Sample records for voies aerodigestives superieures

  1. The VOI-Based Valleytronics

    E-print Network

    G. Y. Wu; N. -Y. Lue; Y. -C. Chen

    2013-02-15

    We discuss the valley-orbit interaction (VOI) and the concept of VOI based valleytronics. Potential of such valleytronics is illustrated, with graphene as an example material, in several frontier applications comprising FETs, quantum computing, and quantum communications. Two important devices are discussed as examples, namely, 1) valley pair qubits in coupled graphene quantum dots, to build quantum networks consisting of graphene and photons, and 2) valleybased FETs consisting of graphene quantum wires (channels) and armchair graphene nanoribbons (sources and drains), to build graphene-based, low-power FET circuits. This demonstration makes the VOI-based valleytronics an attractive R & D direction in the area of electronics.

  2. Toxicology of upper aerodigestive tract pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, G.R. (Department of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States))

    1992-06-01

    The field of environmental toxicology has become quite important to the study of environmental health in human beings. The stability of the ecosystem in which we live is threatened by the nearly 5 million chemical compounds that have been synthesized worldwide, many of which have real or potentially toxic effects on the environment and on life forms. Four major groups of chemicals--metallic elements, nonmetallic elements, organic compounds and inorganic compounds--have certain agents within them that are known toxins to human beings. Some of these agents have an as yet unknown effect, whereas others have been well characterized. They can be found in the workplace, home, and outdoors, and many are unseen and odorless. In the past, most agents have been described in terms of their carcinogenic potential or major toxic effects on organ systems. It is now likely that the important characterization of some of these agents referrable to the upper aerodigestive tract should be at their receptor sites and identify the very discrete and small effects on these sites and their cumulative effects. The concept of threshold is probably an arbitrary one because to date these discrete effects have not been studied. Susceptibility on an individual basis probably varies from low to high, depending on the patient's immunologic and defense mechanisms and the existence of congenital or acquired risk factors. New attention must be given to more subtle effects on the upper aerodigestive tract (i.e., sinusitis and laryngitis) in view of the potential effects of certain toxic agents on these tissues.

  3. Concordance of Two Endoscopic Procedures for Diagnosis of Carcinoma of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-15

    Upper Aerodigestive Tract Lesions; Neoplasms, Oropharyngeal; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Neoplasms, Hypopharyngeal; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Head and Neck Neoplasms; UADT Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Papilloma

  4. Upper aerodigestive tract disorders and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Andrea; Bianchini, Chiara; Zuolo, Michele; Feo, Carlo Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    A wide variety of symptoms and diseases of the upper aerodigestive tract are associated to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). These disorders comprise a large variety of conditions such as asthma, chronic otitis media and sinusitis, chronic cough, and laryngeal disorders including paroxysmal laryngospasm. Laryngo-pharyngeal reflux disease is an extraoesophageal variant of GORD that can affect the larynx and pharynx. Despite numerous research efforts, the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux often remains elusive, unproven and controversial, and its treatment is then still empiric. Aim of this paper is to review the current literature on upper aerodigestive tract disorders in relation to pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux, focusing in particular on the pathophysiology base and results of the surgical treatment of GORD. PMID:25685756

  5. Upper aerodigestive tract disorders and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, Andrea; Bianchini, Chiara; Zuolo, Michele; Feo, Carlo Vittorio

    2015-02-16

    A wide variety of symptoms and diseases of the upper aerodigestive tract are associated to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). These disorders comprise a large variety of conditions such as asthma, chronic otitis media and sinusitis, chronic cough, and laryngeal disorders including paroxysmal laryngospasm. Laryngo-pharyngeal reflux disease is an extraoesophageal variant of GORD that can affect the larynx and pharynx. Despite numerous research efforts, the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux often remains elusive, unproven and controversial, and its treatment is then still empiric. Aim of this paper is to review the current literature on upper aerodigestive tract disorders in relation to pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux, focusing in particular on the pathophysiology base and results of the surgical treatment of GORD. PMID:25685756

  6. Primary malignant melanoma of the upper aero-digestive tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manoj Pandey; Elizabeth K. Abraham; Aleyamma Mathew; Iqbal M. Ahamed

    1999-01-01

    Malignant mucosal melanoma represents 0.3 to 10% of all melanomas. The majority of these lesions arise in the oral cavity or paranasal sinuses. Very few authors report reliable treatment results, however all suggest a uniformly poor outcome. A retrospective analysis of all cases of upper aero-digestive tract melanoma (UADT) treated since 1982 at our centre are presented. During the 15-year

  7. ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE Dpartement de Sciences sociales

    E-print Network

    ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE Département de Sciences sociales Le Département de sciences sociales de l PDI : « Readings in the social sciences » - Second poste d'AGPR Sociologie générale Préparation à l'agrégation de SES Cours M1 master « Pratiques de l'interdisciplinarité en sciences sociales » et master

  8. ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE Dpartement de Physique

    E-print Network

    ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE Département de Physique Le Département de physique de l'Ecole normale expérimentaux dispensés au Département de physique, en licence, master ou à la préparation à l'agrégation. Cet activité de recherche (thèse ou postdoc) dans l'une des équipes du Département de physique. Suite à accord

  9. Aerodigestive Tract Burn from Ingestion of Microwaved Food

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Aerodigestive tract burns represent a rare but potentially devastating injury pattern throughout the world. Although the majority of these injuries do not require intervention, these burns have the potential for poor outcomes. Traditionally this disease has been caused by superheated gases found in explosions or fire-related injury. However, as technology advances, it brings novel methods for injury that require physician awareness of potential hazards. We describe a case of laryngeal and esophageal thermal burn caused by a microwave heated food bolus. PMID:23606998

  10. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.

  11. Laser treatment of mucosal venous malformations of the upper aerodigestive tract in 50 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Behfar Eivazi; Susanne Wiegand; Afshin Teymoortash; Andreas Neff; Jochen A. Werner

    2010-01-01

    We examined the clinical appearance of mucosal venous malformations of the upper aerodigestive tract with regard to their\\u000a accessibility to laser therapy and further assessed the value of treatment of these lesions with the Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers. A retrospective study was performed in 50 patients who had undergone laser treatment for mucosal low-flow vascular\\u000a malformations of the upper aerodigestive

  12. Life course models for upper aero-digestive tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bhawna; Lalloo, Ratilal; Johnson, Newell W

    2015-06-01

    Upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers are collectively cancers of various human body sites, such as the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and larynx. Worldwide, they are the fourth most frequent cancer type and the fourth most common cause of mortality from cancer. Many studies have shown that several chronic diseases, such as cancer, which occur more commonly in later adulthood, are influenced by social and psychological circumstances during birth, childhood, adolescence and early adult life. It is suggested that the build up of problematic circumstances throughout life is the cause of disease, rather than circumstances that happen at one point in time. UADT cancer is a chronic disease of complex multifactorial origin and most of the underlying exposures/risks cannot be considered as individual factors or in isolation, as they act at different levels, which differ from time to time. Thus, life-course epidemiology, rather than drawing false dichotomies between different risk factors of the underlying disease, attempts to integrate biological and social risk processes that cause the chronic disease. It studies how socially patterned exposures during all stages of life - childhood, adolescence and early adult - influence disease risk in adulthood and socio-economic position and hence may account for social inequalities in adult health and mortality. Furthermore, varying health effects, according to the timing or duration of exposure to socio-economic circumstances, may indicate important traces to the causes of cancer. In this paper, we have attempted to draw a conceptual framework on the relationships between socio-economic inequalities, oral health risk factors along the life-course of an individual and incidence of UADT cancer. PMID:25939378

  13. Serum Protein MALDI Profiling to Distinguish Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer Patients From Control Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Sidransky; Rafael Irizarry; Joseph A. Califano; Xianbin Li; Hening Ren; Nicole Benoit; Li Mao

    2003-01-01

    Background: There are no reliable blood markers for the early detection and monitoring of aerodigestive tract tumors. Recent studies have suggested that serum protein patterns may be able to distinguish cancer patients from control subjects. Methods: We used matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) mass spectroscopy to obtain serum protein patterns from patients with head and neck cancer (n 99)

  14. Feasibility of volume-of-interest (VOI) scanning technique in cone beam breast CT - a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Lingyun; Shaw, Chris C.; Altunbas, Mustafa C.; Lai, C.-J.; Liu Xinming; Han Tao; Wang Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Whitman, Gary J. [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    This work is to demonstrate that high quality cone beam CT images can be generated for a volume of interest (VOI) and to investigate the exposure reduction effect, dose saving, and scatter reduction with the VOI scanning technique. The VOI scanning technique involves inserting a filtering mask between the x-ray source and the breast during image acquisition. The mask has an opening to allow full x-ray exposure to be delivered to a preselected VOI and a lower, filtered exposure to the region outside the VOI. To investigate the effects of increased noise due to reduced exposure outside the VOI on the reconstructed VOI image, we directly extracted the projection data inside the VOI from the full-field projection data and added additional data to the projection outside the VOI to simulate the relative noise increase due to reduced exposure. The nonuniform reference images were simulated in an identical manner to normalize the projection images and measure the x-ray attenuation factor for the object. Regular Feldkamp-Davis-Kress filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct the 3D images. The noise level inside the VOI was evaluated and compared with that of the full-field higher exposure image. Calcifications phantom and low contrast phantom were imaged. Dose reduction was investigated by estimating the dose distribution in a cylindrical water phantom using Monte Carlo simulation based Geant4 package. Scatter reduction at the detector input was also studied. Our results show that with the exposure level reduced by the VOI mask, the dose levels were significantly reduced both inside and outside the VOI without compromising the accuracy of image reconstruction, allowing for the VOI to be imaged with more clarity and helping to reduce the breast dose. The contrast-to-noise ratio inside the VOI was improved. The VOI images were not adversely affected by noisier projection data outside the VOI. Scatter intensities at the detector input were also shown to decrease significantly both inside and outside the VOI in the projection images, indicating potential improvement of image quality inside the VOI and contribution to dose reduction both inside and outside the VOI.

  15. Upper aerodigestive cancer in battery manufacturers and steel workers exposed to mineral acid mists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Coggon; B Pannett; G Wield

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the risk of cancer from inhalation of mineral acid mists. METHODS--A cohort study and nested case-control study of upper aerodigestive tumours were carried out in men employed since 1950 at two battery plants and two steel works in Britain. The cohort was identified from personnel records and included 2678 men with definite exposure to acid mists (mainly sulphuric

  16. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers Conducted within the INHANCE Consortium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. McKay; Therese Truong; Valerie Gaborieau; Amelie Chabrier; Shu-Chun Chuang; Graham Byrnes; David Zaridze; Oxana Shangina; Neonila Szeszenia-Dabrowska; Jolanta Lissowska; Peter Rudnai; Eleonora Fabianova; Alexandru Bucur; Vladimir Bencko; Ivana Holcatova; Vladimir Janout; Lenka Foretova; Pagona Lagiou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Simone Benhamou; Christine Bouchardy; Wolfgang Ahrens; Franco Merletti; Lorenzo Richiardi; Renato Talamini; Luigi Barzan; Kristina Kjaerheim; Gary J. Macfarlane; Tatiana V. Macfarlane; Lorenzo Simonato; Cristina Canova; Antonio Agudo; Xavier Castellsagué; Ray Lowry; David I. Conway; Patricia A. McKinney; Claire M. Healy; Mary E. Toner; Ariana Znaor; Maria Paula Curado; Sergio Koifman; Ana Menezes; Victor Wünsch-Filho; José Eluf Neto; Leticia Fernández Garrote; Stefania Boccia; Gabriella Cadoni; Dario Arzani; Andrew F. Olshan; Mark C. Weissler; William K. Funkhouser; Jingchun Luo; Jan Lubi?ski; Joanna Trubicka; Marcin Lener; Dorota Oszutowska; Stephen M. Schwartz; Chu Chen; Sherianne Fish; David R. Doody; Joshua E. Muscat; Philip Lazarus; Carla J. Gallagher; Shen-Chih Chang; Zuo-Feng Zhang; Qingyi Wei; Erich M. Sturgis; Li-E Wang; Silvia Franceschi; Rolando Herrero; Karl T. Kelsey; Michael D. McClean; Carmen J. Marsit; Heather H. Nelson; Marjorie Romkes; Shama Buch; Tomoko Nukui; Shilong Zhong; Martin Lacko; Johannes J. Manni; Wilbert H. M. Peters; Rayjean J. Hung; John McLaughlin; Lars Vatten; Inger Njølstad; Gary E. Goodman; John K. Field; Triantafillos Liloglou; Paolo Vineis; Francoise Clavel-Chapelon; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; Vittorio Krogh; Salvatore Panico; Carlos A. González; J. Ramón Quirós; Carmen Martínez; Carmen Navarro; Eva Ardanaz; Nerea Larrañaga; Kay-Tee Khaw; Timothy Key; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Petra H. M. Peeters; Antonia Trichopoulou; Jakob Linseisen; Heiner Boeing; Göran Hallmans; Kim Overvad; Anne Tjønneland; Merethe Kumle; Elio Riboli; Kristjan Välk; Tõnu Voodern; Andres Metspalu; Diana Zelenika; Anne Boland; Marc Delepine; Mario Foglio; Doris Lechner; Hélène Blanché; Ivo G. Gut; Pilar Galan; Simon Heath; Mia Hashibe; Richard B. Hayes; Paolo Boffetta; Mark Lathrop; Paul Brennan

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre

  17. A sex-specific association between a 15q25 variant and upper aerodigestive tract cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Chen; T. Truong; V. Gaborieau; G. Byrnes; A. Chabrier; S. C. Chuang; A. F. Olshan; M. C. Weissler; J. Luo; M. Romkes; S. Buch; T. Nukui; S. Franceschi; R. Herrero; R. Talamini; K. T. Kelsey; B. Christensen; M. D. McClean; M. Lacko; J. J. Manni; W. H. M. Peters; J. Lubinski; J. Trubicka; M. Lener; J. E. Muscat; P. Lazarus; Q. Wei; E. M. Sturgis; Z. F. Zhang; S. C. Chang; R. Wang; S. M. Schwartz; C. Chen; S. Benhamou; P. Lagiou; I. Holcatova; L. Richiardi; K. Kjaerheim; A. Agudo; X. Castellsague; T. V. Macfarlane; L. Barzan; C. Canova; N. S. Thakker; D. I. Conway; A. Znaor; C. M. Healy; W. Ahrens; D. Zaridze; N. Szeszenia-Dabrowska; J. Lissowska; E. Fabianova; A. Bucur; V. Bencko; L. Foretova; V. Janout; M. P. Curado; S. Koifman; A. Menezes; V. Wunsch-Filho; J. Eluf-Neto; L. Fernandez; S. Boccia; M. Hashibe; R. B. Hayes; P. Boffetta; P. Brennan; J. D. McKay

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sequence variants located at 15q25 have been associated with lung cancer and propensity to smoke. We recently reported an association between rs16969968 and risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, and esophagus) in women (OR = 1.24, P = 0.003) with little effect in men (OR = 1.04, P = 0.35). METHODS: In a

  18. Metastatic melanoma to the upper aerodigestive tract: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, Matthew; Padhya, Tapan A

    2014-05-01

    This study is a systematic review of the literature that was performed to clarify the natural history and treatment outcomes of upper aerodigestive tract metastases from cutaneous melanoma. A search of the MEDLINE database was undertaken from 1950 to 2013 to identify relevant manuscripts for this review. Article inclusion required cases with documentation of previous cutaneous melanoma primary lesions, adequate survival data, and description of metastatic treatment. Individual patient data were extracted from source articles for analysis of survival outcomes. A systematic search revealed 34 relevant articles with 37 cases for inclusion. Metastases were identified throughout the upper aerodigestive tract with a predilection for the oropharynx, larynx, and oral cavity. Treatment outcomes were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method, with survival of 37% and 16% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. As expected from previous reports, 73% presented with disseminated disease burden with almost universally poor prognosis despite locoregional or systemic therapy. Conversely, a group of patients with limited metastatic burden had improved treatment response with a 1-year survival of 90%, denoting a hazard ratio of 9.7332 (95% confidence interval, 4.5-21.1) for disseminated disease in comparison. Upper aerodigestive tract metastases of melanoma thus are rare clinical entities that in general present in the setting of disseminated disease and evidently necessitate a focus on palliation. In contrast, for those with a limited metastatic burden, aggressive multimodality therapy including complete metastectomy can produce a significant survival advantage. PMID:24115042

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome caused by uncommon tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shao-Jun; Wang, Qin-Ying; Zhou, Shui-Hong; Bao, Yang-Yang; Wang, Shen-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is always caused by anatomic abnormalities, including nasal cavity, pharynx, and neuromuscular dysfunctions, leading to airway narrowing. OSAS associated with a mass in the aerodigestive tract is rare. In the present study, we report OSAS caused by 9 cases of preoperative uncommon tumors in the aerodigestive tract. Two tumors in the parapharyngeal space were pleomorphic adenoma, one oropharyngeal tumor was mucoepidermoid carcinoma, one tumor in the right tonsil was schwannoma, and five tumors were non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Of the five NHL cases, one in the nasopharynx was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, two were mantle cell lymphoma, one was chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, and one was NHL. Tumors in the aerodigestive tract should be considered in the differential diagnosis of OSAS upon exacerbation of snoring or sudden gasping. Further examinations should be performed, including a routine workup (computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging) and positron emission tomography/CT. PMID:25400748

  20. ErbB receptors in the biology and pathology of the aerodigestive tract

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Sarah [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 200 Lothrop Street (United States); Suite 500, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Grandis, Jennifer R. [Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 200 Lothrop Street (United States); Suite 500, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)], E-mail: jgrandis@pitt.edu

    2009-02-15

    The most common sites of malignancies in the aerodigestive tract include the lung, head and neck and the esophagus. Esophageal adenocarcinomas (EA), esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC), and squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) are the primary focus of this review. Traditional treatment for aerodigestive tract cancers includes primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) or surgical resection followed by radiation (or CRT). Recent developments in treatment have focused increasingly on molecular targeting strategies including cetuximab (a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)). Cetuximab was FDA approved in 2006 for treatment of SCCHN, underscoring the importance of understanding the biology of these malignancies. EGFR is a member of the ErbB family of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases. The major pathways activated by ErbB receptors include Ras/Raf/MAPK; PI3K/AKT; PLC{gamma} and STATs, all of which lead to the transcription of target genes that may contribute to aerodigestive tumor progression. This review explores the expression of ErbB receptors in EA, ESCC and SCCHN and the signaling pathways of EGFR in SCCHN.

  1. MINISTERE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR ET DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MINISTERE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR ET DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE UNIVERSITE FERHAT ABBAS'oublierais pas Ahmad, Afaf, Karim, Bassam, Oussama et les autres. Je leur adresse, ici, un grand merci pour leur

  2. Photodynamic therapy--1994: treatment of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Vanessa G.

    1995-03-01

    From 1983 to 1994 Phase II and III clinical studies at Henry Ford Hospital demonstrated complete or partial responses in 46 of 47 patients treated with hematoporphyrin-derivative photodynamic therapy (HPD-PDT) for a variety of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease: (1) superficial `condemned mucosa' or `field cancerization' of the oral cavity; (2) stage III/IV head and neck cancer; (3) mucocutaneous AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the upper aerodigestive tract; (4) recurrent laryngotracheal papillomatosis; (5) severe dysplasia/adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus; (6) partial or completely obstructing terminal esophageal cancer. HPD-PDT produced complete responses in 19 patients (follow up 6 months to 8 years) with `field cancerization' (CIS, T1) of the oral cavity and larynx (6), adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (2), mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (9), obstructing esophageal carcinoma (1), and stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx (1). PDT treatment protocols, results, complications, and application as adjunct or primary oncologic therapy for head and neck disease are reviewed.

  3. Targeted inhibition of histone deacetylases and hedgehog signaling suppress tumor growth and homologous recombination in aerodigestive cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Stephen G; Park, Hyunsil; Pandita, Raj K; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Pandita, Tej K; Schwartz, David L; Yordy, John S

    2015-01-01

    Standard combined modality therapies for aerodigestive tract malignancies have suboptimal outcomes, and targeting cancer-specific molecular pathways in combination with radiation could improve the therapeutic ratio. Dysregulation of epigenetic modulators such as histone deacetylases (HDACs), and developmental morphogens such as the hedgehog (HH) pathway have been implicated in aerodigestive tumor progression and metastasis. We hypothesized that simultaneous targeting of HDACs and the HH-pathway mediator Smoothened (Smo) represents an opportunity to overcome therapeutic resistance in these cancers. We evaluated the effects of the HDAC inhibitor SAHA and Smo inhibitor GDC-0449 with radiation in multiple aerodigestive cancer cell lines. Isobologram analyses showed that SAHA and GDC-0449 synergistically suppressed cancer cell proliferation in vitro. SAHA and GDC-0449 cooperatively enhanced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest which was associated with up-regulation of p21waf. GDC-0449 prevented SAHA-induced up-regulation of Gli-1 and Gli-2. Both Smo and Ptc-1 expression was cooperatively suppressed by SAHA and GDC-0449. The combination of SAHA and GDC-0449 induced radiation sensitization with 2 Gy as determined by colony formation assays and cytogenetic analyses, which correlated with higher residual ?-H2AX and 53BP1 foci. In mouse tumor xenografts of the SqCC/Y1 cell line, SAHA and GDC-0449 delayed tumor growth longer and prolonged survival more than either agent alone. In summary, we have identified synergistic effect of HDAC and HH signaling for radiosensitization to improve therapeutic outcomes for aerodigestive malignancies.

  4. L'organe pinal du Brochet (Esox lucius L.) III. Voies intrapinales de conduction

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ; bipolar neurons were seen in the distal and proximal pineal. At the level of the subcommissural organL'organe pinéal du Brochet (Esox lucius L.) III. Voies intrapinéales de conduction des messages organ of the pike (Esox lucius, L.). II1. lntrapineal pathways for conduction of photosensory messages

  5. Feasibility and Efficacy of an Addiction Treatment Program in Patients With Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer.

    PubMed

    Perney, Pascal; Duny, Yohan; Nalpas, Bertrand; Lallemant, Benjamin; Rigole, Hélène; Cartier, César; Garrel, Renaud; Azria, The Addict-Orl Study Group David; Blanc, François; Duhamel, Olivier; Neka, Meissa; Ichou, Marc; Le Bars, Yves; Pelletier, Stéphanie; Quantin, Xavier; Stoebner, Anne

    2013-08-01

    Background: Continuing to smoke or to drink after the treatment of an upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer is known to worsen the prognosis. We assessed the feasibility and efficacy of an addiction treatment program integrated into the cancer treatment. Method: In four units devoted to UADT tumors, we proposed an addiction treatment to all patients still drinking or smoking at the end of the cancer treatment; the abstinence rate was assessed 6 and 12 months later. Results: One hundred and sixteen patients were included. Among the 73 patients still drinking and/or smoking at the end of the cancer treatment, 46.6% accepted an addiction treatment. In the latter, abstinence rate was increased, 52.2% versus 31.03% (?p = .07) at M12. In patients both drinking and smoking, addiction treatment doubled the rate of abstinence of both products (31% vs. 14%). Conclusion: Offering addiction treatment to patients with UADT cancer improves abstinence rate and helps maintain long-term withdrawal. PMID:23919435

  6. Curcumin Induces Apoptosis of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer Cells by Targeting Multiple Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Amin, A. R. M. Ruhul; Haque, Abedul; Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Khuri, Fadlo Raja; Shin, Dong Moon

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound isolated from the Indian spice "Haldi" or "curry powder", has been used for centuries as a traditional remedy for many ailments. Recently, the potential use of curcumin in cancer prevention and therapy urges studies to uncover the molecular mechanisms associated with its anti-tumor effects. In the current manuscript, we investigated the mechanism of curcumin-induced apoptosis in upper aerodigestive tract cancer cell lines and showed that curcumin-induced apoptosis is mediated by the modulation of multiple pathways such as induction of p73, and inhibition of p-AKT and Bcl-2. Treatment of cells with curcumin induced both p53 and the related protein p73 in head and neck and lung cancer cell lines. Inactivation of p73 by dominant negative p73 significantly protected cells from curcumin-induced apoptosis, whereas ablation of p53 by shRNA had no effect. Curcumin treatment also strongly inhibited p-AKT and Bcl-2 and overexpression of constitutively active AKT or Bcl-2 significantly inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our findings suggest that curcumin-induced apoptosis is mediated via activating tumor suppressor p73 and inhibiting p-AKT and Bcl-2. PMID:25910231

  7. Hyaluronic Acid: Perspectives in Upper Aero-Digestive Tract. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Manuele; Moffa, Antonio; Sabatino, Lorenzo; Pace, Annalisa; Oliveto, Giuseppe; Vitali, Massimiliano; Baptista, Peter; Salvinelli, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, topical therapies guarantee a better delivery of high concentrations of pharmacologic agents to the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT). The use of topical drugs, which are able to reduce mucosal inflammation and to improve healing tissues, can represent a relevant therapeutic advance. Topical sodium hyaluronate (SH) has recently been recognized as adjuvant treatment in the chronic inflammatory disease of the UADT. Aims The aim of our work was to review the published literature regarding all the potential therapeutic effects of SH in the chronic inflammatory disease of UADT. Methods Relevant published studies were searched in Pubmed, Google Scholar, Ovid using keywords (“sodium hyaluronate” and “upper airways”) or Medical Subject Headings. Results At the end of our selection process, sixteen publications have been included. Six of them in the post-operative period of nasal-sinus surgery, 2 of them in pediatric patients affected by recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, 4 of them in reducing symptoms and preventing exacerbations of chronic upper airways in adult population, 4 of them in patients with chronic inflammatory disease of UADT, including gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Conclusions Topical administration of SH plays a pivotkey role in the postoperative phase of patients undergoing FESS and nasal surgery, and positive results are generally observed in all the patients suffering from UADT chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:26120837

  8. RONGEURS DU MIOCENE SUPERIEUR DE CHORORA, ETHIOPIE: MURINAE, DENDROMURINAE ET CONCLUSIONS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RONGEURS DU MIOCENE SUPERIEUR DE CHORORA, ETHIOPIE: MURINAE, DENDROMURINAE ET CONCLUSIONS par Denis, Muridae Key-words: Late Miocene, Ethiopia, Rodentia, Muridae UPR 2147 CNRS - 44 rue de l'Amiral Mouchez of the Late Miocene. INTRODUCTION Le site de Chorora, dans la localité-type de la formation du même nom, a d

  9. Asymptomatic myocardial metastasis from cancers of upper aero-digestive tract detected on FDG PET/CT: a series of 4 cases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic involvement of the heart is a rare occurrence and remains undiagnosed until autopsy. In some instances, patients may have cardiac symptoms, leading to ante-mortem diagnosis. Although most primary cancers have been documented to metastasize to heart, the existing literature on cancers of upper aero-digestive tract is an exception, with only a few reports. We report four cases of upper aero-digestive tract cancers, three of which arise from oral cavity, one from lower esophagus, metastasising to the myocardium, detected on 18?F – Fluoro-deoxy-glucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG PET/CT) study , in the absence of related symptoms. PMID:25608865

  10. Occupation and risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer: the ARCAGE study.

    PubMed

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Corbin, Marine; Marron, Manuela; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Lagiou, Pagona; Minaki, Ploumitsa; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsague, Xavier; Slamova, Alena; Schejbalova, Miriam; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Barzan, Luigi; Talamini, Renato; Macfarlane, Gary J; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Canova, Cristina; Simonato, Lorenzo; Conway, David I; McKinney, Patricia A; Sneddon, Linda; Thomson, Peter; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M; McCartan, Bernard E; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul; Merletti, Franco

    2012-05-15

    We investigated the association between occupational history and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk in the ARCAGE European case-control study. The study included 1,851 patients with incident cancer of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx or esophagus and 1,949 controls. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ever employment in 283 occupations and 172 industries, adjusting for smoking and alcohol. Men (1,457 cases) and women (394 cases) were analyzed separately and we incorporated a semi-Bayes adjustment approach for multiple comparisons. Among men, we found increased risks for occupational categories previously reported to be associated with at least one type of UADT cancer, including painters (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.01-3.00), bricklayers (1.58, 1.05-2.37), workers employed in the erection of roofs and frames (2.62, 1.08-6.36), reinforced concreters (3.46, 1.11-10.8), dockers (2.91, 1.05-8.05) and workers employed in the construction of roads (3.03, 1.23-7.46), general construction of buildings (1.44, 1.12-1.85) and cargo handling (2.60, 1.17-5.75). With the exception of the first three categories, risks both increased when restricting to long duration of employment and remained elevated after semi-Bayes adjustment. Increased risks were also found for loggers (3.56, 1.20-10.5) and cattle and dairy farming (3.60, 1.15-11.2). Among women, there was no clear evidence of increased risks of UADT cancer in association with occupations or industrial activities. This study provides evidence of an association between some occupational categories and UADT cancer risk among men. The most consistent findings, also supported by previous studies, were obtained for specific workers employed in the construction industry. PMID:21671472

  11. Augmentation of radiation response by panitumumab in models of upper aerodigestive tract cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kruser, Tim J.; Armstrong, Eric A.; Ghia, Amol J.; Huang, Shyhmin; Wheeler, Deric L.; Radinsky, Robert; Freeman, Daniel J.; Harari, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In this report, we examine the interaction between panitumumab, a fully human anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, and radiation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and xenografts. Methods and Materials HNSCC lines UM-SCC-1 and SCC-1483 as well as the NSCLC line H226 were studied. Tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice were utilized to assess the in vivo activity of panitumumab alone and in combination with radiation. In vitro assays were performed to assess the impact of panitumumab on radiation-induced cell signaling, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Results Panitumumab increased radiosensitivity as measured by clonogenic survival assay. Radiation-induced EGFR phosphorylation and downstream signaling through MAPK and STAT3 was inhibited by panitumumab. Panitumumab augmented radiationinduced DNA damage by 1.2–1.6-fold in each of the cell lines studied as assessed by residual ?-H2AX foci after radiation. Radiation-induced apoptosis was increased 1.4–1.9-fold by panitumumab, as evidenced by Annexin V-FITC staining and flow cytometry. In vivo, combination therapy with panitumumab and radiation was superior to panitumumab or radiation alone in H226 xenografts (p=0.01) and showed a similar trend in SCC-1483 xenografts (p=0.08). These in vivo findings correlated with immunohistochemistry examination of PCNA; panitumumab with radiation markedly reduced PCNA staining in tumor xenografts. Conclusions These studies identify a favorable interaction when combining radiation and panitumumab in upper aerodigestive tract tumor models, both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that clinical investigations examining the combination of radiation and panitumumab in the treatment of epithelial tumors warrant further pursuit. PMID:18793955

  12. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers Conducted within the INHANCE Consortium

    PubMed Central

    McKay, James D.; Truong, Therese; Gaborieau, Valerie; Chabrier, Amelie; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Byrnes, Graham; Zaridze, David; Shangina, Oxana; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Bucur, Alexandru; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Janout, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Talamini, Renato; Barzan, Luigi; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Macfarlane, Gary J.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Lowry, Ray; Conway, David I.; McKinney, Patricia A.; Healy, Claire M.; Toner, Mary E.; Znaor, Ariana; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Neto, José Eluf; Garrote, Leticia Fernández; Boccia, Stefania; Cadoni, Gabriella; Arzani, Dario; Olshan, Andrew F.; Weissler, Mark C.; Funkhouser, William K.; Luo, Jingchun; Lubi?ski, Jan; Trubicka, Joanna; Lener, Marcin; Oszutowska, Dorota; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Chen, Chu; Fish, Sherianne; Doody, David R.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lazarus, Philip; Gallagher, Carla J.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M.; Wang, Li-E; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Kelsey, Karl T.; McClean, Michael D.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Nelson, Heather H.; Romkes, Marjorie; Buch, Shama; Nukui, Tomoko; Zhong, Shilong; Lacko, Martin; Manni, Johannes J.; Peters, Wilbert H. M.; Hung, Rayjean J.; McLaughlin, John; Vatten, Lars; Njølstad, Inger; Goodman, Gary E.; Field, John K.; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Vineis, Paolo; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; González, Carlos A.; Quirós, J. Ramón; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Linseisen, Jakob; Boeing, Heiner; Hallmans, Göran; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Kumle, Merethe; Riboli, Elio; Välk, Kristjan; Voodern, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Zelenika, Diana; Boland, Anne; Delepine, Marc; Foglio, Mario; Lechner, Doris; Blanché, Hélène; Gut, Ivo G.; Galan, Pilar; Heath, Simon; Hashibe, Mia; Hayes, Richard B.; Boffetta, Paolo; Lathrop, Mark; Brennan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p?5×10?7). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p?=?1×10?8) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p?=?2×10?8) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p?=?5×10?8; rs1229984-ADH1B, p?=?7×10?9; and rs698-ADH1C, p?=?0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility. PMID:21437268

  13. Role of podoplanin expression in squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wen-Yu; Chang, Yu-Sun; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Wu, Yi-Chin; Hsueh, Chuen

    2013-03-01

    Podoplanin, a type-1 transmembrane glycoprotein, was originally named due to its expression in renal podocytes of rats. It was subsequently detected in a variety of normal human tissues, including lymphatic endothelium. Although podoplanin has been identified as the endogenous ligand of C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) on platelets, its physiological functions and pathways remain largely unknown. A role in lymphangiogenesis has been suggested, since podoplanin-deficient mice were found to die at birth with a phenotype of dilated, malfunctioning lymphatic vessels and lymphedema. Podoplanin is invariably expressed in some tumors, such as lymphangioma, seminoma and follicular dendritic cell tumor, but tumor cell expression of podoplanin is highly variable in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). It has been found that high podoplanin expression is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in SCC of the upper aerodigestive tract. Now there is growing evidence that podoplanin is also involved in carcinogenesis, cell motility, tumor invasiveness, platelet aggregation and hematogenous metastasis. Additionally, animal studies confirmed some in vivo effects of podoplanin-overexpressing tumors, including formation of more tumor lymphatic vessels, larger lymph node metastases, more platelet aggregation, and more pulmonary metastases. Several recently developed anti-podoplanin antibodies, such as NZ-1, P2-0 and hP2-0, have been shown to attenuate podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation and prevent experimental hematogenous metastasis in nude mice. These antibodies may be applied in preclinical and clinical studies to evaluate the possibility of podoplanin-targeted therapy. PMID:23348382

  14. Augmentation of Radiation Response by Panitumumab in Models of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kruser, Tim J.; Armstrong, Eric A.; Ghia, Amol J.; Huang Shyhmin; Wheeler, Deric L. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Radinsky, Robert; Freeman, Daniel J. [Department of Oncology Research, Amgen Incorporated, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Harari, Paul M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States)], E-mail: harari@humonc.wisc.edu

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To examine the interaction between panitumumab, a fully human anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody, and radiation in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma and non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts. Methods and Materials: The head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma lines UM-SCC1 and SCC-1483, as well as the non-small-cell lung cancer line H226, were studied. Tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice were used to assess the in vivo activity of panitumumab alone and combined with radiation. In vitro assays were performed to assess the effect of panitumumab on radiation-induced cell signaling, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Results: Panitumumab increased the radiosensitivity as measured by the clonogenic survival assay. Radiation-induced epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation and downstream signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was inhibited by panitumumab. Panitumumab augmented radiation-induced DNA damage by 1.2-1.6-fold in each of the cell lines studied as assessed by residual {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX foci after radiation. Radiation-induced apoptosis was increased 1.4-1.9-fold by panitumumab, as evidenced by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining and flow cytometry. In vivo, the combination therapy of panitumumab and radiation was superior to panitumumab or radiation alone in the H226 xenografts (p = 0.01) and showed a similar trend in the SCC-1483 xenografts (p = 0.08). In vivo, immunohistochemistry demonstrated the ability of panitumumab to augment the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of radiation. Conclusion: These studies have identified a favorable interaction in the combination of radiation and panitumumab in upper aerodigestive tract tumor models, both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that clinical investigations examining the combination of radiation and panitumumab in the treatment of epithelial tumors warrant additional pursuit.

  15. Two BRM promoter insertion polymorphisms increase the risk of early-stage upper aerodigestive tract cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kit Man; Qiu, Xiaoping; Cheng, Dangxiao; Azad, Abul Kalam; Habbous, Steven; Palepu, Prakruthi; Mirshams, Maryam; Patel, Devalben; Chen, Zhuo; Roberts, Heidi; Knox, Jennifer; Marquez, Stephanie; Wong, Rebecca; Darling, Gail; Waldron, John; Goldstein, David; Leighl, Natasha; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming; Der, Sandy; Reisman, David; Liu, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Brahma (BRM) has a key function in chromatin remodeling. Two germline BRM promoter insertion–deletion polymorphisms, BRM-741 and BRM-1321, have been previously associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in smokers and head and neck cancer. To further evaluate their role in cancer susceptibility particularly in early disease, we conducted a preplanned case–control study to investigate the association between the BRM promoter variants and stage I/II upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers (i.e., lung, esophageal, head and neck), a group of early-stage malignancies in which molecular and genetic etiologic factors are poorly understood. The effects of various clinical factors on this association were also studied. We analyzed 562 cases of early-stage UADT cancers and 993 matched healthy controls. The double homozygous BRM promoter variants were associated with a significantly increased risk of early stage UADT cancers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–3.8). This association was observed in lung (aOR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.5–4.9) and head and neck (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4–5.6) cancers, but not significantly in esophageal cancer (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 0.7–5.8). There was a nonsignificant trend for increased risk in the heterozygotes or single homozygotes. The relationship between the BRM polymorphisms and early-stage UADT cancers was independent of age, sex, smoking status, histology, and clinical stage. These findings suggest that the BRM promoter double insertion homozygotes may be associated with an increased risk of early-stage UADT cancers independent of smoking status and histology, which must be further validated in other populations. PMID:24519853

  16. Truncation correction for VOI C-arm CT using scattered radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bier, Bastian; Maier, Andreas; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Schwemmer, Chris; Xia, Yan; Struffert, Tobias; Hornegger, Joachim

    2013-03-01

    In C-arm computed tomography, patient dose reduction by volume-of-interest (VOI) imaging is of increasing interest for many clinical applications. A remaining limitation of VOI imaging is the truncation artifact when reconstructing a 3D volume. It can either be cupping towards the boundaries of the field-of-view (FOV) or an incorrect offset in the Hounsfield values of the reconstructed voxels. In this paper, we present a new method for correction of truncation artifacts in a collimated scan. When axial or lateral collimation are applied, scattered radiation still reaches the detector and is recorded outside of the FOV. If the full area of the detector is read out we can use this scattered signal to estimate the truncated part of the object. We apply three processing steps: detection of the collimator edge, adjustment of the area outside the FOV, and interpolation of the collimator edge. Compared to heuristic truncation correction methods we were able to reconstruct high contrast structures like bones outside of the FOV. Inside the FOV we achieved similar reconstruction results as with water cylinder truncation correction. These preliminary results indicate that scattered radiation outside the FOV can be used to improve image quality and further research in this direction seems beneficial.

  17. Incidence of and survival from upper aerodigestive tract cancers in the U.K.: the influence of deprivation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D M; Jones, J

    1999-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of social deprivation on the incidence of and survival from upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) cancers in the U.K. Incidence was calculated on 25,903 cases of malignant upper aerodigestive tract cancers collected from four cancer registries in the U.K. for the period 1984-1993. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the influence of deprivation, measured in Carstairs quintiles for crude and cause-specific survival on 17,393 of these cases. Patients with UAT cancers who were younger, males or of South Asian origin were more likely to live in a deprived area than in an affluent area. The incidence of UAT cancers in a district was correlated with deprivation score for the district for both men (r = 0.78) and for women (r = 0.60). People who lived in deprived areas had a relative risk of 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.35) of dying from their cancer and of 1.24 (95% CI: 1.13-1.35) of dying from all causes compared with people who lived in affluent areas. People living in deprived areas were more likely to get UAT cancer and were more likely to die from their cancer than people living in affluent areas. PMID:10533480

  18. INFLUENCE DES VOIES ET DOSES D'INOCULATION AVEC SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS SUR L'EFFET ABORTIF ET LA RPONSE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    INFLUENCE DES VOIES ET DOSES D'INOCULATION AVEC SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS SUR L'EFFET ABORTIF ET LA OF ROUTES AND DOSES OF SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS INOCULATION ON ABORTIVE EFFECT AND SEROLOGICAL RESPONSE to form a procedure allowing the reproduction of an abortive infection with Salmonella abortus ovis

  19. Vo\\.I13,No.6 The American Naturalist June 1979 THE EVOLUTION OF LIVE-BEARING IN

    E-print Network

    Shine, Rick

    Vo\\.I13,No.6 The American Naturalist June 1979 THE EVOLUTION OF LIVE-BEARING IN LIZARDS AND SNAKES reptiles lay eggs, but many lizards and snakes are live-bearers. Taxonomic and embryological evidence-bearing in squamate reptiles. There have been several excellent treatments of reptilian live-bearing which have made

  20. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, Voi. 20 (1) 2011 31 The association between sexual costs and sexuai satisfaction in

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, Voi. 20 (1) 2011 31 The association between sexual costs and sexuai satisfaction in women: An exploration of tiie Interpersonal Exchange Model of Sexual Satisfaction has suggested that female sexual functioning may be strongly tied to sexual satisfaction In some cases

  1. JOURNAL OF OPTIMIZATION THEORY AND APPLICATIONS: Voi.43, No. 2, JUNE 1984 Planar Quasi-Newton Algorithms for Unconstrained

    E-print Network

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    JOURNAL OF OPTIMIZATION THEORY AND APPLICATIONS: Voi.43, No. 2, JUNE 1984 Planar Quasi-Newton class of quasi-Newton methods is introduced that can locate a unique stationary point of an n functions, the new class is identical to Huang's symmetric family of quasi-Newton methods (Ref. 1). Unlike

  2. Reduction in x-ray scatter and radiation dose for volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam breast CT—a phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chao-Jen; Chen, Lingyun; Zhang, Huojun; Liu, Xinming; Zhong, Yuncheng; Shen, Youtao; Han, Tao; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Whitman, Gary J.; Shaw, Chris C.

    2010-01-01

    With volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging, one set of projection images are acquired with the VOI collimator at a regular or high exposure level and the second set of projection images are acquired without the collimator at a reduced exposure level. The high exposure VOI scan data inside the VOI and the low exposure full field scan data outside the VOI are then combined together to generate composite projection images for image reconstruction. To investigate and quantify scatter reduction, dose saving, and image quality improvement in VOI CBCT imaging, a flat panel detector based bench-top experimental CBCT system was built to measure the dose, the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), the image contrast, noise level, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and the figure of merits (FOMs) in the CBCT reconstructed images for two polycarbonate cylinders simulating the small and the large phantoms. The results showed that, compared to the FF CBCT technique, radiation doses for the VOI CBCT technique were reduced by a factor of 1.20 and 1.36 for the small and the large phantoms at the phantom center, respectively, and from 2.7 to 3.0 on the edge of the phantom, respectively. Inside the VOI, the SPRs were substantially reduced by a factor of 6.6 and 10.3 for the small and the large phantoms, the contrast signals were improved by a factor of 1.35 and 1.8, and the noise levels were increased by a factor of 1.27 and 1.6, respectively. As the result, the CNRs were improved by a factor of 1.06 and 1.13 for the small and the large phantoms and the FOMs were improved by a factor of 1.4 and 1.7, respectively. PMID:19841514

  3. Bleomycin and radiation therapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aero-digestive tract: a phase III clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Vermund, H; Kaalhus, O; Winther, F; Trausjø, J; Thorud, E; Harang, R

    1985-11-01

    A group of 222 consecutive patients admitted with squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aero-digestive tract were studied in a prospectively randomized and stratified clinical trial. One-half of the patients received bleomycin injected intramuscularly 1 hour before the radiation treatment daily for 5 days a week; the other half received radiation therapy without the added chemotherapy. The total dose of radiation in both groups was about the same, and was given with curative intent even to the patients with advanced tumors who constituted the majority in both groups. Interstitial radiation as boost therapy or surgery was added in patients with residual tumor if the lesions were considered operable and the patient's condition would allow surgery. The addition of bleomycin did not increase the combined local and regional tumor control rates nor did it improve the survival, but did significantly increase the morbidity and the complication rate. PMID:2414253

  4. Radiotherapy in the treatment of mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: Analysis of 74 cases. A Rare Cancer Network study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco. Krengli; Laura Masini; Johannes H. A. M. Kaanders; Philippe Maingon; Swan Bing Oei; Abderrahim Zouhair; Enis Ozyar; Martine Roelandts; Maurizio Amichetti; Mathieu Bosset; René-Olivier Mirimanoff

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyze a series of mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract to determine the prognostic factors and contribute to understanding the role of radiotherapy in the therapeutic strategy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Seventy-four patients were analyzed. The most frequent locations were nasal and oral, in 31 patients (41.9%) and 12 patients (16.2%), respectively. Sixty-three patients (85.1%) were in

  5. Directed polymer in random media in two dimensions: Numerical study of the aging dynamics Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de l'Ecole Normale Superieure, Unite Propre du CNRS, Associee a` l'Ecole Normale Superieure

    E-print Network

    Barrat, Alain

    Directed polymer in random media in two dimensions: Numerical study of the aging dynamics A. Barrat* Laboratoire de Physique The´orique de l'Ecole Normale Supe´rieure, Unite´ Propre du CNRS, Associe´e a` l dynamics of a directed polymer in random media, in 1 1 dimensions. Through temperature quench

  6. ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE D'ARCHITECTURE DE PARIS LA VILLETTE ECOLE DOCTORALE VILLE, TRANSPORTS ET TERRITOIRE, UNIVERSITE PARIS-EST

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    partiellement par une bourse issue de la direction de l'Architecture et du Patrimoine du ministère de la CultureECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE D'ARCHITECTURE DE PARIS LA VILLETTE ECOLE DOCTORALE «VILLE, TRANSPORTS, Architecture et Modélisation- Laboratoire d'Architecturologie et de Recherches Epistémologiques pour obtenir LE

  7. Multimodality Neurological Data Visualization with Multi-VOI Based DTI Fiber Dynamic Integration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Alexander, Murray; Ryner, Lawrence

    2014-11-01

    Brain lesions are usually located adjacent to critical spinal structures, so it will be a challenging task for neurosurgeons to precisely plan a surgical procedure without damaging healthy tissues and nerves. The advancement of medical imaging technologies produces a large amount of neurological data, which are capable of showing a wide variety of brain properties. Advanced algorithms of medical data computing and visualization are critically helpful in efficiently utilizing the acquired data for disease diagnosis and brain function and structure exploration, which will be helpful to treatment planning. In this paper, we describe new algorithms and a software framework for multiple volume of interest (VOI) specified diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber dynamic visualization. The displayed results have been integrated with a volume rendering pipeline for multimodality neurological data exploration. A depth texture indexing algorithm is used to detect DTI fiber tracts in graphics process units (GPUs), which makes fibers to be displayed and interactively manipulated with brain data acquired from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), T1- and T2- weighted anatomic imaging, and angiographic imaging. The developed software platform is built on an object-oriented structure, which is transparent and extensible. It provides a comprehensive human-computer interface for data exploration and information extraction. The GPU-accelerated high-performance computing kernels have been implemented to enable our software to dynamically visualize neurological data. The developed techniques will be useful in computer-aided neurological disease diagnosis, brain structure exploration, and general cognitive neuroscience. PMID:25376048

  8. The 12p13.33/RAD52 locus and genetic susceptibility to squamous cell cancers of upper aerodigestive tract.

    PubMed

    Delahaye-Sourdeix, Manon; Oliver, Javier; Timofeeva, Maria N; Gaborieau, Valérie; Johansson, Mattias; Chabrier, Amélie; Wozniak, Magdalena B; Brenner, Darren R; Vallée, Maxime P; Anantharaman, Devasena; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Thakker, Nalin S; Conway, David I; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Menezes, Ana; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Eluf-Neto, José; Boffetta, Paolo; Garrote, Leticia Fernández; Serraino, Diego; Lener, Marcin; Jaworowska, Ewa; Lubi?ski, Jan; Boccia, Stefania; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja A; Mahimkar, Manoj B; Matsuo, Keitaro; Franceschi, Silvia; Byrnes, Graham; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variants located within the 12p13.33/RAD52 locus have been associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Here, within 5,947 UADT cancers and 7,789 controls from 9 different studies, we found rs10849605, a common intronic variant in RAD52, to be also associated with upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) squamous cell carcinoma cases (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15, p = 6x10(-4)). We additionally identified rs10849605 as a RAD52 cis-eQTL inUADT(p = 1x10(-3)) and LUSC (p = 9x10(-4)) tumours, with the UADT/LUSC risk allele correlated with increased RAD52 expression levels. The 12p13.33 locus, encompassing rs10849605/RAD52, was identified as a significant somatic focal copy number amplification in UADT(n = 374, q-value = 0.075) and LUSC (n = 464, q-value = 0.007) tumors and correlated with higher RAD52 tumor expression levels (p = 6x10(-48) and p = 3x10(-29) in UADT and LUSC, respectively). In combination, these results implicate increased RAD52 expression in both genetic susceptibility and tumorigenesis of UADT and LUSC tumors. PMID:25793373

  9. Risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in a case-cohort study of autoworkers exposed to metalworking fluids

    PubMed Central

    Zeka, A; Eisen, E; Kriebel, D; Gore, R; Wegman, D

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To re-examine aerodigestive cancer risk in a cohort of autoworkers exposed to metal working fluids (MWF), using improved case definition and more recently diagnosed cases. Methods: The autoworker cohort included 31 100 hourly workers alive on 1 January 1985 who worked at three automobile plants in Michigan. A case-cohort design was carried out that included incident cases of cancers of the larynx, oesophagus, and stomach, and a 10% sample of the cohort. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate MWF exposure effects. The smoothing method of penalised splines was used to explore the shape of the underlying exposure-response curves. Results: The most important finding was the association between larynx cancer incidence and cumulative straight MWF exposure. The results for oesophageal cancer were less consistent. For stomach cancer there was no evidence of excess risk. Conclusion: This association between larynx cancer and straight MWF exposures was consistent with a previous finding in this cohort, providing further support for a causal relation. PMID:15090663

  10. Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Sensory Nerve Terminals of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract of Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Mu, Liancai; Chen, Jingming; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Nyirenda, Themba; Benson, Brian; Gupta, Fiona; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H; Caviness, John N; Shill, Holly A; Sabbagh, Marwan; Samanta, Johan E; Sue, Lucia I; Beach, Thomas G

    2015-08-01

    Dysphagia is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and causes significant morbidity and mortality. PD dysphagia has usually been explained as dysfunction of central motor control, much like other motor symptoms that are characteristic of the disease. However, PD dysphagia does not correlate with severity of motor symptoms nor does it respond to motor therapies. It is known that PD patients have sensory deficits in the pharynx, and that impaired sensation may contribute to dysphagia. However, the underlying cause of the pharyngeal sensory deficits in PD is not known. We hypothesized that PD dysphagia with sensory deficits may be due to degeneration of the sensory nerve terminals in the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT). We have previously shown that Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS) is present in the main pharyngeal sensory nerves of PD patients, but not in controls. In this study, the sensory terminals in UAT mucosa were studied to discern the presence and distribution of LTS. Whole-mount specimens (tongue-pharynx-larynx-upper esophagus) were obtained from 10 deceased human subjects with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (five with dysphagia and five without) and four age-matched healthy controls. Samples were taken from six sites and immunostained for phosphorylated ?-synuclein (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS-immunoreactive (PAS-ir) axons in all the PD subjects and in none of the controls. Notably, PD patients with dysphagia had more PAS-ir axons in the regions that are critical for initiating the swallowing reflex. These findings suggest that Lewy pathology affects mucosal sensory axons in specific regions of the UAT and may be related to PD dysphagia. PMID:26041249

  11. Active and involuntary tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive-tract cancer risks in a multicenter case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Marron, Manuela; Benhamou, Simone; Bouchardy, Christine; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsague, Xavier; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Macfarlane, Gary J.; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Talamini, Renato; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Simonato, Lorenzo; Conway, David I.; McKinney, Patricia A.; Lowry, Raymond J.; Sneddon, Linda; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire M.; McCartan, Bernard E.; Brennan, Paul; Hashibe, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Several important issues for the established association between tobacco smoking and upper-aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risks include the associations with smoking by cancer subsite, by type of tobacco, and among never alcohol drinkers, and the associations with involuntary smoking among nonsmokers. Our aim was to examine these specific issues in a large scale case-control study in Europe. Methods Analysis was performed on 2,103 UADT squamous cell carcinoma cases and 2,221 controls in the Alcohol-Related Cancers and Genetic Susceptibility in Europe (ARCAGE) project, a multicenter case-control study in 10 European countries. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Compared to never tobacco smoking, current smoking was associated with UADT cancer risks (OR=6.72, 95% CI 5.45–8.30 for overall; 5.83, 4.50–7.54 for oral cavity and oropharynx; 12.19, 8.29–17.92 for hypopharynx and larynx; 4.17, 2.45–7.10 for esophagus). Among never drinkers, dose-response relationships with tobacco smoking packyears were observed for hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.01), but not for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers (ptrend = 0.282). Among never smokers, ever exposure to involuntary smoking was associated with an increased risk of UADT cancers (OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.04–2.46). Conclusion Our results corroborate that tobacco smoking may play a stronger role in the development of hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancers than that of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers among never drinkers and that involuntary smoking is an important risk factor for UADT cancers. Public health interventions to reduce involuntary smoking exposure could help reduce UADT cancer incidence. PMID:19959682

  12. Serum beta2-microglobin is a predictor of prognosis in patients with upper aerodigestive tract NK/T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Ming; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Jian; Xia, Yi; Huang, Jia-Jia; Zou, Ben-Yan; Lin, Tong-Yu; Huang, Hui-Qiang; Jiang, Wen-Qi

    2012-08-01

    Upper aerodigestive tract natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (UNKTL) is the most common type of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. Serum beta2-microglobulin (?2-M) was found to be a predictor in some subtypes of B-cell lymphoma. However, its prognostic significance in NK/T-cell lymphoma has never been explored. We retrospectively analyzed 82 patients newly diagnosed as UNKTL. Serum ?2-M was detected prior to treatment in this series. Various statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the significance of the relevant clinical parameters. High serum ?2-M level was calculated as ?2.5 mg/L by the median value. The number of patients with serum ?2-M ?2.5 mg/L at diagnosis was 39 (47.6%) and 43 patients (52.4%) with ?2-M <2.5 mg/L. Patients with high serum ?2-M level at diagnosis seemed to have more adverse clinical features: B symptoms (p=0.007) and elevated LDH level (p<0.001), and high KPI score (p=0.002). Serum ?2-M ?2.5 mg/L was significantly associated with poor overall survival (5-year OS, 35.2% vs 73.6%; p=0.001) and progression-free survival (5-year PFS, 27.5% vs 55.9%; p=0.028). For patients with early stage, serum ?2-M at diagnosis could also help to distinguish those with favorable outcomes from those with poor outcomes. In multivariate analysis, high serum ?2-M level remained its prognostic impact on survival (OS: p=0.002; PFS: p=0.039), independent of the International Prognostic Index score. Our study suggested high serum ?2-M was a novel predictor of prognosis in patients with UNKTL. A simply and regular way might be established to identify UNKTL patients of different risks at diagnosis. PMID:22373550

  13. Deformation sequences of the Day Nui Con Voi metamorphic belt, northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, M. W.; Lee, T. Y.; Lo, C. H.; Chung, S. L.; Lan, C. Y.; Lee, J. C.; Lin, T. S.; Lin, Y. J.

    2003-04-01

    The correlation of structure, microstructure and metamorphic assemblages is of fundamental importance to the understanding of the complex tectonic history and kinematics of the Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) metamorphic belt in Vietnam along the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone as it provides constraints on the relative timing of the deformation, kinematics and metamorphism. High-grade metamorphic rocks of amphibolite faces showed consistent deformation sequences of three folding events followed by one brittle deformation through all four cross sections from Lao Cai to Viet Tri indicated the DNCV belt experienced similar deformation condition throughout its length. The first deformation event, D1, produced up-right folds (locally preserved) with sub-vertical, NE-SW striking axial planes with dextral sense of shear probably formed during the early phase of the lowermost Triassic Indosinian orogeny. Followed by this compressional event is a gravitational collapsing event, D2, which is the major deformation and metamorphic event characterized by kyanite grade metamorphism and large scale horizontal folds with NW-SE (320) striking sub-horizontal axial pane showing sinsistral sense of shear most likely formed during the Oligocene-Miocene SE extrusion of Indochina peninsula. The 3rd folding event, D3, is a post-metamorphism doming event with NW-SE (310) striking sub-vertical axial plane that folded/tilted the once sub-horizontal D2 axial planes into shallowly (<30 degrees) NE dipping on the NE limb, and SW dipping on the SW limb possibly due to left-lateral movement of the N-S trending Xian Shui He fault system in Mid-Miocene. The outward decreasing of the metamorphic grade from kyanite to garnet then biotite indicated the D3 occurred post metamorphism. Reactivation of the sub-horizontal D2 fold axial planes showed dextral sense of shear possibly due to Late Miocene-Pliocene right-lateral movement of the ASRR shear zone. This right lateral movement continuously deformed the DNCV with brittle fractures such as joints and normal faults (D4) striking NE-SW to E-W and NW-SE.

  14. Zgkt23,1991 VoI. 22, NO.34 754: Outside of D.C./Baltimore Areas THE GAY WEEKLY O F THE NATION'S CAPITAL

    E-print Network

    Brody, James P.

    Zgkt23,1991 VoI. 22, NO.34 754: Outside of D.C./Baltimore Areas THE GAY WEEKLY O F THE NATION'S CAPITAL . . . I I Soviet Gays sprang to action to help resist coup Printed and distributed Yeltsin's call for resistance by Lou Chibbaro Jr. Soviet Gay activists, realizing they had one of the few working laser printers

  15. La fistulation chronique rentrante des voies biliaires modifie-t-elle la circulation entro-hpatique (CEH) des acides biliaires (AB) totaux chez le Porc ?, par Vronique LEGRAND-Vronique LEGRAND-

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - hépatique (CEH) des acides biliaires (AB) totaux chez le Porc ?, par Véronique LEGRAND-Véronique LEGRAND réentrante des voies biliaires extrahépatiques sur la CEH des AB totaux, nous avons comparé l'apparition dans

  16. Improved longitudinal [(18)F]-AV45 amyloid PET by white matter reference and VOI-based partial volume effect correction.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Matthias; Högenauer, Marcus; Delker, Andreas; Sauerbeck, Julia; Bartenstein, Peter; Seibyl, John; Rominger, Axel

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid positron-emission-tomography (PET) offers an important research and diagnostic tool for investigating Alzheimer's disease (AD). The majority of amyloid PET studies have used the cerebellum as a reference region, and clinical studies have not accounted for atrophy-based partial volume effects (PVE). Longitudinal studies using cerebellum as reference tissue have revealed only small mean increases and high inter-subject variability in amyloid binding. We aimed to test the effects of different reference regions and PVE-correction (PVEC) on the discriminatory power and longitudinal performance of amyloid PET. We analyzed [(18)F]-AV45 PET and T1-weighted MRI data of 962 subjects at baseline and two-year follow-up data of 258 subjects. Cortical composite volume-of-interest (VOI) values (COMP) for tracer uptake were generated using either full brain atlas VOIs, gray matter segmented VOIs or gray matter segmented VOIs after VOI-based PVEC. Standard-uptake-value ratios (SUVR) were calculated by scaling the COMP values to uptake in cerebellum (SUVRCBL), brainstem (SUVRBST) or white matter (SUVRWM). Mean SUV, SUVR, and changes after PVEC were compared at baseline between diagnostic groups of healthy controls (HC; N=316), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=483) and AD (N=163). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were calculated for the discriminations between HC, MCI and AD, and expressed as area under the curve (AUC). Finally, the longitudinal [(18)F]-AV45-PET data were used to analyze the impact of quantitation procedures on apparent changes in amyloid load over time. Reference region SUV was most constant between diagnosis groups for the white matter. PVEC led to decreases of COMP-SUV in HC (-18%) and MCI (-10%), but increases in AD (+7%). Highest AUCs were found when using PVEC with white matter scaling for the contrast between HC/AD (0.907) or with brainstem scaling for the contrast between HC/MCI (0.658). Longitudinal increases were greatest in all diagnosis groups with application of PVEC, and inter-subject variability was lowest for the white matter reference. Thus, discriminatory power of [(18)F]-AV45-PET was improved by use of a VOI-based PVEC and white matter or brainstem rather than cerebellum reference region. Detection of longitudinal amyloid increases was optimized with PVEC and white matter reference tissue. PMID:25482269

  17. Evaluation with mTHPC of early squamous cell carcinomas of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters as a model for clinical PDT of early cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Glanzmann; Jean-Francois Theumann; Martin Forrer; Daniel Braichotte; Georges Wagnieres; Hubert van den Bergh; Snezana Andrejevic; Jean-Francois Savary; Philippe Monnier

    1995-01-01

    Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for light induced fluorescence (LIF) photodetection and phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus, and the traecheo-bronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12-DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized

  18. Evaluation with mTHPC of early squamous cell carcinomas of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters as a model for clinical PDT of early cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Glanzmann; Jean-Francois Theumann; Martin Forrer; Daniel Braichotte; Georges A. Wagnieres; Hubert van den Bergh; Snezana Andrejevic-Blant; Jean-Francois Savary; Philippe Monnier

    1994-01-01

    Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for light induced fluorescence (LIF) photodetection and phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus, and the traecheo-bronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12-DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized

  19. Radiotherapy in the treatment of mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract: Analysis of 74 cases. A Rare Cancer Network study

    SciTech Connect

    Krengli, Marco [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy)]. E-mail: krengli@tera.it; Masini, Laura [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); Kaanders, Johannes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maingon, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre G. F. Leclerc, Dijon (France); Oei, Swan Bing [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Instituut, Tilburg (Netherlands); Zouhair, Abderrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ozyar, Enis [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara (Turkey); Roelandts, Martine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Bruxelles (Belgium); Amichetti, Maurizio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ospedale Oncologico A. Businco, Cagliari (Italy); Bosset, Mathieu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besancon, Besancon (France); Mirimanoff, Rene-Olivier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively analyze a series of mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract to determine the prognostic factors and contribute to understanding the role of radiotherapy in the therapeutic strategy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients were analyzed. The most frequent locations were nasal and oral, in 31 patients (41.9%) and 12 patients (16.2%), respectively. Sixty-three patients (85.1%) were in Stage I, 5 (6.8%) in Stage II, and 6 (8.1%) in Stage III. Treatment consisted of surgery in 17 patients (23.0%), surgery and radiotherapy in 42 (56.8%), radiotherapy in 11 (14.9%), and chemo-immunotherapy in 4 (5.4%). Median follow-up was 20 months. Results: Local control at 3 years was 57% after surgery alone and 71% after surgery and radiotherapy. Overall and disease-free survival rates, respectively, were 41% and 31% at 3 years and 14% and 22% at 10 years. After univariate analysis, female gender, melanosis, tumor size {<=}3 cm, Stage I, postoperative radiotherapy, and complete remission were favorable prognostic factors. Stage I and melanosis were confirmed by multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Local control was improved by postoperative radiotherapy, despite survival being as poor as in other published series. Stage I and melanosis at diagnosis were the most favorable prognostic factors.

  20. Diffusional homogenization of light REE in garnet from the Day Nui Con Voi Massif in N-Vietnam: Implications for SmNd geochronology and timing of metamorphism in

    E-print Network

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Diffusional homogenization of light REE in garnet from the Day Nui Con Voi Massif in N Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, UK c Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK d Institute

  1. Tobacco Smoking, NBS1 Polymorphisms, and Survival in Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers with Semi-Bayes Adjustment for Hazard-ratio Variation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingting; Chang, Po-Yin; Park, Sungshim Lani; Bastani, Delara; Chang, Shen-Chih; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald P.; Mao, Jenny T.; Papp, Jeanette C.; Rao, Jian-Yu; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas M.; Greenland, Sander; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NBS1 have been associated with susceptibility to lung and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers, their relations to cancer survival and measures of effect are largely unknown. Methods Using follow-up data from 611 lung-cancer cases and 601 UADT-cancer cases from a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles, we prospectively evaluated associations of tobacco smoking and 5 NBS1 SNPs with all-cause mortality. Mortality data were obtained from the Social Security Death Index. We used Cox regression to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for main effects and ratios of hazard ratios (RHR) derived from product terms to assess hazard-ratio variations by each SNP. Bayesian methods were used to account for multiple comparisons. Results We observed 406 (66%) deaths in lung-cancer cases and 247 (41%) deaths in UADT-cancer cases with median survival of 1.43 and 1.72 years, respectively. Ever tobacco smoking was positively associated with mortality for both cancers. We observed an upward dose-response association between smoking pack-years and mortality in UADT squamous cell carcinoma. The adjusted HR relating smoking to mortality in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was greater for cases with the GG genotype of NBS1 rs1061302 than for cases with AA/AG genotypes (semi-Bayes adjusted RHR = 1.97; 95% limits = 1.14, 3.41). Conclusions A history of tobacco smoking at cancer diagnosis was associated with mortality among patients with lung cancer or UADT squamous cell carcinoma. The HR relating smoking to mortality appeared to vary with the NBS1 rs1061302 genotype among NSCLC cases. PMID:24166361

  2. Evaluation with mTHPC of early squamous cell carcinomas of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters as a model for clinical PDT of early cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Forrer, Martin; Braichotte, Daniel; Wagnieres, Georges A.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for light induced fluorescence (LIF) photodetection and phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus, and the traecheo-bronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12-DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized meso-(tetrahydoxyphenyl) chlorin (mTHPC). This drug is currently in phase I and II clinical trials for ENT patients presenting superficial `early' squamous cell carcinomas. By means of LIF we measured in vivo the kinetics of the uptake and removal of mTHPC in the normal and tumoral cheek mucosa and in the skin. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) reaction of the tissue after excitation of the photosensitizer with laser light at 652 nm was studied. Both pharmacokinetics and PDT efficacy are compared between animal model and clinical results with special emphasis on selectivity between normal and tumoral mucosa. These first experiments show that this tumor model in the hamster cheek pouch seems to be suitable for testing new photosensitizers preceding their clinical application as well as for optimization of the multiple parameters of clinical PDT.

