltering, anisotropic diusion, bilateral ltering and non-local means) and the corresponding ltered VOIs were extracted. Plurality of cluster indices based on multiple histogram-based pair-wise similarity measures were used to assess the quality of supervised clusters in the original and ltered space. The resultant rank orders were analyzed using the Borda criteria to nd the denoising-similarity measure combination that has the best cluster quality. Our exhaustive analyis reveals (a) for a number of similarity measures, the cluster quality is inferior in the ltered space; and (b) for measures that benet from denoising, a simple median ltering outperforms non-local means and bilateral ltering. Our study suggests the need to judiciously choose, if required, a denoising technique that does not deteriorate the integrity of supervised clusters.

Jayamani, Padmapriya; Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

2012-03-01

270

3D GRASE pulsed arterial spin labeling at multiple inflow times in patients with long arterial transit times: comparison with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI at 3 Tesla.  

PubMed

Pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) at multiple inflow times (multi-TIs) is advantageous for the measurement of brain perfusion in patients with long arterial transit times (ATTs) as in steno-occlusive disease, because bolus-arrival-time can be measured and blood flow measurements can be corrected accordingly. Owing to its increased signal-to-noise ratio, a combination with a three-dimensional gradient and spin echo (GRASE) readout allows acquiring a sufficient number of multi-TIs within a clinically feasible acquisition time of 5?minutes. We compared this technique with the clinical standard dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced imaging-magnetic resonance imaging in patients with unilateral stenosis >70% of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery (MCA) at 3 Tesla. We performed qualitative (assessment by three expert raters) and quantitative (region of interest (ROI)/volume of interest (VOI) based) comparisons. In 43 patients, multi-TI PASL-GRASE showed perfusion alterations with moderate accuracy in the qualitative analysis. Quantitatively, moderate correlation coefficients were found for the MCA territory (ROI based: r=0.52, VOI based: r=0.48). In the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory, a readout related right-sided susceptibility artifact impaired correlation (ROI based: r=0.29, VOI based: r=0.34). Arterial transit delay artifacts were found only in 12% of patients. In conclusion, multi-TI PASL-GRASE can correct for arterial transit delay in patients with long ATTs. These results are promising for the transfer of ASL to the clinical practice. PMID:25407272

Martin, Steve Z; Madai, Vince I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Federico C; Mutke, Matthias A; Bauer, Miriam; Herzig, Cornelius X; Hetzer, Stefan; Günther, Matthias; Sobesky, Jan

2015-03-01

271

Fuzzy hidden Markov chains segmentation for volume determination and quantitation in PET.  

PubMed

Accurate volume of interest (VOI) estimation in PET is crucial in different oncology applications such as response to therapy evaluation and radiotherapy treatment planning. The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm for automatic lesion volume delineation; namely the fuzzy hidden Markov chains (FHMC), with that of current state of the art in clinical practice threshold based techniques. As the classical hidden Markov chain (HMC) algorithm, FHMC takes into account noise, voxel intensity and spatial correlation, in order to classify a voxel as background or functional VOI. However the novelty of the fuzzy model consists of the inclusion of an estimation of imprecision, which should subsequently lead to a better modelling of the 'fuzzy' nature of the object of interest boundaries in emission tomography data. The performance of the algorithms has been assessed on both simulated and acquired datasets of the IEC phantom, covering a large range of spherical lesion sizes (from 10 to 37 mm), contrast ratios (4:1 and 8:1) and image noise levels. Both lesion activity recovery and VOI determination tasks were assessed in reconstructed images using two different voxel sizes (8 mm3 and 64 mm3). In order to account for both the functional volume location and its size, the concept of % classification errors was introduced in the evaluation of volume segmentation using the simulated datasets. Results reveal that FHMC performs substantially better than the threshold based methodology for functional volume determination or activity concentration recovery considering a contrast ratio of 4:1 and lesion sizes of <28 mm. Furthermore differences between classification and volume estimation errors evaluated were smaller for the segmented volumes provided by the FHMC algorithm. Finally, the performance of the automatic algorithms was less susceptible to image noise levels in comparison to the threshold based techniques. The analysis of both simulated and acquired datasets led to similar results and conclusions as far as the performance of segmentation algorithms under evaluation is concerned. PMID:17664555

Hatt, M; Lamare, F; Boussion, N; Turzo, A; Collet, C; Salzenstein, F; Roux, C; Jarritt, P; Carson, K; Cheze-Le Rest, C; Visvikis, D

2007-06-21

272

Une ascite chyleuse au décours d’une exérèse d’une tumeur vulvaire : un piège  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  L’ascite chyleuse est rare, secondaire à une obstruction des voies lymphatiques. Nous rapportons un cas d’ascite chyleuse\\u000a chez une jeune femme opérée pour tumeur de la vulve. La malade présentait au décours de cette chirurgie une ascite, des adénopathies\\u000a inguinales, des formations nodulaires sous-cutanées. L’échographie objectivait l’ascite et les adénopathies profondes. Un\\u000a tel tableau avait fait évoquer la diffusion d’un

M. Diarra; A. Konate; A. Kalle; A. Doumbia; G. Diallo; M. Y. Maiga

2009-01-01

273

A water soluble antigen unique to Brucella abortus Strain 19: isolation, immunological characterization and use in an enzyme immunoassay for differential diagnosis of vaccinated and Brucella abortus infected cattle  

E-print Network

A WATER SOLUBLE ANTIGEN UNIQUE TO BRUCELLA ABORTUS STRAIN 19: ISOLATION, IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND USE IN AN ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF VACCINATED AND BRUCELLA ABORTUS INFECTED CATTLE A Thesis by CHARLES RIPLEY...':1. 1. A A BOB'I'US STRAIN 19: ISOLATION, IMMUiVOI. OGIC. & I, CH!& IIACTLIIIZATIi&N AND I. 'Sl IN AN ENZY&IL' IIVIMUNOASSAY I'OR Dll'I'EIIEiNTLAL DIAGNOSIS OE VACCINATED AVD BRL!CELLA ABORTUS 1NI" ECTED CATTf. L' A T!icsis h& CIIARLES Rl!'l, l...

Smithwick, Charles Ripley

1983-01-01

274

When is enough evidence enough? - Using systematic decision analysis and value-of-information analysis to determine the need for further evidence.  

PubMed

Decision analysis (DA) and value-of-information (VOI) analysis provide a systematic, quantitative methodological framework that explicitly considers the uncertainty surrounding the currently available evidence to guide healthcare decisions. In medical decision making under uncertainty, there are two fundamental questions: 1) What decision should be made now given the best available evidence (and its uncertainty)?; 2) Subsequent to the current decision and given the magnitude of the remaining uncertainty, should we gather further evidence (i.e., perform additional studies), and if yes, which studies should be undertaken (e.g., efficacy, side effects, quality of life, costs), and what sample sizes are needed? Using the currently best available evidence, VoI analysis focuses on the likelihood of making a wrong decision if the new intervention is adopted. The value of performing further studies and gathering additional evidence is based on the extent to which the additional information will reduce this uncertainty. A quantitative framework allows for the valuation of the additional information that is generated by further research, and considers the decision maker's objectives and resource constraints. Claxton et al. summarise: "Value of information analysis can be used to inform a range of policy questions including whether a new technology should be approved based on existing evidence, whether it should be approved but additional research conducted or whether approval should be withheld until the additional evidence becomes available." [Claxton K. Value of information entry in Encyclopaedia of Health Economics, Elsevier, forthcoming 2014.] The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce the framework of systematic VoI analysis to guide further research. In our tutorial article, we explain the theoretical foundations and practical methods of decision analysis and value-of-information analysis. To illustrate, we use a simple case example of a foot ulcer (e.g., with diabetes) as well as key references from the literature, including examples for the use of the decision-analytic VoI framework by health technology assessment agencies to guide further research. These concepts may guide stakeholders involved or interested in how to determine whether or not and, if so, which additional evidence is needed to make decisions. PMID:24315327

Siebert, Uwe; Rochau, Ursula; Claxton, Karl

2013-01-01

275

Digital tomosynthesis mammography: intra- and interplane artifact reduction for high-contrast objects on reconstructed slices using a priori 3D geometrical information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a computerized technique to reduce intra- and interplane ghosting artifacts caused by high-contrast objects such as dense microcalcifications (MCs) or metal markers on the reconstructed slices of digital tomosynthesis mammography (DTM). In this study, we designed a constrained iterative artifact reduction method based on a priori 3D information of individual MCs. We first segmented individual MCs on projection views (PVs) using an automated MC detection system. The centroid and the contrast profile of the individual MCs in the 3D breast volume were estimated from the backprojection of the segmented individual MCs on high-resolution (0.1 mm isotropic voxel size) reconstructed DTM slices. An isolated volume of interest (VOI) containing one or a few MCs is then modeled as a high-contrast object embedded in a local homogeneous background. A shift-variant 3D impulse response matrix (IRM) of the projection-reconstruction (PR) system for the extracted VOI was calculated using the DTM geometry and the reconstruction algorithm. The PR system for this VOI is characterized by a system of linear equations. A constrained iterative method was used to solve these equations for the effective linear attenuation coefficients (eLACs) within the isolated VOI. Spatial constraint and positivity constraint were used in this method. Finally, the intra- and interplane artifacts on the whole breast volume resulting from the MC were calculated using the corresponding impulse responses and subsequently subtracted from the original reconstructed slices. The performance of our artifact-reduction method was evaluated using a computer-simulated MC phantom, as well as phantom images and patient DTMs obtained with IRB approval. A GE prototype DTM system that acquires 21 PVs in 3º increments over a +/-30º range was used for image acquisition in this study. For the computer-simulated MC phantom, the eLACs can be estimated accurately, thus the interplane artifacts were effectively removed. For MCs in phantom and patient DTMs, our method reduced the artifacts but also created small over-corrected areas in some cases. Potential reasons for this may include: the simplified mathematical modeling of the forward projection process, and the amplified noise in the solution of the system of linear equations.

Ge, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Sahiner, Berkman; Zhang, Yiheng; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Zhou, Chuan

2007-03-01

276

Brain volume perfusion CT performed with 128-detector row CT system in patients with cerebral gliomas: A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Validation of the feasibility and efficacy of volume perfusion computed tomography (VPCT) in the preoperative assessment of\\u000a cerebral gliomas by applying a 128-slice CT covering the entire tumour.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty-six patients (25 men, 21 women; mean age 52.8 years) with cerebral gliomas were evaluated with VPCT. Two readers independently\\u000a evaluated VPCT data, drawing volumes of interest (VOIs) around the tumour according to

Argyro Xyda; Ulrike Haberland; Ernst Klotz; Hans Christoph Bock; Klaus Jung; Michael Knauth; Ramona Schramm; Marios Nikos Psychogios; Gunter Erb; Peter Schramm

2011-01-01

277

UNIVERSIT DU DROIT ET DE LA SANT-LILLE 2 Prsente pour obtenir le grade de  

E-print Network

sur les voies de survie et de prolifération. La progression de la maladie vers la phase accélérée puis phase chronique, suggérant que la résistance à l'Imatinib pourrait être corrélée aux altérations sur le modèle de leucémie myéloïde chronique. Thèse dirigée par le Pr Claude PREUDHOMME et le Docteur

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

Experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT using digital beam attenuation.  

PubMed

Tailoring CT scan acquisition parameters to individual patients is a topic of much research in the CT imaging community. It is now common place to find automatically adjusted tube current options for modern CT scanners. In addition, the use of beam shaping filters, commonly called bowtie filters, is available on most CT systems and allows for different body regions to receive different incident x-ray fluence distributions. However, no method currently exists which allows for the form of the incident x-ray fluence distribution to change as a function of the view angle. This study represents the first experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) for a c-arm geometry CT scan. X-ray fluence modulation is accomplished using a digital beam attenuator (DBA). The device is composed of ten iron wedge pairs that modulate the thickness of iron, the x-rays must traverse before reaching a patient. Using this device, experimental data was taken using a Siemens Zeego c-arm scanner. Scans were performed on a cylindrical polyethylene phantom and on two different sections of an anthropomorphic phantom. The DBA was used to equalize the x-ray fluence striking the detector for each scan. Non DBA, or 'flat field' scans were also acquired of the same phantom objects for comparison. In addition, a scan was performed in which the DBA was used to enable volume of interest (VOI) imaging. In VOI, only a small sub-volume within a patient receives full dose and the rest of the patient receives a much lower dose. Data corrections unique to using a piece-wise constant modulator were also developed. The feasibility of FFMCT implemented using a DBA device has been demonstrated. Initial results suggest dose reductions of up to 3.6 times relative to 'flat field' CT. In addition to dose reduction, the DBA enables a large improvement in image noise uniformity and the ability to provide regionally enhanced signal to noise using VOI imaging techniques. The results presented in this paper take the field of FFMCT from the theoretical stage to that of possible clinical implementation. FFMCT, as shown in this paper, can reduce the patient dose while maintaining or improving image quality. In addition, the DBA has been experimentally shown to be well suited to implement entirely new imaging methods like photon counting and VOI imaging. PMID:24556823

Szczykutowicz, T P; Mistretta, C A

2014-03-01

279

Experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT using digital beam attenuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tailoring CT scan acquisition parameters to individual patients is a topic of much research in the CT imaging community. It is now common place to find automatically adjusted tube current options for modern CT scanners. In addition, the use of beam shaping filters, commonly called bowtie filters, is available on most CT systems and allows for different body regions to receive different incident x-ray fluence distributions. However, no method currently exists which allows for the form of the incident x-ray fluence distribution to change as a function of the view angle. This study represents the first experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) for a c-arm geometry CT scan. X-ray fluence modulation is accomplished using a digital beam attenuator (DBA). The device is composed of ten iron wedge pairs that modulate the thickness of iron, the x-rays must traverse before reaching a patient. Using this device, experimental data was taken using a Siemens Zeego c-arm scanner. Scans were performed on a cylindrical polyethylene phantom and on two different sections of an anthropomorphic phantom. The DBA was used to equalize the x-ray fluence striking the detector for each scan. Non DBA, or ‘flat field’ scans were also acquired of the same phantom objects for comparison. In addition, a scan was performed in which the DBA was used to enable volume of interest (VOI) imaging. In VOI, only a small sub-volume within a patient receives full dose and the rest of the patient receives a much lower dose. Data corrections unique to using a piece-wise constant modulator were also developed. The feasibility of FFMCT implemented using a DBA device has been demonstrated. Initial results suggest dose reductions of up to 3.6 times relative to ‘flat field’ CT. In addition to dose reduction, the DBA enables a large improvement in image noise uniformity and the ability to provide regionally enhanced signal to noise using VOI imaging techniques. The results presented in this paper take the field of FFMCT from the theoretical stage to that of possible clinical implementation. FFMCT, as shown in this paper, can reduce the patient dose while maintaining or improving image quality. In addition, the DBA has been experimentally shown to be well suited to implement entirely new imaging methods like photon counting and VOI imaging.

Szczykutowicz, T. P.; Mistretta, C. A.

2014-03-01

280

Slovene Ultra-Formal Address: Borrowing, Innovation, and Analysis  

E-print Network

asserted that Italian also underwent a shift in formal pronoun usage under influence from German. Formerly Voi (2 pl.) was used for this purpose 7 (as French vous and Ladin Vos; Valentini et al. 2001: 44), but is said to have been supplanted by Lei (3... založba. Toporiši?, Jože. 2001, ²2003. Slovenski pravopis [Slovene normative guide]. Ljubljana: SAZU. Valentini, Erwin, et al. (eds.). 2001. Gramatica dl Ladin Standard [Standard Ladin grammar]. Vich/San Martin de Tor/Bulsan: Union Generela di Ladins...

Reindl, Donald F.

2007-01-01

281

Cellular automata segmentation of brain tumors on post contrast MR images.  

PubMed

In this paper, we re-examine the cellular automata (CA) algorithm to show that the result of its state evolution converges to that of the shortest path algorithm. We proposed a complete tumor segmentation method on post contrast T1 MR images, which standardizes the VOI and seed selection, uses CA transition rules adapted to the problem and evolves a level set surface on CA states to impose spatial smoothness. Validation studies on 13 clinical and 5 synthetic brain tumors demonstrated the proposed algorithm outperforms graph cut and grow cut algorithms in all cases with a lower sensitivity to initialization and tumor type. PMID:20879393

Hamamci, Andac; Unal, Gozde; Kucuk, Nadir; Engin, Kayihan

2010-01-01

282

ESA's Venus Express to reach final destination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First step: catching Venus To begin to explore our Earth’s hot and hazy sister planet, Venus Express must complete a critical first step, the most challenging one following launch. This involves a set of complex operations and manoeuvres that will inject the spacecraft into orbit. The Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI) manoeuvre allows the spacecraft to reduce its speed relative to Venus, so that it can be captured by the planet’s gravitation. The manoeuvre is a critical one which must proceed at precisely the right place and time. The VOI phase officially started on 4 April and will not be completed until 13 April. It is split into three main sub-phases. The first consists in preparing or initialising the spacecraft for the actual capture manoeuvre so as to avoid the risk of the spacecraft going into safe mode, should parameters unrelated to VOI go off-range. The capture manoeuvre itself consists of a main-engine burn lasting about 50 minutes on the morning of 11 April starting at 09:17 (Central European Summer Time). This is the second main VOI sub-phase. The final sub-phase will be restoring all spacecraft functions, notably resuming communications with Earth and uplinking the commands to be executed during the preliminary ‘capture’ orbit. Orbital capture is controlled by an automatic sequence of predefined commands, uploaded to the spacecraft four days prior to VOI. This sequence is the minimum set needed to perform the main-engine burn. All spacecraft operations are controlled and commanded by the ground control team located at ESA’s European Spacecraft Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany. Timeeline of major VOI events (some times subject to change) 4 Aprilacecraft transmitter connected to low gain antenna is switched on. During its interplanetary cruise and during the scientific part of the mission to come, Venus Express communicates with Earth by means of its two high gain antennas. However, during the orbit capture phase (11 April), these two antennas become unusable because of the spacecraft’s required orientation at that time. The low gain antenna, carrying a feeble but instantly recognisable signal, will be transmitting throughout all VOI manoeuvres. This will allow ground controllers to monitor the velocity change during the burn, using NASA’s Deep Space Network’s 70-metre antenna near Madrid, Spain. No other means of communication with the Earth is possible during the capture burn. 5 and 9 April, targeting control manoeuvres. Two time slots are available to adjust course if needed. Given the high accuracy of the course correction performed end of March, Venus Express is currently on the right trajectory for a successful capture into orbit and it is therefore unlikely that either of these two extra slots will be required. 10 to 11 April, final preparations for VOI manoeuvre. 24 to 12 hours before VOI, spacecraft controllers will command Venus Express into its final configuration for the burn. Over the final 12 hours, they will monitor its status, ready to deal with any contingencies requiring last-minute trajectory correction or any revising of the main-engine burn duration. 11 April, 08:03 (CEST), ‘slew’ manoeuvre. This manoeuvre lasts about half an hour and rotates Venus Express so that the main engine faces the direction of motion. Thanks to this, the burn will slow down (rather than accelerate) the spacecraft. 11 April, 09:17 (CEST), main-engine burn starts. A few minutes after firing of the spacecraft thrusters to make sure the propellant settles in the feed lines to the main engine, the latter will begin its 50-minute long burn, ending at 10:07. This thrust will reduce the initial velocity of 29 000 kilometres per hour (in relation to Venus) by 15 percent, allowing capture. Venus Express will settle into its preliminary, elongated nine-day orbit. On capture, it will be at about 120 million kilometres from the Earth and, at its nearest point, within 400 km of the surface of Venus. During the burn, at 09:45 (CEST), Venus Express will disappear behind the planet and will not be visi

2006-04-01

283

Effects of Reusing Baseline Volumes of Interest by Applying (Non-)Rigid Image Registration on Positron Emission Tomography Response Assessments  

PubMed Central

Objectives Reusing baseline volumes of interest (VOI) by applying non-rigid and to some extent (local) rigid image registration showed good test-retest variability similar to delineating VOI on both scans individually. The aim of the present study was to compare response assessments and classifications based on various types of image registration with those based on (semi)-automatic tumour delineation. Methods Baseline (n?=?13), early (n?=?12) and late (n?=?9) response (after one and three cycles of treatment, respectively) whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans were acquired in subjects with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies. Lesions were identified for early and late response scans. VOI were drawn independently on all scans using an adaptive 50% threshold method (A50). In addition, various types of (non-)rigid image registration were applied to PET and/or CT images, after which baseline VOI were projected onto response scans. Response was classified using PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors for maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), average SUV (SUVmean), peak SUV (SUVpeak), metabolically active tumour volume (MATV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and the area under a cumulative SUV-volume histogram curve (AUC). Results Non-rigid PET-based registration and non-rigid CT-based registration followed by non-rigid PET-based registration (CTPET) did not show differences in response classifications compared to A50 for SUVmax and SUVpeak,, however, differences were observed for MATV, SUVmean, TLG and AUC. For the latter, these registrations demonstrated a poorer performance for small lung lesions (<2.8 ml), whereas A50 showed a poorer performance when another area with high uptake was close to the target lesion. All methods were affected by lesions with very heterogeneous tracer uptake. Conclusions Non-rigid PET- and CTPET-based image registrations may be used to classify response based on SUVmax and SUVpeak. For other quantitative measures future studies should assess which method is valid for response evaluations by correlating with survival data. PMID:24489860

van Velden, Floris H. P.; Nissen, Ida A.; Hayes, Wendy; Velasquez, Linda M.; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Boellaard, Ronald

2014-01-01

284

Comparison of standardized uptake values measured on F-NaF PET/CT scans using three different tube current intensities  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze standardized uptake values (SUVs) using three different tube current intensities for attenuation correction on 18FNaF PET/CT scans. Materials and Methods A total of 254 18F-NaF PET/CT studies were analyzed using 10, 20 and 30 mAs. The SUVs were calculated in volumes of interest (VOIs) drawn on three skeletal regions, namely, right proximal humeral diaphysis (RH), right proximal femoral diaphysis (RF), and first lumbar vertebra (LV1) in a total of 712 VOIs. The analyses covered 675 regions classified as normal (236 RH, 232 RF, and 207 LV1). Results Mean SUV for each skeletal region was 3.8, 5.4 and 14.4 for RH, RF, and LV1, respectively. As the studies were grouped according to mAs value, the mean SUV values were 3.8, 3.9 and 3.7 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the RH region; 5.4, 5.5 and 5.4 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the RF region; 13.8, 14.9 and 14.5 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the LV1 region. Conclusion The three tube current values yielded similar results for SUV calculation.

Valadares, Agnes Araujo; Duarte, Paulo Schiavom; Woellner, Eduardo Bechtloff; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

2015-01-01

285

Return to Venus of the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter AKATSUKI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter/AKATSUKI was proposed in 2001 with strong support by international Venus science community and approved as an ISAS (The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science) mission soon after the proposal. The mission life we expected was more than two Earth years in Venus orbit. AKATSUKI was successfully launched at 06:58:22JST on May 21, 2010, by H-IIA F17. After the separation from H-IIA, the telemetry from AKATSUKI was normally detected by DSN Goldstone station (10:00JST) and the solar cell paddles' deployment was confirmed. After a successful cruise, the malfunction happened on the propulsion system during the Venus orbit insertion (VOI) on Dec. 7, 2010. The engine shut down before the planned reduction in speed to achieve. The spacecraft did not enter the Venus orbit but entered an orbit around the Sun with a period of 203 days. Most of the fuel still had remained, but the orbital maneuvering engine was found to be broken and unusable. However, we have found an alternate way of achieving orbit by using only the reaction control system (RSC). We had adopted the alternate way for orbital maneuver and three minor maneuvers in Nov. 2011 were successfully done so that AKATSUKI would meet Venus in 2015. We are considering several scenarios for VOI using only RCS.

Nakamura, Masato; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Chikako; Imamura, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Abe, Takumi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yamada, Manabu; Ogohara, Kazunori; Uemizu, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Shoko; Satoh, Takehiko; Suzuki, Makoto; Ueno, Munetaka; Nakatsuka, Junichi; Iwagami, Naomoto; Taguchi, Makoto; Watanabe, Shigeto; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Hashimoto, George L.; Yamamoto, Hiroki

2014-01-01

286

Parkinson's disease prediction using diffusion-based atlas approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study Parkinson's disease (PD) using an automatic specialized diffusion-based atlas. A total of 47 subjects, among who 22 patients diagnosed clinically with PD and 25 control cases, underwent DTI imaging. The EPIs have lower resolution but provide essential anisotropy information for the fiber tracking process. The two volumes of interest (VOI) represented by the Substantia Nigra and the Putamen are detected on the EPI and FA respectively. We use the VOIs for the geometry-based registration. We fuse the anatomical detail detected on FA image for the putamen volume with the EPI. After 3D fibers growing on the two volumes, we compute the fiber density (FD) and the fiber volume (FV). Furthermore, we compare patients based on the extracted fibers and evaluate them according to Hohen&Yahr (H&Y) scale. This paper introduces the method used for automatic volume detection and evaluates the fiber growing method on these volumes. Our approach is important from the clinical standpoint, providing a new tool for the neurologists to evaluate and predict PD evolution. From the technical point of view, the fusion approach deals with the tensor based information (EPI) and the extraction of the anatomical detail (FA and EPI).

Teodorescu, Roxana O.; Racoceanu, Daniel; Smit, Nicolas; Cretu, Vladimir I.; Tan, Eng K.; Chan, Ling L.

2010-03-01

287

A sparse representation based method to classify pulmonary patterns of diffuse lung diseases.  

PubMed

We applied and optimized the sparse representation (SR) approaches in the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to classify normal tissues and five kinds of diffuse lung disease (DLD) patterns: consolidation, ground-glass opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and nodule. By using the K-SVD which is based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), it can achieve a satisfied recognition rate, but too much time was spent in the experiment. To reduce the runtime of the method, the K-Means algorithm was substituted for the K-SVD, and the OMP was simplified by searching the desired atoms at one time (OMP1). We proposed three SR based methods for evaluation: SR1 (K-SVD+OMP), SR2 (K-Means+OMP), and SR3 (K-Means+OMP1). 1161 volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to optimize the parameters and train each method, and 1049 VOIs were adopted to evaluate the performances of the methods. The SR based methods were powerful to recognize the DLD patterns (SR1: 96.1%, SR2: 95.6%, SR3: 96.4%) and significantly better than the baseline methods. Furthermore, when the K-Means and OMP1 were applied, the runtime of the SR based methods can be reduced by 98.2% and 55.2%, respectively. Therefore, we thought that the method using the K-Means and OMP1 (SR3) was efficient for the CAD of the DLDs. PMID:25821509

Zhao, Wei; Xu, Rui; Hirano, Yasushi; Tachibana, Rie; Kido, Shoji

2015-01-01

288

A homogeneous superconducting magnet design using a hybrid optimization algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper employs a hybrid optimization algorithm with a combination of linear programming (LP) and nonlinear programming (NLP) to design the highly homogeneous superconducting magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The whole work is divided into two stages. The first LP stage provides a global optimal current map with several non-zero current clusters, and the mathematical model for the LP was updated by taking into account the maximum axial and radial magnetic field strength limitations. In the second NLP stage, the non-zero current clusters were discretized into practical solenoids. The superconducting conductor consumption was set as the objective function both in the LP and NLP stages to minimize the construction cost. In addition, the peak-peak homogeneity over the volume of imaging (VOI), the scope of 5 Gauss fringe field, and maximum magnetic field strength within superconducting coils were set as constraints. The detailed design process for a dedicated 3.0 T animal MRI scanner was presented. The homogeneous magnet produces a magnetic field quality of 6.0 ppm peak-peak homogeneity over a 16 cm by 18 cm elliptical VOI, and the 5 Gauss fringe field was limited within a 1.5 m by 2.0 m elliptical region.

