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1

Effect of inorganic salts on the volatility of organic acids.  

PubMed

Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance. PMID:25369247

Häkkinen, Silja A K; McNeill, V Faye; Riipinen, Ilona

2014-12-01

2

Effect of Inorganic Salts on the Volatility of Organic Acids  

PubMed Central

Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance. PMID:25369247

2014-01-01

3

VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION FACTORS FOR THE NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) EMISSION INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the generation of emission factors for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions for a number of source classification categories (SCCs), as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Each SCC represents a process or function t...

4

Formation of volatile organics in the reaction of solid stearic acid with gas-phase OH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While in the atmosphere organic particles are continuously exposed to atmospheric oxidants and could undergo chemical transformations. As a result of oxidation initially long carbon chains could be broken forming smaller, more volatile molecules that could eventually leave the condensed aerosol phase. In this work this process is studied using stearic acid as a proxy for organic aerosol matter and OH radicals as the oxidant. The experiments are conducted using a coated-wall, flow-tube reactor coupled to both chemical ionization and a proton transfer mass spectrometers (for detection of OH and VOCs, respectively). The results indicate a rapid reaction of OH with stearic acid which is in agreement with previous studies. The majority of volatile products are identified as aldehydes and aldehydic acids. The quantitative product yield depends on concentrations of oxygen and nitrogen dioxide in the flow, which could be linked to the reaction mechanism.

Vlasenko, A.; Abbatt, J.

2006-12-01

5

Organic Acids and Volatile Organic Compounds Produced During Traditional and Starter Culture Fermentation of Bushera, a Ugandan Fermented Cereal Beverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum MINF99, Weissella confusa MINF8, Lactobacillus plantarum MINF277, Lactobacillus brevis MINF226, and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei MINF98) were used to ferment Bushera during fermentation (96 h). Organic acids and volatile compounds produced during starter and natural fermentation were investigated. Microbial counts, pH, and sugars were also determined. LAB counts increased from 5.87 ±

C. M. B. K. Muyanja; J. A. Narvhus; T. Langsrud

2012-01-01

6

Anaerobic fermentation of organic solid wastes: volatile fatty acid production and separation.  

PubMed

Anaerobic fermentation of organic municipal solid waste was investigated using a leach-bed reactor (LBR) to assess the volatile fatty acid (VFA) production efficiency. The leachate recycle rate in the LBR affected the VFA composition of the leachate. A six-fold increase in the recycle rate resulted in an increase of the acetic acid fraction of leachate from 24.7 to 43.0%. The separation of VFAs via leachate replacement resulted in higher total VFA production. VFA separation from synthetic VFA mix and leachate of a fermented organic waste was assessed via a counter-current flow polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane contactor. Acetic and propionic acid permeation fluxes of 13.12 and 14.21 g/m(2).h were obtained at low feed pH values when a synthetic VFA mix was used as a feed solution. The highest selectivity was obtained for caproic acid compared to that of other VFAs when synthetic VFA mix or leachate was used as a feed solution. High pH values and the presence of suspended solids in the leachate adversely affected the permeation rate. PMID:24845331

Yesil, H; Tugtas, A E; Bayrakdar, A; Calli, B

2014-01-01

7

Link between isoprene and secondary organic aerosol (SOA): Pyruvic acid oxidation yields low volatility organic acids in clouds  

E-print Network

source of organic aerosol and could explain the atmospheric presence of oxalic acid. Methylglyoxal of water-soluble organics (i.e., glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and glycolalde- hyde) can yield secondary organic]) is the main aqueous-phase oxidation prod- uct of methylglyoxal, a well-known isoprene [Talbot et al., 1995

Seitzinger, Sybil

8

Production of hydrogen and volatile fatty acid by Enterobacter sp. T4384 using organic waste materials.  