  3. Voi non ci riuscirete mai!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Pegna

    “Malvolti é morto”. La voce al telefono era quella del mio amico e collega Silvestri. “?ha trovato il tu o laureando quando\\u000a è entrato in laboratorio questa mattina”, continuava. “Era steso per terra bocconi, lungo tirato come un baccalà. Sono già\\u000a arrivati il medico e la polizia e stanno frugando dappertutto”. Data la complessione robusta del morto il paragone con

  4. Voi non ci riuscirete mai!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Pegna

    “Malvolti ‘morto”. La voce al telefono era quella del mio amico e collega Silvestri. “L’ha trovato il tuo laureando quando\\u000a è entrato in laboratorio questa mattina”, continuava. “Era steso per terra bocconi, lungo tirato come un baccalà. Sono già\\u000a arrivati il medico e la polizia e stanno frugando dappertutto”. Data la complessione robusta del morto il paragone con il\\u000a baccalà

  5. A leech at the aerodigestive crossroads.

    PubMed

    Kouismi, Hatim; Acharki, Mohammed; Sqalli-Houssaini, Fatimazzahra; Bourkadi, Jamal-Eddine

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of hemoptysis observed in a 32-year-old man with an uneventful past history. Flexible bronchoscopy demonstrated presence of a leech attached to the laryngeal orifice. This condition is common in endemic areas but is underdiagnosed. The association of hemoptysis, voice alterations, and difficult respiration are suggestive signs. Extraction should be achieved rapidly to avoid death from asphyxiation or acute respiratory failure. PMID:25887019

  6. ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of pyrochlore and related MineraIs in the Weathering zones of the Niobium Deposits ofthe Lueshe and the Bingo Minière) LE GISEMENT DE NIOBIUM DE LUESHE (Nord Est du Zaïre): EVOLUTIONS GEOCIDMIQUE ET MINERALOGIQUE D NIOBIUM DE LUESHE (Nord Est du Zaïre): EVOLUTIONS GEOCHIMIQUE ET MINERALOGIQUE D'UN COMPLEXE

  7. ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE CACHAN

    E-print Network

    ........................................................................................................... 14 E-MAIL AND INTERNET ACCESS ......................................................................... 15 LIBRARY de Travaux Publics A partner institution of ENS Cachan, specialized in public works. FFSU Fédération

  8. Advantages of video endoscopy in pediatric aerodigestive tract disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene Flaum; George Berci; Keith Kimble; Eric Partlow

    1987-01-01

    The naked eye examination of the larynx through the laryngoscope is inadequate for the examination of the minute anatomic structures and does not permit the visualization of the subglottic space or the trachea. A telescope coupled to a miniature television camera is advanced under precise visual control through the vocal cords and into the trachea. Oxygen is administered through the

  9. Ecole normale superieure L3 geosciences

    E-print Network

    Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste

    -d´efinitive en ligne : http://j3-fortran.org/doc/standing/archive/ 007/97-007r2/pdf/97-007r2.pdf. Des solutions entr´ee et fera la conversion dans l'autre devise. Le programme affichera un message d'erreur si la message d'erreur pour

  10. Finance d'entreprise:voix nouvelles et nouvelles voies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hélène Rainelli-Le Montagner

    2008-01-01

    (VF)Cet article examine les implications sur les recherches en finance d’entreprise du renouvellement récent des conceptions théoriques sur le fonctionnement des marchés financiers. En distinguant les approches issues de la finance comportementale de celles portées par les conventionnalistes ou par les tenants de l’utilisation des études sociales de la finance ou de la sociologie économique, le travail présenté ici permet

  11. Haskell : De nouvelles voies pour le parallelisme Laurent Pierron

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    sudoku17.1000.txt +RTS -N4 -N4 indique le nombre de coeurs (ici 4) 0 1,00 2,00 3,00 4,00 1 coeur 2 coeurs 3 coeurs 4 coeurs 0,93 1,70 2,47 3,21 0,95 1,40 1,28 1,18 Performance pour 1000 grilles Deux listes : : Account -> I n t -> STM () withdraw acc amount = do bal acc writeTVar acc ( bal - amount

  12. __ joumalof Printed in India Voi. 42, No. 3,

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    , Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, India MS received l0 August 1993;revised20 to the 27 branches of this band has been carried out. Keywords. Optogalvanic spectroscopy; nitrogen molecule(3 spectrum, which is obtained by joining a number of 30 GHz spectra, and the Fortrat parabola of all branches

  13. Recriture d'Ordre Superieur Jean-Pierre Jouannaud

    E-print Network

    Jouannaud, Jean-Pierre

    email: jouannaud@lix.polytechnique.fr http: //w3.lix.polytechnique.fr/Labo/Jean-Pierre.Jouannaud Project Jean-Pierre Jouannaud ´Ecole Polytechnique 91400 Palaiseau, France [2mm] email: jouannaud@lix.polytechnique.fr http: //w3 .lix.polyplain #12;Alg`ebres d'ordre sup´erieur polymorphes Notre but est de d´ecrire les

  14. Ecole Normale Superieure Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    as links 15 2.1 Down to earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.2 Lofty for supersymmetric gauge theories in four dimensions into string theory, and to show that it corresponds theories and their relation to affine algebras, time-dependent aspects of the holographic map between

  15. ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -Claude ENSIEG JOURDAIN Geneviève ENSIEG LACOUME Jean-Louis ENSIEG LADET Pierre ENSHMG LESIEUR Marcel ENSHMG ROBERT André ENSIMAG ROBERT François ENSIEG SABONNADIERE Jean-Claudf' ENSIMAG SAUCIER Gabriele ENSPC

  16. COLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE LYON Laboratoire Triangle UMR 5206

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    docteur de l'École normale supérieure de Lyon Thèse de doctorat de philosophie L'essor de la théorie Laboratoire Triangle UMR 5206 L'essor de la théorie juridico-politique sur l'état d'exception dans l

  17. ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THERMIQUE DE L' HYDROXYCARBONATE DE CERIUM ID (CeOHC03) EN DIOXYDE DE CERIUM IV Soutenue à Saint-Etienne le) ETUDE DE LA TRANSFORMATION THERMIQUE DE L' HYDROXYCARBONATE DE CERIUM fi (CeOHC03) EN DIOXYDE DE CERIUM

  18. ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Etienne, le 18 Juillet 1997 Composition du Jury Messieurs Gérard BERTHELOT Président Claude JARD Rapporteurs Claude JARD Rapporteurs Guy JUANOLE Jean-Jacques GIRARDOT Examinateurs Michel HABIB Madame Christine, pour l'honneur qu'il me fait en présidant le jury de ma thèse. Messieurs Claude Jard, Chargé de

  19. prsente devant L'ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE AGRONOMIQUE DE RENNES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Réponse adaptative des populations de Phytophthora infestans, agent du mildiou de la pomme de terre, au `Caractérisation et Gestion Durable des Résistances des Plantes aux Maladies' Ecole doctorale Université Rennes I Variétés Nouvelles de Pomme de Terre). Je remercie les différents membres de l'association, Bretagne

  20. prsente L'ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE PARIS

    E-print Network

    obtenir LE TITRE DE DOCTEUR EN ENERGETIQUE DETERMINATlON DU RAYONNEMENT SOLAIRE A L'AIDE D'ennuagement ..................................................................... 24 2.5 Détermination du rayonnement global horaire au sol ....................................... 25 Chapitre 3 Détermination du rayonnement global journalier en moyenne mensuelle - Présentation de la station

  1. ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE CACHAN ECOLE DOCTORALE SCIENCES PRATIQUES

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    remerciements vont aussi à Claudine Larcher, Jean Lamour, Michael Huchette, Oktay Adiguzel, Zeki Bayram, Mathieu Jahnich, Ignace Rack, Bernard André, François-Marie Blondel et Philippe Varrin pour leurs aides, leurs

  2. The Oral Microbiome and Upper Aerodigestive Squamous Cell Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  3. Treatment of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in England and its effect on survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dympna M Edwards; N W Johnson

    1999-01-01

    The evidence base for head and neck cancers is low with relatively few randomized controlled trials of the two main treatments, surgery and radiotherapy. The aim of the study was to investigate the patterns of surgery and radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancers in three large areas of England and to investigate their effects on survival. This was a

  4. Active Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  5. Effects of alcohol and tobacco on aerodigestive cancer risks: a meta-regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariana Zeka; Rebecca Gore; David Kriebel

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Meta-analysis was used to summarize the published evidence on the associations between alcohol and tobacco consumption and cancers of the oropharynx, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. The objective was to produce summary risk estimates with uniform methods and on uniform exposure scales so that the magnitudes of the risks could be compared across tumor sites. Methods: Epidemiologic studies that estimated

  6. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  7. Indolent T-lymphblastic proliferation: report of a case involving the upper aerodigestive tract

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fang; Liu, Tengfei; Zhao, Haiyan; Hu, Zhiyan; Xiao, Liwei; Liu, Yanping; Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Zuguo

    2014-01-01

    T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBP) is a high-grade malignant lymphoma, which possesses the characteristic of high metastasis and high mortality without treatment. We are presenting a special T-lymphoblastic proliferation involving in the oropharynx, nasopharynx, sinus and trachea in a patient with local involved about 15-years without systemic dissemination. The immunophenotype of this case was similar to T-LBP. The proliferous cells were positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT), CD3, and appeared co-expression CD4 and CD8. No clonal rearrangements of TCR? and/or TCR? gene were detected. Indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferations rarely occurred or unusually could not be diagnosed, combing with the relevant literature and clinically indolent manifestation, we interpreted this case as indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation (iT-LBPs). So far, the mechanism of the T-lymphoblastic proliferations is still uncertain and requires further study. PMID:25337290

  8. [Practical significance of the 6 level neck classification in cancers of the aerodigestive tract].

    PubMed

    Kruk-Zagajewska, A; Szmeja, Z; Wierzbicka, M

    2000-01-01

    Lymph node metastases are one of the main reasons of treatment failure in head and neck cancer. Thus, knowledge of lymphatic system anatomy and routs of spreading the metastases in particular primary tumor localisation is of great practical importance. Typical sites of neck metastases in larynx and tonsil cancer were presented. The neck lymphatic system classification according to American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery from 1991 was used. The most often site of metastases in larynx cancer was the II and III level, in tongue and floor of mouth cancer--level I and II and in nasopharynx malignancies--level II and V respectively. Knowledge of the neck regions with elevated risk of harbouring metastases was important not only during the surgery but as well before planning of the selective or elective radiotherapy. PMID:10974865

  9. Chemoprevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancer by dietary zinc | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content Division of Cancer Prevention Search form Search Main menu Home Major Programs Research Networks Map Alliance of Glycobiologists for Detection of Cancer Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) Cancer Prevention

  10. SIAM J. Disc. MATH. VOI. 2, NO. 2, pp. 145-155, May 1989

    E-print Network

    Graham, Fan Chung

    pancyclic and he showed that n+log2 (n- 1)- f(C,,). R. K. CHUNG:I:, F. T. LEIGHTON, AND ARNOLD L. ROSENBERG Abstract. How small can a graph-04308 and DCI-87-96236. 145 #12;146 S. BHATT, F. CHUNG, F. LEIGHTON, AND A. ROSENBERG bound was improved

  11. Détérioration des voies dopaminergiques et altérations des fonctions cognitives et motrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Dubois; B. Pillon; Y. Agid

    1993-01-01

    Résumé La dégénérescence des neurones dopaminergiques centraux est l'anomalie histopathologique la plus caractéristique de la maladie de Parkinson. Il reste à établir dans quelle mesure ces lésions expliquent les troubles moteurs, cognitifs et affectifs observés chez ces patients, mais il existe désormais quelques pistes intéressantes vers une possible solution.[\\/p

  12. Prise en charge des mucites après radiothérapie des cancers des voies aérodigestives supérieures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lapeyre; C. Charra-Brunaud; M. C. Kaminsky; L. Geoffrois; G. Dolivet; B. Toussaint; F. Maire; N. Pourel; M. Simon; C. Marchal; P. Bey

    2001-01-01

    Acute mucositis is common after radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Duringthepast3 decades, there was a gradual evolution in the treatment modalities for locally advanced carcinomas (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy). These new strategies are accompanied by an increase in early mucosal reactions. Atthe present time, there is no widely accepted prophylaxis or effective treatment. Many traditional remedies or new agents

  13. Enrichment for a CD26hi SIRP- subset in lymph dendritic cells from the upper aero-digestive tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathieu Epardaud; Michel Bonneau; Fabrice Payot; Corinne Cordier; Chris Howard; Isabelle Schwartz-Cornil

    2004-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) have been re- ported to migrate in afferent lymph in the steady state. However, it is unknown whether DC traffic is modulated by the nature of the drained tissue. To analyze the influence of mucosal versus cutaneous microenvironments on the constitutive DC release, we exploited a novel technique of lymph cannula- tion in sheep, which allowed a

  14. Substantially Reduced Risk of Cancer of the Aerodigestive Tract in Subjects with Variant 2463A of the Myeloperoxidase Gene1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingolf Cascorbi; Stefan Henning; Jurgen Brockmoller; Jurgen Gephart; Christian Meisel; Joachim M. Muller; Robert Loddenkemper; Ivar Roots

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme that is highly expressed in neu- trophil leukocytes, transforms precarcinogens such as benzo(a)pyrene and aromatic amines to highly reactive intermediates. A G\\/A polymorphism located 463 bp upstream of exon 1 in the promoter region strongly reduces MPO mRNA expression. In a matched case-control study, 196 lung can- cer, 245 laryngeal cancer, and 255 pharyngeal cancer patients

  15. presentee `a L'ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE PARIS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ´ed´eric HECHT Rapporteur Docteur ´Eric BONNEAU Examinateur Docteur Richard DUCLOUX Invit´e Professeur Thierry Coupard, C´edric Descamps, Fran¸cois Dimier ; ­ Transvalor : Andres Rodriguez-Villa, Richard Ducloux, Olivier Jaouen, Jean-Fran¸cois Delajoud, Elvire Philips ; ­ `a Luisa Silva, Serge Batkam et Hugues

  16. Floating-Point Exponentiation Units for Reconfigurable Computing Florent de Dinechin, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    . A parameterized architecture generator in the open-source FloPoCo project is presented in details and evaluatedPoco project1 aims at providing high-quality, portable and open-source operators for floating-point computing±0 any x (even NaN) 1 finite x > 0 1 y finite y

  17. Laboratoire de l'Informatique du Parall elisme Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon

    E-print Network

    Koiran, Pascal

    that the sequences b2 n ln 2c, b2 n #25;c, b2 n ec, b2 n p 2c and b(3=2) n c are all hard to compute, but proofs seemLaboratoire de l'Informatique du Parallâ?? elisme â?? Ecole Normale Supâ??erieure de Lyon Unitâ??e Mixte de Recherche CNRS­INRIA­ENS LYON­UCBL n o 5668 Valiant's Model and the Cost of Computing Integers Pascal Koiran

  18. INP Grenoble ENSIMAG Ecole Nationale Superieure dInformatique et de Mathematiques Appliquees de Grenoble

    E-print Network

    655 avenue de l'Europe Tuteur ´ecole 38 334 Montbonnot M. Augustin Lux France Jury M. Roger Mohr M-scale system for visual retrieval of realistic action samples of different human action classes from TV. In practice this yields a substantial part of irrelevant samples. We handle them by ranking the whole

  19. From "Ecoles Superieures de Commerce" to "Management Schools": Transformations and Continuity in French Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Part of the national system of grandes Ecoles, French Business schools have known radical changes since the 1980s, notably in size, and have become more attractive to students both at a national and an international level. As a consequence, the French elitist system has been questioned by the competition of foreign--especially Anglo-Saxon--models.…

  20. L'ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES MINES DE PARIS Balint KISS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    tout an long de la these. Sa riguour et sa mait rise permis de bcaucoup apprendre. .Ie suis 6galemcnt mains de robots. nne littera! me tres riche est disponible dans divers do- maines modclisation [12. 1 Introduction 2 Robotic manipulation with permanent rolling contacts 2.1 Modelling 2.1.1 Geometry and kinematics

  1. ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE N d'ordre : 298 CD DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .......................................................................................................................... 6 A.1.1. Aspirines...................................................................................................................7 A.1.1.2. Caractéristiques des aspirines

  2. Le francais fonde sur la competence, Superieur (Competency Based French, Superior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimanche, Maurice

    This instructional guide in French is intended for training Peace Corps volunteers serving in the Central African Republic. It includes 35 topical units at the superior level, each consisting of briefly stated competency objectives and a number of brief, related situational texts. Unit topics include: explaining how to do something; explaining…

  3. presentee pour obtenir le grade de docteur de l'Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ´el´ecommunications Sp´ecialit´e : Signal et Images Hassan KHOTANLOU Segmentation 3D de tumeurs et de structures internes du cerveau en IRM 3D brain tumors and internal brain structures segmentation in MR images Soutenue le my beloved wife, Tayebeh, and our always positive and joyful children, Zahra and Mohammad

  4. ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE N d'ordre : 375 GP DES MINES DE SAINT-ETIENNE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -ETIENNE (Spécialité : GENIE DES PROCEDES) CINETIQUE ET MECANISMES DE CORROSION SECHE D'UN CERMET A BASE Cu-Ni Soutenue candidats grâce à leurs propriétés conductrices et leur résistance à la corrosion. À une température de 960°C, ce matériau ne doit pas seulement résister à la corrosion du bain d'électrolyse, mais aussi à la

  5. Presentee pour obtenir le grade de docteur de l'Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    based on statistical inference for the localization and use particle filters for the situations in which´esultat de cette recherche a permis l'´eclosion d'algorithmes robustes dont certains sont d´ej`a utilis´es `a has permitted the development of robust algorithms, some of which are already being used

  6. MINISTERE DE L'AGRICULTURE ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE AGRONOMIQUE DE MONTPELLIER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . APPLICATION A LA GESTION INTEGREE DE LA FERTILISATION AZOTEE ET DU CALENDRIER CULTURAL DANS LE DELTA INTERIEUR DU FLEUVE NIGER (MALI) ---------- devant le jury composé de : Pr. B. JAILLARD Président Pr. J. WERY Niger et à Montpellier dans les locaux du CIRAD. Avec ici ou là que de sympathie !!! Que seraient ces

  7. Training in Human Relations for Engineers at the Ecole Superieure D'Informatique-Electronique-Automatique (ESIEA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafargue, M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Points out the need to provide engineers with training in human relations. Describes the process of developing a document defining the problem and steps to be taken toward solution, submitted to students for their evaluation. (JM)

  8. THESE DE DOCTORAT DE L'ECOLE NORMALE SUPERIEURE DE CACHAN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : Imagerie �lectro-optique Pockels aux échelles micro et nanométriques en physique et biophysique Thèse....................................................................... 5 I.I.1 Effet Pockels............................................................................................................................. 20 II.I.3 Polarisabilité non linéaire et effet Pockels

  9. Pour l'obtention du Grade de DOCTEUR DE L'ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Recherche au CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour, Nancy Examinateur J-L. CHABOCHE Directeur de Recherche, ONERA Nancy et Monsieur Jean-Louis Chaboche, Directeur de Recherche à l'ONERA pour avoir accepté de faire

  10. Community VoiCesVolume 4, 2013-14University Neighborhood Partners Artwork by Bad Dog Arts and displayed

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    , representatives from the National League of Cities and the Department of Education visited Salt Lake City to learn Department of Education, and Audrey Hutchinson, Program Director, National League of Cities Institute was smart....that I could be successful!" She invited the group to share their own stories and to reflect

  11. Cancers des voies aérodigestives supérieures : bénéfices cliniques de la radiothérapie conformationnelle et de la modulation d’intensité

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Giraud; C Jaulerry; F Brunin; S Zefkili; S Helfre; I Chauvet; J. C Rosenwald; J. M Cosset

    2002-01-01

    The conformal radiotherapy approach, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), is based on modern imaging modalities, efficient 3D treatment planning systems, sophisticated immobilization systems and rigorous quality assurance and treatment verification. The central objective of conformal radiotherapy is to ensure a high dose distribution tailored to the limits of the target volume while reducing exposure of normal tissues.

  12. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUEIV Colloque C4,supplkment au Journal de Physique 111,VoI. 1, novembre 1991

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -Al-Ni policrystalline shape memory alloys with different concentrations. For that reason we have used a microdeformation of the different martensitic phases. 1. Introduction As it is well known martensitic transformation on the shape ON THE MOBILITY OF THE MARTENSITIC INTERPHASES ON THE Cu-Al-Ni SHAPE MEM- ORY ALLOYS V. RECARTE,J. SANJUAN, J

  13. Scale-up Approach in CATI Surveys for Estimating the Number of Foreign Body Injuries in the Aero-digestive Tract in Children

    PubMed Central

    Snidero, Silvia; Soriani, Nicola; Baldi, Ileana; Zobec, Federica; Berchialla, Paola; Gregori, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Foreign body injuries are a well-known threat to children due to the high risk of ingestion of small objects and choking. In order to depict the epidemiological framework of such injuries, data are mostly available for hospitalizations and partially for emergency room visits. The hidden part of the phenomenon consisting of minor self-resolved injuries is still unknown. The purpose of this paper is to provide an estimate of the overall burden of such injuries in children in Italy. Our paper proposes the use of the scale up technique to overcome most of the pitfalls of classical techniques in the estimation of the number of children aged 0–14 that suffered a foreign body injury in 2004. Our results, based on a CATI survey on 1,081 women, show that the estimated number of children under 15 years that incurred in a foreign body injury was 15,829 (95% CI: 14,376–17,282), of these 12,844 were treated in hospital or in emergency department (95% CI: 11,535–14,153). The scale-up method in conjunction with a CATI survey provides a reliable estimate of the size of hard-to-count populations as those of injured children at lower costs with respect to classical sampling schemes. PMID:23202831

  14. BULLETIN OF TEE UNITED STATES F18H COMMISSION. 25'7 VoI. 1x1,No. 17. Washington, D. C. Sept. 6, 1883,

    E-print Network

    everywhere. NPMPHBACEB. WATEB-LILYFANILY. 7. Braseniapeltata, Pursh. Water-Shield. Carberry Meadowsbelow Eads-crop. Common everywhere. HALORAGE&. WATER-MI~FOILFAMILY. 17. Myriophyllum epicaturn,L. Water-Milfoil. Below anibiyens, Watson. [Iz. alisnztefoliw,Geyer.] Water- Plantain Spearwort. Eastern Branch marsh, D. 0.;a180

  15. [Experimental hybridization of voies of the genus Microtus s.l. M. socialis with species of the group arvalis (Mammalia, Rodentia)].

    PubMed

    Koval'skaia, Iu M; Savinetskaia, L E; Aksenova, T G

    2014-01-01

    The results of interspecific crosses of the social vole Microtus socialis with the Altai vole M. obscurus, the East European vole M. rossiaemeridionalis, and the Transcaspian vole M. transcaspicus are presented. The role of the sperm head structure in the reproductive isolation of this species was studied. Hybrids were obtained in five of the six crossing combinations. It is established that significant differences in the sperm head shape in the social vole and in arvalis group species do not prevent fertilization. The sterility of hybrids indicates the existence of postcopulative mechanisms of reproductive isolation. PMID:25739313

  16. Voies molculaires dans le cancer du rein : de la biologie aux traitements de demain Signalling pathways in renal cell carcinoma: from the molecular biology to the futur

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    pathways in renal cell carcinoma: from the molecular biology to the futur therapy Julien Edeline (1: Renal cell carcinoma, antiangiogenic therapies, signalling pathways inserm-00480057,version1-5May2010 pronostiques et prédictifs de réponse. Summary: The medical treatment of renal-cell carcinoma, and of its most

  17. Recommendations to the Technical Steering Panel regarding approach for estimating individual radiation doses resulting from releases of radionuclides to the Columbia River. Volume 2, VOI supporting information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Brothers; B. A. Napier

    1992-01-01

    At the direction of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle staff have reviewed and analyzed available data regarding possible historical radiation doses to individuals resulting from radionuclide releases to the Columbia River. The objective of this review was to recommend to the TSP the spatial and temporal scope and level of effort

  18. Solid State Communications, Voi.42, No.3, pp.161-163, 1982. 0038-1098/82/150161-03503.00/0 Printed in Great Britain. Pergamon Press Ltd.

    E-print Network

    Kantor, Yacov

    in Great Britain. Pergamon Press Ltd. LOCALIZATION IN A ONE-DIMENSIONAL DISORDERED MODEL Yacov Kantor in the band and not on the randomness of the system. This phenomenon has a great impact on experiments since

  19. WindVOiCe, a Self-Reporting Survey: Adverse Health Effects, Industrial Wind Turbines, and the Need for Vigilance Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh, Carmen M. E.; Gillis, Lorrie; Kouwen, Nicholas; Aramini, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Industrial wind turbines have been operating in many parts of the globe. Anecdotal reports of perceived adverse health effects relating to industrial wind turbines have been published in the media and on the Internet. Based on these reports, indications were that some residents perceived they were experiencing adverse health effects. The purpose…

  20. 322 IEEE TRANSACTIONS O N INFORMATION THEORY. VOI.. 36, NO. 2. MARC'II 1990 Limiting Performance of Frequency-Hop

    E-print Network

    Madhow, Upamanyu

    of Frequency-Hop Random Access UPAMANYU MADHOW AND MICHAEL B. PURSLEY, FELLOW,IEEE Abstract -The multiple-access capability of asynchronous frequency- hop packet radio networks is analyzed. The only interference considered that the performance of frequency-hop networks is insensitive both to the distribution of packet lengths and to whether

  1. .%7rcttrral En~r'nec~ingrrnd Mechanics, Voi.24, Nu. 1 0006) 19-28 Evolution of bone structure under axial and

    E-print Network

    Qin, Qinghua

    -Hua Qint Department of Engineering, Australian National Univessitx Canbem, Australia 4ReceivttcliVoven111cv of the homogeneous stress statc. Keywords: bonc reniodeling; piezoelectric; piczomagnetic; hic e o ~(Takakuda - Ph.Il. Student :Prufessor, Corresponding author, E-mail: qinghua.qin@mued~~,aii #12

  2. Cell, Voi. 81,705-714, June2, 1995,Copyright 1995by Cell Press Molecular Basis of Human 46X,Y Sex Reversal

    E-print Network

    Clore, G. Marius

    of the embryonic gonads into testes (Goodfellow and LovelI-Badge, 1993; Haqq et al., 1994). A key component. In addition, SRY may act as a repressor of the P450 aromatase gene, whose prod- uct is responsible

  3. Course Descriptions Page 381Sonoma State University 2008-2010 Catalog thAr 145A VOiCe fOr the ACtOr (1)

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    , with relevance to more contemporary dance forms. Exercises will be given to strengthen and stretch the body, implications, layers, and joys of the spoken text. May be repeated once for credit. thAr 145B SpeeCh fOr the ACtOr (1) Articulate speech and textual clarity are primary skills for the actor. This course

  4. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  5. Fonctions d'ordre superieur I. (+un x), (+un-a-tous ls), (map proc ls), (add-a-tous x ls)

    E-print Network

    Csürös, Miklós

    Fonctions d'ordre sup´erieur I. (+un x), (+un-a-tous ls), (map proc ls), (add-a-tous x ls) (define +un (lambda (x) (+ x 1))) (define +un-a-tous (lambda (ls) (if (null? ls) '() (cons (+ 1 (car ls)) (+un-a-tous (cdr ls)))))) (define map (lambda (proc ls) (if (null? ls) '() (cons (proc (car ls)) (map proc (cdr ls

  6. Construction de la face superieure du Rubik's cube Toutes les figures de ce document representent le cube pose sur une table,

    E-print Network

    Deléglise, Marc

    Construction de la face sup´erieure du Rubik's cube Toutes les figures de ce document repr´esentent le cube pos´e sur une table, vu d'en haut. La seule face visible est donc la face sup´erieure, la'on voudrait enfoncer dans le cube. Appliquer, par exemple, la formule RU c'est faire tourner la face de droite

  7. SPS 91 - Power from space; Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium, Ecole Superieure d'Electricite, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, Aug. 27-30, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various papers on the concept of Solar Power Satellites (SPS) are presented. The general topics addressed include: global energy issues; SPS demonstration projects; extraterrestrial materials; power generation, conversion, and storage; environmental issues; development strategies.

  8. ALI MAALAOUI Department of Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Mathematics, University of Tunis -Advisor : Lotfi Lassoued Master In pure Mathematics Aggregation : Ecole Normale Superieur of Tunis. Bachelor In Pure Mathematics : University of Tunis Resarch Interest

  9. Four-dimensional volume-of-interest reconstruction for cone-beam computed tomography-guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Moiz; Balter, Peter; Pan, Tinsu [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Data sufficiency are a major problem in four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) on linear accelerator-integrated scanners for image-guided radiotherapy. Scan times must be in the range of 4-6 min to avoid undersampling artifacts. Various image reconstruction algorithms have been proposed to accommodate undersampled data acquisitions, but these algorithms are computationally expensive, may require long reconstruction times, and may require algorithm parameters to be optimized. The authors present a novel reconstruction method, 4D volume-of-interest (4D-VOI) reconstruction which suppresses undersampling artifacts and resolves lung tumor motion for undersampled 1-min scans. The 4D-VOI reconstruction is much less computationally expensive than other 4D-CBCT algorithms. Methods: The 4D-VOI method uses respiration-correlated projection data to reconstruct a four-dimensional (4D) image inside a VOI containing the moving tumor, and uncorrelated projection data to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) image outside the VOI. Anatomical motion is resolved inside the VOI and blurred outside the VOI. The authors acquired a 1-min. scan of an anthropomorphic chest phantom containing a moving water-filled sphere. The authors also used previously acquired 1-min scans for two lung cancer patients who had received CBCT-guided radiation therapy. The same raw data were used to test and compare the 4D-VOI reconstruction with the standard 4D reconstruction and the McKinnon-Bates (MB) reconstruction algorithms. Results: Both the 4D-VOI and the MB reconstructions suppress nearly all the streak artifacts compared with the standard 4D reconstruction, but the 4D-VOI has 3-8 times greater contrast-to-noise ratio than the MB reconstruction. In the dynamic chest phantom study, the 4D-VOI and the standard 4D reconstructions both resolved a moving sphere with an 18 mm displacement. The 4D-VOI reconstruction shows a motion blur of only 3 mm, whereas the MB reconstruction shows a motion blur of 13 mm. With graphics processing unit hardware used to accelerate computations, the 4D-VOI reconstruction required a 40-s reconstruction time. Conclusions: 4D-VOI reconstruction effectively reduces undersampling artifacts and resolves lung tumor motion in 4D-CBCT. The 4D-VOI reconstruction is computationally inexpensive compared with more sophisticated iterative algorithms. Compared with these algorithms, our 4D-VOI reconstruction is an attractive alternative in 4D-CBCT for reconstructing target motion without generating numerous streak artifacts.

  10. TypVariablen Einschrnkungen

    E-print Network

    Arndt, Holger

    Collections/Listen/1/ListenBsp.java static voi illList List nte e list 3 o int i i 1 i list.a i list. e ove 8 static voi o le le ents List nte e list o int i i list.si e i list.set i list. et i 3 static voi p int voi ain t in a s 3 33 3 Lin e List nte e list1 ne Lin e List nte e 3 illList list1 3 o le le ents list

  11. High resolution dual detector volume-of-interest cone beam breast CT - Demonstration with a bench top system

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Youtao; Yi Ying; Zhong Yuncheng; Lai Chaojen; Liu Xinming; You Zhicheng; Ge Shuaiping; Wang Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C. [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: In this study, we used a small field high resolution detector in conjunction with a full field flat panel detector to implement and investigate the dual detector volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam breast computed tomography (CBCT) technique on a bench-top system. The potential of using this technique to image small calcifications without increasing the overall dose to the breast was demonstrated. Significant reduction of scatter components in the high resolution projection image data of the VOI was also shown. Methods: With the regular flat panel based CBCT technique, exposures were made at 80 kVp to generate an air kerma of 6 mGys at the isocenter. With the dual detector VOI CBCT technique, a high resolution small field CMOS detector was used to scan a cylindrical VOI (2.5 cm in diameter and height, 4.5 cm off-center) with collimated x-rays at four times of regular exposure level. A flat panel detector was used for full field scan with low x-ray exposures at half of the regular exposure level. The low exposure full field image data were used to fill in the truncated space in the VOI scan data and generate a complete projection image set. The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct high resolution images for the VOI. Two scanning techniques, one breast centered and the other VOI centered, were implemented and investigated. Paraffin cylinders with embedded thin aluminum (Al) wires were imaged and used in conjunction with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dose measurements to demonstrate the ability of this technique to image small calcifications without increasing the mean glandular dose (MGD). Results: Using exposures that produce an air kerma of 6 mGys at the isocenter, the regular CBCT technique was able to resolve the cross-sections of Al wires as thin as 254 {mu}m in diameter in the phantom. For the specific VOI studied, by increasing the exposure level by a factor of 4 for the VOI scan and reducing the exposure level by a factor of 2 for the full filed scan, the dual-detector CBCT technique was able to resolve the cross-sections of Al wires as thin as 152 {mu}m in diameter. The CNR evaluated for the entire Al wire cross-section was found to be improved from 5.5 in regular CBCT to 14.4 and 16.8 with the breast centered and VOI centered scanning techniques, respectively. Even inside VOI center, the VOI scan resulted in significant dose saving with the dose reduced by a factor of 1.6 at the VOI center. Dose saving outside the VOI was substantial with the dose reduced by a factor of 7.3 and 7.8 at the breast center for the breast centered and VOI centered scans, respectively, when compared to full field scan at the same exposure level. The differences between the two dual detector techniques in terms of dose saving and scatter reduction were small with VOI scan at 4x exposure level and full field scan at 0.5x exposure level. The MGDs were only 94% of that from the regular CBCT scan. Conclusions: For the specific VOI studied, the dual detector VOI CBCT technique has the potential to provide high quality images inside the VOI with MGD similar to or even lower than that of full field breast CBCT. It was also found that our results were compromised by the use of inadequate detectors for the VOI scan. An appropriately selected detector would better optimize the image quality improvement that can be achieved with the VOI CBCT technique.

  12. High resolution dual detector volume-of-interest cone beam breast CT––Demonstration with a bench top system

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Youtao; Yi, Ying; Zhong, Yuncheng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Liu, Xinming; You, Zhicheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we used a small field high resolution detector in conjunction with a full field flat panel detector to implement and investigate the dual detector volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam breast computed tomography (CBCT) technique on a bench-top system. The potential of using this technique to image small calcifications without increasing the overall dose to the breast was demonstrated. Significant reduction of scatter components in the high resolution projection image data of the VOI was also shown. Methods: With the regular flat panel based CBCT technique, exposures were made at 80 kVp to generate an air kerma of 6 mGys at the isocenter. With the dual detector VOI CBCT technique, a high resolution small field CMOS detector was used to scan a cylindrical VOI (2.5 cm in diameter and height, 4.5 cm off-center) with collimated x-rays at four times of regular exposure level. A flat panel detector was used for full field scan with low x-ray exposures at half of the regular exposure level. The low exposure full field image data were used to fill in the truncated space in the VOI scan data and generate a complete projection image set. The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct high resolution images for the VOI. Two scanning techniques, one breast centered and the other VOI centered, were implemented and investigated. Paraffin cylinders with embedded thin aluminum (Al) wires were imaged and used in conjunction with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dose measurements to demonstrate the ability of this technique to image small calcifications without increasing the mean glandular dose (MGD). Results: Using exposures that produce an air kerma of 6 mGys at the isocenter, the regular CBCT technique was able to resolve the cross-sections of Al wires as thin as 254 ?m in diameter in the phantom. For the specific VOI studied, by increasing the exposure level by a factor of 4 for the VOI scan and reducing the exposure level by a factor of 2 for the full filed scan, the dual-detector CBCT technique was able to resolve the cross-sections of Al wires as thin as 152 ?m in diameter. The CNR evaluated for the entire Al wire cross-section was found to be improved from 5.5 in regular CBCT to 14.4 and 16.8 with the breast centered and VOI centered scanning techniques, respectively. Even inside VOI center, the VOI scan resulted in significant dose saving with the dose reduced by a factor of 1.6 at the VOI center. Dose saving outside the VOI was substantial with the dose reduced by a factor of 7.3 and 7.8 at the breast center for the breast centered and VOI centered scans, respectively, when compared to full field scan at the same exposure level. The differences between the two dual detector techniques in terms of dose saving and scatter reduction were small with VOI scan at 4×?exposure level and full field scan at 0.5×?exposure level. The MGDs were only 94% of that from the regular CBCT scan. Conclusions: For the specific VOI studied, the dual detector VOI CBCT technique has the potential to provide high quality images inside the VOI with MGD similar to or even lower than that of full field breast CBCT. It was also found that our results were compromised by the use of inadequate detectors for the VOI scan. An appropriately selected detector would better optimize the image quality improvement that can be achieved with the VOI CBCT technique. PMID:22149826

  13. From Higher Education To Employment. Volume II: Canada, Denmark, Spain, United States = De l'enseignement superieur a l'emploi. Volume II: Canada, Danemark, Expagne, Etats-Unis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume presents reports on the flows of graduates from higher education and on their entry into working life in Canada, Denmark, Spain and the United States. Each paper is written according to detailed guidelines designed to assemble information from many sources, to reflect the state of the art, and to illustrate a variety of approaches,…

  14. EDUCAFRICA, December 1986. Special Issue: Case Studies on Higher Education in Africa. Special Volume 1=EDUCAFRICA, Decembre 1986. Etudes de cas sur L'Enseignement Superieur en Afrique, Tome 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAFRICA, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Case studies of the development of higher education in 17 African countries are presented. Eleven of the case studies are written in French, and six are in English. The country reports that are in English are as follows: Cameroon, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Malawi, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania. The country reports in French are: Benin, Burkina Faso,…

  15. L'E.A.P. ou l'anglais enseigne dans les etudes superieures. Un guide pour le debutant (E.A.P. or English for Academic Purposes: A Guide for the Beginner).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Peter J.

    1981-01-01

    Addresses those readers who are not familiar with EAP, offering an introductory discussion of its objectives and methods, in two parts. Devotes the first part to the needs that justify an EAP approach, and the second to its methodology, with particular attention to interdisciplinary, task-oriented instruction. Societe Nouvelle Didier Erudition, 40…

  16. Highlighting the Impacts of North-South Research Collaboration among Canadian and Southern Higher Education Partners (Principaux impacts des collaborations de recherche Nord-Sud entre les partenaires des etablissements d'enseignement superieur du Canada et du Sud)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) felt it was timely to create an academic forum in which university researchers have the opportunity to engage with their peers and relevant stakeholders and document the impacts of their North-South research collaboration in a peer-reviewed publication. The Association achieved this by…

  17. Higher Education and Economic Development in Europe, 1975-1980 (A Statistical and Economic Study) = L'enseignement superieur et le development economique en Europe, 1975-1980 (etude statistique et economique). Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burloiu, Petre

    Information on higher education in 33 European countries, the United States, and Canada is provided in narrative and statistical form, in both English and French. In addition to covering the 1970-1975 period, comparative information for 1960-1980 is presented. For each country, areas of consideration include: population trends; the level of…

  18. Doctorat ParisTech pour obtenir le grade de docteur dlivr par

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Décembre 2011 Convertisseur à bancs de filtres hybrides utilisant des filtres à échantillonnage de charge Hybrides CAN Convertisseur Analogique-Numérique CAN-ET CAN à entrelacement temporel CC Capacités Commutées voies dans un convertisseur multi-voies (de type CAN-ET ou BFH ) Vdd Tension d'alimentation W Longueur

  19. INTRODUCTION SUR LA CARCINOGENESE BRONCHIQUE p. 10 I. Epidmiologie des cancers pulmonaires p. 10

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . VEGF et ses récepteurs p. 63 a. récepteurs du VEGF p. 63 b. voies de signalisation du VEGF p. 67 c. voies de régulation du VEGF p. 69 LA TELOMERASE p. 71 I. Sénescence cellulaire réplicative p. 71 II. 2003 p. 122 II. Article 2 : Expression de VEGF, de la Sémaphorine SEMA3F et de leurs récepteurs communs

  20. Model reliability for 3D electrical resistivity tomography: Application of the volume of investigation index to a time-lapse monitoring experiment

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Model reliability for 3D electrical resistivity tomography: Application of the volume reliability for 3D ERTand as a method of survey design. We show how the VOI provides a measure of model, we utilize the VOI for judging the degree of reliability of hydrogeologi- cal interpretations

  1. UNIVERSITE PARIS-SUD 11 COLE DOCTORALE : Cancrologie, Biologie, Mdecine, Sant

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ......................................................................................... 14 I. Les dommages à l'ADN et leurs origines)..................................................................... 28 2.2.4. Les pontages de l'ADN................................. 30 III. Les différentes voies de réparation des dommages de l'ADN............... 32 1. Voies de

  2. Fluence field modulated CT on a clinical TomoTherapy radiation therapy machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Hermus, James

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: The multi-leaf collimator (MLC) assembly present on TomoTherapy (Accuray, Madison WI) radiation therapy (RT) and mega voltage CT machines is well suited to perform fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT). In addition, there is a demand in the RT environment for FFMCT imaging techniques, specifically volume of interest (VOI) imaging. Methods: A clinical TomoTherapy machine was programmed to deliver 30% imaging dose outside predefined VOIs. Four different size ROIs were placed at varying distances from isocenter. Projections intersecting the VOI received "full dose" while those not intersecting the VOI received 30% of the dose (i.e. the incident fluence for non VOI projections was 30% of the incident fluence for projections intersecting the VOI). Additional scans without fluence field modulation were acquired at "full" and 30% dose. The noise (pixel standard deviation) was measured inside the VOI region and compared between the three scans. Results: The VOI-FFMCT technique produced an image noise 1.09, 1.05, 1.05, and 1.21 times higher than the "full dose" scan for ROI sizes of 10 cm, 13 cm, 10 cm, and 6 cm respectively within the VOI region. Conclusions: Noise levels can be almost unchanged within clinically relevant VOIs sizes for RT applications while the integral imaging dose to the patient can be decreased, and/or the image quality in RT can be dramatically increased with no change in dose relative to non-FFMCT RT imaging. The ability to shift dose away from regions unimportant for clinical evaluation in order to improve image quality or reduce imaging dose has been demonstrated. This paper demonstrates that FFMCT can be performed using the MLC on a clinical TomoTherapy machine for the first time.

  3. ATM Network Protocol Modeling Customers and Collaborators

    E-print Network

    ATM Network Protocol Modeling Customers and Collaborators Customers ATM industry: vendors, service of Virginia, Charlottesville. Ecole Nationale Superieure de Telecommunication- Bretagne, France. Hyuandai protocol (PNNI). Impact · NIST ATM Network Simulator is widely used by industry, universities, other

  4. R u t c o r R e p o r t

    E-print Network

    'erieur de Gestion, Le Bardo 2000, Tunisia and RUTCOR­ Rutgers University, 640 Bartholomew Road, Pis­ cataway, Institut Sup'erieur de Gestion, Le Bardo 2000, Tunisia, Email isg.recherche@isg.rnrt.tn #12; Rutcor

  5. Gaussian Faithful Markov Trees Dhafer Malouche 1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Gaussian Faithful Markov Trees Dhafer Malouche 1 & Bala Rajaratnam 2 1 Ecole Sup´erieure de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information. dhafer.malouche@essai.rnu.tn 2 Stanford University brajarat

  6. La Transmission de l'information dans une ecole (Information Transmission in a School Situation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versel, Simone

    1973-01-01

    Selected portions of a longer paper entitled "Incidence relationnelle et institutionelle de la transmission de l'information dans une ecole," presented at the Institut Superieur de Pedagogie, 1973. (HW)

  7. Discriminative clustering for image co-segmentation Armand Joulin1,2,3

    E-print Network

    . In this paper, we combine existing tools for bottom- up image segmentation such as normalized cuts, with kernel information. 3WILLOW project-team, Laboratoire d'Informatique de l'Ecole Nor- male Sup´erieure, ENS

  8. Physics or Astrophysics/Header Dephasing processes in a single semiconductor quantum dot

    E-print Network

    Cassabois a , Robson Ferreira a a Ecole Normale Sup´erieure, Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, 24, rue Lhomond Cassabois), robson.ferreira@lpa.ens.fr (Robson Ferreira). Preprint submitted to Elsevier Science November 5

  9. Christian HOTTIN La chouette et le blier -2003 LA CHOUETTE ET LE BELIER

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    'IDENTITE ARCHITECTURALE DES ETABLISSEMENTS D'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR PARISIENS Christian HOTTIN CONSERVATEUR DU PATRIMOINE auteur, publié dans "Institutions, services publics et architecture, XVIIIe-XXe siècle, actes du colloque

  10. Science Arts & Mtiers (SAM) is an open access repository that collects the work of Arts et Mtiers ParisTech

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Technologie Superieure, Chaire des Materiaux et E´quipements Utilises en Sante et Securite du Travail, 1100- tilayer coextrusion, plasma deposition, incorporation with nano- clays, or increasing of crystallization

  11. Interactive annotation of textures in thoracic CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; de Jong, Pim A.; Gietema, Hester A.; Grutters, Jan C.; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

    2010-03-01

    This study describes a system for interactive annotation of thoracic CT scans. Lung volumes in these scans are segmented and subdivided into roughly spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) with homogeneous texture using a clustering procedure. For each 3D VOI, 72 features are calculated. The observer inspects the scan to determine which textures are present and annotates, with mouse clicks, several VOIs of each texture. Based on these annotations, a k-nearest-neighbor classifier is trained, which classifies all remaining VOIs in the scan. The algorithm then presents a slice with suggested annotations to the user, in which the user can correct mistakes. The classifier is retrained, taking into account these new annotations, and the user is presented another slice for correction. This process continues until at least 50% of all lung voxels in the scan have been classified. The remaining VOIs are classified automatically. In this way, the entire lung volume is annotated. The system has been applied to scans of patients with usual and non-specific interstitial pneumonia. The results of interactive annotation are compared to a setup in which the user annotates all predefined VOIs manually. The interactive system is 3.7 times as fast as complete manual annotation of VOIs and differences between the methods are similar to interobserver variability. This is a first step towards precise volumetric quantitation of texture patterns in thoracic CT in clinical research and in clinical practice.

  12. Scoring performance on computer-based patient simulations: beyond value of information.

    PubMed Central

    Downs, S. M.; Marasigan, F.; Abraham, V.; Wildemuth, B.; Friedman, C. P.

    1999-01-01

    As computer based clinical case simulations become increasingly popular for training and evaluating clinicians, approaches are needed to evaluate a trainee's or examinee's solution of the simulated cases. In 1997 we developed a decision analytic approach to scoring performance on computerized patient case simulations, using expected value of information (VOI) to generate a score each time the user requested clinical information from the simulation. Although this measure has many desirable characteristics, we found that the VOI was zero for the majority of information requests. We enhanced our original algorithm to measure potential decrements in expected utility that could result from using results of information requests that have zero VOI. Like the original algorithm, the new approach uses decision models, represented as influence diagrams, to represent the diagnostic problem. The process of solving computer based patient simulations involves repeated cycles of requesting and receiving these data from the simulations. Each time the user requests clinical data from the simulation, the influence diagram is evaluated to determine the expected VOI of the requested clinical datum. The VOI is non-zero only it the requested datum has the potential to change the leading diagnosis. The VOI is zero when the data item requested does not map to any node in the influence diagram or when the item maps to a node but does not change the leading diagnosis regardless of it's value. Our new algorithm generates a score for each of these situations by modeling what would happen to the expected utility of the model if the user changes the leading diagnosis based on the results. The resulting algorithm produces a non-zero score for all information requests. The score is the VOI when the VOI is non-zero It is a negative number when the VOI is zero. PMID:10566413

  13. Courte note Dtection du virus de l'arthrite encphalite caprine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    contaminations liées à l'inges- tion de colostrum contaminé, la voie orale étant considérée comme la voie de contamination que le colostrum [5]. En dépit de différents travaux réalisés en vue de préciser d'autres voies de

  14. Fig 1: Gradient-echo scout images and spectra examples acquired in healthy tissue (a) and tumor area (b).

    E-print Network

    the VOI. A 44 years old patient with clinically confirmed oligodendrogioma with IDH mutation underwent when assessing the physiopathology of brain tumors, where detection of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) with 1H

  15. NOTICE EXPLICATIVE A L'ACCUEIL DES ETUDIANTS VENANT DANS LE CADRE D'UN ECHANGE ERASMUS

    E-print Network

    Maume-Deschamps, Véronique

    : (Bactériologie ­ Parasitologie) Appareil locomoteur : (Anatomie Physiologie ­ Histologie) Reins & Voies urinaires : (Anatomie Physiologie ­ Histologie) Appareil respiratoire : (Anatomie Physiologie Ecrites à présenter en Avril ­ Mai Biopathologie tissulaire : (Anatomie Pathologique ­ Oncologie) Base

  16. preuve de contrle La RpubLique et La RfoRme pnitentiaiRe.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    pénales : la récidive, cette « obsession créatrice »1 du temps, la délinquance juvénile et la prison. au récidive, une obsession créatrice au XiXe siècle », Voies nouvelles en histoire du droit. La justice, la

  17. Tese de doutorado apresentada por: Diego Pinheiro Aguiar

    E-print Network

    mesencéfalo pela crista neural cefálica: regulação de Foxg1 pelas vias de sinalização Bmp e Wnt Tese de dout mésencéphale par la crête neurale cephalique: regulation de l'expression de Foxg1 par les voies de

  18. The value of value of information: best informing research design and prioritization using current methods.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Simon; Karnon, Jon; Willan, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    Value of information (VOI) methods have been proposed as a systematic approach to inform optimal research design and prioritization. Four related questions arise that VOI methods could address. (i) Is further research for a health technology assessment (HTA) potentially worthwhile? (ii) Is the cost of a given research design less than its expected value? (iii) What is the optimal research design for an HTA? (iv) How can research funding be best prioritized across alternative HTAs? Following Occam's razor, we consider the usefulness of VOI methods in informing questions 1-4 relative to their simplicity of use. Expected value of perfect information (EVPI) with current information, while simple to calculate, is shown to provide neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition to address question 1, given that what EVPI needs to exceed varies with the cost of research design, which can vary from very large down to negligible. Hence, for any given HTA, EVPI does not discriminate, as it can be large and further research not worthwhile or small and further research worthwhile. In contrast, each of questions 1-4 are shown to be fully addressed (necessary and sufficient) where VOI methods are applied to maximize expected value of sample information (EVSI) minus expected costs across designs. In comparing complexity in use of VOI methods, applying the central limit theorem (CLT) simplifies analysis to enable easy estimation of EVSI and optimal overall research design, and has been shown to outperform bootstrapping, particularly with small samples. Consequently, VOI methods applying the CLT to inform optimal overall research design satisfy Occam's razor in both improving decision making and reducing complexity. Furthermore, they enable consideration of relevant decision contexts, including option value and opportunity cost of delay, time, imperfect implementation and optimal design across jurisdictions. More complex VOI methods such as bootstrapping of the expected value of partial EVPI may have potential value in refining overall research design. However, Occam's razor must be seriously considered in application of these VOI methods, given their increased complexity and current limitations in informing decision making, with restriction to EVPI rather than EVSI and not allowing for important decision-making contexts. Initial use of CLT methods to focus these more complex partial VOI methods towards where they may be useful in refining optimal overall trial design is suggested. Integrating CLT methods with such partial VOI methods to allow estimation of partial EVSI is suggested in future research to add value to the current VOI toolkit. PMID:20629473

  19. Exact Interior Reconstruction with Cone-Beam CT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yangbo Ye; Hengyong Yu; Ge Wang

    2007-01-01

    Using the backprojection filtration (BPF) and filtered backprojection (FBP) approaches respectively, we prove that with cone-beam CT the interior problem can be exactly solved by analytic continuation. The prior knowledge we assume is that a volume of interest (VOI) in an object to be reconstructed is known in a sub-region of the VOI. Our derivations are based on the so-called

  20. Computer-aided detection of lung nodules based on decision fusion techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michela Antonelli; Marco Cococcioni; Beatrice Lazzerini; Francesco Marcelloni

    2011-01-01

    We adopted decision fusion techniques to develop a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for automatic detection of pulmonary\\u000a nodules in low-dose CT images. Two distinct phases, aimed, respectively, at detecting volumes of interests (VOIs) within the\\u000a CT scan, and at classifying VOIs into nodules and non-nodules, were considered. Three algorithms, namely thresholding, region\\u000a growing and robust fuzzy clustering, were used as

  1. Complex head and neck specimens and neck dissections. How to handle them

    PubMed Central

    Slootweg, P J

    2005-01-01

    Dissecting surgical specimens from the upper aerodigestive tract is often difficult because of their complicated anatomy. The local environment dictates the routes of tumour spread and surgical margins at risk, and these features differ for various subsites within this part of the body. The examination of surgical specimens of the upper aerodigestive tract should disclose whether postoperative adjuvant treatment is needed and allow the evaluation of preoperatively performed diagnostic imaging. The aim of this article is to provide a concise guideline for the dissection of specimens from this part of the body. PMID:15735153

  2. Computing Expected Value of Partial Sample Information from Probabilistic Sensitivity Analysis Using Linear Regression Metamodeling.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hawre; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Kuntz, Karen M

    2015-07-01

    Decision makers often desire both guidance on the most cost-effective interventions given current knowledge and also the value of collecting additional information to improve the decisions made (i.e., from value of information [VOI] analysis). Unfortunately, VOI analysis remains underused due to the conceptual, mathematical, and computational challenges of implementing Bayesian decision-theoretic approaches in models of sufficient complexity for real-world decision making. In this study, we propose a novel practical approach for conducting VOI analysis using a combination of probabilistic sensitivity analysis, linear regression metamodeling, and unit normal loss integral function-a parametric approach to VOI analysis. We adopt a linear approximation and leverage a fundamental assumption of VOI analysis, which requires that all sources of prior uncertainties be accurately specified. We provide examples of the approach and show that the assumptions we make do not induce substantial bias but greatly reduce the computational time needed to perform VOI analysis. Our approach avoids the need to analytically solve or approximate joint Bayesian updating, requires only one set of probabilistic sensitivity analysis simulations, and can be applied in models with correlated input parameters. PMID:25840900

  3. The feasibility of white matter volume reduction analysis using SPM8 plus DARTEL for the diagnosis of patients with clinically diagnosed corticobasal syndrome and Richardson’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Keita; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Tokumaru, Aya M.; Hasebe, Shin; Murayama, Shigeo; Morimoto, Satoru; Kanemaru, Kazutomi; Takao, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta; Matsukawa, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Diagnosing corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is often difficult due to the wide variety of symptoms and overlaps in the similar clinical courses and neurological findings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of white matter (WM) atrophy for the diagnosis of patients with clinically diagnosed CBD (corticobasal syndrome, CBS) and PSP (Richardson’s syndrome, RS). Methods We randomly divided the 3D T1-weighted MR images of 18 CBS patients, 33 RS patients, and 32 age-matched controls into two groups. We obtained segmented WM images in the first group using Voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer’s disease (VSRAD) based on statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 8 plus diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra. A target volume of interest (VOI) for disease-specific atrophy was subsequently determined in this group using SPM8 group analyses of WM atrophy between patients groups and controls. We then evaluated the utility of these VOIs for diagnosing CBS and RS patients in the second group. Z score values in these VOIs were used as the determinant in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Results Specific target VOIs were determined in the bilateral frontal subcortical WM for CBS and in the midbrain tegmentum for RS. In ROC analyses, the target VOIs of CBS and RS compared to those of controls exhibited an area under curve (AUC) of 0.99 and 0.84, respectively, which indicated an adequate diagnostic power. The VOI of CBS revealed a higher AUC than that of RS for differentiating between CBS and RS (AUC, 0.75 vs 0.53). Conclusions Bilateral frontal WM volume reduction demonstrated a higher power for differentiating CBS from RS. This VOI analysis is useful for clinically diagnosing CBS and RS.

  4. Loss of HOP tumour suppressor expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, F; Millon, R; Muller, D; Rabouel, Y; Bracco, L; Abecassis, J; Wasylyk, B

    2004-01-01

    We report that homeodomain-only protein (HOP) is expressed in the suprabasal layer of normal upper aerodigestive tract epithelium and expression strongly decreases in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Interestingly, HOP has very recently been shown to be a tumour suppressor involved in differentiation, suggesting that HOP may have a similar role in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSSC). PMID:15213722

  5. Photodynamic therapy to the oral cavity, tongue and larynx: a canine normal tissue tolerance study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merrill A. Biel; William Janssen; Michael F. Trump

    1995-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has the potential to treat early carcinomas of the oral cavity and larynx while preserving normal tissue. However, normal tissues retain the photosensitizing agents and may be activated by high light fluence and dose rates resulting in normal tissue necrosis. The effects of varying dose rates of light delivery on various tissues in the upper aerodigestive tract

  6. Perineural Invasion in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes J. Fagan; Bobby Collins; Leon Barnes; Frank D'Amico; Eugene N. Myers; Jonas T. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine if perineural invasion (PNI) of small nerves affects the outcome of patients with squa- mous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper aerodigestive tract. Design: Retrospective clinicopathological study of pa- tients with at least 2 years of follow-up and with negative margins and no prior, synchronous, or metachronous SCC. Setting: Academic otolaryngology department. Patients: One hundred forty-two patients

  7. Prostate carcinoma metastatic to the cervical lymph nodes: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Copeland; J. Madison Clark; Amish Sura; Scott E. Kilpatrick; William Shockley; Scott Meredith

    2001-01-01

    The cervical lymph nodes are a common site of metastasis for cancers originating in the upper aerodigestive tract. Rarely, cancers originating from sites other than the head and neck can metastasize to the cervical lymph node chain. We report on 2 recent patients with metastatic prostate cancer to the cervical lymph nodes. (Am J Otolaryngol 2001;22:420-423.

  8. Other noncosmetic uses of BOTOX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Verheyden; Andrew Blitzer

    2002-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A has a wide variety of clinical applications, which are related by blockade of acetylcholine and often are related to abnormal muscle contractures. These applications include ocular disorders, disorders of the upper aerodigestive tract, dystonia and hemifacial spasm, cosmetic, gastrointestinal disorders, genitourinary disorders, management of pain, and use in autonomic nervous system disorders. Many of these diseases will

  9. Regulation of squamous cell differentiation in human head and neck carcinoma cells by retinoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changping Zou

    1994-01-01

    Retinoids have been found to be effective in the prevention of premalignant lesions and second primary cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract. Further development of retinoids for prevention and therapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) requires a better understanding of their mechanism of action on the growth and differentiation of such cells. I have chosen to employ

  10. Diet and cancers of the larynx and hypopharynx: the IARC multi-center study in southwestern Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Estève; Elio Riboli; Georges Péquignot; Benedetto Terracini; Franco Merletti; Paolo Crosignani; Nieyes Ascunce; Lourdes Zubiri; Francois Blanchet; Luc Raymond; Francesca Repetto; Albert J. Tuyns

    1996-01-01

    The main causes of cancer of the larynx and hypopharynx are smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol. However, for these as well as for other cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, some dietary components, mainly low consumption of fruit and vegetables, have been observed to be associated with increased cancer risk. We report results from a multicenter case-control study carried out

  11. Fluorometric analysis for neoplasm diagnostics and localization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslaw Kwasny; Zygmunt Mierczyk

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents methods of laser-induced fluorescence with the use of endo- and exogenous dyes for diagnosis of early tumors of aerodigestive tracts, colons, bladder, GYN, and skin, as well as a review of equipment developed during laboratory examination, construction of diagnostic instruments and clinical use of fluorometric methods with application of various devices, from simple fluorometers to sophisticated endoscopic

  12. Treatment of recurrent and advanced stage squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J Arnold; W. Jerry Goodwin; Donald T Weed; Francisco J Civantos

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in our ability to safely treat patients with recurrent cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, outcomes for retreatment are generally poor and the first chance to cure these patients remains the best chance. Thorough knowledge of the outlook and options for patients with recurrent disease is also of significance in choosing therapy for patients with newly diagnosed disease.

  13. Teleconsultation in otolaryngology: Live versus store and forward consultations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTHONY P. SCLAFANI; CONOR HENEGHAN; JEFFREY GINSBURG; PAUL SABINI; JORDAN STERN; JAY N. DOLITSKY

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of interactive and delayed teleconsultations in otolaryngology. Setting: Ambulatory clinic at an urban tertiary care facility. Subjects: Forty-five adult patients with known or suspected upper aerodigestive tract pathology. Intervention: Patients were interviewed by an otolaryngology chief resident (CR) using a standardized protocol; the results were presented to a board-certified otolaryngologist present locally

  14. HUMORAL AND CELLULAR IMMUNITY PARAMETERS IN CHILDREN BEFORE AND AFTER ADENOTONSILLECTOMY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Baradaranfar; F. Dodangeh; S. Taghipour-Zahir; M. Atar

    Adenoids and tonsils are active lymphoid organs and play an important role against invading antigens of upper aerodigestive tract in children. The present study analyzes the changes in cellular and humoral immunity of children six months after adenotonsillectomy. The study population consisted of 30 children whit chronic adenotonsillar hypertrophy and 30 age-matched healthy children. In all children serum level of

  15. Potential usefulness of detecting cyclooxygenase 2 messenger RNA in feces for colorectal cancer screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeru Kanaoka; Ken-Ichi Yoshida; Naoyuki Miura; Haruhiko Sugimura; Masayoshi Kajimura

    2004-01-01

    Background & Aims: Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is overexpressed frequently in aerodigestive tumors, especially in colorectal tumors. Therefore, it may be a suitable biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We performed a pilot study of whether detecting COX-2 expression in fecal RNA enables us to discriminate between patients with and without CRC. Methods: The study cohort included 29 patients with CRC,

  16. Completeness map evaluation demonstrated with candidate next-generation cardiac CT architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Baodong; Bennett, James; Wang Ge; De Man, Bruno; Zeng Kai; Yin Zhye; Fitzgerald, Paul; Yu Hengyong [Department of Radiology, Division of Radiologic Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, 27157 (United States) and Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States); Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States) and Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); CT Systems and Applications Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Department of Radiology, Division of Radiologic Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States) and Biomedical Imaging Division, VT-WFU School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: In this report, the authors introduce the general concept of the completeness map, as a means to evaluate the completeness of data acquired by a given CT system design (architecture and scan mode). They illustrate the utility of completeness map by applying the completeness map concept to a number of candidate CT system designs, as part of a study to advance the state-of-the-art in cardiac CT. Methods: In order to optimally reconstruct a point within a volume of interest (VOI), the Radon transform on all possible planes through that point should be measured. The authors quantified the extent to which this ideal condition is satisfied for the entire image volume. They first determined a Radon completeness number for each point in the VOI, as the percentage of possible planes that is actually measured. A completeness map is then defined as a 3D matrix of the completeness numbers for the entire VOI. The authors proposed algorithms to analyze the projection datasets in Radon space and compute the completeness number for a fixed point and apply these algorithms to various architectures and scan modes that they are evaluating. In this report, the authors consider four selected candidate architectures, operating with different scan modes, for a total of five system design alternatives. Each of these alternatives is evaluated using completeness map. Results: If the detector size and cone angle are large enough to cover the entire cardiac VOI, a single-source circular scan can have {>=}99% completeness over the entire VOI. However, only the central z-slice can be exactly reconstructed, which corresponds to 100% completeness. For a typical single-source architecture, if the detector is limited to an axial dimension of 40 mm, a helical scan needs about five rotations to form an exact reconstruction region covering the cardiac VOI, while a triple-source helical scan only requires two rotations, leading to a 2.5x improvement in temporal resolution. If the source and detector of an inverse-geometry (IGCT) system have the same axial extent, and the spacing of source points in the axial and transaxial directions is sufficiently small, the IGCT can also form an exact reconstruction region for the cardiac VOI. If the VOI can be covered by the x-ray beam in any view, a composite-circling scan can generate an exact reconstruction region covering the VOI. Conclusions: The completeness map evaluation provides useful information for selecting the next-generation cardiac CT system design. The proposed completeness map method provides a practical tool for analyzing complex scanning trajectories, where the theoretical image quality for some complex system designs is impossible to predict, without yet-undeveloped reconstruction algorithms.