Ni, Zhipeng; Wang, Qiuliang; Liu, Feng; Yan, Luguang

2013-12-01

289

Basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients before and after short-term treatment with either a typical or an atypical antipsychotic drug.  

PubMed

The present study examined basal ganglia volumes in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients before and after treatment with either a specific typical or atypical antipsychotic compound. Sixteen antipsychotic drug-naive and three minimally medicated first-episode schizophrenic patients and 19 matched controls participated. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with either low doses of the typical antipsychotic drug, zuclopenthixol, or the atypical compound, risperidone. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained in patients before and after 12 weeks of exposure to medication and in controls at baseline. Caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and putamen volumes were measured. Compared with controls, absolute volumes of interest (VOIs) were smaller in patients at baseline and increased after treatment. However, with controls for age, gender and whole brain or intracranial volume, the only significant difference between patients and controls was a Hemisphere x Group interaction for the caudate nucleus at baseline, with controls having larger left than right caudate nuclei and patients having marginally larger right than left caudate volumes. Within patients, the two medication groups did not differ significantly with respect to volume changes after 3 months of low dose treatment in any of the VOIs. Nevertheless, when medication groups were examined separately, a significant volume increase in the putamen was evidenced in the risperidone group. The altered asymmetry in caudate volume in patients suggests intrinsic basal ganglia pathology in schizophrenia, most likely of neurodevelopmental origin. PMID:17360162

Glenthoj, Andreas; Glenthoj, Birte Y; Mackeprang, Torben; Pagsberg, Anne K; Hemmingsen, Ralf P; Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C

2007-04-15

290

Iterative image reconstruction in helical cone-beam x-ray CT using a stored system matrix approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a stored system matrix (SM) approach for iterative x-ray CT image reconstruction with helical cone-beam geometry. Because of the symmetry of a helical source trajectory, it is sufficient to calculate and store the SM entries for one transaxial slice only and for all source positions illuminating the slice. This is made possible by (1) selecting the reconstruction slice thickness to be an integer multiple of the source translation per projection view, and (2) discretizing the 3D reconstruction volume on a rotated stack of slices. Using the proposed method, the memory requirement for reconstructing a full field-of-view of clinical scanners is manageable on current computing platforms. The same storage principle can be generalized and applied to volume-of-interest (VOI) image reconstruction for helical cone-beam CT. In this case, the stored SM entries correspond to a partial- or full-ring region on one transaxial slice, and for all source positions illuminating the ring. The size and location of the ring depend on the size and the location of the VOI and the scan geometry. We demonstrate by both computer simulations and clinical patient data the speed and efficacy of iterative image reconstruction using the stored SM approach.

Xu, Jingyan; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

2012-06-01

291

A Sparse Representation Based Method to Classify Pulmonary Patterns of Diffuse Lung Diseases  

PubMed Central

We applied and optimized the sparse representation (SR) approaches in the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) to classify normal tissues and five kinds of diffuse lung disease (DLD) patterns: consolidation, ground-glass opacity, honeycombing, emphysema, and nodule. By using the K-SVD which is based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), it can achieve a satisfied recognition rate, but too much time was spent in the experiment. To reduce the runtime of the method, the K-Means algorithm was substituted for the K-SVD, and the OMP was simplified by searching the desired atoms at one time (OMP1). We proposed three SR based methods for evaluation: SR1 (K-SVD+OMP), SR2 (K-Means+OMP), and SR3 (K-Means+OMP1). 1161 volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to optimize the parameters and train each method, and 1049 VOIs were adopted to evaluate the performances of the methods. The SR based methods were powerful to recognize the DLD patterns (SR1: 96.1%, SR2: 95.6%, SR3: 96.4%) and significantly better than the baseline methods. Furthermore, when the K-Means and OMP1 were applied, the runtime of the SR based methods can be reduced by 98.2% and 55.2%, respectively. Therefore, we thought that the method using the K-Means and OMP1 (SR3) was efficient for the CAD of the DLDs.

Xu, Rui; Tachibana, Rie; Kido, Shoji

2015-01-01

292

Simulating the contribution of a biospecimen and clinical data repository in a phase II clinical trial: a value of information analysis  

PubMed Central

The potential contributions of a centralized data warehouse or repository in clinical research include the expedited accrual of subjects for phase II trials. Understanding the contribution of data warehouses that integrate clinical, biospecimen, and molecular data for the conduct of clinical trials is essential to inform private and public decisions on resource allocation and investment. We conducted a value of information analysis using data from recent trials at the Moffitt Cancer Center and simulated the potential reductions in trial size due to possible alternative scenarios of expedited accrual. In this study, we compared alternative data sets using a single model to assess VOI. Our findings suggest that the reductions in trial size range from 0% to 43%, depending on the amount of censoring in overall survival. The ability to expedite the accrual of patients for clinical trial studies using large data repositories that store data on inclusion/exclusion criteria and response to standard of care therapies demonstrated significant improvement in reducing the number of subjects needed to achieve similar end-results, as evaluated using VOI analysis with a limited number of parameters and a parsimonious model of OS. PMID:23503303

Craig, Benjamin M.; Han, Gang; Munkin, Murat K.; Fenstermacher, David

2013-01-01

293

The Value of Information from a GRACE-Enhanced Drought Severity Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water storage anomalies derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Data Assimilation System (GRACE-DAS) have been used to enhance the information contained in drought indicators. The potential value of this information is to inform local and regional decisions to improve economic welfare in the face of drought. Based on a characterization of current drought evaluations, a modeling framework has been structured to analyze the contributed value of the Earth observations in the assessment of the onset and duration of droughts and their regional impacts. The analysis focuses on (1) characterizing how GRACE-DAS provides Earth observation information for a drought warning, (2) assessing how a GRACE-DAS-enhanced U.S. Drought Monitor would improve economic outcomes in a region, and (3) applying this enhancement process in a decision framework to illustrate the potential role of GRACE data products in a recent drought and response scenario for a value-of-information (VOI) analysis. The VOI analysis quantifies the relative contribution of enhanced understanding and communication of the societal benefits associated with GRACE Earth observation science. Our emphasis is to illustrate the role of an enhanced National Integrated Drought Information System outlook on three key societal outcomes: effects on particular economic sectors, changes in land management decisions, and reductions in damages to ecosystem services.

Kuwayama, Y.; Bernknopf, R.; Macauley, M.; Brookshire, D.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Rodell, M.

2013-12-01

294

Predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens with Minkowski functionals and support vector regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional trabecular bone quality estimation for purposes of femoral bone strength prediction is important for improving the clinical assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk. In this study, we explore the ability of 3D Minkowski Functionals derived from multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images of proximal femur specimens in predicting their corresponding biomechanical strength. MDCT scans were acquired for 50 proximal femur specimens harvested from human cadavers. An automated volume of interest (VOI)-fitting algorithm was used to define a consistent volume in the femoral head of each specimen. In these VOIs, the trabecular bone micro-architecture was characterized by statistical moments of its BMD distribution and by topological features derived from Minkowski Functionals. A linear multiregression analysis and a support vector regression (SVR) algorithm with a linear kernel were used to predict the failure load (FL) from the feature sets; the predicted FL was compared to the true FL determined through biomechanical testing. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each feature set. The best prediction result was obtained from the Minkowski Functional surface used in combination with SVR, which had the lowest prediction error (RMSE = 0.939 ± 0.345) and which was significantly lower than mean BMD (RMSE = 1.075 ± 0.279, p<0.005). Our results indicate that the biomechanical strength prediction can be significantly improved in proximal femur specimens with Minkowski Functionals extracted from on MDCT images used in conjunction with support vector regression.

Yang, Chien-Chun; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Huber, Markus B.; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Bauer, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas; Eckstein, Felix; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Link, Thomas M.; Wismüller, Axel

2014-03-01

295

Using anisotropic 3D Minkowski functionals for trabecular bone characterization and biomechanical strength prediction in proximal femur specimens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability of Anisotropic Minkowski Functionals (AMFs) to capture local anisotropy while evaluating topological properties of the underlying gray-level structures has been previously demonstrated. We evaluate the ability of this approach to characterize local structure properties of trabecular bone micro-architecture in ex vivo proximal femur specimens, as visualized on multi-detector CT, for purposes of biomechanical bone strength prediction. To this end, volumetric AMFs were computed locally for each voxel of volumes of interest (VOI) extracted from the femoral head of 146 specimens. The local anisotropy captured by such AMFs was quantified using a fractional anisotropy measure; the magnitude and direction of anisotropy at every pixel was stored in histograms that served as a feature vectors that characterized the VOIs. A linear multi-regression analysis algorithm was used to predict the failure load (FL) from the feature sets; the predicted FL was compared to the true FL determined through biomechanical testing. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each feature set. The best prediction performance was obtained from the fractional anisotropy histogram of AMF Euler Characteristic (RMSE = 1.01 ± 0.13), which was significantly better than MDCT-derived mean BMD (RMSE = 1.12 ± 0.16, p<0.05). We conclude that such anisotropic Minkowski Functionals can capture valuable information regarding regional trabecular bone quality and contribute to improved bone strength prediction, which is important for improving the clinical assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk.

Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; De, Titas; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Eckstein, Felix; Wismüller, Axel

2014-04-01

296

Mesiotemporal Volume Loss Associated with Disorder Severity: A VBM Study in Borderline Personality Disorder  

PubMed Central

Results of MRI volumetry in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are inconsistent. Some, but not all, studies reported decreased hippocampus, amygdala, and/or prefrontal volumes. In the current study, we used rater-independent voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 33 female BPD patients and 33 healthy women. We measured gray matter (GM) volumes of the whole brain and of three volumes of interest (VOI), i.e., the hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC). Analyses were conducted using lifetime diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MD) as covariates. We used adversive childhood experiences and the numbers of BPD criteria (as an indicator of disorder severity) to investigate associations with GM volumes. We did not find volume differences between BPD patients and healthy subject, neither of the whole brain nor of the three VOIs, independent of presence or absence of comorbid PTSD and MD. We also did not find a relationship between childhood maltreatment and the patients’ brain volumes. However, within the patient group, the number of BPD criteria fulfilled was inversely correlated with left hippocampal/parahippocampal volume (x=-32, y=-23, z=-18, k=496, t=5.08, p=.007). Consequently, mesiotemporal GM volumes do not seem to differentiate patients from healthy subjects, but might be associated with symptom severity within the BPD group. PMID:24367606

Beblo, Thomas; Mertens, Markus; Kurlandchikov, Oleg; Bien, Christian G.; Driessen, Martin; Woermann, Friedrich G.

2013-01-01

297

Gastroesophageal reflux disease.  

PubMed

Gastroesophageal reflux disease, usually manifested by frequent heartburn, occurs in approximately 10% of our adult population. The presence of a hiatal hernia is usually associated with, but does not necessarily cause, LES dysfunction, allowing acid reflux to produce esophageal and aerodigestive symptoms. The mucosa can be extensively damaged and, ultimately, a columnar lining, termed Barrett's esophagus, a premalignant condition, can develop. Treatment with H2-antagonists has been nirvana to some patients, but has proved only partially helpful to others. Adjunctive agents may increase relief and may help heal erosive esophagitis in some patients, but side effects and cost limit their use. Maintenance therapy with full doses is required, as the relapse rate for this chronic condition is high. Omeprazole temporarily heals almost everyone with otherwise resistant GERD, but it is currently used only on a short-term basis unless surgery, eminently successful in well-selected patients, is contraindicated. PMID:2072796

Gelfand, M D

1991-07-01

298

Migration of a swallowed blunt foreign body to the neck.  

PubMed

Ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem in the otolaryngology practice. Reports of extraluminal migration of the foreign bodies from the upper aerodigestive tract are rare. Penetration and extraluminal migration of ingested foreign bodies may cause severe vascular and suppurative complications, even death. We report a 4-year-old girl who presented with a mass and partial extrusion of a foreign body in the neck. She had a history of ingesting the plastic top piece of a knitting needle approximately 1 year ago. She had been asymptomatic until the present time. The examination revealed a red, blunt, rectangular plastic foreign body half embedded in the skin of the right neck. Esophagography with barium swallow, cervical X-rays, and computed tomography scans were obtained. The foreign body was easily removed under general anesthesia. Primary closure and direct laryngoscopy was also performed. The patient recovered very well without any complications. PMID:24592347

Ozturk, Kerem; Turhal, Goksel; Gode, Sercan; Yavuzer, Atilla

2014-01-01

299

Migration of a Swallowed Blunt Foreign Body to the Neck  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem in the otolaryngology practice. Reports of extraluminal migration of the foreign bodies from the upper aerodigestive tract are rare. Penetration and extraluminal migration of ingested foreign bodies may cause severe vascular and suppurative complications, even death. We report a 4-year-old girl who presented with a mass and partial extrusion of a foreign body in the neck. She had a history of ingesting the plastic top piece of a knitting needle approximately 1 year ago. She had been asymptomatic until the present time. The examination revealed a red, blunt, rectangular plastic foreign body half embedded in the skin of the right neck. Esophagography with barium swallow, cervical X-rays, and computed tomography scans were obtained. The foreign body was easily removed under general anesthesia. Primary closure and direct laryngoscopy was also performed. The patient recovered very well without any complications. PMID:24592347

Ozturk, Kerem; Turhal, Goksel; Gode, Sercan; Yavuzer, Atilla

2014-01-01

300

Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer: a mini review.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer has become a major public health problem worldwide although the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Dietary factors, dietary supplements, and physical activity might be important in the prevention of the disease. In the majority of studies published, it was observed that high consumption of meat, alcohol and dairy products has been linked to a greater risk. Specifically, alcohol use, and particularly heavy use, may cause cancers of liver, esophagus, larynx, pharynx and oral cavity, with risks for the aero-digestive cancers. Moderate use among women has been related with increases in breast cancer. Alcohol consumption is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect prostate cancer risk. Alcohol alters the hormonal environment and in parallel, containing chemical substances such as flavonoids (red wine), may alter tumor cell growth. In this mini review, the relation between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk is analyzed. PMID:20693964

Rizos, Ch; Papassava, M; Golias, Ch; Charalabopoulos, K

2010-07-01

301

Oncologic imaging  

SciTech Connect

This text is devoted to the goal of integrating medical imaging into the field of oncology. This book serves as a guide to the appropriate selection and sequencing of the vast array of imaging techniques currently available. Contents: Staging and classification of cancers; Imaging strategies for oncologic diagnosis and staging; Brain and spinal cord neoplasms; The upper aerodigestive tract: cervical lymph node metastases; Thoracic neoplasms; Esophageal cancer; Malignant neoplasms of the pancreas, the liver, and biliary tract; Prostate cancer; Gynecological neoplasms; Hodgkin's disease and the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas; Tumors of the skeletal system; Pediatric oncology; Computed tomography and radiation therapy treatment planning; Contributions of interventional radiology to diagnosis and management of the cancer patient; The impact of future technology on oncologic diagnosis.

Bragg, D.G.; Rubin, P.; Youker, J.E.

1985-01-01

302

Transoral robot- assisted carbon dioxide laser surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer.  

PubMed

Background: Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been used as a novel procedure for the resection of laryngopharyngeal cancers with promising outcomes. There are several studies proposing the benefit of combining TORS with carbon dioxide (CO2 ) laser in resecting upper aerodigestive tract tumors. The aim of this study was to illustrate transoral robot- assisted carbon dioxide laser surgery (TORS-L) for hypopharyngeal cancers. Methods: A 59 year-old patient with a T1N0M0 cancer at the lateral hypopharyngeal wall was selected for TORS-L. Results: Tumor was excised in one piece with adequate surgical margins. There was no perioperative complication. The patient was extubated immediately after surgery. Oral diet was initiated within the first 24 hours. No gastrostomy or tracheostomy tube placement was required. A video demonstration of TORS-L is included. Conclusions: TORS-L hypopharyngectomy is a safe and feasible procedure for the resection of selected hypopharyngeal tumors. Head Neck, 2014. PMID:25224300

Kucur, Cuneyt; Durmus, Kasim; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Ozer, Enver

2014-09-15

303

Feasibility and clinical outcomes of transoral robotic surgery and transoral robot-assisted carbon dioxide laser for hypopharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been used as a novel procedure for squamous cell carcinoma of the laryngopharyngeal cancers with encouraging outcomes. The safety, feasibility, and efficacy regarding this approach have previously been demonstrated. There are several studies proposing the benefit of combining TORS with carbon dioxide (CO2) laser in resecting upper aerodigestive tract tumors. We report a series of patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma treated with primary TORS with or without the flexible carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. All TORS resections were completed without any intraoperative complication. None required conversion to an open procedure. Clinical outcomes in this preliminary analysis indicate that magnified view, 3D visualization with the wristed instruments and tremor reduction technology of robotic experience, allow en bloc resection of early stage hypopharyngeal cancers. TORS with CO2 laser is a promising, minimally invasive surgical alternative for the treatment of hypopharyngeal tumors with comparable oncologic outcomes. PMID:25478973

Durmus, Kasim; Kucur, Cuneyt; Uysal, Ismail O; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Ozer, Enver

2015-01-01

304

Removal of a Wire Brush Bristle from the Hypopharynx Using Suspension, Microscope, and Fluoroscopy  

PubMed Central

Wire brush bristles are an increasingly recognized hazard that can present as a foreign body in the aerodigestive tract. Due to their small size and tendency to become embedded in surrounding tissue, these small metallic bristles present a unique operative challenge to otolaryngologists. Here we present a case of a 40-year-old woman who underwent endoscopic extraction of a wire bristle from the posterior pharyngeal wall using suspension, microscopy, and C-arm fluoroscopy. We believe this is the first published case of an endoscopic removal of a buried foreign body in the hypopharynx using these methods of localization concurrently. By leveraging multiple techniques for visualization, surgeons can avoid open exploration while ensuring complete removal of the object. Additionally, this case highlights the importance of regulatory oversight and consumer awareness of the hazards of grill brushes. PMID:25649460

Naunheim, Matthew R.; Dedmon, Matthew M.; Mori, Matthew C.; Sedaghat, Ahmad R.; Dowdall, Jayme R.

2015-01-01

305

Plasma cell mucositis with gingival enlargement and severe periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Plasma cell mucositis (PCM) is a very rare, chronic, multifocal, idiopathic, non-neoplastic plasma cell proliferative disorder of the upper aerodigestive tract. The classic clinical presentation is an intensely erythematous mucosa with surface changes described variously as papillomatous, cobblestone, nodular or velvety. It is a very rare condition <50 cases reported in literature. A 72-year-old male patient complained of sore throat, stomatodynia, dysphagia, multiple oral ulcers, enlarged swollen bleeding gums and mobile teeth. There was chronic inflammatory enlargement of the gingiva and palate with severe periodontitis. Histopathological examination revealed a hyperplastic epithelium with a dense infiltrate of mature polyclonal plasma cells in the superficial layer of the lamina propria. PCM is a diagnosis of exclusion, to be differentiated from other infective, reactive, autoimmune, allergic and neoplastic disorders with plasma cell infiltrates. Management with surgical and immunosuppressive therapy is mostly ineffective with short remissions and frequent relapses. PMID:25024555

Gupta, Shalini R.; Gupta, Rajiva; Saran, Ravindra K.; Krishnan, Sriram

2014-01-01

306

Absent upper blind Pouch in a case of tracheo-esophageal fistula.  

PubMed

A common upper airway and digestive tract is a rare congenital anomaly that is usually fatal and its exact incidence is not known. It is a diagnostic challenge as it requires high index of suspicion. It should be considered in a neonate with respiratory distress in a non-vigorous baby requiring endotracheal intubation, which is difficult even in expert hand. We present a newborn with suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula that was diagnosed intraoperatively to have absent upper blind pouch of the esophagus and on autopsy found to have laryngeal atresia with absent vocal cords and a common aerodigestive tract continuing distally with trachea. The neonate was ventilated with endotracheal tube (ETT) placement which in retrospect we came to know that it was in the esophagus. The neonate also had associated multiple congenital anomalies of VACTERL association. The importance of teamwork between neonatologist, pediatric surgeon, anesthesiologist, and radiologist is highlighted for diagnosis and management of such rare cases. PMID:25552830

Harjai, Man Mohan; Badal, Sachendra; Khanna, Sangeeta; Singh, Ajit Kumar

2015-01-01

307

Young adults with head and neck cancer express increased susceptibility to mutagen-induced chromosome damage  

SciTech Connect

Factors that contribute to an increased prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract among young adults in the United States remain unknown. A potential etiologic factor may relate to a genetically controlled sensitivity to environmental carcinogens. This study, therefore, examined 20 young adult patients who had squamous cell carcinoma for mutagen-induced chromosome sensitivity. Lymphocytes from respective patients were cultured, exposed to the clastogen bleomycin, arrested during metaphase, and examined quantitatively for chromosome breakage. The young adult population with squamous cell carcinoma expressed a significantly increased number of bleomycin-induced chromosome breaks per cell. Furthermore, among the study patients, chromosome sensitivity was most apparent in the non-tobacco users and in patients less than 30 years of age. The expression of such chromosome fragility following mutagen exposure should be considered in epidemiologic studies that intend to define risk factors for development of head and neck cancer.

Schantz, S.P.; Hsu, T.C.; Ainslie, N.; Moser, R.P. (Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA))

1989-12-15

308

IgG4-related orbital disease: a meta-analysis and review.  

PubMed

IgG4-related orbital disease (IgG4-ROD) is a recently described condition that may account for a significant proportion of idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic or sclerotic orbital lesions. This study is the first meta-analysis of published cases and reveals several differences between IgG4-related disease affecting the orbit and that affecting the pancreas. IgG4-ROD affects a slightly younger group of patients, affects men and women approximately equally, is commonly associated with salivary gland lesions, is associated with a relatively higher serum IgG4 and may confer an increased risk of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Its pathogenesis may involve an immune response to antigen exposure in the upper aerodigestive tract. PMID:22963447

Andrew, Nicholas; Kearney, Daniel; Selva, Dinesh

2013-12-01

309

[Value of psychosocial factors in the occurrence and management of cancer of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts].  

PubMed

A series of 19 patients suffering from cancers of the upper aero-digestive pathways was examined by a psychiatrist who assessed in particular the personality of the patient, the importance and impact of personal life events, the family context, and the place of the cancer in the life of the patient. There are numerous psycho-social problems, partially related to chronic alcoholism that was found very frequently. Isolation of the patient appears to be frequent, both within the family, albeit sometimes large, and in the workplace. Whilst the role of this exclusion in the genesis of the cancer is debatable, the situation of the patient needs to be examined individually to ensure that management is adapted as closely as possible to all the stages of development of the illness. PMID:8959928

Loustalot, B; Alary, P

1996-01-01

310

Photodynamic therapy of gastrointestinal cancers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new photosensitizer (PS), meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl-chlorin(m-THPC), has been clinically evaluated for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early squamous cell carcinomas located in the upper aerodigestive tract, the oesophagus and the tracheobronchial tree. The injected doses ranged between 0.1 - 0.3 mg/kg m-THPC and the wavelength of the excitation light was either at 514 nm or 652 nm. The evaluation of the m-THPC induced phototoxicity was carried out on healthy mucosae of the bronchi, the oral cavity and the skone cell population to the other. Appearance of aneuploid populations after PDT suggests that destruction of sensitive cell populations allows the growth of initially non FCM detectable aneuploid clones. MDA assay could thus be a good prognostic tool although larger series of patients are needed. 115

Foultier, Marie-Therese; Vonarx-Coinsmann, Veronique; Harel, Yann; Cordel, S.; Antona, B.; Patrice, Thierry

1994-03-01

311

Facial, Cervical, and Mediastinal Emphysema of the Clarinet Player: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervicofacial emphysema may arise due to the leakage of air from a defect in the aerodigestive tract to the fascial layers of neck and face. Rarely, it may be caused by insufflation of air through the Stensen’s duct. Case Report: We present a case with diffuse facial, cervical and mediastinal emphysema due to playing a wind instrument immediately after a facial trauma. There was no mucosal defect or laceration noticed by examination which could explain the origin of the emphysema. Despite the widespread cervicofacial emphysema with mediastinal involvement, the patient significantly improved within 48 hours without any intervention. Conclusion: Even though cervicofacial emphysema ameliorates spontaneously, increased care must be taken, especially when there is pneumomediastinum and/or pneumothorax. PMID:25667794

Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kesgin, Selcan; Tezcan, Erkan; Köyba??, Serap

2014-01-01

312

Ablation of dermal and mucosal lesions with a new CO2 laser application system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser treatment of skin changes has become common practice in recent years. The high absorption of the wavelength of the carbon-dioxide laser (10600 nm) is responsible for its low penetration depth in biological tissue. Shortening the exposure time minimizes thermic side effects such as carbonization and coagulation. This effect can be achieved with the SilkTouchTM scanner 767, since the focused laser beam is moved over a defined area by rapidly rotating mirrors. This enables controlled and reliable removal of certain dermal lesions, particularly hypertrophic scars, scars after common acne, wrinkles, rhinophyma and benign neoplasms like verruca vulgaris. Cosmetically favorable reepithelialization of the lasered surfaces results within a very short period of time. Benign mucosal changes of the upper aerodigestive tract can also be treated. Ablation is less traumatic for papillomas, fibromas, hyperplasias in the area of Waldeyer's tonsillar ring and certain laryngotracheal pathologies. Clinical examples demonstrate the advantages of this new mode of application.

Jovanovic, Sergije; Sedlmaier, Benedikt W.; Fuehrer, Ariane

1997-05-01

313

Pediatric radiation oncology  

SciTech Connect

This text covers all aspects of radiation therapy for treatment of pediatric cancer. The book describes the proper use of irradiation in each of the malignancies of childhood, including tumors that are rarely encountered in adult practice. These include acute leukemia; supratentorial brain tumors; tumors of the posterior fossa of the brain and spinal canal; retinoblastoma and optic nerve glioma; neuroblastoma; Hodgkin's disease; malignant lymphoma; Ewing's sarcoma; osteosarcoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; Desmoid tumor; Wilms' tumor; liver and biliary tumors; germ cell and stromal cell tumors of the gonads; endocrine, aerodigestive tract, and breast tumors; Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; and skin cancer and hemangiomas. For each type of malignancy, the authors describe the epidemiology, common presenting signs and symptoms, staging, and proper diagnostic workup. Particular attention is given to the indications for radiation therapy and the planning of a course of radiotherapy, including the optimal radiation dose, field size, and technique.