PubMed

In a study of hydrogen-producing bacteria, strain T4384 was isolated from rice field samples in the Republic of Korea. The isolate was identified as Enterobacter sp. T4384 by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences. Enterobacter sp. T4384 grew at a temperature range of 10-45 degrees C and at an initial pH range of 4.5-9.5. Strain T4384 produced hydrogen at 0-6% NaCl by using glucose, fructose, and mannose. In serum bottle cultures using a complete medium, Enterobacter sp. T4384 produced 1,098 ml/l H2, 4.0 g/l ethanol, and 1.0 g/l acetic acid. In a pH-regulated jar fermenter culture with the biogas removed, 2,202 ml/l H2, 6.2 g/l ethanol, and 1.0 g/l acetic acid were produced, and the lag-phase time was 4.8 h. Strain T4384 metabolized the hydrolysate of organic waste for the production of hydrogen and volatile fatty acid. The strain T4384 produced 947 ml/l H2, 3.2 g/l ethanol, and 0.2 g/l acetic acid from 6% (w/v) food waste hydrolysate; 738 ml/l H2, 4.2 g/l ethanol, and 0.8 g/l acetic acid from Miscanthus sinensis hydrolysate; and 805 ml/l H2, 5.0 g/l ethanol, and 0.7 g/l acetic acid from Sorghum bicolor hydrolysate. PMID:23412061

Kim, Byung-Chun; Deshpande, Tushar R; Chun, Jongsik; Yi, Sung Chul; Kim, Hyunook; Um, Youngsoon; Sang, Byoung-In

2013-02-01

9

Link between isoprene and secondary organic aerosol (SOA): Pyruvic acid oxidation yields low volatility organic acids in clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous-phase oxidation (in clouds and aerosols) is a potentially important source of organic aerosol and could explain the atmospheric presence of oxalic acid. Methylglyoxal, a water-soluble product of isoprene, oxidizes further in the aqueous phase to pyruvic acid. Discrepancies in the literature regarding the aqueous-phase oxidation of pyruvic acid create large uncertainties in the in-cloud yields of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and oxalic acid. Resolving the fate of aqueous-phase pyruvic acid is critical to understanding SOA formation through cloud processing of water-soluble products of isoprene, other alkenes and aromatics. In this work, aqueous-phase photochemical reactions of pyruvic acid and hydrogen peroxide at pH values typical of clouds were conducted and demonstrated that photochemical oxidation of pyruvic acid yields glyoxylic, oxalic, acetic and formic acids. Oxalic and glyoxylic acids remain mostly in the particle phase upon droplet evaporation. Thus isoprene is an important precursor of in-cloud SOA formation.

Carlton, Annmarie G.; Turpin, Barbara J.; Lim, Ho-Jin; Altieri, Katye E.; Seitzinger, Sybil

2006-03-01

10

The Interplay of the Gut Microbiome, Bile Acids, and Volatile Organic Compounds  

PubMed Central

Background. There has been an increasing interest in the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as potential surrogate markers of gut dysbiosis in gastrointestinal disease. Gut dysbiosis occurs when pathological imbalances in gut bacterial colonies precipitate disease and has been linked to the dysmetabolism of bile acids (BA) in the gut. BA metabolites as a result of microbial transformations act as signaling molecules and have demonstrated regulation of intestinal homeostasis through the TGR5 and FXR receptors by inhibiting inflammation, preventing pathogen invasion, and maintaining cell integrity. The presence of VOC footprints is the resultant effect to gut microbiome substrate fermentation. Aim. To review the role of the gut microbiome and bile acid signaling in intestinal homeostasis and the resultant use of VOCs as potential noninvasive surrogate biomarkers in gut dysbiosis. Methods. A systematic search on PubMed and Medline databases was performed to identify articles relevant to gut dysbiosis, BA metabolism, and VOCs. Conclusions. The host and presence of the gut microbiome appear to regulate the BA pool size. A dysbiotic gut microbiome results in disrupted intestinal homeostasis, which may be reflected by VOCs, differentiating those who are healthy and those with disease.

Sagar, Nidhi M.; Cree, Ian A.; Covington, James A.