  17. Volume-of-interest reconstruction from severely truncated data in dental cone-beam CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Kusnoto, Budi; Han, Xiao; Sidky, E. Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2015-03-01

    As cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has gained popularity rapidly in dental imaging applications in the past two decades, radiation dose in CBCT imaging remains a potential, health concern to the patients. It is a common practice in dental CBCT imaging that only a small volume of interest (VOI) containing the teeth of interest is illuminated, thus substantially lowering imaging radiation dose. However, this would yield data with severe truncations along both transverse and longitudinal directions. Although images within the VOI reconstructed from truncated data can be of some practical utility, they often are compromised significantly by truncation artifacts. In this work, we investigate optimization-based reconstruction algorithms for VOI image reconstruction from CBCT data of dental patients containing severe truncations. In an attempt to further reduce imaging dose, we also investigate optimization-based image reconstruction from severely truncated data collected at projection views substantially fewer than those used in clinical dental applications. Results of our study show that appropriately designed optimization-based reconstruction can yield VOI images with reduced truncation artifacts, and that, when reconstructing from only one half, or even one quarter, of clinical data, it can also produce VOI images comparable to that of clinical images.

  18. The Idea of a Normal University in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhoe, Ruth; Li, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of normal colleges and universities is an important component of building a modern country, which possesses different value ethos with the universities. The emergence of the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris and the local normal schools has set a new model for teacher education around the world and promoted values and knowledge…

  19. Janvier 1996 { Journees Francophones des Langages Applicatifs { JFLA96 Un GC temps reel semi-compactant

    E-print Network

    Feeley, Marc

    Janvier 1996 { Journees Francophones des Langages Applicatifs { JFLA96 Un GC temps reel semi@iro.umontreal.ca Resume Nous avons developpe un nouvel algorithme de GC temps reel \\dur". Notre algorithme place une limite superieure sur le temps d'execution de chaque primitive d'allocation ou d'acces aux objets, selon

  20. Open Archive Toulouse Archive Ouverte (OATAO) OATAO is an open access repository that collects the work of Toulouse researchers

    E-print Network

    Mailhes, Corinne

    this version: PETITJEAN Yoann, DESTIC Fabien, MOLLIER Jean-Claude, SIRTORI Carlo. Dynamic modeling of Terahertz Petitjean, Fabien Destic, Jean-Claude Mollier Member, IEEE, and Carlo Sirtori, Member, IEEE. Abstract of Y. Petitjean, F. Destic and J.C. Mollier are with the Institut Sup´erieur de l'A´eronautique et de l

  1. A Weighted k-Nearest Neighbor Density Estimate for Geometric Inference

    E-print Network

    Biau, Gérard

    by a broad range of potential applications in topological and geometric inference, we introduce a weighted Research carried out within the INRIA project "CLASSIC" hosted by Ecole Normale Sup´erieure and CNRS. 4 the geometry of general compact subsets of Rd from point cloud data. In this context Chazal, Cohen

  2. Transonic liquid bells Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Milieux Heteroge`nes--UMR 7636 CNRS Ecole

    E-print Network

    Brunet, Philippe

    Transonic liquid bells P. Brunet Laboratoire de Physique et Me´canique des Milieux He´te´roge`nes, France C. Clanet Institut de Recherche sur les Phe´nome`nes Hors Equilibre--UMR 6594, Technopo^le de Cha Physique et Me´canique des Milieux He´te´roge`nes--UMR 7636 CNRS Ecole Supe´rieure de Physique et Chimie

  3. UNE NOUVELLE APPROXIMATION POUR LES SYSTMES QUANTIQUES DPENDANT DU TEMPS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    chronologique de Dyson [2] permet d'obtenir sous forme compacte la solution iterative, de type Liou- ville-Neumann, de 1'equation integrale de l'opérateur devolution : Les termes de cette serie, d'ordre superieur a 1- terra (1) admet une solution unique donnee par la serie iterative usuelle. Une solution approchee peut

  4. Experimental study of work exchange with a granular gas: the viewpoint of the Fluctuation Theorem.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Theorem. Antoine Naert. Laboratoire de Physique de l'´Ecole Normale Sup´erieure de Lyon, Universit´e de forcing, between the motor and the gas are examined from the viewpoint of the Fluctuation Theorem the state of the system under scrutiny. Together with the Fluctuation Theorem (FT), this principle is used

  5. Insights from ScS-S measurements on deep mantle attenuation S. Duranda,

    E-print Network

    . Ricarda , B. Romanowiczc,d,e , J-P. Montagnerd a Laboratoire de G´eologie de Lyon - Terre Plan Lyon 1, 46 All´ee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France b Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection`ete Environnement, CNRS UMR5570, ´Ecole Normale Sup´erieure de Lyon, Universit´e de Lyon, Universit´e Claude Bernard

  6. PURSUING AUTOMATED CLASSIFICATION OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPERS FROM RAKING LIGHT IMAGES

    E-print Network

    Abry, Patrice

    dataset, Computational art history, Digital huma- nities, Art authentication, Image processing for art University of Wisconsin Worcester Polytechnic Institute Worcester Art Museum Ecole Normale Superieure de of Technology Museum of Modern Art Wilhelm Imaging Research University of Santa Clara Indiana University

  7. The shape of an elastic filament in a two-dimensional corner flow Nicolas Autrusson,1,2

    E-print Network

    Thomases, Becca

    Guglielmini,2 Sigolene Lecuyer,3 Roberto Rusconi,3 and Howard A. Stone2 1 Supaero, Institut Superieur de l-state shape. Our motivation arises from recent microfluidic experiments on biofilm formation in a channel of the formation of biofilm streamers in curved microchannels14 [see also Figure 7(a) below]. These free

  8. CURRICULUM VITAE Matthias Delescluse

    E-print Network

    Nicolas, Chamot-Rooke

    University. Description · Project ALEUT. 2 streamers, 2D multichannel seismic and ocean bottom seis- mometer and the Erathostenes Seamount. 2D seismics, ocean bottom seismometer and controlled source electromagnetic survey on´erences), Ecole normale sup´erieure. Interests · Seismic imaging and methodology, Seismic tomography; Oceanic

  9. Adaptive Approaches for Efficient Parallel Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ´epartement d'Informatique, ´Ecole Sup´erieure de Sciences et Techniques de Tunis - ESSTT, Tunis, Tunisia E: Wahid Nasri is an Assistant-Professor at the Higher School of Sciences and Techniques of Tunis. He obtained a PhD in Computer Science in 2002 at the Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, with the collaboration

  10. MINISTERE DES AFFAIRES ETRANGERES ET EUROPEENNES AMBASSADE DE FRANCE AU KENYA

    E-print Network

    Hélein, Frédéric - Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu, Université Paris 7

    1 MINISTERE DES AFFAIRES ETRANGERES ET EUROPEENNES AMBASSADE DE FRANCE AU KENYA FICHE CURIE ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR KENYA I. Organisation de l'enseignement supérieur a. Management de l'enseignement technique Le Kenya compte de nombreuses institutions d'enseignement technique qui offrent en 1 à 4 ans des

  11. Inr. J. Hear Transfrr. Vol. 24, No. IO. pp. 1599-1609. 1981 Printed m Great Britain '

    E-print Network

    École Normale Supérieure

    cavitt rectangulaire avec injection horizontale de fluide chaud a la partie superieure et extraction a la. Symboles grecs P7 coefficient de dilatation volumique; `i,P>b *t ' variables muettes ; fonction de courant cavite rectangu- laire, l'injection se faisant juste endessous de la paroi suptrieure et l'extraction le

  12. Generalisation and formalisation in game theory Stephane Le Roux

    E-print Network

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich

    1 Generalisation and formalisation in game theory St´ephane Le Roux ´Ecole normale sup´erieure de Lyon Thesis overview #12;2 Generalisation and formalisation in game theory Game theory: mathematical Principes Math´ematiques de la Th´eorie des Richesses, 1838). #12;3 Generalisation and formalisation in game

  13. ccsd-00001045(version1):20Jan2004 Linearisation d'endomorphismes holomorphes de Pk

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    'unique mesure d'entropie maximale et ses exposants de Liapounov sont sup´erieurs `a 1 2 Log d comme l'ont montr, comme l'ont implicitement ´etabli Binder et DeMarco [2] (voir aussi l'appendice). Ainsi, une caract

  14. SIAM J. OPTIM. c 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Vol. 20, No. 5, pp. 23272351

    E-print Network

    Absil, Pierre-Antoine

    : the maximal cut of a graph and the problem of sparse principal component analysis. Key words. low component analysis, maximum-cut algorithms, large-scale algo- rithms AMS subject classifications. 65K05, 90C for Scientific Research (FNRS). INRIA--Willow project, D´epartement d'Informatique, Ecole Normale Sup´erieure, 45

  15. Imbalanced Decision Hierarchy in Addicts Emerging from Drug-Hijacked Dopamine Spiraling Circuit

    E-print Network

    Gutkin, Boris

    Imbalanced Decision Hierarchy in Addicts Emerging from Drug-Hijacked Dopamine Spiraling Circuit, Ecole Normale Supe´rieure, Paris, France Abstract Despite explicitly wanting to quit, long-term addicts behavioral patterns represents a cognitive/behavioral conflict that is a central characteristic of addiction

  16. Geophys. J. Int. (2010) 183, 963974 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04765.x GJISeismology

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yih-Min

    2010-01-01

    Central Italy earthquake shows a very consistent match between the rapidly predicted (within a few seconds A threshold-based earthquake early warning using dense accelerometer networks Aldo Zollo,1 Ortensia Amoroso,1 of Naples `Federico II', Italy. E-mail: aldo.zollo@unina.it 2Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, France 3

  17. LETTER Communicated by Anthony Bell High-Order Contrasts for Independent Component Analysis

    E-print Network

    Vialatte, François

    -Fran¸cois Cardoso Ecole Nationale Sup´erieure des T´el´ecommunications, 75634 Paris Cedex 13, France This article of biomedical data. 1 Introduction Given an n × 1 random vector X, independent component analysis (ICA) consists. Two key issues of ICA are the definition of a measure of independence and the design of algorithms

  18. UNIVERSITE BLAISE PASCAL UFR SCIENCES et TECHNOLOGIES

    E-print Network

    Heurteaux, Yanick

    UNIVERSITE BLAISE PASCAL UFR SCIENCES et TECHNOLOGIES ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DE CHIMIE DE Blaise Pascal Master Recherche de Chimie UFR SCIENCES et TECHNOLOGIES Département de Chimie 24, Avenue;Fiche de renseignements pour inscription au Master de Chimie (M2) de l'Université Blaise Pascal

  19. Learning a Dictionary of Shape-Components in Visual Cortex: Comparison with Neurons, Humans and Machines

    E-print Network

    Poggio, Tomaso

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tomaso Poggio Eugene McDermott Professor in the Brain Sciences and Human Behavior Thesis SupervisorLearning a Dictionary of Shape-Components in Visual Cortex: Comparison with Neurons, Humans and Machines by Thomas Serre Ing´enieur de l'Ecole Nationale Sup´erieure des T´el´ecommunications de Bretagne

  20. RSA hybrid encryption schemes Louis Granboulan ?

    E-print Network

    Granboulan, Louis

    RSA hybrid encryption schemes Louis Granboulan ? ' Ecole Normale Sup'erieure Louis.Granboulan@ens.fr Abstract. This document compares the two published RSA­based hy­ brid encryption schemes having linear reduction in their security proof: RSA­KEM with DEM1 and RSA­REACT. While the performance of RSA

  1. Extension et interrogation des resumes de flux de donnees

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    publiquement le 31 Mai 2011 pour l'obtention du grade de Docteur de l'´Ecole Nationale Sup´erieure des T'intérêt et le temps dédiés pour le suivi de cette thèse. Je remercie également les membres de l'équipe Data Stream pour leurs remarques constructives qui m'ont permis d'accroître la pertinence de mes travaux. J

  2. LETTER Communicated by Jochen Ditterich Bayesian Spiking Neurons II: Learning

    E-print Network

    Gutkin, Boris

    ) in the input (Barlow, 2001). Hebbian-style learning rules (Hebb, 1949) find such correlations (Hebb, 1984LETTER Communicated by Jochen Ditterich Bayesian Spiking Neurons II: Learning Sophie Deneve sophie.deneve@ens.fr Group for Neural Theory, D´epartement d'Etudes Cognitives, Ecole Normale Sup´erieure, College de France

  3. Breaking the Symmetry: a Way to Resist the New Differential Attack

    E-print Network

    , University of Cincinnati 2 Institute of Information Sciences, Academia Sinica 3 Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University 4 Taiwan Information Security Center 5 Ecole Normale Superieur of modified systems still contain substantial information that exposes the structure of this large field

  4. REWE DE PHYSIQUE APPLIQu~E Colloque C4, Supplement au n04, Tome 24, avril 1989

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nationale Superieure de Ceramique Industrielle, F-87065 Limoges Cedex, France RESUME - Des aerogels dlalumino-O-Si(OEt)3. La diffusion centrale des rayons X montre que les structures des aerogels et des alcogels d particules fractales en masse. L1auto-similarit6 est mise en 6vidence dans les aerogels pour un large domaine

  5. On the Minimum Size of a Contraction-Universal Tree

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On the Minimum Size of a Contraction-Universal Tree Olivier Bodini LIP, ´Ecole Normale Sup´erieure de Lyon, 46 All´ee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 05, France. Abstract. A tree Tuni is m-universal for the class of trees if for every tree T of size m, T can be obtained from Tuni by successive contractions

  6. A Prestigious Image: Advantage or Obstacle in Attracting Candidates to French Elite Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draelants, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and twenty students successful at entering four of the most famous French "grandes ecoles" ("Ecole Normale Superieure" Ulm, Polytechnique, HEC, Sciences Po) were questioned about their institution's image. We focus on how the prestige of these institutions in the French society played a role in students' attraction and contributed to…

  7. The Acquisition of Stereochemical Knowledge by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boukhechem, Mohamed-Salah; Dumon, Alain; Zouikri, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the level of difficulty found in learning stereochemistry concepts, by students intending to teach physical sciences at the Ecole Normale Superieure (ENS) Kouba (Algeria). A paper and pencil questionnaire was administered to 170 students to evaluate: their familiarity with Newman representations; their ability of linking…

  8. Automated quantitative characterization of alginate/hydroxyapatite bone tissue engineering scaffolds by means of micro-CT image analysis.

    PubMed

    Brun, Francesco; Turco, Gianluca; Accardo, Agostino; Paoletti, Sergio

    2011-12-01

    Accurate image acquisition techniques and analysis protocols for a reliable characterization of tissue engineering scaffolds are yet to be well defined. To this aim, the most promising imaging technique seems to be the X-ray computed microtomography (?-CT). However critical issues of the analysis process deal with the representativeness of the selected Volume of Interest (VOI) and, most significantly, its segmentation. This article presents an image analysis protocol that computes a set of quantitative descriptors suitable for characterizing the morphology and the micro-architecture of alginate/hydroxyapatite bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Considering different VOIs extracted from different ?-CT datasets, an automated segmentation technique is suggested and compared against a manual segmentation. Variable sizes of VOIs are also considered in order to assess their representativeness. The resulting image analysis protocol is reproducible, parameter-free and it automatically provides accurate quantitative information in addition to the simple qualitative observation of the acquired images. PMID:21928128

  9. A Semi-Automated Technique Determining the Liver Standardized Uptake Value Reference for Tumor Delineation in FDG PET-CT

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Wong, Koon-Pong; Manabe, Osamu; Surmak, Andrew; Tamaki, Nagara; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Background 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) has been an essential modality in oncology. We propose a semi-automated algorithm to objectively determine liver standardized uptake value (SUV), which is used as a threshold for tumor delineation. Methods A large spherical volume of interest (VOI) was placed manually to roughly enclose the right lobe (RL) of the liver. For each voxel in this VOI, a coefficient of variation of voxel values (CVv) was calculated for neighboring voxels within a radius of d/2. The voxel with the minimum CVv was then selected, where a 30-mm spherical VOI was placed at that voxel in accordance with PERCIST criteria. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently defined 30-mm VOIs manually on 124 studies in 62 patients to generate the standard values, against which the results from the new method were compared. Results The semi-automated method was successful in determining the liver SUV that was consistent between the two physicians in all the studies (d?=?80 mm). The liver SUV threshold (mean +3 SD within 30-mm VOI) determined by the new semi-automated method (3.12±0.61) was not statistically different from those determined by the manual method (Physician-1: 3.14±0.58, Physician-2: 3.15±0.58). The semi-automated method produced tumor volumes that were not statistically different from those by experts' manual operation. Furthermore, the volume change in the two sequential studies had no statistical difference between semi-automated and manual methods. Conclusions Our semi-automated method could define the liver SUV robustly as the threshold value used for tumor volume measurements according to PERCIST. The method could avoid possible subjective bias of manual liver VOI placement and is thus expected to improve clinical performance of volume-based parameters for prediction of cancer treatment response. PMID:25162396

  10. Pulmonary airways tree segmentation from CT examinations using adaptive volume of interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Kim, Won Pil; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph K.; Pu, Jiantao; Tan, Jun; Gur, David

    2009-02-01

    Airways tree segmentation is an important step in quantitatively assessing the severity of and changes in several lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis. It can also be used in guiding bronchoscopy. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated scheme for segmenting the airways tree structure depicted on chest CT examinations. After lung volume segmentation, the scheme defines the first cylinder-like volume of interest (VOI) using a series of images depicting the trachea. The scheme then iteratively defines and adds subsequent VOIs using a region growing algorithm combined with adaptively determined thresholds in order to trace possible sections of airways located inside the combined VOI in question. The airway tree segmentation process is automatically terminated after the scheme assesses all defined VOIs in the iteratively assembled VOI list. In this preliminary study, ten CT examinations with 1.25mm section thickness and two different CT image reconstruction kernels ("bone" and "standard") were selected and used to test the proposed airways tree segmentation scheme. The experiment results showed that (1) adopting this approach affectively prevented the scheme from infiltrating into the parenchyma, (2) the proposed method reasonably accurately segmented the airways trees with lower false positive identification rate as compared with other previously reported schemes that are based on 2-D image segmentation and data analyses, and (3) the proposed adaptive, iterative threshold selection method for the region growing step in each identified VOI enables the scheme to segment the airways trees reliably to the 4th generation in this limited dataset with successful segmentation up to the 5th generation in a fraction of the airways tree branches.

  11. Processing sequence for non-destructive inspection based on 3D terahertz images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balacey, H.; Perraud, Jean-Baptiste; Bou Sleiman, J.; Guillet, Jean-Paul; Recur, B.; Mounaix, P.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present an innovative data and image processing sequence to perform non-destructive inspection from 3D terahertz (THz) images. We develop all the steps starting from a 3D tomographic reconstruction of a sample from its radiographs acquired with a monochromatic millimetre wave imaging system. Thus an automated segmentation provides the different volumes of interest (VOI) composing the sample. Then a 3D visualization and dimensional measurements are performed on these VOI, separately, in order to provide an accurate nondestructive testing (NDT) of the studied sample. This sequence is implemented onto an unique software and validated through the analysis of different objects

  12. UNIVERSIT GRENOBLE 1 -JOSEPH FOURIER U.F.R. de Mdecine

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    et HSP22 dans les voies de la réparation de l'ADN : approche structurale et fonctionnelle Thèse tableaux Liste des abréviations Chapitre I I- Introduction : les voies de la réparation de l'ADN p 1 I.1- L'ADN I.1.1- L'ADN : cible privilégiée I.1.2- Les mutations et les lésions de l'ADN I.2- Approche

  13. Cancers of the lung, head and neck on the rise: perspectives on the genotoxicity of air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Ng, Yuen-Keng; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been recently classified as a class I human carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cumulative evidence from across the globe shows that polluted air is associated with increased risk of lung, head and neck, and nasopharyngeal cancers—all of which affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Importantly, these cancers have been previously linked to smoking. In this article, we review epidemiologic and experimental evidence of the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of air pollution on DNA, purportedly a key mechanism for cancer development. The alarming increase in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Asia suggests a need to focus government efforts and research on reducing air pollution, promoting clean energy, and investigating the carcinogenic effects of air pollution on humans. PMID:25011457

  14. Cancers of the lung, head and neck on the rise: perspectives on the genotoxicity of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Ng, Yuen-Keng; Lui, Vivian Wai Yan

    2014-10-01

    Outdoor air pollution has been recently classified as a class I human carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cumulative evidence from across the globe shows that polluted air is associated with increased risk of lung, head and neck, and nasopharyngeal cancers--all of which affect the upper aerodigestive tract. Importantly, these cancers have been previously linked to smoking. In this article, we review epidemiologic and experimental evidence of the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of air pollution on DNA, purportedly a key mechanism for cancer development. The alarming increase in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Asia suggests a need to focus government efforts and research on reducing air pollution, promoting clean energy, and investigating the carcinogenic effects of air pollution on humans. PMID:25011457

  15. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, and tracheobronchial tree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merrill A. Biel

    1993-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has the potential to treat and cure early carcinomas of the head and neck while preserving normal tissue. Thirty patients with neoplasia of the head and neck have been treated with PDT with follow-up to twenty nine months. Four patients with T3 and T4 carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract had a partial response. Eleven patients with T1

  16. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, and tracheobronchial tree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merrill A. Biel

    1994-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has the potential to treat and cure early carcinomas of the head and neck while preserving normal tissue. Fifty-three patients with neoplasia of the head and neck have been treated with PDT with follow-up to 40 months. Eight patients with T2-T4 carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract had a partial response. Eighteen patients with CIS and T1

  17. Lipoid proteinosis: A review with two case reports

    PubMed Central

    Kabre, Vishal; Rani, Smitha; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Kamra, Sakshi

    2015-01-01

    Lipoid proteinosis (LP) is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatoses characterized by deposition of amorphous hyaline material in different parts of the body, especially the skin, mucous membranes of the upper aerodigestive tract, and internal organs. Oral cavity is most extensively affected area by the disease. This paper reports two classic cases of LP with oral manifestations but without a history of consanguinity along with a concise review of the literature on the disease. PMID:26097361

  18. Esophageal reflexes modulate frontoparietal response in neonates: Novel application of concurrent NIRS and provocative esophageal manometry

    PubMed Central

    Pakiraih, Joanna F.; Hasenstab, Kathryn A.; Dar, Irfaan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Bates, D. Gregory; Kashou, Nasser H.

    2014-01-01

    Central and peripheral neural regulation of swallowing and aerodigestive reflexes is unclear in human neonates. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method to measure changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD). Pharyngoesophageal manometry permits evaluation of aerodigestive reflexes. Modalities were combined to investigate feasibility and to test neonatal frontoparietal cortical changes during pharyngoesophageal (visceral) stimulation and/or swallowing. Ten neonates (45.6 ± 3.0 wk postmenstrual age, 4.1 ± 0.5 kg) underwent novel pharyngoesophageal manometry concurrent with NIRS. To examine esophagus-brain interactions, we analyzed cortical hemodynamic response (HDR) latency and durations during aerodigestive provocation and esophageal reflexes. Data are presented as means ± SE or percent. HDR rates were 8.84 times more likely with basal spontaneous deglutition compared with sham stimuli (P = 0.004). Of 182 visceral stimuli, 95% were analyzable for esophageal responses, 38% for HDR, and 36% for both. Of analyzable HDR (n = 70): 1) HbO concentration (?mol/l) baseline 1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 poststimulus was significant (P = 0.02), 2) HbD concentration (?mol/l) between baseline 0.1 ± 0.4 vs. poststimulus ?0.5 ± 0.4 was not significant (P = 0.73), and 3) hemispheric lateralization was 21% left only, 29% right only, and 50% bilateral. During concurrent esophageal and NIRS responses (n = 66): 1) peristaltic reflexes were present in 74% and HDR in 61% and 2) HDR was 4.75 times more likely with deglutition reflex vs. secondary peristaltic reflex (P = 0.016). Concurrent NIRS with visceral stimulation is feasible in neonates, and frontoparietal cortical activation is recognized. Deglutition contrasting with secondary peristalsis is related to cortical activation, thus implicating higher hierarchical aerodigestive protective functional neural networks. PMID:24789204

  19. Alcohol Metabolism and Its Implications for Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary J. Murray; Philip J. Brooks; Samir Zakhari

    \\u000a As described in Chap. 1, alcohol has been classified as carcinogenic to humans at several sites in the body by the International\\u000a Agency for Research on Cancer (Secretan et al. 2009). These include the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT), liver, colon\\/rectum,\\u000a and female breast. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed for these multiple carcinogenic effects (Zakhari 2006). In this\\u000a chapter, we discuss

  20. Molecular mechanisms of alcohol-mediated carcinogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Stickel; Helmut K. Seitz

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 3.6% of cancers worldwide derive from chronic alcohol drinking, including those of the upper aerodigestive tract, the liver, the colorectum and the breast. Although the mechanisms for alcohol-associated carcinogenesis are not completely understood, most recent research has focused on acetaldehyde, the first and most toxic ethanol metabolite, as a cancer-causing agent. Ethanol may also stimulate carcinogenesis by inhibiting DNA

  1. DCTD Program Accomplishments 2010

    Cancer.gov

    Barbara A. Conley, M.D., is the newly appointed Associate Director of the Cancer Diagnosis Program (CDP). She is an NCI veteran who has held previous positions at the Institute. From 1997 to 2004, she participated in several key programs within the NCI, including Senior Investigator in the Clinical Investigations Branch of CTEP and Chief of the CDP Diagnostics Research Branch, as well as Head, Aerodigestive Diseases, in the intramural medicine branch.

  2. Smoking and Drinking in Relation to Cancers of the Oral Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, and Esophagus in Northern Italy1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Franceschi; Renato Talamini; Salvatore Barra; Eva Negri; Ettore Bidoli; Diego Serraino; Carlo La Vecchia

    1990-01-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of upper aerodigestive tract tumors was conducted between June 1986 and June 1989 in Northern Italy. One hundred fifty-seven male cases of oral cavity cancer, 134 of pharyngeal cancer, 162 of laryngeal cancer, and 288 of esophageal cancer, and 1272 male inpatients with acute conditions unrelated to tobacco and alcohol were interviewed. Odds ratios for current

  3. Esophageal reflexes modulate frontoparietal response in neonates: Novel application of concurrent NIRS and provocative esophageal manometry.

    PubMed

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Pakiraih, Joanna F; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Dar, Irfaan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Bates, D Gregory; Kashou, Nasser H

    2014-07-01

    Central and peripheral neural regulation of swallowing and aerodigestive reflexes is unclear in human neonates. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method to measure changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD). Pharyngoesophageal manometry permits evaluation of aerodigestive reflexes. Modalities were combined to investigate feasibility and to test neonatal frontoparietal cortical changes during pharyngoesophageal (visceral) stimulation and/or swallowing. Ten neonates (45.6 ± 3.0 wk postmenstrual age, 4.1 ± 0.5 kg) underwent novel pharyngoesophageal manometry concurrent with NIRS. To examine esophagus-brain interactions, we analyzed cortical hemodynamic response (HDR) latency and durations during aerodigestive provocation and esophageal reflexes. Data are presented as means ± SE or percent. HDR rates were 8.84 times more likely with basal spontaneous deglutition compared with sham stimuli (P = 0.004). Of 182 visceral stimuli, 95% were analyzable for esophageal responses, 38% for HDR, and 36% for both. Of analyzable HDR (n = 70): 1) HbO concentration (?mol/l) baseline 1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 poststimulus was significant (P = 0.02), 2) HbD concentration (?mol/l) between baseline 0.1 ± 0.4 vs. poststimulus -0.5 ± 0.4 was not significant (P = 0.73), and 3) hemispheric lateralization was 21% left only, 29% right only, and 50% bilateral. During concurrent esophageal and NIRS responses (n = 66): 1) peristaltic reflexes were present in 74% and HDR in 61% and 2) HDR was 4.75 times more likely with deglutition reflex vs. secondary peristaltic reflex (P = 0.016). Concurrent NIRS with visceral stimulation is feasible in neonates, and frontoparietal cortical activation is recognized. Deglutition contrasting with secondary peristalsis is related to cortical activation, thus implicating higher hierarchical aerodigestive protective functional neural networks. PMID:24789204

  4. Fluorometric analysis for neoplasm diagnostics and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasny, Miroslaw; Mierczyk, Zygmunt

    1997-10-01

    The paper presents methods of laser-induced fluorescence with the use of endo- and exogenous dyes for diagnosis of early tumors of aerodigestive tracts, colons, bladder, GYN, and skin, as well as a review of equipment developed during laboratory examination, construction of diagnostic instruments and clinical use of fluorometric methods with application of various devices, from simple fluorometers to sophisticated endoscopic spectra-analyzers.

  5. Patterns of Metastatsis in Head and Neck Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOCHEN A. WERNER

    The knowledge of the lymphatic system draining the upper aerodigestive tract is much less precise than the one of the blood\\u000a vessel system of the mentioned region. Discussions around the tendency of lymphogenic metastatsis are increasingly led on\\u000a a molecular biologic level than on morphologic facts like the distribution and also the tightness of the regional lymph vessels.The\\u000a latter aspect

  6. Atlas-driven scan planning for high-resolution micro-SPECT data acquisition based on multi-view photographs: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Baiker; Brendan Vastenhouw; Woutjan Branderhorst; Johan H. C. Reiber; Freek Beekman; Boudewijn P. F. Lelieveldt

    2009-01-01

    Highly focused Micro-SPECT scanners enable the acquisition of functional small animal data with very high-resolution. To acquire a maximum of emitted photons from a specific structure of interest and at the same time minimize the required acquisition time, typically only a small subvolume of the animal is scanned that contains the organs of interest. This Volume of Interest (VOI) can

  7. Aging and Down Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... developmental disabilities (I/DD). Dr. Moran is on faculty at Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess ... getting started faCiaL eXpression tone of voiCe body Language 28 The National Down Syndrome Society Image Courtesy ...

  8. UN NOUVEAU REGARD SUR L'ELECTRONIQUE NANOMETRIQUE Genve, le 27 janvier 2012

    E-print Network

    Loewith, Robbie

    nanostructure semi-conductrice, un transistor quantique appelé aussi boîte quantique. Ces travaux, qui ont fait également à ouvrir de nouvelles voies vers la mise au point d'un ordinateur quantique. Le transistor joue le sont pas moins de dix milliards de transistors qui sont produits à chaque seconde. Les chercheurs de l

  9. Health Services Queen's University Policy on Verification of Illness

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    Health Services Queen's University Policy on Verification of Illness Health Counselling and Disability Services (HCDS) first developed a policy on issuing Verification of Illness (VOI) documentation Verification of Illness ("sick notes") 1. A "Verification of Illness" should only be required in situations

  10. Copyrighted Material Introduction

    E-print Network

    Landweber, Laura

    livres," "quel temps immense exige la composition de vers de ce genre" ("It is hard to believe the immense amount of time composition of this kind of verse requires"). The poem consists of four cantos house- boat): "je vois fuir deux rives couvertes / De fleurs, d'ailes, d'éclairs, de riches plantes

  11. Fuzzy hidden Markov chains segmentation for volume determination and quantitation in PET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Accurate volume of interest (VOI) estimation in PET is crucial in different oncology applications such as response to therapy evaluation and radiotherapy treatment planning. The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm for automatic lesion volume delineation; namely the fuzzy hidden Markov chains (FHMC), with that of current state of the art in clinical

  12. Evaluation de l'exposition humaine au plomb par ingestion et inhalation de PM10 et PM2,5 mises par une usine de recyclage de batteries

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evaluation de l'exposition humaine au plomb par ingestion et inhalation de PM10 et PM2,5 émises par plomb et autres métaux par deux voies d'exposition : l'inhalation et l'ingestion. Dans le but de : elles représentent non seulement la fraction inhalable mais contribuent probablement à une fraction non

  13. Revised version Fossiles molculaires d'intrt microbiologique,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Molecular fossils are organic substances occurring in soils, sediments, coals and crude oils. The study nouvelles voies de transformation de l'humus, notamment par la mise au point d'une méthode permettant de of these structurally specific fossils has generated applications among several scientific fields. For instance

  14. Unit Mixte de Recherche CNRS / Universit Pierre Mends France Grenoble 2 150 rue de la Chimie BP 47 38040 GRENOBLE cedex 9

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    interorganisationnel et pratiques collaboratives au sein d'une supply chain : cadre conceptuel et voies de recherche #12;Apprentissage interorganisationnel et pratiques collaboratives au sein d'une supply chain : cadre les acteurs d'une supply chain. Les travaux actuels sur la collaboration dans les chaînes logistiques

  15. Connaissant l'une des valeurs p2 ou p3 une temp-rature dtermine, l'cluation permet de calculer

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , l'atmosphère tamise le rayonnement solaire et en arrête une grande partie. La nuit, elle modère le calorifiques du rayonnement solaire à différentes heures, pour des journées voi- sines : b) Les intensités sélective et par diffusion, modifient le pouvoir absorbant de l'atmosphère pour le rayon- nement solaire

  16. The value of animal test information in environmental control decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison C. Taylor; John S. Evans; Thomas E. McKone

    1993-01-01

    Value of information (VOI) analytic techniques are used to evaluate the benefit of performing animal bioassays to provide information about the cancer potency of specific chemical compounds. These tools allow the identification of the conditions in which the cost of reducing uncertainty about potency, by performing a subchronic or chronic bioassay, is justified by the benefit of having improved information

  17. 76 FR 14385 - Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ...will be provided via an Internet webinar service utilizing VoiP (Voice Over Internet Protocol). The login...Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services...Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following site...Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative...

  18. 76 FR 45236 - Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ...will be provided via an internet webinar service utilizing VoiP (Voice Over Internet Protocol). The login...Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services...Format (PDF) on the internet at the following site...Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative...

  19. 76 FR 34068 - Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ...will be provided via an Internet webinar service utilizing VoiP (Voice Over Internet Protocol). The login...Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services...Format (PDF) on the Internet at the following site...Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative...

  20. 76 FR 61349 - Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ...will be provided via an internet webinar service utilizing VoiP (Voice Over Internet Protocol). The login...Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services...Format (PDF) on the internet at the following site...Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative...

  1. Thoraco-abdominal Lymph Node Detection: Exploration of Shallow and Deep Models

    E-print Network

    Barbu, Adrian

    ). Considered enlarged if short axis diameter 10 mm. Datasets are in the process of making publicly available object detection task(s) as 2D or 2.5D problems, to achieve better FROC performance? (+ parts of Abd from each candidate VOI (9 x 3 = 27 views). #12;HOG: Histogram of Oriented Gradients + Lib

  2. Assessing the Value of Information of Geophysical Data For Groundwater Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainor, W. J.; Caers, J. K.; Mukerji, T.; Auken, E.; Knight, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Effective groundwater management requires hydrogeologic models informed by various data sources. The long-term goal of our research is to develop methodologies that quantify the value of information (VOI) of geophysical data for water managers. We present an initial sensitivity study on assessing the reliability of airborne electro-magnetic (EM) data for detecting channel orientation. The reliability results are used to calculate VOI regarding decisions of artificial recharge to mitigate seawater intrusion. To demonstrate how a hydrogeologic problem can be framed in decision analysis terms, a hypothetical example is built, where water managers are considering artificial recharge to remediate seawater intrusion. Is the cost of recharge justified given the large uncertainty of subsurface heterogeneity that may interfere in a successful recharge? Thus, the decision is should recharge be performed, and if yes, where should recharge wells be located? This decision is difficult because of the large uncertainty of the aquifer heterogeneity that influences flow. The expected value of all possible outcomes to the decision without gathering additional EM information is the prior value VPRIOR. The value of information (VOI) is calculated as the expected gain in value after including the relevant new information, or the difference between the value after a free experiment (VFE) and the value prior (VPRIOR): VOI = VFE - VPRIOR Airborne EM has been used to detect confining clay layers and flow barriers. However, geophysical information rarely identifies the subsurface perfectly. Many challenges impact data quality and the resulting models (interpretation uncertainty). To evaluate how well airborne EM data detect the orientation of subsurface channel systems, 125 alternative binary, fluvial lithology models are generated, each categorized into one of three subsurface scenarios: northwest, southwest and mixed channel orientation. Using rock property relations, the lithology models are converted into electrical resistivity models for EM forward modeling, to generate time-domain EM data. Noise is added to the late times of the EM data to better represent typical airborne acquisition. Inversions are performed to obtain 125 inverted resistivity images. From the images, we calculate the angle of maximum spatial correlation at every cell, and compare it with the truth - the original lithology model. These synthetic models serve as a proxy to estimate misclassification probabilities of channel orientation from actual EM data. The misclassification probabilities are then used in the VOI calculations. Results are presented demonstrating how the reliability measure and the pumping schedule can impact VOI. Lastly, reliability and VOI are calculated and compared for land-based EM data, which has different spatial sampling and resolution than air-borne data.

  3. The infaunal echinoid Micraster: Taphonomic pathways indicated by sclerozoan trace and body fossils from the Upper Cretaceous of northern Spain L'echinide fouisseur Micraster : trajectoires taphonomiques indiquees par des corps fossiles et des traces de sclerozoaires dans le Cretace ´ superieur du Nord de l'Espagne El equõ´nido infaunico Micraster: trayectorias tafonomicas indicadas por pistas y fosiles corporales de esclerozoos en el Cretacico Superior del norte de Espana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Zamora; Eduardo Mayoral; José A. Gámez Vintaned; Sergio Bajo; Eduardo Espílez

    Micraster echinoid fossils are common in the Upper Cretaceous Olazagutía Formation of northern Spain. Tests frequently record sclerobiont signatures (including bioerosion and encrustation), left by reaction and\\/or coaction phenomena. Among bioerosion structures, Oichnus simplex, O. paraboloides, O. ichnosp. A, Trypanites solitarius, Rogerella ichnosp. indet., Centrichnus cf. eccentricus, Maeandropolydora ichnosp. indet. and fungal microborings are found, as well as pits and

  4. Improving initial polyp candidate extraction for CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongbin; Fan, Yi; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2010-04-01

    Reducing the number of false positives (FPs) as much as possible is a challenging task for computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps. As part of a typical CAD pipeline, an accurate and robust process for segmenting initial polyp candidates (IPCs) will significantly benefit the successive FP reduction procedures, such as feature-based classification of false and true positives (TPs). In this study, we introduce an improved scheme for segmenting IPCs. It consists of two main components. One is geodesic distance-based merging, which merges suspicious patches (SPs) for IPCs. Based on the merged SPs, another component, called convex dilation, grows each SP beyond the inner surface of the colon wall to form a volume of interest (VOI) for that IPC, so that the inner border of the VOI beyond the colon inner surface could be segmented as convex, as expected. The IPC segmentation strategy was evaluated using a database of 50 patient studies, which include 100 scans at supine and prone positions with 84 polyps and masses sized from 6 to 35 mm. The presented IPC segmentation strategy (or VOI extraction method) demonstrated improvements, in terms of having no undesirably merged true polyp and providing more helpful mean and variance of the image intensities rooted from the extracted VOI for classification of the TPs and FPs, over two other VOI extraction methods (i.e. the conventional method of Nappi and Yoshida (2003 Med. Phys. 30 1592-601) and our previous method (Zhu et al 2009 Cancer Manag. Res. 1 1-13). At a by-polyp sensitivity of 0.90, these three methods generated the FP rate (number of FPs per scan) of 4.78 (new method), 6.37 (Nappi) and 7.01 (Zhu) respectively.

  5. Improving initial polyp candidate extraction for CT colonography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongbin; Fan, Yi; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2010-04-01

    Reducing the number of false positives (FPs) as much as possible is a challenging task for computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps. As part of a typical CAD pipeline, an accurate and robust process for segmenting initial polyp candidates (IPCs) will significantly benefit the successive FP reduction procedures, such as feature-based classification of false and true positives (TPs). In this study, we introduce an improved scheme for segmenting IPCs. It consists of two main components. One is geodesic distance-based merging, which merges suspicious patches (SPs) for IPCs. Based on the merged SPs, another component, called convex dilation, grows each SP beyond the inner surface of the colon wall to form a volume of interest (VOI) for that IPC, so that the inner border of the VOI beyond the colon inner surface could be segmented as convex, as expected. The IPC segmentation strategy was evaluated using a database of 50 patient studies, which include 100 scans at supine and prone positions with 84 polyps and masses sized from 6 to 35 mm. The presented IPC segmentation strategy (or VOI extraction method) demonstrated improvements, in terms of having no undesirably merged true polyp and providing more helpful mean and variance of the image intensities rooted from the extracted VOI for classification of the TPs and FPs, over two other VOI extraction methods (i.e. the conventional method of Nappi and Yoshida (2003 Med. Phys. 30 1592-601) and our previous method (Zhu et al 2009 Cancer Manag. Res. 1 1-13). At a by-polyp sensitivity of 0.90, these three methods generated the FP rate (number of FPs per scan) of 4.78 (new method), 6.37 (Nappi) and 7.01 (Zhu) respectively. PMID:20299733

  6. SU-E-J-143: Short- and Near-Term Effects of Proton Therapy On Cerebral White Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Uh, J; Merchant, T; Ogg, R; Sabin, N; Hua, C [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Indelicato, D [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess early effects of proton therapy on the structural integrity of cerebral white matter in relation to the subsequent near-term development of such effects. Methods: Sixteen children (aged 2–19 years) with craniopharyngioma underwent proton therapy of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) in a prospective therapeutic trial. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed at baseline before proton therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Tract-based spatial statics analysis of DTI data was performed to derive the fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) in 26 volumes of interest (VOIs). The dose distributions were spatially normalized to identify VOIs prone to high doses. The longitudinal percentage changes of the FA and RD in these VOIs at 3 and 12 months from the baseline were calculated, and their relationships were evaluated. Results: The average dose was highest to the cerebral peduncle (CP), corticospinal tract (CST) in the pons, pontine crossing tract (PCT), anterior/posterior limbs of the internal capsule (ALIC/PLIC), and genu of the corpus callosum (GCC). It ranged from 33.3 GCE (GCC) to 49.7 GCE (CP). A mild but statistically significant (P<0.05) decline of FA was observed 3 months after proton therapy in all VOIs except the PLIC and ranged from ?1.7% (ALIC) to ?2.8% (PCT). A significant increase of RD was found in the CP (3.5%) and ALIC (2.1%). The average longitudinal change from the baseline was reduced at 12 months for most VOIs. However, the standard deviation increased, indicating that the temporal pattern varied individually. The follow-up measurements at 3 and 12 months correlated for the CP, CST, PCT, and GCC (P < 0.04). Conclusion: DTI data suggest early (3 months) effects of proton therapy on microstructures in the white matter. The subsequent follow-up indicated individual variation of the changes, which was partly implied by the early effects.

  7. Projet de Note aux Comptes Rendus (17 ao^ut 2012) A Cramer-Rao inequality for non differentiable

    E-print Network

    Coudière, Yves

    .rochet@gmail.com Abstract. We compute a variance lower bound for unbiased estimators in statistical models. The construction`ele param´etrique est sup´erieure `a l'inverse de l'information de Fisher. Ce r´esultat datant de 1945 [6 of the bound is related to the original Cram´er-Rao bound, although it does not require the differentiability

  8. A statistical integrated system in C Language

    E-print Network

    Acra, Roland Henri

    1986-01-01

    : Statistics A STATISTICAL INTEGRATED SYSTEM IN C LANGUAGE A Thesis by ROLAND HENRI ACRA Approved as to style and content by: H. J. Newton (Chairman of Committee) P. F. Dahm (Member) D. B. immons (Member) W. B. Smith (Head of Department) May l986... ABSTRACT A Statistical Integrated System in C Language (May 1986) Roland Acra, Ingenieur de 1'Ecole Polytechnique, Francel Eleve Ingenieur, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications, Paris, France Chairman of Advisory Committe: Dr. H. Joseph...

  9. Approximation d'un nombre r'eel par des nombres alg'ebriques de degr'e donn'e

    E-print Network

    Bugeaud, Yann

    Approximation d'un nombre r'eel par des nombres alg'ebriques de degr'e donn'e Yann Bugeaud'eressons `a l'approximation des nombres r'eels par des nombres alg'ebriques, et en parti­ culier par des entier et ¸ un nombre complexe. On note w n (¸) la borne sup'erieure des nombres r'eels w pour lesquels

  10. EXAMEN DE GEOMETRIE AFFINE, 15/01/2007, 9-12 H, A1

    E-print Network

    Lafont, Yves

    matrices triangulaires sup´erieures A t.q. Tr(A) = 2. Montrer que P est un plan affine; d´et´erminer la position relative de la droite D et le plan P. D´et´erminer le sous-espace affine de M2(R) engendr ces points. 3). Posons D1 := (AA ), D2 := (BB ), D3 := (CC ). D´et´erminer touts a R t.q. les droites

  11. Une fracture extra-articulaire métaphyso-diaphysaire du tiers supérieur de l'humérus à gros déplacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Meadeb; A. Sinet

    1992-01-01

    Résumé Les auteurs rapportent trois observations de fracture du 1\\/3 superieur de l'humérus comminutive, extraarticulaire, fermée, à gros déplacement, survenue à la suite d'un accident de la voie publique. Les traits de fracture s'étendaient du col chirurgical jusqu'au dessous du V deltoïdien, détachant un fragment intermédiaire. Il n'y avait pas de lésion vasculo-nerveuse. Le traitement a été une fois orthopédique

  12. Abstract The problem addressed in this paper is the automatic extraction of names from a document image.

    E-print Network

    Likforman-Sulem, Laurence

    . de Bodard de la Jacopie`re Ecole Nationale Supe´rieure des Te´le´communications/TSI and CNRS-LTCI, 46.vaillant@guyane.univ-ag.fr A. de Bodard de la Jacopie`re e-mail: aliette.de-bodard@polytechnique.org Pattern Anal Applic DOI 10 Laurence Likforman-Sulem Æ Pascal Vaillant Æ Aliette de Bodard de la Jacopie`re Received: 16 August 2005

  13. Computerized detection of diffuse lung disease in MDCT: the usefulness of statistical texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiahui; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio; Li, Qiang

    2009-11-01

    Accurate detection of diffuse lung disease is an important step for computerized diagnosis and quantification of this disease. It is also a difficult clinical task for radiologists. We developed a computerized scheme to assist radiologists in the detection of diffuse lung disease in multi-detector computed tomography (CT). Two radiologists selected 31 normal and 37 abnormal CT scans with ground glass opacity, reticular, honeycombing and nodular disease patterns based on clinical reports. The abnormal cases in our database must contain at least an abnormal area with a severity of moderate or severe level that was subjectively rated by the radiologists. Because statistical texture features may lack the power to distinguish a nodular pattern from a normal pattern, the abnormal cases that contain only a nodular pattern were excluded. The areas that included specific abnormal patterns in the selected CT images were then delineated as reference standards by an expert chest radiologist. The lungs were first segmented in each slice by use of a thresholding technique, and then divided into contiguous volumes of interest (VOIs) with a 64 × 64 × 64 matrix size. For each VOI, we determined and employed statistical texture features, such as run-length and co-occurrence matrix features, to distinguish abnormal from normal lung parenchyma. In particular, we developed new run-length texture features with clear physical meanings to considerably improve the accuracy of our detection scheme. A quadratic classifier was employed for distinguishing between normal and abnormal VOIs by the use of a leave-one-case-out validation scheme. A rule-based criterion was employed to further determine whether a case was normal or abnormal. We investigated the impact of new and conventional texture features, VOI size and the dimensionality for regions of interest on detecting diffuse lung disease. When we employed new texture features for 3D VOIs of 64 × 64 × 64 voxels, our system achieved the highest performance level: a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 90% for the detection of abnormal VOIs, and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 90% for the detection of abnormal cases. Our computerized scheme would be useful for assisting radiologists in the diagnosis of diffuse lung disease.

  14. Extended Studies of the Striatal Uptake of 99mTc-NC100697 in Healthy Volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Koch; Oliver Pogarell; Julia Hornung; Christine Hamann; Franz-Josef Gildehaus; Klaus Seelos; Dewi Lewis; Antonella Favit; Klaus Tatsch

    sional regions of interest (ROIs), and observer-independent fully automated 3-dimensional VOI analyses based on coregistration of scans with a mean template of controls. Specific striatal dopa- mine transporter (DAT) binding was estimated for cohorts of ages of 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and 71-80 y. The relation- ship between age and DAT binding was analyzed with linear, ''broken-stick,'' exponential, and

  15. Computer-Aided Diagnosis for Breast Tumors by Using Vascularization of 3-D Power Doppler Ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Len Huang; Shou-Jen Kuo; Chia-Chia Hsu; Hsin-Shun Tseng; Yi-Hsuan Hsiao; Dar-Ren Chen

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of three-dimensional (3-D) power Doppler ultrasound in differentiating between benign and malignant breast tumors by using a support vector machine (SVM). A 3-D power Doppler ultrasonography was performed on 164 patients with 86 benign and 78 malignant breast tumors. The volume-of-interest (VOI) in 3-D ultrasound images was automatically generated from three rectangular regions-of-interest (ROI). The

  16. Exact BPF and FBP algorithms for nonstandard saddle curves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hengyong Yu; Zhao Shiying; Ye Yangbo; Wang Ge

    2005-01-01

    A hot topic in cone-beam CT research is exact cone-beam reconstruction from a general scanning trajectory. Particularly, a nonstandard saddle curve attracts attention, as this construct allows the continuous periodic scanning of a volume-of-interest (VOI). Here we evaluate two algorithms for reconstruction from data collected along a nonstandard saddle curve, which are in the filtered backprojection (FBP) and backprojection filtration

  17. Étude d’un système simplifié de signalisation par canal sémaphore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Lucas

    1970-01-01

    \\u000a Sommaire  L’apparition des systèmes de commutation téléphonique modernes (électroniques ou semiélectroniques) dont la commande est assurée\\u000a par des calculateurs à programme enregistré, ouvre des possibilités nouvelles à la fonction de signalisation entre les autocommutateurs.\\u000a Dans un réseau où les calculateurs de commande vont se multiplier, il est intéressant d’envisager une signalisation par échange\\u000a direct sur des voies spécialisées appelées canaux sémaphores.

  18. A novel scheme for detection of diffuse lung disease in MDCT by use of statistical texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiahui; Li, Feng; Doi, Kunio; Li, Qiang

    2009-02-01

    The successful development of high performance computer-aided-diagnostic systems has potential to assist radiologists in the detection and diagnosis of diffuse lung disease. We developed in this study an automated scheme for the detection of diffuse lung disease on multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). Our database consisted of 68 CT scans, which included 31 normal and 37 abnormal cases with three kinds of abnormal patterns, i.e., ground glass opacity, reticular, and honeycombing. Two radiologists first selected the CT scans with abnormal patterns based on clinical reports. The areas that included specific abnormal patterns in the selected CT images were then delineated as reference standards by an expert chest radiologist. To detect abnormal cases with diffuse lung disease, the lungs were first segmented from the background in each slice by use of a texture analysis technique, and then divided into contiguous volumes of interest (VOIs) with a 64×64×64 matrix size. For each VOI, we calculated many statistical texture features, including the mean and standard deviation of CT values, features determined from the run length matrix, and features from the co-occurrence matrix. A quadratic classifier was employed for distinguishing between normal and abnormal VOIs by use of a leave-one-case-out validation scheme. A rule-based criterion was employed to further determine whether a case was normal or abnormal. For the detection of abnormal VOIs, our CAD system achieved a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 90%. For the detection of abnormal cases, it achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 90%. This preliminary study indicates that our CAD system would be useful for the detection of diffuse lung disease.

  19. Le Hericium erinaceus: des propriétés essentiellement dépendantes du neuronal growth factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Donatini

    2011-01-01

    Résumé  Le Hericium erinaceus (HE) induit la synthèse de neuronal growth factor (NGF), impliqué dans les maladies neurodégénératives comme la maladie d’Alzheimer ou plus généralement dans les troubles\\u000a trophiques (estomac, intestin, foie) ou les cicatrisations (peau, cartilage, os). Le HE stimule aussi les voies TH1 et TH2\\u000a (antiparasitaire puissant), ce qui le positionne parmi les aliments potentiellement utiles contre les maladies

  20. An anatomic coordinate system of the femoral neck for highly reproducible BMD measurements using 3D QCT.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yan; Engelke, Klaus; Fuchs, Christina; Kalender, Willi A

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, a procedure for the determination of an anatomically oriented coordinate system of the femoral neck (NCS) in 3D spiral CT datasets is described. The origin of the NCS is centered in the minimal cross-sectional area of the neck. Its three axes are defined as follows: the so called neck axis is perpendicular to this area and points towards the femoral head, the second axis is the principal axis of the minimal cross-sectional area and the third axis is perpendicular to the other two. After a semi-automatic 3D segmentation of the proximal femur the NCS is automatically determined in a two-step minimization procedure. Relative to the coordinate system volumes of interest (VOIs) are positioned in which bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical thickness are analyzed. We investigated intra- and inter-operator precision of the position of the NCS, the BMD in cortical and trabecular VOIs, and cortical thickness in nine pelvic CT datasets obtained from clinical routine examinations. We further investigated the effect of increased noise by adding Gaussian distributed noise to measured projections before tomographic reconstruction. The mean precision error (averaged form the results of the nine datasets) of the NCS position was less than 0.5 mm and smaller than 2.25 degrees . There were no significant differences between inter- and intra-operator analyses. Precision errors in trabecular BMD were smaller than 3% in a stack of five 1 mm thin slices cut perpendicularly to the neck axis and smaller than 1% in a spherical VOI encompassing the neck. Relative precision errors for cortical BMD were smaller than 3% for both VOIs. An increase of noise up to a factor of 5 caused a maximal displacement of the NCS origin position by less than 1mm and a rotation by less than 2 degrees . PMID:16143496

  1. L'énergie dans le développement de la Nouvelle-Calédonie = Energy in the development of New Caledonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Le Bars; Elsa Faugère; Philippe Menanteau; Bernard Multon; Arthur Riedacker; Sébastien Velut

    2010-01-01

    Dans un contexte de raréfaction des ressources en énergie fossile et de changements climatiques, la Nouvelle-Calédonie, qui n'est pas actuellement soumise au protocole de Kyoto, doit répondre aux préoccupations environnementales et trouver les voies et moyens d'une moins grande dépendance énergétique. Au moment où le Territoire définit son Schéma d'aménagement et de développement 2025 et, dans le prolongement, son Schéma

  2. Automated classification of normal and pathologic pulmonary tissue by topological texture features extracted from multi-detector CT in 3D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. F. Boehm; C. Fink; U. Attenberger; C. Becker; J. Behr; M. Reiser

    2008-01-01

    To provide a novel, robust algorithm for classification of lung tissue depicted by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT)\\u000a based on the topology of CT-attenuation values and to compare discriminative results with densitometric methods. Two hundred\\u000a seventy-five cubic volumes of interest (VOI, edge length 40 pixels) were obtained from MDCT chest CT (isotropic voxel size,\\u000a edge length 0.6 mm) of 21 subjects with

  3. tEEK TRANSACJ'JONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL. VOL. 36, NO. 7. JULY 1991890 J. C. Jtsangand E. A. Jonckheere, "On compudng the spxtrsd nw.fiua

    E-print Network

    Moore, John Barratt

    BM Corporation under the SUR Contract SL 88086, D.S.T.O. of Australia, and by Boeing (WAC). R. Horowitz and W npenuor, " IJXE Tmm. A sstamat. Corrfr., VOi. 33, pp. 1053-1059, 1988. p. J@%o*! 1. R. ~ct=n. ad M. A. R*, "& @ controlwith state feedback." IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr., YOL 33, pp. 786-788, 1988. J. C. Doyle. K. Glover. P

  4. Computer Playback Issue 5

    E-print Network

    Multiple Contributors

    1981-01-01

    'm your doctor, nnd 1 1lrescribe sleep.'1 Bis VOi08 Roft8np-d. "Good ni~;;ht, .Ti.m." IIT'm not wrong,1 I KirK thou(;ht to ,Ilyou won't admit it, but. you do G,,~p.II himself BR the doctor J.eft. With ?tha?t, h8 fell asleep. Mcr,oy stopped by his...

  5. Surgical management in a rare case of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Tuhar, I; Zamfirescu, D; Sl?vescu, D; Frunz?, A; Lasc?r, I

    2015-01-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare and aggressive version of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that preferentially occurs in the upper aerodigestive tract. Since the first description by Wain SL et al., in 1986, only 21 cases with BSCC in the nasal cavity or in the paranasal cavity have been reported in the English literature. We present a case of BSCC arising in a paranasal sinus, a 51-year-old male patient with four months history of right cheek swelling and unilateral nasal obstruction, who underwent an operation and postoperative radiotherapy. Clinical, pathological and surgical findings in this case are presented along with a brief discussion of literature. PMID:25914753

  6. A foreign body of the larynx misdiagnosed as vocal cord paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Devendra Bahadur; Singh, Abhishek Bahadur

    2013-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the aerodigestive tract continue to be a common problem that contribute significantly to high morbidity and mortality all over the world. Laryngeal foreign bodies may present with less severe symptoms compared with lower respiratory tract foreign bodies, resulting in misdiagnosis, confusion and delay in diagnosis. Rigid endoscopy with forceps removal under general anaesthesia is the preferred management modality. This case is described to show the importance of a detailed history and examination including X-ray neck in children to rule out any radiopaque laryngeal foreign body as a delay in diagnosis and management can lead to life-threatening complications. PMID:23853027

  7. Mucous membrane plasmacytosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Rakesh; Smith, Denise R

    2003-12-01

    Mucous membrane plasmacytosis is a rare, idiopathic condition consisting of a dense plasma-cell infiltrate of the mucous membranes. Zoon first described a plasma-cell infiltrate occurring on the glans penis and plasmacytosis involving other body orifices have been reported under a variety of different terms. White et al. simplified the terminology by suggesting all plasma-cell infiltrates of the mucous membranes of body orifices be termed plasma-cell orificial mucositis. The differential diagnoses and treatment for mucous membrane plasmacytosis are summarized. A middle-aged female with an unusual plasma-cell proliferation disorder of the upper aerodigestive tract is reported for its rarity. PMID:14996388

  8. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma of thoracic epidural space presenting with dorsal compressive myelopathy: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amandeep; Satyarthee, Guru Dutt; Sable, Mukund; Suri, Vaishali; Sharma, Bhawani S.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma Cell neoplasms result from monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas (SEMPs) are rare and constitute 5% of all plasma cell disorders. SEMPs most commonly involve upper aerodigestive tract. Isolated spinal epidural space involvement by SEMPs is extremely rare and to best of our knowledge only 7 such cases have been reported previously in available English literature. We hereby present a rare case of thoracic epidural SEMP in a 32-year-old female who presented with thoracic compressive myelopathy and discuss the pertinent literature.

  9. An unusual nasopharyngeal foreign body with unusual presentation as nasal regurgitation and change in voice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Devendra Bahadur; Singh, Abhishek Bahadur

    2013-01-01

    Upper aerodigestive tract may harbour foreign bodies such as sponges, grains, toy parts, stones, paper, insects, cotton, etc. These objects may go undetected for days or even weeks. A metallic foreign body after being inhaled and ultimately being lodged in the nasopharynx is a rare entity. We report a case of an unusual nasopharyngeal foreign body (metallic bolt) presenting with symptoms of nasal regurgitation and change in voice in a 2-year boy. The foreign body was diagnosed by X-ray skull lateral view including nasopharynx and was removed under general anaesthesia. PMID:23884977

  10. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the trachea.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Renu; Nair, Rekha A; Jacob, Priya Mary; Koshy, Sumod Mathew; Mathew, Arun Peter

    2014-06-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytomas are plasma cell tumors that occur outside the bone marrow. They constitute around 4 % of all plasma cell neoplasms. The most common site of extramedullary plasmacytoma is the upper aerodigestive tract-nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and oronasopharynx. We are presenting a case of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the trachea. Trachea is an extremely rare site of plasmacytoma. When extraosseous plasmacytoma occur in uncommon sites, the distinction from B cell lymphomas showing extensive plasmacytic differentiation can be difficult and diagnostically challenging. PMID:24046059

  11. Expectoration of a bullet after gunshot wound to the chest

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Stancie C.; Gupta, Surupa S.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last century, only four cases have been published of patients sustaining gunshot wounds to the chest, managed nonoperatively, who eventually expectorated the bullet. We report the case of a hemodynamically stable 24-year-old male whose bullet was found in the left pulmonary hilum on admission computed tomography (CT) scan. Further workup revealed no obvious aerodigestive injury. Shortly after extubation, he expectorated the bullet onto the floor. Little is known about how to manage these stable, yet challenging patients. PMID:23723626

  12. Improving initial polyp candidate extraction for CT colonography

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongbin; Fan, Yi; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2010-01-01

    Reducing the number of false positives (FPs) as much as possible is a challenging task for computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps. As a part of a typical CAD pipeline, an accurate and robust process for segmenting initial polyp candidates (IPCs) will significantly benefit the successive FP reduction procedures, such as feature-based classification of false and true positives (TPs). In this study, we introduce an improved scheme for segmenting IPCs. It consists of two main components. One is geodesic distance-based merging, which merges suspicious patches (SPs) for IPCs. Based on the merged SPs, another component, called convex dilation, grows each SP beyond the inner surface of the colon wall to form a volume of interest (VOI) for that IPC, so that the inner border of the VOI beyond the colon inner surface could be segmented as convex as expected. The IPC segmentation strategy was evaluated using a database of 50 patient studies, which include 100 scans at supine and prone positions with 84 polyps sized from 6 to 35 mm. From each VOI, several widely-used features were extracted and fed into a support vector machine classifier for the classification of TPs and FPs. The presented IPC segmentation strategy demonstrated improvement, in terms of having no undesirably merged true polyp and providing more helpful mean and variance of the image intensities of IPCs for the classification of the TPs and FPs, as compared to our previous method. PMID:20299733

  13. Voxel magnetic field disturbance from remote vasculature in BOLD fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zikuan; Chen, Zeyuan; Calhoun, Vince

    2011-03-01

    The mechanism of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) lies in the detection of blood-induced magnetic field disturbance during brain activity. A magnetic dipole induces a magnetic field in 3D space, which is represented by a 3D kernel that shows orientation-dependent decay in space (with a radial distant decay factor of 1/r3), bipolar values, and revolution symmetry. By representing the intravascular blood space with a pack of magnetic dipoles, we can use the 3D kernel to calculate the BOLD fieldmap by a 3D convolution. In our implementation, a vasculature-laden voxel of interest (VOI) is represented by a matrix at a grid resolution(~1micron), and the intravascular space is filled with macroscopic blood magnetic dipoles (each is defined for a matrix element sitting in the blood space). Based on the magnetic dipole model of blood magnetization and the convolution algorithm, we calculate the effect of exterior vasculature (from nearest neighborhood as well as from farther or remote surrounding) on the BOLD fieldmap at the VOI. Our results show that only vessels at the VOI boundary region impose a noticeable influence, and this effect increases slightly with vessel size. The effect of remote vasculature (sitting in voxels outside the nearest neighborhood) is ignorable. We also discuss the case of asymmetrical surroundings.

  14. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method pro- vided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  15. Are head-to-head trials of biologics needed? The role of value of information methods in arthritis research.