Halperin, E.C.; Kun, L.E.; Constine, L.S.; Tarbell, N.J.

1989-01-01

314

Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the vulva, an underrecognized entity? Case report with a single inguinal micrometastasis detected by sentinel node technique  

PubMed Central

This report describes an unusual EBV-negative lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the vulva in a 73-year-old patient. The lesion was localised at the right minor labium and was resected by partial vulvectomy. A synchronous sentinel lymph node biopsy revealed a single micrometastasis in the right inguinal region, which prompted local radiotherapy. Follow-up nine months later showed only slight vulvar atrophy, without signs of local recurrence or distant metastases. Although lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas of the skin and the female genital tract are presumed to have a better prognosis than their counterparts in the upper aerodigestive tract, possibly due to earlier detection and therapy, this case documents their potential for early metastasis. PMID:21219641

2011-01-01

315

Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type in Taiwan: a relatively higher frequency of T-cell lineage and poor survival for extranasal tumors.  

PubMed

Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a predominantly extranodal lymphoma associated with Epstein-Barr virus occurring most frequently in the upper aerodigestive tract. There are limited reports on cellular origin and prognostic factors. We retrospectively investigated 73 cases with a median age of 54 years and a male-female ratio of 2.0:1. The upper aerodigestive tract (nasal group) was the most common site of involvement (51 cases; 70%). The other organs (n = 22; extranasal group) included the skin (12 cases; 16%) and gastrointestinal tract (5; 7%). Of the 70 cases with complete staging, 71% had stage I/II disease. All cases were positive for Epstein-Barr virus by in situ hybridization. Using immunohistochemistry and clonality assay for T-cell receptor gene rearrangement, these tumors were classified into NK (n = 39; 53%), T (n = 13; 18%), and indeterminate lineage (n = 21; 29%). The only clinicopathological difference among these 3 groups was rare CD5 expression in the NK-cell group. Nasal tumors were more frequently of NK-cell origin, and extranasal tumors were equally of either T- or NK-cell origin. The 5-year overall survival rate was 35.6%. The overall survival time was shorter in the extranasal group, although there was no statistical difference in age, sex, and histologic or immunophenotypic features between the 2 groups. Excluding the cases with indeterminate lineage, 75% of cases were of NK lineage; and 25%, T lineage. Extranasal tumors were more aggressive than their nasal counterparts. A prospective national study is warranted for a better understanding of the clinicopathological and genetic features of this uncommon tumor and the prognostic factors. PMID:25554090

Jhuang, Jie-Yang; Chang, Sheng-Tsung; Weng, Shih-Feng; Pan, Shien-Tung; Chu, Pei-Yi; Hsieh, Pin-Pen; Wei, Chih-Hsin; Chou, Shih-Cheng; Koo, Chiew-Loon; Chen, Chih-Jung; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Chuang, Shih-Sung

2015-02-01

316

Radiation Doses to Structures Within and Adjacent to the Larynx are Correlated With Long-Term Diet- and Speech-Related Quality of Life  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To test the hypothesis that radiation dose to key sites in the upper aerodigestive tract is associated with long-term functional outcome after (chemo)radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancers. Methods and Materials: This study examined the outcome for 27 patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for definitive management of their head-and-neck cancer who were disease free for at least 1 year after treatment. Head-and-neck cancer-specific quality of life (QoL) was assessed before treatment and at 1 year after treatment. Type of diet tolerated, presence of a feeding tube, and degree of weight loss 1 year after treatment were also used as outcome measures. Radiation doses delivered to various points along the upper aerodigestive tract, including base of tongue, lateral pharyngeal walls, and laryngeal structures, were determined from each treatment plan. Radiation doses for each of these points were tested for correlation with outcome measures. Results: Higher doses delivered to the aryepiglottic folds, false vocal cords, and lateral pharyngeal walls near the false cords correlated with a more restrictive diet, and higher doses to the aryepiglottic folds correlated with greater weight loss (p < 0.05) 1 year after therapy. Better posttreatment speech QoL scores were associated with lower doses delivered to structures within and surrounding the larynx. Conclusion: Our data show an inverse relationship between radiation dose delivered to laryngeal structures and speech and diet and QoL outcomes after definitive (chemo)radiation treatment. These findings suggest that efforts to deliver lower doses to laryngeal structures may improve outcomes after definitive (chemo)radiation therapy.

Dornfeld, Ken [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)]. E-mail: kenneth-dornfeld@uiowa.edu; Simmons, Joel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Karnell, Lucy [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Karnell, Michael [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Funk, Gerry [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Yao Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Wacha, Judith [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Zimmerman, Bridget [Department of Biostatistics, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA (United States); Buatti, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)

2007-07-01

317

Pharyngeal airway protective reflexes are triggered before the maximum volume of fluid that the hypopharynx can safely hold is exceeded.  

PubMed

Aerodigestive reflexes triggered by pharyngeal stimulation can protect the airways by clearing fluid from the pharynx. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the maximum capacity of fluid that can safely dwell in the hypopharynx [hypopharyngeal safe volume (HPSV)] before spilling into the larynx and the threshold volumes required to trigger pharyngoglottal closure reflex (PGCR), pharyngo-upper esophageal sphincter contractile reflex (PUCR), and reflexive pharyngeal swallow (RPS). Twenty-five healthy volunteers (mean age 24 yr, 8 males) were studied in the semi-inclined supine position. PGCR, PUCR, and RPS were elicited using techniques of concurrent upper esophageal sphincter manometry and pharyngo-laryngoscopy. The hypopharynx was then anesthetized to abolish RPS. HPSV was determined by infusing water in the pharynx, and perfusion was stopped when the infusate reached the superior margin of the interarytenoid fold. The threshold volumes for triggering PGCR, PUCR, and RPS by slow and rapid injections before pharyngeal anesthesia were 0.18 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 ml; 0.20 ± 0.020 and 0.13 ± 0.04 ml; and 0.61 ± 0.04 and 0.4 ± 0.06 ml, respectively. All of the above volumes were significantly smaller than the HPSV (0.70 ± 0.06 ml, P < 0.01) except for the threshold volume to elicit RPS during slow perfusion, which was not significantly different (P = 0.23). We conclude that pharyngeal aerodigestive reflexes are triggered by both slow and rapid pharyngeal perfusion of water at significantly smaller volumes than the maximum capacity of the hypopharynx to safely hold contents without spilling into the airway. These reflexes thereby aid in prevention of aspiration. PMID:21566013

Dua, Kulwinder; Surapaneni, Sri Naveen; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Hafeezullah, Muhammad; Shaker, Reza

2011-08-01

318

Dynamic PET/CT measurements of induced positron activity in a prostate cancer patient after 50-MV photon radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this work was to reveal the research interest value of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in visualizing the induced tissue activity post high-energy photon radiation treatment. More specifically, the focus was on the possibility of retrieving data such as tissue composition and physical half-lives from dynamic PET acquisitions, as positron-emitting radionuclides such as 15O, 11C, and 13N are produced in vivo during radiation treatment with high-energy photons (>15 MeV). The type, amount, and distribution of induced positron-emitting radionuclides depend on the irradiated tissue cross section, the photon spectrum, and the possible perfusion-driven washout. Methods A 62-year-old man diagnosed with prostate cancer was referred for palliative radiation treatment of the pelvis minor. A total dose of 8 Gy was given using high-energy photon beams (50 MV) with a racetrack microtron, and 7 min after the end of irradiation, the patient was positioned in a PET/computed tomography (CT) camera, and a list-mode acquisition was performed for 30 min. Two volumes of interests (VOIs) were positioned on the dynamic PET/CT images, one in the urinary bladder and the other in the subcutaneous fat. Analysis of the measured relative count rate was performed in order to compute the tissue compositions and physical half-lives in the two regions. Results Dynamic analysis from the two VOIs showed that the decay constants of activated oxygen and carbon could be deduced. Calculation of tissue composition from analyzing the VOI containing subcutaneous fat only moderately agreed with that of the tabulated International Commission on Radiation Units & Measurements (ICRU) data of the adipose tissue. However, the same analysis for the bladder showed a good agreement with that of the tabulated ICRU data. Conclusions PET can be used in visualizing the induced activity post high-energy photon radiation treatment. Despite the very low count rate in this specific application, wherein 7 min after treatment was about 5% of that of a standard 18F-FDG PET scan, the distribution of activated tissue elements (15O and 11C) could be calculated from the dynamic PET data. One possible future application of this method could possibly be to measure and determine the tumor tissue composition in order to identify any hypoxic or necrotic region, which is information that can be used in the ongoing therapy planning process. Trial registration The official name of the trial committee of this study is ‘Regionala etikprövningsnämnden i Stockholm’ (FE 289, Stockholm, SE-17177, Sweden). The unique identifying number is 2011/1789-31/2. PMID:23343347

2013-01-01

319

Fuzzy hidden Markov chains segmentation for volume determination and quantitation in PET  

PubMed Central

Accurate volume of interest (VOI) estimation in PET is crucial in different oncology applications such as response to therapy evaluation and radiotherapy treatment planning. The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm for automatic lesion volume delineation; namely the Fuzzy Hidden Markov Chains (FHMC), with that of current state of the art in clinical practice threshold based techniques. As the classical Hidden Markov Chain (HMC) algorithm, FHMC takes into account noise, voxel’s intensity and spatial correlation, in order to classify a voxel as background or functional VOI. However the novelty of the fuzzy model consists of the inclusion of an estimation of imprecision, which should subsequently lead to a better modelling of the “fuzzy” nature of the object on interest boundaries in emission tomography data. The performance of the algorithms has been assessed on both simulated and acquired datasets of the IEC phantom, covering a large range of spherical lesion sizes (from 10 to 37mm), contrast ratios (4:1 and 8:1) and image noise levels. Both lesion activity recovery and VOI determination tasks were assessed in reconstructed images using two different voxel sizes (8mm3 and 64mm3). In order to account for both the functional volume location and its size, the concept of % classification errors was introduced in the evaluation of volume segmentation using the simulated datasets. Results reveal that FHMC performs substantially better than the threshold based methodology for functional volume determination or activity concentration recovery considering a contrast ratio of 4:1 and lesion sizes of <28mm. Furthermore differences between classification and volume estimation errors evaluated were smaller for the segmented volumes provided by the FHMC algorithm. Finally, the performance of the automatic algorithms was less susceptible to image noise levels in comparison to the threshold based techniques. The analysis of both simulated and acquired datasets led to similar results and conclusions as far as the performance of segmentation algorithms under evaluation is concerned. PMID:17664555

Hatt, Mathieu; Lamare, Frédéric; Boussion, Nicolas; Roux, Christian; Turzo, Alexandre; Cheze-Lerest, Catherine; Jarritt, Peter; Carson, Kathryn; Salzenstein, Fabien; Collet, Christophe; Visvikis, Dimitris

2007-01-01

320

Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.  

SciTech Connect

The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging survivability issues. Our findings indicate that packaging represents the most significant technical challenge associated with application of sensors in the downhole environment for long periods (5+ years) of time. These issues are described in detail within the report. The impact of successful reservoir monitoring programs and coincident improved reservoir management is measured by the production of additional oil and gas volumes from existing reservoirs, revitalization of nearly depleted reservoirs, possible re-establishment of already abandoned reservoirs, and improved economics for all cases. Smart Well monitoring provides the means to understand how a reservoir process is developing and to provide active reservoir management. At the same time it also provides data for developing high-fidelity simulation models. This work has been a joint effort with Sandia National Laboratories and UT-Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, and the Institute of Computational and Engineering Mathematics.

Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

2006-11-01

321

Ferret Thoracic Anatomy by 2-Deoxy-2-(18F)Fluoro-D-Glucose (18F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) Imaging  

PubMed Central

The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) has been a long-standing animal model used in the evaluation and treatment of human diseases. Molecular imaging techniques such as 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) would be an invaluable method of tracking disease in vivo, but this technique has not been reported in the literature. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish baseline imaging characteristics of PET/computed tomography (CT) with 18F-FDG in the ferret model. Twelve healthy female ferrets were anesthetized and underwent combined PET/CT scanning. After the images were fused, volumes of interest (VOIs) were generated in the liver, heart, thymus, and bilateral lung fields. For each VOI, standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated. Additional comparisons were made between radiotracer uptake periods (60, 90, and >90 minutes), intravenous and intraperitoneal injections of 18F-FDG, and respiratory gated and ungated acquisitions. Pulmonary structures and the surrounding thoracic and upper abdominal anatomy were readily identified on the CT scans of all ferrets and were successfully fused with PET. VOIs were created in various tissues with the following SUV calculations: heart (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVMax] 8.60, mean standardized uptake value [SUVMean] 5.42), thymus (SUVMax 3.86, SUVMean 2.59), liver (SUVMax 1.37, SUVMean 0.99), right lung (SUVMax 0.92, SUVMean 0.56), and left lung (SUVMax 0.88, SUVMean 0.51). Sixty- to 90-minute uptake periods were sufficient to separate tissues based on background SUV activity. No gross differences in image quality were seen between intraperitoneal and intravenous injections of 18F-FDG. Respiratory gating also did not have a significant impact on image quality of lung parenchyma. The authors concluded that 18F-FDG PET and CT imaging can be performed successfully in normal healthy ferrets with the parameters identified in this study. They obtained similar imaging features and uptake measurements with and without respiratory gating as well as with intraperitoneal and intravenous 18F-FDG injections. 18F-FDG PET and CT can be a valuable resource for the in vivo tracking of disease progression in future studies that employ the ferret model. PMID:23382267

Wu, Albert; Zheng, Huaiyu; Kraenzle, Jennifer; Biller, Ashley; Vanover, Carol D.; Proctor, Mary; Sherwood, Leslie; Steffen, Marlene; Ng, Chin; Mollura, Daniel J.; Jonsson, Colleen B.

2013-01-01

322

An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38.1 billion ±$8.8 billion for that flow of benefits in perpetuity. Given that these economic estimates are derived from one case study in a part of only one State, the estimates provide a lower estimate related to the potential value of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission.

Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

2012-01-01

323

Simulation modeling to derive the value-of-information for risky animal disease-import decisions.  

PubMed

Simulation modeling can be used in aiding decision-makers in deciding when to invest in additional research and when the risky animal disease-import decision should go forward. Simulation modeling to evaluate value-of-information (VOI) techniques provides a robust, objective and transparent framework for assisting decision-makers in making risky animal and animal product decisions. In this analysis, the hypothetical risk from poultry disease in chicken-meat imports was modeled. Economic criteria were used to quantify alternative confidence-increasing decisions regarding potential import testing and additional research requirements. In our hypothetical example, additional information about poultry disease in the exporting country (either by requiring additional export-flock surveillance that results in no sign of disease, or by conducting additional research into lack of disease transmittal through chicken-meat ingestion) captured >75% of the value-of-information attainable regarding the chicken-meat-import decision. PMID:14554141

Disney, W Terry; Peters, Mark A

2003-11-12

324

Un lymphangiome kystique rétropéritonéal révélé par des coliques néphrétiques  

PubMed Central

Résumé Le lymphangiome kystique (LK) est une tumeur rare des voies lymphatiques caractérisée par son évolution bénigne. La fréquence de la localisation rétropéritonéale est controversée. La découverte se fait le plus souvent dès l’enfance. L’évolution de la maladie peut être marquée par des complications graves, notamment compressives. Nous faisons état de l’observation médicale d’une femme de 30 ans chez qui l’on a découvert, à la suite de l’apparition de coliques néphrétiques récidivantes, un LK énorme occupant tout l’espace rétropéritonéal droit. Le diagnostic a été évoqué par l’urotomodensitométrie et confirmé par l’histologie. L’évolution après exérèse chirurgicale de la masse a été favorable, avec la disparition des coliques néphrétiques. PMID:25844099

El anzaoui, Jihad; Ghoundale, Omar; Touiti, Driss; El barni, Rachid; Mejdane, Abdelhadi; Fihri, Jawad Fassi; Lahkim, Mohammed; Achour, Abdsamad

2015-01-01

325

A 13C-NMR study of exopolysaccharide synthesis in Rhizobium meliloti Su47 strain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metabolic pathways implied in the synthesis of succinoglycan produced by the Su47 strain of R. meliloti were evaluated by 13C-NMR spectroscopy after incubation with [1{-}13C] or [2{-}13C] glucose. The biosynthesis of this polymer by R. meliloti from glucose occurred by a direct polymerisation of the introduced glucose and by the pentose phosphate pathway. Les voies métaboliques impliquées dans la synthèse du succinoglycane produit par la souche Su47 de R. meliloti ont été évaluées par la spectroscopie de RMN du carbone 13 après incubation des cellules avec du [1{-}13C] ou [2{-}13C] glucose. La biosynthèse de ce polymère à partir du glucose se produit par polymérisation directe du glucose et par la voie des pentoses phosphate.

Tavernier, P.; Portais, J.-C.; Besson, I.; Courtois, J.; Courtois, B.; Barbotin, J.-N.

1998-02-01

326

Le déficit immunitaire humoral: mieux le connaître pour mieux le prendre en charge  

PubMed Central

Les déficits immunitaires humoraux (DIH) sont des maladies hétérogènes allant des formes asymptomatiques rencontrés lors des déficits sélectifs en immunoglobulines A (IgA) et en sous-classes d'IgG aux formes graves des agammaglobulinémies congénitales. Les patients atteints de DIH présentent souvent des infections ORL ou des voies respiratoires récidivantes ou sévères. Ces patients peuvent présenter un certain nombre de complications non infectieuses, telles que des manifestations auto-immunes et des entéropathies, qui pourraient être le seul symptôme clinique révélateur. Les formes sévères des DIH sont facilement diagnostiquées grâce au dosage des IgG totaux, des IgA et des IgM. La thérapie substitutive par les immunoglobulines reste le traitement de choix chez ces patients. PMID:25489366

El Bakkouri, Jalila; Aadam, Zahra; Ailal, Fatima; Alj, Hanane Salih; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz

2014-01-01

327

Automating the expert consensus paradigm for robust lung tissue classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinicians confirm the efficacy of dynamic multidisciplinary interactions in diagnosing Lung disease/wellness from CT scans. However, routine clinical practice cannot readily accomodate such interactions. Current schemes for automating lung tissue classification are based on a single elusive disease differentiating metric; this undermines their reliability in routine diagnosis. We propose a computational workflow that uses a collection (#: 15) of probability density functions (pdf)-based similarity metrics to automatically cluster pattern-specific (#patterns: 5) volumes of interest (#VOI: 976) extracted from the lung CT scans of 14 patients. The resultant clusters are refined for intra-partition compactness and subsequently aggregated into a super cluster using a cluster ensemble technique. The super clusters were validated against the consensus agreement of four clinical experts. The aggregations correlated strongly with expert consensus. By effectively mimicking the expertise of physicians, the proposed workflow could make automation of lung tissue classification a clinical reality.

Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Raghunath, Sushravya; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

2012-03-01

328

Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre  

PubMed Central

RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

2008-01-01

329

A Computed Tomography-Based Spatial Normalization for the Analysis of [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography of the Brain  

PubMed Central

Objective We developed a new computed tomography (CT)-based spatial normalization method and CT template to demonstrate its usefulness in spatial normalization of positron emission tomography (PET) images with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in healthy controls. Materials and Methods Seventy healthy controls underwent brain CT scan (120 KeV, 180 mAs, and 3 mm of thickness) and [18F] FDG PET scans using a PET/CT scanner. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired for all subjects. By averaging skull-stripped and spatially-normalized MR and CT images, we created skull-stripped MR and CT templates for spatial normalization. The skull-stripped MR and CT images were spatially normalized to each structural template. PET images were spatially normalized by applying spatial transformation parameters to normalize skull-stripped MR and CT images. A conventional perfusion PET template was used for PET-based spatial normalization. Regional standardized uptake values (SUV) measured by overlaying the template volume of interest (VOI) were compared to those measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOI (FSVOI). Results All three spatial normalization methods underestimated regional SUV values by 0.3-20% compared to those measured with FSVOI. The CT-based method showed slightly greater underestimation bias. Regional SUV values derived from all three spatial normalization methods were correlated significantly (p < 0.0001) with those measured with FSVOI. Conclusion CT-based spatial normalization may be an alternative method for structure-based spatial normalization of [18F] FDG PET when MR imaging is unavailable. Therefore, it is useful for PET/CT studies with various radiotracers whose uptake is expected to be limited to specific brain regions or highly variable within study population. PMID:25469101

Cho, Hanna; Kim, Jin Su; Choi, Jae Yong; Ryu, Young Hoon

2014-01-01

330

Breast segmentation in MR images using three-dimensional spiral scanning and dynamic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been widely used for risk assessment and diagnosis of breast cancer in clinic. To develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system, breast segmentation is the first important and challenging task. The accuracy of subsequent quantitative measurement of breast density and abnormalities depends on accurate definition of the breast area in the images. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a fully automated method for accurate segmentation of breast in three-dimensional (3-D) MR images. A fast method was developed to identify bounding box, i.e., the volume of interest (VOI), for breasts. A 3-D spiral scanning method was used to transform the VOI of each breast into a single two-dimensional (2-D) generalized polar-coordinate image. Dynamic programming technique was applied to the transformed 2-D image for delineating the "optimal" contour of the breast. The contour of the breast in the transformed 2-D image was utilized to reconstruct the segmentation results in the 3-D MR images using interpolation and lookup table. The preliminary results on 17 cases show that the proposed method can obtain accurate segmentation of the breast based on subjective observation. By comparing with the manually delineated region of 16 breasts in 8 cases, an overlap index of 87.6% +/- 3.8% (mean +/- SD), and a volume agreement of 93.4% +/- 4.5% (mean +/- SD) were achieved, respectively. It took approximately 3 minutes for our method to segment the breast in an MR scan of 256 slices.

Jiang, Luan; Lian, Yanyun; Gu, Yajia; Li, Qiang

2013-03-01

331

Computerized detection of pulmonary embolism in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA): improvement of vessel segmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately when the vessel is occluded by PEs and/or surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases. In this study, we developed a method that combines MHES with level set refinement (MHES-LSR) to improve vessel segmentation accuracy. The level set was designed to propagate the initial object contours to the regions with relatively high gray-level, high gradient, and high compactness as measured by the smoothness of the curvature along vessel boundaries. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOI) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 31.7+/-10.9% using the MHES method to 7.7+/-4.7% using the MHES-LSR method. The correlation between the computer-segmented vessel volume and the reference standard was improved from 0.954 to 0.986. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (p<0.05). The MHES-LSR method may have the potential to improve PE detection.

Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Chughtai, Aamer; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A.

2011-03-01

332

Simulation of realistic abnormal SPECT brain perfusion images: application in semi-quantitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulation is useful in the validation of functional image analysis methods, particularly when considering the number of analysis techniques currently available lacking thorough validation. Problems exist with current simulation methods due to long run times or unrealistic results making it problematic to generate complete datasets. A method is presented for simulating known abnormalities within normal brain SPECT images using a measured point spread function (PSF), and incorporating a stereotactic atlas of the brain for anatomical positioning. This allows for the simulation of realistic images through the use of prior information regarding disease progression. SPECT images of cerebral perfusion have been generated consisting of a control database and a group of simulated abnormal subjects that are to be used in a UK audit of analysis methods. The abnormality is defined in the stereotactic space, then transformed to the individual subject space, convolved with a measured PSF and removed from the normal subject image. The dataset was analysed using SPM99 (Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, University College, London) and the MarsBaR volume of interest (VOI) analysis toolbox. The results were evaluated by comparison with the known ground truth. The analysis showed improvement when using a smoothing kernel equal to system resolution over the slightly larger kernel used routinely. Significant correlation was found between effective volume of a simulated abnormality and the detected size using SPM99. Improvements in VOI analysis sensitivity were found when using the region median over the region mean. The method and dataset provide an efficient methodology for use in the comparison and cross validation of semi-quantitative analysis methods in brain SPECT, and allow the optimization of analysis parameters.

Ward, T.; Fleming, J. S.; Hoffmann, S. M. A.; Kemp, P. M.

2005-11-01

333

Assessment of tumour response with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography using three-dimensional measures compared to SUVmax—a phantom study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SUVmax is currently the most common semi-quantitative method of response assessment on FDG PET. By defining the tumour volume of interest (VOI), a measure of total glycolytic volume (TGV) may be obtained. We aimed to comprehensively examine, in a phantom setting, the accuracy of TGV in reflecting actual lesion activity and to compare TGV with SUVmax for response assessment. The algorithms for VOI generation from which TGV was derived included fixed threshold techniques at 50% of maximum (MAX50), 70% of maximum (MAX70), an adaptive threshold of 50% of (maximum + background)/2 (BM50) and a semi-automated iterative region-growing algorithm, GRAB. Comparison with both actual lesion activity and response scenarios was performed. SUVmax correlated poorly with actual lesion activity (r = 0.651) and change in lesion activity (r = 0.605). In a response matrix scenario SUVmax performed poorly when all scenarios were considered, but performed well when only clinically likely scenarios were included. The TGV derived using MAX50 and MAX70 algorithms performed poorly in evaluation of lesion change. The TGV derived from BM50 and GRAB algorithms however performed extremely well in correlation with actual lesion activity (r = 0.993 and r = 0.982, respectively), change in lesion activity (r = 0.972 and r = 0.963, respectively) and in the response scenario matrix. TGVGRAB demonstrated narrow confidence bands when modelled with actual lesion activity. Measures of TGV generated by iterative algorithms such as GRAB show potential for increased sensitivity of metabolic response monitoring compared to SUVmax, which may have important implications for improved patient care.

Boucek, J. A.; Francis, R. J.; Jones, C. G.; Khan, N.; Turlach, B. A.; Green, A. J.

2008-08-01

334

Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies.  