2015-01-01

11

A rapid gas chromatographic method for direct determination of short-chain (C 2–C 12) volatile organic acids in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, rapid and accurate GC analytical method for direct quantification of short-chain volatile organic acids in liquid foods was established. Hydrophilic 1,3-butanediol was selected as the internal standard. Thirteen volatile organic acids including acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, caproic, heptanoic, caprylic, capric, lauric, lactic and levulinic acids were simultaneously determined with detection limits 0.025–1 ng . The recovery

Ming-Hua Yang; Youk-Meng Choong

2001-01-01

12

SIMPLIFIED VOLATILE ORGANICS SAMPLER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the results of a task supporting EPA in its efforts to license hazardous waste incinerators. The study provided a design for a simplified sampling system for medium levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Most of the study involved evaluation of sorbents...

13

Comparative evaluation of volatiles, phenolics, sugars, organic acids and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papaya varieties.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to determine the phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugars, aroma profiles and antioxidant properties of Sel-42 and Tainung papayas grown in Turkey. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was used for the phenolic compounds analysis. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in the samples. The total phenolic content of Sel-42 was clearly higher than that of Tainung. Protocatechuic acid-hexoside, gallic acid-deoxyhexoside, ferulic acid and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolics in both cultivars. Aroma composition of papaya was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 46 and 42 aroma compounds, including esters, alcohols, terpenes, lactones, acids, carbonyl compounds, and volatile phenols were identified in the Sel-42 and Tainung, respectively. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of papaya extracts. PMID:25466106

Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan; Gubbuk, Hamide; Gunes, Esma

2015-04-15

14

Regeneration of lactic and succinic acid-laden basic sorbents by leaching with a volatile base in an organic solvent  

SciTech Connect

Leaching with an organic solution of a volatile base was explored as a method of regenerating tertiary amine and pyridyl sorbents. Experimental data are presented that show that regeneration efficiency correlated with the nonaqueous basicity of the regenerant as measured by the Gutmann donicity scale. Essentially complete regeneration of lactic acid-laden Dowex MWA-1 was achieved when 8--10 mol of trimethylamine were present for every mole of adsorbed acid; adequate (>70%) regeneration was obtained at a 2:1 molar ratio. The resulting trimethylamine-lactic acid complex can be thermally decomposed fully when trimethylamine is employed in an organic solvent instead of in water. A likely cause of the incomplete thermal decomposition of trimethylammonium lactate in previous, water-based systems is the aqueous environment in which the decomposition was performed.

Husson, S.M.; King, C.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1998-08-01

15

Volatile organic acid adsorption and cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite for enhancing hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes.  

PubMed

Volatile organic acid adsorption, cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite, and their effects on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes were evaluated through batch experiments. The acetic acid adsorption experiments show that pH was mainly regulated by H(+) adsorption. The mono-layer and multi-layer adsorption were found under the low (8.3-83.2 mmol/L) and high (133.22-532.89 mmol/L) initial acetic acid concentration, respectively. The dissociated cations concentration in acidic solution showed the predominance of Ca(2+). Porphyritic andesite addition elevated the pH levels and accelerated hydrolysis and acidogenesis in the batch fermentation experiment. Leachate of porphyritic andesite addition achieved the highest hydrolysis constant of 22.1 x 10(-3)kgm(-2)d(-1) and VS degradation rates of 3.9 g L(-1)d(-1). The highest activity of microorganisms represented by specific growth rate of ATP, 0.16d(-1), and specific consumption rate of Ca(2+), 0.18d(-1), was obtained by adding leachate of porphyritic andesite. PMID:20156676

Cheng, Fan; Li, Ming; Li, Dawei; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Kitamura, Yutaka; Li, Baoming

2010-07-01

16

Volatile fatty acids production from food waste: effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate.  