    PubMed

    Welton, Nicky J; Madan, Jason; Ades, Anthony E

    2011-09-01

    Reimbursement decisions are typically based on cost-effectiveness analyses. While a cost-effectiveness analysis can identify the optimum strategy, there is usually some degree of uncertainty around this decision. Sources of uncertainty include statistical sampling error in treatment efficacy measures, underlying baseline risk, utility measures and costs, as well as uncertainty in the structure of the model. The optimal strategy is therefore only optimal on average, and a decision to adopt this strategy might still be the wrong decision if all uncertainty could be eliminated. This means that there is a quantifiable expected (average) loss attaching to decisions made under uncertainty, and hence a value in collecting information to reduce that uncertainty. Value of information (VOI) analyses can be used to provide guidance on whether more research would be cost-effective, which particular model inputs (parameters) have the most bearing on decision uncertainty, and can also help with the design and sample size of further research. Here, we introduce the key concepts in VOI analyses, and highlight the inputs required to calculate it. The adoption of the new biologic treatments for RA and PsA tends to be based on placebo-controlled trials. We discuss the possible role of VOI analyses in deciding whether head-to-head comparisons of the biologic therapies should be carried out, illustrating with examples from other fields. We emphasize the need for a model of the natural history of RA and PsA, which reflects a consensus view. PMID:21859701

  16. In vitro study of the cytotoxicities of two mixed-ligand oxovanadium complexes on human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Li; Wang, Xiang-Sheng; Fang, Wei; Cai, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hong-Zhi; Mao, Jian-Wen; Jin, Xiao-Bao; Bai, Yin-Liang; Lu, Jia-Zheng

    2013-10-01

    The cytotoxicities of two oxovanadium complexes, VOI [VO(satsc)(phen)] (satsc = salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and VOII [VO(3,5-dibrsatsc)(phen)](3,5-dibrsatsc = 3,5-dibromosalicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone), were studied by performing MTT assays on human hepatoma cell lines BEL-7402, HUH-7 and HepG2. The results showed that both the VOI and VOII complexes possess significant anti-proliferative effects. In addition, the anti-proliferative mechanism of the complexes was analyzed by cell cycle analysis and an apoptosis assay and by detecting the mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi m). The experimental results showed that the complexes can cause a G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and can significantly decrease delta psi m, causing depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. Notably, the two complexes induced apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells and displayed typical morphological apoptotic characteristics. The cytotoxicities of the VOII complex are significantly stronger than that of the VOI complex, suggesting that the cytotoxic effects of oxovanadium complexes may be associated with the electronic effects of the complexes. PMID:24273888

  17. Applied Use Value of Scientific Information for Management of Ecosystem Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raunikar, R. P.; Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R.; Mishra, S.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed and applied methods for quantifying the value of scientific information (VOI) that are based on the applied use value of the information. In particular the applied use value of U.S. Geological Survey information often includes efficient management of ecosystem services. The economic nature of U.S. Geological Survey scientific information is largely equivalent to that of any information, but we focus application of our VOI quantification methods on the information products provided freely to the public by the U.S. Geological Survey. We describe VOI economics in general and illustrate by referring to previous studies that use the evolving applied use value methods, which includes examples of the siting of landfills in Louden County, the mineral exploration efficiencies of finer resolution geologic maps in Canada, and improved agricultural production and groundwater protection in Eastern Iowa possible with Landsat moderate resolution satellite imagery. Finally, we describe the adaptation of the applied use value method to the case of streamgage information used to improve the efficiency of water markets in New Mexico.

  18. Computing Z_top

    E-print Network

    Amir-Kian Kashani-Poor

    2014-08-06

    This is the text of my habilitation thesis defended at the \\'Ecole Normale Sup\\'erieure. The topological string presents an arena in which many features of string theory proper, such as the interplay between worldsheet and target space descriptions or open-closed duality, can be distilled into computational techniques which yield results beyond perturbation theory. In this thesis, I will summarize my research activity in this area. The presentation is organized around computations of the topological string partition function Z_top based on various perspectives on the topological string.

  19. 7, 12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene(DMBA)-induced "early" Squamous Cell carcinoma in the Golden Syrian hamster: evaluation of an animal model and comparison with "early" forms of human Squamous Cell car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Fontolliet, Charlotte; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-03-01

    To improve our knowledge on PDT of human early squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract and to evaluate new photosensitizers, we have set up the Syrian hamster as an animal model. A 0.5% oily solution of DMBA was applied topically to the left buccal pouch mucosa 3 times weekly. The contralateral buccal pouch served as control. Groups of 5 animals were sacrificed at 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks from the first applications. Tissue samples of the buccal mucosa were analyzed by histopathologic and immunohistochemical techniques and compared with preneoplastic and neoplastic changes which are seen in the human carcinogenesis of the upper aero-digestive tract. After 6 to 9 weeks from the beginning of the application, we observed different degrees of epithelial dysplasia and after 10 weeks microinvasive carcinomas. The sequence of dysplastic changes to early carcinoma was reproducible in different groups of animals, and they were closely comparable with the human forms of `early' squamous cell cancer. Hyper- and dyskeratosis were present at all stages of tumor development. We are particularly interested in (mu) -invasive tumor forms appearing 10 weeks after the first application because they are potentially amenable to photodynamic therapy.

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Oral Feeding in Infants with BPD on Nasal CPAP.

    PubMed

    Hanin, Melissa; Nuthakki, Sushma; Malkar, Manish B; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2015-04-01

    Safety and efficacy of oral feeding was examined in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP). We hypothesized that repetitive oral feeding enhances aero-digestive outcomes and reduces resource utilization. Data from infants with BPD (37-42 weeks post menstrual age) that were orally fed while on NCPAP (n = 26) were compared with those that were exclusively gavage fed on NCPAP (n = 27). Subject assignment was random and physician practice based. Specifically, we compared the differences in aero-digestive milestones, resource utilization, and safety metrics. Demographic characteristics such as gender distribution, gestational age, and birth weight, clinical characteristics such as frequency of intraventricular hemorrhage and patent ductus arteriosus needing surgical ligation were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Characteristics of respiratory support and airway milestones were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). However, infants in NCPAP-oral fed group had earlier acquisition of full oral feeding milestone by 17 days (median) versus infants who were not orally fed during NCPAP (p < 0.05). Discharge weights and the frequency of gastrostomy tube placement were also similar in both groups (p > 0.05). There were no tracheostomies in either group. There was no incidence of clinically significant aspiration pneumonia in infants during the period of the oral feeding while on NCPAP. Controlled introduction of oral feedings in infants with BPD during NCPAP is safe and may accelerate the acquisition of oral feeding milestones. PMID:25380678

  1. Hematoporphyrin-mediated photodynamic therapy for treatment of head and neck cancer: clinical update 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Vanessa G.

    1996-04-01

    From 1983 to 1996 Phase II and III clinical studies at Henry Ford Hospital demonstrated complete or partial responses in 55 of 56 patients treated with hematoporphyrin-derivative or PHOTOFRIN-mediated photodynamic therapy (HPD-PDT) for a variety of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease: (1) superficial 'condemned mucosa' or 'field cancerization' of the oral cavity and larynx (7 cases); (2) Stage III/IV head and neck cancer (25 cases); (3) mucocutaneous AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma of the upper aerodigestive tract and non AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the lower extremity (15 cases); (4) recurrent laryngotracheal papillomatosis (3 cases); (5) severe dysplasia/adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (4 cases); (6) partial or completely obstructing terminal esophageal cancer (9 cases). At the time of this report, HPD-PDT produced complete responses in 24 patients (follow up 6 months to 9 years) with 'field cancerization' (CIS, T1N0M0) of the oral cavity and larynx (6 cases), adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (3 cases), mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (12 cases), obstructing esophageal carcinoma (1 case), and stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx (1 case), and radiation therapy or solar-induced basal cell/squamous cell carcinomas (2 cases). PDT treatment protocols, results, complications, and application as adjunct or primary oncologic therapy for head and neck cancer are reviewed in this article.

  2. Preliminary clinical studies of PDT with meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin (m-THPC) as a photosensitizing agent for the treatment of early pharyngeal, esophageal, and bronchial carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnieres, Georges A.; Braichotte, Daniel; Fontolliet, Charlotte; van den Bergh, Hubert

    1994-03-01

    A new photosensitizer (PS), meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl-chlorin(m-THPC), has been clinically evaluated for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early squamous cell carcinomas located in the upper aerodigestive tract, the oesophagus and the tracheobronchial tree. The injected doses ranged between 0.1 - 0.3 mg/kg m-THPC and the wavelength of the excitation light was either at 514 nm or 652 nm. The evaluation of the m-THPC induced phototoxicity was carried out on healthy mucosae of the bronchi, the oral cavity and the skin, using various `frontal' light distributors. Skin photosensitization tests were performed with a filtered Xenon white light source which simulates the solar emission spectrum at noon on a clear summer day at sea level at our latitude. At the present time, we are still searching for conditions where effective PDT with m-THPC of early carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract, the oesophagus and the tracheobronchial tree would show a real selectivity, i.e., destruction of the neoplastic tissue without necrosis of the surrounding normal tissue.

  3. The Role of Narrow Band Imaging in the Detection of Recurrent Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer after Curative Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zabrodsky, Michal; Plzak, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Narrow band imaging is considered a significant improvement in the possibility of detecting early mucosal lesion of the upper aerodigestive tract. Early detection of mucosal neoplastic lesions is of utmost importance for patients survival. There is evidence that, especially in patients previously treated by means of curative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, the early detection rate of recurrent disease is quite low. The aim of this study was to prove whether the videoendoscopy coupled with NBI might help detect recurrent or secondary tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract. 66 patients previously treated by means of RT or CRT with curative intent were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent transnasal flexible videoendoscopy with NBI mode under local anesthesia. When a suspicious lesion was identified in an ambulatory setting, its nature was proved histologically. Many of these changes were not identifiable by means of conventional white light (WL) endoscopy. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of the method are very high (88%, 92%, 76%, 96%, and 91%, resp.). Results demonstrate that outpatient transnasal endoscopy with NBI is an excellent method for the follow-up of patients with carcinomas of the larynx and the hypopharynx primarily treated with radiotherapy. PMID:25101264

  4. Differences in Brainstem Fiber Tract Response to Radiation: A Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    SciTech Connect

    Uh, Jinsoo, E-mail: jinsoo.uh@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Li, Yimei; Feng, Tianshu [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Gajjar, Amar [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Ogg, Robert J.; Hua, Chiaho [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation-induced changes in white matter tracts are uniform across the brainstem. Methods and Materials: We analyzed serial diffusion tensor imaging data, acquired before radiation therapy and over 48 to 72 months of follow-up, from 42 pediatric patients (age 6-20 years) with medulloblastoma. FSL software (FMRIB, Oxford, UK) was used to calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial, radial, and mean diffusivities. For a consistent identification of volumes of interest (VOIs), the parametric maps of each patient were transformed to a standard brain space (MNI152), on which we identified VOIs including corticospinal tract (CST), medial lemniscus (ML), transverse pontine fiber (TPF), and middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) at the level of pons. Temporal changes of DTI parameters in VOIs were compared using a linear mixed effect model. Results: Radiation-induced white matter injury was marked by a decline in FA after treatment. The decline was often accompanied by decreased axial diffusivity, increased radial diffusivity, or both. This implied axonal damage and demyelination. We observed that the magnitude of the changes was not always uniform across substructures of the brainstem. Specifically, the changes in DTI parameters for TPF were more pronounced than in other regions (P<.001 for FA) despite similarities in the distribution of dose. We did not find a significant difference among CST, ML, and MCP in these patients (P>.093 for all parameters). Conclusions: Changes in the structural integrity of white matter tracts, assessed by DTI, were not uniform across the brainstem after radiation therapy. These results support a role for tract-based assessment in radiation treatment planning and determination of brainstem tolerance.

  5. Real-time scanning beam digital x-ray image guidance system for transbronchial needle biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sungwon; Wilfley, Brian P.; Jasperson, Keith; Krishna, Ganesh; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-03-01

    We investigate a real-time digital tomosynthesis (DTS) imaging modality, based on the scanning beam digital x-ray (SBDX) hardware, used in conjunction with an electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) system to provide improved image guidance for minimally invasive transbronchial needle biopsy (TBNbx). Because the SBDX system source uses electron beams, steered by electromagnets, to generate x-rays, and the ENB system generates an electromagnetic field to localize and track steerable navigation catheters, the two systems will affect each other when operated in proximity. We first investigate the compatibility of the systems by measuring the ENB system localization error as a function of distance between the two systems. The SBDX system reconstructs DTS images, which provide depth information, and so we investigate the improvement in lung nodule visualization using SBDX system DTS images and compare them to fluoroscopic images currently used for biopsy verification. Target localization error remains below 2mm (or virtually error free) if the volume-of-interest (VOI) is at least 50cm away from the SBDX system source and detector. Inside this region, tomographic angle ranges from 3° to 10° depending on the VOI location. Improved lung nodule (<= 20mm diameter) contrast is achieved by imaging the VOI near the SBDX system detector, where the tomographic angle is maximized. The combination of the SBDX image guidance with an ENB system would provide real-time visualization during biopsy with improved localization of the target and needle/biopsy instruments, thereby increasing the average and lowering the variance of the yield for TBNbx.

  6. Estimation of dynamic time activity curves from dynamic cardiac SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Hossain, J; Du, Y; Links, J; Rahmim, A; Karakatsanis, N; Akhbardeh, A; Lyons, J; Frey, E C

    2015-04-21

    Whole-heart coronary flow reserve (CFR) may be useful as an early predictor of cardiovascular disease or heart failure. Here we propose a simple method to extract the time-activity curve, an essential component needed for estimating the CFR, for a small number of compartments in the body, such as normal myocardium, blood pool, and ischemic myocardial regions, from SPECT data acquired with conventional cameras using slow rotation. We evaluated the method using a realistic simulation of (99m)Tc-teboroxime imaging. Uptake of (99m)Tc-teboroxime based on data from the literature were modeled. Data were simulated using the anatomically-realistic 3D NCAT phantom and an analytic projection code that realistically models attenuation, scatter, and the collimator-detector response. The proposed method was then applied to estimate time activity curves (TACs) for a set of 3D volumes of interest (VOIs) directly from the projections. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of estimated TACs and studied the effects of the presence of perfusion defects that were and were not modeled in the estimation procedure.The method produced good estimates of the myocardial and blood-pool TACS organ VOIs, with average weighted absolute biases of less than 5% for the myocardium and 10% for the blood pool when the true organ boundaries were known and the activity distributions in the organs were uniform. In the presence of unknown perfusion defects, the myocardial TAC was still estimated well (average weighted absolute bias <10%) when the total reduction in myocardial uptake (product of defect extent and severity) was ? 5%. This indicates that the method was robust to modest model mismatch such as the presence of moderate perfusion defects and uptake nonuniformities. With larger defects where the defect VOI was included in the estimation procedure, the estimated normal myocardial and defect TACs were accurate (average weighted absolute bias ? 5% for a defect with 25% extent and 100% severity). PMID:25813219

  7. Effect of denoising on supervised lung parenchymal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayamani, Padmapriya; Raghunath, Sushravya; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2012-03-01

    Denoising is a critical preconditioning step for quantitative analysis of medical images. Despite promises for more consistent diagnosis, denoising techniques are seldom explored in clinical settings. While this may be attributed to the esoteric nature of the parameter sensitve algorithms, lack of quantitative measures on their ecacy to enhance the clinical decision making is a primary cause of physician apathy. This paper addresses this issue by exploring the eect of denoising on the integrity of supervised lung parenchymal clusters. Multiple Volumes of Interests (VOIs) were selected across multiple high resolution CT scans to represent samples of dierent patterns (normal, emphysema, ground glass, honey combing and reticular). The VOIs were labeled through consensus of four radiologists. The original datasets were ltered by multiple denoising techniques (median ltering, anisotropic diusion, bilateral ltering and non-local means) and the corresponding ltered VOIs were extracted. Plurality of cluster indices based on multiple histogram-based pair-wise similarity measures were used to assess the quality of supervised clusters in the original and ltered space. The resultant rank orders were analyzed using the Borda criteria to nd the denoising-similarity measure combination that has the best cluster quality. Our exhaustive analyis reveals (a) for a number of similarity measures, the cluster quality is inferior in the ltered space; and (b) for measures that benet from denoising, a simple median ltering outperforms non-local means and bilateral ltering. Our study suggests the need to judiciously choose, if required, a denoising technique that does not deteriorate the integrity of supervised clusters.

  8. Measuring the Value of Earth Observation Information with the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernknopf, R.; Kuwayama, Y.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B.; Pesko, S.; Vail, P.

    2014-12-01

    Determining how much to invest in earth observation technology depends in part on the value of information (VOI) that can be derived from the observations. We design a framework and then evaluate the value-in-use of the NASA Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for regional water use and reliability in the presence of drought. As a technology that allows measurement of water storage, the GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS) provides information that is qualitatively different from that generated by other water data sources. It provides a global, reproducible grid of changes in surface and subsurface water resources on a frequent and regular basis. Major damages from recent events such as the 2012 Midwest drought and the ongoing drought in California motivate the need to understand the VOI from remotely sensed data such as that derived from GRACE DAS. Our conceptual framework models a dynamic risk management problem in agriculture. We base the framework on information from stakeholders and subject experts. The economic case for GRACE DAS involves providing better water availability information. In the model, individuals have a "willingness to pay" (wtp) for GRACE DAS - essentially, wtp is an expression of savings in reduced agricultural input costs and for costs that are influenced by regional policy decisions. Our hypothesis is that improvements in decision making can be achieved with GRACE DAS measurements of water storage relative to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells and soil moisture monitors that would be relied on in the absence of GRACE DAS. The VOI is estimated as a comparison of outcomes. The California wine grape industry has features that allow it to be a good case study and a basis for extrapolation to other economic sectors. We model water use in this sector as a sequential decision highlighting the attributes of GRACE DAS input as information for within-season production decisions as well as for longer-term water reliability.

  9. Comparison of conventional, model-based quantitative planar, and quantitative SPECT image processing methods for organ activity estimation using In-111 agents.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Frey, Eric C

    2006-08-21

    Accurate quantification of organ radionuclide uptake is important for patient-specific dosimetry. The quantitative accuracy from conventional conjugate view methods is limited by overlap of projections from different organs and background activity, and attenuation and scatter. In this work, we propose and validate a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method based on maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of organ activities using 3D organ VOIs and a projector that models the image degrading effects. Both a physical phantom experiment and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) studies were used to evaluate the new method. In these studies, the accuracies and precisions of organ activity estimates for the QPlanar method were compared with those from conventional planar (CPlanar) processing methods with various corrections for scatter, attenuation and organ overlap, and a quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) processing method. Experimental planar and SPECT projections and registered CT data from an RSD Torso phantom were obtained using a GE Millenium VH/Hawkeye system. The MCS data were obtained from the 3D NCAT phantom with organ activity distributions that modelled the uptake of (111)In ibritumomab tiuxetan. The simulations were performed using parameters appropriate for the same system used in the RSD torso phantom experiment. The organ activity estimates obtained from the CPlanar, QPlanar and QSPECT methods from both experiments were compared. From the results of the MCS experiment, even with ideal organ overlap correction and background subtraction, CPlanar methods provided limited quantitative accuracy. The QPlanar method with accurate modelling of the physical factors increased the quantitative accuracy at the cost of requiring estimates of the organ VOIs in 3D. The accuracy of QPlanar approached that of QSPECT, but required much less acquisition and computation time. Similar results were obtained from the physical phantom experiment. We conclude that the QPlanar method, based on 3D organ VOIs and accurate models of the projection process, provided a substantial increase in accuracy of organ activity estimates from planar images compared to CPlanar processing and had accuracy approaching that of QSPECT. PMID:16885618

  10. Brain tumor classification using the diffusion tensor image segmentation (D-SEG) technique

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Timothy L.; Byrnes, Tiernan J.; Yang, Guang; Howe, Franklyn A.; Bell, B. Anthony; Barrick, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing demand for noninvasive brain tumor biomarkers to guide surgery and subsequent oncotherapy. We present a novel whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) segmentation (D-SEG) to delineate tumor volumes of interest (VOIs) for subsequent classification of tumor type. D-SEG uses isotropic (p) and anisotropic (q) components of the diffusion tensor to segment regions with similar diffusion characteristics. Methods DTI scans were acquired from 95 patients with low- and high-grade glioma, metastases, and meningioma and from 29 healthy subjects. D-SEG uses k-means clustering of the 2D (p,q) space to generate segments with different isotropic and anisotropic diffusion characteristics. Results Our results are visualized using a novel RGB color scheme incorporating p, q and T2-weighted information within each segment. The volumetric contribution of each segment to gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid spaces was used to generate healthy tissue D-SEG spectra. Tumor VOIs were extracted using a semiautomated flood-filling technique and D-SEG spectra were computed within the VOI. Classification of tumor type using D-SEG spectra was performed using support vector machines. D-SEG was computationally fast and stable and delineated regions of healthy tissue from tumor and edema. D-SEG spectra were consistent for each tumor type, with constituent diffusion characteristics potentially reflecting regional differences in tissue microstructure. Support vector machines classified tumor type with an overall accuracy of 94.7%, providing better classification than previously reported. Conclusions D-SEG presents a user-friendly, semiautomated biomarker that may provide a valuable adjunct in noninvasive brain tumor diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:25121771

  11. PS2-34: Disparities in Head and Neck Cancer Patient Survival Relative to Race and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Steven; Melvin, Thuy-Anh; Calzada, Gabriel; Friduss, Michael; Johnson, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Head and neck cancers account for approximately 3% of all cancers in the United States. The majority of these cancer types are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but also include salivary malignancies and others. These cancers are nearly twice as common among men as they are among women. Head and neck cancers are also diagnosed more often among people over age 50 years. Over-all disease specific survival rates are around 50%. There have been previous studies that demonstrate racial and gender disparities in the patterns of treatment and survival, but these studies are performed in academic tertiary centers with populations comprised mainly of referral patients with limited follow up. No studies have been performed within vertically integrated health systems. Methods The Henry Ford Health System’s Virtual Data Warehouse was queried to obtain data on head and neck cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2013. Search criteria included all tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract including SCC, salivary gland malignancies and also endocrine tumors. Mortality data was obtained from SEER and Michigan State mortality data. Follow up was 20 years. Both HMO and non-HMO patients were included within the study. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared test. Results 1364 thyroid cancers, 225 salivary gland cancers and 1376 aerodigestive SCCs were found. Statistically significant survival differences were found with regard to race and gender in several tumor types. For thyroid malignancies, females and Non-African Americans had a statistically significant improved survival (P = 0.0073 and P <.0001). For salivary gland malignancies, females and African Americans had a statistically significant improved survival (P = 0.0384 and P = 0.0013). For aerodigestive SCCs African Americans had a worse survival but there were no statistical differences by gender (P <.0001 and P = 0.6984). Conclusions Disparities in head and neck cancer outcomes exist relative to race and gender within an integrated health system. It is unclear why African Americans with salivary malignancies have a survival advantage but worse survival in other tumor types. Further study and analysis is required to control for other factors such as socioeconomic status, education, smoking/alcohol use, comorbidities and treatment modality to answer these questions.

  12. Narrow-band imaging: a new tool for evaluation of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Piazza, C; Dessouky, O; Peretti, G; Cocco, D; De Benedetto, L; Nicolai, P

    2008-04-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract is well known for its frequently late presentation and diagnosis at an advanced stage. In addition, it is well recognized that it may arise in multiple sites, either synchronously or metachronously. Thus it should be imperative to endoscopically screen the upper aerodigestive tract of patients at risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with a new diagnostic tool, especially due to the fact that early lesions are very difficult to detect even by multiple passes with a standard endoscopy, if they are < or = 1 cm in diameter. Lugol chromoendoscopy, which is mainly used in the oesophagus, is not suitable for the head and neck region due to severe mucosal irritation. Herein, narrow-band imaging is described, a diagnostic tool already proved as a useful screening method in other endoscopic fields, and its application in the early detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is reviewed, as reported by previous studies in the otolaryngologic literature. Narrow-band imaging relies on the principle of depth of penetration of light, with the narrow-band blue light having a short wavelength (415 nm) penetrating into the mucosa and highlighting the superficial vasculature. Furthermore, the blue filter is designed to correspond to the peak absorption spectrum of haemoglobin to enhance the image of capillary vessels on surface mucosa. Thus, superficial mucosal lesions that would be missed by regular white light endoscopy, are identified, in view of their neoangiogenetic pattern of vasculature, using the blue light of the narrow-band imaging. Narrow-band imaging has been used extensively in the lower aerodigestive system, yet there are only 2 reports of applications in the region of the head and neck, specifically the oropharynx and the hypopharynx. However, these are not the only sites that can benefit from narrow-band imaging. Herewith, the uses and importance are highlighted of narrow-band imaging as a future diagnostic tool in otolaryngology, in the pre-, intra- and post-operative settings. PMID:18669067

  13. Experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT using digital beam attenuation.

    PubMed

    Szczykutowicz, T P; Mistretta, C A

    2014-03-01

    Tailoring CT scan acquisition parameters to individual patients is a topic of much research in the CT imaging community. It is now common place to find automatically adjusted tube current options for modern CT scanners. In addition, the use of beam shaping filters, commonly called bowtie filters, is available on most CT systems and allows for different body regions to receive different incident x-ray fluence distributions. However, no method currently exists which allows for the form of the incident x-ray fluence distribution to change as a function of the view angle. This study represents the first experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) for a c-arm geometry CT scan. X-ray fluence modulation is accomplished using a digital beam attenuator (DBA). The device is composed of ten iron wedge pairs that modulate the thickness of iron, the x-rays must traverse before reaching a patient. Using this device, experimental data was taken using a Siemens Zeego c-arm scanner. Scans were performed on a cylindrical polyethylene phantom and on two different sections of an anthropomorphic phantom. The DBA was used to equalize the x-ray fluence striking the detector for each scan. Non DBA, or 'flat field' scans were also acquired of the same phantom objects for comparison. In addition, a scan was performed in which the DBA was used to enable volume of interest (VOI) imaging. In VOI, only a small sub-volume within a patient receives full dose and the rest of the patient receives a much lower dose. Data corrections unique to using a piece-wise constant modulator were also developed. The feasibility of FFMCT implemented using a DBA device has been demonstrated. Initial results suggest dose reductions of up to 3.6 times relative to 'flat field' CT. In addition to dose reduction, the DBA enables a large improvement in image noise uniformity and the ability to provide regionally enhanced signal to noise using VOI imaging techniques. The results presented in this paper take the field of FFMCT from the theoretical stage to that of possible clinical implementation. FFMCT, as shown in this paper, can reduce the patient dose while maintaining or improving image quality. In addition, the DBA has been experimentally shown to be well suited to implement entirely new imaging methods like photon counting and VOI imaging. PMID:24556823

  14. Experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT using digital beam attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Szczykutowicz, TP; Mistretta, CA

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Tailoring CT scan acquisition parameters to individual patients is a topic of much research in the CT imaging community. It is now common place to find automatically adjusted tube current options for modern CT scanners. In addition, the use of beam shaping filters, commonly called bowtie filters, is available on most CT systems and allows for different body regions to receive different incident x-ray fluence distributions. However, no method currently exists which allows for the form of the incident x-ray fluence distribution to change as a function of view angle. This study represents the first experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) for a c-arm geometry CT scan. Methods: X-ray fluence modulation is accomplished using a digital beam attenuator (DBA). The device is composed of 10 iron wedge pairs that modulate the thickness of iron x-rays must traverse before reaching a patient. Using this device, experimental data was taken using a Siemens Zeego c-arm scanner. Scans were performed on a cylindrical polyethylene phantom and on two different sections of an anthropomorphic phantom. The DBA was used to equalize the x-ray fluence striking the detector for each scan. Non DBA, or “flat field” scans were also acquired of the same phantom objects for comparison. In addition, a scan was performed in which the DBA was used to enable volume of interest (VOI) imaging. In VOI, only a small sub-volume within a patient receives full dose and the rest of the patient receives a much lower dose. Data corrections unique to using a piece-wise constant modulator were also developed. Results The feasibility of FFMCT implemented using a DBA device has been demonstrated. Initial results suggest dose reductions of up to 3.6 times relative to “flat field” CT. In addition to dose reduction, the DBA enables a large improvement in image noise uniformity and the ability to provide regionally enhanced signal to noise using VOI imaging techniques. Conclusions The results presented in this paper take the field of FFMCT from the theoretical stage to that of possible clinical implementation. FFMCT, as shown in this paper, can reduce patient dose while maintaining or improving image quality. In addition, the DBA has been experimentally shown to be well suited to implement entirely new imaging methods like photon counting and VOI imaging. PMID:24556823

  15. Laboratory development of reconsolidation cycle for settlement analysis of precompressed clays 

    E-print Network

    Buchanan, Philip Norton

    1959-01-01

    RREsPQND To THE PO N P (I:GORE 5). THE VOiD RATIO THUS OBTAiNED iS THE N S TU VO'0 RATIO AS NEARLY AS IS POSS BLE rO PRODUCE iN THE LABORATORY THE CONSOLiDAT'ON TEST OF' THE SAMPLE S CONr NUED FROM THIS PoiNT; THE REE04ilPREss 0N PART 0F THis cL~RvEr FGY 's AT A...

  16. Experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT using digital beam attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczykutowicz, T. P.; Mistretta, C. A.

    2014-03-01

    Tailoring CT scan acquisition parameters to individual patients is a topic of much research in the CT imaging community. It is now common place to find automatically adjusted tube current options for modern CT scanners. In addition, the use of beam shaping filters, commonly called bowtie filters, is available on most CT systems and allows for different body regions to receive different incident x-ray fluence distributions. However, no method currently exists which allows for the form of the incident x-ray fluence distribution to change as a function of the view angle. This study represents the first experimental realization of fluence field modulated CT (FFMCT) for a c-arm geometry CT scan. X-ray fluence modulation is accomplished using a digital beam attenuator (DBA). The device is composed of ten iron wedge pairs that modulate the thickness of iron, the x-rays must traverse before reaching a patient. Using this device, experimental data was taken using a Siemens Zeego c-arm scanner. Scans were performed on a cylindrical polyethylene phantom and on two different sections of an anthropomorphic phantom. The DBA was used to equalize the x-ray fluence striking the detector for each scan. Non DBA, or ‘flat field’ scans were also acquired of the same phantom objects for comparison. In addition, a scan was performed in which the DBA was used to enable volume of interest (VOI) imaging. In VOI, only a small sub-volume within a patient receives full dose and the rest of the patient receives a much lower dose. Data corrections unique to using a piece-wise constant modulator were also developed. The feasibility of FFMCT implemented using a DBA device has been demonstrated. Initial results suggest dose reductions of up to 3.6 times relative to ‘flat field’ CT. In addition to dose reduction, the DBA enables a large improvement in image noise uniformity and the ability to provide regionally enhanced signal to noise using VOI imaging techniques. The results presented in this paper take the field of FFMCT from the theoretical stage to that of possible clinical implementation. FFMCT, as shown in this paper, can reduce the patient dose while maintaining or improving image quality. In addition, the DBA has been experimentally shown to be well suited to implement entirely new imaging methods like photon counting and VOI imaging.

  17. When is enough evidence enough? - Using systematic decision analysis and value-of-information analysis to determine the need for further evidence.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Uwe; Rochau, Ursula; Claxton, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Decision analysis (DA) and value-of-information (VOI) analysis provide a systematic, quantitative methodological framework that explicitly considers the uncertainty surrounding the currently available evidence to guide healthcare decisions. In medical decision making under uncertainty, there are two fundamental questions: 1) What decision should be made now given the best available evidence (and its uncertainty)?; 2) Subsequent to the current decision and given the magnitude of the remaining uncertainty, should we gather further evidence (i.e., perform additional studies), and if yes, which studies should be undertaken (e.g., efficacy, side effects, quality of life, costs), and what sample sizes are needed? Using the currently best available evidence, VoI analysis focuses on the likelihood of making a wrong decision if the new intervention is adopted. The value of performing further studies and gathering additional evidence is based on the extent to which the additional information will reduce this uncertainty. A quantitative framework allows for the valuation of the additional information that is generated by further research, and considers the decision maker's objectives and resource constraints. Claxton et al. summarise: "Value of information analysis can be used to inform a range of policy questions including whether a new technology should be approved based on existing evidence, whether it should be approved but additional research conducted or whether approval should be withheld until the additional evidence becomes available." [Claxton K. Value of information entry in Encyclopaedia of Health Economics, Elsevier, forthcoming 2014.] The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce the framework of systematic VoI analysis to guide further research. In our tutorial article, we explain the theoretical foundations and practical methods of decision analysis and value-of-information analysis. To illustrate, we use a simple case example of a foot ulcer (e.g., with diabetes) as well as key references from the literature, including examples for the use of the decision-analytic VoI framework by health technology assessment agencies to guide further research. These concepts may guide stakeholders involved or interested in how to determine whether or not and, if so, which additional evidence is needed to make decisions. PMID:24315327

  18. Risk estimation and value-of-information analysis for three proposed genetic screening programs for chronic beryllium disease prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Bartell, S.M.; Ponce, R.A.; Takaro, T.K.; Zerbe, R.O.; Omenn, G.S.; Faustman, E.M.

    2000-02-01

    Genetic differences (polymorphisms) among members of a population are thought to influence susceptibility to various environmental exposures. In practice, however, this information is rarely incorporated into quantitative risk assessment and risk management. The authors describe an analytic framework for predicting the risk reduction and value-of-information (VOI) resulting from specific risk management applications of genetic biomarkers, and they apply the framework to the example of occupational chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an immune-mediated pulmonary granulomatous disease. One described Human Leukocyte Antigen gene variant, HLA-DP{beta}1*0201, contains a substitution of glutamate for lysine at position 69 that appears to have high sensitivity ({approximately}94%) but low specificity ({approximately}70%) with respect to CBD among individuals occupationally exposed to respirable beryllium. The expected postintervention CBD prevalence rates for using the genetic variant (1) as a required job placement screen, (2) as a medical screen for semiannual in place of annual lymphocyte proliferation testing, or (3) as a voluntary job placement screen are 0.08%, 0.8%, and 0.6%, respectively, in a hypothetical cohort with 1% baseline CBD prevalence. VOI analysis is used to examine the reduction in total social cost, calculated as the net value of disease reduction and financial expenditures, expected for proposed CBD intervention programs based on the genetic susceptibility test. For the example cohort the expected net VOI per beryllium worker for genetically based testing and intervention is $13,000, $1,800, and $5,100, respectively, based on a health valuation of $1.45 million per CBD case avoided. VOI results for alternative CBD valuations are also presented. Despite large parameter uncertainty, probabilistic analysis predicts generally positive utility for each of the three evaluated programs when avoidance of a CBD case is valued at $1 million or higher. Although the utility of a proposed risk management program may be evaluated solely in terms of risk reduction and financial costs, decisions about genetic testing and program implementation must also consider serious social, legal, and ethical factors.

  19. Automated volume of interest delineation and rendering of cone beam CT images in interventional cardiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Schäfer, Dirk; Eshuis, Peter; Carroll, John; Grass, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Interventional C-arm systems allow the efficient acquisition of 3D cone beam CT images. They can be used for intervention planning, navigation, and outcome assessment. We present a fast and completely automated volume of interest (VOI) delineation for cardiac interventions, covering the whole visceral cavity including mediastinum and lungs but leaving out rib-cage and spine. The problem is addressed in a model based approach. The procedure has been evaluated on 22 patient cases and achieves an average surface error below 2mm. The method is able to cope with varying image intensities, varying truncations due to the limited reconstruction volume, and partially with heavy metal and motion artifacts.

  20. Pulmonary nodule registration in serial CT scans based on rib anatomy and nodule template matching

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiazheng; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Zhou, Chuan; Cascade, Philip N.; Bogot, Naama; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Wu, Yi-Ta; Wei, Jun

    2009-01-01

    An automated method is being developed in order to identify corresponding nodules in serial thoracic CT scans for interval change analysis. The method uses the rib centerlines as the reference for initial nodule registration. A spatially adaptive rib segmentation method first locates the regions where the ribs join the spine, which define the starting locations for rib tracking. Each rib is tracked and locally segmented by expectation-maximization. The ribs are automatically labeled, and the centerlines are estimated using skeletonization. For a given nodule in the source scan, the closest three ribs are identified. A three-dimensional (3D) rigid affine transformation guided by simplex optimization aligns the centerlines of each of the three rib pairs in the source and target CT volumes. Automatically defined control points along the centerlines of the three ribs in the source scan and the registered ribs in the target scan are used to guide an initial registration using a second 3D rigid affine transformation. A search volume of interest (VOI) is then located in the target scan. Nodule candidate locations within the search VOI are identified as regions with high Hessian responses. The initial registration is refined by searching for the maximum cross-correlation between the nodule template from the source scan and the candidate locations. The method was evaluated on 48 CT scans from 20 patients. Experienced radiologists identified 101 pairs of corresponding nodules. Three metrics were used for performance evaluation. The first metric was the Euclidean distance between the nodule centers identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, the second metric was a volume overlap measure between the nodule VOIs identified by the radiologist and the computer registration, and the third metric was the hit rate, which measures the fraction of nodules whose centroid computed by the computer registration in the target scan falls within the VOI identified by the radiologist. The average Euclidean distance error was 2.7±3.3 mm. Only two pairs had an error larger than 10 mm. The average volume overlap measure was 0.71±0.24. Eighty-three of the 101 pairs had ratios larger than 0.5, and only two pairs had no overlap. The final hit rate was 93/101. PMID:17500464

  1. ESA's Venus Express to reach final destination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    First step: catching Venus To begin to explore our Earth’s hot and hazy sister planet, Venus Express must complete a critical first step, the most challenging one following launch. This involves a set of complex operations and manoeuvres that will inject the spacecraft into orbit. The Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI) manoeuvre allows the spacecraft to reduce its speed relative to Venus, so that it can be captured by the planet’s gravitation. The manoeuvre is a critical one which must proceed at precisely the right place and time. The VOI phase officially started on 4 April and will not be completed until 13 April. It is split into three main sub-phases. The first consists in preparing or initialising the spacecraft for the actual capture manoeuvre so as to avoid the risk of the spacecraft going into safe mode, should parameters unrelated to VOI go off-range. The capture manoeuvre itself consists of a main-engine burn lasting about 50 minutes on the morning of 11 April starting at 09:17 (Central European Summer Time). This is the second main VOI sub-phase. The final sub-phase will be restoring all spacecraft functions, notably resuming communications with Earth and uplinking the commands to be executed during the preliminary ‘capture’ orbit. Orbital capture is controlled by an automatic sequence of predefined commands, uploaded to the spacecraft four days prior to VOI. This sequence is the minimum set needed to perform the main-engine burn. All spacecraft operations are controlled and commanded by the ground control team located at ESA’s European Spacecraft Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany. Timeeline of major VOI events (some times subject to change) 4 Aprilacecraft transmitter connected to low gain antenna is switched on. During its interplanetary cruise and during the scientific part of the mission to come, Venus Express communicates with Earth by means of its two high gain antennas. However, during the orbit capture phase (11 April), these two antennas become unusable because of the spacecraft’s required orientation at that time. The low gain antenna, carrying a feeble but instantly recognisable signal, will be transmitting throughout all VOI manoeuvres. This will allow ground controllers to monitor the velocity change during the burn, using NASA’s Deep Space Network’s 70-metre antenna near Madrid, Spain. No other means of communication with the Earth is possible during the capture burn. 5 and 9 April, targeting control manoeuvres. Two time slots are available to adjust course if needed. Given the high accuracy of the course correction performed end of March, Venus Express is currently on the right trajectory for a successful capture into orbit and it is therefore unlikely that either of these two extra slots will be required. 10 to 11 April, final preparations for VOI manoeuvre. 24 to 12 hours before VOI, spacecraft controllers will command Venus Express into its final configuration for the burn. Over the final 12 hours, they will monitor its status, ready to deal with any contingencies requiring last-minute trajectory correction or any revising of the main-engine burn duration. 11 April, 08:03 (CEST), ‘slew’ manoeuvre. This manoeuvre lasts about half an hour and rotates Venus Express so that the main engine faces the direction of motion. Thanks to this, the burn will slow down (rather than accelerate) the spacecraft. 11 April, 09:17 (CEST), main-engine burn starts. A few minutes after firing of the spacecraft thrusters to make sure the propellant settles in the feed lines to the main engine, the latter will begin its 50-minute long burn, ending at 10:07. This thrust will reduce the initial velocity of 29 000 kilometres per hour (in relation to Venus) by 15 percent, allowing capture. Venus Express will settle into its preliminary, elongated nine-day orbit. On capture, it will be at about 120 million kilometres from the Earth and, at its nearest point, within 400 km of the surface of Venus. During the burn, at 09:45 (CEST), Venus Express will disappear behind the planet and will not be visi

  2. Zusammenfassende Zusammenfassende

    E-print Network

    Arndt, Holger

    illList List nte e list 3 o int i i 1 i list.a i list. e ove 8 static voi o le le ents List nte e list List nte e list1 ne Lin e List nte e 3 illList list1 3 o le le ents list1 3 p intList list1 ­ 38 3 a List nte e list ne a List nte e illList list p intList list ­ 3 list . e ove ll list1 p intList list

  3. Current philosophy in the surgical management of neck metastases for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Coskun, H Hakan; Medina, Jesus E; Robbins, K Thomas; Silver, Carl E; Strojan, Primož; Teymoortash, Afshin; Pellitteri, Phillip K; Rodrigo, Juan P; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Shaha, Ashok R; Suárez, Carlos; Hartl, Dana M; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P; Hamoir, Marc; Pitman, Karen T; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2015-06-01

    Neck dissection is an important treatment for metastases from upper aerodigestive carcinoma; an event that markedly reduces survival. Since its inception, the philosophy of the procedure has undergone significant change from one of radicalism to the current conservative approach. Furthermore, nonsurgical modalities have been introduced, and, in many situations, have supplanted neck surgery. The refinements of imaging the neck based on the concept of neck level involvement has encouraged new philosophies to evolve that seem to benefit patient outcomes particularly as this relates to diminished morbidity. The purpose of this review was to highlight the new paradigms for surgical removal of neck metastases using an evidence-based approach. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 37: 915-926, 2015. PMID:24623715

  4. Facial, Cervical, and Mediastinal Emphysema of the Clarinet Player: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Biçer, Yusuf Özgür; Kesgin, Selcan; Tezcan, Erkan; Köyba??, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervicofacial emphysema may arise due to the leakage of air from a defect in the aerodigestive tract to the fascial layers of neck and face. Rarely, it may be caused by insufflation of air through the Stensen’s duct. Case Report: We present a case with diffuse facial, cervical and mediastinal emphysema due to playing a wind instrument immediately after a facial trauma. There was no mucosal defect or laceration noticed by examination which could explain the origin of the emphysema. Despite the widespread cervicofacial emphysema with mediastinal involvement, the patient significantly improved within 48 hours without any intervention. Conclusion: Even though cervicofacial emphysema ameliorates spontaneously, increased care must be taken, especially when there is pneumomediastinum and/or pneumothorax. PMID:25667794

  5. Histone modification defects in developmental disorders and cancer.

    PubMed

    Cross, Nicholas C P

    2012-01-01

    Clinically, Weaver syndrome is closely related to Sotos syndrome, which is frequently caused by mutations in NSD1. This gene also encodes a histone methyltransferase, in this case with activity against histone H3 lysine 36. NSD1 is mutated in carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/) and also fuses to NUP98 in acute myeloid leukemia. Looking more widely, whole exome screens in lymphoma, multiple myeloma, renal carcinoma and other malignancies have identified genes encoding diverse histone modifiers as targets of somatic mutation. Strikingly, several of these (e.g. MLL2, EP300, CREBBP, ASXL1) are also mutated in human developmental disorders thus pointing towards a remarkable and unexpected convergence between somatic and germline genetics. PMID:22287508

  6. An Unusual Localization of a Pleomorphic Adenoma in the Rhinopharynx

    PubMed Central

    Pagella, Fabio; Chu, Francesco; Pusateri, Alessandro; Matti, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of the parotid glands. Rarely it may arise from minor salivary glands of the upper aerodigestive tract. A 57-year-old woman was admitted at our institution presenting with nasal obstruction. Endoscopic evaluation revealed a pedicled mass in the rhinopharynx. After radiological examination, we opted for a transnasal endoscopic-assisted excision of the mass under general anaesthesia. Histological evaluation deponed for pleomorphic adenoma with clear surgical margins. No endoscopic evidence of local recurrence has been shown after 48 months of followup. In the literature, few cases of pleomorphic adenoma arising in the rhinopharynx have been reported. The introduction of endoscopy, as shown by our experience, leads to important benefits in the identification, treatment, and followup of such rhinopharyngeal benign tumors. PMID:22927861

  7. Sarcomatoid Carcinoma of Anterior Maxilla: A Case Report and Immunohistochemical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Vishwaprakash; Marya, Nidhi; Handa, Sahil; Yadav, Vishesh

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare and peculiar biphasic malignant neoplasm that occurs mainly in the upper aerodigestive tract. Sarcomatoid carcinoma is an unusual biphasic tumor composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesesnchymal component in association with, and usually dominated by, an abundant dysplastic-appearing spindle cells. This tumor consistently poses a significant diagnostic challenge to pathologists. Despite of several immunohistochemical, electron microscopic and genetic studies, precise histogenesis of sarcomatoid carcinoma is quite controversial. Here we are describing a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma in a 40 yr old male patient with special emphasis on immunohistochemical analysis. Here, we are describing a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma in a 40-year-old male who presented with a small swelling & pain in hard palate along with immunohistochemical analysis.

  8. Migration of a Swallowed Blunt Foreign Body to the Neck

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Kerem; Turhal, Goksel; Gode, Sercan; Yavuzer, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of foreign bodies is a common problem in the otolaryngology practice. Reports of extraluminal migration of the foreign bodies from the upper aerodigestive tract are rare. Penetration and extraluminal migration of ingested foreign bodies may cause severe vascular and suppurative complications, even death. We report a 4-year-old girl who presented with a mass and partial extrusion of a foreign body in the neck. She had a history of ingesting the plastic top piece of a knitting needle approximately 1 year ago. She had been asymptomatic until the present time. The examination revealed a red, blunt, rectangular plastic foreign body half embedded in the skin of the right neck. Esophagography with barium swallow, cervical X-rays, and computed tomography scans were obtained. The foreign body was easily removed under general anesthesia. Primary closure and direct laryngoscopy was also performed. The patient recovered very well without any complications. PMID:24592347

  9. Oncologic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, D.G.; Rubin, P.; Youker, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This text is devoted to the goal of integrating medical imaging into the field of oncology. This book serves as a guide to the appropriate selection and sequencing of the vast array of imaging techniques currently available. Contents: Staging and classification of cancers; Imaging strategies for oncologic diagnosis and staging; Brain and spinal cord neoplasms; The upper aerodigestive tract: cervical lymph node metastases; Thoracic neoplasms; Esophageal cancer; Malignant neoplasms of the pancreas, the liver, and biliary tract; Prostate cancer; Gynecological neoplasms; Hodgkin's disease and the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas; Tumors of the skeletal system; Pediatric oncology; Computed tomography and radiation therapy treatment planning; Contributions of interventional radiology to diagnosis and management of the cancer patient; The impact of future technology on oncologic diagnosis.

  10. Prevention of pharyngocutaneous fistulas by means of laser-weld techniques.

    PubMed

    Shohet, J A; Reinisch, L; Ossoff, R H

    1995-07-01

    Although much has been written on methods of dealing with pharyngocutaneous fistulas once they have formed, there are few reports of methods of preventing fistula formation from occurring. We examined the use of laser-weld techniques with the neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) and diode lasers to seal pharyngotomy closures. Laser-weld techniques have been used successfully in many other tissues, but reports documenting use in the upper aerodigestive tract are minimal. Indocyanine-green dye-enhanced collagen and fibrinogen were studied as laser solder materials for the diode laser. Twenty-nine experimental animals were studied. Neither the Nd:YAG nor the diode laser was successful in preventing fistula formation. Tensiometric studies documented significant strength of the laser welds ex vivo, but this finding was not clinically significant. PMID:7603276

  11. Removal of a Wire Brush Bristle from the Hypopharynx Using Suspension, Microscope, and Fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Naunheim, Matthew R.; Dedmon, Matthew M.; Mori, Matthew C.; Sedaghat, Ahmad R.; Dowdall, Jayme R.

    2015-01-01

    Wire brush bristles are an increasingly recognized hazard that can present as a foreign body in the aerodigestive tract. Due to their small size and tendency to become embedded in surrounding tissue, these small metallic bristles present a unique operative challenge to otolaryngologists. Here we present a case of a 40-year-old woman who underwent endoscopic extraction of a wire bristle from the posterior pharyngeal wall using suspension, microscopy, and C-arm fluoroscopy. We believe this is the first published case of an endoscopic removal of a buried foreign body in the hypopharynx using these methods of localization concurrently. By leveraging multiple techniques for visualization, surgeons can avoid open exploration while ensuring complete removal of the object. Additionally, this case highlights the importance of regulatory oversight and consumer awareness of the hazards of grill brushes. PMID:25649460

  12. Photodynamic therapy for head and neck lesions in the subtropics.

    PubMed

    Civantos, Francisco

    2012-10-01

    Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy remain standard treatment options for patients with head and neck carcinomas, but because they are often associated with complications, there is room for improvement. Although not widely practiced and still off-label, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative for superficial malignant or premalignant lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract. It also may be useful for those with recurrent surface disease after surgery or radiotherapy. After an historic look at the data on PDT for head and neck tumors, this article offers a current perspective from a fairly selective PDT program that has achieved dramatic lasting responses. Where PDT may fit in the treatment spectrum for head and neck cancers is one of the unanswered questions requiring further study. PMID:23055220

  13. Photodynamic therapy of gastrointestinal cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foultier, Marie-Therese; Vonarx-Coinsmann, Veronique; Harel, Yann; Cordel, S.; Antona, B.; Patrice, Thierry

    1994-03-01

    A new photosensitizer (PS), meso-tetrahydroxyphenyl-chlorin(m-THPC), has been clinically evaluated for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early squamous cell carcinomas located in the upper aerodigestive tract, the oesophagus and the tracheobronchial tree. The injected doses ranged between 0.1 - 0.3 mg/kg m-THPC and the wavelength of the excitation light was either at 514 nm or 652 nm. The evaluation of the m-THPC induced phototoxicity was carried out on healthy mucosae of the bronchi, the oral cavity and the skone cell population to the other. Appearance of aneuploid populations after PDT suggests that destruction of sensitive cell populations allows the growth of initially non FCM detectable aneuploid clones. MDA assay could thus be a good prognostic tool although larger series of patients are needed. 115

  14. [Dental state in patients with head and neck cancers].

    PubMed

    Rouers, M; Truntzer, P; Dubourg, S; Guihard, S; Antoni, D; Noël, G

    2015-05-01

    In France, in 2005, there were approximately 16,000 new cases of head and neck cancer. These cancers have an unfavourable prognosis: the survival rates at 3 and 10 years are 50% and 10% respectively. The consumption of alcohol and tobacco is the most important risk factor; in some countries HPV infection was identified as a risk factor of head and neck tumours. Furthermore, a poor oral hygiene seems to raise this risk. We found many decay and periodontium problems in patients with an upper aerodigestive tract cancer. An evaluation of dental state is necessary before any cancer treatment. Treatments by radiotherapy engender noxious effects: hypocellular, hypovascularization, hypoxie of the irradiated tissues, which lead to immediate and chronically oral complications such as mucositis, fibrosis, xerostomia, decay, or osteoradionecrosis. An oral follow-up of these patients can prevent these complications, or reduce the severity of oral complications, and promote a good oral state. PMID:25937188

  15. Opinion: The clinical use of selective digestive decontamination

    PubMed Central

    Kollef, Marin H

    2000-01-01

    Several recent meta-analyses have shown that the use of SDD can reduce the occurrence of nosocomial pneumonia among ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. However, the use of SDD has also been demonstrated to increase subsequent patient colonization and infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly Gram-positive cocci. Therefore, the routine use of SDD cannot be advocated at the present time. The mortality benefit of SDD appears to occur in surgical/trauma patients, and to be associated primarily with the administration of parenteral antibiotics. This is already an accepted practice in most patients during the perioperative period (eg prophylactic parenteral antibiotics for 24 h). Prolonged decontamination of the aerodigestive tract with topical antimicrobials does not appear to influence outcome, and should not be routinely employed. PMID:11123875

  16. Ablation of dermal and mucosal lesions with a new CO2 laser application system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Sergije; Sedlmaier, Benedikt W.; Fuehrer, Ariane

    1997-05-01

    Laser treatment of skin changes has become common practice in recent years. The high absorption of the wavelength of the carbon-dioxide laser (10600 nm) is responsible for its low penetration depth in biological tissue. Shortening the exposure time minimizes thermic side effects such as carbonization and coagulation. This effect can be achieved with the SilkTouchTM scanner 767, since the focused laser beam is moved over a defined area by rapidly rotating mirrors. This enables controlled and reliable removal of certain dermal lesions, particularly hypertrophic scars, scars after common acne, wrinkles, rhinophyma and benign neoplasms like verruca vulgaris. Cosmetically favorable reepithelialization of the lasered surfaces results within a very short period of time. Benign mucosal changes of the upper aerodigestive tract can also be treated. Ablation is less traumatic for papillomas, fibromas, hyperplasias in the area of Waldeyer's tonsillar ring and certain laryngotracheal pathologies. Clinical examples demonstrate the advantages of this new mode of application.

  17. Absent upper blind Pouch in a case of tracheo-esophageal fistula

    PubMed Central

    Harjai, Man Mohan; Badal, Sachendra; Khanna, Sangeeta; Singh, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A common upper airway and digestive tract is a rare congenital anomaly that is usually fatal and its exact incidence is not known. It is a diagnostic challenge as it requires high index of suspicion. It should be considered in a neonate with respiratory distress in a non-vigorous baby requiring endotracheal intubation, which is difficult even in expert hand. We present a newborn with suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula that was diagnosed intraoperatively to have absent upper blind pouch of the esophagus and on autopsy found to have laryngeal atresia with absent vocal cords and a common aerodigestive tract continuing distally with trachea. The neonate was ventilated with endotracheal tube (ETT) placement which in retrospect we came to know that it was in the esophagus. The neonate also had associated multiple congenital anomalies of VACTERL association. The importance of teamwork between neonatologist, pediatric surgeon, anesthesiologist, and radiologist is highlighted for diagnosis and management of such rare cases. PMID:25552830

  18. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: current and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Carifi, Marco; Napolitano, Domenico; Morandi, Morando; Dall’Olio, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Although recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a benign disease of the upper aerodigestive tract caused by infection with human papillomavirus, the disease process is unpredictable, ranging from mild disease and spontaneous remission to an aggressive disease with pulmonary spread and requirement for frequent surgical debulking procedures. It can present a protracted clinical course and cause potentially life-threatening compromise of the airways. Over recent decades, a number of alternative medical therapies to standard surgical treatment have been investigated, with modest outcomes overall. Currently, some additional therapies are being explored, together with novel surgical instrumentation that can help to avoid inevitable long-term stenotic complications, ultimately affecting quality of life. Hopefully, clinicians might soon be able to significantly improve the quality of treatment and outcomes for patients affected with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, with human papillomavirus vaccination having a potentially important role. PMID:25999724

  19. Hypoxia Imaging Endoscopy Equipped with Laser Light Source from Preclinical Live Animal Study to First-In-Human Subject Research

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Takaaki; Yano, Tomonori; Oono, Yasuhiro; Ikematsu, Hiroaki; Nomura, Shogo; Sato, Akihiro; Kojima, Motohiro; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    A goal in next-generation endoscopy is to develop functional imaging techniques to open up new opportunities for cancer diagnosis. Although spatial and temporal information on hypoxia is crucial for understanding cancer physiology and expected to be useful for cancer diagnosis, existing techniques using fluorescent indicators have limitations due to low spatial resolution and invasive administration. To overcome these problems, we developed an imaging technology based on hemoglobin oxygen saturation in both the tumor and surrounding mucosa using a laser endoscope system, and conducted the first human subject research for patients with aero-digestive tract cancer. The oxygen saturation map overlapped the images of cancerous lesions and indicated highly heterogeneous features of oxygen supply in the tumor. The hypoxic region of the tumor surface was found in both early cancer and cancer precursors. This technology illustrates a novel aspect of cancer biology as a potential biomarker and can be widely utilized in cancer diagnosis. PMID:24915532

  20. Malignant degeneration of pulmonary juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Knepper, Benjamin R; Eklund, Meryle J; Braithwaite, Kiery A

    2015-07-01

    Juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP) is a rare disease associated with the human papilloma virus (HPV) in which papillomas form along the aerodigestive tract in children. Pulmonary involvement is uncommon, but associated with worse clinical outcomes, including the rare complication of malignant transformation. We present a patient with JORRP in which lung disease underwent malignant transformation during adolescence. Our goal is to raise awareness of the potential for malignant transformation in children, as well as to familiarize pediatric radiologists with imaging features of malignant lung disease in JORRP. We advocate for the identification of the subgroup of JORPP patients with pulmonary disease who, due to increased risk for malignant transformation, may benefit from closer clinical and imaging surveillance by a multidisciplinary team. PMID:25487719

  1. UGT2B gene expression analysis in multiple tobacco carcinogen-targeted tissues.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nathan R; Lazarus, Philip

    2014-04-01

    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B subfamily of enzymes plays an important role in the metabolism of numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds, including various carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The goal of the present study was to examine the levels of expression of individual UGT2B genes in various tissues that are targets for tobacco carcinogenesis. Using MT-ATP6 as the experimentally validated housekeeping gene, the highest extrahepatic expression of UGT2B genes was observed in human tonsil, with UGT2B expression levels similar to that observed in human liver. UGT2B17 exhibited high relative expression in most tissues examined, including lung, most tissues of the aerodigestive tract, and pancreas. UGT2B7 expression was highest in pancreas but low or undetectable in most other tissues examined. UGT2B10 expression was high in both tonsil and tongue. There was wide variability between individuals in the magnitude of expression in each tissue site, and there were strong correlations between UGT2B expression levels in different individuals within many of the tissue sites, suggesting coordinated regulation of UGT2B gene expression in extrahepatic tissues. In the liver, UGTs 2B4, 2B7, 2B10, and 2B15 were significantly correlated with each other (all r(2) > 0.70, P < 0.0001). In all examined tissues of the aerodigestive tract, UGTs 2B10, 2B11, and 2B17 exhibited a strong correlation with each other (all r(2) > 0.75, P < 0.05). UGTs 2B7 and 2B10 exhibited a strong inverse correlation in the pancreas (r(2) = -0.95, P < 0.01). These data suggest that specific UGT2B enzymes important in tobacco carcinogen metabolism are expressed and coordinately regulated in various target sites for tobacco-related cancers. PMID:24459179

  2. Radiation Doses to Structures Within and Adjacent to the Larynx are Correlated With Long-Term Diet- and Speech-Related Quality of Life

    SciTech Connect

    Dornfeld, Ken [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)]. E-mail: kenneth-dornfeld@uiowa.edu; Simmons, Joel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Karnell, Lucy [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Karnell, Michael [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Funk, Gerry [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Yao Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Wacha, Judith [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Zimmerman, Bridget [Department of Biostatistics, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA (United States); Buatti, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that radiation dose to key sites in the upper aerodigestive tract is associated with long-term functional outcome after (chemo)radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancers. Methods and Materials: This study examined the outcome for 27 patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for definitive management of their head-and-neck cancer who were disease free for at least 1 year after treatment. Head-and-neck cancer-specific quality of life (QoL) was assessed before treatment and at 1 year after treatment. Type of diet tolerated, presence of a feeding tube, and degree of weight loss 1 year after treatment were also used as outcome measures. Radiation doses delivered to various points along the upper aerodigestive tract, including base of tongue, lateral pharyngeal walls, and laryngeal structures, were determined from each treatment plan. Radiation doses for each of these points were tested for correlation with outcome measures. Results: Higher doses delivered to the aryepiglottic folds, false vocal cords, and lateral pharyngeal walls near the false cords correlated with a more restrictive diet, and higher doses to the aryepiglottic folds correlated with greater weight loss (p < 0.05) 1 year after therapy. Better posttreatment speech QoL scores were associated with lower doses delivered to structures within and surrounding the larynx. Conclusion: Our data show an inverse relationship between radiation dose delivered to laryngeal structures and speech and diet and QoL outcomes after definitive (chemo)radiation treatment. These findings suggest that efforts to deliver lower doses to laryngeal structures may improve outcomes after definitive (chemo)radiation therapy.

  3. Iterative image reconstruction in helical cone-beam x-ray CT using a stored system matrix approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingyan; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    2012-06-01

    We present a stored system matrix (SM) approach for iterative x-ray CT image reconstruction with helical cone-beam geometry. Because of the symmetry of a helical source trajectory, it is sufficient to calculate and store the SM entries for one transaxial slice only and for all source positions illuminating the slice. This is made possible by (1) selecting the reconstruction slice thickness to be an integer multiple of the source translation per projection view, and (2) discretizing the 3D reconstruction volume on a rotated stack of slices. Using the proposed method, the memory requirement for reconstructing a full field-of-view of clinical scanners is manageable on current computing platforms. The same storage principle can be generalized and applied to volume-of-interest (VOI) image reconstruction for helical cone-beam CT. In this case, the stored SM entries correspond to a partial- or full-ring region on one transaxial slice, and for all source positions illuminating the ring. The size and location of the ring depend on the size and the location of the VOI and the scan geometry. We demonstrate by both computer simulations and clinical patient data the speed and efficacy of iterative image reconstruction using the stored SM approach. PMID:22581218

  4. Estimating the benefits of land imagery in environmental applications: a case study in nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Moderate-resolution land imagery (MRLI) is crucial to a more complete assessment of the cumulative, landscape-level effect of agricultural land use and land cover on environmental quality. If this improved assessment yields a net social benefit, then that benefit reflects the value of information (VOI) from MRLI. Environmental quality and the capacity to provide ecosystem services evolve because of human actions, changing natural conditions, and their interaction with natural physical processes. The human actions, in turn, are constrained and redirected by many institutions and regulations such as agricultural, energy, and environmental policies. We present a general framework for bringing together sociologic, biologic, physical, hydrologic, and geologic processes at meaningful scales to interpret environmental implications of MRLI applications. We set out a specific application using MRLI observations to identify crop planting patterns and thus estimate surface management activities that influence groundwater resources over a regional landscape. We tailor the application to the characteristics of nonpoint source groundwater pollution hazards in Iowa to illustrate a general framework in a land use-hydrologic-economic system. In the example, MRLI VOI derives from reducing the risk of both losses to agricultural production and damage to human health and other consequences of contaminated groundwater.

  5. A Value of Information approach to data quality objectives for the Hanford high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, T.W.; Hunter, V.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ulvila, J.W. [Decision Science Associates (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This report summarizes a Pacific Northwest Laboratory review of the organic-nitrate reaction safety issue in the Hanford single-shell tanks. This study employed a decision analytic method known as Value of Information (VOI). VOI analysis is a special form of decision analysis that has an information collection alternative as one of the initial decision choices. This type of decision analysis, therefore results in the ability to specify the preferred information collection alternative, taking into account all information gathering and other relevant alternatives. For example, the risk reduction benefit associated with further sampling to quantify total organic carbon inventory or to improve information on energetics can be compared to the risk reduction benefit of better temperature monitoring, operational restrictions, or mitigation by moisture control. This approach allows freedom from built-in assumptions, e.g., that all tanks must be sampled to some degree or that all tanks must be deemed intrinsically safe by some means or another. It allows for each tank management decision to be judged in terms of risk reduction from the current state of affairs, and for that state of affairs to be continuously updated to incorporate new information on tank contents, the phenomenology of safety issues, or the effectiveness of mitigation schemes.

  6. Parkinson's disease prediction using diffusion-based atlas approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Roxana O.; Racoceanu, Daniel; Smit, Nicolas; Cretu, Vladimir I.; Tan, Eng K.; Chan, Ling L.

    2010-03-01

    We study Parkinson's disease (PD) using an automatic specialized diffusion-based atlas. A total of 47 subjects, among who 22 patients diagnosed clinically with PD and 25 control cases, underwent DTI imaging. The EPIs have lower resolution but provide essential anisotropy information for the fiber tracking process. The two volumes of interest (VOI) represented by the Substantia Nigra and the Putamen are detected on the EPI and FA respectively. We use the VOIs for the geometry-based registration. We fuse the anatomical detail detected on FA image for the putamen volume with the EPI. After 3D fibers growing on the two volumes, we compute the fiber density (FD) and the fiber volume (FV). Furthermore, we compare patients based on the extracted fibers and evaluate them according to Hohen&Yahr (H&Y) scale. This paper introduces the method used for automatic volume detection and evaluates the fiber growing method on these volumes. Our approach is important from the clinical standpoint, providing a new tool for the neurologists to evaluate and predict PD evolution. From the technical point of view, the fusion approach deals with the tensor based information (EPI) and the extraction of the anatomical detail (FA and EPI).