PubMed

Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach. PMID:23160517

Xiong, Guoming; Paul, Cumming; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

2012-12-01

335

Progressive White Matter Microstructure Damage in Male Chronic Heroin Dependent Individuals: A DTI and TBSS Study  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the WM microstructure deficits in heroin dependent individuals (HDIs) with different length of heroin dependence, and to investigate whether these WM deficits can be related to the duration of heroin use and to decision-making deficits in HDIs. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-six HDIs [including eighteen sHDIs (duration of heroin dependent is less than 10 years) and eighteen lHDIs (duration of dependent is between 10?20 years)] and sixteen healthy controls participated in this study. Whole brain voxel-wise analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (Da) and radial diffusivity (Dr) were performed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to localize abnormal WM regions among groups. TBSS demonstrated that sHDIs had significantly lower FA than controls in right orbito-frontal WM, bilateral temporal WM and right parietal WM. The lHDIs had significantly lower FA throughout the brain compared with the controls and sHDIs. The lHDIs had significantly lower Da than controls in bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus, bilateral splenium of corpus callosum, left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and had significantly higher Dr than controls in bilateral uncinatus fasciculus, bilateral inferior frontaloccipital fasciculus and bilateral cortical spinal fasciculus. Volume-of-interest (VOI) analyses detect the changes of diffusivity indices in the regions with FA abnormalities revealed by control vs sHDIs. In most VOIs, FA reductions were caused by the increase in Dr as well as the decrease in Da. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between FA and behavioral measures in HDIs and controls available. Significantly positively correlations were found between the FA values in the right orbital-frontal WM, right parietal WM and IGT performance. Conclusions The extent and severity of WM integrity deficits in HDIs was associated with the length of heroin dependent. Furthermore, abnormal WM microstructure may correlate with decision-making impairments in HDIs. PMID:23650554

Su, Huanhuan; Lv, Xiaofei; Zhang, Xuelin; Tian, Junzhang; Zhuo, Fuzhen

2013-01-01

336

A minimally interactive method to segment enlarged lymph nodes in 3D thoracic CT images using a rotatable spiral-scanning technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise size measurement of enlarged lymph nodes is a significant indicator for diagnosing malignancy, follow-up and therapy monitoring of cancer diseases. The presence of diverse sizes and shapes, inhomogeneous enhancement and the adjacency to neighboring structures with similar intensities, make the segmentation task challenging. We present a semi-automatic approach requiring minimal user interactions to fast and robustly segment the enlarged lymph nodes. First, a stroke approximating the largest diameter of a specific lymph node is drawn manually from which a volume of interest (VOI) is determined. Second, Based on the statistical analysis of the intensities on the dilated stroke area, a region growing procedure is utilized within the VOI to create an initial segmentation of the target lymph node. Third, a rotatable spiral-scanning technique is proposed to resample the 3D boundary surface of the lymph node to a 2D boundary contour in a transformed polar image. The boundary contour is found by seeking the optimal path in 2D polar image with dynamic programming algorithm and eventually transformed back to 3D. Ultimately, the boundary surface of the lymph node is determined using an interpolation scheme followed by post-processing steps. To test the robustness and efficiency of our method, a quantitative evaluation was conducted with a dataset of 315 lymph nodes acquired from 79 patients with lymphoma and melanoma. Compared to the reference segmentations, an average Dice coefficient of 0.88 with a standard deviation of 0.08, and an average absolute surface distance of 0.54mm with a standard deviation of 0.48mm, were achieved.

Wang, Lei; Moltz, Jan H.; Bornemann, Lars; Hahn, Horst K.

2012-03-01

337

Role of pharmacoeconomic analysis in R&D decision making: when, where, how?  

PubMed

Pharmacoeconomics is vitally important to drug manufacturers in terms of communicating to external decision-makers (payers, prescribers, patients) the value of their products, achieving regulatory and reimbursement approval and contributing to commercial success. Since development of new drugs is long, costly and risky, and decisions must be made how to allocate considerable research and development (R&D) resources, pharmacoeconomics also has an essential role informing internal decision-making (within a company) during drug development. The use of pharmacoeconomics in early development phases is likely to enhance the efficiency of R&D resource use and also provide a solid foundation for communicating product value to external decision-makers further downstream, increasing the likelihood of regulatory (reimbursement) approval and commercial success. This paper puts the case for use of pharmacoeconomic analyses earlier in the development process and outlines five techniques (clinical trial simulation [CTS], option pricing [OP], investment appraisal [IA], threshold analysis [TA] and value of information [VOI] analysis) that can provide useful input into the design of clinical development programmes, portfolio management and optimal pricing strategy. CTS can estimate efficacy and tolerability profiles before clinical data are available. OP can show the value of different clinical programme designs, sequencing of studies and stop decisions. IA can compare expected net present value (NPV) of different product profiles or study designs. TA can be used to understand development drug profile requirements given partial data. VOI can assist risk management by quantifying uncertainty and assessing the economic viability of gathering further information on the development drug. No amount of pharmacoeconomic data can make a bad drug good; what it can do is enhance the drug developers understanding of the characteristics of that drug. Decision-making, in light of this information, is likely to be better than that without it, whether it leads to faster termination of uneconomic projects or the allocation of more appropriate resources to attractive projects. PMID:15693724

Miller, Paul

2005-01-01

338

Return to Venus of Japanese Venus Orbiter AKATSUKI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter 'AKATSUKI' (PLANET-C) was successfully launched at 06:58:22JST on May 21, by H-IIA F17. The malfunction, which happened during the Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI) on 7 Dec, 2010 is as follows. Orbital maneuver engine (OME) was fired 08:49 JST on Dec. 7. 1min. after firing the spacecraft went into the occultation region and we had no telemetry, but we expected to continuous firing for 12min. Recording on the spacecraft told us later that, unfortunately the firing continued just 152sec. and stopped. The reason of the malfunction of the OME was the blocking of check valve on the gas pressure line to push the fuel to the engine. We failed to make the spacecraft the Venus orbiter, and it is rotating the sun with the orbital period of 203 days. Most of the fuel still remains, but the OME was found to be broken. We decided to use only RCS for orbit maneuver and 3 minor maneuvers in November 2012 were successfully done so that AKATSUKI will meet Venus in late 2015. We are considering several scenarios only using RCS for VOI. In the presentation we will show the possible orbits and how we put the spacecraft into those orbits. They have higher apoapsis than we expected in the initial design, but they are still westward and equatorial that is ideal to reveal the mechanism of the super-rotation of the atmosphere, and we think we will be able to achieve the scientific goals which we have been proposing.

Nakamura, M.; Ishii, N.; Abe, T.; Imamura, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Satoh, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ueno, M.; Ohtsuki, S.; Yamada, M.; Ogohara, K.; Uemizu, K.; Hirose, C.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Iwagami, N.; Taguchi, M.

2012-12-01

339

Integrating Dimension Reduction and Out-of-Sample Extension in Automated Classification of Ex Vivo Human Patellar Cartilage on Phase Contrast X-Ray Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

Phase contrast X-ray computed tomography (PCI-CT) has been demonstrated as a novel imaging technique that can visualize human cartilage with high spatial resolution and soft tissue contrast. Different textural approaches have been previously investigated for characterizing chondrocyte organization on PCI-CT to enable classification of healthy and osteoarthritic cartilage. However, the large size of feature sets extracted in such studies motivates an investigation into algorithmic feature reduction for computing efficient feature representations without compromising their discriminatory power. For this purpose, geometrical feature sets derived from the scaling index method (SIM) were extracted from 1392 volumes of interest (VOI) annotated on PCI-CT images of ex vivo human patellar cartilage specimens. The extracted feature sets were subject to linear and non-linear dimension reduction techniques as well as feature selection based on evaluation of mutual information criteria. The reduced feature set was subsequently used in a machine learning task with support vector regression to classify VOIs as healthy or osteoarthritic; classification performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results show that the classification performance achieved by 9-D SIM-derived geometric feature sets (AUC: 0.96 ± 0.02) can be maintained with 2-D representations computed from both dimension reduction and feature selection (AUC values as high as 0.97 ± 0.02). Thus, such feature reduction techniques can offer a high degree of compaction to large feature sets extracted from PCI-CT images while maintaining their ability to characterize the underlying chondrocyte patterns. PMID:25710875

Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Coan, Paola; Huber, Markus B.; Diemoz, Paul C.; Wismüller, Axel

2015-01-01

340

"First pain" in humans: convergent and specific forebrain responses  

PubMed Central

Background Brief heat stimuli that excite nociceptors innervated by finely myelinated (A?) fibers evoke an initial, sharp, well-localized pain ("first pain") that is distinguishable from the delayed, less intense, more prolonged dull pain attributed to nociceptors innervated by unmyelinated (C) fibers ("second pain"). In the present study, we address the question of whether a brief, noxious heat stimulus that excites cutaneous A? fibers activates a distinct set of forebrain structures preferentially in addition to those with similar responses to converging input from C fibers. Heat stimuli at two temperatures were applied to the dorsum of the left hand of healthy volunteers in a functional brain imaging (fMRI) paradigm and responses analyzed in a set of volumes of interest (VOI). Results Brief 41°C stimuli were painless and evoked only C fiber responses, but 51°C stimuli were at pain threshold and preferentially evoked A? fiber responses. Most VOI responded to both intensities of stimulation. However, within volumes of interest, a contrast analysis and comparison of BOLD response latencies showed that the bilateral anterior insulae, the contralateral hippocampus, and the ipsilateral posterior insula were preferentially activated by painful heat stimulation that excited A? fibers. Conclusions These findings show that two sets of forebrain structures mediate the initial sharp pain evoked by brief cutaneous heat stimulation: those responding preferentially to the brief stimulation of A? heat nociceptors and those with similar responses to converging inputs from the painless stimulation of C fibers. Our results suggest a unique and specific physiological basis, at the forebrain level, for the "first pain" sensation that has long been attributed to A? fiber stimulation and support the concept that both specific and convergent mechanisms act concurrently to mediate pain. PMID:21083897

2010-01-01

341

Predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens with bone mineral density features and support vector regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the clinical assessment of osteoporotic hip fracture risk, recent computer-aided diagnosis systems explore new approaches to estimate the local trabecular bone quality beyond bone density alone to predict femoral bone strength. In this context, statistical bone mineral density (BMD) features extracted from multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images of proximal femur specimens and different function approximations methods were compared in their ability to predict the biomechanical strength. MDCT scans were acquired in 146 proximal femur specimens harvested from human cadavers. The femurs' failure load (FL) was determined through biomechanical testing. An automated volume of interest (VOI)-fitting algorithm was used to define a consistent volume in the femoral head of each specimen. In these VOIs, the trabecular bone was represented by statistical moments of the BMD distribution and by pairwise spatial occurrence of BMD values using the gray-level co-occurrence (GLCM) approach. A linear multi-regression analysis (MultiReg) and a support vector regression algorithm with a linear kernel (SVRlin) were used to predict the FL from the image feature sets. The prediction performance was measured by the root mean square error (RMSE) for each image feature on independent test sets; in addition the coefficient of determination R2 was calculated. The best prediction result was obtained with a GLCM feature set using SVRlin, which had the lowest prediction error (RSME = 1.040+/-0.143, R2 = 0.544) and which was significantly lower that the standard approach of using BMD.mean and MultiReg (RSME = 1.093+/-0.133, R2 = 0.490, p<0.0001). The combined sets including BMD.mean and GLCM features had a similar or slightly lower performance than using only GLCM features. The results indicate that the performance of high-dimensional BMD features extracted from MDCT images in predicting the biomechanical strength of proximal femur specimens can be significantly improved by using support vector regression.

Huber, Markus B.; Yang, Chien-Chun; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Bauer, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Eckstein, Felix; Lochmüller, Eva; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.; Wismüller, Axel

2012-03-01

342

Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [18F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach.

Xiong, Guoming; Cumming, Paul; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

2012-12-01

343

Le changement comme tradition dans la recherche et la formation a la recherche en biotechnologie et en peripherie Etude de cas en sciences de la sante, sciences naturelles et genie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le champ de la recherche scientifique et de la formation a la recherche est traverse depuis quelques dizaines d'annees par plusieurs courants et discours associes au changement, mais peu de travaux empiriques permettent de comprendre ce qui change concretement. C'est la contribution originale de cette these au champ de l'education, plus specifiquement a l'etude sociologique de l'enseignement superieur ou sont concentrees les activites liees a la triade thematique du programme doctoral dans lequel elle a ete produite : recherche, formation et pratique. L'enquete-terrain a ete realisee en 2009 et 2010 aupres de 808 repondants affilies a 60 etablissements au Quebec et a produit un vaste materiau de nature mixte (donnees quantitatives et qualitatives). Un portrait de la nebuleuse biotechnologique qui touche les secteurs des sciences de la sante, des sciences naturelles et du genie a ete realise. Ce domaine concerne des dizaines de disciplines et se revele de nature transdisciplinaire, mais les pratiques n'y sont pas davantage marquees par le changement que celles d'autres domaines connexes. Les dynamiques sociales ont fait l'objet d'analyses comparatives dans quatre contextes: le choix des programmes, des objets et des methodes, le financement, la diffusion et la planification de la carriere. Les resultats indiquent que les echanges entre les agents traditionnellement situes au coeur des activites de recherche dominent ces dynamiques dans tous les contextes etudies. L'etude des representations au fondement des pratiques a revele l'existence de trois ecoles de pensee qui coexistent dans le champ scientifique: academique, pragmatique et economiste. Ces ecoles permettent de categoriser les agents en fonction des zones de fractures qui marquent leurs oppositions tout en identifiant ce qu'ils ont en commun. Les representations et les pratiques liees a la formation temoignent d'un habitus plutot homogene, alors que les contradictions semblent plus souvent ancrees dans des luttes universitaires que scientifiques, concentrees sur la negociation du capital scientifique, symbolique et economique en jeu dans la formation doctorale, dans les carrieres auxquelles elle mene, et dans les qualites du titre de Ph.D. Au final, la confusion entre des logiques opposees peut etre reduite en reinterpretant le changement comme tradition du champ scientifique. Mots-cles Sociologie, education, enseignement superieur, science et technologie, biotechnologie, formation doctorale, champ scientifique, reseaux sociaux

Bourque, Claude Julie

344

Elaboration d'un dosimetre a fibres scintillantes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le but de ce travail est de developper un dosimetre constitue d'une matrice de petits scintillateurs plastiques. Ce dosimetre doit presenter une bonne precision et reproductibilite pour satisfaire aux exigences imposees par des techniques de radiotherapie de pointe comme la radiotherapie d'intensite modulee, la radiochirurgie et la tomotherapie. Le desavantage majeur de cette forme de dosimetrie est la presence de bruit produit par l'effet de la radiation sur la fibre optique transportant la lumiere de scintillation jusqu'au photodetecteur. Pour en reduire l'impact, une etude approfondie des dosimetres a scintillation a ete effectuee. Commencant par une modelisation theorique de la collecte et du guidage lumineux, ce travail a ete suivi d'une comparaison experimentale de plusieurs scintillateurs plastiques, de methodes de couplage, de photodetecteurs et de techniques de filtrage. Ces etudes ont permis de choisir les fibres scintillantes pour leur gain de signal de 50% relativement aux autres scintillateurs plastiques. La camera CCD est le photodetecteur le plus adapte pour ce projet etant donne une sensibilite et une stabilite suffisantes, une capacite d'evaluer 3000 signaux dosimetriques simultanement et un systeme de separation chromatique. Apres la selection des meilleures composantes, un dosimetre a ete developpe pour etudier la performance des techniques de filtrage. Il a ete demontre que, apres utilisation du meilleur filtrage, une precision superieure a 1% pouvait etre atteinte. Un dosimetre a trois detecteurs de volumes differents (0,0014, 0,0034 et 0,0083 cm 3) a demontre une linearite face a des taux de doses allant de 10 a 600 cGy/min et pour des temps d'integration entre 0,05 et 50 s. Une reproductibilite superieure a 1% a ete observee pour des doses minimales de 45, 35 et 20 cGy respectivement pour le petit, le moyen et le grand detecteur. Une matrice de 10 detecteurs espaces de 5 mm sur une ligne a ensuite ete realisee. Ce dosimetre s'est montre adapte pour l'evaluation precise et rapide de patrons de doses. Meme si un modele abordable de camera CCD a ete utilise, il a ete possible de developper un dosimetre precis, reproductible et de haute resolution spatiale possedant les excellentes proprietes des scintillateurs plastiques.

Archambault, Louis

345

Conception d'un circuit d'etouffement pour photodiodes a avalanche en mode geiger pour integration heterogene 3d  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le Groupe de Recherche en Appareillage Medical de Sherbrooke (GRAMS) travaille actuellement sur un programme de recherche portant sur des photodiodes a avalanche mono-photoniques (PAMP) operees en mode Geiger en vue d'une application a la tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP). Pour operer dans ce mode; la PAMP, ou SPAD selon l'acronyme anglais (Single Photon Avalanche Diode), requiert un circuit d'etouffement (CE) pour, d'une part, arreter l'avalanche pouvant causer sa destruction et, d'autre part. la reinitialiser en mode d'attente d'un nouveau photon. Le role de ce CE comprend egalement une electronique de communication vers les etages de traitement avance de signaux. La performance temporelle optimale du CE est realisee lorsqu'il est juxtapose a la PAMP. Cependant, cela entraine une reduction de la surface photosensible ; un element crucial en imagerie. L'integration 3D, a base d'interconnexions verticales, offre une solution elegante et performante a cette problematique par l'empilement de circuits integres possedant differentes fonctions (PAMP, CE et traitement avance de signaux). Dans l'approche proposee, des circuits d'etouffement de 50 pm x 50 pm realises sur une technologie CMOS 130 mn 3D Tezzaron, contenant chacun 112 transistors, sont matrices afin de correspondre a une matrice de PAMP localisee sur une couche electronique superieure. Chaque circuit d'etouffement possede une gigue temporelle de 7,47 ps RMS selon des simulations faites avec le logiciel Cadence. Le CE a la flexibilite d'ajuster les temps d'etouffement et de recharge pour la PAMP tout en presentant une faible consommation de puissance (~ 0,33 mW a 33 Mcps). La conception du PAMP necessite de supporter des tensions superieures aux 3,3 V de la technologie. Pour repondre a ce probleme, des transistors a drain etendu (DEMOS) ont ete realises. En raison de retards de production par Ies fabricants, les circuits n'ont pu etre testes physiquement par des mesures. Les resultats de ce memoire sont par consequent bases sur des resultats de simulations avec le logiciel Cadence. Mots-cles : Circuit d'etouffement, Photodiodes a avalanche monophotoniques (PAMP), Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD), Integration 3D heterogene, Drain-Extended MOS (DEMOS), CMOS 130 nm 3D Tezzaron/Chartered, Tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP)

Boisvert, Alexandre

346

Traditional and Modern Uses of Natural Honey in Human Diseases: A Review  

PubMed Central

Honey is a by-product of flower nectar and the upper aero-digestive tract of the honey bee, which is concentrated through a dehydration process inside the bee hive. Honey has a very complex chemical composition that varies depending on the botanical source. It has been used both as food and medicine since ancient times. Human use of honey is traced to some 8000 years ago as depicted by Stone Age paintings. In addition to important role of natural honey in the traditional medicine, during the past few decades, it was subjected to laboratory and clinical investigations by several research groups and it has found a place in modern medicine. Honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on around 60 species of bacteria, some species of fungi and viruses. Antioxidant capacity of honey is important in many disease conditions and is due to a wide range of compounds including phenolics, peptides, organic acids, enzymes, and Maillard reaction products. Honey has also been used in some gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neoplastic states. This review covers the composition, physico-chemical properties and the most important uses of natural honey in human diseases. PMID:23997898

Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Najafi, Moslem

2013-01-01

347

Paranasal sinus cancer.  

PubMed

Paranasal sinus cancers are rare, aggressive tumours that are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. They differ from other upper aerodigestive tract tumours in terms of risk factors (wood dust exposure) and premalignant lesions (inverted papillomas). The diagnosis should be suspected in the presence of unilateral and continuous nasal sinus symptoms or bone lysis or a heterogeneous opacity on imaging. The definitive positive diagnosis is based on histological examination. Staging must comprise face, brain, neck and chest CT as well as face and brain MRI. Tumours are stage T3-T4 in two-thirds of cases and are associated with cervical lymph node involvement in 10% of squamous cell carcinomas and 4% of adenocarcinomas. These tumours must be managed in reference centres experienced in all of the various treatment modalities. Treatment decisions must be based on a multidisciplinary approach comprising local, regional and national REFCOR expertise (French rare head and neck cancer network). Optimal treatment is surgical resection with clear margins associated with adjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Although it has been improved over recent decades, the prognosis remains poor with local recurrences occurring in 38% of cases and a five-year overall survival of about 63%. PMID:23523040

Jégoux, F; Métreau, A; Louvel, G; Bedfert, C

2013-12-01

348

Implications of acetaldehyde-derived DNA adducts for understanding alcohol-related carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Among various potential mechanisms that could explain alcohol carcinogenicity, the metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde represents an obvious possible mechanism, at least in some tissues. The fundamental principle of genotoxic carcinogenesis is the formation of mutagenic DNA adducts in proliferating cells. If not repaired, these adducts can result in mutations during DNA replication, which are passed on to cells during mitosis. Consistent with a genotoxic mechanism, acetaldehyde does react with DNA to form a variety of different types of DNA adducts. In this chapter we will focus more specifically on N2-ethylidene-deoxyguanosine (N2-ethylidene-dG), the major DNA adduct formed from the reaction of acetaldehyde with DNA and specifically highlight recent data on the measurement of this DNA adduct in the human body after alcohol exposure. Because results are of particular biological relevance for alcohol-related cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), we will also discuss the histology and cytology of the UADT, with the goal of placing the adduct data in the relevant cellular context for mechanistic interpretation. Furthermore, we will discuss the sources and concentrations of acetaldehyde and ethanol in different cell types during alcohol consumption in humans. Finally, in the last part of the chapter, we will critically evaluate the concept of carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde, which has been raised in the literature, and discuss how data from acetaldehyde genotoxicity are and can be utilized in physiologically based models to evaluate exposure risk. PMID:25427902

Balbo, Silvia; Brooks, Philip J

2015-01-01

349

Juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: still a mystery disease with difficult management.  

PubMed

Juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is the most common benign neoplastic disease of the larynx in children and adolescents and has a significant impact on patients and the health care system with a cost ranging from $60,000 to $470,000 per patient. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on RRP and summarize the recent advances. RRP is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV; mainly by types 6 and 11). Patients suffer from wart-like growths in the aerodigestive tract. The course of the disease is unpredictable. Although spontaneous remission is possible, pulmonary spread and malignant transformation have been reported. Surgical excision, including new methods like the microdebrider, aims to secure an adequate airway and improve and maintain an acceptable voice. Repeated recurrences are common and thus overenthusiastic attempts to eradicate the disease may cause serious complications. When papillomas recur, old and new adjuvant methods may be tried. In addition, recent advances in immune system research may allow us to improve our treatment modalities and prevention strategies. A new vaccine is under trial to prevent HPV infection in women; the strongest risk factor for juvenile RRP is a maternal history of genital warts (transmitted from mother to child during delivery). Better understanding of the etiology of the disease and the knowledge of all available therapies is crucial for the best management of the affected patients. PMID:17022088

Stamataki, Sofia; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P; Korres, Stavros; Felekis, Dimitrios; Tzangaroulakis, Antonios; Ferekidis, Eleftherios

2007-02-01

350

Pharmacological recruitment of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) to assist ALDH2 in acetaldehyde and ethanol metabolism in vivo.  

PubMed

Correcting a genetic mutation that leads to a loss of function has been a challenge. One such mutation is in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), denoted ALDH2*2. This mutation is present in ?0.6 billion East Asians and results in accumulation of toxic acetaldehyde after consumption of ethanol. To temporarily increase metabolism of acetaldehyde in vivo, we describe an approach in which a pharmacologic agent recruited another ALDH to metabolize acetaldehyde. We focused on ALDH3A1, which is enriched in the upper aerodigestive track, and identified Alda-89 as a small molecule that enables ALDH3A1 to metabolize acetaldehyde. When given together with the ALDH2-specific activator, Alda-1, Alda-89 reduced acetaldehyde-induced behavioral impairment by causing a rapid reduction in blood ethanol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol intoxication in both wild-type and ALDH2-deficient, ALDH2*1/*2, heterozygotic knock-in mice. The use of a pharmacologic agent to recruit an enzyme to metabolize a substrate that it usually does not metabolize may represent a novel means to temporarily increase elimination of toxic agents in vivo. PMID:25713355

Chen, Che-Hong; Cruz, Leslie A; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

2015-03-10

351

How I treat NK/T-cell lymphomas.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphomas and NK-cell leukemias are aggressive malignancies. Occurring worldwide, they show a predilection for Asian and South American populations. Neoplastic cells are surface CD3-, cytoplasmic CD3?+, CD56+, cytotoxic-molecule positive, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive, with germline T-cell receptor gene. Lymphomas occur commonly in the nasal and upper aerodigestive region. Occasional cases present in the skin, salivary gland, testis, and gastrointestinal tract. Rare cases are disseminated with lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and a leukemic phase. Positron emission tomography computed tomography is useful in staging, as lymphomas are 18-fluorodeoxyglucose avid. Quantification of circulating EBV DNA is an accurate biomarker of tumor load. Nasal NK/T-cell lymphomas present mostly with stage I/II disease. Concomitant/sequential chemotherapy and radiotherapy is standard treatment. Radiotherapy alone is inadequate because of high systemic failure rate. For stage III/IV nasal, nonnasal, and disseminated lymphomas, systemic chemotherapy is indicated. Regimens containing l-asparaginase and drugs unaffected by P-glycoprotein are most effective. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is not indicated for early-stage nasal lymphomas. HSCT for lymphomas not in remission has poor results. In advanced-stage nasal, nonnasal, disseminated, or relapsed lymphomas, HSCT may be considered when remission is achieved. Prognostic modeling and EBV DNA monitoring may be useful in risk stratification for HSCT. PMID:23652805

Tse, Eric; Kwong, Yok-Lam

2013-06-20

352

Polymeric implant materials for the reconstruction of tracheal and pharyngeal mucosal defects in head and neck surgery  

PubMed Central

The existing therapeutical options for the tracheal and pharyngeal reconstruction by use of implant materials are described. Inspite of a multitude of options and the availability of very different materials none of these methods applied for tracheal reconstruction were successfully introduced into the clinical routine. Essential problems are insufficiencies of anastomoses, stenoses, lack of mucociliary clearance and vascularisation. The advances in Tissue Engineering (TE) offer new therapeutical options also in the field of the reconstructive surgery of the trachea. In pharyngeal reconstruction far reaching developments cannot be recognized at the moment which would allow to give a prognosis of their success in clinical application. A new polymeric implant material consisting of multiblock copolymers was applied in our own work which was regarded as a promising material for the reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract (ADT) due to its physicochemical characteristics. In order to test this material for applications in the ADT under extreme chemical, enzymatical, bacterial and mechanical conditions we applied it for the reconstruction of a complete defect of the gastric wall in an animal model. In none of the animals tested either gastrointestinal complications or negative systemic events occurred, however, there was a multilayered regeneration of the gastric wall implying a regular structured mucosa. In future the advanced stem cell technology will allow further progress in the reconstruction of different kind of tissues also in the field of head and neck surgery following the principles of Tissue Engineering. PMID:22073099

Rickert, Dorothee

2011-01-01

353

[Polymeric implant materials for the reconstruction of tracheal and pharyngeal mucosal defects in head and neck surgery].  