PubMed

The effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate (OLR) on the acidogenesis of food waste have been determined. The present study investigated their effects on soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), volatile solids (VS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). Both the concentration and yield of VFAs were highest at pH 6.0, acetate and butyrate accounted for 77% of total VFAs. VFAs concentration and the VFA/SCOD ratio were highest, and VS levels were lowest, at 45 °C, but the differences compared to the values at 35 °C were slight. The concentrations of VFAs, SCOD, and NH4(+)-N increased as OLR increased, whereas the yield of VFAs decreased from 0.504 at 5 g/Ld to 0.306 at 16 g/Ld. Acetate and butyrate accounted for 60% of total VFAs. The percentage of acetate and valerate increased as OLR increased, whereas a high OLR produced a lower percentage of propionate and butyrate. PMID:23831761

Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin; Wang, Quan; Gong, Changxiu; Li, Menglu

2013-09-01

17

VOLATILIZATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS FROM WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The volatilization of organic environmental contaminants from water bodies to the atmosphere was investigated. The general aim was to elucidate the factors that control the volatilization process and develop predictive methods for calculating volatilization rates for various comp...

18

Volatile fatty acids derived from waste organics provide an economical carbon source for microbial lipids/biodiesel production.  

PubMed

Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) derived from organic waste, were used as a low cost carbon source for high bioreactor productivity and titer. A multi-stage continuous high cell density culture (MSC-HCDC) process was employed for economic assessment of microbial lipids for biodiesel production. In a simulation study we used a lipid yield of 0.3 g/g-VFAs, cell mass yield of 0.5 g/g-glucose or wood hydrolyzates, and employed process variables including lipid contents from 10-90% of cell mass, bioreactor productivity of 0.5-48 g/L/h, and plant capacity of 20000-1000000 metric ton (MT)/year. A production cost of USD 1.048/kg-lipid was predicted with raw material costs of USD 0.2/kg for wood hydrolyzates and USD 0.15/kg for VFAs; 9 g/L/h bioreactor productivity; 100, 000 MT/year production capacity; and 75% lipids content. The variables having the highest impact on microbial lipid production costs were the cost of VFAs and lipid yield, followed by lipid content, fermenter cost, and lipid productivity. The cost of raw materials accounted for 66.25% of total operating costs. This study shows that biodiesel from microbial lipids has the potential to become competitive with diesels from other sources. PMID:25262978

Park, Gwon Woo; Fei, Qiang; Jung, Kwonsu; Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Kim, Nag-jong; Choi, Jin-dal-rae; Kim, Sangyong; Cho, Jaehoon

2014-12-01

19

Regeneration of carboxylic acid-laden basic sorbents by leaching with a volatile base in an organic solvent  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with an organic solution of alkylamine thus forming an alkylamine/carboxylic acid complex which is decomposed with improved efficiency to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. Carbon dioxide addition can be used to improve the adsorption or the carboxylic acids by the solid phase sorbent.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01

20

Simultaneous determination of five mercapturic acid derived from volatile organic compounds in human urine by LC-MS/MS and its application to relationship study.  

PubMed

Acrylonitrile, acrolein, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and crotonaldehyde are hazard volatile organic compounds in tobacco smoke, which can be metabolized to mercapturic acids (MAs) excreted in urine. MAs are can be regarded as important and specific biomarkers to evaluate exposure to those carcinogenic volatile organic compounds. A simultaneous determination of N-acetyl-S-2-cyanoethyl-cysteine (CEMA), 3-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine (3-HPMA), N-acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA), N-acetyl-S-(phenyl)-L-cysteine (SPMA) and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA) derived from five volatile organic compounds by column-switching LC-MS/MS has been described. MAs were concentrated and cleaned up by an online reusable pre-column packed with restricted access material. The intra- and inter-day precisions of the method ranged from 0.7% to 15.2%. The LODs was 0.013-0.053 ng/mL. The recovery of the whole analytical procedure ranged from 79.3% to 116%. After validation, this method was successfully applied to urine samples from smokers (n=246) and nonsmokers (n=58). The results showed MAs in urine from smokers were significantly higher than that in nonsmoker except for SPMA. Urinary CEMA significantly correlated with 3-HPMA (r=0.763, P<0.0001) and HMPMA (r=0.910, P<0.0001). CEMA, 3-HPMA and HMPMA are potential biomarkers to distinguish the differences between smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:25086756