  7. Comparison of standardized uptake values measured on F-NaF PET/CT scans using three different tube current intensities

    PubMed Central

    Valadares, Agnes Araujo; Duarte, Paulo Schiavom; Woellner, Eduardo Bechtloff; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze standardized uptake values (SUVs) using three different tube current intensities for attenuation correction on 18FNaF PET/CT scans. Materials and Methods A total of 254 18F-NaF PET/CT studies were analyzed using 10, 20 and 30 mAs. The SUVs were calculated in volumes of interest (VOIs) drawn on three skeletal regions, namely, right proximal humeral diaphysis (RH), right proximal femoral diaphysis (RF), and first lumbar vertebra (LV1) in a total of 712 VOIs. The analyses covered 675 regions classified as normal (236 RH, 232 RF, and 207 LV1). Results Mean SUV for each skeletal region was 3.8, 5.4 and 14.4 for RH, RF, and LV1, respectively. As the studies were grouped according to mAs value, the mean SUV values were 3.8, 3.9 and 3.7 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the RH region; 5.4, 5.5 and 5.4 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the RF region; 13.8, 14.9 and 14.5 for 10, 20 and 30 mAs, respectively, in the LV1 region. Conclusion The three tube current values yielded similar results for SUV calculation. PMID:25798003

  8. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic changes in hippocampal regions of a modified rat model with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Jian, Hai; Yi-Fang, Wu; Qi, Lin; Xiao-Song, Huang; Gui-Yun, Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes neurodegeneration which contributes to the cognitive impairment. This study utilized a modified rat model with CCH to investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF) and hippocampal metabolic changes. CBF was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Various metabolic ratios were evaluated from selective volumes of interest (VOI) in left hippocampal regions using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). The ultrastructural changes with special respect to ribosomes in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons were studied by electron microscopy. CBF decreased immediately after CCH and remained reduced significantly at 1 day and 3 months postoperatively. (1)H-MRS revealed that CCH led to a significant decrease of N-acetyl aspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio in the hippocampal VOI in the model rats compared with the sham-operated control rats. However, no changes of myo-inositol/Cr, choline/Cr and glutamate and glutamine/Cr ratios between the model and control groups were observed. Under electron microscopy, most rosette-shaped polyribosomes were relatively evenly distributed in the hippocampal CA1 neuronal cytoplasms of the control rats. After CCH, most ribosomes were clumped into large abnormal aggregates in the model rats. Our data suggests that both permanent decrease of CBF and reduction of NAA/Cr ratio in the hippocampal regions may be related to the cognitive deficits in rats with CCH. PMID:23111782

  9. Simulating the contribution of a biospecimen and clinical data repository in a phase II clinical trial: a value of information analysis

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Benjamin M.; Han, Gang; Munkin, Murat K.; Fenstermacher, David

    2013-01-01

    The potential contributions of a centralized data warehouse or repository in clinical research include the expedited accrual of subjects for phase II trials. Understanding the contribution of data warehouses that integrate clinical, biospecimen, and molecular data for the conduct of clinical trials is essential to inform private and public decisions on resource allocation and investment. We conducted a value of information analysis using data from recent trials at the Moffitt Cancer Center and simulated the potential reductions in trial size due to possible alternative scenarios of expedited accrual. In this study, we compared alternative data sets using a single model to assess VOI. Our findings suggest that the reductions in trial size range from 0% to 43%, depending on the amount of censoring in overall survival. The ability to expedite the accrual of patients for clinical trial studies using large data repositories that store data on inclusion/exclusion criteria and response to standard of care therapies demonstrated significant improvement in reducing the number of subjects needed to achieve similar end-results, as evaluated using VOI analysis with a limited number of parameters and a parsimonious model of OS. PMID:23503303

  10. An economic value of remote-sensing information—Application to agricultural production and maintaining groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forney, William M.; Raunikar, Ronald P.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Mishra, Shruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Does remote-sensing information provide economic benefits to society, and can a value be assigned to those benefits? Can resource management and policy decisions be better informed by coupling past and present Earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) applied an established conceptual framework to answer these questions, as well as to estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote-sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate-resolution land-imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, the USGS modeled the relation between a population of the CDL's land uses and dynamic nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Employing various multiscaled, multitemporal geospatial datasets with MRLI to maximize the value of agricultural production, the approach develops and uses multiple environmental science models to address dynamic nitrogen loading and transport at specified distances from specific sites (wells) and at landscape scales (for example, across 35 counties and two aquifers). In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on the use of MRLI for the management of the major land uses in the study region-the production of corn and soybeans, which can impact groundwater quality. Derived methods and results include (1) economic and dynamic nitrate-pollution models, (2) probabilities of the survival of groundwater, and (3) a VOI for remote sensing. For the northeastern Iowa study region, the marginal benefit of the MRLI VOI (in 2010 dollars) is $858 million ±$197 million annualized, which corresponds to a net present value of $38.1 billion ±$8.8 billion for that flow of benefits in perpetuity. Given that these economic estimates are derived from one case study in a part of only one State, the estimates provide a lower estimate related to the potential value of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission.

  11. Fuzzy hidden Markov chains segmentation for volume determination and quantitation in PET

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Mathieu; Lamare, Frédéric; Boussion, Nicolas; Roux, Christian; Turzo, Alexandre; Cheze-Lerest, Catherine; Jarritt, Peter; Carson, Kathryn; Salzenstein, Fabien; Collet, Christophe; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    Accurate volume of interest (VOI) estimation in PET is crucial in different oncology applications such as response to therapy evaluation and radiotherapy treatment planning. The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm for automatic lesion volume delineation; namely the Fuzzy Hidden Markov Chains (FHMC), with that of current state of the art in clinical practice threshold based techniques. As the classical Hidden Markov Chain (HMC) algorithm, FHMC takes into account noise, voxel’s intensity and spatial correlation, in order to classify a voxel as background or functional VOI. However the novelty of the fuzzy model consists of the inclusion of an estimation of imprecision, which should subsequently lead to a better modelling of the “fuzzy” nature of the object on interest boundaries in emission tomography data. The performance of the algorithms has been assessed on both simulated and acquired datasets of the IEC phantom, covering a large range of spherical lesion sizes (from 10 to 37mm), contrast ratios (4:1 and 8:1) and image noise levels. Both lesion activity recovery and VOI determination tasks were assessed in reconstructed images using two different voxel sizes (8mm3 and 64mm3). In order to account for both the functional volume location and its size, the concept of % classification errors was introduced in the evaluation of volume segmentation using the simulated datasets. Results reveal that FHMC performs substantially better than the threshold based methodology for functional volume determination or activity concentration recovery considering a contrast ratio of 4:1 and lesion sizes of <28mm. Furthermore differences between classification and volume estimation errors evaluated were smaller for the segmented volumes provided by the FHMC algorithm. Finally, the performance of the automatic algorithms was less susceptible to image noise levels in comparison to the threshold based techniques. The analysis of both simulated and acquired datasets led to similar results and conclusions as far as the performance of segmentation algorithms under evaluation is concerned. PMID:17664555

  12. Feasibility of Computed Tomography-Guided Methods for Spatial Normalization of Dopamine Transporter Positron Emission Tomography Image

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Hanna; Choi, Jae Yong; Lee, Seung Ha; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Lee, Myung Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background Spatial normalization is a prerequisite step for analyzing positron emission tomography (PET) images both by using volume-of-interest (VOI) template and voxel-based analysis. Magnetic resonance (MR) or ligand-specific PET templates are currently used for spatial normalization of PET images. We used computed tomography (CT) images acquired with PET/CT scanner for the spatial normalization for [18F]-N-3-fluoropropyl-2-betacarboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (FP-CIT) PET images and compared target-to-cerebellar standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) values with those obtained from MR- or PET-guided spatial normalization method in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods We included 71 healthy controls and 56 patients with PD who underwent [18F]-FP-CIT PET scans with a PET/CT scanner and T1-weighted MR scans. Spatial normalization of MR images was done with a conventional spatial normalization tool (cvMR) and with DARTEL toolbox (dtMR) in statistical parametric mapping software. The CT images were modified in two ways, skull-stripping (ssCT) and intensity transformation (itCT). We normalized PET images with cvMR-, dtMR-, ssCT-, itCT-, and PET-guided methods by using specific templates for each modality and measured striatal SUVR with a VOI template. The SUVR values measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOIs (FSVOI) overlaid on original PET images were also used as a gold standard for comparison. Results The SUVR values derived from all four structure-guided spatial normalization methods were highly correlated with those measured with FSVOI (P < 0.0001). Putaminal SUVR values were highly effective for discriminating PD patients from controls. However, the PET-guided method excessively overestimated striatal SUVR values in the PD patients by more than 30% in caudate and putamen, and thereby spoiled the linearity between the striatal SUVR values in all subjects and showed lower disease discrimination ability. Two CT-guided methods showed comparable capability with the MR-guided methods in separating PD patients from controls and showed better correlation between putaminal SUVR values and the parkinsonian motor severity than the PET-guided method. Conclusion CT-guided spatial normalization methods provided reliable striatal SUVR values comparable to those obtained with MR-guided methods. CT-guided methods can be useful for analyzing dopamine transporter PET images when MR images are unavailable. PMID:26147749

  13. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging survivability issues. Our findings indicate that packaging represents the most significant technical challenge associated with application of sensors in the downhole environment for long periods (5+ years) of time. These issues are described in detail within the report. The impact of successful reservoir monitoring programs and coincident improved reservoir management is measured by the production of additional oil and gas volumes from existing reservoirs, revitalization of nearly depleted reservoirs, possible re-establishment of already abandoned reservoirs, and improved economics for all cases. Smart Well monitoring provides the means to understand how a reservoir process is developing and to provide active reservoir management. At the same time it also provides data for developing high-fidelity simulation models. This work has been a joint effort with Sandia National Laboratories and UT-Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, and the Institute of Computational and Engineering Mathematics.

  14. Could 18?F-DPA-714 PET imaging be interesting to use in the early post-stroke period?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral stroke is a severe and frequent condition that requires rapid and reliable diagnosis. If administered shortly after the first symptoms manifest themselves, IV thrombolysis has been shown to increase the functional prognosis by restoring brain reperfusion. However, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of stroke should help to identify potential new therapeutic targets. Stroke is known to induce an inflammatory brain reaction that involves overexpression of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) in glial cells and infiltrated leukocytes, which can be visualised by positron emission tomography (PET). We aimed to evaluate post-stroke neuroinflammation using the PET TSPO radioligand 18?F-DPA-714. Methods Nine patients underwent 18?F-DPA-714 PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between 8 and 18 days after the ictus. Co-registration of MRI and PET images was used to define three volumes of interest (VOIs): core infarction, contralateral region, and cerebellum ipsilateral to the stroke lesion. Time activity curves were obtained from each VOI, and ratios of mean and maximum activities between the VOIs were calculated. Results We observed an increased uptake of 18?F-DPA-714 co-localised with the infarct tissue and extension beyond the region corresponding to the damage in the blood brain barrier. No correlation was identified between 18?F-DPA-714 uptake and infarct volume. 18?F-DPA-714 uptake in ischemic lesion (mainly associated with TSPO expression in the infarct area and in the surrounding neighbourhood) slowly decreased from 10 min pi to the end of the PET acquisition, remaining higher than that in both contralateral region and ipsilateral cerebellum. Conclusion Our results show that 18?F-DPA-714 uptake after acute ischemia is mainly associated with TSPO expression in the infarct area and in the surrounding neighbourhood. We also demonstrated that the kinetics of 18?F-DPA-714 differs in injured tissue compared to normal tissue. Therefore, 18?F-DPA-714 may be useful in assessing the extent of neuroinflammation associated with acute stroke and could also help to predict clinical outcomes and functional recovery, as well as to assess therapeutic strategies, such as the use of neuroprotective/anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:25006546

  15. Systematic evaluation of three different commercial software solutions for automatic segmentation for adaptive therapy in head-and-neck, prostate and pleural cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To validate, in the context of adaptive radiotherapy, three commercial software solutions for atlas-based segmentation. Methods and materials Fifteen patients, five for each group, with cancer of the Head&Neck, pleura, and prostate were enrolled in the study. In addition to the treatment planning CT (pCT) images, one replanning CT (rCT) image set was acquired for each patient during the RT course. Three experienced physicians outlined on the pCT and rCT all the volumes of interest (VOIs). We used three software solutions (VelocityAI 2.6.2 (V), MIM 5.1.1 (M) by MIMVista and ABAS 2.0 (A) by CMS-Elekta) to generate the automatic contouring on the repeated CT. All the VOIs obtained with automatic contouring (AC) were successively corrected manually. We recorded the time needed for: 1) ex novo ROIs definition on rCT; 2) generation of AC by the three software solutions; 3) manual correction of AC. To compare the quality of the volumes obtained automatically by the software and manually corrected with those drawn from scratch on rCT, we used the following indexes: overlap coefficient (DICE), sensitivity, inclusiveness index, difference in volume, and displacement differences on three axes (x, y, z) from the isocenter. Results The time saved by the three software solutions for all the sites, compared to the manual contouring from scratch, is statistically significant and similar for all the three software solutions. The time saved for each site are as follows: about an hour for Head&Neck, about 40?minutes for prostate, and about 20?minutes for mesothelioma. The best DICE similarity coefficient index was obtained with the manual correction for: A (contours for prostate), A and M (contours for H&N), and M (contours for mesothelioma). Conclusions From a clinical point of view, the automated contouring workflow was shown to be significantly shorter than the manual contouring process, even though manual correction of the VOIs is always needed. PMID:22989046

  16. Le déficit immunitaire humoral: mieux le connaître pour mieux le prendre en charge

    PubMed Central

    El Bakkouri, Jalila; Aadam, Zahra; Ailal, Fatima; Alj, Hanane Salih; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Les déficits immunitaires humoraux (DIH) sont des maladies hétérogènes allant des formes asymptomatiques rencontrés lors des déficits sélectifs en immunoglobulines A (IgA) et en sous-classes d'IgG aux formes graves des agammaglobulinémies congénitales. Les patients atteints de DIH présentent souvent des infections ORL ou des voies respiratoires récidivantes ou sévères. Ces patients peuvent présenter un certain nombre de complications non infectieuses, telles que des manifestations auto-immunes et des entéropathies, qui pourraient être le seul symptôme clinique révélateur. Les formes sévères des DIH sont facilement diagnostiquées grâce au dosage des IgG totaux, des IgA et des IgM. La thérapie substitutive par les immunoglobulines reste le traitement de choix chez ces patients. PMID:25489366

  17. Le sumatriptan intranasal pour la migraine chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.; Meckler, Garth D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Je vois de plus en plus d’enfants et d’adolescents qui souffrent de céphalées pouvant se classer dans la catégorie des migraines. J’ai fait des lectures sur le sumatriptan par voie intranasale comme thérapie abortive. Est-ce un traitement efficace? Réponse La migraine aiguë chez les enfants et les adolescents est fréquente et difficile à traiter. Le sumatriptan intranasal est une option sûre et généralement efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents. La dose actuellement recommandée est de 20 mg pour les enfants qui pèsent plus de 40 kg et de 10 mg pour ceux dont le poids se situe entre 20 et 39 kg. Il faudrait faire des études de plus grande envergure pour contrecarrer les limitations des échantillons de petite taille et mieux comprendre la faible concentration plasmique et les effets placebo observés dans les études jusqu’à présent.

  18. Les Troubles Respiratoires Chez Le Brule

    PubMed Central

    Fassi Fihri, J.; Ezzoubi, M.; Boukind, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A travers une revue de la littérature, cet article se propose d'exposer les particularités des troubles respiratoires chez le brûlé. Ces troubles sont liés à un mécanisme direct, lorsque l'arbre respiratoire est lésé par le transfert d'énergie thermique du à la brûlure et/ou par un mécanisme indirect, lorsque la fonction respiratoire et ventilatoire du poumon est perturbée par les phénomènes loco-régionaux ou généraux du brûlé. Ces troubles respiratoires sont aggravés par l'inhalation des gaz contenus dans la fumée d'incendie. Le diagnostic de ces troubles est clinique et paraclinique. Il doit être précoce et continu. Les patients nécessitent de différents moyens thérapeutiques tels que l'oxygénothérapie, la libération des voies respiratoires, l'amélioration de la mécanique ventilatoire et de la fonction respiratoire, l'antibiothérapie ou la chirurgie des séquelles. Cette prise en charge doit nécessairement être multidisciplinaire. PMID:21991224

  19. Un lymphangiome kystique rétropéritonéal révélé par des coliques néphrétiques

    PubMed Central

    El anzaoui, Jihad; Ghoundale, Omar; Touiti, Driss; El barni, Rachid; Mejdane, Abdelhadi; Fihri, Jawad Fassi; Lahkim, Mohammed; Achour, Abdsamad

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Le lymphangiome kystique (LK) est une tumeur rare des voies lymphatiques caractérisée par son évolution bénigne. La fréquence de la localisation rétropéritonéale est controversée. La découverte se fait le plus souvent dès l’enfance. L’évolution de la maladie peut être marquée par des complications graves, notamment compressives. Nous faisons état de l’observation médicale d’une femme de 30 ans chez qui l’on a découvert, à la suite de l’apparition de coliques néphrétiques récidivantes, un LK énorme occupant tout l’espace rétropéritonéal droit. Le diagnostic a été évoqué par l’urotomodensitométrie et confirmé par l’histologie. L’évolution après exérèse chirurgicale de la masse a été favorable, avec la disparition des coliques néphrétiques. PMID:25844099

  20. Integrating dimension reduction and out-of-sample extension in automated classification of ex vivo human patellar cartilage on phase contrast X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B; Coan, Paola; Huber, Markus B; Diemoz, Paul C; Wismüller, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Phase contrast X-ray computed tomography (PCI-CT) has been demonstrated as a novel imaging technique that can visualize human cartilage with high spatial resolution and soft tissue contrast. Different textural approaches have been previously investigated for characterizing chondrocyte organization on PCI-CT to enable classification of healthy and osteoarthritic cartilage. However, the large size of feature sets extracted in such studies motivates an investigation into algorithmic feature reduction for computing efficient feature representations without compromising their discriminatory power. For this purpose, geometrical feature sets derived from the scaling index method (SIM) were extracted from 1392 volumes of interest (VOI) annotated on PCI-CT images of ex vivo human patellar cartilage specimens. The extracted feature sets were subject to linear and non-linear dimension reduction techniques as well as feature selection based on evaluation of mutual information criteria. The reduced feature set was subsequently used in a machine learning task with support vector regression to classify VOIs as healthy or osteoarthritic; classification performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results show that the classification performance achieved by 9-D SIM-derived geometric feature sets (AUC: 0.96 ± 0.02) can be maintained with 2-D representations computed from both dimension reduction and feature selection (AUC values as high as 0.97 ± 0.02). Thus, such feature reduction techniques can offer a high degree of compaction to large feature sets extracted from PCI-CT images while maintaining their ability to characterize the underlying chondrocyte patterns. PMID:25710875

  1. A Computed Tomography-Based Spatial Normalization for the Analysis of [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hanna; Kim, Jin Su; Choi, Jae Yong; Ryu, Young Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Objective We developed a new computed tomography (CT)-based spatial normalization method and CT template to demonstrate its usefulness in spatial normalization of positron emission tomography (PET) images with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET studies in healthy controls. Materials and Methods Seventy healthy controls underwent brain CT scan (120 KeV, 180 mAs, and 3 mm of thickness) and [18F] FDG PET scans using a PET/CT scanner. T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired for all subjects. By averaging skull-stripped and spatially-normalized MR and CT images, we created skull-stripped MR and CT templates for spatial normalization. The skull-stripped MR and CT images were spatially normalized to each structural template. PET images were spatially normalized by applying spatial transformation parameters to normalize skull-stripped MR and CT images. A conventional perfusion PET template was used for PET-based spatial normalization. Regional standardized uptake values (SUV) measured by overlaying the template volume of interest (VOI) were compared to those measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOI (FSVOI). Results All three spatial normalization methods underestimated regional SUV values by 0.3-20% compared to those measured with FSVOI. The CT-based method showed slightly greater underestimation bias. Regional SUV values derived from all three spatial normalization methods were correlated significantly (p < 0.0001) with those measured with FSVOI. Conclusion CT-based spatial normalization may be an alternative method for structure-based spatial normalization of [18F] FDG PET when MR imaging is unavailable. Therefore, it is useful for PET/CT studies with various radiotracers whose uptake is expected to be limited to specific brain regions or highly variable within study population. PMID:25469101

  2. Integrating Dimension Reduction and Out-of-Sample Extension in Automated Classification of Ex Vivo Human Patellar Cartilage on Phase Contrast X-Ray Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Coan, Paola; Huber, Markus B.; Diemoz, Paul C.; Wismüller, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Phase contrast X-ray computed tomography (PCI-CT) has been demonstrated as a novel imaging technique that can visualize human cartilage with high spatial resolution and soft tissue contrast. Different textural approaches have been previously investigated for characterizing chondrocyte organization on PCI-CT to enable classification of healthy and osteoarthritic cartilage. However, the large size of feature sets extracted in such studies motivates an investigation into algorithmic feature reduction for computing efficient feature representations without compromising their discriminatory power. For this purpose, geometrical feature sets derived from the scaling index method (SIM) were extracted from 1392 volumes of interest (VOI) annotated on PCI-CT images of ex vivo human patellar cartilage specimens. The extracted feature sets were subject to linear and non-linear dimension reduction techniques as well as feature selection based on evaluation of mutual information criteria. The reduced feature set was subsequently used in a machine learning task with support vector regression to classify VOIs as healthy or osteoarthritic; classification performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). Our results show that the classification performance achieved by 9-D SIM-derived geometric feature sets (AUC: 0.96 ± 0.02) can be maintained with 2-D representations computed from both dimension reduction and feature selection (AUC values as high as 0.97 ± 0.02). Thus, such feature reduction techniques can offer a high degree of compaction to large feature sets extracted from PCI-CT images while maintaining their ability to characterize the underlying chondrocyte patterns. PMID:25710875

  3. Two-time-point FDG PET/CT: liver SULmean repeatability.

    PubMed

    Tahari, Abdel K; Paidpally, Vasavi; Chirindel, Alin; Wahl, Richard L; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of liver mean standardized uptake value normalized to lean body mass (SULmean) in the same patients at different time points within the right lobe of the liver at (18)F-FDG PET/CT, in a clinical setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Two PET/CT studies performed on two different dates from each of 130 patients who had normal livers according to structural imaging were included in this reader study. The mean (± SD) length of time between the studies was 235 ± 192 days. SULmean was measured with a 30-mm diameter spherical volume of interest (VOI) placed within the right lobe of the liver (above, below, and at the level of the main portal vein) by two expert readers. ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman analysis were performed. RESULTS. The ICC for the first and second set of studies varied between 0.487 and 0.535 for reader 1 and between 0.472 and 0.545 for reader 2. The mean percentage variation for SULmean between the two time scans for the VOIs placed above, below, and at the level of the main portal vein were 3.55% ± 23.19%, 4.65% ± 23.87%, and 4.30% ± 23.03%, respectively, for reader 1 and 4.49% ± 23.23%, 4.33% ± 23.74%, and 4.48% ± 23.01%, respectively, for reader 2. Using 95% CI, the reference range for intrapatient variations between the studies in liver SULmean was -0.5 to 0.60. CONCLUSION. There is only fair repeatability of liver SULmean measured between two time points in the same patient in a clinical setting. Scan-to-scan intrapatient variation in absolute liver SULmean was -0.5 to 0.60. PMID:25615764

  4. Performance evaluation of an automatic anatomy segmentation algorithm on repeat or four-dimensional CT images using a deformable image registration method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He; Garden, Adam S.; Zhang, Lifei; Wei, Xiong; Ahamad, Anesa; Kuban, Deborah A.; Komaki, Ritsuko; O’Daniel, Jennifer; Zhang, Yongbin; Mohan, Radhe; Dong, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Auto-propagation of anatomical region-of-interests (ROIs) from the planning CT to daily CT is an essential step in image-guided adaptive radiotherapy. The goal of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the algorithm in typical clinical applications. Method and Materials We previously adopted an image intensity-based deformable registration algorithm to find the correspondence between two images. In this study, the ROIs delineated on the planning CT image were mapped onto daily CT or four-dimentional (4D) CT images using the same transformation. Post-processing methods, such as boundary smoothing and modification, were used to enhance the robustness of the algorithm. Auto-propagated contours for eight head-and-neck patients with a total of 100 repeat CTs, one prostate patient with 24 repeat CTs, and nine lung cancer patients with a total of 90 4D-CT images were evaluated against physician-drawn contours and physician-modified deformed contours using the volume-overlap-index (VOI) and mean absolute surface-to-surface distance (ASSD). Results The deformed contours were reasonably well matched with daily anatomy on repeat CT images. The VOI and mean ASSD were 83% and 1.3 mm when compared to the independently drawn contours. A better agreement (greater than 97% and less than 0.4 mm) was achieved if the physician was only asked to correct the deformed contours. The algorithm was robust in the presence of random noise in the image. Conclusion The deformable algorithm may be an effective method to propagate the planning ROIs to subsequent CT images of changed anatomy, although a final review by physicians is highly recommended. PMID:18722272

  5. NEUROFEEDBACK USING FUNCTIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Hinds, Oliver; Wighton, Paul; Tisdall, M. Dylan; Hess, Aaron; Breiter, Hans; van der Kouwe, André

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback based on real-time measurement of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has potential for treatment of neurological disorders and behavioral enhancement. Commonly employed methods are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequences that sacrifice speed and accuracy for whole-brain coverage, which is unnecessary in most applications. We present multi-voxel functional spectroscopy (MVFS): a system for computing the BOLD signal from multiple volumes of interest (VOI) in real-time that improves speed and accuracy of neurofeedback. MVFS consists of a functional spectroscopy (FS) pulse sequence, a BOLD reconstruction component, a neural activation estimator, and a stimulus system. The FS pulse sequence is a single-voxel, magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequence without water suppression that has been extended to allow acquisition of a different VOI at each repetition and real-time subject head motion compensation. The BOLD reconstruction component determines the T2* decay rate, which is directly related to BOLD signal strength. The neural activation estimator discounts nuisance signals and scales the activation relative to the amount of ROI noise. Finally, the neurofeedback system presents neural activation-dependent stimuli to experimental subjects with an overall delay of less than 1s. Here we present the MVFS system, validation of certain components, examples of its usage in a practical application, and a direct comparison of FS and echo-planar imaging BOLD measurements. We conclude that in the context of realtime BOLD imaging, MVFS can provide superior accuracy and temporal resolution compared with standard fMRI methods. PMID:24999293

  6. Noninvasive image derived heart input function for CMRglc measurements in small animal slow infusion FDG PET studies.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Guoming; Paul, Cumming; Todica, Andrei; Hacker, Marcus; Bartenstein, Peter; Böning, Guido

    2012-12-01

    Absolute quantitation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglc) can be obtained in positron emission tomography (PET) studies when serial measurements of the arterial [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) input are available. Since this is not always practical in PET studies of rodents, there has been considerable interest in defining an image-derived input function (IDIF) by placing a volume of interest (VOI) within the left ventricle of the heart. However, spill-in arising from trapping of FDG in the myocardium often leads to progressive contamination of the IDIF, which propagates to underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc. We therefore developed a novel, non-invasive method for correcting the IDIF without scaling to a blood sample. To this end, we first obtained serial arterial samples and dynamic FDG-PET data of the head and heart in a group of eight anaesthetized rats. We fitted a bi-exponential function to the serial measurements of the IDIF, and then used the linear graphical Gjedde-Patlak method to describe the accumulation in myocardium. We next estimated the magnitude of myocardial spill-in reaching the left ventricle VOI by assuming a Gaussian point-spread function, and corrected the measured IDIF for this estimated spill-in. Finally, we calculated parametric maps of CMRglc using the corrected IDIF, and for the sake of comparison, relative to serial blood sampling from the femoral artery. The uncorrected IDIF resulted in 20% underestimation of the magnitude of CMRglc relative to the gold standard arterial input method. However, there was no bias with the corrected IDIF, which was robust to the variable extent of myocardial tracer uptake, such that there was a very high correlation between individual CMRglc measurements using the corrected IDIF with gold-standard arterial input results. Based on simulation, we furthermore find that electrocardiogram-gating, i.e. ECG-gating is not necessary for IDIF quantitation using our approach. PMID:23160517

  7. Deformable planning CT to cone-beam CT image registration in head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hou Jidong; Guerrero, Mariana; Chen, Wenjuan; D'Souza, Warren D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 South Greene Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States); Department of Radiotherapy, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fujian Medical University, 91 Maluding Fuma Road, Fuzhou, Fujian 350014 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 South Greene Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to implement and validate a deformable CT to cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image registration method in head-and-neck cancer to eventually facilitate automatic target delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twelve head-and-neck cancer patients underwent a planning CT and weekly CBCT during the 5-7 week treatment period. The 12 planning CT images (moving images) of these patients were registered to their weekly CBCT images (fixed images) via the symmetric force Demons algorithm and using a multiresolution scheme. Histogram matching was used to compensate for the intensity difference between the two types of images. Using nine known anatomic points as registration targets, the accuracy of the registration was evaluated using the target registration error (TRE). In addition, region-of-interest (ROI) contours drawn on the planning CT were morphed to the CBCT images and the volume overlap index (VOI) between registered contours and manually delineated contours was evaluated. Results: The mean TRE value of the nine target points was less than 3.0 mm, the slice thickness of the planning CT. Of the 369 target points evaluated for registration accuracy, the average TRE value was 2.6{+-}0.6 mm. The mean TRE for bony tissue targets was 2.4{+-}0.2 mm, while the mean TRE for soft tissue targets was 2.8{+-}0.2 mm. The average VOI between the registered and manually delineated ROI contours was 76.2{+-}4.6%, which is consistent with that reported in previous studies. Conclusions: The authors have implemented and validated a deformable image registration method to register planning CT images to weekly CBCT images in head-and-neck cancer cases. The accuracy of the TRE values suggests that they can be used as a promising tool for automatic target delineation on CBCT.

  8. Characterization of the peak at 2.06?ppm in (31) P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human liver: phosphoenolpyruvate or phosphatidylcholine?

    PubMed

    Bierwagen, Alessandra; Begovatz, Paul; Nowotny, Peter; Markgraf, Daniel; Nowotny, Bettina; Koliaki, Chrysi; Giani, Guido; Klüppelholz, Birgit; Lundbom, Jesper; Roden, Michael

    2015-07-01

    High field MR scanners can resolve a metabolite resonating at 2.06?ppm in the in vivo proton-decoupled liver (31) P MR spectrum. Traditionally this peak has been assigned to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the key metabolite for gluconeogenesis. However, recent evidence supported the assignment to biliary phosphatidylcholine (PtdCh), which is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder. To elucidate the respective contributions of PtdCh and PEP to the in vivo resonance at 2.06?ppm (PEP-PtdCh), we made phantom measurements that confirmed that both biliary PtdCh and PEP resonate approximately at 2?ppm. The absolute quantification of PEP-PtdCh yielded concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 2.0?mmol/l, with mean coefficients of variation of 4.8% for intraday and 7.2% for interday reproducibility in healthy volunteers. The T1 relaxation time of PEP-PtdCh was 0.97?±?0.30?s in the liver and 0.44?±?0.11?s in the gallbladder. Ingestion of a mixed meal decreased the concentration of PtdCh-PEP by approximately 12%. In the retrospective analysis, PEP-PtdCh was 68% higher in the liver of subjects with gallbladder infiltration of the volume of interest (VOI) compared with those without gallbladder infiltration. PEP-PtdCh was also significantly higher in the liver of cholecystectomy patients compared with volunteers without gallbladder infiltration, which suggests increased intrahepatic bile fluid as a compensation for gall bladder removal. These results show that liver PtdCh is the major component of the resonance at 2.06?ppm and that careful VOI positioning is mandatory to avoid interference from the gallbladder. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26010913

  9. Return to Venus of Japanese Venus Orbiter AKATSUKI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.; Ishii, N.; Abe, T.; Imamura, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Satoh, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ueno, M.; Ohtsuki, S.; Yamada, M.; Ogohara, K.; Uemizu, K.; Hirose, C.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Iwagami, N.; Taguchi, M.

    2012-12-01

    Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter 'AKATSUKI' (PLANET-C) was successfully launched at 06:58:22JST on May 21, by H-IIA F17. The malfunction, which happened during the Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI) on 7 Dec, 2010 is as follows. Orbital maneuver engine (OME) was fired 08:49 JST on Dec. 7. 1min. after firing the spacecraft went into the occultation region and we had no telemetry, but we expected to continuous firing for 12min. Recording on the spacecraft told us later that, unfortunately the firing continued just 152sec. and stopped. The reason of the malfunction of the OME was the blocking of check valve on the gas pressure line to push the fuel to the engine. We failed to make the spacecraft the Venus orbiter, and it is rotating the sun with the orbital period of 203 days. Most of the fuel still remains, but the OME was found to be broken. We decided to use only RCS for orbit maneuver and 3 minor maneuvers in November 2012 were successfully done so that AKATSUKI will meet Venus in late 2015. We are considering several scenarios only using RCS for VOI. In the presentation we will show the possible orbits and how we put the spacecraft into those orbits. They have higher apoapsis than we expected in the initial design, but they are still westward and equatorial that is ideal to reveal the mechanism of the super-rotation of the atmosphere, and we think we will be able to achieve the scientific goals which we have been proposing.

  10. Le changement comme tradition dans la recherche et la formation a la recherche en biotechnologie et en peripherie Etude de cas en sciences de la sante, sciences naturelles et genie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourque, Claude Julie

    Le champ de la recherche scientifique et de la formation a la recherche est traverse depuis quelques dizaines d'annees par plusieurs courants et discours associes au changement, mais peu de travaux empiriques permettent de comprendre ce qui change concretement. C'est la contribution originale de cette these au champ de l'education, plus specifiquement a l'etude sociologique de l'enseignement superieur ou sont concentrees les activites liees a la triade thematique du programme doctoral dans lequel elle a ete produite : recherche, formation et pratique. L'enquete-terrain a ete realisee en 2009 et 2010 aupres de 808 repondants affilies a 60 etablissements au Quebec et a produit un vaste materiau de nature mixte (donnees quantitatives et qualitatives). Un portrait de la nebuleuse biotechnologique qui touche les secteurs des sciences de la sante, des sciences naturelles et du genie a ete realise. Ce domaine concerne des dizaines de disciplines et se revele de nature transdisciplinaire, mais les pratiques n'y sont pas davantage marquees par le changement que celles d'autres domaines connexes. Les dynamiques sociales ont fait l'objet d'analyses comparatives dans quatre contextes: le choix des programmes, des objets et des methodes, le financement, la diffusion et la planification de la carriere. Les resultats indiquent que les echanges entre les agents traditionnellement situes au coeur des activites de recherche dominent ces dynamiques dans tous les contextes etudies. L'etude des representations au fondement des pratiques a revele l'existence de trois ecoles de pensee qui coexistent dans le champ scientifique: academique, pragmatique et economiste. Ces ecoles permettent de categoriser les agents en fonction des zones de fractures qui marquent leurs oppositions tout en identifiant ce qu'ils ont en commun. Les representations et les pratiques liees a la formation temoignent d'un habitus plutot homogene, alors que les contradictions semblent plus souvent ancrees dans des luttes universitaires que scientifiques, concentrees sur la negociation du capital scientifique, symbolique et economique en jeu dans la formation doctorale, dans les carrieres auxquelles elle mene, et dans les qualites du titre de Ph.D. Au final, la confusion entre des logiques opposees peut etre reduite en reinterpretant le changement comme tradition du champ scientifique. Mots-cles Sociologie, education, enseignement superieur, science et technologie, biotechnologie, formation doctorale, champ scientifique, reseaux sociaux

  11. [Ileocolic free autograft in advanced cervical oncology].

    PubMed

    Sartoris, A; Succo, G; Mioli, P R; Merlino, G

    1999-02-01

    In head and neck oncology, cancer of the hypopharynx and esophagus still proves difficult to interpret because all treatments give poor results. In order to improve the quality of life for these patients as quickly as possible, one-step reconstructive methods such as the gastric pull-up and free autografts of revascularized intestinal segments are increasingly being used. This work presents a method for a free autograft of the ileocolic segment. After cervical pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy, this method provides a continent aerodigestive carrefour, protected by the ileocolic valve. Three patients successfully underwent this procedure. Deglutition and phonation were recovered quite quickly: between 18 and 38 days. On the basis of the results and after further, more in-depth experience--including adequate follow-up and post-radiotherapy coloesophageal electromanometry to determine the presence and type of motor propulsion exerted by the distal esophagus--the authors conclude that this method is one of the most interesting options available for the surgical reconstruction of pharyngoesophageal circular defects. PMID:10418189

  12. Decannulation and assessment of deglutition in the tracheostomized patient in non-neurocritical intensive care.

    PubMed

    Alvo, Andrés; Olavarría, Christian

    2014-01-01

    With intensive care patients, decannulation and deglutition disorders are frequent reasons for otorhinolaryngological assessment. The objective of a tracheostomy is to maintain a patent airway. It does not necessarily prevent episodes of aspiration and may even favour them. When the cause that led to the tracheostomy resolves, a decannulation may be proposed. Deglutition is a complex act involving the coordinated interaction of several structures of the aerodigestive tract. Fibre-optic endoscopy and videofluoroscopy are 2 useful, complementary tools for the evaluation of patients with swallowing disorders. In managing these patients, a thorough knowledge of laryngeal and swallowing physiology, as well as of the different therapeutic alternatives, is required. Although it is not uncommon for swallowing disorders to coexist in tracheostomy patients, decannulation evaluation is not synonymous with deglutition assessment. A patient could be a candidate for decannulation and have a swallowing disorder, or a tracheostomy patient could swallow adequately. Knowing and understanding these concepts will lead to more efficient management and help to clarify communication between the intensive care physician and the otorhinolaryngologist. Ideally, a multidisciplinary team should be formed to evaluate and manage these patients. PMID:23510902

  13. Polymeric implant materials for the reconstruction of tracheal and pharyngeal mucosal defects in head and neck surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rickert, Dorothee

    2011-01-01

    The existing therapeutical options for the tracheal and pharyngeal reconstruction by use of implant materials are described. Inspite of a multitude of options and the availability of very different materials none of these methods applied for tracheal reconstruction were successfully introduced into the clinical routine. Essential problems are insufficiencies of anastomoses, stenoses, lack of mucociliary clearance and vascularisation. The advances in Tissue Engineering (TE) offer new therapeutical options also in the field of the reconstructive surgery of the trachea. In pharyngeal reconstruction far reaching developments cannot be recognized at the moment which would allow to give a prognosis of their success in clinical application. A new polymeric implant material consisting of multiblock copolymers was applied in our own work which was regarded as a promising material for the reconstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract (ADT) due to its physicochemical characteristics. In order to test this material for applications in the ADT under extreme chemical, enzymatical, bacterial and mechanical conditions we applied it for the reconstruction of a complete defect of the gastric wall in an animal model. In none of the animals tested either gastrointestinal complications or negative systemic events occurred, however, there was a multilayered regeneration of the gastric wall implying a regular structured mucosa. In future the advanced stem cell technology will allow further progress in the reconstruction of different kind of tissues also in the field of head and neck surgery following the principles of Tissue Engineering. PMID:22073099

  14. An endoscopic fluorescence imaging system for simultaneous visual examination and photodetection of cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagnières, Georges A.; Studzinski, André P.; van den Bergh, Hubert E.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the design and performance tested during six years of clinical trials of a fluorescence endoscope for the detection and delineation of cancers in several hollow organs. The apparatus is based on the imaging of the laser-induced fluorescence that differs between a tumor and its surrounding normal tissue. The tests are carried out in the upper aerodigestive tract, the tracheobronchial tree, the esophagus, and the colon. In the three former cases an exogenous dye is used (Photofrin II), whereas in the latter case fluorescein molecules conjugated with monoclonal antibodies directed against carcinoembryonic antigen are injected. The decrease of native tissue autofluorescence observed in early cancers is also used for detecting lesions in the tracheobronchial tree. The fluorescence contrast between the tumor and surrounding normal tissue is enhanced by real time image processing. This is done by simultaneously recording the fluorescence image in two spectral domains, after which these two images are digitized and manipulated with a mathematical operator (look-up table) at video frequency. Moreover, the device that is described below allows for an immediate observation of the endoscopic area under white light illumination during fluorescence detection in order to localize the origin of the "positive" fluorescence signals. Typical results obtained in the tracheobronchial tree and in the colon are presented and the sources of false positives and false negatives are evaluated in terms of the fluorescent dye, tissue optical properties, and illumination optics.

  15. Changing trends in oesophageal endoscopy: a systematic review of transnasal oesophagoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sabirin, Junainah; Abd Rahman, Maharita; Rajan, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The safety, efficacy, and economic implications of using transnasal oesophagoscopy (TNE) are compared with conventional rigid or flexible oesophagoscopy for oesophageal disorders in otorhinolaryngology (ORL) clinics in this systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were searched for articles on transnasal oesophagoscopy. A total of 67 relevant titles were identified and 39 abstracts were screened of which 17 full- text articles were included in this report. There was fair level of evidence to suggest that TNE was effective for screening examination in patients with dysphagia, globus pharyngeus, and reflux symptoms and for detection of metachronous oesophageal carcinoma. TNE can also be used to biopsy suspicious lesions in the upper aerodigestive tract, placement of wireless pH capsule, transnasal balloon dilation of the oesophagus, secondary tracheoesophageal puncture, and management of foreign bodies. TNE was well tolerated and can be safely performed in an office setting with topical anaesthesia. Complications associated with TNE were mild and uncommon. There was evidence to suggest potential cost savings by performing TNE in the office setting compared with conventional investigation and examination for dysphagia. TNE may lead to a change in practice from investigation and treatment in the operating theatre or day care center to an office-based practice. PMID:23984101

  16. Biphasic parapharyngeal synovial sarcoma: a cytologic and immunocytologic report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, Bijan; Daneshbod, Yahya; Negahban, Shahrzad; Daneshbod, Khosrow; Kaviani, Massud; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Ashraf, Mohammad J

    2006-01-01

    Background Synovial sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma in the head and neck region and parapharyngeal space. There is no previous cytologic report of synovial sarcoma of parapharynx. The cytologic and immunocytochemical findings of a parapharyngeal biphasic synovial sarcoma together with diagnostic pitfalls are described. Case report A 21-year-old girl presented with a 6-month history of progressive right arm pain, neck mass and upper aerodigestive tract obstruction. On physical examination there was a large painless mass arising from the right-sided parapharyngeal space causing airway obstruction. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large tumor in the right-sided parapharyngeal space. Fine needle aspiration through cervical region was performed and was reported as benign spindle cell tumor. Smears were cellular and composed mostly of tight and loose clusters of spindle cells. Epitheloid cells could also be identified intermingled with them. She underwent near total resection of the tumor. Pathologic report disclosed the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma. She then received postoperative adjuvant external radiotherapy. Conclusion Due to rarity of this tumor in this region and nonspecific cytologic features, we could not differentiate this tumor from the other more common spindle cell neoplasms. Considering synovial sarcoma in this region and immunocytochemistry can be helpful in rendering a correct initial diagnosis of this tumor. PMID:16907985

  17. Aspects of nitrogen dioxide toxicity in environmental urban concentrations in human nasal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, C.; Ginzkey, C.; Friehs, G.; Hackenberg, S.; Froelich, K.; Scherzed, A.; Burghartz, M.; Kessler, M. [Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Kleinsasser, N., E-mail: Kleinsasser_N@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.d [Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-06-01

    Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) as part of urban exhaust pollution are widely discussed as potential hazards to human health. This study focuses on toxic effects of NO{sub 2} in realistic environmental concentrations with respect to the current limit values in a human target tissue of volatile xenobiotics, the epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract. Nasal epithelial cells of 10 patients were cultured as an air-liquid interface and exposed to 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2}, 0.1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 10 ppm NO{sub 2} and synthetic air for half an hour. After exposure, genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell microgel electophoresis (Comet) assay and by induction of micronuclei in the micronucleus test. Depression of proliferation and cytotoxic effects were determined using the micronucleus assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. The experiments revealed genotoxic effects by DNA fragmentation starting at 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2} in the Comet assay, but no micronucleus inductions, no changes in proliferation, no signs of necrosis or apoptosis in the micronucleus assay, nor did the trypan blue exclusion assay show any changes in viability. The present data reveal a possible genotoxicity of NO{sub 2} in urban concentrations in a screening test. However, permanent DNA damage as indicated by the induction of micronuclei was not observed. Further research should elucidate the effects of prolonged exposure.

  18. Maintenance of serum calcium after total thyroparathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D; Skinner, D W; Hosking, D J; Bradley, P J; Salama, F D

    1990-10-01

    We have studied calcium regulation in 11 consecutive patients undergoing radical surgery for upper aerodigestive tract malignancy. Eight patients received postoperative parenteral nutrition including calcium (19 mmol/day) and tri-iodothyronine (30 micrograms/day) supplementation. Three patients received enteral nutrition with calcium (70 mmol/day), 1.25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (1 microgram) and thyroxine (150 micrograms/day) via a nasogastric tube. Mean (SEM) corrected calcium fell from 2.42 (0.013) to 2.03 (0.036) mmol/l after 24 h (P less than 0.01). Replacement therapy generally maintained the serum calcium above 2.0 mmol/l. However, values were associated with only one episode of tetany. Phosphate increased from 1.10 (0.05) to 1.79 (0.11) mmol/l, 7-9 days postoperatively (P less than 0.001). Tubular calcium reabsorption fell and urinary calcium excretion rose, consistent with loss of parathyroid hormone (PTH) action on the distal nephron. However, the renal leak of calcium can be considerably reduced by concomitant salt depletion. This enhances proximal tubular sodium and calcium reabsorption thereby limiting calcium delivery to the distal nephron. This offsets the consequences of the loss of PTH which normally regulates distal calcium reabsorption. PMID:2120083

  19. Radiographic imaging of human papillomavirus related carcinomas of the oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Corey, Amanda S; Hudgins, Patricia A

    2012-07-01

    Imaging, especially contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) for anatomy and positron emission tomography (PET) with labeled (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose for physiologic detail, is critical for staging carcinomas of the oropharynx. As the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related carcinomas of the tonsil and base of tongue (BOT) increases, experience with CECT and PET for staging HPV+ tumors is growing. No imaging modality, however, can determine whether the tumor is HPV+. There are some unique challenges posed by HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In most locations of the head and neck, a malignancy enhances more than surrounding normal structures, which facilitates tumor mapping. Unfortunately, normal lymphoid tissue of the oropharynx, in the BOT and palatine tonsillar fossa, enhances on CECT and gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in a manner similar to SCC. The primary tumor may be small or even occult at presentation, and easily over-looked on CECT. PET coupled with CECT has made a true "unknown primary" very rare, as the metabolically active tumor is almost always detectable on PET. The nodal metastases, so common with HPV+ SCC, can be truly cystic; and as such, can be misdiagnosed as a second branchial cleft cyst, a congenital benign lesion. These pitfalls, coupled with the complex anatomy of the upper aerodigestive tract, make staging these tumors difficult. In this monograph we describe the anatomy of the oropharynx and review the imaging modalities available for staging. Figures highlight the points raised in the text. PMID:22782221

  20. PubMed Central

    PELLINI, R.; MERCANTE, G.; MARCHESE, C.; TERENZI, V.; SPERDUTI, I.; MANCIOCCO, V.; RUSCITO, P.; CRISTALLI, G.; MARCHESI, P.; PICHI, B.; SPRIANO, G.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate risk factors for wound complications after neck dissection. One hundred and nineteen patients were treated with neck dissection for squamous-cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract at the National Cancer Institute in Rome between 2006 and 2009. Postoperative wound complications were divided into major or minor and were related to different variables to identify risk factors. Postoperative wound complications were found in 20.2% of patients with an individual patient probability for different risk factors ranging from 2% to 34.1%. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and the type of neck dissection were associated with a higher risk of major complications (p ? 0.05). Previous CRT and radical neck dissection/modified radical neck dissection are risk factors for major wound complications in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma undergoing neck dissection. Patients requiring neck dissection after CRT should be informed about the increased risk of the procedure, and selective neck dissection, if oncologically appropriate, should be considered to reduce complications. PMID:23620635

  1. Aggressive natural killer-cell neoplasm presenting in the marrow: a report of two cases including one with gains of chromosomes 4q and 9p.

    PubMed

    Jhuang, Jie-Yang; Clipson, Alexandra; Hsieh, Yen-Chuan; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Sheng-Tsung; Du, Ming-Qing; Chuang, Shih-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive nature killer (NK)-cell neoplasm includes aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL) and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type. ANKL is rare and is characterized by a systemic neoplastic proliferation of NK-cells, usually with a leukemic presentation. ENKTL is a predominantly extranodal lymphoma, occurring mainly in the upper aerodigestive tract. Both are aggressive neoplasms strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Here we report two patients with aggressive NK-cells neoplasms localized in the bone marrow (BM) who presented as prolonged fever, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Both were treated initially as infectious disease. Imaging studies revealed splenomegaly without any nodular lesion or lymphadenopathy. BM examination revealed extensive involvement by EBV-positive NK-cells in both cases. Staging workup including nasal examination/biopsy was negative. Both patients passed away in a month. One case showed gains of chromosomes 4q and 9p by array comparative genomic hybridization. Both tumors were diagnostically challenging due to the unusual clinical presentation and absence of leukemic change, tumor mass or lymphadenopathy. Our cases demonstrate that lymphoma should be considered in patients with fever of unknown origin and bone marrow aspiration/biopsy should be performed as early diagnosis and novel therapeutic regimens may benefit these patients. PMID:26141723

  2. HPV infection and cervical disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jonathan R; Ding, Zongqun; Rose, Barbara R

    2011-04-01

    Cervical cancer remains a significant problem worldwide particularly in underdeveloped countries. The disease and its financial impact are significant. Infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV) is necessary for the development of cervical cancer and its precursors. HPV also causes precancer and cancer elsewhere in the lower genital tract in women and men, as well as cancers of the aerodigestive tract. Whilst non-sexual transmission has been reported, the usual method of transmission is by sexual intercourse with the virus deposited on the basement membrane of the cervical epithelium. It is then taken up by the basal cells, and viral amplification occurs with the maturation of the squamous epithelium. During this process, it remains hidden from the host immune system, thus not mounting an immune response in many instances. About half of the women infected with HPV do not develop clinically detected serum antibody levels and are thus at risk of re-infection with the same HPV type. HPV vaccination produces sustained levels of serum-neutralising antibodies and has been shown to be effective in reducing disease caused by the vaccine-associated HPV types. Vaccination is considered well tolerated and safe with syncope and venous thromboembolism reported more frequently that would be expected. Vaccination will not protect against pre-existing HPV infection and hence may not provide complete protection in all women, and as the duration of protection is not known, for the time being routine Pap testing screening according to the Australian guidelines should continue. PMID:21466509

  3. Traditional and modern uses of natural honey in human diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Najafi, Moslem

    2013-06-01

    Honey is a by-product of flower nectar and the upper aero-digestive tract of the honey bee, which is concentrated through a dehydration process inside the bee hive. Honey has a very complex chemical composition that varies depending on the botanical source. It has been used both as food and medicine since ancient times. Human use of honey is traced to some 8000 years ago as depicted by Stone Age paintings. In addition to important role of natural honey in the traditional medicine, during the past few decades, it was subjected to laboratory and clinical investigations by several research groups and it has found a place in modern medicine. Honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect on around 60 species of bacteria, some species of fungi and viruses. Antioxidant capacity of honey is important in many disease conditions and is due to a wide range of compounds including phenolics, peptides, organic acids, enzymes, and Maillard reaction products. Honey has also been used in some gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neoplastic states. This review covers the composition, physico-chemical properties and the most important uses of natural honey in human diseases. PMID:23997898

  4. Incidence and prognostic impact of high-risk HPV tumor infection in cervical esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ludmir, Ethan B.; Palta, Manisha; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wu, Yuan; Willett, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical esophageal carcinoma (CEC) is an uncommon malignancy. Limited data supports the use of definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) as primary treatment. Furthermore, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) tumor infection in CEC remains unknown. This study retrospectively analyzes both outcomes of CEC patients treated with CRT and the incidence and potential role of HPV tumor infection in CEC lesions. Methods A total of 37 CEC patients were treated with definitive CRT at our institution between 1987 and 2013. Of these, 19 had tumor samples available for high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) pathological analysis. Results For all patients (n=37), 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and loco-regional control (LRC) rates were 34.1%, 40.2%, and 65.6%, respectively. On pathological analysis, 1/19 (5.3%) patients had an HPV-positive lesion. Conclusions Definitive CRT provides disease-related outcomes comparable to surgery. Moreover, HPV tumor infection in CEC is uncommon and its prognostic role is unclear. Our data contribute to the construction of an anatomical map of HPV tumor infection in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the upper aerodigestive tract, and suggest a steep drop in viral infection rates at sites distal to the oropharynx, including the cervical esophagus. PMID:25436117

  5. Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: a gender pattern that differs across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, G; Kunst, A E; Stirbu, I; Strand, B H; Borrell, C; Regidor, E; Leclerc, A; Esnaola, S; Bopp, M; Lundberg, O; Artnik, B; Costa, G; Deboosere, P; Martikainen, P; Mackenbach, J P

    2008-01-01

    We used longitudinal mortality data sets for the 1990s to compare socioeconomic inequalities in total cancer mortality between women and men aged 30–74 in 12 different European populations (Madrid, Basque region, Barcelona, Slovenia, Turin, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland) and to investigate which cancer sites explain the differences found. We measured socioeconomic status using educational level and computed relative indices of inequality (RII). We observed large variations within Europe for educational differences in total cancer mortality among men and women. Three patterns were observed: Denmark, Norway and Sweden (significant RII around 1.3–1.4 among both men and women); France, Switzerland, Belgium and Finland (significant RII around 1.7–1.8 among men and around 1.2 among women); Spanish populations, Slovenia and Turin (significant RII from 1.29 to 1.88 among men; no differences among women except in the Basque region, where RII is significantly lower than 1). Lung, upper aerodigestive tract and breast cancers explained most of the variations between gender and populations in the magnitude of inequalities in total cancer mortality. Given time trends in cancer mortality, the gap in the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality between gender and between European populations will probably decrease in the future. PMID:18283307

  6. Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: a gender pattern that differs across Europe.

    PubMed

    Menvielle, G; Kunst, A E; Stirbu, I; Strand, B H; Borrell, C; Regidor, E; Leclerc, A; Esnaola, S; Bopp, M; Lundberg, O; Artnik, B; Costa, G; Deboosere, P; Martikainen, P; Mackenbach, J P

    2008-03-11

    We used longitudinal mortality data sets for the 1990s to compare socioeconomic inequalities in total cancer mortality between women and men aged 30-74 in 12 different European populations (Madrid, Basque region, Barcelona, Slovenia, Turin, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland) and to investigate which cancer sites explain the differences found. We measured socioeconomic status using educational level and computed relative indices of inequality (RII). We observed large variations within Europe for educational differences in total cancer mortality among men and women. Three patterns were observed: Denmark, Norway and Sweden (significant RII around 1.3-1.4 among both men and women); France, Switzerland, Belgium and Finland (significant RII around 1.7-1.8 among men and around 1.2 among women); Spanish populations, Slovenia and Turin (significant RII from 1.29 to 1.88 among men; no differences among women except in the Basque region, where RII is significantly lower than 1). Lung, upper aerodigestive tract and breast cancers explained most of the variations between gender and populations in the magnitude of inequalities in total cancer mortality. Given time trends in cancer mortality, the gap in the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality between gender and between European populations will probably decrease in the future. PMID:18283307

  7. How I treat NK/T-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Tse, Eric; Kwong, Yok-Lam

    2013-06-20

    Natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphomas and NK-cell leukemias are aggressive malignancies. Occurring worldwide, they show a predilection for Asian and South American populations. Neoplastic cells are surface CD3-, cytoplasmic CD3?+, CD56+, cytotoxic-molecule positive, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive, with germline T-cell receptor gene. Lymphomas occur commonly in the nasal and upper aerodigestive region. Occasional cases present in the skin, salivary gland, testis, and gastrointestinal tract. Rare cases are disseminated with lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and a leukemic phase. Positron emission tomography computed tomography is useful in staging, as lymphomas are 18-fluorodeoxyglucose avid. Quantification of circulating EBV DNA is an accurate biomarker of tumor load. Nasal NK/T-cell lymphomas present mostly with stage I/II disease. Concomitant/sequential chemotherapy and radiotherapy is standard treatment. Radiotherapy alone is inadequate because of high systemic failure rate. For stage III/IV nasal, nonnasal, and disseminated lymphomas, systemic chemotherapy is indicated. Regimens containing l-asparaginase and drugs unaffected by P-glycoprotein are most effective. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is not indicated for early-stage nasal lymphomas. HSCT for lymphomas not in remission has poor results. In advanced-stage nasal, nonnasal, disseminated, or relapsed lymphomas, HSCT may be considered when remission is achieved. Prognostic modeling and EBV DNA monitoring may be useful in risk stratification for HSCT. PMID:23652805

  8. Lipoma of the larynx: a case report

    PubMed Central

    De Vincentiis, M; Greco, A; Mascelli, A; Soldo, P; Zambetti, G

    2010-01-01

    Summary Lipoma is a benign tumour of mesenchymal origin with a very rare occurrence in the upper aero-digestive tract. To date, approximately 100 cases have been described in the literature. This lesion has a slow growth and, therefore, can present with various symptoms due to the mass effect with obstruction and compression on neighbouring structures, including dysphagia for liquid and solid food, dyspnoea and hoarseness. For a precise pre-operative diagnosis, indirect or direct laryngoscopy (flexible fibre-optic laryngoscopy) can be employed or, if necessary, also imaging techniques such as computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan. These offer more useful information for better treatment planning. Surgery is the treatment of choice and includes endoscopic techniques and an external surgical approach (cervicotomy). It is very important to completely remove these benign neoplasms in order to avoid local recurrence. The present report refering to a case of laryngeal lipoma removed through an external surgical approach, aims to demonstrate that the choice of an external surgical approach is required for complete surgical removal of a large lipoma in order to prevent any possible recurrence. Furthermore, it is useful to keep in mind the possibility of recurrence of lipomas after long free intervals; therefore, it is mandatory to observe these patients at long-term follow-up. PMID:20559475

  9. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, and tracheobronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, Merrill A.

    1993-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy has the potential to treat and cure early carcinomas of the head and neck while preserving normal tissue. Thirty patients with neoplasia of the head and neck have been treated with PDT with follow-up to twenty nine months. Four patients with T3 and T4 carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract had a partial response. Eleven patients with T1 and T2 carcinomas of the larynx obtained a complete response and are disease free. Seven patients with T1 carcinomas of the tongue, floor of mouth, and nasal cavity obtained a complete response. Three patients with mucosal melanomas of the nasopharynx obtained a complete response and have remained disease free. Two patients with Kaposi's sarcoma of the oral cavity were treated. One obtained a complete response. Three patients with recurrent juvenile laryngotracheal papillomatosis obtained a complete response, but one recurred four months post-PDT. PDT is a promising therapy for treatment of early neoplasia of the head and neck. There are, however, limitations to this treatment based on tumor size and site. Methodology, clinical response, limitations, and complications will be discussed.

  10. Photodynamic therapy and the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, and tracheobronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, Merrill A.

    1994-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has the potential to treat and cure early carcinomas of the head and neck while preserving normal tissue. Fifty-three patients with neoplasia of the head and neck have been treated with PDT with follow-up to 40 months. Eight patients with T2-T4 carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract had a partial response. Eighteen patients with CIS and T1 carcinomas of the larynx obtained a complete response and are disease free. Eleven patients with T1 carcinomas of the tongue, floor of mouth, and nasal cavity obtained a complete response. Three patients with mucosal melanomas of the nasopharynx obtained a complete response and remain disease free. Two patients with Kaposi's sarcoma or the oral cavity were treated, one obtained a complete response. Five patients with juvenile laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis obtained a complete response, but all recurred within six months of treatment. PDT is a promising therapy for treatment of early neoplasia of the head and neck. There are, however limitations to this treatment based on tumor size and site. Methodology, clinical response, limitations and complications are discussed.

  11. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n = 11), lung cancer (n = 6), testicular cancer (n = 3), childhood cancers (n = 6), all cancers (n = 1), anal cancer (n = 1), penile cancer (n = 1), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), malignant primary gliomas (n = 1), bladder cancer (n = 1), and Kaposi sarcoma (n = 1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by human papillomavirus status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared with tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use [summary ORs, 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.23 for higher frequency and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.08-2.09) for ?10 years]. For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  12. Natural killer cell lymphoma/leukemia: pathology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Y L; Chan, A C; Liang, R H

    1997-05-01

    Malignancies arising from cells of putative natural killer (NK) cell origin have increasingly been recognized as distinct clinicopathological entities. These malignancies are marked by tumour cells with NK cell characteristics, including the immunophenotype of CD2+, surface CD3-, cytoplasmic CD3 epsilon+, CD7 +/-, and CD56+, and the genotype of germline T cell receptor gene. A consistent association with monoclonal Epstein-Barr virus infection in the tumour cell has been observed. These tumours are now regarded as putative NK cell lymphoma/leukemia. Pathologically, tumour cells show variable cytological appearances, with frequent angiocentricity and angioinvasion, associated with zonal necrosis. Clinically, most cases occur in the nasal area and upper aerodigestive tract. However, occurrence in non-nasal sites such as the skin, gastrointestinal tract and testis is also observed. A particularly aggressive form of NK lymphoma/leukemia presents fulminantly as disseminated disease sometimes with a leukemic phase. All types of NK lymphoma/leukemia have an extremely poor prognosis with a median survival of less than a year. New modalities of treatment, including the use of high dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue may be needed to improve treatment outcome. PMID:9375032

  13. Block copolymer carrier systems for translymphatic chemotherapy of lymph node metastases.

    PubMed

    Dünne, Anja A; Boerner, Hans G; Kukula, Hildegard; Schlaad, Helmut; Wiegand, Susanne; Werner, Jochen A; Antonietti, Markus

    2007-01-01

    The presence of lymph node metastases relevantly and significantly impairs disease-specific survival in patients suffering from squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. In a VX2 animal tumor model, we present an interstitial translymphatic therapeutic approach using cis-diaminedichloro-platinum(II) (CDDP) conjugated to a poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(lysine) (PEO-b-PLys) block copolymer tracking systems for the successful treatment of lymph node metastases. Most effective was the application of a high cargo-load CDDP tracking system (48 wt. % CDDP) curing 90% of the animals and causing only minor local side-effects. Systems containing 1 or 10 wt. % of CDDP were less effective but still cured 50% of the animals. Moreover, the administration of 1 or 10 wt. % of CDDP consistently limited tumor growth to the draining lymph nodes (50%) and prevented systemic distribution of the metastasis even'with 1 wt. % CDDP load. The systems contained 0.25-0.003 mg/kg per body weight CDDP compared to 1 ml/kg per body weight as usually used for intravenous administration. This approach encourages further and more detailed research of a CDDP-based interstitial translymphatic administration of chemotherapy for lymphogenic metastasizing carcinomas in different body regions. PMID:18225553

  14. The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Helen; Franco, Eduardo L

    2006-03-30

    Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection during their lifetimes. More than 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body; of these, 13-18 types are considered to be high-oncogenic risk HPV types (HR-HPV). Persistent infection with HR-HPVs is now unequivocally established as a necessary cause of cervical cancer and is likely to be responsible for a substantial proportion of other anogenital neoplasms and upper aero-digestive tract cancers. Low oncogenic risk HPV types (LR-HPV) are also responsible for considerable morbidity as the cause of genital warts. Youth and certain sexual characteristics are key risk factors for HPV acquisition and persistence of HPV infection, but other mediating factors include smoking, oral contraceptive (OC) use, other STIs (e.g. chlamydia, herpes simplex virus), chronic inflammation, immunosuppressive conditions including HIV infection, parity, dietary factors, and polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen system. Not surprisingly, these factors are also established or candidate cofactors identified in epidemiologic studies of cervical cancer. HPV transmissibility and molecular events in HPV-induced carcinogenesis have been the focus of recent multidisciplinary epidemiologic studies. This shift in research focus coincides with a shift in cancer prevention techniques towards immunization with HPV vaccines and HPV testing of precancerous lesions. PMID:16406226

  15. Polymorphous Low-Grade Adenocarcinoma of the Tongue Base Treated by Transoral Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Hong; Hyun, Chang Lim; Lim, Gil Chai

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy arising from the minor salivary glands in the aerodigestive system, most frequently the hard palate. The treatment of choice is wide surgical resection, and the efficacy of radiotherapy has not been confirmed. A 54-year-old male presenting with a mass at the base of the tongue performed transoral laser microsurgery. The pathologic diagnosis was polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. Complete surgical excision was performed via transoral robotic surgery without a flap reconstruction of the surgical defect. Without complications of bleeding or injury to the hypoglossal nerve, proper surgical margins were obtained, and no recurrence was found after 6 months after surgery. The patient did not complain of dysphagia or aspiration. We conclude that, in surgery for tongue base tumors with unknown malignant potential, transoral robotic surgery can be considered for achieving a definite resection avoiding a mandibulotomy without complications of dysphagia or aspiration after confirmation of malignancy with a frozen biopsy. PMID:25954561

  16. Prognostic significance of Ki-67 antigen expression in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Xinke; Qiu, Huijuan; Zhang, Bei

    2014-10-01

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (ENKTL) is a clinically heterogeneous disease with poor prognosis and requires risk stratification in affected patients. Recent studies have shown that Ki-67 may serve as a prognostic marker in certain types of lymphoma. We analyzed Ki-67 expression and its correlation with prognosis in 182 patients with ENKTL from January 2002 to June 2013. The patients were classified into two groups through a median value: low (<60%) versus high Ki-67 (?60%). High Ki-67 expression was more common in patients with B symptoms (p=0.02), bulky disease (p=0.001), and extraupper aerodigestive tract NK/T-cell lymphoma (p=0.001). High Ki-67 expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival (p<0.0001) and progression-free survival (p<0.0001). For patients with low-risk IPI or KPI, Ki-67 at diagnosis could contribute to distinguish patients with favorable outcomes from those with poor outcomes. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the high Ki-67 expression is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and progression-free survival. (OS, p=0.001; PFS, p=0.003). Our data showed that Ki-67 is an effective prognostic indicator of survival in ENKTL patients. This prognostic index may be helpful in identifying high-risk patients with ENKTL. PMID:25204411

  17. Optical coherence tomography and confocal endomicroscopy for rhinologic pathologies: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olzowy, B.; Starke, N.; Schuldt, T.; Hüttmann, G.; Lankenau, E.; Just, T.