PubMed

The existing therapeutical options for the tracheal and pharyngeal reconstruction by use of implant materials are described. Inspite of a multitude of options and the availability of very different materials none of these methods applied for tracheal reconstruction were successfully introduced into the clinical routine. Essential problems are insufficiencies of anastomoses, stenoses, lack of mucociliary clearance and vascularisation. The advances in Tissue Engineering (TE) offer new therapeutical options also in the field of the reconstructive surgery of the trachea. In pharyngeal reconstruction far reaching developments cannot be recognized at the moment which would allow to give a prognosis of their success in clinical application. A new polymeric implant material consisting of multiblock copolymers was applied in our own work which was regarded as a promising material for the reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract (ADT) due to its physicochemical characteristics. In order to test this material for applications in the ADT under extreme chemical, enzymatical, bacterial and mechanical conditions we applied it for the reconstruction of a complete defect of the gastric wall in an animal model. In none of the animals tested either gastrointestinal complications or negative systemic events occurred, however, there was a multilayered regeneration of the gastric wall implying a regular structured mucosa. In future the advanced stem cell technology will allow further progress in the reconstruction of different kind of tissues also in the field of head and neck surgery following the principles of Tissue Engineering. PMID:19353460

Rickert, D

2009-05-01

354

Polymeric implant materials for the reconstruction of tracheal and pharyngeal mucosal defects in head and neck surgery.  

PubMed

The existing therapeutical options for the tracheal and pharyngeal reconstruction by use of implant materials are described. Inspite of a multitude of options and the availability of very different materials none of these methods applied for tracheal reconstruction were successfully introduced into the clinical routine. Essential problems are insufficiencies of anastomoses, stenoses, lack of mucociliary clearance and vascularisation. The advances in Tissue Engineering (TE) offer new therapeutical options also in the field of the reconstructive surgery of the trachea. In pharyngeal reconstruction far reaching developments cannot be recognized at the moment which would allow to give a prognosis of their success in clinical application. A new polymeric implant material consisting of multiblock copolymers was applied in our own work which was regarded as a promising material for the reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract (ADT) due to its physicochemical characteristics. In order to test this material for applications in the ADT under extreme chemical, enzymatical, bacterial and mechanical conditions we applied it for the reconstruction of a complete defect of the gastric wall in an animal model. In none of the animals tested either gastrointestinal complications or negative systemic events occurred, however, there was a multilayered regeneration of the gastric wall implying a regular structured mucosa.In future the advanced stem cell technology will allow further progress in the reconstruction of different kind of tissues also in the field of head and neck surgery following the principles of Tissue Engineering. PMID:22073099

Rickert, Dorothee

2009-01-01

355

[Long-term experience with percutaneous endoscopic controlled gastrostomy (PEG) in ENT tumor patients].  

PubMed

Percutaneous endoscopically controlled gastrostomy (PEG) enables patients suffering from a tumor of the upper aerodigestive tract to receive direct gastric feedings. The procedure also avoids the social stigma of a nasal feeding tube. The results of 630 PEG procedures used in 555 patients suffering from various head and neck cancers are reported. The mean age of the patients was 58.0 years with a range from 11 to 92 years. The PEG procedure was carried out under local anesthesia in 60% of the cases and with general anesthesia in 40%. In 512 patients the initial PEG procedure was successful while 43 of the patients require a second PEG procedure after loss of the PEG. In 19 patients the PEG procedure was not successful because of tumor obstruction or it was not possible to perform endoscopy. Twenty-four patients were successfully treated in a second or third session. Although 97% (n = 563) of all 555 patients and 92% (n = 579) of all PEG procedures were successful. The mean duration of PEG use was 243 (range: 0-2271 days). In 66 patients (10.5%) complications occurred but severe complications developed in only 8 patients (1.3%). Operative interventions were necessary in two cases. No deaths resulted from the PEG. These findings show that the PEG technique is safe to do with only few complications when performed by a skilled team. PMID:9736940

Zenk, J; Waldfahrer, F; Petsch, S; Iro, H

1998-07-01

356

Successful imatinib therapy for neuroendocrine carcinoma with activating Kit mutation: a case study.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are believed to originate from the cells of Cajal that are randomly dispersed along the aerodigestive tract. Despite their distinct morphologic appearance, NET and GIST may share oncogenic mechanisms. Often presenting in the metastatic setting, treatment options for patients with NET are limited. This case report presents a patient with refractory metastatic NET that did not respond conventional chemotherapy. The patient was treated with a KIF11 inhibitor in a phase I clinical trial and experienced a prolonged and clinically meaningful partial response. On progression at 20 months, the patient's tumor was sequenced to reveal a KIT exon 11 mutation. Institution of imatinib therapy achieved a rapid and sustained antitumor effect with profound clinical benefit. Despite previously reported KIT expression in NET, this is the first documented case of an activating KIT mutation in NET and of successful treatment with both a KIF11 inhibitor and imatinib, each of which was elucidated through molecular profiling of the patient's tumor. Imatinib may be a valuable therapy in NET harboring activating KIT mutations. PMID:24925195

Perkins, James; Boland, Patrick; Cohen, Steven J; Olszanski, Anthony J; Zhou, Yan; Engstrom, Paul; Astsaturov, Igor

2014-06-01

357

Surgical Approaches to Resection of Anterior Skull Base and Paranasal Sinuses Tumors  

PubMed Central

Malignant tumours of the sinonasal tract comprise approximately 3% of the malignancies that arise in the upper aerodigestive tract. Approximately 10% of tumours that arise in the sinonasal tract originate in the ethmoid and/or frontal sinuses, and are likely to involve the anterior cranial base. The route of spread of tumours originating in the anterior skull base and paranasal sinuses is determined by the complex anatomy of the craniomaxillofacial compartments. These tumours may invade laterally into the orbit and middle fossa, inferiorly into the maxillary antrum and palate, posteriorly into the nasopharynx and pterygopalatine fossa, and superiorly into the cavernous sinus and brain. Recent improvements in endoscopic technology now allow the resection of the majority of benign neoplasms and some early malignant tumours with minor dural involvement. For advanced-stage malignant tumours and benign tumours with frontal bone involvement, the classical open approaches remain viable surgical techniques. In this paper, we review the open surgical resection approaches used for resections in the craniomaxillofacial area. PMID:25207089

Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Fliss, Dan M.

2013-01-01

358

Oral potentially malignant disorders: Is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?  

PubMed Central

Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented. Furthermore, follow-up programs are of questionable value in this respect. Cessation of smoking habits may result in regression or even disappearance of the leukoplakia and will diminish the risk of cancer development either at the site of the leukoplakia or elsewhere in the mouth or the upper aerodigestive tract. The debate on the allegedly potentially malignant character of oral lichen planus is going on already for several decades. At present, there is a tendency to accept its potentially malignant behaviour, the annual malignant transformation rate amounting less than 0.5%. As in leukoplakia, there are no reliable predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented either. Follow-up visits, e.g twice a year, may be of some value. It is probably beyond the scope of most dentists to manage patients with these lesions in their own office. Timely referral to a specialist seems most appropriate, indeed. Key words:Oral potentially malignant disorders, oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus. PMID:24905952

van der Waal, Isaäc

2014-01-01

359

Microarchitecture of irradiated bone: comparison with healthy bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract represent about ten percent of cancers. External radiation therapy leads to esthetic and functional consequences, and to a decrease of the bone mechanical abilities. For these patients, the oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including possibilities of dental implant placement, is difficult. The effects of radiotherapy on bone microarchitecture parameters are not well known. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the effects of external radiation on bone micro architecture in an experimental model of 25 rats using micro CT. 15 rats were irradiated on the hind limbs by a single dose of 20 Grays, and 10 rats were non irradiated. Images of irradiated and healthy bone were compared. Bone microarchitecture parameters (including trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, connectivity density and tissue and bone volume) between irradiated and non-irradiated bones were calculated and compared using a Mann and Whitney test. After 7 and 12 weeks, images of irradiated and healthy bone are different. Differences on the irradiated and the healthy bone populations exhibit a statistical significance. Trabecular number, connectivity density and closed porosity are less important on irradiated bone. Trabecular thickness and separation increase for irradiated bone. These parameters indicate a decrease of irradiated bone properties. Finally, the external irradiation induces changes on the bone micro architecture. This knowledge is of prime importance for better oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including implant placement.

Bléry, Pauline; Amouriq, Yves; Guédon, Jeanpierre; Pilet, Paul; Normand, Nicolas; Durand, Nicolas; Espitalier, Florent; Arlicot, Aurore; Malard, Olivier; Weiss, Pierre

2012-03-01

360

Long-term survival after liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease  

PubMed Central

Currently, alcoholic cirrhosis is the second leading indication for liver transplantation in the United States and Europe. The quality of life and survival after a liver transplantation (LT) in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are similar to those in patients with other cirrhosis etiologies. The alcoholic relapse rate after a LT varies from 10%-50%, and these relapse patients are the ones who present a reduced long-term survival, mainly due to cardiovascular diseases and the onset of de novo neoplasms, including lung and upper aerodigestive tract. Nearly 40% of ALD recipients resume smoking and resume it early post-LT. Therefore, our pre-and post-LT follow-up efforts regarding ALD should be focused not only on alcoholic relapse but also on treating and avoiding other modifiable risk factors such as tobacco. The psychiatric and psychosocial pre-LT evaluation and the post-LT follow-up with physicians, psychiatrists and addiction specialists are important for reversing these problems because these professionals help to identify patients at risk for relapse as well as those patients who have relapsed, thus enabling responsive actions. PMID:24409048

Iruzubieta, Paula; Crespo, Javier; Fábrega, Emilio

2013-01-01

361

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin cytotoxicity occurs through bilayer destabilization  

PubMed Central

Summary The Gram-negative bacterium, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, is a common inhabitant of the human upper aerodigestive tract. The organism produces an RTX (Repeats in ToXin) toxin (LtxA) that kills human white blood cells. LtxA is believed to be a membrane-damaging toxin, but details of the cell surface interaction for this and several other RTX toxins have yet to be elucidated. Initial morphological studies suggested that LtxA was bending the target cell membrane. Because the ability of a membrane to bend is a function of its lipid composition, we assessed the proficiency of LtxA to release of a fluorescent dye from a panel of liposomes composed of various lipids. Liposomes composed of lipids that form nonlamellar phases were susceptible to LtxA-induced damage while liposomes composed of lipids that do not form non-bilayer structures were not. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the toxin decreased the temperature at which the lipid transitions from a bilayer to a nonlamellar phase, while 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the LtxA-induced transition from a bilayer to an inverted hexagonal phase occurs through the formation of an isotropic intermediate phase. These results indicate that LtxA cytotoxicity occurs through a process of membrane destabilization. PMID:22309134

Brown, Angela C.; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Du, Yurong; Stefano, Frank P.; Kieba, Irene R.; Epand, Raquel F.; Kakalis, Lazaros; Yeagle, Philip L.; Epand, Richard M.; Lally, Edward T.

2012-01-01

362

Aggressive mature natural killer cell neoplasms: from epidemiology to diagnosis.  

PubMed

Mature natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms are classified by the World Health Organization into NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTCL), aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKCL) and chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK-cells, the latter being considered provisionally. NKTCL and ANKCL are rare diseases, with higher prevalence in Asia, Central and South America. Most NKTCL present extranodal, as a destructive tumor affecting the nose and upper aerodigestive tract (nasal NKTCL) or any organ or tissue (extranasal NKTCL) whereas ANKCL manifests as a systemic disease with multiorgan involvement and naturally evolutes to death in a few weeks. The histopathological hallmark of these aggressive NK-cell tumors is a polymorphic neoplastic infiltrate with angiocentricity, angiodestruction and tissue necrosis. The tumor cells have cytoplasmatic azurophilic granules and usually show a CD45(+bright), CD2(+), sCD3(-), cytCD3epsilon(+), CD56(+bright), CD16(?/+), cytotoxic granules molecules(+) phenotype. T-cell receptor genes are in germ-line configuration. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -encoded membrane proteins and early region EBV RNA are usually detected on lymphoma cells, with a pattern suggestive of a latent viral infection type II. Complex chromosomal abnormalities are frequent and loss of chromosomes 6q, 11q, 13q, and 17p are recurrent aberrations. The rarity of the NK-cell tumors limits our ability to standardize the procedures for the diagnosis and clinical management and efforts should be made to encourage multi-institutional registries. PMID:23816348

Lima, Margarida

2013-01-01

363

A Case-Control Study of the Role of Human Papillomavirus in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Australia  

PubMed Central

Objective. We investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues compared to oesophageal tissue from healthy controls, in an Australian cohort. Methods. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 99 patients with OSCC and 100 healthy controls to examine the presence of HPV DNA. Paraffin tissues were tested using the PapType high-risk HPV detection and genotyping kit and with INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra. The biopsy samples were tested for HPV using a PCR-ELISA method based on the L1 consensus primer set PGMY09-PGMY11. Results. HPV DNA of the oncogenic genotype 16 was detected in 1/99 case specimens, a rate of 1010 per 100,000 (95% CI: 30–5500). All control specimens were negative for HPV. Significantly higher rates of smoking, other aerodigestive cancers, and mortality were seen among cases than controls. A pooled analysis of this study and the only other Australian case-control study found that 9/321 cases and 0/155 controls were positive for HPV. The pooled odds ratio for HPV being a risk factor for OSCC was 9.35 (95% CI: 0.47–190.33). Conclusion. Our results suggest that in this multifactorial cancer HPV may be an additional risk factor; although a larger, better powered study is needed. PMID:24872815

Liyanage, Surabhi S.; Malik, Aisha; Garland, Suzanne M.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Rahman, Bayzidur; Barbour, Andrew P.; Crowe, Philip J.; MacIntyre, C. Raina

2014-01-01

364

Activity of the Vascular-Disrupting Agent 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-Acetic Acid against Human Head and Neck Carcinoma Xenografts1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) constitute a majority of the tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and continue to present a significant therapeutic challenge. To explore the potential of vascular-targeted therapy in HNSCC, we investigated the antivascular, antitumor activity of the potent vascular-disrupting agent (VDA) 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) against two HNSCC xenografts with markedly different morphologic and vascular characteristics. Athymic nude mice bearing subcutaneous FaDu (human pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma) and A253 (human submaxillary gland epidermoid carcinoma) tumors were administered a single dose of DMXAA (30 mg/kg, i.p). Changes in vascular function were evaluated 24 hours after treatment using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and immunohistochemistry (CD31). Signal enhancement (E) and change in longitudinal relaxation rates (?R1) were calculated to measure alterations in vascular perfusion. MRI showed a 78% and 49% reduction in vascular perfusion in FaDu and A253 xenografts, respectively. CD31-immunostaining of tumor sections revealed three-fold (FaDu) and two-fold (A253) reductions in microvessel density (MVD) 24 hours after treatment. DMXAA was equally effective against both xenografts, with significant tumor growth inhibition observed 30 days after treatment. These results indicate that DMXAA may be beneficial in the management of HNSCC, alone or in combination with other treatments. PMID:16867215

Seshadri, Mukund; Mazurchuk, Richard; Spernyak, Joseph A; Bhattacharya, Arup; Rustum, Youcef M; Bellnier, David A

2006-01-01

365

Optical coherence tomography and confocal endomicroscopy for rhinologic pathologies: a pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal endomicroscopy (CEM) have a well-established potential for early diagnosis of pre-malignant and early malignant lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract mucosa. Additional applications in ENT-diagnostics might facilitate a more widespread use by making the investment into the devices more economic. Both imaging techniques might also provide valuable information in nasal pathologies. OCT images were generated with a surgical microscope (Möller-Wedel Hi-R 1000) with an integrated high-speed-OCT camera (Optomedical GmbH). For the CEM a Heidelberg Retina tomograph II scanner (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH) was used. Both during sinus surgery in vivo and from removed material ex vivo OCT and CEM images were taken and correlated with histopathological analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Patients with inverted papillomas and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) were evaluated. Inverted papillomas show a variably thick epithelial layer on OCT and densely packed epithelial cells on CEM. They can be clearly distinguished from nasal polyps that show a very thin epithelial layer upon loose subepithelial tissue. In CRS CEM can distinguish areas with intact from areas with destroyed ciliated epithelium by directly visualizing ciliary movement. OCT sometimes showed thin superficial dense structures that might correspond to biofilms. OCT and CEM might provide valuable information in the follow-up care of patients with inverted papillomas and in diagnostics of CRS.

Olzowy, B.; Starke, N.; Schuldt, T.; Hüttmann, G.; Lankenau, E.; Just, T.

2013-06-01

366

Light distributors for photodynamic therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview is given of light distributors developed by our group in Lausanne for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. We focus on fiberoptic devices which have to a large extent been tested over the years in the clinic for PDT of the upper aerodigestive tract, the tracheobronchial tree, the esophagus, the uterus, and the skin. Both surface and interstitial light distributors are discussed. Several different physical principles for obtaining the desired light intensity distribution in tissue are demonstrated, including the use of specially shaped reflecting surfaces, light scattering and refraction by particles, the use of flexible highly reflecting balloons, controlled fiber core surface roughening, and microlenses. PDT can be improved using 'intelligent' light distributors, which permit the measurement of the light intensity reflected from the irradiated surface, as well as the dye fluorescence signals. Both are measured in situ and in real time during the treatment. The use of such devices, which can measure photobleaching kinetics, and enable one to adjust the light dose to the observed dye fluorescence signals, thus giving better PDT control, is discussed.

van den Bergh, Hubert; Mizeret, Jerome C.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Woodtli, Alain; Bays, Roland; Robert, D.; Thielen, P.; Philippoz, J. M.; Braichotte, Daniel; Forrer, Martin; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnieres, Georges A.

1995-01-01

367

Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy in head and neck malignancies: early preclinical experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background: Malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) are conventionally diagnosed by white light endoscopy, biopsy and histopathology. Probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a novel non-invasive technique which offers in vivo surface and sub-surface imaging of tissue. It produces pictures of cellular architecture comparable to histology without the need for biopsy. It has already been successfully used in different clinical subspecialties to help in the diagnosis and treatment planning of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. PCLE needs to be used in combination with specific or non-specific contrast agents. In this study we evaluated the potential use of pCLE in combination with non-specific and specific contrast agents to distinguish between healthy mucosa and invasive carcinoma. Methods: Tissue samples from healthy mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were taken during surgery. After topical application of three different contrast agents, samples were examined using different pCLE-probes and a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). Images were then compared to the corresponding histological slides and cryosections. Results: Initial results show that pCLE in combination with fluorophores allows visualization of cellular and structural components. Imaging of different layers was possible using three distinct pCLEprobes. Conclusion: pCLE is a promising non-invasive technique that may be a useful adjunct in the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment planning of head and neck malignancies.

Englhard, Anna; Girschick, Susanne; Mack, Brigitte; Volgger, Veronika; Gires, Oliver; Conderman, Christian; Stepp, Herbert; Betz, Christian Stephan

2013-06-01

368

Alcohol, DNA Methylation, and Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cancer is one of the most significant diseases associated with chronic alcohol consumption, and chronic drinking is a strong risk factor for cancer, particularly of the upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectum, and breast. Several factors contribute to alcohol-induced cancer development (i.e., carcinogenesis), including the actions of acetaldehyde, the first and primary metabolite of ethanol, and oxidative stress. However, increasing evidence suggests that aberrant patterns of DNA methylation, an important epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional control, also could be part of the pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to alcohol-induced cancer development. The effects of alcohol on global and local DNA methylation patterns likely are mediated by its ability to interfere with the availability of the principal biological methyl donor, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), as well as pathways related to it. Several mechanisms may mediate the effects of alcohol on DNA methylation, including reduced folate levels and inhibition of key enzymes in one-carbon metabolism that ultimately lead to lower SAMe levels, as well as inhibition of activity and expression of enzymes involved in DNA methylation (i.e., DNA methyltransferases). Finally, variations (i.e., polymorphisms) of several genes involved in one-carbon metabolism also modulate the risk of alcohol-associated carcinogenesis. PMID:24313162

Varela-Rey, Marta; Woodhoo, Ashwin; Martinez-Chantar, Maria-Luz; Mato, José M.; Lu, Shelly C.

2013-01-01

369

Neuro-motor mechanisms of Pharyngo-esophageal Motility in Dysphagic Infants with Congenital Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Aero-digestive morbidities are common in congenital heart disease infants and mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that adaptive pharyngo-esophageal motility reflexes are different in surgical congenital heart disease infants (S-CHD) vs. nonsurgical congenital heart disease infants (CHD) and healthy controls. METHODS Abrupt pharyngeal provocation was performed with graded water infusions using purpose-built micro-manometry. Data from 12 S-CHD were compared with 10 CHD and 12 controls. 197 water stimulations were examined for the frequency, latency, duration and magnitude of Pharyngo-Upper Esophageal Sphincter contractile response (PUCR), Pharyngeal reflexive swallow (PRS), esophageal body peristalsis and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation characteristics. Mixed statistical models were applied. RESULTS Frequency distribution (%) of PUCR: PRS: None in S-CHD vs. CHD vs. controls respectively were 36:46:17 vs. 9:80:11 vs. 15:61:24 (p < 0.05). Response latency to the final esophageal body waveform (p = 0.01) and the response duration of esophageal body peristalsis (p = 0.04) were prolonged in S-CHD vs. controls but were similar to CHD (p = 0.22). Pharyngeal infusion induced LES relaxation characteristics were similar in all 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS Abnormality in the recruitment of PUCR or PRS reflexes and esophageal body peristalsis in S-CHD implicate dysregulation in vagal cholinergic excitatory neuromotor responses. PMID:24819378

Malkar, Manish B.; Jadcherla, Sudarshan

2014-01-01

370

Changing Trends in Oesophageal Endoscopy: A Systematic Review of Transnasal Oesophagoscopy  

PubMed Central

The safety, efficacy, and economic implications of using transnasal oesophagoscopy (TNE) are compared with conventional rigid or flexible oesophagoscopy for oesophageal disorders in otorhinolaryngology (ORL) clinics in this systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were searched for articles on transnasal oesophagoscopy. A total of 67 relevant titles were identified and 39 abstracts were screened of which 17 full- text articles were included in this report. There was fair level of evidence to suggest that TNE was effective for screening examination in patients with dysphagia, globus pharyngeus, and reflux symptoms and for detection of metachronous oesophageal carcinoma. TNE can also be used to biopsy suspicious lesions in the upper aerodigestive tract, placement of wireless pH capsule, transnasal balloon dilation of the oesophagus, secondary tracheoesophageal puncture, and management of foreign bodies. TNE was well tolerated and can be safely performed in an office setting with topical anaesthesia. Complications associated with TNE were mild and uncommon. There was evidence to suggest potential cost savings by performing TNE in the office setting compared with conventional investigation and examination for dysphagia. TNE may lead to a change in practice from investigation and treatment in the operating theatre or day care center to an office-based practice. PMID:23984101

Sabirin, Junainah; Abd Rahman, Maharita; Rajan, Philip

2013-01-01

371

Diagnostic Biopsy of Lymph Nodes of the Neck, Axilla and Groin: Rhyme, Reason or Chance?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Improving patient pathways of care is becoming increasingly important in the delivery of timely, appropriate surgical care. With this aim, we analysed the referral and management pathway of patients undergoing diagnostic superficial lymph node biopsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS A retrospective review of case notes of patients undergoing diagnostic superficial lymph node biopsy over 3 years, 1998–2000 at the Bradford Hospitals NHS Trust. Indication for surgical biopsy was based on clinical suspicion following assessment in the out-patient clinic for the majority, and arrangement of investigations as deemed appropriate. There were no clinical algorithms in use during the study period. RESULTS There was no evidence for the use of explicit protocols for referral or management. Biopsy was often delayed. Of 268 patients referred from primary care, referral was made to any of 14 hospital departments with 39% (105 of 268) attending more than one outpatient appointment, and 155 (41 of 268) attending more than one department. Eighteen percent (47 of 268) of patients were informed of their diagnosis within 6 weeks of referral and 42% (113 of 268) within 3 months of referral. Nine percent (24 of 268) underwent pre-operative fine needle aspiration cytology. Of patients with enlarged neck nodes, 29% (52/180) had examination of the upper aero-digestive tract. CONCLUSIONS The study supports the introduction of co-ordinated problem-based referral and management pathways for the management of patients with enlarged superficial lymph nodes supported by regular audits of practice. PMID:18430337

Moor, James W; Murray, Patrick; Inwood, Jane; Gouldesbrough, David; Bem, Chris

2008-01-01

372

[Recent advances in the treatment of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma].  

PubMed

The prognosis of squamous epithelial cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract has improved considerably in the last 30 years. Patients presenting with stage I or II disease are treated with surgery or radiation therapy with curative intent. Although the efficacy is comparable between the two methods, surgery is usually preferred so that the side effects and late toxic effects of radiation can be avoided. For the treatment of advanced stages of disease, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy are usually combined. The introduction of concurrent administration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemoradiotherapy) has been a major advancement. This has resulted in local control and survival rates comparable to those seen following radical surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, but with preservation of the larynx in most patients. However, recent epidemiological observations have shown declining survival rates in laryngeal cancer patients, raising concern about uncritical and too frequent use of this approach. The rationale for choosing treatment options for patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma is discussed. PMID:22282006

Eckel, H E

2012-01-01

373

Micronucleated lymphocyte rates from head-and-neck cancer patients.  

PubMed

We investigated whether head-and-neck cancers are associated with an increased micronucleated cell rates (MN cell rates) and whether risk factors for these cancers are associated with alterations in micronucleated lymphocytes. MN cell rates were assessed in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes of 57 head-and-neck cancer patients (CP) before any anticancer treatment and of 198 male and female healthy subjects (HS). In the HS group, only smoking status significantly affect MN cell rates. In CP group age, sex, tobacco status, alcohol status, tumor stage, family history of cancer had no significant effect. For the non-smokers, the comparison between MN cell rates in HS and CP adjusted for age and sex showed a significant difference. The increase of MN cell rates in non-smokers patients may be attributable to cancer status. For the smokers, the comparison of MN cell rates in HS and CP matched for age and sex showed no significant difference. Pathological status could mask the smoking effect on peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients. Moreover, it probably could partly explain why MN cell rates in matched-CP smokers and HS smokers were similar. The authors do not recommend the CBMN assay in this present form to study smoking DNA-damage effects in peripheral blood lymphocytes of cancer patients, especially for patients with upper aero-digestive tract cancers or lung cancers for which tobacco is the major risk factor. PMID:10023078

Duffaud, F; Orsière, T; Digue, L; Villani, P; Volot, F; Favre, R; Botta, A

1999-02-19

374

Prevalence of Oral Human Papilloma Virus in Healthy Individuals in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Human papilloma virus causes benign and malignant abnormalities in different part of the body. The link between high risk types of HPV and some anogenital and aerodigestive tract cancer is well established. Oral HPV infection plays a role in developing oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We studied the prevalence of oral HPV in healthy individuals and its relative risk factors. Methods: Saliva samples of 114 healthy subjects were collected for HPV DNA analysis. Volunteers completed questionnaires and signed a written consent. For data analysis descriptive statistic, chi square test and odds ratio was used. Results: The frequency of oral HPV in healthy individuals was 6.1 %(seven participant).The most frequent type was HPV-18 in five of them. HPV-6 and HPV-66 each was detected in one case. Relation of oral HPV positivity to demographic features and risk factors was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of oral HPV infection in our community is the same as many other communities of developing countries, stressing that HPV-18 were the dominant type. PMID:23514804

SEIFI, Sharareh; ASVADI KERMANI, Iraj; DOLATKHAH, Roya; ASVADI KERMANI, Atabak; SAKHINIA, Ebrahim; ASGARZADEH, Mohammad; DASTGIRI, Saeed; EBRAHIMI, Ayoub; ASGHARI HAGGI, Arezou; NADRI, Mahsa; ASVADI KERMANI, Touraj

2013-01-01

375

Mandibular conservation in oral cancer.  