Zhang, Xiaotao; Xiong, Wei; Shi, Longkai; Hou, Hongwei; Hu, Qingyuan

2014-09-15

21

Volatile organic compound sensor system  

DOEpatents

Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Waxahachie, TX); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY); Wong, Gregory K. (Laramie, WY)

2011-03-01

22

Regeneration of lactic and succinic acid-laden basic Sorbents byLeaching with a Volatile Base in an Organic Solvent  

SciTech Connect

Leaching with an organic solution of a volatile base wasexplored as a method of regenerating tertiary amine and pyridyl sorbents.Experimental data are presented that show that regeneration efficiencycorrelates with the nonaqueous basicity of the regenerant as measured bythe Gutmann donicity scale. Essentially complete regeneration of lacticacid-laden Dowex MWA-1 was achieved when 8-10 mol of trimethylamine werepresent for every mole of adsorbed acid; adequate (>70 percentregeneration was obtained at a 2:1 molar ratio. The; resultingtrimethylamine-lactic acid complex can be thermally decomposed fully whentrimethylamine is employed in an organic solvent instead of in water. Alikely cause of the incomplete thermal decomposition of trimethylammoniumlactate in previous, water-based systems is the aqueous environment inwhich the decomposition was performed.

Husson, Scott M.; King, C. Judson

1997-09-01

23

THEORETICAL EVALUATION OF STABILITY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS AND POLAR VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN CANISTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A mathematical model was developed for describing loss by physical adsorption of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and polar volatile organic chemicals (PVOCs) in stainless steel canisters. he model incorporates compound specific properties such as polarizability, vapor concentra...

24

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOEpatents

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moore, Glenn A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Reagen, William K. (Stillwater, MN)

1995-01-01

25

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOEpatents

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

1995-08-29

26

A Micro-Orifice Volatilization Impactor coupled to a Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer for the detection of organic acids in atmospheric aerosol particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant uncertainties related to sources and removal processes of particulate organic matter persist due, in part, to a poor understanding of the molecular-level composition. To address these issues, we are developing a novel technique that couples a micro-orifice volatilization impactor (MOVI) to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) for fast, in situ measurements of specific organic acids expected to be in atmospheric particles. The MOVI-CIMS process has three steps: 1) aerosol collection by inertial impaction, 2) volatilization and sample transfer, and 3) chemical ionization and detection using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. We present results from laboratory characterization of two MOVI designs, one operating at low pressure (60 Torr) and the other at near ambient pressure. The low-pressure impactor has a theoretical cut point of 40nm while the atmospheric pressure impactor (API) has a theoretical cut point of 280nm with a pressure drop of less than 5%. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of these two designs in terms of typical atmospheric particle size distributions. Experimental tests of their theoretical cut-points are used to assess the importance of jet-to- plate distance and particle bounce. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the MOVI-CIMS technique by employing it in studies of heterogeneous oxidation of particle organics and of secondary organic aerosol formation from biogenic hydrocarbon oxidation. Based on typical signal-to-noise ratio, the MOVI-CIMS demonstrates a detection limit of ~50 ng for monocarboxylic acids when using the LPI version and the iodide ion as a chemical ionization reagent. Preliminary results suggest even lower detection limits are possible with other reagent ions.

Yatavelli, R. L.; Thornton, J. A.

2007-12-01

27

Volatile Organic Compounds in Uremia  

PubMed Central

Background Although “uremic fetor” has long been felt to be diagnostic of renal failure, the compounds exhaled in uremia remain largely unknown so far. The present work investigates whether breath analysis by ion mobility spectrometry can be used for the identification of volatile organic compounds retained in uremia. Methods Breath analysis was performed in 28 adults with an eGFR ?60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, 26 adults with chronic renal failure corresponding to an eGFR of 10–59 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 28 adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before and after a hemodialysis session. Breath analysis was performed by ion mobility spectrometryafter gas-chromatographic preseparation. Identification of the compounds of interest was performed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Breath analyses revealed significant differences in the spectra of patients with and without renal failure. Thirteen compounds were chosen for further evaluation. Some compounds including hydroxyacetone, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and ammonia accumulated with decreasing renal function and were eliminated by dialysis. The concentrations of these compounds allowed a significant differentiation between healthy, chronic renal failure with an eGFR of 10–59 ml/min, and ESRD (p<0.05 each). Other compounds including 4-heptanal, 4-heptanone, and 2-heptanone preferentially or exclusively occurred in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Conclusion Impairment of renal function induces a characteristic fingerprint of volatile compounds in the breath. The technique of ion mobility spectrometry can be used for the identification of lipophilic uremic retention molecules. PMID:23049998