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal endomicroscopy (CEM) have a well-established potential for early diagnosis of pre-malignant and early malignant lesions of the upper aerodigestive tract mucosa. Additional applications in ENT-diagnostics might facilitate a more widespread use by making the investment into the devices more economic. Both imaging techniques might also provide valuable information in nasal pathologies. OCT images were generated with a surgical microscope (Möller-Wedel Hi-R 1000) with an integrated high-speed-OCT camera (Optomedical GmbH). For the CEM a Heidelberg Retina tomograph II scanner (Heidelberg Engineering GmbH) was used. Both during sinus surgery in vivo and from removed material ex vivo OCT and CEM images were taken and correlated with histopathological analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Patients with inverted papillomas and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) were evaluated. Inverted papillomas show a variably thick epithelial layer on OCT and densely packed epithelial cells on CEM. They can be clearly distinguished from nasal polyps that show a very thin epithelial layer upon loose subepithelial tissue. In CRS CEM can distinguish areas with intact from areas with destroyed ciliated epithelium by directly visualizing ciliary movement. OCT sometimes showed thin superficial dense structures that might correspond to biofilms. OCT and CEM might provide valuable information in the follow-up care of patients with inverted papillomas and in diagnostics of CRS.

  18. Pharmacological recruitment of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) to assist ALDH2 in acetaldehyde and ethanol metabolism in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Che-Hong; Cruz, Leslie A; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2015-03-10

    Correcting a genetic mutation that leads to a loss of function has been a challenge. One such mutation is in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), denoted ALDH2*2. This mutation is present in ? 0.6 billion East Asians and results in accumulation of toxic acetaldehyde after consumption of ethanol. To temporarily increase metabolism of acetaldehyde in vivo, we describe an approach in which a pharmacologic agent recruited another ALDH to metabolize acetaldehyde. We focused on ALDH3A1, which is enriched in the upper aerodigestive track, and identified Alda-89 as a small molecule that enables ALDH3A1 to metabolize acetaldehyde. When given together with the ALDH2-specific activator, Alda-1, Alda-89 reduced acetaldehyde-induced behavioral impairment by causing a rapid reduction in blood ethanol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol intoxication in both wild-type and ALDH2-deficient, ALDH2*1/*2, heterozygotic knock-in mice. The use of a pharmacologic agent to recruit an enzyme to metabolize a substrate that it usually does not metabolize may represent a novel means to temporarily increase elimination of toxic agents in vivo. PMID:25713355

  19. Inhibition and regression of tumors in hamster DMBA model following laser microvascular targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Wang, Zhi; Shapshay, Stanley M.

    1998-07-01

    Vascular targeting is a recent approach to cancer therapy that aims at damaging tumor vasculature to induce tumor cell hypoxia and subsequent cell death. Squamous cell cancer arises in the superficial mucosal and cutaneous epithelial layers, and tumor microvasculature therefore may be particularly well suited for targeting by selective photothermolysis. An initial evaluation of the effect of selective eradication of microvasculature on tumor development was undertaken here using the chemically-induced hamster cheek pouch model and a 585 nm pulsed dye laser. In a first group of 6 hamsters, progression of premalignant mucosal lesions was compared between control and laser treatment groups, and laser-induced regression of established tumors was evaluated. In a second group of 12 hamsters, the number of laser treatments required to produce complete regression of tumors of the buccal mucosa was determined. The effect of the laser on tumors appearing on the skin in these animals was also investigated. These experiments showed that laser treatment inhibited tumor development and caused complete regression of established tumors 10 mm3 or smaller. Photothermal microvascular targeting may be useful in treating dyplasia and early tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract and skin, with fewer adverse sequelae than existing modalities.

  20. Otolaryngologic symptoms in persons exposed to World Trade Center dust and particle pollutants: a case for caution in declaring a diagnosis of WTC syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Swapna K; Hawkshaw, Mary J; Sataloff, Robert T

    2009-08-01

    Since the Sept. 11, 2001, attack on the World Trade Center (WTC), the health status of survivors, rescue and cleanup workers, and residents of Lower Manhattan has been monitored. Exposure to dust and particulate matter resulted in numerous complaints of both upper and lower aerodigestive tract irritation. The symptoms, diagnoses, and management of affected persons have previously been described in the literature. However, evidence establishing causation is scarce, especially with regard to the purported long-term effects of such exposure. Many persons who were exposed to the Ground Zero site have otolaryngologic conditions that are common in persons who were not so exposed. Therefore, otolaryngologists involved in the care of such patients should be cautious about assigning a diagnosis of "WTC syndrome" without a comprehensive examination to look for other possible etiologies. A diagnosis of a treatable, potentially serious health problem should not be missed simply because a patient who was exposed to WTC irritants was presumed to have WTC syndrome. In this review, we discuss the reported otolaryngologic manifestations of exposure to the WTC site, and we describe the specific cases of 2 workers there who continue to have otolaryngologic complaints. Considerable research is needed to establish the existence and nature of any long-term sequelae of exposure to WTC fallout. PMID:19688717

  1. Assessment of Margins in Transoral Laser and Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hamzany, Yaniv; Brasnu, Daniel; Shpitzer, Thomas; Shvero, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The growing practice of endoscopic surgery has changed the therapeutic management of selected head and neck cancers. Although a negative surgical margin in resection of neoplasm is the most important surgical principle in oncologic surgery, controversies exist regarding assessment and interpretation of the status of margin resection. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature considering the assessment and feasibility of negative margins in transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) and transoral robotic surgery (TORS). Free margin status is being approached differently in vocal cord cancer (1–2 mm) compared with other sites in the upper aerodigestive tract (2–5 mm). Exposure, orientation of the pathological specimen, and co-operation with the pathologist are crucial principles needed to be followed in transoral surgery. Piecemeal resection to better expose deep tumor involvement and biopsies taken from surgical margins surrounding site of resection can improve margin assessment. High rates of negative surgical margins can be achieved with TLM and TORS. Adjuvant treatment decision should take into consideration also the surgeon’s judgment with regard to the completeness of tumor resection. PMID:24808954

  2. Aggressive mature natural killer cell neoplasms: from epidemiology to diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mature natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms are classified by the World Health Organization into NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (NKTCL), aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKCL) and chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK-cells, the latter being considered provisionally. NKTCL and ANKCL are rare diseases, with higher prevalence in Asia, Central and South America. Most NKTCL present extranodal, as a destructive tumor affecting the nose and upper aerodigestive tract (nasal NKTCL) or any organ or tissue (extranasal NKTCL) whereas ANKCL manifests as a systemic disease with multiorgan involvement and naturally evolutes to death in a few weeks. The histopathological hallmark of these aggressive NK-cell tumors is a polymorphic neoplastic infiltrate with angiocentricity, angiodestruction and tissue necrosis. The tumor cells have cytoplasmatic azurophilic granules and usually show a CD45+bright, CD2+, sCD3-, cytCD3epsilon+, CD56+bright, CD16?/+, cytotoxic granules molecules+ phenotype. T-cell receptor genes are in germ-line configuration. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -encoded membrane proteins and early region EBV RNA are usually detected on lymphoma cells, with a pattern suggestive of a latent viral infection type II. Complex chromosomal abnormalities are frequent and loss of chromosomes 6q, 11q, 13q, and 17p are recurrent aberrations. The rarity of the NK-cell tumors limits our ability to standardize the procedures for the diagnosis and clinical management and efforts should be made to encourage multi-institutional registries. PMID:23816348

  3. Microarchitecture of irradiated bone: comparison with healthy bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bléry, Pauline; Amouriq, Yves; Guédon, Jeanpierre; Pilet, Paul; Normand, Nicolas; Durand, Nicolas; Espitalier, Florent; Arlicot, Aurore; Malard, Olivier; Weiss, Pierre

    2012-03-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract represent about ten percent of cancers. External radiation therapy leads to esthetic and functional consequences, and to a decrease of the bone mechanical abilities. For these patients, the oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including possibilities of dental implant placement, is difficult. The effects of radiotherapy on bone microarchitecture parameters are not well known. Thus, the purpose of this study is to assess the effects of external radiation on bone micro architecture in an experimental model of 25 rats using micro CT. 15 rats were irradiated on the hind limbs by a single dose of 20 Grays, and 10 rats were non irradiated. Images of irradiated and healthy bone were compared. Bone microarchitecture parameters (including trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, connectivity density and tissue and bone volume) between irradiated and non-irradiated bones were calculated and compared using a Mann and Whitney test. After 7 and 12 weeks, images of irradiated and healthy bone are different. Differences on the irradiated and the healthy bone populations exhibit a statistical significance. Trabecular number, connectivity density and closed porosity are less important on irradiated bone. Trabecular thickness and separation increase for irradiated bone. These parameters indicate a decrease of irradiated bone properties. Finally, the external irradiation induces changes on the bone micro architecture. This knowledge is of prime importance for better oral prosthetic rehabilitation, including implant placement.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of meso-(tetrahydroxyphenyl)chlorin (m-THPC) studied by fluorescence spectroscopy on early cancer of the cheek pouch mucosa of Golden Syrian hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Theumann, Jean-Francois; Braichotte, Daniel; Forrer, Martin; Wagnieres, Georges A.; van den Bergh, Hubert; Andrejevic-Blant, Snezana; Savary, Jean-Francois; Monnier, Philippe

    1995-01-01

    Golden Syrian hamsters are evaluated as an animal model for phototherapy of early squamous cell carcinomas of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, the esophagus and the tracheobronchial tree. Carcinomas of this type are induced on the hamster cheek pouch mucosa by the application of the carcinogen 7,12 DMBA. For phototherapeutic experiments on the animals we utilized meso- (tetrahydoxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC). The same drug is currently in phase I, II clinical trials for ENT patients with superficial squamous cell carcinomas. By means of light induced fluorescence (LIF) we measured in vivo the kinetics of the uptake and removal of mTHPC in the normal and tumoral cheek mucosa and in the skin. The photodynamic therapy (PDT) reaction of the tissue after excitation of the photosensitizer by laser light at 652 nm was studied. Both pharmacokinetics and PDT efficacy are compared between animal model and clinical results with special emphasis on selectivity between normal and tumoral mucosa. These first experiments show that this tumor model in the hamster cheek pouch seems to be suitable for tests of a number of PDT variables of new photosensitizers preceding their clinical application as well as for optimization of the multiple parameters of clinical phototherapy.

  5. Design and fabrication of intake manifold for formula SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) race car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, Sylvie; Lavallee, Patrice

    1997-01-01

    Every year, a group of students from Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) in Montreal design and build a formula-type race car and compete in the Formula SAE competition. In this paper, we examine the design and fabrication of the ir intake system, A number of constraints challenge the designers. For example, to ensure the security of amateur drivers, motors are restrained to 600 cc and a circular restriction of 20 mm in diameter is placed at the entry of the system. Under these conditions, it is important to optimize the quality of the air/fuel mixture which depends mostly on the air intake system. A theoretical analysis reduced the field of possible runner length. However, the influence of runner configuration, plenum shape and size can only be determined experimentally. Polyacrylic functional prototypes were produced and tested on a dynamometric bench. A stereolithography model representing the inner passageways of the optimal intake manifold was built and used as a positive for a polyurethane mold. A composite lamination process was used to laminate the pre-production prototype over a molded wax plug. The major advantage of this approach over craftsmanship or even machining is the time saved to make the mold and the unlimited complexity of the shape permitted by the rapid prototyping systems.

  6. Developpement d'un modele zonal pour la simulation thermo-aeraulique des batiments multizones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafi, Fatima Zohra

    This thesis focuses on modeling of thermal movements and air quality inside buildings using the Euler equations. The main objective is to compare the numerical results obtained with the Euler model (inviscid model) to a model based on Navier-Stokes equations (viscous model) for different scenarios of heating, ventilation and air conditioning. To achieve this aim, this study is divided into three parts. The first part presents the results of a two-dimensional study which contains two scenarios: heating by natural convection and ventilation by the floor. The second part of the thesis is a three-dimensional study for evaluation of flow velocities, temperatures and thermal comfort indices PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) and PPD (Percentage of Dissatisfied Persons) for two cases of simulation: heating and ventilation by the floor and an air conditioning case. Numerical results from the two previously described parts of this thesis were compared to experimental measurements; performed in a model room situated at the center of thermal technology (CTT) at the Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS). The last part of the present thesis is dedicated, first, to study the dispersion of a contaminant gas (SF6) in a ventilated room using two ventilation strategies. Finally, the Euler model's ability to determine the field velocity, temperature and local concentration of a contaminant gases is verified through a simple multizone modeling.

  7. Virtual firm in biomedical education: A very successful experience.

    PubMed

    Butterlin, Nadia; Flores, Steeven; Guyon, Florent; Blagosklonov, Oleg

    2014-08-01

    In May 2006, the Institut Superieur d'Ingenieurs de Franche-Comte? (ISIFC) launched its own virtual firm, which was named Biotika® by students. Virtual means that this company has no real legal status. It is a pedagogic model; however, the situation scenario for the ISIFC student engineers is real. They are currently working in real conditions on the development of new medical devices and on the modernization of medical products. The need for these innovative medical devices was identified by the students during their second-year (6 weeks) internship in hospitals. Biotika® is open between March and December every year. The students are "recruited" following an imitation job interview and each is then entrusted with a mission (engineer, project manager etc.) in one of the company's four departments: Research & Design, Quality-regulatory affairs, Clinical investigations, and Public relationsmarketing. The personnel of Biotika® work on the development of innovative medical devices and/or the preparation of CE or FDA certification for 2 days per week. Since its launch, Biotika® has developed eight products and obtained many grants and prizes from French research and governmental organizations. It is also certified ISO 13485. PMID:25571157

  8. Probability distribution of financial returns in a model of multiplicative Brownian motion with stochastic diffusion coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Antonio

    2005-03-01

    It is well-known that the mathematical theory of Brownian motion was first developed in the Ph. D. thesis of Louis Bachelier for the French stock market before Einstein [1]. In Ref. [2] we studied the so-called Heston model, where the stock-price dynamics is governed by multiplicative Brownian motion with stochastic diffusion coefficient. We solved the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation exactly and found an analytic formula for the time-dependent probability distribution of stock price changes (returns). The formula interpolates between the exponential (tent-shaped) distribution for short time lags and the Gaussian (parabolic) distribution for long time lags. The theoretical formula agrees very well with the actual stock-market data ranging from the Dow-Jones index [2] to individual companies [3], such as Microsoft, Intel, etc. [] [1] Louis Bachelier, ``Th'eorie de la sp'eculation,'' Annales Scientifiques de l''Ecole Normale Sup'erieure, III-17:21-86 (1900).[] [2] A. A. Dragulescu and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Probability distribution of returns in the Heston model with stochastic volatility,'' Quantitative Finance 2, 443--453 (2002); Erratum 3, C15 (2003). [cond-mat/0203046] [] [3] A. C. Silva, R. E. Prange, and V. M. Yakovenko, ``Exponential distribution of financial returns at mesoscopic time lags: a new stylized fact,'' Physica A 344, 227--235 (2004). [cond-mat/0401225

  9. Economic Value of an Advanced Climate Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific missions increasingly need to show the monetary value of knowledge advances in budget-constrained environments. For example, suppose a climate science mission promises to yield decisive information on the rate of human caused global warming within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) creates a standard yardstick for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, setting uncertainty in climate sensitivity to a truncated Roe and Baker (2007) distribution, setting discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate mitigation response DICE Optimal, and a strong response scenario (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we are on the BAU emissions scenario, and that we would switch to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on the uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain that it happens depends, in addition, on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can shorten the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems, exceeds the NPV of the system costs. Our results (Cooke et al. 2013) compared the proposed CLARREO advance in satellite absolute calibration for climate change records to an existing system for detecting decadal temperature change using infrared spectra from weather satellites. New results extend this to observational detection of cloud feedback which is the largest uncertainty in determining climate sensitivity and therefore the uncertainty in economic impacts. New results also include the use of multiple societal decision triggers. While CLARREO is used as an example, the value should be considered as relevant to a complete high accuracy climate observing system, as societal decisions are unlikely to be based on one or a few observations. The VOI is found to depend on the required confidence level, the trigger value at which we would abandon the BAU emissions path, the path to which we switch, and the date at which the new system is launched. The VOI of advanced climate observations in this decision context is the surfeit of NPV of averted damages, relative to the existing system. Over all it is in the order of tens of trillions of US dollars in Net Present Value. The results conclude that the economic value of advanced climate observing systems is dramatically larger than their cost, and argues for the continual enhancement of the SCC assessment process.

  10. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khader, A.; Rosenberg, D.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrate pollution poses a health risk for infants whose freshwater drinking source is groundwater. This risk creates a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include: (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, pollution transport processes, and climate (Khader and McKee, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine where methemoglobinemia is the main health problem associated with the principal pollutant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not-use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs include healthcare for methemoglobinemia, purchase of bottled water, and installation and maintenance of the groundwater monitoring system. At current methemoglobinemia and bottled water costs of 150 $/person and 0.6 $/baby/day, the decision tree results show that the expected cost of establishing the proposed groundwater quality monitoring network exceeds the expected costs of the uninformed alternatives and there is not value to the information the monitoring system provides. However, the monitoring system will be preferred to ignoring the health risk or using alternative sources if the methemoglobinemia cost rises to 300 $/person or the bottled water cost increases to 2.3 $/baby/day. Similarly, the monitoring system has value if the system can more accurately report actual aquifer concentrations and the public more fully abides by managers' recommendations to use/not use the aquifer. The system also has value if it will serve a larger population or if its installation costs can be reduced, for example using a smaller number of monitoring wells. The VOI analysis shows how monitoring system design, accuracy, installation and operating costs, public awareness of health risks, costs of alternatives, and demographics together affect the value of implementing a system to monitor groundwater quality.

  11. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khader, A. I.; Rosenberg, D. E.; McKee, M.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs include healthcare for methemoglobinemia, purchase of bottled water, and installation and maintenance of the groundwater monitoring system. At current methemoglobinemia and bottled water costs of 150/person and 0.6/baby/day, the decision tree results show that the expected cost of establishing the proposed groundwater quality monitoring network exceeds the expected costs of the uninformed alternatives and there is no value to the information the monitoring system provides. However, the monitoring system will be preferred to ignoring the health risk or using alternative sources if the methemoglobinemia cost rises to 300/person or the bottled water cost increases to 2.3/baby/day. Similarly, the monitoring system has value if the system can more accurately report actual aquifer concentrations and the public more fully abides by manager recommendations to use/not use the aquifer. The system also has value if it will serve a larger population or if its installation costs can be reduced, for example using a smaller number of monitoring wells. The VOI analysis shows how monitoring system design, accuracy, installation and operating costs, public awareness of health risks, costs of alternatives, and demographics together affect the value of implementing a system to monitor groundwater quality.

  12. Segmentation of abdomen MR images using kernel graph cuts with shape priors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Abdominal organs segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR) images is an important but challenging task in medical image processing. Especially for abdominal tissues or organs, such as liver and kidney, MR imaging is a very difficult task due to the fact that MR images are affected by intensity inhomogeneity, weak boundary, noise and the presence of similar objects close to each other. Method In this study, a novel method for tissue or organ segmentation in abdomen MR imaging is proposed; this method combines kernel graph cuts (KGC) with shape priors. First, the region growing algorithm and morphology operations are used to obtain the initial contour. Second, shape priors are obtained by training the shape templates, which were collected from different human subjects with kernel principle component analysis (KPCA) after the registration between all the shape templates and the initial contour. Finally, a new model is constructed by integrating the shape priors into the kernel graph cuts energy function. The entire process aims to obtain an accurate image segmentation. Results The proposed segmentation method has been applied to abdominal organs MR images. The results showed that a satisfying segmentation without boundary leakage and segmentation incorrect can be obtained also in presence of similar tissues. Quantitative experiments were conducted for comparing the proposed segmentation with other three methods: DRLSE, initial erosion contour and KGC without shape priors. The comparison is based on two quantitative performance measurements: the probabilistic rand index (PRI) and the variation of information (VoI). The proposed method has the highest PRI value (0.9912, 0.9983 and 0.9980 for liver, right kidney and left kidney respectively) and the lowest VoI values (1.6193, 0.3205 and 0.3217 for liver, right kidney and left kidney respectively). Conclusion The proposed method can overcome boundary leakage. Moreover it can segment liver and kidneys in abdominal MR images without segmentation errors due to the presence of similar tissues. The shape priors based on KPCA was integrated into fully automatic graph cuts algorithm (KGC) to make the segmentation algorithm become more robust and accurate. Furthermore, if a shelter is placed onto the target boundary, the proposed method can still obtain satisfying segmentation results. PMID:24295198

  13. The economic value of remote sensing information: a case study of agricultural production and groundwater vulnerability using applied environmental science and hydrogeospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forney, W.; Bernknopf, R. L.; Mishra, S.; Raunikar, R. P.

    2011-12-01

    William M. Forney1*, Richard L. Bernknopf1, Shruti K. Mishra2, Ronald P. Raunikar1. 1=Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. 2=Contractor, Western Geographic Science Center, US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California *=Contact author, wforney@usgs.gov, 650-329-4237. Does remote sensing information provide economic benefits to society and can those benefits be valued? Can resource management and policy be better informed by coupling past and present earth observations with groundwater nitrate measurements? Using an integrated assessment approach, the USGS's research applies an established conceptual framework to answer these questions as well as estimate the value of information (VOI) for remote sensing imagery. The approach uses moderate resolution land imagery (MRLI) data from the Landsat and Advanced Wide Field Sensor satellites that has been classified by the National Agricultural Statistics Service into the Cropland Data Layer (CDL). Within the constraint of the US Environmental Protection Agency's public health threshold for potable groundwater resources, we model the relationship between a population of the CDL's land uses and the evolution of nitrate (NO3-) contamination of aquifers in a case study region in northeastern Iowa. Using source data from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and the USGS's National Water Quality Assessment Program, the approach uses multi-scaled, environmental science models to address dynamic, biophysical process models of nitrogen fate and transport at specific sites (wells) and at landscape scale (35 counties) in order to assess groundwater vulnerability. In addition to the ecosystem service of potable groundwater, this effort focuses on particular agricultural goods and land uses: corn, soybeans and livestock manure management. Results of this four-year study will be presented, including: 1) the integrated models of the assessment approach, 2) mapping the range of vulnerabilities across the region, and 3) considerations of improved nitrogen and crop management. Finally, utilizing both a situation where society does not have access to MRLI, and an enhanced land use scenario based on plausible, future regulatory and policy frameworks and continued availability of MRLI, estimates of the incremental increase in the MRLI's VOI are presented.

  14. PET quantification with a histogram derived total activity metric: Superior quantitative consistency compared to total lesion glycolysis with absolute or relative SUV thresholds in phantoms and lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Irene A.; Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Apte, Aditya; Beattie, Bradley J.; Humm, John L.; Gonen, Mithat; Larson, Steven M.; Schmidtlein, C. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The increasing use of molecular imaging probes as biomarkers in oncology emphasizes the need for robust and stable methods for quantifying tracer uptake in PET imaging. The primary motivation for this research was to find an accurate method to quantify the total tumor uptake. Therefore we developed a histogram-based method to calculate the background subtracted lesion (BSL) activity and validated BSL by comparing the quantitative consistency with the total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in phantom and patient studies. Methods A thorax phantom and a PET-ACR quality assurance phantom were scanned with increasing FDG concentrations. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed over each chamber. TLG was calculated with a fixed threshold at SUV 2.5 (TLG2.5) and a relative threshold at 42% of SUVmax (TLG42%). The histogram for each VOI was built and BSL was calculated. Comparison with the total injected FDG activity (TIA) was performed using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and the slope (a). Fifty consecutive patients with FDG-avid lung tumors were selected under an IRB waiver. TLG42%, TLG2.5 and BSL were compared to the reference standard calculating CCC and the slope. Results In both phantoms, the CCC for lesions with a TIA ? 50ml*SUV between TIA and BSL was higher and the slope closer to 1 (CCC=0.933, a=1.189), than for TLG42% (CCC=0.350, a=0.731) or TLG2.5 (CCC=0.761, a=0.727). In 50 lung lesions BSL had a slope closer to 1 compared to the reference activity than TLG42% (a=1.084 vs 0.618 - for high activity lesions) and also closer to 1 than TLG2.5 (a=1.117 vs 0.548 - for low activity lesions). Conclusion The histogram based BSL correlated better with TIA in both phantom studies than TLG2.5 or TLG42%. Also in lung tumors, the BSL activity is overall more accurate in quantifying the lesion activity compared to the two most commonly applied TLG quantification methods. PMID:24666719

  15. A retrospective study of correlation of morphologic patterns, MIB1 proliferation index, and survival analysis in 134 cases of plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Ghodke, Kiran; Shet, Tanuja; Epari, Sridhar; Sengar, Manju; Menon, Hari; Gujral, Sumeet

    2015-06-01

    Plasmacytoma classified into solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) and extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is characterized by infiltrate of plasma cells of diverse maturity and by their monoclonal immunoglobulin products. Both SPB and EMP represent different groups of neoplasm in terms of location, tumor progression, and overall survival rate. There is a need for features that indicate likelihood of myeloma in patients with plasmacytoma without other manifestations. This study was an attempt to study the morphologic patterns of plasmacytoma (SPB and EMP), MIB1 proliferation index, and correlation of these with clinicopathologic features and survival of the patients. The study group comprised of 134 cases of plasmacytoma (88 SPB and 46 EMP) over duration of 8 years and were graded as per Bartl's histologic grading system. Commonest site was vertebral body in SPB (36%) and upper aerodigestive tract in EMP (48%). On serum electrophoresis, overall M band was detected in 41% cases. Both SPB and EMP on histology revealed similar morphologic features. MIB1 proliferation index ranged from less than 1% to 80%. It was slightly higher in EMP in comparison with SPB (P value = .002). Seventy percent of cases, which progressed to multiple myeloma (MM) showed MIB1 labeling index more than 10%; however, it was not statistically significant in predicting the disease progression. With the median follow-up of 19 months (range, 1-99 months), 10 SPB had disease progression of which 7 converted to MM, and 3 developed EMP, with a median interval of 21 months (range, 8-75 months) for the development of MM and 3 months (range, 3-9 months) for the progression to EMP. Five-year survival for EMP varied by site, with poorest survival in brain/central nervous system EMP as compared with EMP at other sites. To conclude, grade and MIB1 proliferation index help in predicting aggressive course in plasmacytoma. PMID:25842207

  16. Prognostic significance of regulators of cell cycle and apoptosis, p16(INK4a), p53, and bcl-2 in primary mucosal melanomas of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Manju L; Patel, Snehal G; Shah, Jatin P; Hoshaw-Woodard, Stacy; Busam, Klaus J

    2012-06-01

    Abnormalities in cell cycle regulation, tumor suppressor gene functions and apoptosis are frequent events in tumorigenesis. Their role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of primary mucosal melanomas (MM) of the upper aerodigestive tract remains unknown. Sixty-four patients (40 men, 24 women, median age 64 years) with MM were included in this study; 32 had tumors in the nasal/paranasal cavities, 28 in the oral cavity and 4 in the pharynx. Archival tissues from 47 initial mucosal tumors, 17 mucosal recurrences, and 13 nodal/distant metastases were subjected to immunohistochemistry using antibodies against p16, p53, and bcl-2. The results were correlated with histological features and survival data. Expressions of p16, p53, and bcl-2 proteins were seen in 25% (N=19/76), 21% (N=16/76), and 74% (N=56/76) of all tumors, respectively. bcl-2 expression in the initial tumors was associated with significantly longer overall and disease specific survival (3.3 vs. 1.5 years, P ? 0.05). Expression of p16 was increasingly lost, from 32% in initial tumors to 12% in recurrent and 15% in metastatic tumors (P=0.06). Tumors comprised of undifferentiated cells were significantly more p53 positive than epithelioid or spindle cells (80% vs. 33%, P=0.02). Expression of these markers did not correlate with necrosis, or vascular and/or deep tissue invasion. Expression of bcl-2 is associated with better survival in MM. Loss of p16 was seen with tumor progression whereas aberrant p53 expression was frequent in undifferentiated tumor cells. PMID:22160615

  17. Association between a 15q25 gene variant, smoking quantity and tobacco-related cancers among 17 000 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lips, Esther H; Gaborieau, Valerie; McKay, James D; Chabrier, Amelie; Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Field, John K; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Xinarianos, George; McLaughlin, John; Liu, Geoffrey; Skorpen, Frank; Elvestad, Maiken Bratt; Hveem, Kristian; Vatten, Lars; Study, EPIC; Benhamou, Simone; Lagiou, Pagona; Holcátová, Ivana; Merletti, Franco; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Agudo, Antonio; Castellsagué, Xavier; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Barzan, Luigi; Canova, Cristina; Lowry, Ray; Conway, David I; Znaor, Ariana; Healy, Claire; Curado, Maria Paula; Koifman, Sergio; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Matos, Elena; Menezes, Ana; Fernandez, Leticia; Metspalu, Andres; Heath, Simon; Lathrop, Mark; Brennan, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic variants in 15q25 have been identified as potential risk markers for lung cancer (LC), but controversy exists as to whether this is a direct association, or whether the 15q variant is simply a proxy for increased exposure to tobacco carcinogens. Methods We performed a detailed analysis of one 15q single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs16969968) with smoking behaviour and cancer risk in a total of 17 300 subjects from five LC studies and four upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer studies. Results Subjects with one minor allele smoked on average 0.3 cigarettes per day (CPD) more, whereas subjects with the homozygous minor AA genotype smoked on average 1.2 CPD more than subjects with a GG genotype (P < 0.001). The variant was associated with heavy smoking (>20 CPD) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96–1.34, P = 0.13 for heterozygotes and 1.81, 95% CI 1.39–2.35 for homozygotes, P < 0.0001]. The strong association between the variant and LC risk (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.23–1.38, P = 1 × 10–18), was virtually unchanged after adjusting for this smoking association (smoking adjusted OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.19–1.35, P = 5 × 10–13). Furthermore, we found an association between the variant allele and an earlier age of LC onset (P = 0.02). The association was also noted in UADT cancers (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.15, P = 0.02). Genome wide association (GWA) analysis of over 300 000 SNPs on 11 219 subjects did not identify any additional variants related to smoking behaviour. Conclusions This study confirms the strong association between 15q gene variants and LC and shows an independent association with smoking quantity, as well as an association with UADT cancers. PMID:19776245

  18. Effects of ALDH2 Genotype, PPI Treatment and L-Cysteine on Carcinogenic Acetaldehyde in Gastric Juice and Saliva after Intragastric Alcohol Administration

    PubMed Central

    Maejima, Ryuhei; Iijima, Katsunori; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Hatta, Waku; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Salaspuro, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACH) associated with alcoholic beverages is Group 1 carcinogen to humans (IARC/WHO). Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), a major ACH eliminating enzyme, is genetically deficient in 30–50% of Eastern Asians. In alcohol drinkers, ALDH2-deficiency is a well-known risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers, i.e., head and neck cancer and esophageal cancer. However, there is only a limited evidence for stomach cancer. In this study we demonstrated for the first time that ALDH2 deficiency results in markedly increased exposure of the gastric mucosa to acetaldehyde after intragastric administration of alcohol. Our finding provides concrete evidence for a causal relationship between acetaldehyde and gastric carcinogenesis. A plausible explanation is the gastric first pass metabolism of ethanol. The gastric mucosa expresses alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, especially at the high ethanol concentrations prevailing in the stomach after the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The gastric mucosa also possesses the acetaldehyde-eliminating ALDH2 enzyme. Due to decreased mucosal ALDH2 activity, the elimination of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde is decreased, which results in its accumulation in the gastric juice. We also demonstrate that ALDH2 deficiency, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, and L-cysteine cause independent changes in gastric juice and salivary acetaldehyde levels, indicating that intragastric acetaldehyde is locally regulated by gastric mucosal ADH and ALDH2 enzymes, and by oral microbes colonizing an achlorhydric stomach. Markedly elevated acetaldehyde levels were also found at low intragastric ethanol concentrations corresponding to the ethanol levels of many foodstuffs, beverages, and dairy products produced by fermentation. A capsule that slowly releases L-cysteine effectively eliminated acetaldehyde from the gastric juice of PPI-treated ALDH2-active and ALDH2-deficient subjects. These results provide entirely novel perspectives for the prevention of gastric cancer, especially in established risk groups. PMID:25831092

  19. Carnosol, a Constituent of Zyflamend, Inhibits Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Mediated Activation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 Transcription and Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mohebati, Arash; Guttenplan, Joseph B.; Kochhar, Amit; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated member of the basic-helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, plays a significant role in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) induced carcinogenesis. In the upper aerodigestive tract of humans, tobacco smoke, a source of PAHs, activates the AhR leading to increased expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which encode proteins that convert PAHs to genotoxic metabolites. Inhibitors of Hsp90 ATPase cause a rapid decrease in levels of AhR, an Hsp90 client protein, and thereby block PAH-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. The main objective of this study was to determine whether Zyflamend, a polyherbal preparation, suppressed PAH-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and inhibited DNA adduct formation and mutagenesis. We also investigated whether carnosol, one of multiple phenolic antioxidants in Zyflamend, had similar inhibitory effects. Treatment of cell lines derived from oral leukoplakia (MSK-Leuk1) and skin (HaCaT) with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a prototypic PAH, induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transcription, resulting in enhanced levels of message and protein. Both Zyflamend and carnosol suppressed these effects of B[a]P. Notably, both Zyflamend and carnosol inhibited Hsp90 ATPase activity and caused a rapid reduction in AhR levels. The formation of B[a]P induced DNA adducts and mutagenesis were also inhibited by Zyflamend and carnosol. Collectively, these results show that Zyflamend and carnosol inhibit Hsp90 ATPase leading to reduced levels of AhR, suppression of B[a]P-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and inhibition of mutagenesis. Carnosol-mediated inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase activity can help explain the chemopreventive activity of herbs such as Rosemary, which contain this phenolic antioxidant. PMID:22374940

  20. TrkB induces EMT and has a key role in invasion of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kupferman, ME; Jiffar, T; El-Naggar, A; Yilmaz, T; Zhou, G; Xie, T; Feng, L; Wang, J; Holsinger, FC; Yu, D; Myers, JN

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains a significant public health problem, accounting for over 5% of all cancer-related deaths, and these deaths primarily result from metastatic disease. The molecular processes involved in HNSCC pathogenesis and progression are poorly understood, and here we present experimental evidence for a direct role of the cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkB, in HNSCC tumor progression. Using immunohistochemical analysis and transcriptional profiling of archival HNSCC tumor specimens, we found that TrkB and its secreted ligand, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are expresses in greater than 50% of human HNSCC tumors, but not in normal upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) epithelia. Studies with HNSCC cell lines reveal that in vitro stimulation with BDNF, the ligand for TrkB, upregulates the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, and both transient and stable suppressions of TrkB result in significant abrogation of constitutive and ligand-mediated migration and invasion. Furthermore, enforced over-expression of TrkB results in altered expression of molecular mediators of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of Twist. Using an in vivo mouse model of HNSCC, we were able to show that downregulation of TrkB suppresses tumor growth. These results directly implicate TrkB in EMT and the invasive behavior of HNSCC, and correlate with the in vivo overexpression of TrkB in human HNSCC. Taken together, these data suggest that the TrkB receptor may be a critical component in the multi-step tumor progression of HNSCC, and may be an attractive target for much needed new therapies for this disease. PMID:20101235

  1. Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol related cancer mortality among men: to what extent do they differ between Western European populations?

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Stirbu, Irina; Borrell, Carme; Bopp, Matthias; Regidor, Enrique; Heine Strand, Bjørn; Deboosere, Patrick; Lundberg, Olle; Leclerc, Annette; Costa, Giuseppe; Chastang, Jean-Francois; Esnaola, Santiago; Martikainen, Pekka; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2007-01-01

    We aim to study socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol related cancers mortality (upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus) and liver) in men and to investigate whether the contribution of these cancers to socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality differs within Western Europe. We used longitudinal mortality datasets including causes of death. Data were collected during the 1990s among men aged 30–74 years in 13 European populations (Madrid, the Basque region, Barcelona, Turin, Switzerland (German and Latin part), France, Belgium (Walloon and Flemish part, Brussels), Norway, Sweden, Finland). Socioeconomic status was measured using the educational level declared at the census at the beginning of the follow-up period. We conducted Poisson regression analyses and used both relative (Relative index of inequality (RII)) and absolute (mortality rates difference) measures of inequality. For UADT cancers, the RII’s were above 3.5 in France, Switzerland (both parts) and Turin whereas for liver cancer they were the highest (around 2.5) in Madrid, France and Turin. The contribution of alcohol related cancer to socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality was 29–36% in France and the Spanish populations, 17–23% in Switzerland and Turin, and 5–15% in Belgium and the Nordic countries. We did not observe any correlation between mortality rates differences for lung and UADT cancers, confirming that the pattern found for UADT cancers is not only due to smoking. This study suggests that alcohol use substantially influences socioeconomic inequalities in male cancer mortality in France, Spain and Switzerland but not in the Nordic countries and nor in Belgium. PMID:17415714

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol related cancer mortality among men: to what extent do they differ between Western European populations?

    PubMed

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E; Stirbu, Irina; Borrell, Carme; Bopp, Matthias; Regidor, Enrique; Heine Strand, Bjørn; Deboosere, Patrick; Lundberg, Olle; Leclerc, Annette; Costa, Giuseppe; Chastang, Jean-Francois; Esnaola, Santiago; Martikainen, Pekka; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2007-08-01

    We aim to study socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol related cancers mortality [upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus and liver)] in men and to investigate whether the contribution of these cancers to socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality differs within Western Europe. We used longitudinal mortality datasets, including causes of death. Data were collected during the 1990s among men aged 30-74 years in 13 European populations [Madrid, the Basque region, Barcelona, Turin, Switzerland (German and Latin part), France, Belgium (Walloon and Flemish part, Brussels), Norway, Sweden, Finland]. Socioeconomic status was measured using the educational level declared at the census at the beginning of the follow-up period. We conducted Poisson regression analyses and used both relative [Relative index of inequality (RII)] and absolute (mortality rates difference) measures of inequality. For UADT cancers, the RII's were above 3.5 in France, Switzerland (both parts) and Turin whereas for liver cancer they were the highest (around 2.5) in Madrid, France and Turin. The contribution of alcohol related cancer to socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality was 29-36% in France and the Spanish populations, 17-23% in Switzerland and Turin, and 5-15% in Belgium and the Nordic countries. We did not observe any correlation between mortality rates differences for lung and UADT cancers, confirming that the pattern found for UADT cancers is not only due to smoking. This study suggests that alcohol use substantially influences socioeconomic inequalities in male cancer mortality in France, Spain and Switzerland but not in the Nordic countries and nor in Belgium. PMID:17415714

  3. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type: a report of 73 cases at MD Anderson Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoying; Feng, Xiaoli; Li, Ting; Zhang, Shuang; Zuo, Zhuang; Lin, Pei; Konoplev, Sergej; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Vega, Francisco; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Yin, C Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is uncommon in the United States. We report 73 patients with ENKTL, including 49 men and 24 women (median age, 46 y). Sixty-three patients had nasal/upper aerodigestive tract disease; 10 had extranasal disease involving skin, small intestine, epiglottis, testis, adrenal glands, kidney, and breast. Complete staging data were available for 68 patients: 44 stage I/II and 24 stage IV. Fifteen of 69 (22%) had lymphadenopathy and 10/63 had bone marrow involvement. Histologically, 67/73 (92%) showed necrosis, and 48/70 (69%) had an angiocentric/angiodestructive growth pattern. The neoplastic cells showed a wide spectrum: medium sized (n=34), mixed small and large (n=21), large (n=13), and small (n=5). In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA was positive in every case. Immunohistochemical studies showed expression of cytotoxic markers (100%), T-bet (96%), CD2 (96%), CD3 (93%), CD56 (90%), and ETS-1 (64%). Ki-67 was ?60% in 46% cases. Therapy was known for 64 patients; 14 received only chemotherapy, 8 radiation alone, and 42 received combined radiation and chemotherapy. Median survival was 4.2 years, and 5-year overall survival was 46% (median follow-up, 3.8 y). Extranasal disease, high International Prognostic Index score, and high proliferation rate correlated with poorer prognosis. We conclude that ENKTL cases in the United States are similar to those reported in Asia and other countries. Absence of the angiocentric/angiodestructive pattern and presence of lymphadenopathy, features underemphasized in the literature, occurred in appreciable subsets of patients. The International Prognostic Index score, anatomic site of disease, and proliferation rate had prognostic value in this patient cohort. PMID:23232851

  4. Carnosol, a constituent of Zyflamend, inhibits aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transcription and mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Mohebati, Arash; Guttenplan, Joseph B; Kochhar, Amit; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2012-04-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, plays a significant role in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced carcinogenesis. In the upper aerodigestive tract of humans, tobacco smoke, a source of PAHs, activates the AhR leading to increased expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which encode proteins that convert PAHs to genotoxic metabolites. Inhibitors of Hsp90 ATPase cause a rapid decrease in levels of AhR, an Hsp90 client protein, and thereby block PAH-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. The main objective of this study was to determine whether Zyflamend, a polyherbal preparation, suppressed PAH-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and inhibited DNA adduct formation and mutagenesis. We also investigated whether carnosol, one of multiple phenolic antioxidants in Zyflamend, had similar inhibitory effects. Treatment of cell lines derived from oral leukoplakia (MSK-Leuk1) and skin (HaCaT) with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a prototypic PAH, induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transcription, resulting in enhanced levels of message and protein. Both Zyflamend and carnosol suppressed these effects of B[a]P. Notably, both Zyflamend and carnosol inhibited Hsp90 ATPase activity and caused a rapid reduction in AhR levels. The formation of B[a]P-induced DNA adducts and mutagenesis was also inhibited by Zyflamend and carnosol. Collectively, these results show that Zyflamend and carnosol inhibit Hsp90 ATPase leading to reduced levels of AhR, suppression of B[a]P-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, and inhibition of mutagenesis. Carnosol-mediated inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase activity can help explain the chemopreventive activity of herbs such as Rosemary, which contain this phenolic antioxidant. PMID:22374940

  5. Analysis of the Upper Respiratory Tract Microbiotas as the Source of the Lung and Gastric Microbiotas in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bassis, Christine M.; Erb-Downward, John R.; Dickson, Robert P.; Freeman, Christine M.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Young, Vincent B.; Beck, James M.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT No studies have examined the relationships between bacterial communities along sites of the upper aerodigestive tract of an individual subject. Our objective was to perform an intrasubject and intersite analysis to determine the contributions of two upper mucosal sites (mouth and nose) as source communities for the bacterial microbiome of lower sites (lungs and stomach). Oral wash, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, nasal swab, and gastric aspirate samples were collected from 28 healthy subjects. Extensive analysis of controls and serial intrasubject BAL fluid samples demonstrated that sampling of the lungs by bronchoscopy was not confounded by oral microbiome contamination. By quantitative PCR, the oral cavity and stomach contained the highest bacterial signal levels and the nasal cavity and lungs contained much lower levels. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries generated from these samples showed that the oral and gastric compartments had the greatest species richness, which was significantly greater in both than the richness measured in the lungs and nasal cavity. The bacterial communities of the lungs were significantly different from those of the mouth, nose, and stomach, while the greatest similarity was between the oral and gastric communities. However, the bacterial communities of healthy lungs shared significant membership with the mouth, but not the nose, and marked subject-subject variation was noted. In summary, microbial immigration from the oral cavity appears to be the significant source of the lung microbiome during health, but unlike the stomach, the lungs exhibit evidence of selective elimination of Prevotella bacteria derived from the upper airways. PMID:25736890

  6. Comparing Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Responses in Genetically Engineered Mouse Lung Cancer Models and a Window of Opportunity Trial in Lung Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tian; Galimberti, Fabrizio; Erkmen, Cherie P.; Memoli, Vincent; Chinyengetere, Fadzai; Sempere, Lorenzo; Beumer, Jan H.; Anyang, Bean N.; Nugent, William; Johnstone, David; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Kurie, Jonathan M.; Li, Hua; DiRenzo, James; Guo, Yongli; Freemantle, Sarah J.; Dragnev, Konstantin H.; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi, vorinostat) responses were studied in murine and human lung cancer cell lines and genetically-engineered mouse lung cancer models. Findings were compared with a window of opportunity trial in aerodigestive tract cancers. In human (HOP62, H522 and H23) and murine transgenic (ED-1, ED-2, LKR-13, and 393P, driven respectively by cyclin E, degradation-resistant cyclin E, KRAS, or KRAS/p53) lung cancer cell lines vorinostat reduced growth, cyclin D1 and cyclin E levels, but induced p27, histone acetylation and apoptosis. Other biomarkers also changed. Findings from transgenic murine lung cancer models were integrated with those from a window of opportunity trial that measured vorinostat pharmacodynamic responses in pre- versus post-treatment tumor biopsies. Vorinostat repressed cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression in murine transgenic lung cancers and significantly reduced lung cancers in syngeneic mice. Vorinostat also reduced cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression, but increased p27 levels in post- versus pre-treatment human lung cancer biopsies. Notably, necrotic and inflammatory responses appeared in post-treatment biopsies. These depended on intratumoral HDACi levels. Therefore, HDACi treatments of murine genetically-engineered lung cancer models exert similar responses (growth inhibition and changes in gene expression) as observed in lung cancer cell lines. Moreover, enhanced pharmacodynamic responses occurred in the window of opportunity trial, providing additional markers of response that can be evaluated in subsequent HDACi trials. Thus, combining murine and human HDACi trials is a strategy to translate preclinical HDACi treatment outcomes into the clinic. This study uncovered clinically-tractable mechanisms to engage in future HDACi trials. PMID:23686769

  7. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

  8. IgG4-Related Sclerosing Disease, an Emerging Entity: A Review of a Multi-System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Divatia, Mukul; Kim, Sun A

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) is a recently defined emerging entity characterized by a diffuse or mass forming inflammatory reaction rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with fibrosclerosis and obliterative phlebitis. IgG4-RSD usually affects middle aged and elderly patients, with a male predominance. It is associated with an elevated serum titer of IgG4, which acts as a marker for this recently characterized entity. The prototype is IgG4-related sclerosing pancreatitis or autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Other common sites of involvement are the hepatobiliary tract, salivary gland, orbit, and lymph node, however practically any organ can be involved, including upper aerodigestive tract, lung, aorta, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, soft tissue, skin, central nervous system, breast, kidney, and prostate. Fever or constitutional symptoms usually do not comprise part of the clinical picture. Laboratory findings detected include raised serum globulin, IgG and IgG4. An association with autoantibody detection (such as antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor) is seen in some cases. Steroid therapy comprises the mainstay of treatment. Disease progression with involvement of multiple organ-sites may be encountered in a subset of cases and may follow a relapsing-remitting course. The principal histopathologic findings in several extranodal sites include lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, lymphoid follicle formation, sclerosis and obliterative phlebitis, along with atrophy and destruction of tissues. Immunohistochemical staining shows increased IgG4+ cells in the involved tissues (>50 per high-power field, with IgG4/IgG ratio >40%). IgG4-RSD may potentially be rarely associated with the development of lymphoma and carcinoma. However, the nature and pathogenesis of IgG4-RSD are yet to be fully elucidated and provide immense scope for further studies. PMID:22187229

  9. Epidemiology and pathology of HPV disease in males.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Anna R; Anic, Gabriella; Nyitray, Alan G

    2010-05-01

    It is currently recognized that besides the significant impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in females, HPV causes substantial disease in men as well. Genital warts are a common manifestation of male infection with HPV. Genital warts are highly infectious and approximately 65% of people who have sex with an infected partner will develop warts themselves. More than 90% of genital warts are caused by non-oncogenic HPV types 6 and 11. In addition, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a rare disease most often associated with HPV types 6 and 11. Several cancers of the anogenital tract and upper aero-digestive tract, and their precursor lesions in men are now understood to be caused by infection with sexually transmitted HPV. For example, there is increasing incidence of anal cancer in western countries; however, there are limited data on its primary cause, anal canal HPV infection. Genital HPV infection is very common in men with an ongoing international study estimating a prevalence of 65.2% in asymptomatic males aged 18-70 years. Lifetime number of sexual partners was the most significant risk factor for the acquisition of HPV infection (P<0.05), and circumcision has been associated with reduced detection of HPV infection in men. HPV infections may be less likely to persist in men than in women. In men, the median time to clearance of any HPV infection was 5.9 months, with 75% of infections clearing within 12 months. More data are needed to better understand the natural history of HPV infection. Although the quadrivalent HPV vaccine has been shown to be effective and safe in men, low awareness of HPV in males may be a barrier to its use for the prevention of HPV infection. PMID:20138345

  10. Acetaldehyde Stimulates FANCD2 Monoubiquitination, H2AX Phosphorylation, and BRCA1 Phosphorylation in Human Cells in Vitro: Implications for Alcohol-Related Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marietta, Cheryl; Thompson, Larry H.; Lamerdin, Jane E.; Brooks, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    According to a recent IARC Working Group report, alcohol consumption is causally related to an increased risk of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectum, and female breast (Lancet Oncol. 2007 8:292–3). Several lines of evidence indicate that acetaldehyde (AA), the first product of alcohol metabolism, plays a very important role in alcohol-related carcinogenesis, particularly in the esophagus. We previously proposed a model for alcohol-related carcinogenesis in which AA, generated from alcohol metabolism, reacts in cells to generate DNA lesions that form interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) (Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 33:3513–20). Since the Fanconi anemia-breast cancer associated (FANC-BRCA) DNA damage response network plays a crucial role in protecting cells against ICLs, in the present work we tested this hypothesis by exposing cells to AA and monitoring activation of this network. We found that AA exposure results in a concentration-dependent increase in FANCD2 monoubiquitination, which is dependent upon the FANC core complex. AA also stimulated BRCA1 phosphorylation at Ser1524 and increased the level of ?H2AX, with both modifications occurring in a dose-dependent manner. However, AA did not detectably increase the levels of hyperphosphorylated RPA34, a marker of single-stranded DNA exposure at replication forks. These results provide the initial description of the AA-DNA damage response, which is qualitatively similar to the cellular response to mitomycin C, a known DNA crosslinking agent. We discuss the mechanistic implications of these results, as well as their possible relationship to alcohol-related carcinogenesis in different human tissues. PMID:19428384

  11. Marijuana smoking and head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Hashibe, Mia; Ford, Daniel E; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2002-11-01

    A recent epidemiological study showed that marijuana smoking was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer. Among high school students and young adults, the prevalence of marijuana use was on the rise in the 1990s, with a simultaneous decline in the perception that marijuana use is harmful. It will be a major public health challenge to make people aware of the harmful effects of marijuana smoking, when some people view it as the illicit drug with the least risk. The carcinogenicity of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is not clear, but according to laboratory studies, it appears to have antitumor properties such as apoptosis as well as tumor-promoting properties such as limiting immune function and increasing reactive oxygen species. Marijuana tar contains similar carcinogens to tar from tobacco cigarettes, but each marijuana cigarette maybe more harmful than a tobacco cigarette since more tar is inhaled and retained when smoking marijuana. More molecular alterations have been observed in bronchial mucosa specimens of marijuana smokers compared to nonsmokers. Field cancerization may be occurring on the bronchial epithelium due to marijuana smoking exposure. Several case studies were suggestive of an association of marijuana smoking with head and neck cancers and oral lesions. However, in a cohort study with 8 years of follow-up, marijuana use was not associated with increased risks of all cancers or smoking-related cancers. Further epidemiological studies are necessary to confirm the association of marijuana smoking with head and neck cancers and to examine marijuana smoking as a risk factor for lung cancer. It will also be of interest to examine potential field cancerization of the upper aerodigestive tract by marijuana and to explore marijuana as a risk factor for oral premalignant lesions. PMID:12412843

  12. Workers exposed to wood dust have an increased micronucleus frequency in nasal and buccal cells: results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Hopf, Nancy B; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Hor, Maryam; Charriere, Nicole; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    Wood dust is recognised as a human carcinogen, based on the strong association of wood dust exposure and the elevated risk of malignant tumours of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses [sino-nasal cancer (SNC)]. The study aimed to assess genetic damage in workers exposed to wood dust using biomarkers in both buccal and nasal cells that reflect genome instability events, cellular proliferation and cell death frequencies. Nasal and buccal epithelial cells were collected from 31 parquet layers, installers, carpenters and furniture workers (exposed group) and 19 non-exposed workers located in Switzerland. Micronucleus (MN) frequencies were scored in nasal and buccal cells collected among woodworkers. Other nuclear anomalies in buccal cells were measured through the use of the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. MN frequencies in nasal and buccal cells were significantly higher in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group; odds ratio for nasal cells 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-5.1] and buccal cells 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.4). The exposed group had higher frequencies of cells with nuclear buds, karyorrhectic, pyknotic, karyolytic cells and a decrease in the frequency of basal, binucleated and condensed cells compared to the non-exposed group. Our study confirms that woodworkers have an elevated risk for chromosomal instability in cells of the aerodigestive tract. The MN assay in nasal cells may become a relevant biomonitoring tool in the future for early detection of SNC risk. Future studies should seek to standardise the protocol for MN frequency in nasal cells similar to that for MN in buccal cells. PMID:24603450

  13. Effects of ALDH2 genotype, PPI treatment and L-cysteine on carcinogenic acetaldehyde in gastric juice and saliva after intragastric alcohol administration.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Ryuhei; Iijima, Katsunori; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Hatta, Waku; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Salaspuro, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACH) associated with alcoholic beverages is Group 1 carcinogen to humans (IARC/WHO). Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), a major ACH eliminating enzyme, is genetically deficient in 30-50% of Eastern Asians. In alcohol drinkers, ALDH2-deficiency is a well-known risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers, i.e., head and neck cancer and esophageal cancer. However, there is only a limited evidence for stomach cancer. In this study we demonstrated for the first time that ALDH2 deficiency results in markedly increased exposure of the gastric mucosa to acetaldehyde after intragastric administration of alcohol. Our finding provides concrete evidence for a causal relationship between acetaldehyde and gastric carcinogenesis. A plausible explanation is the gastric first pass metabolism of ethanol. The gastric mucosa expresses alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, especially at the high ethanol concentrations prevailing in the stomach after the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The gastric mucosa also possesses the acetaldehyde-eliminating ALDH2 enzyme. Due to decreased mucosal ALDH2 activity, the elimination of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde is decreased, which results in its accumulation in the gastric juice. We also demonstrate that ALDH2 deficiency, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, and L-cysteine cause independent changes in gastric juice and salivary acetaldehyde levels, indicating that intragastric acetaldehyde is locally regulated by gastric mucosal ADH and ALDH2 enzymes, and by oral microbes colonizing an achlorhydric stomach. Markedly elevated acetaldehyde levels were also found at low intragastric ethanol concentrations corresponding to the ethanol levels of many foodstuffs, beverages, and dairy products produced by fermentation. A capsule that slowly releases L-cysteine effectively eliminated acetaldehyde from the gastric juice of PPI-treated ALDH2-active and ALDH2-deficient subjects. These results provide entirely novel perspectives for the prevention of gastric cancer, especially in established risk groups. PMID:25831092

  14. The reconstruction of the spheno-orbital region using latissimus dorsi flap and costal graft.

    PubMed

    Biglioli, Federico; Mortini, Pietro; Pedrazzoli, Marco; D'Alessandro, Luca; Bardazzi, Alessandro; Colletti, Giacomo

    2013-07-01

    To minimize complications in skull base surgery, it is necessary to separate intracranial structures from the upper aerodigestive tract with well-vascularized tissue. The majority of defects can be reconstructed using local flaps using pericranium, galea, or temporalis muscle. However, there are conditions that affect the suitability of the previously mentioned flaps, for example, previous surgical procedures or radiotherapy. Local flaps may also be inadequate to reconstruct particularly large defects. Extensive bony demolitions produce aesthetic deformities that need accurate reconstructions. Orbital wall defects have to be reconstructed to avoid complications such as the transmission of cerebral pulsation, bulbar dystopias, diplopia, and ophthalmoplegia. The microvascular latissimus dorsi flap is ideal in all these cases, and the use of a costal graft allows simultaneous reconstruction of bony defects. From January 2000 to January 2008, 17 patients have undergone surgical ablation of the spheno-orbital region and reconstruction with latissimus dorsi flap and costal grafts. The flap survival rate was 100%. One patient required revision of the venous anastomosis. No cerebrospinal fluid leak or intracranial infections have been detected. The only complications registered were dystopias in 6 patients and diplopia in 4; all of these spontaneously resolved within 2 months. The microvascular latissimus dorsi flap with costal graft is an effective method for the reconstruction of the spheno-orbital region when local flaps are not indicated. It has a negligible donor-site morbidity, an ideal vascular pedicle, and an easy harvesting technique. The costal graft allows the simultaneous reconstruction of the orbital walls, giving good results. PMID:23851876

  15. The effect of LPC (Linear Predictive Coding) processing on the recognition of unfamiliar speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Nielsen, A.; Stern, K. R.

    1985-09-01

    The effect of narrowband digital processing, using a linear predictive coding (LPC) algorithm at 2400 bits/s, on the recognition of previously unfamiliar speakers was investigated. Three sets of five speakers each (two sets of males differing in rated voice distinctiveness and one set of females) were tested for speaker recognition in two separate experiments using a familiarization-test procedure. In the first experiment three groups of listeners each heard a single set of speakers in both voice processing conditions, and in the second two groups of listeners each heard all three sets of speakers in a single voice processing condition. There were significant differences among speaker sets both with and without LPC processing, with the low distinctive males generally more poorly recognized than the other groups. There was also an interaction of speaker set and voice processing condition; the low distinctive males were no less recognizable over LPC than they were unprocessed, and one speaker in particular was actually better recognized over LPC. Although it seems that on the whole LPC processing reduces speaker recognition, the reverse may be the case for some speakers in some contexts. This suggests that one should be cautious about comparing speaker recognition for different voi ce systems of the basis of a single set of speakers. It also presents a serious obstacle to the development of a reliable standardized test of speaker recognizability.

  16. PIRATE: pediatric imaging response assessment and targeting environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Russell; Zhang, Yong; Krasin, Matthew; Hua, Chiaho

    2010-02-01

    By combining the strengths of various imaging modalities, the multimodality imaging approach has potential to improve tumor staging, delineation of tumor boundaries, chemo-radiotherapy regime design, and treatment response assessment in cancer management. To address the urgent needs for efficient tools to analyze large-scale clinical trial data, we have developed an integrated multimodality, functional and anatomical imaging analysis software package for target definition and therapy response assessment in pediatric radiotherapy (RT) patients. Our software provides quantitative tools for automated image segmentation, region-of-interest (ROI) histogram analysis, spatial volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis, and voxel-wise correlation across modalities. To demonstrate the clinical applicability of this software, histogram analyses were performed on baseline and follow-up 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET images of nine patients with rhabdomyosarcoma enrolled in an institutional clinical trial at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. In addition, we combined 18F-FDG PET, dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR, and anatomical MR data to visualize the heterogeneity in tumor pathophysiology with the ultimate goal of adaptive targeting of regions with high tumor burden. Our software is able to simultaneously analyze multimodality images across multiple time points, which could greatly speed up the analysis of large-scale clinical trial data and validation of potential imaging biomarkers.

  17. La biogenèse des mélanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Delevoye, Cédric; Giordano, Francesca; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2012-01-01

    Les mélanocytes situés à la base de l’épiderme produisent des mélanosomes qui sont transférés aux kératinocytes pour assurer la pigmentation de l’épiderme et sa photoprotection contre les rayons ultraviolets. Les mélanosomes, organites apparentés aux lysosomes, sont le lieu de synthèse et de stockage d’un pigment, la mélanine. Leur formation dépend de protéines mélanosomales qui transitent par les voies de biosynthèse et d’endocytose et exploitent les mécanismes moléculaires du trafic intracellulaire. Les acteurs moléculaires impliqués dans le transport des protéines mélanosomales et la biogenèse des mélanosomes sont la cible de mutations dans des maladies génétiques accompagnées d’hypopigmentation comme l’albinisme et les maladies lysosomales. Les études menées sur les mélanocytes issus de souris modèles de ces maladies permettent de comprendre certaines des étapes-clés de la mélanogenèse ainsi que les dysfonctionnements associés à ces pathologies. De plus, décrypter la mélanogenèse facilite également la compréhension d’autres processus physiologiques, comme l’illustrent les similitudes inattendues avec l’amyloïdogenèse dans les maladies neurodégénératives. PMID:21382323

  18. Ressources en ligne en pédiatrie

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Question Depuis les dernières années, les parents d’enfants que je vois en clinique font souvent des recherches en ligne concernant des questions médicales. Dans quelle mesure les ressources en ligne sontelles fiables dans le domaine de la pédiatrie et quels conseils puis-je donner aux parents qui s’informent en ligne concernant la santé de leurs enfants? Réponse Le recours à Internet pour trouver des renseignements médicaux a connu une hausse dramatique au cours de la dernière décennie, y compris dans le domaine de la pédiatrie. Les quantités énormes d’information sont sources de confusion autant pour les parents que pour les professionnels de la santé et les moteurs généraux de recherche n’ont pas ce qu’il faut pour permettre de discerner les renseignements fiables de ceux qui sont biaisés. Les médecins peuvent élaborer des sites web présentant des renseignements fiables, conseiller les parents sur les façons de cerner les sources d’information dignes de confiance et donner des exemples de sites web à consulter sur des sujets reliés à la santé des enfants.

  19. Matériaux pour la dépollution des gaz d'échappement automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouaddib-Moral, N.; Gauthier, C.

    2002-04-01

    Les premières législations antipollution ont été mises en place suite à la détection, aux Etats Unis plus particulièrement en Californie, du smog photochimique et des pluies acides, néfastes pour la faune et la flore. Les estimations de la contribution de l'automobile aux émissions de composés, considérés comme précurseurs de ces phénomènes, ont été suffisantes pour provoquer la mise en place de normes draconiennes en matière d'émissions automobiles. Les matériaux catalytiques ont été évalués en tant que solution possible pour réduire les émissions à l'échappement. En Europe, l'utilisation des catalyseurs trois voies a été généralisée sur les véhicules essence fonctionnant à richesse stoechiométrique à partir de 1993. Une nouvelle génération de catalyseurs appelée piège à oxydes d'azote (NOx) est maintenant nécessaire pour le post-traitement des gaz d'échappement des motorisations à essence fonctionnant en mélange pauvre (combustion en présence d'un excès d'oxygène) pour diminuer la consommation et par conséquent réduire les émissions du CO2 connu pour son impact sur l'effet de serre. La dépollution des moteurs diesel via un catalyseur d'oxydation a été généralisée en Europe depuis 1996. La sévérisation des normes européennes impose pour les moteurs diesel le recours à des matériaux spécifiques pour le traitement des oxydes d'azotes et des particules par l'intermédiaire de filtres à particules dont l'efficacité de filtration est supérieure à 95%, mais doivent subir des régénérations périodiques.