PubMed

Surgery is one of the established modes of initial definitive treatment for a majority of oral cancers. Invasion of bony or cartilaginous structures by advanced upper aero-digestive tract cancer has been considered an indication for primary surgery on the basis of historic experience of poor responsiveness to radiation therapy [1]. The mandible is a key structure both in the pathology of intra-oral tumours and their surgical management. It bars easy surgical access to the oral cavity, yet maintaining its integrity is vital for function and cosmesis. Management of tumours that involve or abut the mandible requires specific understanding of the pattern of spread and routes of tumour invasion into the mandible. This facilitates the employment of mandibular sparing approaches like marginal mandibulectomy and mandibulotomy, as opposed to segmental or hemimandibulectomy which causes severe functional problems, as the mandibular continuity is lost. Accurate preoperative assessment that combines clinical examination and imaging along with the understanding of the pattern of spread and routes of invasion is essential in deciding the appropriate level and extent of mandibular resection in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Studies have shown that local control rates achieved with marginal mandibulectomy are comparable with that of segmental mandibulectomy. In carefully selected patients, marginal mandibulectomy is an oncologically safe procedure to achieve good local control and provides a better quality of life. This article aims to review the mechanism of spread, evaluation and prognosis of mandibular invasion, various techniques and role of mandibular conservation in oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:21856149

Rao, Latha P; Shukla, Mridula; Sharma, Vinay; Pandey, Manoj

2012-06-01

376

Pharmacokinetics of meso-(tetrahydroxyphenyl)chlorin (m-THPC) studied by fluorescence spectroscopy on early cancer of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus and the tracheobronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12 DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized meso- (tetrahydoxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC). The same drug is currently in phase I, II clinical trials for ENT patients with superficial squamous cell carcinomas. By means of light induced fluorescence (LIF) we measured in vivo the kinetics of the uptake and removal of mTHPC in the normal and tumoral cheek mucosa and in the skin. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) reaction of the tissue after excitation of the photosensitizer by laser light at 652 nm was studied. Both pharmacokinetics and PDT efficacy are compared between animal model and clinical results with special emphasis on selectivity between normal and tumoral mucosa. These first experiments show that this tumor model in the hamster cheek pouch seems to be suitable for tests of a number of PDT variables of new photosensitizers preceding their clinical application as well as for optimization of the multiple parameters of clinical phototherapy.

Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Braichotte, Daniel; Forrer, Martin; Wagnieres, Georges A.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe

1995-01-01

377

Predictive factors for postoperative wound complications after neck dissection.  

PubMed

The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate risk factors for wound complications after neck dissection. One hundred and nineteen patients were treated with neck dissection for squamous-cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract at the National Cancer Institute in Rome between 2006 and 2009. Postoperative wound complications were divided into major or minor and were related to different variables to identify risk factors. Postoperative wound complications were found in 20.2% of patients with an individual patient probability for different risk factors ranging from 2% to 34.1%. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and the type of neck dissection were associated with a higher risk of major complications (p ? 0.05). Previous CRT and radical neck dissection/modified radical neck dissection are risk factors for major wound complications in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma undergoing neck dissection. Patients requiring neck dissection after CRT should be informed about the increased risk of the procedure, and selective neck dissection, if oncologically appropriate, should be considered to reduce complications. PMID:23620635

Pellini, R; Mercante, G; Marchese, C; Terenzi, V; Sperduti, I; Manciocco, V; Ruscito, P; Cristalli, G; Marchesi, P; Pichi, B; Spriano, G

2013-02-01

378

Inhibition and regression of tumors in hamster DMBA model following laser microvascular targeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vascular targeting is a recent approach to cancer therapy that aims at damaging tumor vasculature to induce tumor cell hypoxia and subsequent cell death. Squamous cell cancer arises in the superficial mucosal and cutaneous epithelial layers, and tumor microvasculature therefore may be particularly well suited for targeting by selective photothermolysis. An initial evaluation of the effect of selective eradication of microvasculature on tumor development was undertaken here using the chemically-induced hamster cheek pouch model and a 585 nm pulsed dye laser. In a first group of 6 hamsters, progression of premalignant mucosal lesions was compared between control and laser treatment groups, and laser-induced regression of established tumors was evaluated. In a second group of 12 hamsters, the number of laser treatments required to produce complete regression of tumors of the buccal mucosa was determined. The effect of the laser on tumors appearing on the skin in these animals was also investigated. These experiments showed that laser treatment inhibited tumor development and caused complete regression of established tumors 10 mm3 or smaller. Photothermal microvascular targeting may be useful in treating dyplasia and early tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and skin, with fewer adverse sequelae than existing modalities.

McMillan, Kathleen; Wang, Zhi; Shapshay, Stanley M.

1998-07-01

379

Expression of podoplanin and prognosis in oropharyngeal cancer.  

PubMed

It has been shown that podoplanin expression is associated with carcinoma of the aerodigestive tract. Recent studies indicate that podoplanin may serve as a prognostic biomarker in oral carcinoma. In order to provide evidence on the role of podoplanin in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, we evaluated the prognostic impact of podoplanin in these patients. We analyzed formalin-fixed tissue samples from 107 consecutive patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. HPV typing and immunohistochemical staining for both p16 and podoplanin were performed. Expression of podoplanin was seen in 38.3 % of all cases. We found no correlation of the podoplanin scores with either p16 expression or with HPV status. There was no significant correlation of podoplanin expression with the staging variables T, N, M, and tumor grading. Podoplanin expression did neither influence the 5-year overall survival nor the 5-year disease-free survival. Concluding, we could not find a prognostic role of podoplanin expression neither in the HPV-positive cases nor in the HPV-negative cases. It appears that podoplanin is not expressed as often in oropharyngeal cancer compared to oral cancer. We could not show any relation of lymph node metastases and podoplanin expression in this homogenous cohort of tumors. PMID:24880471

Preuss, Simon F; Anagiotos, Andreas; Seuthe, Inga M C; Drebber, Uta; Wedemeyer, Inga; Kreppel, Matthias; Semrau, Robert; Eslick, Guy D; Klussmann, Jens Peter; Huebbers, Christian U

2014-06-01

380

Do high-risk human papillomaviruses cause oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma?  

PubMed

High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are an established etiologic factor for a growing number of oropharyngeal cancers. However, their potential role in other upper aerodigestive tract locations is still a matter of debate, particularly in the oral cavity. This is of paramount importance as in the future diagnosis, treatment and follow up in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma may vary according to HPV status. This article reviews the recent published data and highlights some of the pitfalls that have hampered the accurate assessment of HR-HPV oncological role outside the oropharynx. We demonstrate that, in contrast to the oropharynx, only a small fraction of cancers located in the oral cavity seem to be HPV-related even in young non-smoking non-drinking patients. We emphasize several relevant factors to consider in assumed HPV-induced oral cavity cancers and discuss the current theories that explain why HPV-induced cancers arise preferentially in the oropharynx. PMID:25488179

Mirghani, H; Amen, F; Moreau, F; Lacau St Guily, J

2015-03-01

381

Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence.  

PubMed

This report summarises the epidemiological evidence on the association between tobacco smoking and cancer, which was reviewed by an international group of scientists convened by IARC. Studies published since the 1986 IARC Monograph on "Tobacco smoking" provide sufficient evidence to establish a causal association between cigarette smoking and cancer of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, stomach, liver, kidney (renal cell carcinoma) and uterine cervix, and for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and myeloid leukaemia. These sites add to the previously established list of cancers causally associated with cigarette smoking, namely cancer of the lung, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, pancreas, urinary bladder and renal pelvis. Other forms of tobacco smoking, such as cigars, pipes and bidis, also increase risk for cancer, including cancer of the lung and parts of the upper aerodigestive tract. A meta-analysis of over 50 studies on involuntary smoking among never smokers showed a consistent and statistically significant association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer risk. Smoking is currently responsible for a third of all cancer deaths in many Western countries. It has been estimated that every other smoker will be killed by tobacco. PMID:15552776

Sasco, A J; Secretan, M B; Straif, K

2004-08-01

382

Activity of the vascular-disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid against human head and neck carcinoma xenografts.  

PubMed

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) constitute a majority of the tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and continue to present a significant therapeutic challenge. To explore the potential of vascular-targeted therapy in HNSCC, we investigated the antivascular, antitumor activity of the potent vascular-disrupting agent (VDA) 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) against two HNSCC xenografts with markedly different morphologic and vascular characteristics. Athymic nude mice bearing subcutaneous FaDu (human pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma) and A253 (human submaxillary gland epidermoid carcinoma) tumors were administered a single dose of DMXAA (30 mg/kg, i.p). Changes in vascular function were evaluated 24 hours after treatment using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and immunohistochemistry (CD31). Signal enhancement (E) and change in longitudinal relaxation rates (deltaR1) were calculated to measure alterations in vascular perfusion. MRI showed a 78% and 49% reduction in vascular perfusion in FaDu and A253 xenografts, respectively. CD31-immunostaining of tumor sections revealed three-fold (FaDu) and two-fold (A253) reductions in microvessel density (MVD) 24 hours after treatment. DMXAA was equally effective against both xenografts, with significant tumor growth inhibition observed 30 days after treatment. These results indicate that DMXAA may be clinically beneficial in the management of head and neck cancers, alone or in combination with other treatments. PMID:16867215

Seshadri, Mukund; Mazurchuk, Richard; Spernyak, Joseph A; Bhattacharya, Arup; Rustum, Youcef M; Bellnier, David A

2006-07-01

383

Molecular heterogeneity in mucoepidermoid carcinoma: conceptual and practical implications.  

PubMed

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), the most common salivary gland malignancy of the upper aerodigestive tract and tracheobronchial tree, is also known for its considerable cellular heterogeneity including epidermoid, intermediate and mucin producing cells. Despite this structural and cellular heterogeneity, MEC is uniquely characterized by a specific translocation t(11; 19) (q12; p13), resulting in a fusion between the MECT1 and the MAML2 genes. Although the incidence of this fusion in MEC varies, it is generally accepted that more than 50 % of this entity manifest the MECT1-MAML2. Fusion-positive cases showed significantly better survival than fusion-negative cases, suggesting that MECT1-MAML2 represents a specific prognostic molecular marker in MEC. We contend that fusion in MEC represents a distinct mechanism in the development of this entity. In that context, fusion positive MEC, regardless of grade, manifest a more stable genome and better clinical behaviour, while fusion negative MEC represent a distinctly different pathway characterized by marked genomic instability and relatively aggressive tumors. PMID:23459841

Bell, Diana; El-Naggar, Adel K

2013-03-01

384

Radiotherapy Alone With Curative Intent in Patients With Stage I Extranodal Nasal-Type NK/T-Cell Lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the outcome and pattern of failure in a large cohort of patients with Stage I NK/T-cell lymphoma of the upper aerodigestive tract treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: The pathological diagnosis was confirmed using standard criteria. All patients were treated with high-dose extended-field radiotherapy alone. The median dose was 50 Gy. The primary tumor was located in the nasal cavity (n = 80), Waldeyer ring (n = 5), or oral cavity (n = 2). Results: The overall response to radiotherapy was achieved in 85 of 87 (97.7%) patients, with a complete response rate of 95.4% and a partial response rate of 2.3%. The 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control rates for all patients were 80%, 69%, and 93%, respectively. Twenty patients (23%) had disease progression or relapse. Of these, 15 patients (17%) developed systemic extranodal disseminations, whereas only 4 (5%) patients had local relapse and 4 (5%) patients had lymph node relapse. Conclusions: Our study suggests that high-dose extended-field radiotherapy alone is a curative therapy and shows favorable clinical outcome in patients with Stage I disease. With the high possibility of local control and primary failure of systemic dissemination, the integration of optimal radiotherapy with more effective systematic therapy is warranted to bring additional improvement to the outcome for these patients.

Li Yexiong, E-mail: yexiong@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China); Wang Hua; Jin Jing; Wang Weihu; Liu Qingfeng; Song Yongwen; Wang Zhaoyang; Qi Shunan; Wang Shulian; Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Yu Zihao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing (China)

2012-04-01

385

Retrospective review of cancer patients ? 80 years old treated with chemotherapy at a comprehensive cancer center  

PubMed Central

Context The percentage of cancer patients ?80 years old is expected to increase in the next few years. However data on the use of chemotherapy in these patients are limited. Objective We conducted a retrospective review to define the profile of patients ? 80 years old who received chemotherapy at our center and assess their survival. Design, Setting and Participants Patients ? 80 years treated with chemotherapy between 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2004 were included in this analysis. Results Of the 4689 patients treated with chemotherapy over the 5 year period, 133 patients (3%) were ? 80 years old. The median age was 83 years. 61% were females and 39% were males. 16% had hematologic tumors and 84% had solid tumors. Gynecological (32%) and aerodigestive cancers (27%) were the most common sites, and lung cancer (22%) was the most common cancer. During the first regimen, 512 cycles of chemotherapy were delivered with a median of 3 cycles (range 1–24 cycles). 49% received single and 51% multidrug regimens. Carboplatin was the most common single agent and carboplatin and paclitaxel was the most common combination among solid tumor patients. 19% of solid tumor patients received radiation with chemotherapy. The 1 year survival among hematologic cancer and solid tumor patients was 65% and 48%, respectively. Stage of disease was the only statistically significant factor predicting survival. Conclusions In cancer patients ? 80 years old selected for chemotherapy, both single and multi-agent therapy appeared to be feasible. PMID:18599305

Choi, Minsig; Jiang, Peter Q; Heilbrun, Lance K.; Smith, Daryn W.; Gadgeel, Shirish M.

2008-01-01

386

Aspects of nitrogen dioxide toxicity in environmental urban concentrations in human nasal epithelium  

SciTech Connect

Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) as part of urban exhaust pollution are widely discussed as potential hazards to human health. This study focuses on toxic effects of NO{sub 2} in realistic environmental concentrations with respect to the current limit values in a human target tissue of volatile xenobiotics, the epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract. Nasal epithelial cells of 10 patients were cultured as an air-liquid interface and exposed to 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2}, 0.1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 10 ppm NO{sub 2} and synthetic air for half an hour. After exposure, genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell microgel electophoresis (Comet) assay and by induction of micronuclei in the micronucleus test. Depression of proliferation and cytotoxic effects were determined using the micronucleus assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. The experiments revealed genotoxic effects by DNA fragmentation starting at 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2} in the Comet assay, but no micronucleus inductions, no changes in proliferation, no signs of necrosis or apoptosis in the micronucleus assay, nor did the trypan blue exclusion assay show any changes in viability. The present data reveal a possible genotoxicity of NO{sub 2} in urban concentrations in a screening test. However, permanent DNA damage as indicated by the induction of micronuclei was not observed. Further research should elucidate the effects of prolonged exposure.

Koehler, C.; Ginzkey, C.; Friehs, G.; Hackenberg, S.; Froelich, K.; Scherzed, A.; Burghartz, M.; Kessler, M. [Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Kleinsasser, N., E-mail: Kleinsasser_N@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.d [Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

2010-06-01

387

High resolution magnifying endoscopy: a new diagnostic tool also for laryngeal examination?  

PubMed

Aim of this report is to introduce the use of a new high resolution magnifying endoscope in the endoscopic examination of the upper aerodigestive tract and discuss the usefulness of this tool in the diagnosis of laryngeal lesions. A total of 26 patients presenting various laryngeal disorders were examined by means of an electronic videoendoscope and a high resolution magnifying endoscope. The images obtained were examined and compared. High resolution high magnification endoscopic examination allowed a better description of the laryngeal lesions (colour, extension and thickness of the lesion, irregularities in surface and borders) with easy characterisation of aspect of neighbouring laryngeal mucosa especially in pre-malignant lesions. Furthermore, the optical magnifying zoom does not require a close approach to the laryngeal mucosa, therefore, local anaesthesia is not required. In conclusion, the high resolution magnified images obtained with this new tool provide important information on the characteristics of the laryngeal structures. This new endoscopic technology, as already occurred in gastric, oesophageal and colorectal disorders, could also be improved by using chromo-endoscopy and other vital stain techniques in order to provide useful information concerning pre-neoplastic lesions of the larynx. PMID:18198752

Galli, J; Cammarota, G; Rigante, M; De Corso, E; Parrilla, C; Passali, G C; Almadori, G; Paludetti, G

2007-10-01

388

Assessment of Margins in Transoral Laser and Robotic Surgery  

PubMed Central

The growing practice of endoscopic surgery has changed the therapeutic management of selected head and neck cancers. Although a negative surgical margin in resection of neoplasm is the most important surgical principle in oncologic surgery, controversies exist regarding assessment and interpretation of the status of margin resection. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature considering the assessment and feasibility of negative margins in transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) and transoral robotic surgery (TORS). Free margin status is being approached differently in vocal cord cancer (1–2 mm) compared with other sites in the upper aerodigestive tract (2–5 mm). Exposure, orientation of the pathological specimen, and co-operation with the pathologist are crucial principles needed to be followed in transoral surgery. Piecemeal resection to better expose deep tumor involvement and biopsies taken from surgical margins surrounding site of resection can improve margin assessment. High rates of negative surgical margins can be achieved with TLM and TORS. Adjuvant treatment decision should take into consideration also the surgeon’s judgment with regard to the completeness of tumor resection. PMID:24808954

Hamzany, Yaniv; Brasnu, Daniel; Shpitzer, Thomas; Shvero, Jacob

2014-01-01

389

Effects of Omeprazole Over Voice Quality in Muscle Tension Dysphonia Patients With Laryngopharyngeal Reflux  

PubMed Central

Backround Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is the backflow of stomach contents above upper esophageal sphincter, into the pharynx, larynx, and upper aerodigestive system. Objectives In this study, effects of omeprazole over voice quality in muscle tension dysphonia with laryngopharyngeal reflux was ?nvestigated. Patients and Methods Nine patients, 7 males and 2 females, aged between 27-43 (mean age:31) were included to this study. The diagnosis of muscle tension dysphonia with LPR was established by video laryngoscopy, rigid scope 70º. The laryngeal changes related with LPR were evaluated according to Reflux Finding Score. The patients received omeprazole 20 mg twice a day for a period of 6 months. None of the patients received voice therapy. Vocal hygiene guidelines were also explained to the patients. Objective and subjective voice parameters (Jitter, shimmer, NHR, Voice Handicap Index, and Auditive analysis; Roughness, breathiness, and hoarseness) were evaluated in this study. Results After treatment with omeprazol, all the parameters showed an improvement in voice quality, but only VHI (P = 0) and shimmer (P = 0,018) are statistically significant. Conclusions For FD patients with LPR condition, we highly recommend that LPR treatment should be part of the treatment plan. PMID:23483094

Kandogan, Tolga; Aksoy, Gökce; Dalgic, Abdullah

2012-01-01

390

Color, light, and altruistic creation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It seems necessary to me to combine a certain technical inventivity with plastic creation, a particular poetry arises from this relation. The sources of inspiration for works, especially works in which color plays a pre-eminent role, do not only come from nature. The fantasy of the creators evolves and changes thanks to discoveries and technological inventions. My work as a painter has made me particularly sensitive to the diversity of the plastic writings in general and to the chromatic writings in particular. (1) Environmental creation imposes a renewal of the means of creation. Conducting experimental works, I study the particularities of light, mainly its incidence on materials (transmission, reflection, colors, textures, etc.) and its mobility. These works are a source of inspiration for my architectural works and nurture my lectures at the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts Decoratifs (National College of Decorative Arts). Environmental creation also imposes some qualities on the artist since he, whether he serves a social entity or a person, serves the whole collectivity. Environmental creation has to be envisaged as an altruistic approach.

Charnay, Yves

2002-06-01

391

Design and fabrication of intake manifold for formula SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) race car  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, a group of students from Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) in Montreal design and build a formula-type race car and compete in the Formula SAE competition. In this paper, we examine the design and fabrication of the ir intake system, A number of constraints challenge the designers. For example, to ensure the security of amateur drivers, motors are restrained to 600 cc and a circular restriction of 20 mm in diameter is placed at the entry of the system. Under these conditions, it is important to optimize the quality of the air/fuel mixture which depends mostly on the air intake system. A theoretical analysis reduced the field of possible runner length. However, the influence of runner configuration, plenum shape and size can only be determined experimentally. Polyacrylic functional prototypes were produced and tested on a dynamometric bench. A stereolithography model representing the inner passageways of the optimal intake manifold was built and used as a positive for a polyurethane mold. A composite lamination process was used to laminate the pre-production prototype over a molded wax plug. The major advantage of this approach over craftsmanship or even machining is the time saved to make the mold and the unlimited complexity of the shape permitted by the rapid prototyping systems.

Dore, Sylvie; Lavallee, Patrice

1997-01-01

392

The Value of Information: Assessing the Ability of Electrical Resistivity to Detect CO2 Leakage in a Shallow Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study demonstrates a methodology for evaluating the value of electrical resistivity data to detect CO2 leakage in a shallow groundwater aquifer. This methodology adopts the value of information (VOI) metric from the field of decision analysis. We consider a stakeholder's decision of whether or not to remediate the aquifer, given that they are uncertain whether or not a CO2 leak has occurred from a deep storage source through a well-bore into the shallow aquifer and what the impact of that leak would be. Two themes of uncertainty are needed for VOI studies. The first is related to the uncertain state of the subsurface, which is directly related to the outcome of the decision. In our example, it is uncertain whether or not the shallow groundwater has been impacted by CO2 leakage. The impact may be determined by the existence of depressed pH or elevated TDS (total dissolved solids) plume. We utilize results from a previous work that investigated uncertainty quantification of spatial heterogeneity and leakage rates (Mansoor et al, 2011). Therefore, we have a comprehensive suite of 713 simulations that represent our uncertainty regarding the existence and extent of a CO2 plume. Given certain TDS and pH thresholds, the simulations are categorized into two groups: impacted (a plume exists) or not impacted (no plume) at time=50 years. The second theme is related to the information's accuracy to inform us about the existence of a plume (e.g. the state of the subsurface directly relevant to the decision). The uncertainty of the information is measured by the data likelihood and is used to determine the value of imperfect information. For this demonstration, we consider how electrical resistivity data can detect the existence of pH plumes (due to the dissolution of CO2) and TDS (due to the accompanying brine leakage). The pH and TDS output from the 713 simulations are used to determine the electrical resistivity at time = 0 and time=50 years. An empirical method is used to compare the time=0 and time=50 resistivities: the geometric log mean ratio (GLMR) of the 2 data sets is calculated (Daily et al, 2004). This requires only the forward response be calculated at the 2 different times. The GLMR is used as a sensitivity measure, representing how much the electrical resistivity would change given the conditions of the aquifer. The likelihood of electrical resistivity to detect the presence of a plume is estimated by comparing the GLMR and the category (plume or no plume) for all the 713 simulations. Electrical resistivity forward models were calculated for two acquisition configurations: surface electrodes only and surface-to-borehole. For the surface acquisition, a GLMR >0.05 exclusively identifies impacted simulations. Whereas GLMR <0.05 give a more ambiguous message: both simulations that are impacted and not have GMLR<0.05. The degree of this ambiguity changes with different definitions of the plume (i.e. pH and TDS thresholds). Surface-to-borehole forward models were performed for a borehole located 200m from the leaky well. Results show that surface-to-borehole resistivity data is more reliable at distinguishing between impacted and non-impacted simulations, and therefore the VOI is higher than for surface electrodes alone. Prepared by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Trainor Guitton, W. J.; Yang, X.; Mansoor, K.; Ramirez, A. L.; Sun, Y.; Carroll, S.

2012-12-01

393

A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs include healthcare for methemoglobinemia, purchase of bottled water, and installation and maintenance of the groundwater monitoring system. At current methemoglobinemia and bottled water costs of 150/person and 0.6/baby/day, the decision tree results show that the expected cost of establishing the proposed groundwater quality monitoring network exceeds the expected costs of the uninformed alternatives and there is no value to the information the monitoring system provides. However, the monitoring system will be preferred to ignoring the health risk or using alternative sources if the methemoglobinemia cost rises to 300/person or the bottled water cost increases to 2.3/baby/day. Similarly, the monitoring system has value if the system can more accurately report actual aquifer concentrations and the public more fully abides by manager recommendations to use/not use the aquifer. The system also has value if it will serve a larger population or if its installation costs can be reduced, for example using a smaller number of monitoring wells. The VOI analysis shows how monitoring system design, accuracy, installation and operating costs, public awareness of health risks, costs of alternatives, and demographics together affect the value of implementing a system to monitor groundwater quality.

Khader, A. I.; Rosenberg, D. E.; McKee, M.

2013-05-01

394

A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate pollution poses a health risk for infants whose freshwater drinking source is groundwater. This risk creates a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include: (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, pollution transport processes, and climate (Khader and McKee, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine where methemoglobinemia is the main health problem associated with the principal pollutant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not-use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs include healthcare for methemoglobinemia, purchase of bottled water, and installation and maintenance of the groundwater monitoring system. At current methemoglobinemia and bottled water costs of 150 $/person and 0.6 $/baby/day, the decision tree results show that the expected cost of establishing the proposed groundwater quality monitoring network exceeds the expected costs of the uninformed alternatives and there is not value to the information the monitoring system provides. However, the monitoring system will be preferred to ignoring the health risk or using alternative sources if the methemoglobinemia cost rises to 300 $/person or the bottled water cost increases to 2.3 $/baby/day. Similarly, the monitoring system has value if the system can more accurately report actual aquifer concentrations and the public more fully abides by managers' recommendations to use/not use the aquifer. The system also has value if it will serve a larger population or if its installation costs can be reduced, for example using a smaller number of monitoring wells. The VOI analysis shows how monitoring system design, accuracy, installation and operating costs, public awareness of health risks, costs of alternatives, and demographics together affect the value of implementing a system to monitor groundwater quality.

Khader, A.; Rosenberg, D.; McKee, M.

2012-12-01

395

Error analysis of tumor blood flow measurement using dynamic contrast-enhanced data and model-independent deconvolution analysis.  