  20. High-Resolution 3D Arteriography of Chronic Total Peripheral Occlusions Using a T1-W Turbo Spin-Echo Sequence With Inner-Volume Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sampath, Smita; Raval, Amish N.; Lederman, Robert J.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    Percutaneous revascularization of peripheral artery chronic total occlusion (CTO) is challenging under X-ray guidance without direct image feedback, due to poor visualization of the obstructed segment and underappreciation of vessel tortuosity. Operators are required to steer interventional devices relatively “blindly,” and therefore procedural failure or perforation may occur. Alternatively, MRI may allow complete visualization of both patent and occluded arterial segments. We designed and implemented a 3D high-resolution, T1-weighted (T1-W) turbo spin-echo (TSE) MRI sequence with inner-volume (IV) imaging to enable detailed peripheral artery CTO imaging. Using this sequence, high-resolution volumes of interest (VOIs) around the vessel were achieved within 5-10 min. This imaging approach may be used for rapid pre- and postprocedural evaluations, and as a 3D roadmap that can be overlaid during real-time X-, MR-, or XMR-guided catheterization. Experiments were successfully performed on a carotid CTO model in swine ex vivo, and in peripheral arteries in normal volunteers and patients in vivo. Delineation of the vascular architecture, including contrast differences between the patent and occluded artery segments, and lesion morphology heterogeneity were visualized. PMID:17152076

  1. Emotional discrimination during viewing unpleasant pictures: timing in human anterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Satoru; Noriuchi, Madoka; Iguchi, Yoshinobu; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Hoshi, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and amygdala have critical roles in the generation and regulation of unpleasant emotions, and in this study the dynamic neural basis of unpleasant emotion processing was elucidated by using paired-samples permutation t-tests to identify the timing of emotional discrimination in various brain regions. We recorded the temporal dynamics of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals in those brain regions during the viewing of unpleasant pictures by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with high temporal resolution, and we compared the time course of the signal within the volume of interest (VOI) across emotional conditions. Results show that emotional discrimination in the right amygdala precedes that in the left amygdala and that emotional discrimination in both those regions precedes that in the right anterior VLPFC. They support the hypotheses that the right amygdala is part of a rapid emotional stimulus detection system and the left amygdala is specialized for sustained stimulus evaluation and that the right anterior VLPFC is implicated in the integration of viscerosensory information with affective signals between the bilateral anterior VLPFCs and the bilateral amygdalae. PMID:25713527

  2. Histogram analysis reveals a better delineation of tumor volume from background in 18F-FET PET compared to CBV maps in a hybrid PET-MR studie in gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filss, Christian P.; Stoffels, Gabriele; Galldiks, Norbert; Sabel, Michael; Wittsack, Hans J.; Coenen, Heinz H.; Shah, Nadim J.; Herzog, Hans; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the method of first choice for diagnostic investigation of glial tumors. However, different MR sequences may over- or underestimate tumor size and thus it may not be possible to delineate tumor from adjacent brain. In order to compensate this confinement additonal MR sequences like perfusion weighted MRI (PWI) with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) or positron emission tomography (PET) with aminoacids are used to gain further information. Recent studies suggest that both of theses image modalities provide similar diagnostic information. For comparison tumor to brain ratios (TBR) with mean and maximum values are frequently used but results from different studies can often not be checked against each other. Furthermore, especially the maximum TBR in rCBV is at risk to be falsified by artifacts (e.g. blood vessels). These confinements are reduced by the use of histograms since all information of the VOIs are equally displayed. In this study we measured and compared the intersection of tumor and reference tissue histograms in 18F-FET PET and rCBV maps in glioma patients.

  3. A Near-Infrared Stellar Spectral Library: III. J-Band Spectra

    E-print Network

    Arvind C. Ranade; N. M. Ashok; Harinder P. Singh; Ranjan Gupta

    2007-09-28

    This paper is the third in the series of papers published on near-infrared (NIR) stellar spectral library by Ranade et al. (2004 & 2007). The observations were carried out with 1.2 meter Gurushikhar Infrared Telescope (GIRT), at Mt. Abu, India using a NICMOS3 HgCdTe $256 \\times 256$ NIR array based spectrometer. In paper I (Ranade et al. 2004), H-band spectra of 135 stars at a resolution of $\\sim 16$\\AA & paper II (Ranade et al. 2007), K band spectra of 114 stars at a resolution of $\\sim 22$\\AA were presented. The J-band library being released now consists of 126 stars covering spectral types O5--M8 and luminosity classes I--V. The spectra have a moderate resolution of $\\sim 12.5$\\AA in the J band and have been continuum shape corrected to their respective effective temperatures. The complete set of library in near-infrared (NIR) will serve as a good database for researchers working in the field of stellar population synthesis. The complete library in J, H & K is available online at: http://vo.iucaa.ernet.in/$\\sim$voi/NIR\\_Header.html

  4. Magellan Prelaunch Mission Operations Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft will be launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) within a 31-day overall launch period extending from April 28 to May 28, 1989. The launch will use the Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis to lift an Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) and the Magellan Spacecraft into low Earth orbit. After the Shuttle achieves its parking orbit, the IUS and attached Magellan spacecraft are deployed from the payload bay. After a short coast time, the two-stage IUS is fired to inject the Magellan spacecraft into an Earth-Venus transfer trajectory. The Magellan spacecraft is powered by single degree of freedom, sun-tracking, solar panels charging a set of nickel-cadmium batteries. The spacecraft is three-axis stabilized by reaction wheels using gyros and a star sensor for attitude reference. The spacecraft carries a solid rocket motor for Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI). A hydrazine propulsion system allows trajectory correction and prevents saturation of the reaction wheels. Communication with Earth through the Deep Space Network (DSN) is provided by S- and X-band telemetry channels, through alternatively a low, medium, or 3.7 m high-gain parabolic antenna rigidly attached to the spacecraft. The high-gain antenna also serves as the radar and radiometer antenna during orbit around Venus.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of 3-D texture analysis of lung parenchyma is better than 2-D for discrimination of lung pathology in stage 0 COPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; Sonka, Milan; McLennan, Geoffrey; Guo, Junfeng; Hoffman, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Lung parenchyma evaluation via multidetector-row CT (MDCT), has significantly altered clinical practice in the early detection of lung disease. Our goal is to enhance our texture-based tissue classification ability to differentiate early pathologic processes by extending our 2-D Adaptive Multiple Feature Method (AMFM) to 3-D AMFM. We performed MDCT on 34 human volunteers in five categories: emphysema in severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) as EC, emphysema in mild COPD (MC), normal appearing lung in COPD (NC), non-smokers with normal lung function (NN), smokers with normal function (NS). We volumetrically excluded the airway and vessel regions, calculated 24 volumetric texture features for each Volume of Interest (VOI); and used Bayesian rules for discrimination. Leave-one-out and half-half methods were used for testing. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the four-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: EC: 84.9%/70.7%, MC: 89.8%/82.7%; NC: 87.5.0%/49.6%; NN: 100.0%/60.0%. The accuracy of the leave-one-out method for the two-class classification in the form of 3-D/2-D is: NN: 99.3%/71.6%; NS: 99.7%/74.5%. We conclude that 3-D AMFM analysis of the lung parenchyma improves discrimination compared to 2-D analysis of the same images.

  6. Une complication exceptionnelle de la pose d'une voie veineuse centrale jugulaire interne: pneumothorax, pneumo médiastin et retro pneumopéritoine et emphysème sous cutané géant

    PubMed Central

    Belkouch, Ahmed; Sirbou, Rachid; Zidouh, Saad; Chouaib, Naoufal; Rafai, Mostafa; Belyamani, Lahcen

    2015-01-01

    L'association: pneumothorax, pneumo médiastin, retro pneumopéritoine et emphysème sous cutané est connue de longue date comme complication de l'intubation et la ventilation mécanique, de l'endoscopie digestive ou de la chirurgie laparoscopique. En dehors de ce contexte, elle demeure inhabituelle surtout dans le cadre de La pose de voies veineuses centrales puisque le risque encouru est celui d'une brèche pleurale avec pneumothorax, il est surtout lié à la mise en place d'un cathéter central sous-clavier plus que lors de la pose d'une voie centrale par voie jugulaire. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente qui a souffert d'un pneumothorax associé à, un pneumo médiastin, un rétro pneumopéritoine et un emphysème sous cutané géant, suite à une tentative de catéthérisation de la veine jugulaire interne par voie postérieure. L'intérêt de cette observation réside dans la rareté exceptionnelle de cette association chez une patiente en ventilation spontanée et dans le mécanisme physiopathologique qu'elle suggère.

  7. Méningo-encéphalite à Streptococcus agalactiae chez l'adulte non immunodéprimé

    PubMed Central

    Rafai, Mostafa; Chouaib, Naoufal; Zidouh, Saad; Bakkali, Hicham; Belyamani, Lahcen

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae est un Streptocoque beta-hémolytique du groupe B (SGB), c'est un germe commensal occasionnel de la peau, du tube digestif et des voies génito-urinaires. Nous rapportons un cas inhabituel d'une méningo-encéphalite due au Streptococcus agalactiae (SGB) multisensible à l'antibiogramme chez un sujet adulte immunocompétent admis au service des urgences pour prise en charge de troubles de conscience fébrile. L’évolution clinique et biologique à J10 était favorable et le patient à été transféré au service de neurologie pour complément de prise en charge secondaire. L'originalité de notre observation réside dans la rareté du type d'infection par ce germe puise qu'elle est la troisième à notre connaissance d'une méningo-encéphalite à Streptococcus agalactiae dans la littérature, c'est ainsi que même s'il est très rarement en cause, il doit être considéré comme une étiologie possible de méningo-encéphalite chez l'adulte en dehors de la grossesse, quelle que soit le statut immunitaire du patient, et sans méconnaitre le rôle du terrain sous-jacent dans l’émergence de cette pathologie infectieuse polymorphe est potentiellement grave. PMID:25995802

  8. A Low-Interaction Automatic 3D Liver Segmentation Method Using Computed Tomography for Selective Internal Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gulec, Seza; Bhatt, Ruchir; McGoron, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces a novel liver segmentation approach for estimating anatomic liver volumes towards selective internal radiation treatment (SIRT). The algorithm requires minimal human interaction since the initialization process to segment the entire liver in 3D relied on a single computed tomography (CT) slice. The algorithm integrates a localized contouring algorithm with a modified k-means method. The modified k-means segments each slice into five distinct regions belonging to different structures. The liver region is further segmented using localized contouring. The novelty of the algorithm is in the design of the initialization masks for region contouring to minimize human intervention. Intensity based region growing together with novel volume of interest (VOI) based corrections is used to accomplish the single slice initialization. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated using 34 liver CT scans. Statistical experiments were performed to determine consistency of segmentation and to assess user dependency on the initialization process. Volume estimations are compared to the manual gold standard. Results show an average accuracy of 97.22% for volumetric calculation with an average Dice coefficient of 0.92. Statistical tests show that the algorithm is highly consistent (P = 0.55) and independent of user initialization (P = 0.20 and Fleiss' Kappa = 0.77 ± 0.06). PMID:25105118

  9. Papillome inversé: étude rétrospective à propos de 22 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chihani, Mehdi; Nadour, Karim; Touati, Mohamed; Darouassi, Youssef; Ammar, Haddou; Bouaity, Brahim

    2014-01-01

    Le papillome inversé est une tumeur bénigne naso-sinusienne rare, marquée par une forte agressivité locale, un taux élevé de récidive après chirurgie et un risque imprévisible d'association à un carcinome épidermoïde. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective de 22 cas de papillome inversé, colligés entre janvier 2000 et décembre 2012 au service d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et chirurgie cervico-faciale de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. L'objectif de ce travail est d’étudier le profil épidémiologique, clinique, endoscopique, radiologique, thérapeutique et évolutif du papillome inversé. Le sex-ratio a été de 3,7 en faveur du sexe masculin avec une moyenne d’âge de 44 ans et un pic de fréquence entre la quatrième et la cinquième décade. Les symptômes cliniques ont été dominés par l'obstruction nasale. Le bilan radiologique faisant appel au couple TDM et IRM naso-sinusiennes constitue un moyen essentiel pour le diagnostic positif et dans choix de la technique opératoire. La voie vestibulaire sous labiale de Rouge Denker a été utilisée chez 4 patients, 12 patients ont bénéficié d'une chirurgie endoscopique endonasale et 6 patients d'une combinaison des deux voies précédentes. Cinq patients ont eu une récidive du papillome inversé, après un délai moyen de 26 mois. PMID:25161752

  10. The Effect of Aromatase Inhibition on the Cognitive Function of Older Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hurria, Arti; Patel, Sunita K.; Mortimer, Joanne; Luu, Thehang; Somlo, George; Katheria, Vani; Ramani, Rupal; Hansen, Kurt; Feng, Tao; Chuang, Carolyn; Geist, Cheri L.; Silverman, Daniel H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy and cognitive function (over a 6-month time period) in a cohort of patients age ? 60 compared with an age-matched healthy control group, and to evaluate changes in regional cerebral metabolism as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) scans of the brain done in a subset of the patient cohort. Patients and Methods Thirty-five patients (32 evaluable) and 35 healthy controls were recruited to this study. Patients with breast cancer completed a neuropsychological battery, self-reported memory questionnaire, and geriatric assessment prior to initiation of AI therapy and again 6 months later. Age-matched healthy control participants completed the same assessments at the same time points as the patient group. Results No significant decline in cognitive function was seen among individuals receiving an AI from pre-treatment to 6 months later compared with healthy controls. In the PET cohort over the same period, both standardized volume of interest (sVOI) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses detected specific changes in metabolic activity between baseline and follow-up uniquely in the AI patients, uniquely, most significantly in medial temporal lobes. Conclusion While patients undergoing AI treatment demonstrated few changes in neuropsychologic performance compared with healthy controls over a 6-month period during this interval, regionally specific changes in cerebral metabolic activity were identified in the patient group. Additional longitudinal follow-up is needed to understand the potential clinical implications of these findings. PMID:24291380

  11. La prise en charge à long terme de l’asthme chez les enfants inuits et des Premières nations : un outil de transfert du savoir fondé sur les lignes directrices canadiennes pour l’asthme pédiatrique, conçu pour être utilisé par les professionnels de la santé de première ligne qui travaillent dans des communautés isolées

    PubMed Central

    Kovesi, Tom; Giles, Brenda Louise; Pasterkamp, Hans

    L’asthme est un grave problème de santé pour les enfants inuits et des Premières nations. Chez les enfants de moins d’un an, il faut distinguer l’asthme de la bronchiolite virale, anormalement fréquente chez les enfants autochtones du Canada. Chez les enfants de moins de six ans, le diagnostic dépend de la présence de symptômes classiques, de l’absence de caractéristiques atypiques et de la consignation de la réponse au traitement, notamment la réponse rapide et transitoire aux bronchodilatateurs. Chez les enfants plus âgés, il faut, dans la mesure du possible, déterminer la présence d’une obstruction réversible des voies aériennes par spirométrie afin de confirmer le diagnostic, ainsi qu’évaluer et corriger les déclencheurs environnementaux. L’utilisation régulière de corticoïdes en aérosol est la principale mesure à prendre pour maintenir un bon contrôle de l’asthme chez les enfants asthmatiques. Les clients et leur famille devraient recevoir une formation sur l’asthme. Il faut réévaluer régulièrement le contrôle aux visites de suivi dans des centres de santé et rajuster le traitement à la dose la plus basse possible pour le maintien de ce contrôle.

  12. Anatomical-Functional Correlative Analysis Of The Human Brain Using Three Dimensional Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alan C.; Marrett, Sean; Collins, D. L.; Peters, Terence M.

    1989-05-01

    Quantitative interpretation of functional images (PET or SPECT) is hampered by poor spatial resolution, low counting statistics and, for many tracers, low contrast between different brain structures of interest. Further, normal tracer distributions can be severely distorted by such gross pathologies as stroke, tumor and dementia. Hence, the complementary anatomical information provided by CT or MRI is essential for accurate and reproducible regional analysis of functional data. We have developed methods for the three-dimensional integration and simultaneous display of image volumes from MRI and PET. PET data was collected from an older Therascan 3-slice scanner with 12 mm resolution and a 15-slice Scanditronix PC-2048 system having 5-6 mm resolution in each dimension. MRI data was obtained from a Philips 1.5 Tesla Gyroscan scanner. The image volumes were loaded into a PIXAR 3-D image computer for simultaneous display. A general algorithm for finding the optimal transformation between two ensembles of equivalent points was implemented and investigated through simulation studies. Using a locally-developed 3-D image/graphics analysis package, equivalent points in the two image volumes were identified, either manually or via an adjustable computerized volume-of-interest (VOI) atlas. The MRI data were then re-sampled along planes parallel to the PET planes and the two volumes overlaid using opacity-weighted composition. Arbitrary oblique planes through the two volumes were obtained in interactive sessions.

  13. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Mohab Abou ZeidVrije Universiteit, Brussel Joke AdamKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Nikolas AkerblomMax-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Luis Fernando Alday Utrecht University Stelios Alexandris University of Patras Antonio Amariti Università di Milano-Bicocca Nicola Ambrosetti Université de Neuchâtel Pascal Anastasopoulos Università di Roma Tor Vergata Laura Andrianopoli Enrico Fermi Center Carlo Angelantonj Università di Torino Lilia Anguelova Queen Mary, University of London Daniel AreanUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Gleb ArutyunovUtrecht University Spyros Avramis NTU Athens—University of Patras Ioannis Bakas University of Patras Subrata Bal Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies Igor Bandos Valencia University Jessica Barrett University of Iceland Marco Baumgartl Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Jacopo Bechi Università di Firenze James Bedford Queen Mary, University of London Jorge Bellorin Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francesco Benini SISSA, Trieste Eric Bergshoeff Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Gaetano BertoldiUniversity of Wales, Swansea Adel Bilal Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Matthias Blau Université de Neuchâtel Johannes BroedelUniversität Hannover Felix Brümmer Universität Heidelberg Julio Cesar Bueno de Andrade São Paulo State University—UNESP Cliff Burgess McMaster University Agostino Butti Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Superieure, Paris Marco Caldarelli Universitat de Barcelona Pablo G Camara Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Joan Camps Universitat de Barcelona Felipe Canoura FernandezUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Luigi Cappiello Università di Napoli Federico II Luca Carlevaro École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Roberto Casero Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna Ceresole Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università di Torino Kang Sin Choi University of Bonn Michele Cirafici University of Patras Andres Collinucci Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Aldo Cotrone Universitat de Barcelona Ben Craps Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Stefano Cremonesi SISSA, Trieste Gianguido Dall'Agata Padova University Sanjit Das Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Forcella Davide SISSA, Trieste Jose A de Azcarraga Valencia University and Instituto de Fìsica Corpuscular (CSIC-UVEG), Valencia Sophie de BuylInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Jean-Pierre Derendinger Université de Neuchâtel Stephane Detournay Università Degli Studi di Milano Paolo Di Vecchia NORDITA, København Oscar Dias Universitat de Barcelona Vladimir Dobrev Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia Joel Ekstrand Department of Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University Federico Elmetti Università di Milano I Diaconu Eugen University of Craiova Oleg Evnin Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Bo Feng Imperial College, London Livia Ferro Università di Torino Pau Figueras Universitat de Barcelona Raphael Flauger University of Texas at Austin Valentina Forini Università di Perugia Angelos Fotopoulos Università di Torino Denis Frank Université de Neuchâtel Lisa Freyhult Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm Carlos Fuertes Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Matthias Gaberdiel Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Maria Pilar Garcia del Moral Università di Torino Daniel Gerber Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Valentina Giangreco Marotta Puletti Uppsala University Joaquim Gomis Universitat de Barcelona Gianluca Grignani Università di Perugia Luca Griguolo Università di Parma Umut Gursoy École Polytechnique, Palaiseau and École Normale Supérieure, Paris Michael Haack Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Troels Harmark Niels Bohr Institute, København Alexander Haupt Imperial College, London Michal Heller Jagiellonian University, Krakow Samuli Hemming University of Iceland Yasuaki Hikida DESY,

  14. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis de ciment a permis d'ameliorer la resistance a l'adherence. (6) Il existe une relation lineaire entre la charge maximum et la longueur ancree des tendons. Des equations sont proposees. (7) La capacite a l'arrachement des ancrages injectes augmente avec l'augmentation du module d'elasticite du milieu encaissant. (8) Les mono-tendons et multi-tendons en materiaux composites injectes sur 1000 mm ont montre des comportements a l'arrachement acceptables conformement aux codes. (9) Les rigidites apparentes des tendons a base de fibres d'aramide sont de trois a cinq fois inferieures a celles des tendons a base de fibres de carbone. (10) L'amorce de la decohesion en haut de la zone ancree ne semble se produire qu'au-dela d'une charge de 0,35 fpu pour les tendons a base de fibres de carbone alors qu'elle prend naissance des l'application de la charge pour les tendons a base de fibres d'aramide. (11) Le taux de fluage depend du niveau de chargement ainsi que des caracteristiques geometriques et mecaniques de l'ancrage (type de fibres, fini de surface, nombre de tendons, etc.). (12) Des equations regissant le comportement au fluage des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete etablies pour une periode d'essai de 60 mn. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. Quantification du champ electromagnetique et description quantique de la generation du second harmonique a l'interieur d'une microcavite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Marc

    L'existence de particules virtuelles qui surgissent spontanement du vide pour disparaitre tres peu de temps apres leur apparition (les fluctuations du vide) trouve son origine dans le principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg. Par ailleurs, on sait que le phenomene de resonance par confinement explique l'amplification de l'intensite lumineuse a l'interieur d'une cavite ouverte aux frequences de resonances de celle-ci. C'est pourquoi le taux d'apparition des photons virtuels au sein des modes propres d'une cavite est lui aussi amplifie par le resonateur. Mathematiquement, cet effet quantique est decrit par l'existence d'un commutateur " anomal " entre les operateurs d'annihilation et de creation des photons. Nous decrivons les consequences de ce commutateur sur la generation du second harmonique optique (GSH), un processus photonique ou, dans un materiau optiquement non lineaire, deux photons de meme energie fusionnent pour n'en former qu'un seul. On commence ce travail avec un traitement complet et original sur la quantification du champ electromagnetique. On montre ensuite que les fluctuations du vide stimulent le signal de la GSH a l'interieur du milieu confine. Cependant, on constate aussi que les fluctuations du vide jouent le role d'un inhibiteur au declenchement du processus, c'est-a-dire que le seuil de la GSH augmente (il est superieur au seuil minimal de deux photons seulement). En conclusion, les mecanismes intimes de certains processus optiques non lineaires doivent etre reconsideres lorsqu'ils surviennent en presence d'un confinement electromagnetique.

  16. Physicochemical characterization of the thermal aging of insulating paper in power transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, M.C.; Van Nifterik, L.; Masse, M. [Inst. de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Penneau, J.F. [Electricite de France, Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Grob, R. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Toulouse (France). Inst. National Polytechnique

    1996-12-31

    Paper is a low-cost base material with outstanding mechanical and electrical properties, which is why it is still a key element in the insulation of electrical apparatus. Under the effect of a variety of factors including temperature, paper can substantially lose its properties, thus jeopardizing the service life of costly equipment. To remedy this situation, new so-called thermally upgraded papers are being made by certain manufacturers. A study carried out jointly by Hydro-Quebec, Electricite de France and the Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Toulouse has allowed researchers to qualify the thermal resistance of three different types of thermostable paper. These papers have been selected as being representative of what is available on the market today. The paper samples were subjected to a thermal aging test in the presence of mineral oil to represent normal conditions of operation (150 C). The thermal degradation of the paper insulation is characterized by various physicochemical methods including measurement of the degree of polymerization, determination of 2-furfural in mineral oil by HPLC as well as determination of various sugars (monosaccharides, polysaccharides and anhydrosugars) in the paper using ion chromatography. This last method allows the authors to verify the formation of cellobiose, which is the real repeat unit of cellulose, as well as that of levoglucosan, which is an anhydrosugar and a precursor of 2-furfural. The evolution of all of these parameters, measured as a function of time, has allowed them to compare the thermal resistance of various insulating papers. The results of this study seem to show that, compared to traditional kraft paper, certain paper types are more susceptible to being thermally upgraded than others. This study also allowed the authors to demonstrate that the use of an inhibitor in mineral oil (DBPC) does not seem to influence the thermal degradation of these papers.

  17. Return to Venus of AKATSUKI, the Japanese Venus Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.; Iwagami, N.; Satoh, T.; Taguchi, M.; Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Imamura, T.; Suzuki, M.; Ueno, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Fukuhara, T.; Yamada, M.; Ishii, N.; Ogohara, K.

    2011-12-01

    Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter 'AKATSUKI' (PLANET-C) was proposed in 2001 with strong support by international Venus science community and approved as an ISAS mission soon after the proposal. AKATSUKI and ESA's Venus Express complement each other in Venus climate study. Various coordinated observations using the two spacecraft have been planned. Also participating scientists from US have been selected. Its science target is to understand the climate of Venus. The mission life we expected was more than 2 Earth years in Venus orbit. AKATSUKI was successfully launched at 06:58:22JST on May 21, by H-IIA F17. After the separation from H-IIA, the telemetry from AKATSUKI was normally detected by DSN Goldstone station (10:00JST) and the solar cell paddles' expansion was confirmed. AKATSUKI was put into the 3-axis stabilized mode in the initial operation from Uchinoura station and the critical operation was finished at 20:00JST on the same day. The malfunction, which happened during the Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI) on7 Dec, 2010 is as follows. We set all commands on Dec. 5. Attitude control for Venus orbit insertion (VOI) was automatically done on Dec. 6. Orbital maneuver engine (OME) was fired 08:49 JST on Dec. 7. 1min. after firing the spacecraft went into the occultation region and we had no telemetry, but we expected to continuous firing for 12min. Recording on the spacecraft told us later that, unfortunately the firing continued just 152sec. and stopped. The reason of the malfunction of the OME was the blocking of check valve of the gas pressure line to push the fuel to the engine. We failed to make the spacecraft the Venus orbiter, and it is rotating the sun with the orbital period of 203 days. As the Venus orbit the sun with the period of 225 days, AKATSUKI has a chance to meet Venus again in 5 or 6 years depending on the orbit correction plan. Let us summarize the present situation of AKATSUKI. Most of the fuel still remains. But the condition of the propulsion system is unclear. ISAS is examining various scenarios of second Venus orbit insertion depending on the conditions of the check valve and the OME. Thermal condition during the extended cruise phase is severe. The solar flux (W/m2) to which the spacecraft is exposed from May 21, 2010 (Launch date) to the end of 2016. We expected about 2600W/m2 in the Venus orbit, but it is exposed to more than 3600W/m2 at perihelion (0.6AU from the sun). The temperatures of the instruments exposed to space gradually increased as the spacecraft approaching the perihelion. We tried to minimize the number of instruments whose temperatures exceed the allowed upper limits by letting a certain side of the spacecraft face to the sun. After passing the perihelion every instruments have been working normally. The degradation of the reflectivity of the outer film (MLI) during the extended cruise may influence the temperature tendency. Laboratory tests to evaluate the degradation are ongoing. We operate the test maneuver of the OME in September and hopefully the orbit maneuver in November, which leads the spacecraft close to Venus in 2015. We will report the result in the presentation.

  18. Novel spirometry based on optical surface imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guang; Huang, Hailiang; Li, Diana G.; Chen, Qing; Gaebler, Carl P.; Sullivan, James; Zatcky, Joan; Rimner, Andreas; Mechalakos, James

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using optical surface imaging (OSI) to measure the dynamic tidal volume (TV) of the human torso during free breathing. Methods: We performed experiments to measure volume or volume change in geometric and deformable phantoms as well as human subjects using OSI. To assess the accuracy of OSI in volume determination, we performed experiments using five geometric phantoms and two deformable body phantoms and compared the values with those derived from geometric calculations and computed tomography (CT) measurements, respectively. To apply this technique to human subjects, an institutional review board protocol was established and three healthy volunteers were studied. In the human experiment, a high-speed image capture mode of OSI was applied to acquire torso images at 4–5 frames per second, which was synchronized with conventional spirometric measurements at 5 Hz. An in-house matlab program was developed to interactively define the volume of interest (VOI), separate the thorax and abdomen, and automatically calculate the thoracic and abdominal volumes within the VOIs. The torso volume change (TV C = ?Vtorso = ?Vthorax + ?Vabdomen) was automatically calculated using full-exhalation phase as the reference. The volumetric breathing pattern (BPv = ?Vthorax/?Vtorso) quantifying thoracic and abdominal volume variations was also calculated. Under quiet breathing, TVC should equal the tidal volume measured concurrently by a spirometer with a conversion factor (1.08) accounting for internal and external differences of temperature and moisture. Another matlab program was implemented to control the conventional spirometer that was used as the standard. Results: The volumes measured from the OSI imaging of geometric phantoms agreed with the calculated volumes with a discrepancy of 0.0% ± 1.6% (range ?1.9% to 2.5%). In measurements from the deformable torso/thorax phantoms, the volume differences measured using OSI imaging and CT imaging were 1.2% ± 2.1% (range ?0.5% to 3.6%), with a linear regression fitting (slope = 1.02 and R2 = 0.999). In volunteers, the relative error in OSI tidal volume measurement was ?2.2% ± 4.9% (range ?9.2% to 4.8%) and a correlation of r = 0.98 was found with spirometric measurement. The breathing pattern values of the three volunteers were substantially different from each other (BPv = 0.15, 0.45, and 0.32). Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of using OSI to measure breathing tidal volumes and breathing patterns with adequate accuracy. This is the first time that dynamic breathing tidal volume as well as breathing patterns is measured using optical surface imaging. The OSI-observed movement of the entire torso could serve as a new respiratory surrogate in the treatment room during radiation therapy. PMID:25832058

  19. Use of a beta microprobe system to measure arterial input function in PET via an arteriovenous shunt in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Kinetic modeling of physiological function using imaging techniques requires the accurate measurement of the time-activity curve of the tracer in plasma, known as the arterial input function (IF). The measurement of IF can be achieved through manual blood sampling, the use of small counting systems such as beta microprobes, or by derivation from PET images. Previous studies using beta microprobe systems to continuously measure IF have suffered from high background counts. Methods In the present study, a light-insensitive beta microprobe with a temporal resolution of up to 1 s was used in combination with a pump-driven femoral arteriovenous shunt to measure IF in rats. The shunt apparatus was designed such that the placement of the beta microprobe was highly reproducible. The probe-derived IF was compared to that obtained from manual sampling at 5-s intervals and IF derived from a left ventricle VOI in a dynamic PET image of the heart. Results Probe-derived IFs were very well matched to that obtained by "gold standard" manual blood sampling, but with an increased temporal resolution of up to 1 s. The area under the curve (AUC) ratio between probe- and manually derived IFs was 1.07 ± 0.05 with a coefficient of variation of 0.04. However, image-derived IFs were significantly underestimated compared to the manually sampled IFs, with an AUC ratio of 0.76 ± 0.24 with a coefficient of variation of 0.32. Conclusions IF derived from the beta microprobe accurately represented the IF as measured by blood sampling, was reproducible, and was more accurate than an image-derived technique. The use of the shunt removed problems of tissue-background activity, and the use of a light-tight probe with minimal gamma sensitivity refined the system. The probe/shunt apparatus can be used in both microprobe and PET studies. PMID:22214227

  20. Abcès thyroïdien à Escherichia coli: à propos d’un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Fassih, Malika; Moujahid, Essadik; Abada, Reda; Rouadi, Sami; Mahtar, Mohamed; Roubal, Mohamed; Essadi, Moustapha; El Kadiri, Mohamed Fatmi

    2012-01-01

    L’abcès de la thyroïde est une entité pathologique extrêmement rare, représentant seulement 0.1% des pathologies chirurgicales de la thyroïde. C’est une situation inhabituelle en raison des caractéristiques anatomiques et physiologiques de la glande qui lui donne une capacité de résistance vis-à-vis des infections. Nous rapportons un cas rare d’abcès thyroïdien à Escherichia. coli survenu chez une patiente de 55 ans, immunodéprimée: diabétique insulinodépendante non équilibrée, hypertendue mal suivie avec insuffisance cardiaque gauche, et en insuffisance rénale chronique terminale. La patiente s’est présentée aux urgences avec une tuméfaction basi-cervicale antérieure évoluant sur 10 jours, prédominante à droite, mesurant 6 cm, sensible, inflammatoire, mobile à la déglutition, avec une dyspnée mixte, sueurs et fièvre. Un scanner cervico-thoracique mettait en évidence un énorme processus du lobe thyroïdien droit à contenu liquidien de 9cm, refoulement des voies aériennes supérieures. Une cytoponction à l’aiguille ramenait 10 ml de liquide purulent. Le drainage chirurgical a été réalisé sous anesthésie locale vue le risque d’intubation difficile devant le blindage cervical en présence d’une trachée difficilement accessible. Une E. coli était isolée après la culture du liquide de drainage. La patiente était porteuse d’un bricker depuis l’enfance pour malformation de la vessie. Ceci suggère une bactériémie à point de départ urinaire, avec embole septique au niveau de la glande thyroïde. L’évolution était bonne sous tri-antibiothérapie, et des pansements biquotidiens, avec équilibration de son diabète et insuffisance rénale chronique. Nous rappellerons à travers cette observation les moyens de défense de la thyroïde contre les infections, les différents facteurs prédisposant à l’abcès de la thyroïde, et les germes incriminés dans chaque étiologie. Nous discuterons les diagnostics différentiels et nous insisterons sur les modalités diagnostiques et de prise en charge thérapeutique de ce type de malades. PMID:22593778

  1. Levodopa effects on [ 11C]raclopride binding in the resting human brain

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kevin J.; Piccirillo, Marilyn L.; Koller, Jonathan M.; Hseih, Tiffany; Wang, Lei; Mintun, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Synaptic dopamine (DA) release induced by amphetamine or other experimental manipulations can displace [ 11C]raclopride (RAC*) from dopamine D2-like receptors. We hypothesized that exogenous levodopa might increase dopamine release at striatal synapses under some conditions but not others, allowing a more naturalistic assessment of presynaptic dopaminergic function. Presynaptic dopaminergic abnormalities have been reported in Tourette syndrome (TS). Objective: Test whether levodopa induces measurable synaptic DA release in healthy people at rest, and gather pilot data in TS. Methods: This double-blind crossover study used RAC* and positron emission tomography (PET) to measure synaptic dopamine release 4 times in each of 10 carbidopa-pretreated, neuroleptic-naïve adults: before and during an infusion of levodopa on one day and placebo on another (in random order). Five subjects had TS and 5 were matched controls. RAC* binding potential (BP ND) was quantified in predefined anatomical volumes of interest (VOIs). A separate analysis compared BP ND voxel by voxel over the entire brain. Results: DA release declined between the first and second scan of each day (p=0.012), including on the placebo day. Levodopa did not significantly reduce striatal RAC* binding and striatal binding did not differ significantly between TS and control groups. However, levodopa’s effect on DA release differed significantly in a right midbrain region (p=0.002, corrected), where levodopa displaced RAC* by 59% in control subjects but increased BP ND by 74% in TS subjects. Discussion: Decreased DA release on the second scan of the day is consistent with the few previous studies with a similar design, and may indicate habituation to study procedures. We hypothesize that mesostriatal DA neurons fire relatively little while subjects rest, possibly explaining the non-significant effect of levodopa on striatal RAC* binding. The modest sample size argues for caution in interpreting the group difference in midbrain DA release with levodopa. PMID:26180632

  2. Une tumeur rare et distincte du cancer du sein: le carcinosarcome, à propos de huit cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Samia; Khoyaali, Siham; Naciri, Sara; Glaoui, Meriem; Mesmoudi, Mohamed; Errihani, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Le carcinosarcome du sein souvent appelé carcinome métaplasique du sein, est une tumeur maligne rare composée de deux lignées cellulaires distinctes, il est décrit comme un cancer du sein de type canalaire avec un composant de type sarcome. Il représente 0,08-0.2% de toutes les tumeurs malignes du sein. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective étalée sur un an, huit cas des carcinosarcomes mammaires ont été colligés à l'Institut national d'oncologie au Maroc durant l'année 2007. La médiane d’âge était de 49,5 ans, toutes les tumeurs étaient de haut grade, cliniquement 5 cas ont été classé t2 ou t3, et 3 cas classé sein localement avancé. Le traitement envisagé était basé sur une chirurgie mammaire suivie d'une radiothérapie et d'une chimiothérapie pour les cas adjuvants, l'envahissement ganglionnaire a été noté dans un cas, les récepteurs œstrogèniques sont négatifs, alors que les récepteurs progesteroniques sont positifs dans 4 cas, l'expression d'Her2 est absente dans tous les cas, le traitement des carcinosarcomes mammaires métastatiques était basé sur une chimiothérapie palliative. A 20 mois de médiane follow-up, la survie sans progression(SSP) pour le groupe entier est de 62,5%. Dans la limite de ce suivi, une rechute locorégionale a été détectée dans un cas, les deux patientes métastatiques sont décédées. Le carcinosarcome du sein est un sous-type rare du cancer du sein qui a un profil particulier et agressif, il a souvent un caractère triple négatif. Il est nécessaire de développer d'autres voies de recherche comme cibler le Récepteur HER1/EGFR. PMID:23734272

  3. Report From the Cryospheric Cyberinfrastructure: Discovery, Access, and Delivery of Data for IPY (DADDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, M.; Collins, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Discovery, Access, and Delivery of Data for IPY (DADDI) project seeks to improve the availability of Arctic coastal data, and has the long term goal of developing a system that can be extended to support access to the spectrum of International Polar Year (IPY) data. Previously, we reported on the process of defining user needs for DADDI, especially those requirements related to data discovery and access(1). Here we discuss the implementation of the DADDI system and the components that provide the means to contribute, preserve, discover and access data relevant to all disciplines within the cryospheric domain. Our previously reported use case development for the DADDI project described a set of criteria which were particularly salient for the users of systems supported by a geoscience cyberinfrastructure. These included the ability to easily control the boundaries of scientific parameter dimensions when searching for, manipulating and obtaining data; relevant, ranked, and filterable search and browse results; and access to data quality indicators and references, including access to human experts in the use of the selected data. Several of those user priorities have been successfully incorporated into the current DADDI environment, and in particular into the Mercury search system used to provide DADDI's metadata harvesting, indexing, query, and search results presentation functions. We will discuss and demonstrate the current system and its capabilities, including a review of the metadata and related standards used to support the existing features. We will also review the capabilities yet to be implemented, and the infrastructure changes or additions that will be necessary for DADDI to more fully participate in the cryospheric cyberinfrastructure. (1) The Virtual Observatory in Action: Recurring Themes in Polar Science Use Cases. 2007 Virtual Observatories in Geosciences Conference (http://www.egy.org/VOiG/Home.html; http://www.hao.ucar.edu/projects/vsto/voig/index.php/Session_II:Recurring_Themes_in_Polar_Sciences).

  4. Fully automated segmentation of whole breast in MR images by use of dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Luan; Lian, Yanyun; Gu, Yajia; Hu, Xiaoxin; Li, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Breast segmentation is an important and challenging task for computerized analysis of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance images (DCE-MRI). The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a fully automated technique for accurate segmentation of whole breast in three-dimensional (3-D) DCE-MRI. The whole breast segmentation consists of two steps, i.e., the delineation of the chest wall and breast skin line. A sectional dynamic programming method was first designed in each 2-D slice to trace the upper and/or lower boundaries of the chest wall. The statistical distribution of gray levels of the breast skin line was employed as weighting factor to enhance the skin line, and dynamic programming was then applied to delineate breast skin line slice-by-slice within the automatically extracted volume of interest (VOI). Our method also took advantages of the continuity of chest wall and skin line across adjacent slices. Finally, the segmented breast skin line and the detected chest wall were connected to create the whole breast segmentation. The preliminary results on 70 cases show that the proposed method can obtain accurate segmentation of whole breast based on subjective observation. With the manually delineated region of 16 breasts in 8 cases, our method achieved Dice overlap measure of 92.1% +/- 1.9% (mean +/- SD) and volume agreement of 91.6% +/- 4.7% for whole breast segmentation. It took approximately 4 minutes and 2.5 minutes for our method to segment the breast in an MR scan of 160 slices and 108 slices, respectively.

  5. Validation of parameter estimation methods for determining optical properties of atherosclerotic tissues in intravascular OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalev, Ronny; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Prabhu, David; Tanaka, Kentaro; Rollins, Andrew M.; Costa, Marco; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Lamouche, Guy; Wilson, David L.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present a new process for assessing optical properties of tissues from 3D pullbacks, the standard clinical acquisition method for iOCT data. Our method analyzes a volume of interest (VOI) consisting of about 100 A-lines spread across the angle of rotation (?) and along the artery, z. The new 3D method uses catheter correction, baseline removal, speckle noise reduction, alignment of A-line sequences, and robust estimation. We compare results to those from a more standard, "gold standard" stationary acquisition where many image frames are averaged to reduce noise. To do these studies in a controlled fashion, we use a realistic optical artery phantom containing of multiple "tissue types." Precision and accuracy for 3D pullback analysis are reported. Our results indicate that when implementing the process on a stationary acquisition dataset, the uncertainty improves at each stage while the uncertainty is reduced. When comparing stationary acquisition dataset to pullback dataset, the values were as follows: calcium: 3.8+/-1.09mm-1 in stationary and 3.9±1.2 mm-1 in a pullback; lipid: 11.025+/-0.417 mm-1 in stationary and 11.27+/-0.25 mm-1 in pullback; fibrous: 6.08+/-1.337 mm-1 in stationary and 5.58+/-2.0 mm-1. These results indicates that the process presented in this paper introduce minimal bias and only a small change in uncertainty when comparing a stationary and pullback dataset, thus paves the way to a highly accurate clinical plaque type discrimination, enabling automatic classification.

  6. Gallium-68-DOTA-albumin as a PET blood-pool marker: experimental evaluation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hoffend, Johannes; Mier, Walter; Schuhmacher, Jochen; Schmidt, Kerstin; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Strauss, Ludwig G; Eisenhut, Michael; Kinscherf, Ralf; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2005-04-01

    Investigations into tumor angiogenesis and antiangiogenic treatment have renewed interest in tumor perfusion. To image tumor blood-pool by PET, suitable tracers are not generally available. In this experimental study, we characterized a 68Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) conjugate of rat serum albumin (68Ga-DOTA-RSA) in vivo using a generator-produced isotope. Biodistribution was determined in ACI rats after intravenous administration of 3-6 MBq of 68Ga-DOTA-RSA. Three ACI rats were imaged over 1 h by dynamic PET after intravenous administration of 15-25 MBq of 68Ga-DOTA-RSA while the blood-pool activity was recorded simultaneously in a closed extracorporeal loop (ECL) between the carotid artery and the jugular vein. Time-activity curves (TACs) were obtained from volume of interest (VOI) analysis and from the ECL data. Stability and metabolites in plasma and urine were analyzed by size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) 1 h after intravenous injection of 67Ga-DOTA-RSA. Blood radioactivity decreased by 10% and 18% from 10 to 60 min p.i. by biodistribution and PET or ECL, respectively. Tissue sampling between 10 and 60 min p.i. showed slight increases in the uptake of spleen, myocardium, kidney and skeletal muscle while hepatic accretion remained unchanged. Total urinary excretion after 60 min amounted to 9% of the injected dose. HPLC demonstrated a single urinary metabolite corresponding in size to gallium-labeled DOTA. 68Ga-DOTA-RSA is a blood-pool tracer whose physical and biological half-life is well suited for PET. Our findings support clinical imaging using 68Ga-DOTA-labeled human serum albumin (HSA). The generator-produced label makes 68Ga-DOTA-labeled albumin continuously available even to centers lacking an in-house cyclotron. PMID:15820764

  7. Migration trachéale d'une canule de trachéotomie: complication exceptionnelle

    PubMed Central

    Chouikh, Chakib; El Moqaddem, Amine; Benmakhlouf, Anas; Naanaa, Saad; El Koraichi, Alae; El Kettani, Salma; Jahidi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    La trachéotomie est un geste chirurgical de survie largement pratiqué dans les services des urgences et de réanimation. En fonction de l'indication de sa réalisation, elle peut être transitoire ou définitive. Dans ce dernier cas le port d'une canule de trachéotomie de manière prolongée peut exposer à certaines complications qui peuvent s'avérer graves. Nous présentons un cas très rare d'un enfant présentant un syndrome de Guillain Barré, trachéotomisé depuis 4 ans suite à une sténose trachéale par intubation prolongée et portant une canule de trachéotomie métallique de type KRISHABER qui s'est présenté aux urgences dans un tableau de détresse respiratoire suite à la migration trachéale de sa canule. La trachéotomie est l'ouverture à la peau de la trachée cervicale, et à la mise d'une canule qui a pour but de permettre la respiration en court-circuitant les voies aériennes supérieures. De réalisation simple et codifiée le plus souvent, elle présente des risques de complications post opératoires notamment tardives. Les plus décrites sont les granulomes, les sténoses trachéales, les infections, et les fistules. La migration trachéale de la canule de trachéotomie reste exceptionnelle. Elle résulte d'un mauvais entretien qui fragilise la canule et doit être prise en charge en urgence. La trachéotomie définitive nécessite une surveillance régulière, un entretien et des soins de canules rigoureux pour éviter la survenue de complications qui peuvent être graves. Chez l'enfant, l'utilisation de canules souples en PVC ou en silicone doit être préférée aux canules métalliques. PMID:25368730

  8. Les cellulites cervico-faciales graves, facteurs et critères de gravité

    PubMed Central

    Lakouichmi, Mohammed; Tourabi, Khalid; Abir, Bader-eddine; Zouhair, Said; Lahmiti, Saad; Hattab, Nadia Mansouri

    2014-01-01

    La cellulite cervico-faciale grave est une infection polymicrobienne extensive et redoutable du tissu cellulo-adipeux de la face et du cou. L'objectif de cette étude est d'analyser certains facteurs favorisants et d’évaluer les critères de gravité en fonction des formes anatomo-cliniques. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective réalisée, entre janvier 2007 et décembre 2012, au service de chirurgie maxillo faciale de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech. Sur 147 cas de cellulites cervico-faciales pris en charge au niveau du service, 13 dossiers de cellulites graves ont été retenus. Neuf hommes (69%) et quatre femmes (31%) ont fait l'objet de cette étude, avec un âge moyen de 35 ans. Tous les patients ont été adressés pour prise en charge secondaire après avoir pris des anti-inflammatoires (AI). Sept cas (54%) étaient immunocompétents. La cause dentaire était soulevée chez neufs cas (69%). Cinq cas (38%) ont présenté une forme pseudo phlegmoneuse avec des signes compressifs des voies aéro-digestives. L'extension médiastinale a été observée chez quatre patients (31%). La forme nécrosante extensive a été retrouvée dans trois cas (23%). L’étude bactériologique, réalisée chez tous les patients, avait mis en évidence une flore microbienne mixte et polymorphe. Les cellulites cervico-faciales graves posent un réel problème de prise en charge thérapeutique. L'analyse des facteurs favorisants et l’évaluation des critères de gravité dans cette série ont permis de limiter une évolution défavorable. PMID:26113891

  9. Combined PET Imaging and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Intermediate and High-Risk Primary Prostate Carcinomas with Simultaneous [18F] Choline PET/MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wetter, Axel; Nensa, Felix; Schenck, Marcus; Heusch, Philipp; Pöppel, Thorsten; Bockisch, Andreas; Forsting, Michael; Schlosser, Thomas W.; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Nagarajah, James

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To characterize intermediate and high-risk prostate carcinomas with measurements of standardized uptake values (SUVs) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values by means of simultaneous [18F] choline PET/MRI. Materials and Methods 35 patients with primary prostate cancer underwent simultaneous [18F] choline PET/MRI. From these, 21 patients with an intermediate and high risk constellation who were not under ongoing hormonal therapy were included. Altogether 32 tumor lesions with a focal uptake of [18F] choline could be identified. Average ADC values (ADCaver) minimum ADC values (ADCmin) as well as maximum and mean SUVs (SUVmax, SUVmean) of tumor lesions were assessed with volume-of-interest (VOI) and Region-of-interest (ROI) measurements. As a reference, also ADCaver, ADCmin and SUVmax and SUVmean of non-tumorous prostate tissue were measured. Statistical analysis comprised calculation of descriptive parameters and calculation of Pearson’s product moment correlations between ADC values and SUVs of tumor lesions. Results Mean ADCaver and ADCmin of tumor lesions were 0.94±0.22×10?3 mm2/s and 0.65±0.21×10?3 mm2/s, respectively. Mean SUVmax and SUVmean of tumor lesions were 6.3±2.3 and 2.6±0.8, respectively. These values were in each case significantly different from the reference values (p<0.001). There was no significant correlation between the measured SUVs and ADC values (SUVmax vs. ADCaver: R?=??0.24, p?=?0.179; SUVmax vs. ADCmin: R?=??0.03, p?=?0.877; SUVmean vs. ADCaver: R?=??0.27, p?=?0.136; SUVmean vs. ADCmin: R?=??0.08, p?=?0.679). Conclusion Both SUVs and ADC values differ significantly between tumor lesions and healthy tissue. However, there is no significant correlation between these two parameters. This might be explained by the fact that SUVs and ADC values characterize different parts of tumor biology. PMID:25033396

  10. A combined approach for the enhancement and segmentation of mammograms using modified fuzzy C-means method in wavelet domain.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, Neeraj; Singh, S K; Srivastava, R

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a combined approach for enhancement and segmentation of mammograms is proposed. In preprocessing stage, a contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) method is applied to obtain the better contrast mammograms. After this, the proposed combined methods are applied. In the first step of the proposed approach, a two dimensional (2D) discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to all the input images. In the second step, a proposed nonlinear complex diffusion based unsharp masking and crispening method is applied on the approximation coefficients of the wavelet transformed images to further highlight the abnormalities such as micro-calcifications, tumours, etc., to reduce the false positives (FPs). Thirdly, a modified fuzzy c-means (FCM) segmentation method is applied on the output of the second step. In the modified FCM method, the mutual information is proposed as a similarity measure in place of conventional Euclidian distance based dissimilarity measure for FCM segmentation. Finally, the inverse 2D-DWT is applied. The efficacy of the proposed unsharp masking and crispening method for image enhancement is evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and that of the proposed segmentation method is evaluated in terms of random index (RI), global consistency error (GCE), and variation of information (VoI). The performance of the proposed segmentation approach is compared with the other commonly used segmentation approaches such as Otsu's thresholding, texture based, k-means, and FCM clustering as well as thresholding. From the obtained results, it is observed that the proposed segmentation approach performs better and takes lesser processing time in comparison to the standard FCM and other segmentation methods in consideration. PMID:25190996

  11. 2.9, 2.36, and 1.96 Ga zircons in orthogneiss south of the Red River shear zone in Viet Nam: evidence from SHRIMP U-Pb dating and tectonothermal implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Tran Ngoc; Toriumi, Mitsuhiro; Sano, Yuji; Terada, Kentaro; Thang, Ta Trong

    2003-05-01

    Orthogneissic rocks coexisting with migmatites and containing small amphibolite lenses are exposed in the center of the metamorphic belt which runs parallel to the Day Nui Con Voi-Red River shear zone in northern Viet Nam. The orthogneiss complex has given some radiogenic dates of Early Proterozoic and Late Archean, which are the oldest ages ever registered for the Southeast Asian continent. Zircon grains separated from three samples of the orthogneiss complex have been dated to establish the protolith age and the timing of high-grade tectonothermal events in the complex. Sixty-five SHRIMP U-Th-Pb analyses of these zircons define three age groups of 2.84-2.91, 2.36, and 1.96 Ga. The age groups correspond to three periods of zircon generation. The oldest ˜2.9 Ga cores indicate a minimum age for the protolith of the orthogneiss complex. Two younger generations (including ˜2.36 Ga outer-cores and ˜1.96 Ga rims) probably grew during later high-grade tectono-metamorphic events, which were previously suggested by K-Ar and 40Ar/ 39Ar cooling ages of ˜2.0 Ga for synkinematic hornblendes. An early thermal history of the orthogneiss complex has been constrained, including a primary magma-crystallization stage starting at ˜2.9 Ga, followed by two Early Proterozoic (˜2.36 and ˜1.96 Ga) high-grade tectonothermal events. The ca. 2.9 Ga protolith age of the orthogneiss complex documented in this study provides new convincing evidence for the presence of Archean rocks in Indochina, and clearly indicates that the crustal evolution of northern Viet Nam started as early as Late Archean time.

  12. Specification and estimation of sources of bias affecting neurological studies in PET/MR with an anatomical brain phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuho, J.; Johansson, J.; Linden, J.; Saunavaara, V.; Tolvanen, T.; Teräs, M.

    2014-01-01

    Selection of reconstruction parameters has an effect on the image quantification in PET, with an additional contribution from a scanner-specific attenuation correction method. For achieving comparable results in inter- and intra-center comparisons, any existing quantitative differences should be identified and compensated for. In this study, a comparison between PET, PET/CT and PET/MR is performed by using an anatomical brain phantom, to identify and measure the amount of bias caused due to differences in reconstruction and attenuation correction methods especially in PET/MR. Differences were estimated by using visual, qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis consisted of a line profile analysis for measuring the reproduction of anatomical structures and the contribution of the amount of iterations to image contrast. The quantitative analysis consisted of measurement and comparison of 10 anatomical VOIs, where the HRRT was considered as the reference. All scanners reproduced the main anatomical structures of the phantom adequately, although the image contrast on the PET/MR was inferior when using a default clinical brain protocol. Image contrast was improved by increasing the amount of iterations from 2 to 5 while using 33 subsets. Furthermore, a PET/MR-specific bias was detected, which resulted in underestimation of the activity values in anatomical structures closest to the skull, due to the MR-derived attenuation map that ignores the bone. Thus, further improvements for the PET/MR reconstruction and attenuation correction could be achieved by optimization of RAMLA-specific reconstruction parameters and implementation of bone to the attenuation template.

  13. Phosphorus Spectroscopy of Calf Muscles before and after Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Wcis?o, Bo?ena; Cichocka, Monika; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to determine 31PMRS reference spectrum and intracellular pH of calf muscles in the dominant limb of healthy, young, male volunteers before and after intense physical effort. Material/Methods Examinations were performed with a 1.5 T MR system. FID CSI (Free Induction Decay Chemical Shift Imaging) sequence was used with the following parameters: TR=4000 ms, FA=90°, NEX=2 and VOI (Volume Of Interest)=8×8×8 cm3 (512 cm3) involving in calf muscles. Raw data was preprocessed using SAGE (GE) software. Authors analyzed relative concentrations ratios of selected metabolites: PCr/ATP and PCr/Pi. Intracellular pH and relative concentrations ratios of each metabolite (Pi, PCr, ?-ATP, ?-ATP, ?-ATP, ATP) were also calculated relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites. Results were compared with a t-test. Results Based on statistical analysis of results significant differences (p<0.05) were demonstrated for some of the studied metabolites and for intracellular pH. Increase in PCr concentration in relation to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites and to ATP concentration was noted. However, ?-ATP, ?-ATP and ATP concentrations relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites become reduced. Decrease in pH after physical effort was demonstrated. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) in concentrations of remaining metabolites before and after exercise. Increase in PCr concentration relative to Pi concentration and decrease of Pi and ?-ATP concentration relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites were demonstrated. Conclusions The 31PMRS method enables assessment of concentrations of phosphorus-containing metabolites as well as intercellular pH before and after exercise. This method is still under examination, but it has already shown promise as a diagnostic tool for the future. PMID:25276259

  14. Development of a nutrient-dense food supplement for HIV-infected women in rural Kenya using qualitative and quantitative research methods

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Steven Y; Hendricks, Kristy M; Wanke, Christine; Omosa, Gloria; Patta, Shem; Mwero, Ben; Mjomba, Innocent; Queenan, Jeanette; Mwamburi, Mkaya

    2014-01-01

    Objective Formative research to facilitate the development, packaging and delivery of a culturally acceptable nutrition intervention for HIV-infected women in rural Kenya for an intervention trial. Design Focus group discussion on three areas: (i) ingredients and form of the nutrition intervention, (ii) packaging and delivery and (iii) monitoring of adherence. Two single-blind taste tests with eleven different porridge formulations of various combinations of maize flour, soyabeans, peanuts, sorghum, mung beans, dried fish, raisins and dried whole milk. Follow-up acceptability focus group discussion was also conducted. Setting Voi, Kenya, community based. Subjects Focus group discussion and two taste tests (twenty-one women aged 16–55 years). Follow-up acceptability focus group discussion (four women enrolled in intervention trial). Results The preferred porridge for taste consisted of maize, soyabeans and peanuts. For animal protein, dried whole milk and dried fish were used. Although the women disliked the taste of dried fish, it was acceptable if added in small undetectable quantities. Sugar over lime was favoured for taste. Women believed they could consume at least two cups of porridge per day without displacing their usual meals. The optimal delivery interval was believed to be every two weeks in individual serving packages. Women who had been consuming porridge for several weeks felt the taste was acceptable for long-term consumption. Conclusions This formative research resulted in the development, packaging and delivery of a nutrient-dense food supplement using local ingredients to meet the dietary needs of the population and acceptable for daily consumption by women in Kenya for evaluation in an intervention trial. PMID:22974548

  15. Pharyngeal cancer prevention: evidence from a case--control study involving 232 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Escribano Uzcudun, Ana; Rabanal Retolaza, Ignacio; García Grande, Antonio; Miralles Olivar, Lara; García García, Alfredo; González Barón, Manuel; Gavilán Bouzas, Javier

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for pharyngeal cancer and to propose 10 result-based preventive measures. It was a case-control study conducted in Madrid, Spain, with 232 consecutive patients diagnosed between January 1 1990 and December 31, 1995, sex- and age-matched with 232 control individuals with no oncological disease or history. By means of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, seven different epidemiological areas were surveyed, namely: (1) sociodemographic variables, (2) familial all-site cancer history, (3) medical history, (4) lifestyle (habits), (5) diet, (6) occupational exposure, and (7) non-occupational exposure. Of the great number of factors within each epidemiological area, the following were found to be risk factors after adjustment for tobacco smoking and alcoholic beverage drinking: (1) tobacco smoking, (2) alcoholic beverage drinking, (3) low and low-middle socioeconomic background, (4) low educational level, (5) rural milieu, (6) working, or having worked, as a manual worker in agriculture, (7) working, or having worked as a manual worker in building industry, (8) having an upper aerodigestive tract cancer familial history, (9) having a medical history of alcholism, low weight/malnutrition, gastroesophageal reflux or chronic obstructive bronchopneumonia, (10) low dietary intake of fruit, fruit juice, uncooked vegetables, dietary fibre-containing foods, fish and milk and dairy products, (11) high dietary intake of meat and fried foods, (12) deficient oral and dental hygiene, (13) abuse of black coffee, (14) abuse of 'carajillo' (a typical Spanish drink composed of black coffee and flambéed brandy), (15) occupational exposure to pesticides, solvents and dust of different origins. On the basis of our results and those reported by other authors, we put forward 10 measures for the prevention of pharyngeal cancer. However, due to the small size of the nasopharyngeal cancer subsample (n = 35, 15.08 per cent), our results as well as the preventive measures are to considered as referring uniquely to oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. In addition, from descriptive statistical data inspection one can conclude that nasopharyngeal cancer is likely to bear risk factors different from those for oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers, thus nasopharyngeal cancer warrants specific epidemiological investigation with a sufficiently large patient sample. PMID:12238672

  16. Lifetime alcohol use and overall and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Pietro; Licaj, Idlir; Muller, David C; Kragh Andersen, Per; Johansson, Mattias; Boeing, Heiner; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Duell, Eric J; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Sanchez, Carmen Navarro; Arriola, Larraitz; Wallström, Peter; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tumino, Rosario; Agnoli, Claudia; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peeters, Petra; Beulens, Joline WJ; Nunes, Luciana; Gunter, Marc; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Brennan, Paul; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of factors that modulate the association between alcohol and mortality, and to provide estimates of absolute risk of death. Design The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Setting 23 centres in 10 countries. Participants 380?395 men and women, free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack or stroke at enrolment, followed up for 12.6?years on average. Main outcome measures 20?453 fatal events, of which 2053 alcohol-related cancers (ARC, including cancers of upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectal and female breast), 4187 cardiovascular diseases/coronary heart disease (CVD/CHD), 856 violent deaths and injuries. Lifetime alcohol use was assessed at recruitment. Results HRs comparing extreme drinkers (?30?g/day in women and ?60?g/day in men) to moderate drinkers (0.1–4.9?g/day) were 1.27 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.43) in women and 1.53 (1.39 to 1.68) in men. Strong associations were observed for ARC mortality, in men particularly, and for violent deaths and injuries, in men only. No associations were observed for CVD/CHD mortality among drinkers, whereby HRs were higher in never compared to moderate drinkers. Overall mortality seemed to be more strongly related to beer than wine use, particularly in men. The 10-year risks of overall death for women aged 60?years, drinking more than 30?g/day was 5% and 7%, for never and current smokers, respectively. Corresponding figures in men consuming more than 60?g/day were 11% and 18%, in never and current smokers, respectively. In competing risks analyses, mortality due to CVD/CHD was more pronounced than ARC in men, while CVD/CHD and ARC mortality were of similar magnitude in women. Conclusions In this large European cohort, alcohol use was positively associated with overall mortality, ARC and violent death and injuries, but marginally to CVD/CHD. Absolute risks of death observed in EPIC suggest that alcohol is an important determinant of total mortality. PMID:24993766

  17. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy for lung cancer surveillance based on risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, Gregory; Natarajan, Nachimuthu; Tan, Dongfeng; Nava, Enriqueta; Klippenstein, Donald; Mahoney, Martin; Cummings, Michael; Reid, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Background This is a preliminary report of an ongoing prospective bimodality lung cancer surveillance trial for high?risk patients. Bimodality surveillance incorporates autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) and spiral CT (SCT) scanning in high?risk patients as a primary lung cancer surveillance strategy, based entirely on risk factors. AFB was used for surveillance and findings were compared with conventional sputum cytology for the detection of malignancy and pre?malignant central airway lesions. Methods 402 patients registering at Roswell Park Cancer Institute were evaluated with spirometric testing, chest radiography, history and physical examination, of which 207 were deemed eligible for the study. For eligibility, patients were required to have at least two of the following risk factors: (1) ?20 pack year history of tobacco use, (2) asbestos?related lung disease on the chest radiograph, (3) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with a forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) <70% of predicted, and (4) prior aerodigestive cancer treated with curative intent, with no evidence of disease for >2?years. All eligible patients underwent AFB, a low?dose SCT scan of the chest without contrast, and a sputum sample was collected for cytological examination. Bronchoscopic biopsy findings were correlated with sputum cytology results, SCT?detected pulmonary nodules and surveillance?detected cancers. To date, 186 have been enrolled with 169 completing the surveillance procedures. Results Thirteen lung cancers (7%) were detected in the 169 subjects who have completed all three surveillance studies to date. Pre?malignant changes were common and 66% of patients had squamous metaplasia or worse. Conventional sputum cytology missed 100% of the dysplasias and 68% of the metaplasias detected by AFB, and failed to detect any cases of carcinoma or carcinoma?in?situ in this patient cohort. Sputum cytology exhibited 33% sensitivity and 64% specificity for the presence of metaplasia. Seven of 13 lung cancers (58%) were stage Ia or less, including three patients with squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with peripheral pulmonary nodules identified by SCT scanning of the chest were 3.16?times more likely to exhibit pre?malignant changes on AFB (p<0.001). Conclusion Bimodality surveillance will detect central lung cancer and pre?malignancy in patients with multiple lung cancer risk factors, even when conventional sputum cytology is negative. AFB should be considered in high?risk patients, regardless of sputum cytology findings. PMID:17101735

  18. Micro-CT Analysis of Radiation-Induced Osteopenia and Bone Hypovascularization in Rat.

    PubMed

    Michel, Guillaume; Blery, Pauline; Pilet, Paul; Guicheux, Jérôme; Weiss, Pierre; Malard, Olivier; Espitalier, Florent

    2015-07-01

    Treatment of carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract often requires external radiation therapy. However, radiation affects all the components of bone, with different degrees of sensitivity, and may produce severe side effects such as mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN). Intraosseous vascularization is thought to be decreased after irradiation, but its impact on total bone volume is still controversial. The aim of this study was to compare intraosseous vascularization, cortical bone thickness, and total bone volume in a rat model of ORN versus nonirradiated rats, using a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis after intracardiac injection of a contrast agent. The study was performed on 8-week-old Lewis 1A rats (n = 14). Eleven rats underwent external irradiation on the hind limbs by a single 80-Gy dose. Three rats did not receive irradiation and served as controls for statistical analysis. Eight weeks after the external irradiation, all the animals received a barium sulfate intracardiac injection under general anesthesia. All samples were analyzed with the micro-computed tomography system at a resolution of 5.5 ?m. The images were later processed to create 3D reconstructions and study vascularization, bone volume, and cortical thickness. Data from irradiated and nonirradiated rats were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. No animal died after irradiation. Nineteen irradiated tibias and six nonirradiated tibias were included for micro-CT analysis. The vessel percentage was significantly lower in irradiated bones (p = 0.0001). The distance between the vessels, a marker of vascular destruction, was higher after irradiation (p = 0.001). The vessels were also more altered distally after irradiation (p = 0.028). Cortical thickness was severely decreased after irradiation, sometimes even reduced to zero. Both trabecular and cortical structures were destroyed after irradiation, with wide bone gaps. Finally, both total bone volume (p = 0.0001) and cortical thickness (p = 0.0001) were significantly decreased in irradiated tibias compared to nonirradiated tibias. These results led to multiple spontaneous fractures in the irradiated group, and the destruction of intraosseous vessels observed macroscopically with the radiographic preview. This study revealed the impact of radiation on intraosseous vasculature and cortical bone with a micro-CT analysis in a rat ORN model. Hypovascularization and osteopenia are consistent with the literature, contributing a morphological scale with high resolution. Visualization of the vasculature by micro-CT is an innovative technique to see the changes after radiation, and should help adjust bone tissue engineering in irradiated bone. PMID:25953705

  19. Cutaneous signs of systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Laju M; Lambert, Phelps J; Gagna, Claude E; Maghari, Amin; Lambert, W Clark

    2011-01-01

    Commonly used dermatologic eponyms and characteristic skin signs are enormously helpful in guiding a diagnosis, even though they may not be pathonemonic. They include, on the nails, Aldrich-Mees' lines (syn.: Mees' lines), Beau's lines, Muehrcke's lines, Terry's nails, and half and half nails, often associated, respectively, with arsenic poisoning, acute stress or systemic illness, severe hypertension, liver disease and uremia, and, around the nails, Braverman's sign, associated with collagen-vascular disease. Elsewhere, one may see the Asboe-Hansen and Nikolsky's signs, indicative of the pemphigus group of diseases, Auspitz's sign, a classic finding in psoriasis, Borsieri's and Pasita's signs, seen in early scarlet fever, the butterfly rash, indicative of systemic lupus erythematosus, and the buffalo hump, seen in Cushing's disease and also in the more common corticosteroid toxicity. Gottron's papules and the heliotrope rash are signs of dermatomyositis. Janeway's lesions and Osler's nodes are seen in bacterial endocarditis. A Dennie-Morgan fold under the eye is seen in association with atopic disease. Koplik's spots are an early sign of rubeola. Fitzpatrick's sign is indicative of a benign lesion (dermatofibroma), whereas Hutchinson's sign is indicative of a malignant one (subungual melanoma). Petechiae are seen in many diseases, including fat embolization, particularly from a large bone fracture following trauma. Palpable purpura is indicative of leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and is an early, critical sign in Rickettsial diseases, including Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, which must be diagnosed and treated early. Hyperpigmentation of areolae and scars is seen in Addison's disease. Acanthosis nigricans may indicate internal cancer, especially stomach cancer, whereas Bazex's syndrome occurs in synchrony with primary, usually squamous cancer, in the upper aerodigestive tract or metastatic cancer in cervical lymph nodes. Perioral pigmented macules or one or more cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms may be a sign of the Peutz-Jeghers or Muir-Torre syndrome, respectively, both associated also with intestinal polyps that have a malignant potential. Telangiectasiae in the perioral region may be associated with similar lesions internally in Osler-Weber-Rendu disease. Kerr's sign is indicative of spinal cord injury and Darier's sign of mastocytosis. Post proctoscopic periobital purpura (PPPP) is a phenomenon observed in some patients with systemic amyloidosis. Koebner's isomorphic response refers to the tendency of an established dermatosis, such as psoriasis, to arise in (a) site(s) of trauma, whereas Wolf's isotrophic response refers to a new dermatosis, such as tinea, not yet seen in the patient, arising in (a) site(s) of a former but different dermatosis, such as zoster. PMID:21855727

  20. On the evolution of some endoscopic light delivery systems for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, H

    1998-05-01

    Progress in photodynamic therapy (PDT) depends on the development of: (1) photosensitizers, (2) optical devices among which are lasers and light delivery systems, and (3) clinical procedure. The light delivery systems which are the focus of this article are fiberoptic devices developed in Lausanne, Switzerland for use in the endoscopic treatment of cancer or precancerous lesions in the bronchi, the esophagus, the uterus, the cervix, the upper aerodigestive tract and thoracic cavity. Light delivery systems for both surface and interstitial application are presented, together with some of the physical principles on which they are based. Incorporation in these devices of the possibility for in-situ measurement of reflected therapeutic light and/or fluorescence emitted by endogenous and/or exogenous dyes allows for improved light and drug dosimetry, as well as the measurement of photobleaching, local oxygenation and other tissue properties. The necessity of information on tissue optical parameters, as well as the use of simple mathematical models and tissue phantoms, for optimizing light distributing devices is underlined. The devices are optimized for delivering the desired light intensity distribution to the targeted region with minimal losses. In some cases this implies using the device to modify the shape of the hollow organ during PDT, an example of which is given for the case of the esophagus. In another strategy, one adapts the shape of the device to that of the organ, using an elastic balloon catheter. Here examples are given for the uterus, the bronchi and the thoracic cavity. The mechanical properties, the sizes, shapes and materials of the light delivery systems must be optimized for safe use while retaining low cost. Furthermore, the devices must whenever possible be rendered compatible with existing medical technology. A significant improvement in clinical efficacy has been demonstrated in the testing of some of these new fiberoptic light delivery systems. For endoscopic PDT in the hollow organs, the design and optimalization of multiple new approaches to light distribution will continue to lead to improved clinical results. PMID:9689515

  1. Toll-like receptor 3 in Epstein-Barr virus-associated nasopharyngeal carcinomas: consistent expression and cytotoxic effects of its synthetic ligand poly(A:U) combined to a Smac-mimetic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are consistently associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Though NPCs are more radiosensitive and chemosensitive than other tumors of the upper aero-digestive tract, many therapeutic challenges remain. In a previous report, we have presented data supporting a possible therapeutic strategy based on artificial TLR3 stimulation combined to the inhibition of the IAP protein family (Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins). The present study was designed to progress towards practical applications of this strategy pursuing 2 main objectives: 1) to formally demonstrate expression of the TLR3 protein by malignant NPC cells; 2) to investigate the effect of poly(A:U) as a novel TLR3-agonist more specific than poly(I:C) which was used in our previous study. Methods TLR3 expression was investigated in a series of NPC cell lines and clinical specimens by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The effects on NPC cells growth of the TLR3 ligand poly(A:U) used either alone or in combination with RMT5265, an IAP inhibitor based on Smac-mimicry, were assessed using MTT assays and clonogenic assays. Results TLR3 was detected at a high level in all NPC cell lines and clinical specimens. Low concentrations of poly(A:U) were applied to several types of NPC cells including cells from the C17 xenograft which for the first time have been adapted to permanent propagation in vitro. As a single agent, poly(A:U) had no significant effects on cell growth and cell survival. In contrast, dramatic effects were obtained when it was combined with the IAP inhibitor RMT5265. These effects were obtained using concentrations as low as 0.5 ?g/ml (poly(A:U)) and 50 nM (RMT5265). Conclusion These data confirm that TLR3 expression is a factor of vulnerability for NPC cells. They suggest that in some specific pathological and pharmacological contexts, it might be worth to use Smac-mimetics at very low doses, allowing a better management of secondary effects. In light of our observations, combined use of both types of compounds should be considered for treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinomas. PMID:23198710

  2. Nd:YAG laser treatment of tumors of the oropharynx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippert, Burkard M.; Folz, Benedikt J.; Werner, Jochen A.

    1998-01-01

    The laser surgical treatment of carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract has become an established treatment modality at many otolaryngology departments throughout the laser years. The oncologic results that can be achieved with this surgical technique are quite as good as the results that can be achieved by conventional surgery, the functional results on the other hand often seem to be superior to conventional surgery. The Nd:YAG laser has so far rarely been used as a cutting device in the head and neck region. The fibertom mode is a new technique, which has been developed to make the employment of the Nd:YAG laser as a laser scalpel feasible. Between December 1995 and May 1997 thirty-five patients with squamous cell carinomas of the oral cavity were treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of the University of Kiel with the Nd:YAG laser in fibertom mode (30 - 50 Watt, cw-mode, 600 m bare fiber). The operative approach, intra- and postoperative complications, duration of the operation and of the healing process, as well as functional and oncologic results were documented and compared to the retrospectively raised data of a group of patients (n equals 25), that was treated by CO2 laser surgery. When working with the Nd:YAG laser in fibertom mode fewer hemorrhages during the actual dissection could be observed as opposed to dissection with the CO2 laser. By laser dissection with the Nd:YAG laser in fibertom mode the operation had to be interrupted to a much lesser extent for bipolar cautery, thus resulting in a reduced operation time. Until a complete reepithelialization of the laser wound was achieved an interval of 3 - 4 weeks went by. Following Nd:YAG laser excision the healing process was 7 - 10 days delayed when compared to CO2 laser surgery. The functional and oncologic results were quite satisfactory in both groups and no major difference between the two laser systems could be observed. The fibertom mode renders the use of the Nd:YAG laser for the excision of tumors in highly vascularized regions like e.g. the tongue, the floor of the mouth and the oropharynx. The functional and oncologic results which were achieved with this method in the treatment of carcinomas of the tongue are so convincing that the CO2 laser has been replaced in our department by the Nd:YAG laser for the indications mentioned above. Tumors of the larynx and hypopharynx on the other hand remain to stay a domain of CO2 laser surgery.

  3. Incidence and mortality of laryngeal cancer in China, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lingbin; Li, Huizhang; Zhu, Chen; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Laryngeal cancer is the common cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract. We aimed to use the national cancer registration data in 2011 to estimate the incidence and mortality of laryngeal cancer within China. Methods Comparable, high-quality data from 177 population-based cancer registries were qualified for analysis. The pooled data were stratified by area, sex and age group. National new cases and deaths of laryngeal cancer were estimated using age-specific rates and national population in 2010. All incidence and death rates were age-standardized to the 2000 Chinese standard population and Segi’s population, which were expressed per 100,000 populations. Results All 177 cancer registries covered a total of 175,310,169 population (98,341,507 in urban and 76,968,662 in rural areas), accounting for 13.01% of the national population. The data quality indicators of proportion of morphological verification (MV%), percentage of cancer cases identified with death certification only (DCO%) and mortality to incidence ratio (M/I) were 77.98%, 2.62% and 0.55, respectively. Estimated 20,875 new cases of laryngeal cancer were diagnosed and 11,488 deaths from laryngeal cancer occurred in China in 2011. The crude incidence rate of laryngeal cancer was 1.55/100,000 (2.69/100,000 in males and 0.35/100,000 in females). Age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 1.13/100,000 and 1.14/100,000, respectively. Laryngeal cancer is much rarer in females than in males. The incidence rate was higher in urban areas than that in rural areas. The crude mortality rate of laryngeal cancer was 0.85/100,000 (1.42/100,000 in males and 0.25/100,000 in females). Age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were both 0.61/100,000. The mortality rate in males was much higher than that in females. There was no definite difference in mortality rates of laryngeal cancer between urban and rural areas. Conclusions Larynx is a specialized area and cancer of larynx significantly affects the quality of life for the patients. Comprehensive measures should be carried out to prevent the ascent of laryngeal cancer. PMID:25717226

  4. Study of the occlusion effect induced by an earplug: Numerical modelling and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brummund, Martin

    Despite existing limits for occupational noise exposure, professional hearing loss remains a high priority problem both in Quebec and worldwide. Several approaches exist to protect workers from harmful noise levels. The most frequently employed short term solution includes the distribution of hearing protection devices (HPD) such as earplugs and ear muffs. While HPDs offer an inexpensive (e.g. direct cost) and efficient means of protection workers often only tend to wear HPDs for limited amounts of time and, thus, remain at risk of developing professional hearing loss. Discomfort while using HPDs contributes to HPD underutilization and non-use. Two more general categories of discomfort can be distinguished. The category physical discomfort includes, for instance, problems such as heating of the ear and irritation of the ear canal that that occur upon earplug insertion. The category auditory discomfort refers to alterations in the auditory perception of sounds and one's own voice as well as hindered workplace communications. One important auditory discomfort that promotes HPD non-use is the occlusion effect. The occlusion effect occurs upon earplug insertion and describes sound amplification phenomena in the occluded ear canal at the low frequencies. The sound amplification is both perceivable and measurable (e.g., open and occluded sound pressure levels, hearing threshold shift). Additionally, the occlusion effect causes the HPD wearer to perceive his/her own voice as being distorted (e.g. hollow sounding) and physiological noises (e.g. respiration, blood circulation) are amplified also subsequent to earplug insertion. Reducing the occlusion effect has the potential to increase the auditory comfort of HPDs and could help preventing occupational hearing loss in the future. In order to improve this and other shortcomings observed with currently existing HPDs a large research collaboration between the Robert-Sauve research institute in occupational health and safety (IRSST) and the Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) has been launched. The present study represents a part of this collaboration and aims at studying the occlusion effect of the system earplug - ear canal through the development of novel numerical models and experimental methods. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary nodules on CT scans: Segmentation and classification using 3D active contours

    PubMed Central

    Way, Ted W.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Cascade, Philip N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Bogot, Naama; Zhou, Chuan

    2009-01-01

    We are developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to classify malignant and benign lung nodules found on CT scans. A fully automated system was designed to segment the nodule from its surrounding structured background in a local volume of interest (VOI) and to extract image features for classification. Image segmentation was performed with a three-dimensional (3D) active contour (AC) method. A data set of 96 lung nodules (44 malignant, 52 benign) from 58 patients was used in this study. The 3D AC model is based on two-dimensional AC with the addition of three new energy components to take advantage of 3D information: (1) 3D gradient, which guides the active contour to seek the object surface, (2) 3D curvature, which imposes a smoothness constraint in the z direction, and (3) mask energy, which penalizes contours that grow beyond the pleura or thoracic wall. The search for the best energy weights in the 3D AC model was guided by a simplex optimization method. Morphological and gray-level features were extracted from the segmented nodule. The rubber band straightening transform (RBST) was applied to the shell of voxels surrounding the nodule. Texture features based on run-length statistics were extracted from the RBST image. A linear discriminant analysis classifier with stepwise feature selection was designed using a second simplex optimization to select the most effective features. Leave-one-case-out resampling was used to train and test the CAD system. The system achieved a test area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) of 0.83±0.04. Our preliminary results indicate that use of the 3D AC model and the 3D texture features surrounding the nodule is a promising approach to the segmentation and classification of lung nodules with CAD. The segmentation performance of the 3D AC model trained with our data set was evaluated with 23 nodules available in the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). The lung nodule volumes segmented by the 3D AC model for best classification were generally larger than those outlined by the LIDC radiologists using visual judgment of nodule boundaries. PMID:16898434

  6. Seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath southern Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Miriam Christina; Rümpker, Georg; Tilmann, Frederik; Yuan, Xiaohui; Josiane Rindraharisaona, Elisa

    2015-04-01

    Madagascar is considered as a key region with respect to the assembly and break-up of the supercontinent Gondwana. Following the collision between East- and West-Gondwana (~700-650 Ma), its position was central to the Panafrican orogenesis. Madagascar then separated from East Africa and later from the Indian and Antarctic plates until these processes came to a halt about 69 Ma ago. Today, Madagascar consists of different tectonic units; the eastern parts (two thirds of the island) are composed mainly of Precambian rocks, whereas the western part is dominated by sedimentary deposits. Furthermore, southern Madagascar is characterized by several NS to NW-SE trending shear zones. Madagascar has been the target of a number of geological studies, but seismological investigations of the presumed complex lithosphere-asthenosphere system and of deeper upper-mantle structures are sparse. To increase our understanding of these structures and related tectonic processes, we installed a dense temporary seismic network in southern Madagascar. It consisted of 25 broadband and 25 short-period stations, which were in operation for up to 2 years between 2012 and 2014. The broadband stations crossed the island along an east-west profile; the eastern section was supplemented by a network of short-period stations. Here we present results from shear-wave splitting analyses to infer the seismic anisotropy of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in response to deformational processes. The polarization of the fast shear wave and the delay time between the fast and slow waves provide constraints on the anisotropic fabric. For our study, we use SKS-phases from up to 12 events recorded at the temporary stations and from 10 events at the permanent GEOFON station VOI. We first apply a single-event splitting analysis by minimizing the transverse component. For stations that do not show a significant azimuthal dependence of the splitting parameters, we also apply a joint inversion involving all recorded SKS waveforms. Our preliminary results exhibit delay times between 0.4 and 1.5 s. In the center of the E-W profile, fast axes are mainly oriented NNW-SSE, whereas east of the Ranotsara shear zone, fast axes are oriented NE-SW. Additionally, we will apply splitting analysis of Ps phases as well as waveform modelling to resolve the possible influence of the crust on the anisotropy inferred from the SKS phases.

  7. Generalized five-dimensional dynamic and spectral factor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    El Fakhri, Georges; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Zimmerman, Robert E.; Ouyang Jinsong [Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Functional Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We have generalized the spectral factor analysis and the factor analysis of dynamic sequences (FADS) in SPECT imaging to a five-dimensional general factor analysis model (5D-GFA), where the five dimensions are the three spatial dimensions, photon energy, and time. The generalized model yields a significant advantage in terms of the ratio of the number of equations to that of unknowns in the factor analysis problem in dynamic SPECT studies. We solved the 5D model using a least-squares approach. In addition to the traditional non-negativity constraints, we constrained the solution using a priori knowledge of both time and energy, assuming that primary factors (spectra) are Gaussian-shaped with full-width at half-maximum equal to gamma camera energy resolution. 5D-GFA was validated in a simultaneous pre-/post-synaptic dual isotope dynamic phantom study where {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I activities were used to model early Parkinson disease studies. 5D-GFA was also applied to simultaneous perfusion/dopamine transporter (DAT) dynamic SPECT in rhesus monkeys. In the striatal phantom, 5D-GFA yielded significantly more accurate and precise estimates of both primary {sup 99m}Tc (bias=6.4%{+-}4.3%) and {sup 123}I (-1.7%{+-}6.9%) time activity curves (TAC) compared to conventional FADS (biases=15.5%{+-}10.6% in {sup 99m}Tc and 8.3%{+-}12.7% in {sup 123}I, p<0.05). Our technique was also validated in two primate dynamic dual isotope perfusion/DAT transporter studies. Biases of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 123}I-DAT activity estimates with respect to estimates obtained in the presence of only one radionuclide (sequential imaging) were significantly lower with 5D-GFA (9.4%{+-}4.3% for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and 8.7%{+-}4.1% for {sup 123}I-DAT) compared to biases greater than 15% for volumes of interest (VOI) over the reconstructed volumes (p<0.05). 5D-GFA is a novel and promising approach in dynamic SPECT imaging that can also be used in other modalities. It allows accurate and precise dynamic analysis while compensating for Compton scatter and cross-talk.

  8. Multiclass Support Vector Machine-Based Lesion Mapping Predicts Functional Outcome in Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Verleger, Tobias; Cheng, Bastian; Thomalla, Götz; Hilgetag, Claus C.; Fiehler, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate if ischemic stroke final infarction volume and location can be used to predict the associated functional outcome using a multi-class support vector machine (SVM). Material and Methods Sixty-eight follow-up MR FLAIR datasets of ischemic stroke patients with known modified Rankin Scale (mRS) functional outcome after 30 days were used. The infarct regions were segmented and used to calculate the percentage of lesioned voxels in the predefined MNI, Harvard-Oxford cortical and subcortical atlas regions as well as using four problem-specific VOIs, which were identified from the database using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping. An overall of 12 SVM classification models for predicting the corresponding mRS score were generated using the lesion overlap values from the different brain region definitions, stroke laterality information, and the optional parameters infarct volume, admission NIHSS, and patient age. Results Leave-one-out cross validations revealed that including information about the stroke location in terms of lesion overlap measurements led to improved mRS prediction results compared to classification models not utilizing the stroke location information. Furthermore, integration of the optional features led to improved mRS prediction results in all cases tested. The problem-specific brain regions and additional integration of the optional features led to the best mRS predictions with a precise multi-value mRS prediction accuracy of 56%, sliding window multi-value mRS prediction accuracy (mRS±1) of 82%, and binary mRS (0-2 vs. 3-5) prediction accuracy of 85%. Conclusion Therefore, a graded SVM-based functional stroke outcome prediction using the problem-specific brain regions for lesion overlap quantification leads to promising results but needs to be further validated using an independent database to rule out a potential methodical bias and overfitting effects. The prediction of the graded mRS functional outcome could be a valuable tool if combined with voxel-wise tissue outcome predictions based on multi-parametric datasets acquired at the acute phase. PMID:26098418

  9. New constraints on the structure, thermochronology, and timing of the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone, SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloup, P. H.; Arnaud, N.; Lacassin, R.; Kienast, J. R.; Harrison, T. M.; Trong, T. T. Phan; Replumaz, A.; Tapponnier, P.

    2001-04-01

    New structural, petrographic, and 40Ar/39Ar data constrain the kinematics of the ASRR (Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone). In the XueLong Shan (XLS), geochronological data reveal Triassic, Early Tertiary, and Oligo-Miocene thermal events. The latter event (33-26 Ma) corresponds to cooling during left-lateral shear. In the FanSiPan (FSP) range, thrusting of the SaPa nappe, linked to left-lateral deformation, and cooling of the FSP granite occurred at ?35 Ma. Rapid cooling resumed at 25-29 Ma as a result of uplift within the transtensive ASRR. In the DayNuiConVoi (DNCV), foliation trends NW-SE, but is deflected near large-scale shear planes. Stretching lineation is nearly horizontal. On steep foliations, shear criteria indicate left-lateral shear sense. Zones with flatter foliations show compatible shear senses. Petrographic data indicate decompression from ?6.5 kbar during left-lateral shear (temperatures >700°C). 40Ar/39Ar data imply rapid cooling from above 350°C to below 150°C between 25 and 22 Ma without diachronism along strike. Along the whole ASRR cooling histories show two main episodes: (1) rapid cooling from peak metamorphism during left-lateral shear; (2) rapid cooling from greenschist conditions during right-lateral reactivation of the ASRR. In the NW part of the ASRR (XLS, Diancang Shan), we link rapid cooling 1 to local denudations in a transpressive environment. In the SW part (Ailao Shan and DNCV), cooling 1 resulted from regional denudation by zipper-like tectonics in a transtensive regime. The induced cooling diachronism observed in the Ailao Shan suggests left-lateral rates of 4 to 5 cm/yr from 27 Ma until ?17 Ma. DNCV rocks always stayed in a transtensive regime and do not show cooling diachronism. The similarities of deformation kinematics along the ASRR and in the South China Sea confirms the causal link between continental strike-slip faulting and marginal basin opening.

  10. Dynamic analysis of fluid distribution in the gastrointestinal tract in rats: positron emission tomography imaging after oral administration of nonabsorbable marker, [(18)F]Deoxyfluoropoly(ethylene glycol).

    PubMed

    Takashima, Tadayuki; Shingaki, Tomotaka; Katayama, Yumiko; Hayashinaka, Emi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Makoto; Ozaki, Daiki; Doi, Hisashi; Suzuki, Masaaki; Ishida, Sho; Hatanaka, Kentaro; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Akai, Shuji; Oku, Naoto; Yamashita, Shinji; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-06-01

    To develop potent drugs for oral use, information on their pharmacokinetic (PK) properties after oral administration is of great importance. We have recently reported the utility of positron emission tomography (PET) for the analysis of gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of radiolabeled compounds. In this study, PET image analysis was performed in rats using a novel PET probe, [(18)F]deoxyfluoropoly(ethylene glycol)s, with an average molecular weight of 2 kDa ([(18)F]FPEG), as a nonabsorbable marker to elaborate the GI physiology in more detail, such as segmental transition of the administered water, and fluid volume and distribution in the intestine. After oral administration of [(18)F]FPEG solution to rats, a 90 min PET scan with continuous blood sampling was performed, and then the disposition of radioactivity in each part of GI tract was investigated. From blood PK analysis, it was confirmed that the bioavailability of [(18)F]FPEG was quite low in rats. PET image analysis showed that the radioactivity after oral administration of [(18)F]FPEG solution rapidly passed through the stomach, spread into the proximal small intestine, and then transited toward the distal region of the small intestine without decreasing the radioactivity during GI transition. Radiometabolite analysis revealed that the radioactivity in intestinal mucosal tissues, blood, and urine was mainly derived from unchanged [(18)F]FPEG. It was also found that the volume of interest (VOI) after oral administration of the radiotracer enables an understanding of the time-dependent manner of effective fluid volume changes in the stomach and the small intestine. In addition, the rate constant of the intestinal transition of radioactivity in each intestinal segment was calculated by kinetic model analysis, which revealed that PET analysis enables us to determine the GI transit from the same individuals and that it is applicable to determine site-specific intestinal absorption. In conclusion, we demonstrated the high potency of PET imaging technique to elucidate the distribution of orally administered solution in the GI tract in vivo. PMID:23600944

  11. Efficacy of a Novel Treatment Serum in the Improvement of Photodamaged Skin

    PubMed Central

    Sonti, S; Makino, E T; Garruto, J A; Gruber, J V; Rao, S; Mehta, R C

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis A novel treatment serum formulated to target multiple pathways in the anti-ageing cascade was tested both in vitro and in clinical settings. In vitro testing was performed to assess the ability to stimulate key proteins and genes fundamental to the anti-ageing cascade. The antioxidant potential of the formulation was studied in a UV-irradiation clinical study. A 12-week, open-label, single-centre study was conducted to determine whether this uniquely formulated topical treatment serum could improve visible signs of facial photodamage. Clinical evaluations showed statistically significant reductions in fine wrinkles and coarse wrinkles and improvements in skin texture, tone and radiance starting at week 4 with continued improvements at weeks 8 and 12. Subject self-assessments confirmed that the beneficial effects of the treatment serum were readily observed by the users. The treatment serum was well tolerated with no treatment-related adverse events reported during the 12-week study. Use of this novel treatment serum produced significant improvements in the visible signs of facial photodamage. Résumé Un nouveau sérum de traitement conçu pour cibler de multiples voies dans la cascade anti-âge a été testé à la fois in vitro et dans les conditions cliniques. Les tests in vitro ont été réalisés afin d'évaluer la capacité de stimuler les protéines et les gènes clés fondamentales de la cascade anti-vieillissement. Le potentiel antioxydant de la formulation a été étudié dans une étude clinique utilisant le rayonnement UV. Une étude de douze semaines, en mode ouvert, monocentrique a été menée afin de déterminer si ce sérum spécialement formulé pour le traitement topique peut améliorer les signes visibles du photo-vieillissement du visage. Des évaluations cliniques ont montré une réduction statistiquement significative des rides et des ridules secondaires et l'amélioration de la texture de la peau, du tonus et d'éclat à partir de la semaine 4 avec des améliorations continues aux semaines 8 et 12. Les autoévaluations par les sujets ont confirmé que les effets bénéfiques du sérum de traitement étaient facilement observés par les utilisateurs. Le sérum de traitement a été bien toléré avec aucun événement indésirable rapporté au cours de l'étude de 12 semaines. L'utilisation de ce nouveau sérum de traitement produit des améliorations significatives dans les signes visibles du photovieillissement du visage. PMID:23075252

  12. Conception et caracterisation d'un magnetoplasma produit par une onde de surface pour la pulverisation d'echantillons solides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Louis Philippe

    Suite a l'extraordinaire explosion de l'informatique de la derniere decennie, la science et la technologie des materiaux ont pris un essor extraordinaire. Par exemple, il est devenu crucial de concevoir des materiaux a haut degre de purete. Ce besoin a fortement motive le developpement de methodes d'analyse de solides. Traditionnellement, la methode adoptee est l'analyse par torche ICP, mais pour de nombreuses raisons, dont la lenteur de cette methode, la communaute scientifique oeuvrant en chimie analytique recherche des techniques d'analyse de solides directes, rapides et plus sensibles. Parmi les voies possibles, on trouve les methodes basees sur la pulverisation par plasma. Dans ce contexte, nous avons etudie la possibilite et la pertinence d'utiliser un magnetoplasma entretenu par une onde de surface pour pulveriser des solides dans le but de les analyser. Nos travaux portent principalement sur l'etude du comportement du plasma lors de la pulverisation. Nous avons montre que la pulverisation affecte la decharge de diverses facons. En premier lieu, la concentration d'especes provenant du materiau pulverise dans le plasma augmente avec la tension de polarisation. De plus, la concentration d'especes pulverisees diminue lorsque la pression croit, possiblement a cause du redepot. Nous avons aussi montre qu'il etait possible de pulveriser des solides isolants en exploitant le phenomene d'autopolarisation du a l'application d'une tension RF. Nous avons aussi etudie l'effet de la pulverisation sur la temperature et la densite electronique. Ainsi, lors de la pulverisation de metaux tels que le cuivre, la temperature electronique diminue lorsque la tension de polarisation augmente. Ceci est attribuable a l'augmentation de la densite d'especes metalliques neutres facilement ionisables par impact electronique. Nous avons aussi note que la densite electronique augmente avec la concentration d'especes metalliques dans le plasma, ce qui resulte d'un meilleur bilan de puissance. Une etude des caracteristiques du plasma seul a revele que le champ magnetique confine si bien le plasma que le maximum de densite electronique se trouve hors axe, plus exactement a la position radiale correspondant au rayon du cylindre dielectrique servant a former l'interface dielectrique-plasma dans la zone source du reacteur. Ce phenomene indique une tres nette superiorite du coefficient de diffusion axial par rapport au coefficient de diffusion radial. Notre reacteur a un potentiel interessant pour l'analyse elementaire de materiaux solides puisque le taux de pulverisation y est eleve et que les especes pulverisees sont aisement excitees et ionisees par le plasma.

  13. Computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary nodules on CT scans: Segmentation and classification using 3D active contours

    SciTech Connect

    Way, Ted W.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, H.-P.; Cascade, Philip N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Bogot, Naama; Zhou Chuan [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    We are developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to classify malignant and benign lung nodules found on CT scans. A fully automated system was designed to segment the nodule from its surrounding structured background in a local volume of interest (VOI) and to extract image features for classification. Image segmentation was performed with a three-dimensional (3D) active contour (AC) method. A data set of 96 lung nodules (44 malignant, 52 benign) from 58 patients was used in this study. The 3D AC model is based on two-dimensional AC with the addition of three new energy components to take advantage of 3D information: (1) 3D gradient, which guides the active contour to seek the object surface (2) 3D curvature, which imposes a smoothness constraint in the z direction, and (3) mask energy, which penalizes contours that grow beyond the pleura or thoracic wall. The search for the best energy weights in the 3D AC model was guided by a simplex optimization method. Morphological and gray-level features were extracted from the segmented nodule. The rubber band straightening transform (RBST) was applied to the shell of voxels surrounding the nodule. Texture features based on run-length statistics were extracted from the RBST image. A linear discriminant analysis classifier with stepwise feature selection was designed using a second simplex optimization to select the most effective features. Leave-one-case-out resampling was used to train and test the CAD system. The system achieved a test area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A{sub z}) of 0.83{+-}0.04. Our preliminary results indicate that use of the 3D AC model and the 3D texture features surrounding the nodule is a promising approach to the segmentation and classification of lung nodules with CAD. The segmentation performance of the 3D AC model trained with our data set was evaluated with 23 nodules available in the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC). The lung nodule volumes segmented by the 3D AC model for best classification were generally larger than those outlined by the LIDC radiologists using visual judgment of nodule boundaries.

  14. Nonnasal lymphoma expressing the natural killer cell marker CD56: a clinicopathologic study of 49 cases of an uncommon aggressive neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Chan, J K; Sin, V C; Wong, K F; Ng, C S; Tsang, W Y; Chan, C H; Cheung, M M; Lau, W H

    1997-06-15

    Expression of the natural killer (NK) cell antigen CD56 is uncommon among lymphomas, and those that do are almost exclusively of non-B-cell lineage and show a predilection for the nasal and nasopharyngeal region. This study analyzes 49 cases of nonnasal CD56+ lymphomas, the largest series to date, to characterize the clinicopathologic spectrum of these rare neoplasms. All patients were Chinese. Four categories could be delineated. (1) Nasal-type NK/T cell lymphoma (n = 34) patients were adults 21 to 76 years of age (median, 50 years), including 25 men and 9 women. They presented with extranodal disease, usually in multiple sites. The commonest sites of involvement were skin, upper aerodigestive tract, testis, soft tissue, gastrointestinal tract, and spleen. Only 7 cases (21%) apparently had stage I disease. The neoplastic cells were often pleomorphic, with irregular nuclei and granular chromatin, and angiocentric growth was common. The characteristic immunophenotype was CD2+ CD3/Leu4- CD3epsilon+ CD56+, and 32 cases (94%) harbored Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Follow-up information was available in 29 cases: 24 died at a median of 3.5 months; 3 were alive with relapse at 5 months to 2.5 years; and 2 were alive and well at 3 and 5 years, respectively. (2) Aggressive NK cell leukemia/lymphoma (n = 5) patients presented with hepatomegaly and blood/marrow involvement, sometimes accompanied by splenomegaly or lymphadenopathy. The neoplastic cells often had round nuclei and azurophilic granules in the pale cytoplasm. All cases exhibited an immunophenotype of CD2+ CD3/Leu4- CD56+ CD16- CD57- and all were EBV+. All of these patients died within 6 weeks. (3) In blastoid NK cell lymphoma (n = 2), the lymphoma cells resembled those of lymphoblastic or myeloid leukemia. One case studied for CD2 was negative and both cases were EBV-. One patient was alive with disease at 10 months and one was a recent case. (4) Other specific lymphoma types with CD56 expression (n = 8) included one case each of hepatosplenic gammadelta T-cell lymphoma and S100 protein+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disease and two cases each of T-chronic lymphocytic/prolymphocytic leukemia, lymphoblastic lymphoma, and true histiocytic lymphoma. All of these cases were EBV-. Six patients died at a median of 6.5 months. Nonnasal CD56+ lymphomas are heterogeneous, but all pursue a highly aggressive clinical course. The nasal-type NK/T-cell lymphoma and aggressive NK cell leukemia/lymphoma show distinctive clinicopathologic features and a very strong association with EBV. Blastoid NK cell lymphoma appears to be a different entity and shows no association with EBV. PMID:9192774

  15. The changing cigarette, 1950-1995.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, D; Hoffmann, I

    1997-03-01

    Nicotine is recognized to be the major inducer of tobacco dependence. The smoking of cigarettes as an advantageous delivery system for nicotine, accelerates and aggravates cardiovascular disease, and is causally associated with increased risks for chronic obstructive lung disease, cancer of the lung and of the upper aerodigestive system, and cancer of the pancreas, renal pelvis, and urinary bladder. It is also associated with cancer of the liver, cancer of the uterine cervix, cancer of the nasal cavity, and myeloid leukemia. In 1950, the first large-scale epidemiological studies documented that cigarette smoking induces lung cancer and described a dose-response relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and the risk for developing lung cancer. In the following decades these observations were not only confirmed by several hundreds of prospective and case-control studies but the plausibility of this causal association was also supported by bioassays and by the identification of carcinogens in cigarette smoke. Whole smoke induces lung tumors in mice and tumors in the upper respiratory tract of hamsters. The particulate matter of the smoke elicits benign and malignant tumors on the skin of mice and rabbits, sarcoma in the connective tissue of rats, and carcinoma in the lungs of rats upon intratracheal instillation. More than 50 carcinogens have been identified, including the following classes of compounds: polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), aromatic amines, and N-nitrosamines. Among the latter, the tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA) have been shown to be of special significance. Since 1950, the makeup of cigarettes and the composition of cigarette smoke have gradually changed. In the United States, the sales-weighted average "tar" and nicotine yields have declined from a high of 38 mg "tar" and 2.7 mg nicotine in 1954 to 12 mg and 0.95 mg in 1992, respectively. In the United Kingdom, the decline was from about 32 mg "tar" and 2.2 mg nicotine to less than 12 mg "tar" and 1.0 mg nicotine per cigarette. During the same time, other smoke constituents changed correspondingly. These reductions of smoke yields were primarily achieved by the introduction of filter tips, with and without perforation, selection of tobacco types and varieties, utilization of highly porous cigarette paper, and incorporation into the tobacco blend of reconstituted tobacco, opened and cut ribs, and "expanded tobacco." In most countries where tobacco blends with air-cured (burley) tobacco are used, the nitrate content of the cigarette tobacco increased. In the United States nitrate levels in cigarette tobacco rose from 0.3-0.5% to 0.6-1.35%, thereby enhancing the combustion of the tobacco. More complete combustion decreases the carcinogenic PAH, yet the increased generation of nitrogen oxides enhances the formation of the carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, especially the TSNA in the smoke. However, all analytical measures of the smoke components have been established on the basis of standardized machine smoking conditions, such as those introduced by the Federal Trade Commission, that call for 1 puff to be taken once a minute over a 2-s period with a volume of 35 ml. These smoking parameters may have simulated the way in which people used to smoke the high-yield cigarettes; however, they no longer reflect the parameters applicable to contemporary smokers, and especially not those applicable to the smoking of low- and ultra-low-yield filter cigarettes. Recent smoking assays have demonstrated that most smokers of cigarettes with low nicotine yield take between 2 and 4 puffs per minute with volumes up to 55 ml to satisfy their demands for nicotine. The overview also discusses further needs for reducing the toxicity and carcinogenicity of cigarette smoke. From a public health perspective, nicotine in the smoke needs to be lowered to a level at which there is no induction of dependence on tobacco. PMID:9120872

  16. The Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone (Yunnan, China), Tertiary transform boundary of Indochina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloup, Philippe Hervé; Lacassin, Robin; Tapponnier, Paul; Schärer, Urs; Zhong, Dalai; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Liangshang; Ji, Shaocheng; Trinh, Phan Trong

    1995-12-01

    The Red River Fault zone (RRF) is the major geological discontinuity that separates South China from Indochina. Today it corresponds to a great right-lateral fault, following for over 900 km the edges of four narrow (< 20 km wide) high-grade gneiss ranges that together form the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) metamorphic belt: the Day Nui Con Voi in Vietnam, and the Ailao, Diancang and Xuelong Shan in Yunnan. The Ailao Shan, the longest of those ranges, is fringed to the south by a strip of low-grade schists that contain ultramafic bodies. The ASRR belt has thus commonly been viewed as a suture. A detailed study of the Ailao and Diancang Shan shows that the gneiss cores of the ranges are composed of strongly foliated and lineated mylonitic gneisses. The foliation is usually steep and the lineation nearly horizontal, both being almost parallel to the local trend of the gneissic cores. Numerous shear criteria, including asymmetric tails on porphyroclasts, C-S or C'-S structures, rolling structures, asymmetric foliation boudinage and asymmetric quartz axis fabrics, indicate that the gneisses have undergone intense, progressive left-lateral shear. P-T studies show that left-lateral strain occurred under amphibolite-facies conditions (3-7 kb and 550-780°C). In both ranges high-temperature shear was coeval with emplacement of leucocratic melts. Such deformed melts yield {U}/{Pb} ages between 22.4 and 26.3 Ma in the Ailao Shan and between 22.4 and 24.2 Ma in the Diancang Shan, implying shear in the Lower Miocene. The mylonites in either range rapidly cooled to ? 300°C between 22 and 17 Ma, before the end of left-lateral motion. The similarity of deformation kinematics, P-T conditions, and crystallization ages in the aligned Ailao and Diancang Shan metamorphic cores, indicate that they represent two segments of the same Tertiary shear zone, the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) shear zone. Our results thus confirm the idea that the ASRR belt was the site of major left-lateral motion, as Indochina was extruded toward the SE as a result of the India-Asia collision. The absence of metamorphic rocks within the 80 km long "Midu gap" between the gneissic cores of the two ranges results from sinistral dismemberment of the shear zone by large-scale boudinage followed by uplift and dextral offset of parts of that zone along the Quaternary Red River Fault. Additional field evidence suggests that the Xuelong Shan in northern Yunnan and the Day Nui Con Voi in Vietnam are the northward and southward extensions, respectively, of the ASRR shear zone, which therefore reaches a length of nearly 1000 km. Surface balance restoration of amphibolite boudins trails indicates layer parallel extension of more than 800% at places where strain can be measured, suggesting shear strains on the order of 30, compatible with a minimum offset of 300 km along the ASRR zone. Various geological markers have been sinistrally offset 500-1150 km by the shear zone. The seafloor-spreading kinematics in the South China Sea are consistent with that sea having formed as a pull apart basin at the southeast end of the ASRR zone, which yields a minimum left-lateral offset of 540 km on that zone. Comparison of Cretaceous magnetic poles for Indochina and South China suggests up to 1200 ± 500 km of left-lateral motion between them. Such concurrent evidence implies a Tertiary finite offset on the order of 700 ± 200 km on the ASRR zone, to which several tens of kilometers of post-Miocene right-lateral offset should probably be added. These results significantly improve our quantitative understanding of the finite deformation of Asia under the thrust of the Indian collision. While being consistent with a two-stage extrusion model, they demonstrate that the great geological discontinuity that separates Indochina from China results from Cenozoic strike-slip strain rather than more ancient suturing. Furthermore, they suggest that this narrow zone acted like a continental transform plate boundary in the Oligo-Miocene, governing much of the motion and tectonics o

  17. EGS Richardson AGU Chapman NVAG3 Conference: Nonlinear Variability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    1. The conference The third conference on "Nonlinear VAriability in Geophysics: scaling and multifractal processes" (NVAG 3) was held in Cargese, Corsica, Sept. 10-17, 1993. NVAG3 was joint American Geophysical Union Chapman and European Geophysical Society Richardson Memorial conference, the first specialist conference jointly sponsored by the two organizations. It followed NVAG1 (Montreal, Aug. 1986), NVAG2 (Paris, June 1988; Schertzer and Lovejoy, 1991), five consecutive annual sessions at EGS general assemblies and two consecutive spring AGU meeting sessions. As with the other conferences and workshops mentioned above, the aim was to develop confrontation between theories and experiments on scaling/multifractal behaviour of geophysical fields. Subjects covered included climate, clouds, earthquakes, atmospheric and ocean dynamics, tectonics, precipitation, hydrology, the solar cycle and volcanoes. Areas of focus included new methods of data analysis (especially those used for the reliable estimation of multifractal and scaling exponents), as well as their application to rapidly growing data bases from in situ networks and remote sensing. The corresponding modelling, prediction and estimation techniques were also emphasized as were the current debates about stochastic and deterministic dynamics, fractal geometry and multifractals, self-organized criticality and multifractal fields, each of which was the subject of a specific general discussion. The conference started with a one day short course of multifractals featuring four lectures on a) Fundamentals of multifractals: dimension, codimensions, codimension formalism, b) Multifractal estimation techniques: (PDMS, DTM), c) Numerical simulations, Generalized Scale Invariance analysis, d) Advanced multifractals, singular statistics, phase transitions, self-organized criticality and Lie cascades (given by D. Schertzer and S. Lovejoy, detailed course notes were sent to participants shortly after the conference). This was followed by five days with 8 oral sessions and one poster session. Overall, there were 65 papers involving 74 authors. In general, the main topics covered are reflected in this special issue: geophysical turbulence, clouds and climate, hydrology and solid earth geophysics. In addition to AGU and EGS, the conference was supported by the International Science Foundation, the Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique, Meteo-France, the Department of Energy (US), the Commission of European Communities (DG XII), the Comite National Francais pour le Programme Hydrologique International, the Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche (France). We thank P. Hubert, Y. Kagan, Ph. Ladoy, A. Lazarev, S.S. Moiseev, R. Pierrehumbert, F. Schmitt and Y. Tessier, for help with the organization of the conference. However special thanks goes to A. Richter and the EGS office, B. Weaver and the AGU without whom this would have been impossible. We also thank the Institut d' Etudes Scientifiques de Cargese whose beautiful site was much appreciated, as well as the Bar des Amis whose ambiance stimulated so many discussions. 2. Tribute to L.F. Richardson With NVAG3, the European geophysical community paid tribute to Lewis Fry Richardson (1881-1953) on the 40th anniversary of his death. Richardson was one of the founding fathers of the idea of scaling and fractality, and his life reflects the European geophysical community and its history in many ways. Although many of Richardson's numerous, outstanding scientific contributions to geophysics have been recognized, perhaps his main contribution concerning the importance of scaling and cascades has still not received the attention it deserves. Richardson was the first not only to suggest numerical integration of the equations of motion of the atmosphere, but also to attempt to do so by hand, during the First World War. This work, as well as a presentation of a broad vision of future developments in the field, appeared in his famous, pioneering book "Weather prediction by numerical processes" (1922). As

  18. Mesures experimentales de l'impact des revetements hydrophobeset superhydrophobes sur la trainee et la portance d'un profil aerodynamique propre et glace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Eric

    Ce projet, realise a la demande du Laboratoire International des Materiaux Antigivre, a pour but de mesurer et definir experimentalement l'impact de revetements hydrophobes sur les coefficients de trainee et de portance d'un profil NACA 0012. Pour ce faire, la balance aerodynamique du LIMA devait tout d'abord etre amelioree afin d'offrir une sensibilite suffisante pour realiser le projet. Plusieurs ameliorations ont ete faites, comme le changement des cellules de charge, la diminution du nombre de cellules de charge, le changement du cadre de la balance, etc. Une fois ces ameliorations terminees, la reproductibilite, l'exactitude et la sensibilite ont ete valides afin de s'assurer de la fiabilite des resultats offerts par la balance. Pour les angles d'attaque etudies avec les revetements, soient -6° et 0°, la balance a une reproductibilite de +/-2,06% a 360 000 de nombre de Reynolds. Pour valider la sensibilite, des essais a -6° et 0° d'angle d'attaque et des nombres de Reynolds de 360 000 et 500 000 ont ete faits avec des papiers sables. Les resultats de ces essais ont permis de, tracer des courbes de tendances du coefficient de trainee du NACA 0012 en fonction de la rugosite de surface et d'etablir la valeur de la sensibilite de la balance a +/-8 mu m. Cinq revetements populaires ont ete choisis pour l'experimentation, soient le Wearlon, le Staclean, le Hirec, le Phasebreak ainsi que le Nusil. Les revetements sont soumis aux memes conditions experimentales que les papiers sables, et une rugosite equivalente est trouvee par extrapolation des resultats. Cependant, les rugosites equivalentes de surfaces different entre -6° et 0°. Les essais avec le Staclean et le Hirec donnent des coefficients de trainee equivalent a ceux avec l'aluminium, alors que le Wearlon, le Nusil et le Phasebreak donnent une augmentation du coefficient de trainee de 13%, 17% et 25% respectivement par rapport a l'aluminium. Pour les coefficients de portance, la balance ne detecte pas l'effet des revetements, ni des papiers sables, sur la force de portance ce qui signifie qu'il entre dans l'insensibilite de la balance. La derniere etape experimentale consistait a mesurer l'impact des revetements sur la formation de la glace ainsi que sur l'evolution des coefficients de trainee et de portance du NACA 0012 en fonction de l'accumulation de glace sur celui-ci. Le Wearlon a ete choisi comme revetement en raison de sa grande popularite. Des essais a -5°C et -20°C ont ete faits et les resultats ont montres que le Wearlon n'apporte pas d'effet benefique au NACA 0012 en conditions d'accumulations de glace. L'augmentation du coefficient de trainee du profil muni du Wearlon debutait plus rapidement que sur l'aluminium et de l'eau gelait legerement plus loin vers l'arriere du profil pendant les essais, ce qui n'est pas souhaitable. Le coefficient de trainee est superieur d'environ 13% pour le Wearlon par rapport a l'aluminium pendant toute l'accumulation de glace, ce qui correspond au meme ecart lorsque la glace n'est pas en cause. Pour le coefficient de portance, les resultats ne peuvent etre utilises pour une raison qui doit etre investiguee.

  19. PREFACE: Special section on Computational Fluid Dynamics—in memory of Professor Kunio Kuwahara Special section on Computational Fluid Dynamics—in memory of Professor Kunio Kuwahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsuya

    2011-08-01

    This issue includes a special section on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in memory of the late Professor Kunio Kuwahara, who passed away on 15 September 2008, at the age of 66. In this special section, five articles are included that are based on the lectures and discussions at `The 7th International Nobeyama Workshop on CFD: To the Memory of Professor Kuwahara' held in Tokyo on 23 and 24 September 2009. Professor Kuwahara started his research in fluid dynamics under Professor Imai at the University of Tokyo. His first paper was published in 1969 with the title 'Steady Viscous Flow within Circular Boundary', with Professor Imai. In this paper, he combined theoretical and numerical methods in fluid dynamics. Since that time, he made significant and seminal contributions to computational fluid dynamics. He undertook pioneering numerical studies on the vortex method in 1970s. From then to the early nineties, he developed numerical analyses on a variety of three-dimensional unsteady phenomena of incompressible and compressible fluid flows and/or complex fluid flows using his own supercomputers with academic and industrial co-workers and members of his private research institute, ICFD in Tokyo. In addition, a number of senior and young researchers of fluid mechanics around the world were invited to ICFD and the Nobeyama workshops, which were held near his villa, and they intensively discussed new frontier problems of fluid physics and fluid engineering at Professor Kuwahara's kind hospitality. At the memorial Nobeyama workshop held in 2009, 24 overseas speakers presented their papers, including the talks of Dr J P Boris (Naval Research Laboratory), Dr E S Oran (Naval Research Laboratory), Professor Z J Wang (Iowa State University), Dr M Meinke (RWTH Aachen), Professor K Ghia (University of Cincinnati), Professor U Ghia (University of Cincinnati), Professor F Hussain (University of Houston), Professor M Farge (École Normale Superieure), Professor J Y Yong (National Taiwan University), and Professor H S Kwak (Kumoh National Institute of Technology). For his contributions to CFD, Professor Kuwahara received Awards from the Japan Society of Automobile Engineers and the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1992, the Computational Mechanics Achievement Award from the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1993, and the Max Planck Research Award in 1993. He received the Computational Mechanics Award from the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers again in 2008. Professor Kuwahara also supported the development of the Japan Society of Fluid Mechanics, whose office is located in the same building as ICFD. In the proceedings of the 6th International Nobeyama Workshop on CFD to commemorate the 60th birthday of Professor Kuwahara, Professor Jae Min Hyun of KAIST wrote 'The major professional achievement of Professor Kuwahara may be compressed into two main categories. First and foremost, Professor Kuwahara will long be recorded as the front-line pioneer in using numerical computations to tackle complex problems in fluid mechanics. ...Another important contribution of Professor Kuwahara was in the training and fostering of talented manpower of computational mechanics research.'[1] Among the various topics of the five papers in this special section are examples of Professor Kuwahara's works mentioned by Professor Hyun. The main authors of all papers have grown up in the research circle of Professor Kuwahara. All the papers demostrate the challenge of new aspects of computational fluid dynamics; a new numerical method for compressible flows, thermo-acoustic flows of helium gas in a small tube, electro-osmic flows in a micro/nano channel, MHD flows over a wavy disk, and a new extraction method of multi-object aircraft design rules. Last but not least, this special section is cordially dedicated to the late Professor Kuwahara and his family. Reference [1] Hyun J M 2005 Preface of New Developments in Computational Fluid Dynamics vol 90 Notes on Numerical Fluid Mechanics and Multidisciplinary Design ed K Fujii et al (Berlin: Springer)

  20. Prise en charge des traumatismes graves du rein

    PubMed Central

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Jarir, Redouane; Sadiki, Bader; Zehraoui; Bentani; Wakrim, Bader; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni; Sarf, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes graves du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'Amercan Society for Surgery For Trauma (ASST) sont plus rares et se retrouvent dans 5% des cas en moyenne. Leur prise en charge est souvent délicate, nécessitant alors des centres expérimentés dotés de moyen adéquats d'imagerie (scanner spiralé). Cependant, durant ces dernières années, la prise en charge de ces traumatismes a évolué vers une attitude de moins en moins chirurgicale grâce à l’évolution des techniques de la radiologie interventionnelle, de l'endourologie et des moyens de surveillance aux urgences et de réanimation. L'objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer notre expérience dans la prise en charge des traumatismes rénaux de haut grade. Notre étude rétrospective porte sur 25 cas de traumatismes grave du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'ASST, colligés entre Janvier 2002 et Juin 2009 au service d'urologie du centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mohammed VI, Université Cadi Ayyad de Marrakech, Maroc. Nous avons étudié les données épidémiologiques, les signes cliniques et biologiques à l'admission (état de choc hémorragique, taux d'hémoglobine), les données radiologiques (échographie et scanner), les lésions associées, la prise en charge thérapeutique et les complications. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 24,9 ans 15 et 58 ans, avec une prédominance masculine (sex-ratio = 7, 3). Le rein droit était intéressé dans 15 cas (60%). Le traumatisme rénal était fermé dans 15 cas, et ouvert par arme blanche dans 10 cas. Huit patients se sont présentés en état de choc hémorragique (32%). Une anémie inférieur à 10g /100ml a été observée dans 10 cas (40%). L'uroscanner fait systématiquement à l'admission a retrouvé un grade III (10 cas), grade IV (13 cas) et grade V (2 cas). La prise en charge a consisté en une exploration chirurgicale avec néphrectomie chez 2 cas de Grade IV pour une instabilité hémodynamique. Une surveillance active clinique, biologique, et radiologique a été préconisée dans 23 cas (92%). Le scanner de contrôle fait à J7, a objectivé une stabilisation des lésions dans 17 cas et la constitution d'un urinome dans 2 cas drainé par sonde double J. Une néphrectomie d'hémostase était nécessaire dans 4 cas de grade IV (3 cas) et de grade V (1 cas). Un patient est décédé à J2 d'un traumatisme ouvert grade IV suite à une hémorragie foudroyante. La durée moyenne d'hospitalisation était de 17 jours (6-75 jours). A travers notre étude, on conforte l'attitude conservatrice recommandée actuellement dans la prise en charge de la plupart des traumatismes graves du rein en l'absence d'une instabilité hémodynamique, grâce aux mesures de réanimation correcte, une surveillance rapprochée du patient et le recours aux moyens endoscopiques de drainage des voies excrétrices. Grace à cette attitude la plupart de nos patients (76%) on conservé leur unités rénales, extrêmement précieuses en particulier pour les patients sujets à la dégradation ultérieure de leur fonction rénale, leur permettant ainsi d’éviter de tomber dans l'hémodialyse ou de rentrer dans des programmes de greffe rénale. PMID:26090064

  1. Sharing hydrological knowledge: an international comparison of hydrological models in the Meuse River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouaziz, Laurène; Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Drogue, Gilles; Brauer, Claudia; Weerts, Albrecht

    2015-04-01

    International collaboration between institutes and universities working and studying the same transboundary basin is needed for consensus building around possible effects of climate change and climate adaptation measures. Education, experience and expert knowledge of the hydrological community have resulted in the development of a great variety of model concepts, calibration and analysis techniques. Intercomparison could be a first step into consensus modeling or an ensemble based modeling strategy. Besides these practical objectives, such an intercomparison offers the opportunity to explore different ranges of models and learn from each other, hopefully increasing the insight into the hydrological processes that play a role in the transboundary basin. In this experiment, different international research groups applied their rainfall-runoff model in the Ourthe, a Belgium sub-catchment of the Meuse. Data preparation involved the interpolation of hourly precipitation station data collected and owned by the Service Public de Wallonie1 and the freely available E-OBS dataset for daily temperature (Haylock et al., 2008). Daily temperature was disaggregated to hourly values and potential evaporation was derived with the Hargreaves formula. The data was made available to the researchers through an FTP server. The protocol for the modeling involved a split-sample calibration and validation for pre-defined periods. Objective functions for calibration were fixed but the calibration algorithm was a free choice of the research groups. The selection of calibration algorithm was considered model dependent because lumped as well as computationally less efficient distributed models were used. For each model, an ensemble of best performing parameter sets was selected and several performance metrics enabled to assess the models' abilities to simulate discharge. The aim of this experiment is to identify those model components and structures that increase model performance and may best represent the catchment's hydrological behavior. Further steps in the collaboration may include (1) repeating the experiment for other sub-catchments of the Meuse River Basin where different hydrological processes may be relevant and where other models may perform better; and (2) the comparison of hydrological model results obtained by forcing the model with daily local measured precipitation and lower resolution gridded precipitation from the E-OBS (Haylock et at., 2008) dataset to estimate the value of high-resolution data versus lower resolution gridded products. 1 Service Publique de Wallonie, Direction générale opérationnelle de la Mobilité et des Voies hydrauliques, Département des Etudes et de l'Appui à la Gestion, Direction de la Gestion hydrologique intégrée, Boulevard du Nord 8 - 5000 Namur "Haylock, M.R., N. Hofstra, A.M.G. Klein Tank, E.J. Klok, P.D. Jones and M. New. 2008: A European daily high-resolution gridded dataset of surface temperature and precipitation. J. Geophys. Res (Atmospheres), 113, D20119, doi:10.1029/2008JD10201"

  2. Ionic permeabilities of the gill lamina cuticle of the crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (E).

    PubMed Central

    Avenet, P; Lignon, J M

    1985-01-01

    The cuticle of the gill lamina of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (E), mechanically isolated, was mounted in an Ussing chamber and examined for its electrical properties. The cuticle of the gill lamina obtained from exuviae had similar properties. When perfused with artificial fresh water (AFW) outside and Van Harreveld solution (VH) inside, the transcuticular potential Voi was negative with respect to the inside, and close to the equilibrium potential for Cl- (ECl-). CH3COO-, HCO3-, SO4(2-) and cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+) behaved as impermeant ions with respect to Cl-. A decrease of pH (brought about with CO2) from 8.5 to 6.0 in AFW, VH or both had no effect on the potential. The cuticle area specific conductance was 20-30 mS/cm2 when superfused with AFW outside and VH inside. The conductance decreased linearly with log [Cl-] when Cl- was replaced by CH3COO-. Rectification was obvious when internal Cl- was reduced to 5 mmol/l. The Cl- selectivity of the cuticle could also be demonstrated in perfusing the cuticle with a single salt (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 or LaCl3) and in diluting that salt on one side of the preparation or in replacing Cl- by CH3COO-, SO4(2-) and HCO3-. The potential changed almost linearly with log [Cl-] and was close to ECl-. The inner face of the cuticle was found to be slightly less selective than the outer face. The relative permeabilities were calculated to be: PCl- = 1, PNa+ = 0.001, PHCO3- = 0.0006, PCH3COO- = 0.0002. The dilution of a Cl- -free salt resulted in a cationic potential. The relative permeabilities of cations (NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) were found to range within a factor 2. The permeability of the cuticle to HCO3-, CH3COO- and SO4(2-) was 2-5 times lower. The cuticle conductance was linearly related to the activity of the salt perfusing the two sides of the preparation at equal concentrations. The molar area specific conductance to chloride salts was 14 (mS/cm2)/(mmol/l). That of Cl- -free salts ranged from 1 to 20 (microS/cm2)/(mmol/l) depending on the salt used. It was deduced that PCl- is 2 X 10(-3) cm/s and that all the other ions tested have permeabilities of 10(-7)-10(-6) cm/s. With large intensity current pulses the cuticle exhibited rectifying properties and an asymmetrical behaviour. Increasing the pH of the perfusing solution reduced the transcuticular potential established with a Cl- gradient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2410607

  3. Ionic permeabilities of the gill lamina cuticle of the crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (E).

    PubMed

    Avenet, P; Lignon, J M

    1985-06-01

    The cuticle of the gill lamina of the crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (E), mechanically isolated, was mounted in an Ussing chamber and examined for its electrical properties. The cuticle of the gill lamina obtained from exuviae had similar properties. When perfused with artificial fresh water (AFW) outside and Van Harreveld solution (VH) inside, the transcuticular potential Voi was negative with respect to the inside, and close to the equilibrium potential for Cl- (ECl-). CH3COO-, HCO3-, SO4(2-) and cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+) behaved as impermeant ions with respect to Cl-. A decrease of pH (brought about with CO2) from 8.5 to 6.0 in AFW, VH or both had no effect on the potential. The cuticle area specific conductance was 20-30 mS/cm2 when superfused with AFW outside and VH inside. The conductance decreased linearly with log [Cl-] when Cl- was replaced by CH3COO-. Rectification was obvious when internal Cl- was reduced to 5 mmol/l. The Cl- selectivity of the cuticle could also be demonstrated in perfusing the cuticle with a single salt (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 or LaCl3) and in diluting that salt on one side of the preparation or in replacing Cl- by CH3COO-, SO4(2-) and HCO3-. The potential changed almost linearly with log [Cl-] and was close to ECl-. The inner face of the cuticle was found to be slightly less selective than the outer face. The relative permeabilities were calculated to be: PCl- = 1, PNa+ = 0.001, PHCO3- = 0.0006, PCH3COO- = 0.0002. The dilution of a Cl- -free salt resulted in a cationic potential. The relative permeabilities of cations (NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) were found to range within a factor 2. The permeability of the cuticle to HCO3-, CH3COO- and SO4(2-) was 2-5 times lower. The cuticle conductance was linearly related to the activity of the salt perfusing the two sides of the preparation at equal concentrations. The molar area specific conductance to chloride salts was 14 (mS/cm2)/(mmol/l). That of Cl- -free salts ranged from 1 to 20 (microS/cm2)/(mmol/l) depending on the salt used. It was deduced that PCl- is 2 X 10(-3) cm/s and that all the other ions tested have permeabilities of 10(-7)-10(-6) cm/s. With large intensity current pulses the cuticle exhibited rectifying properties and an asymmetrical behaviour. Increasing the pH of the perfusing solution reduced the transcuticular potential established with a Cl- gradient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2410607

  4. Obituary: Philip M. Solomon, 1939-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Philip Solomon, one of the pioneers and leading researchers in molecular astrophysics, died on 30 April 2008 at his apartment on the upper west side of Manhattan after a battle with cancer. His pioneering research included both theoretical and very extensive observational studies of stellar atmospheres, interstellar molecules, high redshift galaxies, and the Earth's stratosphere. Phil was Distinguished Professor at The State University of New York [SUNY], Stony Brook, where he had been since 1974. Phil was born on 29 March 1939 in Manhattan, New York City, to Nat and Betty Solomon. Nat Solomon was a labor organizer and a printer. Phil attended the University of Wisconsin, where he received his BS in 1959 and where he met his future wife Sheila who was studying art. His Ph.D., "On the Role of Light Molecules in Astrophysics," was also from the University of Wisconsin under the guidance of Art Code and Bob Bless. After postdoctoral positions at Princeton and lectureships at Columbia and the University of California, San Diego, Phil spent two years as a Professor at the University of Minnesota. After two years at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, he came to SUNY, Stony Brook, as Professor of Astronomy in the Department of Earth and Space Sciences. In 1988 Phil was selected as a Humboldt Senior Distinguished Scientist, and, in 1999, he was honored with the rank of Distinguished Professor at SUNY. Phil took sabbatical and other leaves at Churchill College and the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge; the Institute for Advanced Study; l'Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris; Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris; and the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique [IRAM], France. Phil published more than 160 papers and supervised seven Ph.D. students. He served on numerous review, visiting, and advisory panels. Phil's first theoretical research focused on opacity and abundance of light molecules such as H2, CO, and CN in stellar atmospheres, but then shifted quickly to the formation, excitation, and astrophysics of interstellar molecules, which had just been discovered in the late 1960s. In 1969, Phil and Chandra Wickramasinghe were among the first to suggest that the denser interstellar clouds, which were deficient in atomic hydrogen, were principally molecular hydrogen with the H2 formed on the surface of cold dust grains and protected from dissociating UV by a self-shielding H2 layer at the cloud surface. With L. Lucy, Phil then developed the radiative transfer and mass-loss mechanism operative in hot OB star winds and QSOs--where the radiative momentum is absorbed in resonance lines of ions. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the detection and mapping of interstellar molecules moved rapidly from the early discoveries of maser emission in H2O and OH to the thermal emission lines of simple molecules like CO, CN, CS, and HCN, to more complex species containing up to thirteen atoms. Phil was a major force in pushing these new detections and in using the thermal emission as astrophysical probes. This explosive growth of spectroscopic detections occurred primarily as a result of Phil's collaborations with A. Penzias, K. Jefferts, R. Wilson, and P. Thaddeus, along with other competing groups using the NRAO 36-foot telescope at Kitt Peak. This was a most exciting period with the mm-wave window finally accessible to spectroscopy and each observing run on the telescope typically yielded one or two new detections. Phil was probably the one most responsible for providing the astrophysical motivation to push the technology towards mm-wavelengths. He clearly elucidated the fact that high densities were required for the thermal excitation of the higher dipole moment molecules such CS and HCN--at the same time pointing out, for the first time, the critical role of line photon trapping in the optically thick lines. In collaboration with N. Scoville and D. Sanders, Phil initiated the early surveys of CO emission from the Milky Way molecular gas. They first pointed out that the molecular gas resides largely in self-gravitating clouds (

  5. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue. Dans la partie theorique, un modele traitant les aspects thermique, hydrodynamique et massique a ete elabore. Sur la base de ce modele a ete ecrit un programme informatique en langage FORTRAN 6.6. Il est base sur la discretisation du serpentin en volumes de controle, est entierement automatise et peut traiter des echangeurs de chaleur avec des circuits de refrigerant complexes pouvant avoir des entrees et sorties multiples ainsi que des bifurcations. La presence simultanee des trois phases thermodynamiques du refrigerant (liquide sous refroidi, fluide sature, vapeur surchauffee) dans le serpentin est aussi prise en charge. Le modele a ete valide pour un fonctionnement avec et sans formation de givre en utilisant des donnees experimentales disponibles dans la litterature et celles obtenues sur le banc d'essai de CanmetENERGIE. Celui-ci a ete mis a jour pour les besoins de la presente recherche et pour cela, un systeme de surchauffe et d'injection de la vapeur d'eau dans une enceinte a tres basse temperature a ete dimensionne, fabrique et installe. Un dispositif de visualisation de la formation de givre, ainsi qu'un equipement de mesure de la temperature, de la pression et de l'humidite relative de l'air ont aussi ete ajoutes. Une fois le modele valide, des simulations numeriques sur le serpentin avec et sans formation de givre ont ete effectuees. Un premier cas de base a servi comme reference pour d'autres cas pour lesquels une etude parametrique sur la geometrie et le fonctionnement a ete menee. Il a ete montre par rapport au cas de base que : 1. la diminution de la densite des ailettes sur des rangees specifiques du serpentin donne une surface minimale (Amin) plus grande, retardant ainsi l'obstruction totale du serpentin par le givre et permet donc un temps de fonctionnement plus grand et une frequence de degivrage plus faible. 2. une bonne configuration de circuit de refrigerant augmente le temps de fonctionnement du serpentin de 200 % et delivre une puissance frigorifique moyenne superieures de 20 % par rapport a celle du cas de base. 3. la diminution d