PubMed

We performed error analysis of tumor blood flow (TBF) measurement using dynamic contrast-enhanced data and model-independent deconvolution analysis, based on computer simulations. For analysis, we generated a time-dependent concentration of the contrast agent in the volume of interest (VOI) from the arterial input function (AIF) consisting of gamma-variate functions using an adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model under various plasma flow (F(p)), mean capillary transit time (T(c)), permeability-surface area product (PS) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values. Deconvolution analyses based on truncated singular value decomposition with a fixed threshold value (TSVD-F), with an adaptive threshold value (TSVD-A) and with the threshold value determined by generalized cross validation (TSVD-G) were used to estimate F(p) values from the simulated concentration-time curves in the VOI and AIF. First, we investigated the relationship between the optimal threshold value and SNR in TSVD-F, and then derived the equation describing the relationship between the threshold value and SNR for TSVD-A. Second, we investigated the dependences of the estimated F(p) values on T(c), PS, the total duration for data acquisition and the shape of AIF. Although TSVD-F with a threshold value of 0.025, TSVD-A with the threshold value determined by the equation derived in this study and TSVD-G could estimate the F(p) values in a similar manner, the standard deviation of the estimates was the smallest and largest for TSVD-A and TSVD-G, respectively. PS did not largely affect the estimates, while T(c) did in all methods. Increasing the total duration significantly improved the variations in the estimates in all methods. TSVD-G was most sensitive to the shape of AIF, especially when the total duration was short. In conclusion, this study will be useful for understanding the reliability and limitation of model-independent deconvolution analysis when applied to TBF measurement using an extravascular contrast agent. PMID:17473352

Murase, Kenya; Miyazaki, Shohei

2007-05-21

396

Pulmonary vessel segmentation utilizing curved planar reformation and optimal path finding (CROP) in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for CAD applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately under suboptimal conditions, such as vessels occluded by PEs, surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases, and crossing with other vessels. In this study, we developed a new vessel refinement method utilizing curved planar reformation (CPR) technique combined with optimal path finding method (MHES-CROP). The MHES segmented vessels straightened in the CPR volume was refined using adaptive gray level thresholding where the local threshold was obtained from least-square estimation of a spline curve fitted to the gray levels of the vessel along the straightened volume. An optimal path finding method based on Dijkstra's algorithm was finally used to trace the correct path for the vessel of interest. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOIs) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 32.9+/-10.2% using the MHES method to 9.9+/-7.9% using the MHES-CROP method. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (p<0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the segmented vessel volume between the automated segmentation and the reference standard was improved from 0.919 to 0.988. Quantitative comparison of the MHES method and the MHES-CROP method with the reference standard was also evaluated by the Bland-Altman plot. This preliminary study indicates that the MHES-CROP method has the potential to improve PE detection.

Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Guo, Yanhui; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A.

2012-03-01

397

Pre-therapeutic 124I PET(/CT) dosimetry confirms low average absorbed doses per administered 131I activity to the salivary glands in radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Salivary gland impairment following high activity radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a severe side effect. Dosimetric calculations using planar gamma camera scintigraphy (GCS) with 131I and ultrasonography (US) provided evidence that the average organ dose per administered 131I activity (ODpA) is too low to account for observed radiation damages to the salivary glands. The objective of this work was to re-estimate the ODpA using 124I PET(/CT) as a more reliable approach than 131I GCS/US. Methods Ten DTC patients underwent a series of six (or seven) PET scans and one PET/CT scan after administration of ~23 MBq 124I-iodide. Volumes of interest (VOIs) drawn on the CT and serial PET images were used to determine the glandular volumes and the imaged 124I activities. To enable identical VOIs to be drawn on serial PET images, each PET was co-registered with the CT image. To correct for partial volume effect and for the artificial bias in the activity concentration due to cascading gamma coincidences occurring in 124I decay, the imaged activity was effectively corrected using isovolume recovery coefficients (RCs) based on recovery phantom measurements. A head-neck phantom, which contained 124I-filled spheres, was manufactured to validate the isovolume recovery correction method with a realistic patient-based phantom geometry and for a range of activity concentration regimes. The mean±standard deviation (range) ODpA projected for 131I was calculated using the absorbed dose fraction method. Results The ODpAs (in Gy/GBq) for the submandibular and parotid glands were 0.32±0.13 (0.18–0.55) and 0.31±0.10 (0.13–0.46), respectively. No significant differences (p>0.2) in the mean ODpA between 124I PET(/CT) and 131I GCS/US dosimetry was found. The validation experiment showed that the percentage deviations between RC-corrected and true activity concentrations were <10%. Conclusion 124I PET(/CT) dosimetry also corroborates the low ODpAs to the salivary glands. A voxel-based calculation taking into account the nonuniform activity distributions in the glands is necessary to possibly explain the radiation-induced salivary gland damage. PMID:20069293

Hobbs, Robert F.; Stahl, Alexander; Knust, Jochen; Sgouros, George; Bockisch, Andreas

2010-01-01

398

The economic value of remote sensing information: a case study of agricultural production and groundwater vulnerability using applied environmental science and hydrogeospatial methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

William M. Forney1*, Richard L. Bernknopf1, Shruti K. Mishra2, Ronald P. Raunikar1. 1=Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. 2=Contractor, Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California *=Contact author, wforney@usgs.gov, 650-329-4237. Does remote sensing information provide economic benefits to society and can those benefits be valued? Can resource management and policy be better informed by coupling past and present earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the USGS's research applies an established conceptual framework to answer these questions as well as estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate resolution land imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the US Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, we model the relationship between a population of the CDL's land uses and the evolution of nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Using source data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and the USGS's National Water Quality Assessment Program, the approach uses multi-scaled, environmental science models to address dynamic, biophysical process models of nitrogen fate and transport at specific sites (wells) and at landscape scale (35 counties) in order to assess groundwater vulnerability. In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on particular agricultural goods and land uses: corn, soybeans and livestock manure management. Results of this four-year study will be presented, including: 1) the integrated models of the assessment approach, 2) mapping the range of vulnerabilities across the region, and 3) considerations of improved nitrogen and crop management. Finally, utilizing both a situation where society does not have access to MRLI, and an enhanced land use scenario based on plausible, future regulatory and policy frameworks and continued availability of MRLI, estimates of the incremental increase in the MRLI's VOI are presented.

Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Mishra, S.; Raunikar, R. P.

2011-12-01

399

Feasibility of MRI-based reference images for image-guided radiotherapy of the pelvis with either cone-beam computed tomography or planar localization images.  

PubMed

Purpose. This study introduces methods to conduct image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of the pelvis with either cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) or planar localization images by relying solely on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based reference images. Material and methods. Feasibility of MRI-based reference images for IGRT was evaluated against kV CBCT (50 scans, 5 prostate cancer patients) and kV & MV planar (5 & 5 image pairs and patients) localization images by comparing the achieved patient position corrections to those obtained by standard CT-based reference images. T1/T2*-weighted in-phase MRI, Hounsfield unit conversion-based heterogeneous pseudo-CT, and bulk pseudo-CT images were applied for reference against localization CBCTs, and patient position corrections were obtained by automatic image registration. IGRT with planar localization images was performed manually by 10 observers using reference digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) reconstructed from the pseudo-CTs and standard CTs. Quality of pseudo-DRRs against CT-DRRs was evaluated with image similarity metrics. Results. The SDs of differences between CBCT-to-MRI and CBCT-to-CT automatic gray-value registrations were ? 1.0 mm & ? 0.8° and ? 2.5 mm & ? 3.6° with 10 cm diameter cubic VOI and prostate-shaped VOI, respectively. The corresponding values for reference heterogeneous pseudo-CT were ? 1.0 mm & ? 0.7° and ? 2.2 mm & ? 3.3°, respectively. Heterogeneous pseudo-CT was the only type of MRI-based reference image working reliably with automatic bone registration (SDs were ? 0.9 mm & ? 0.7°). The differences include possible residual errors from planning CT to MRI registration. The image similarity metrics were significantly (p ? 0.01) better in agreement between heterogeneous pseudo-DRRs and CT-DRRs than between bulk pseudo-DRRs and CT-DRRs. The SDs of differences in manual registrations (3D) with planar kV and MV localization images were ? 1.0 mm and ? 1.7 mm, respectively, between heterogeneous pseudo-DRRs and CT-DRRs, and ? 1.4 mm and ? 2.1 mm between bulk pseudo-DRRs and CT-DRRs. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that it is feasible to conduct IGRT of the pelvis with MRI-based reference images. PMID:25233439

Korhonen, Juha; Kapanen, Mika; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Wee, Leonard; Salli, Eero; Keyriläinen, Jani; Seppälä, Tiina; Tenhunen, Mikko

2014-09-18

400

Error analysis of tumor blood flow measurement using dynamic contrast-enhanced data and model-independent deconvolution analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed error analysis of tumor blood flow (TBF) measurement using dynamic contrast-enhanced data and model-independent deconvolution analysis, based on computer simulations. For analysis, we generated a time-dependent concentration of the contrast agent in the volume of interest (VOI) from the arterial input function (AIF) consisting of gamma-variate functions using an adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model under various plasma flow (Fp), mean capillary transit time (Tc), permeability-surface area product (PS) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values. Deconvolution analyses based on truncated singular value decomposition with a fixed threshold value (TSVD-F), with an adaptive threshold value (TSVD-A) and with the threshold value determined by generalized cross validation (TSVD-G) were used to estimate Fp values from the simulated concentration-time curves in the VOI and AIF. First, we investigated the relationship between the optimal threshold value and SNR in TSVD-F, and then derived the equation describing the relationship between the threshold value and SNR for TSVD-A. Second, we investigated the dependences of the estimated Fp values on Tc, PS, the total duration for data acquisition and the shape of AIF. Although TSVD-F with a threshold value of 0.025, TSVD-A with the threshold value determined by the equation derived in this study and TSVD-G could estimate the Fp values in a similar manner, the standard deviation of the estimates was the smallest and largest for TSVD-A and TSVD-G, respectively. PS did not largely affect the estimates, while Tc did in all methods. Increasing the total duration significantly improved the variations in the estimates in all methods. TSVD-G was most sensitive to the shape of AIF, especially when the total duration was short. In conclusion, this study will be useful for understanding the reliability and limitation of model-independent deconvolution analysis when applied to TBF measurement using an extravascular contrast agent.

Murase, Kenya; Miyazaki, Shohei

2007-05-01

401

[11C]-WAY100635 PET demonstrates marked 5-HT1A receptor changes in sporadic ALS.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains obscure, but it is now clear that neuronal loss is not confined to the motor cortex, even in cases without dementia. A reliable method of assessing cortical involvement in vivo remains elusive. WAY100635 binds selectively to the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1A) receptor, which is expressed on pyramidal neurones present throughout the cortex. [11C]-WAY100635 PET is, therefore, a potential marker of cerebral neuronal loss or dysfunction in ALS. Twenty-one ALS subjects and 19 healthy volunteers underwent [11C]-WAY100635 PET of the brain. A cortical template consisting of multiple volumes of interest (VOI) was applied to each individual's [11C]-WAY100635 binding potential (BP) image to determine the regional reduction in binding in ALS patients compared to controls. There was a marked reduction (21%) in both the global cortical and raphe BP of [11C]-WAY100635 in ALS patients (P < 0.001), with regional variations in the VOI analysis that ranged from 16% to 29% decrease compared with the control group, and trends to greater reductions in those with bulbar involvement. To clarify the significance of the global cortical reductions, statistical parametric mapping was used as an alternative method to identify the cortical regions with the most significant decreases in [11C]-WAY100635 binding. SPM analysis revealed the greatest differences between ALS cases and controls in frontotemporal regions, cingulate and lateral precentral gyri. The reductions in cortical [11C]-WAY100635 binding were not related to depression, riluzole or other drug use. We postulate that the reduction of 5-HT1A binding represents loss of, or damage to, neurones bearing these receptors although we cannot exclude the possibility that these reductions reflect alterations in receptor expression or function. Further investigation into the role of the 5-HT1A receptor and the potential of [11C]-WAY100635 PET as a marker of cortical dysfunction in ALS is warranted. PMID:15689356

Turner, M R; Rabiner, E A; Hammers, A; Al-Chalabi, A; Grasby, P M; Shaw, C E; Brooks, D J; Leigh, P N

2005-04-01

402

Non-invasive Imaging and Analysis of Cerebral Ischemia in Living Rats Using Positron Emission Tomography with 18F-FDG  

PubMed Central

Stroke is the third leading cause of death among Americans 65 years of age or older1. The quality of life for patients who suffer from a stroke fails to return to normal in a large majority of patients2, which is mainly due to current lack of clinical treatment for acute stroke. This necessitates understanding the physiological effects of cerebral ischemia on brain tissue over time and is a major area of active research. Towards this end, experimental progress has been made using rats as a preclinical model for stroke, particularly, using non-invasive methods such as 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) coupled with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging3,10,17. Here we present a strategy for inducing cerebral ischemia in rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) that mimics focal cerebral ischemia in humans, and imaging its effects over 24 hr using FDG-PET coupled with X-ray computed tomography (CT) with an Albira PET-CT instrument. A VOI template atlas was subsequently fused to the cerebral rat data to enable a unbiased analysis of the brain and its sub-regions4. In addition, a method for 3D visualization of the FDG-PET-CT time course is presented. In summary, we present a detailed protocol for initiating, quantifying, and visualizing an induced ischemic stroke event in a living Sprague-Dawley rat in three dimensions using FDG-PET. PMID:25590998

Balsara, Rashna D.; Chapman, Sarah E.; Sander, Ian M.; Donahue, Deborah L.; Liepert, Lucas; Castellino, Francis J.; Leevy, W. Matthew

2014-01-01

403

Estimation of the breast skin-line in mammograms using multidirectional Gabor filters.  

PubMed

Segmentation of the breast region is a fundamental step in any system for computerized analysis of mammograms. In this work, we propose a novel procedure for the estimation of the breast skin-line based upon multidirectional Gabor filtering. The method includes an adaptive values-of-interest (VOI) transformation, extraction of the skin-air ribbon by Otsu's thresholding method and the Euclidean distance transform, Gabor filtering with 18 real kernels, and a step for suppression of false edge points using the magnitude and phase responses of the filters. On a test set of 361 images from different acquisition modalities (screen-film and full-field digital mammograms), the average Hausdorff and polyline distances obtained were 2.85 mm and 0.84 mm, respectively, with reference to the ground-truth boundaries provided by an expert radiologist. When compared with the results obtained by other state-of-the-art methods on the same set of images and with respect to the same ground-truth boundaries, our method mostly outperformed the other approaches. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24209932

Casti, P; Mencattini, A; Salmeri, M; Ancona, A; Mangeri, F; Pepe, M L; Rangayyan, R M

2013-11-01

404

Spline based inhomogeneity correction for 11C-PIB PET segmentation using expectation maximization.  

PubMed

With the advent of biomarkers such as 11C-PIB and the increase in use of PET, automated methods are required for processing and analyzing datasets from research studies and in clinical settings. A common preprocessing step is the calculation of standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) for inter-subject normalization. This requires segmented grey matter (GM) for VOI refinement. However 11C-PIB uptake is proportional to amyloid build up leading to inhomogeneities in intensities, especially within GM. Inhomogeneities present a challenge for clustering and pattern classification based approaches to PET segmentation as proposed in current literature. In this paper we modify a MR image segmentation technique based on expectation maximization for 11C-PIB PET segmentation. A priori probability maps of the tissue types are used to initialize and enforce anatomical constraints. We developed a Bézier spline based inhomogeneity correction techniques that is embedded in the segmentation algorithm and minimizes inhomogeneity resulting in better segmentations of 11C-PIB PET images. We compare our inhomogeneity with a global polynomial correction technique and validate our approach using co-registered MRI segmentations. PMID:18051063

Raniga, Parnesh; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Villemagne, Victor; O'Keefe, Graeme; Rowe, Christopher; Ourselin, Sébastien

2007-01-01

405

Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

Khader, A.; McKee, M.

2010-12-01

406

La biogenèse des mélanosomes  

PubMed Central

Les mélanocytes situés à la base de l’épiderme produisent des mélanosomes qui sont transférés aux kératinocytes pour assurer la pigmentation de l’épiderme et sa photoprotection contre les rayons ultraviolets. Les mélanosomes, organites apparentés aux lysosomes, sont le lieu de synthèse et de stockage d’un pigment, la mélanine. Leur formation dépend de protéines mélanosomales qui transitent par les voies de biosynthèse et d’endocytose et exploitent les mécanismes moléculaires du trafic intracellulaire. Les acteurs moléculaires impliqués dans le transport des protéines mélanosomales et la biogenèse des mélanosomes sont la cible de mutations dans des maladies génétiques accompagnées d’hypopigmentation comme l’albinisme et les maladies lysosomales. Les études menées sur les mélanocytes issus de souris modèles de ces maladies permettent de comprendre certaines des étapes-clés de la mélanogenèse ainsi que les dysfonctionnements associés à ces pathologies. De plus, décrypter la mélanogenèse facilite également la compréhension d’autres processus physiologiques, comme l’illustrent les similitudes inattendues avec l’amyloïdogenèse dans les maladies neurodégénératives. PMID:21382323

Delevoye, Cédric; Giordano, Francesca; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

2012-01-01

407

Thermotectonic events from Eparly Proterozoic to Miocene in the Indochina craton: implication of K Ar ages in Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synkinematic mineral separates from high-grade metamorphic rocks, which were collected from the Day Nui Con Voi-Red River shear zone and the pre-Mesozoic metamorphic belt south of it, the Da Nang-Khe Sanh shear zone, and the Kontum massif in Vietnam, were dated by K-Ar method. Twenty-four analyses of hornblende, bioitite, and muscovite are clustered into four different groups: Early Proterozoic (ca. 1700-2000 Ma), Early Triassic (ca. 240-258 Ma), Early Cretaceous (115-116 Ma), and Late Oligocene-Early Miocene (24-29 Ma). The K-Ar age data in general indicate cooling ages of ductile deformations and metamorphisms in Vietnam, suggesting an overprinting of thermotectonic events in Indochina from Early Proterozoic to Tertiary, which are generally consistent with tectono-stratigraphic episodes in the region. The data demonstrate that the Indosinian orogeny in Vietnam has occurred during Earliest Triassic times, and Paleozoic orogeny (Caledonian and/or Hercynian) was not inferred by these K-Ar age data.

Ngoc Nam, Tran

1998-10-01

408

La prise en charge à long terme de l’asthme chez les enfants inuits et des Premières nations : un outil de transfert du savoir fondé sur les lignes directrices canadiennes pour l’asthme pédiatrique, conçu pour être utilisé par les professionnels de la santé de première ligne qui travaillent dans des communautés isolées  

PubMed Central

L’asthme est un grave problème de santé pour les enfants inuits et des Premières nations. Chez les enfants de moins d’un an, il faut distinguer l’asthme de la bronchiolite virale, anormalement fréquente chez les enfants autochtones du Canada. Chez les enfants de moins de six ans, le diagnostic dépend de la présence de symptômes classiques, de l’absence de caractéristiques atypiques et de la consignation de la réponse au traitement, notamment la réponse rapide et transitoire aux bronchodilatateurs. Chez les enfants plus âgés, il faut, dans la mesure du possible, déterminer la présence d’une obstruction réversible des voies aériennes par spirométrie afin de confirmer le diagnostic, ainsi qu’évaluer et corriger les déclencheurs environnementaux. L’utilisation régulière de corticoïdes en aérosol est la principale mesure à prendre pour maintenir un bon contrôle de l’asthme chez les enfants asthmatiques. Les clients et leur famille devraient recevoir une formation sur l’asthme. Il faut réévaluer régulièrement le contrôle aux visites de suivi dans des centres de santé et rajuster le traitement à la dose la plus basse possible pour le maintien de ce contrôle.

Kovesi, Tom; Giles, Brenda Louise; Pasterkamp, Hans

409

Tumor-Cut: segmentation of brain tumors on contrast enhanced MR images for radiosurgery applications.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a fast and robust practical tool for segmentation of solid tumors with minimal user interaction to assist clinicians and researchers in radiosurgery planning and assessment of the response to the therapy. Particularly, a cellular automata (CA) based seeded tumor segmentation method on contrast enhanced T1 weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images, which standardizes the volume of interest (VOI) and seed selection, is proposed. First, we establish the connection of the CA-based segmentation to the graph-theoretic methods to show that the iterative CA framework solves the shortest path problem. In that regard, we modify the state transition function of the CA to calculate the exact shortest path solution. Furthermore, a sensitivity parameter is introduced to adapt to the heterogeneous tumor segmentation problem, and an implicit level set surface is evolved on a tumor probability map constructed from CA states to impose spatial smoothness. Sufficient information to initialize the algorithm is gathered from the user simply by a line drawn on the maximum diameter of the tumor, in line with the clinical practice. Furthermore, an algorithm based on CA is presented to differentiate necrotic and enhancing tumor tissue content, which gains importance for a detailed assessment of radiation therapy response. Validation studies on both clinical and synthetic brain tumor datasets demonstrate 80%-90% overlap performance of the proposed algorithm with an emphasis on less sensitivity to seed initialization, robustness with respect to different and heterogeneous tumor types, and its efficiency in terms of computation time. PMID:22207638

Hamamci, Andac; Kucuk, Nadir; Karaman, Kutlay; Engin, Kayihan; Unal, Gozde

2012-03-01

410

Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The “value of information” (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004;24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration.

Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

2015-01-01

411

A fully automated method for tissue segmentation and CSF-correction of proton MRSI metabolites corroborates abnormal hippocampal NAA in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe the implementation and application of a fully automated segmentation routine using SPM99 algorithms and MATLAB for clinical Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) studies. By segmenting high-resolution 3-D image data and coregistering the results to the spatial localizer slices of a spectroscopy examination, the program offers the possibility to easily calculate segmentation maps for a large variety of MRSI experiments. The segmented data are corrected for the individual point-spread function, slice and VOI profiles for measurement sequences with selective pulses as well as for the chemical shifts of different metabolites. The new method was applied to investigate discrete hippocampal metabolite abnormalities in a small sample of schizophrenic patients in comparison to healthy controls (15 patients, 15 controls). Only after correction was the N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) signal significantly lower in patients compared to controls. No differences were found for the corrected signals from the creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr) or choline-containing compounds (Ch). These results are in good agreement with neuropathological and previous MR spectroscopy studies of the hippocampus in schizophrenic patients. PMID:11969317

Weber-Fahr, W; Ende, G; Braus, D F; Bachert, P; Soher, B J; Henn, F A; Büchel, C

2002-05-01

412

PIRATE: pediatric imaging response assessment and targeting environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By combining the strengths of various imaging modalities, the multimodality imaging approach has potential to improve tumor staging, delineation of tumor boundaries, chemo-radiotherapy regime design, and treatment response assessment in cancer management. To address the urgent needs for efficient tools to analyze large-scale clinical trial data, we have developed an integrated multimodality, functional and anatomical imaging analysis software package for target definition and therapy response assessment in pediatric radiotherapy (RT) patients. Our software provides quantitative tools for automated image segmentation, region-of-interest (ROI) histogram analysis, spatial volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis, and voxel-wise correlation across modalities. To demonstrate the clinical applicability of this software, histogram analyses were performed on baseline and follow-up 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET images of nine patients with rhabdomyosarcoma enrolled in an institutional clinical trial at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. In addition, we combined 18F-FDG PET, dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR, and anatomical MR data to visualize the heterogeneity in tumor pathophysiology with the ultimate goal of adaptive targeting of regions with high tumor burden. Our software is able to simultaneously analyze multimodality images across multiple time points, which could greatly speed up the analysis of large-scale clinical trial data and validation of potential imaging biomarkers.

Glenn, Russell; Zhang, Yong; Krasin, Matthew; Hua, Chiaho

2010-02-01

413

Élaboration de films minces de tellurure de bismuth par voie chimique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La miniaturisation de modules Peltier passe par la recherche de techniques de synthèse appropriées pour l’élaboration de film minces d’alliages de matériaux thermoélectriques. Les procédés de synthèse couramment rencontrés sont basés sur différents principes présentant de nombreux inconvénients techniques. Une technique plus simple d’élaboration par déposition chimique de ces matériaux de type Bi2Te3 sous forme de films minces a été étudiée. Les dépôts ont été effectués à partir de solutions de TeIV et BiIII dissous en milieu nitrique à température ambiante. La réduction de ces cations a été envisagée selon deux voies. D’une part par l’utilisation de différents réducteurs solubles et d’autre part par action de métaux purs. L’influence de la concentration en cations métalliques et le rapport BiIII/TeIV des solutions ont été étudiés. Les produits de synthèse ont été identifiés par diffraction des rayons X, l’aspect des films a été observé par microscopie électronique à balayage. Enfin, la cinétique de croissance d’un film thermoélectrique a été étudiée par suivi gravimétrique pour des temps de déposition assez longs (>30 min) et sur microbalance à quartz pour des temps de déposition courts (< 30 min).

Scidone, L.; Boulanger, C.; Lecuire, J. M.; Diliberto, S.

2004-12-01

414

Sensitivity and specificity of 3-D texture analysis of lung parenchyma is better than 2-D for discrimination of lung pathology in stage 0 COPD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lung parenchyma evaluation via multidetector-row CT (MDCT), has significantly altered clinical practice in the early detection of lung disease. Our goal is to enhance our texture-based tissue classification ability to differentiate early pathologic processes by extending our 2-D Adaptive Multiple Feature Method (AMFM) to 3-D AMFM. We performed MDCT on 34 human volunteers in five categories: emphysema in severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as EC, emphysema in mild COPD (MC), normal appearing lung in COPD (NC), non-smokers with normal lung function (NN), smokers with normal function (NS). We volumetrically excluded the airway and vessel regions, calculated 24 volumetric texture features for each Volume of Interest (VOI); and used Bayesian rules for discrimination. Leave-one-out and half-half methods were used for testing. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the four-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: EC: 84.9%/70.7%, MC: 89.8%/82.7%; NC: 87.5.0%/49.6%; NN: 100.0%/60.0%. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the two-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: NN: 99.3%/71.6%; NS: 99.7%/74.5%. We conclude that 3-D AMFM analysis of the lung parenchyma improves discrimination compared to 2-D analysis of the same images.

Xu, Ye; Sonka, Milan; McLennan, Geoffrey; Guo, Junfeng; Hoffman, Eric

2005-04-01

415

Cold imprint of supervoids in the Cosmic Microwave Background re-considered with Planck and BOSS DR10  

E-print Network

We analyze publicly available void catalogs of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 10 at redshifts $0.4Microwave Background stacking analysis of previous spectroscopic void samples at $z<0.4$. In addition, the DR10 void catalog provides the first chance to spectroscopically probe the volume of the Granett et al. (2008) supervoid catalog that constitutes the only set of voids which has shown a significant detection of a cross-correlation signal between void locations and average CMB chill. We found that the positions of voids identified in the spectroscopic DR10 CMASS galaxy catalog typically do not coincide with the locations of the Granett et al. (2008) supervoids in the overlapping volume, in spite of the presence of large underdense regions of high void-density in DR10. The stacking of filtered CMB temperatures at these different void locations shows a $\\Delta T = - 6.2 \\pm 3.4 ~\\mu K$ signal for the 120 largest voi...

Kovács, András

2015-01-01

416

The Effect of Aromatase Inhibition on the Cognitive Function of Older Patients with Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the association between aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy and cognitive function (over a 6-month time period) in a cohort of patients age ? 60 compared with an age-matched healthy control group, and to evaluate changes in regional cerebral metabolism as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) scans of the brain done in a subset of the patient cohort. Patients and Methods Thirty-five patients (32 evaluable) and 35 healthy controls were recruited to this study. Patients with breast cancer completed a neuropsychological battery, self-reported memory questionnaire, and geriatric assessment prior to initiation of AI therapy and again 6 months later. Age-matched healthy control participants completed the same assessments at the same time points as the patient group. Results No significant decline in cognitive function was seen among individuals receiving an AI from pre-treatment to 6 months later compared with healthy controls. In the PET cohort over the same period, both standardized volume of interest (sVOI) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses detected specific changes in metabolic activity between baseline and follow-up uniquely in the AI patients, uniquely, most significantly in medial temporal lobes. Conclusion While patients undergoing AI treatment demonstrated few changes in neuropsychologic performance compared with healthy controls over a 6-month period during this interval, regionally specific changes in cerebral metabolic activity were identified in the patient group. Additional longitudinal follow-up is needed to understand the potential clinical implications of these findings. PMID:24291380

Hurria, Arti; Patel, Sunita K.; Mortimer, Joanne; Luu, Thehang; Somlo, George; Katheria, Vani; Ramani, Rupal; Hansen, Kurt; Feng, Tao; Chuang, Carolyn; Geist, Cheri L.; Silverman, Daniel H.S.

2014-01-01

417

[Development of an automated patient recognition method for chest CT images using a template-matching technique].  

PubMed

If patient information, such as identification number or patient name, has been entered incorrectly in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment, the image may be stored in the wrong place. To prevent such cases of misfiling, we have developed an automated patient recognition system for chest CT images. The image database consisted of 100 cases with present and previous chest CT images. A volume of interest (VOI) measuring 40 × 40 pixels was selected from the left lung region, bronchus region, and right lung region. Next, the overall lung region and these three regions in a current chest CT image were used as a template for determining the residual value with the corresponding four regions in previous chest CT images. To ensure separation between the same and different patients, we applied a combined analysis that employed the ruled-based plus artificial neural network (ANN) method. The overall performance of the method developed was examined in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The performance of the rule-based plus ANN method using a combination of the four regions was higher than obtained using a rule-based method using these four regions separately. The automated patient recognition system using the rule-based plus ANN method achieved an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.987. This automated patient recognition method for chest CT images is promising for helping to retrieve misfiled patient images, especially in a PACS environment. PMID:25327422

Okumura, Eiichiro; Aridome, Kazushige; Iwakiri, Chika; Oda, Kenji; Nakamura, Keita; Yamamoto, Masateru

2014-10-01

418

Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese.  

PubMed

The "value of information" (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004; 24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration. PMID:25691972

Williams, Byron K; Johnson, Fred A

2015-01-01

419

Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese  

PubMed Central

The “value of information” (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004; 24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration. PMID:25691972

Williams, Byron K; Johnson, Fred A

2015-01-01

420

Shimming with permanent magnets for the x-ray detector in a hybrid x-ray/ MR system.  

PubMed

In this x-ray/MR hybrid system an x-ray flat panel detector is placed under the patient cradle, close to the MR volume of interest (VOI), where the magnetic field strength is approximately 0.5 T. Immersed in this strong field, several electronic components inside the detector become magnetized and create an additional magnetic field that is superimposed on the original field of the MR scanner. Even after linear shimming, the field homogeneity of the MR scanner remains disrupted by the detector. The authors characterize the field due to the detector with the field of two magnetic dipoles and further show that two sets of permanent magnets (NdFeB) can withstand the main magnetic field and compensate for the nonlinear components of the additional field. The ideal number of magnets and their locations are calculated based on a field map measured with the detector in place. Experimental results demonstrate great promise for this technique, which may be useful in many settings where devices with magnetic components need to be placed inside or close to an MR scanner. PMID:18841840

Wen, Zhifei; Fahrig, Rebecca; Williams, Scott T; Pelc, Norbert J

2008-09-01

421

Emotional discrimination during viewing unpleasant pictures: timing in human anterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and amygdala  

PubMed Central

The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and amygdala have critical roles in the generation and regulation of unpleasant emotions, and in this study the dynamic neural basis of unpleasant emotion processing was elucidated by using paired-samples permutation t-tests to identify the timing of emotional discrimination in various brain regions. We recorded the temporal dynamics of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals in those brain regions during the viewing of unpleasant pictures by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with high temporal resolution, and we compared the time course of the signal within the volume of interest (VOI) across emotional conditions. Results show that emotional discrimination in the right amygdala precedes that in the left amygdala and that emotional discrimination in both those regions precedes that in the right anterior VLPFC. They support the hypotheses that the right amygdala is part of a rapid emotional stimulus detection system and the left amygdala is specialized for sustained stimulus evaluation and that the right anterior VLPFC is implicated in the integration of viscerosensory information with affective signals between the bilateral anterior VLPFCs and the bilateral amygdalae. PMID:25713527

Kohno, Satoru; Noriuchi, Madoka; Iguchi, Yoshinobu; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Hoshi, Yoko

2015-01-01

422

List of Participants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna Ceresole Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università di Torino Kang Sin Choi University of Bonn Michele Cirafici University of Patras Andres Collinucci Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Aldo Cotrone Universitat de Barcelona Ben Craps Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Stefano Cremonesi SISSA, Trieste Gianguido Dall'Agata Padova University Sanjit Das Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Forcella Davide SISSA, Trieste Jose A de Azcarraga Valencia University and Instituto de Fìsica Corpuscular (CSIC-UVEG), Valencia Sophie de BuylInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Jean-Pierre Derendinger Université de Neuchâtel Stephane Detournay Università Degli Studi di Milano Paolo Di Vecchia NORDITA, København Oscar Dias Universitat de Barcelona Vladimir Dobrev Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia Joel Ekstrand Department of Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University Federico Elmetti Università di Milano I Diaconu Eugen University of Craiova Oleg Evnin Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Bo Feng Imperial College, London Livia Ferro Università di Torino Pau Figueras Universitat de Barcelona Raphael Flauger University of Texas at Austin Valentina Forini Università di Perugia Angelos Fotopoulos Università di Torino Denis Frank Université de Neuchâtel Lisa Freyhult Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm Carlos Fuertes Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Matthias Gaberdiel Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Maria Pilar Garcia del Moral Università di Torino Daniel Gerber Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Valentina Giangreco Marotta Puletti Uppsala University Joaquim Gomis Universitat de Barcelona Gianluca Grignani Università di Perugia Luca Griguolo Università di Parma Umut Gursoy École Polytechnique, Palaiseau and École Normale Supérieure, Paris Michael Haack Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Troels Harmark Niels Bohr Institute, København Alexander Haupt Imperial College, London Michal Heller Jagiellonian University, Krakow Samuli Hemming University of Iceland Yasuaki Hikida DESY,

2007-11-01

423

Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis de confirmer l'efficacite du procede de preparation de surface et d'identifier les conditions de croissance optimales. Les resultats de caracterisation indiquent que les materiaux obtenus presentent une tres faible rugosite de surface, une bonne qualite cristalline et un dopage residuel relativement important. De plus, l'interface GaAs/Ge possede une faible densite de defauts. Finalement, la diffusion d'arsenic dans le substrat de germanium est comparable aux valeurs trouvees dans la litterature pour la croissance a basse temperature avec les autres procedes d'epitaxie courants. Ces resultats confirment que la technique d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE) permet de produire des couches de GaAs sur Ge de qualite adequate pour la fabrication de cellules solaires a haute performance. L'apport a la communaute scientifique a ete maximise par le biais de la redaction d'un article soumis a la revue Journal of Crystal Growth et la presentation des travaux a la conference Photovoltaics Canada 2010 . Mots-cles : Epitaxie par jets chimiques, Chemical beam epitaxy, CBE, MOMBE, Germanium, GaAs, Ge

Belanger, Simon

424

Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis de ciment a permis d'ameliorer la resistance a l'adherence. (6) Il existe une relation lineaire entre la charge maximum et la longueur ancree des tendons. Des equations sont proposees. (7) La capacite a l'arrachement des ancrages injectes augmente avec l'augmentation du module d'elasticite du milieu encaissant. (8) Les mono-tendons et multi-tendons en materiaux composites injectes sur 1000 mm ont montre des comportements a l'arrachement acceptables conformement aux codes. (9) Les rigidites apparentes des tendons a base de fibres d'aramide sont de trois a cinq fois inferieures a celles des tendons a base de fibres de carbone. (10) L'amorce de la decohesion en haut de la zone ancree ne semble se produire qu'au-dela d'une charge de 0,35 fpu pour les tendons a base de fibres de carbone alors qu'elle prend naissance des l'application de la charge pour les tendons a base de fibres d'aramide. (11) Le taux de fluage depend du niveau de chargement ainsi que des caracteristiques geometriques et mecaniques de l'ancrage (type de fibres, fini de surface, nombre de tendons, etc.). (12) Des equations regissant le comportement au fluage des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete etablies pour une periode d'essai de 60 mn. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Chennouf, Adil

425

IgG4-Related Sclerosing Disease, an Emerging Entity: A Review of a Multi-System Disease  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin G4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) is a recently defined emerging entity characterized by a diffuse or mass forming inflammatory reaction rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with fibrosclerosis and obliterative phlebitis. IgG4-RSD usually affects middle aged and elderly patients, with a male predominance. It is associated with an elevated serum titer of IgG4, which acts as a marker for this recently characterized entity. The prototype is IgG4-related sclerosing pancreatitis or autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Other common sites of involvement are the hepatobiliary tract, salivary gland, orbit, and lymph node, however practically any organ can be involved, including upper aerodigestive tract, lung, aorta, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, soft tissue, skin, central nervous system, breast, kidney, and prostate. Fever or constitutional symptoms usually do not comprise part of the clinical picture. Laboratory findings detected include raised serum globulin, IgG and IgG4. An association with autoantibody detection (such as antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor) is seen in some cases. Steroid therapy comprises the mainstay of treatment. Disease progression with involvement of multiple organ-sites may be encountered in a subset of cases and may follow a relapsing-remitting course. The principal histopathologic findings in several extranodal sites include lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, lymphoid follicle formation, sclerosis and obliterative phlebitis, along with atrophy and destruction of tissues. Immunohistochemical staining shows increased IgG4+ cells in the involved tissues (>50 per high-power field, with IgG4/IgG ratio >40%). IgG4-RSD may potentially be rarely associated with the development of lymphoma and carcinoma. However, the nature and pathogenesis of IgG4-RSD are yet to be fully elucidated and provide immense scope for further studies. PMID:22187229

Divatia, Mukul; Kim, Sun A

2012-01-01

426

Tonsillectomy and the Risk for Deep Neck Infection—A Nationwide Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although the tonsils contribute to first line immunity against foreign pathogens in the upper aero-digestive tract, the association of tonsillectomy with the risk of deep neck infection remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence rate and risk of deep neck infection among patients who had undergone a tonsillectomy. Methods This retrospective cohort study evaluated all patients who had undergone tonsillectomy between 2001 and 2009 as identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. For each post-tonsillectomy patient, 10 age-, sex-, and index date-matched controls without a history of tonsillectomy were randomly selected. Cox Proportional hazard model and propensity score model were performed to evaluate the association between tonsillectomy and deep neck infection after adjusting for demographic and clinical data. Results There were 34 (71.6 cases per 100,000 person-years) and 174 (36.6 cases per 100,000 person-years) patients that developed deep neck infection in the tonsillectomized and comparison cohorts, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, patients who had undergone a tonsillectomy had a 1.71-fold greater risk of deep neck infection by both Cox proportional hazard model (95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.59) and propensity score model (95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.66). This association was not altered regardless of the indication for tonsillectomy (i.e. chronic/recurrent tonsillitis or sleep apnea/hypertrophy of tonsil) (p = 0.9797). Conclusions Based on our review of a nationwide cohort study we identified that the risk of deep neck infection is significantly increased among patients who have undergone a tonsillectomy. Additional research is needed to explore the possible mechanisms behind these findings. PMID:25849535

Wang, Ying-Piao; Wang, Mao-Che; Lin, Hung-Ching; Lee, Kuo-Sheng; Chou, Pesus

2015-01-01

427

Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic instrument in head and neck carcinoma  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE 1) Determine differences in lifetime fluorescence between normal and malignant tissue of the upper aerodigestive tract. 2) Evaluate the potential of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) as a diagnostic instrument for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING University-based medical center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Nine patients with suspected HNSCC were included. In the operating room, a nitrogen pulse laser (337 nm, 700 ps pulse width) was used to induce tissue autofluorescence of normal tissue and suspected malignant lesions. Spectral intensities and time-domain measurements were obtained and compared to the histopathology at each site. A total of 53 sites were measured. The fluorescence parameters that provided the most discrimination were determined. RESULTS Differences in spectral intensities allowed for discrimination between malignant and normal tissue. The spectral intensity of malignant tissue was lower than the normal tissue, and a shift of peak intensity to a longer wavelength was observed in the normalized spectrum of malignant tissue in the range of 360~660 nm. Multiple time-resolved fluorescence parameters provided the best diagnostic discrimination between normal tissue and carcinoma, including average lifetimes (i.e., at 390 nm: 1.7±0.06 ns for normal and 1.3±0.06 ns for tumor, P=0.0025), and the Laguerre coefficients, LEC-2 (i.e., at 460 nm: 0.135±0.001 for normal and 0.155±0.007 for tumor, P<0.05). CONCLUSION These findings highlight some of the differences in lifetime fluorescence between normal and malignant tissue. TR-LIFS has potential as a non-invasive diagnostic technique for HNSCC. PMID:20493355

Meier, Jeremy D.; Xie, Hongtao; Sun, Yang; Sun, Yinghua; Hatami, Nisa; Poirier, Brian; Marcu, Laura; Farwell, D. Gregory

2011-01-01

428

Prediagnostic serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers are correlated with future development of lung and esophageal cancer.  

PubMed

This study tests the hypothesis that prediagnostic serum levels of 20 cancer-associated inflammatory biomarkers correlate directly with future development of head and neck, esophageal, and lung cancers in a high-risk prospective cohort. This is a nested case-control pilot study of subjects enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study, an ongoing epidemiologic project assessing cancer trends in Golestan, Iran. We measured a panel of 20 21 cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory molecules using Luminex technology in serum samples collected 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis in 78 aerodigestive cancer cases and 81 controls. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon rank sum test, odds ratios, receiver operating characteristic areas of discrimination, and multivariate analysis. Biomarkers were profoundly and globally elevated in future esophageal and lung cancer patients compared to controls. Odds ratios were significant for association between several biomarkers and future development of esophageal cancer, including interleukin-1R? (IL-1Ra; 35.9), interferon ?2 (IFN-a2; 34.0), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2; 17.4), and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF; 17.4). The same pattern was observed among future lung cancer cases for G-CSF (27.7), GM-CSF (13.3), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-a; 8.6). By contrast, the majority of biomarkers studied showed no significant correlation with future head and neck cancer development. This study provides the first direct evidence that multiple inflammatory biomarkers are coordinately elevated in future lung and esophageal cancer patients 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis. PMID:25040886

Keeley, Brieze R; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Pak, Jamie S; Brennan, Paul; Khademi, Hooman; Genden, Eric M; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Sikora, Andrew G

2014-09-01

429

Serum Biomarker Modulation Following Molecular Targeting of Epidermal Growth Factor and Cycloxygenase Pathways: a Pilot Randomized Trial in Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) using the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) erlotinib has demonstrated activity in aerodigestive tract malignancies. Co-targeting of the G-protein-coupled receptor cyclooxygenase (COX) with EGFR inhibitors has shown promise in preclinical models and early phase clinical studies. We studied the modulation of serum proteins after neoadjuvant treatment with erlotinib with or without sulindac in head and neck cancer patients. In a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, paired serum samples were obtained before and after neoadjuvant treatment in three groups of patients (n=23 total), who were randomized to receive 7 - 14 consecutive days of erlotinib alone, erlotinib plus sulindac, or placebo. Two separate multiplexed ELISA systems (SearchLight™ or Luminex™) were used to measure serum biomarkers. HGF and IL-6 levels were tested on both systems, and validated using single analyte ELISAs. Several analytes were significantly altered (generally decreased) post-treatment, in patients who received erlotinib (with or without sulindac) as well as in the placebo groups. No single analyte was differentially altered across the three treatment groups using either multiplex platform. Single HGF ELISA suggested a nonspecific decrease in all patients. These results demonstrate the importance of a placebo group when assessing changes in expression of serum biomarkers. While multiplex platforms can provide quantitative information on a large number of serum analytes, results should be cautiously compared across platforms due to their intrinsic features. Furthermore, the dynamic range of expression of a single analyte is constrained in multiplex versus standard ELISA. PMID:22732263

Moskowitz, Howard S.; Gooding, William E.; Thomas, Sufi M.; Freilino, Maria L.; Gross, Neil; Argiris, Athanassios; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Ferris, Robert L.

2012-01-01

430

Analysis of the Upper Respiratory Tract Microbiotas as the Source of the Lung and Gastric Microbiotas in Healthy Individuals  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT No studies have examined the relationships between bacterial communities along sites of the upper aerodigestive tract of an individual subject. Our objective was to perform an intrasubject and intersite analysis to determine the contributions of two upper mucosal sites (mouth and nose) as source communities for the bacterial microbiome of lower sites (lungs and stomach). Oral wash, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, nasal swab, and gastric aspirate samples were collected from 28 healthy subjects. Extensive analysis of controls and serial intrasubject BAL fluid samples demonstrated that sampling of the lungs by bronchoscopy was not confounded by oral microbiome contamination. By quantitative PCR, the oral cavity and stomach contained the highest bacterial signal levels and the nasal cavity and lungs contained much lower levels. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries generated from these samples showed that the oral and gastric compartments had the greatest species richness, which was significantly greater in both than the richness measured in the lungs and nasal cavity. The bacterial communities of the lungs were significantly different from those of the mouth, nose, and stomach, while the greatest similarity was between the oral and gastric communities. However, the bacterial communities of healthy lungs shared significant membership with the mouth, but not the nose, and marked subject-subject variation was noted. In summary, microbial immigration from the oral cavity appears to be the significant source of the lung microbiome during health, but unlike the stomach, the lungs exhibit evidence of selective elimination of Prevotella bacteria derived from the upper airways. PMID:25736890

Bassis, Christine M.; Erb-Downward, John R.; Dickson, Robert P.; Freeman, Christine M.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Young, Vincent B.; Beck, James M.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.

2015-01-01

431

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor Gefitinib Added to Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose Assess efficacy and toxicity of gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, added to, and in maintenance after, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in locally advanced head and neck cancer (LA-HNC) and correlate outcomes with EGFR gene copy number alterations. Patients and Methods Patients with stage III to IV LA-HNC received two cycles of carboplatin/paclitaxel induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by split-course CCRT with fluorouracil, hydroxyurea, twice daily radiotherapy (FHX), and gefitinib (250 mg daily) followed by continued gefitinib for 2 years total. The primary end point was complete response (CR) rate after CCRT. EGFR gene copy number was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Results Sixty-nine patients (66 with stage IV disease, 37 with oropharynx primary tumors, and 67 with performance status 0 to 1) were enrolled with a median age of 55 years. Predominant grade 3 or 4 toxicities during IC and CCRT were neutropenia (n = 20) and in-field mucositis (n = 59) and dermatitis (n = 23), respectively. CR rate after CCRT was 90%. After median follow-up of 3.5 years, 4-year overall, progression-free, and disease-specific survival rates were 74%, 72%, and 89%, respectively. To date, one patient has developed a second primary tumor in the aerodigestive tract. In 31 patients with available tissue, high EGFR gene copy number was associated with worse overall survival (P = .02). Conclusion Gefitinib can be administered with FHX and as maintenance therapy for at least 2 years, demonstrating CR and survival rates that compare favorably with prior experience. High EGFR gene copy number may be associated with poor outcome in patients with LA-HNC treated with this regimen. PMID:20498391

Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Haraf, Daniel J.; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh; Stenson, Kerstin M.; Blair, Elizabeth A.; Brockstein, Bruce; Lester, Eric P.; Salama, Joseph K.; Dekker, Allison; Williams, Rosalyn; Witt, Mary Ellyn; Grushko, Tatyana A.; Dignam, James J.; Lingen, Mark W.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Vokes, Everett E.

2010-01-01

432

The buccal mucosa as a route for TiO2 nanoparticle uptake.  

PubMed

The oral cavity, although part of the aero-digestive tract, is still neglected in terms of risk assessment with respect to nanoparticle uptake. If nanoparticles enter the oral cavity, either via oral products or inhaled materials, it is not clear whether they rapidly interact with the mucosae or are swallowed. In this study, interactions of three distinct titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles (i.e. NM 100, NM 101 and NM 105) with oral tissues are presented. Physicochemical properties were addressed in relevant media, and particle penetration was investigated with an ex vivo model using porcine mucosa. To avoid modification of the particle surfaces via labeling, multiphoton microscopy was introduced as an accurate method to detect TiO2 particles within the tissue. The spatiotemporal aspects of nanoparticle uptake, as well as the intracellular localization in human epithelial cells, were studied and potential toxic effects were evaluated. Although TiO2 particles formed large aggregates once dispersed in media, 10-50% remained in the nanoscale range, rapidly interacting with the mucus layer and infecting the epithelium. However, differences in the penetration depth were observed depending on the particle characteristics. NM 100 and NM 105 were found in both the upper part and the lower part of the buccal mucosa, while NM 101 (smallest particle sizes) only penetrated the upper parts. Transport studies revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles were found in vesicles, as well as freely distributed in the cytoplasm. Cell viability/integrity was not affected negatively; however, NM 105 triggered the production of reactive oxygen species. These data clearly suggest that the oral cavity should be considered in further risk assessment studies. PMID:24873758

Teubl, Birgit Johanna; Leitinger, Gerd; Schneider, Marc; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Zimmer, Andreas; Roblegg, Eva

2015-03-01

433

Intranasal delivery of Norwalk virus-like particles formulated in an in-situ gelling, dry powder vaccine  

PubMed Central

The development of a vaccine to prevent norovirus infections has been focused on immunization at a mucosal surface, but has been limited by the low immunogenicity of self-assembling Norwalk virus-like particles (NV VLPs) delivered enterically or at nasal surfaces. Nasal immunization, which offers the advantage of ease of immunization, faces obstacles imposed by the normal process of mucociliary clearance, which limits residence time of applied antigens. Herein, we describe the use of a dry powder formulation (GelVac) of an inert in-situ gelling polysaccharide (GelSite) extracted from Aloe vera for nasal delivery of NV VLP antigen. Powder formulations, with or without NV VLP antigen, were similar in structure in dry form or when rehydrated in simulated nasal fluids. Immunogenicity of the dry powder VLP formulation was compared to equivalent antigen/adjuvant liquid formulations in animals. For the GelVac powder, we observed superior NV-specific serum and mucosal (aerodigestive and reproductive tracts) antibody responses relative to liquid formulations. Incorporation of TLR7 agonist gardiquimod in dry powder formulations did not enhance antibody responses, although its inclusion in liquid formulations did enhance VLP immunogenicity irrespective of the presence or absence of GelSite. We interpret these data as showing that GelSite-based dry powder formulations 1.) stabilize the immunogenic structural properties of VLPs and 2.) induce systemic and mucosal antibody titers which are equal or greater than those achieved by VLPs plus adjuvant in a liquid formulation. We conclude that in-situ gelation of the GelVac dry powder formulation at nasal mucosal surfaces delays mucociliary clearance and thereby prolongs VLP antigen exposure to immune effector sites. PMID:21640778

Velasquez, Lissette S.; Shira, Samantha; Berta, Alice N.; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Medi, Babu M.; Tizard, Ian; Ni, Yawei; Arntzen, Charles J.; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M.

2011-01-01

434

Penetrating neck injuries: analysis of experience from a Canadian trauma centre  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the demographics and treatment outcome of penetrating neck injuries presenting to a major trauma centre in order to develop a treatment protocol. Design A case review. Setting A trauma centre at a tertiary care institution. Patients One hundred and thirty consecutive patients who had 134 neck wounds penetrating the platysma and presented to the trauma service between 1979 and 1997. Intervention Surgical exploration or observation alone. Main outcome measures The location of injury, patient management, number of significant injuries, duration of hospital stay and outcome. Results Injuries were caused by stab wounds in 124 patients (95%) and gunshot wounds in 6 (5%). The location of injury was zone I (lower neck) in 20 cases (15%), zone II (midportion of the neck) in 108 (81%) and zone III (upper neck) in 5 (4%). The location was not recorded in 1 case. Fifty patients were managed by observation alone and 80 were managed surgically. Neck exploration in 48 asymptomatic patients was negative in 32 (67%). Significant injuries, including major vascular (12), nerve (13) and aerodigestive tract (19) injuries, were identified in 34 patients. Two of the 130 patients (1.5%) died of major vascular injuries. Seventy-six percent of significant injuries, including all zone II major vascular injuries, were symptomatic on presentation. The mean (and standard deviation) hospital stay for asymptomatic patients treated with observation alone and surgical exploration was similar (3.5 [6.02] versus 4.3 [5.46] days respectively, p = 0.575). Long-term disability, all neurologic in nature, was documented in 3 patients managed by observation alone and 6 patients managed by surgical exploration. Conclusions Penetrating neck trauma, in particular stab wounds to zone II in asymptomatic patients, is associated with low morbidity and mortality. A selective management protocol with investigations directed by symptoms is the most appropriate approach for the patient population and resource base in this setting. PMID:11308235

Nason, Richard W.; Assuras, George N.; Gray, Perry R.; Lipschitz, Jeremy; Burns, Charles M.

2001-01-01

435

Combination of Anti-IGF-1R Antibody A12 and Ionizing Radiation in Upper Respiratory Tract Cancers  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The IGF1/IGF-1R signaling pathway has emerged as a potential determinant of radiation resistance in human cancer cell lines. Therefore we investigated the potency of monoclonal anti-IGF-1R antibody, A12, to enhance radiation response in upper respiratory tract cancers. Methods and Materials: Cell lines were assessed for IGF-1R expression and IGF1-dependent response to A12 or radiation using viability and clonogenic cancer cell survival assays. In vivo response of tumor xenografts to 10 or 20 Gy and A12 (0.25-2 mg x 3) was assessed using growth delay assays. Combined treatment effects were also analyzed by immunohistochemical assays for tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression at Days 1 and 6 after start of treatment. Results: A12 enhanced the radiosensitivity of HN5 and FaDu head-and-neck carcinomas in vitro (p < 0.05) and amplified the radioresponse of FaDu xenografts in a dose-dependent manner, with enhancement factors ranging from 1.2 to 1.8 (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis of FaDu xenografts demonstrated that A12 inhibited tumor cell proliferation (p < 0.05) and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. When A12 was combined with radiation, this resulted in apoptosis induction that persisted until 6 days from the start of treatment and in increased necrosis at Day 1 (p < 0.01, respectively). Combined treatment with A12 and radiation resulted in additive or subadditive growth delay in H460 or A549 xenografts, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study strengthen the evidence for investigating how anti-IGF-1R strategies can be integrated into radiation and radiation-cetuximab regimen in the treatment of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract cancers.

Riesterer, Oliver; Yang Qiuan; Raju, Uma; Torres, Mylin; Molkentine, David; Patel, Nalini; Valdecanas, David; Milas, Luka [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson, Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ang, K. Kian, E-mail: kianang@mdanderson.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson, Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2011-03-15