Seifert, Luzia; Slodzinski, Rafael; Jankowski, Joachim; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.

2012-01-01

28

Biodiversity of volatile organic compounds from five French ferns.  

PubMed

Five French ferns belonging to different families were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) by GC-MS using organic solvent extraction. Fifty-five VOC biosynthesized from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carotenoid-type compounds were identified. The main volatile compound of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Pteridaceae) was (E)-2-decenal with a plastic or "stink bug" odor. The volatile profiles of Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth (Woodsiaceae) and Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth (Blechnaceae) showed similarities, with small amounts of isoprenoids and the same main volatile compounds, i.e., 2-phenylethanal (odor of lilac and hyacinth) and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like odor). The main volatile compound of Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (Dryopteridaceae) was (E)-nerolidol with a woody or fresh bark note. Polyketides, as acylfilicinic acids, were mainly identified in this fern. Oreopteris limbosperma (Bellardi ex. All.) J. Holub (Thelypteridaceae), well-known for its lemon smell, contained the highest biodiversity of VOC. Eighty percent of the volatiles was issued from the terpenic pathway. The main volatiles were (E)-nerolidol, alpha-terpineol, beta-caryophyllene and other minor monoterpenes (for example, linalool, pinenes, limonene, and gamma-terpinen-7-al). It was also the fern with the highest number of carotenoid-type derivatives, which were identified in large amounts. Our results were of great interest underlying new industrial valorisation for ferns based on their broad spectrum of volatiles. PMID:21121267

Fons, Françoise; Froissard, Didier; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Buatois, Bruno; Rapior, Sylvie

2010-10-01

29

Microwave spectra of some volatile organic compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer-controlled microwave (MRR) spectrometer was used to catalog reference spectra for chemical analysis. Tables of absorption frequency, peak absorption intensity, and integrated intensity are included for 26 volatile organic compounds, all but one of which contain oxygen.

White, W. F.

1975-01-01

30

VOLATILE ORGANIC ANALYSIS BY DIRECT AQUEOUS INJECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Gas chromatographic environmental analysis by direct aqueous injection (DAI) was studied for 24 volatile organic analytes (VOAs). Internal standardization was used to determine the precision of analyzing these compounds by DAI. Aequous samples were directly introduced to a gas ch...

31

Catalyst for Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is a process for oxidizing volatile organic compounds to carbon dioxide and water with the minimal addition of energy. A mixture of the volatile organic compound and an oxidizing agent (e.g. ambient air containing the volatile organic compound) is exposed to a catalyst which includes a noble metal dispersed on a metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state. Especially good results are obtained when the noble metal is platinum, and the metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state is tin oxide. A promoter (i.e., a small amount of an oxide of a transition series metal) may be used in association with the tin oxide to provide very beneficial results.

Wood, George M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Schyryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

32

Analyzing method on biogenic volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to analyze biogenic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, an automated gas chromatography is developed and employed at the laboratory of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) during January to July, 2000. A small refrigerator was used so as to remove water in the air sample from gas line, and get accurate concentrations of volatile organic compounds. At 5degreesC, good water removing efficiency can be obtained at controlled flow rate. Air samples were collected around the building of Mesa Lab. of NCAR and analyzed by this gas chromatography system. This paper reports this gas chromatography system and results of air samples. The experimental results show that this gas chromatography system has a good reproducibility and stability, and main interesting volatile organic compounds such as isoprene, monoterpenes have an evident diurnal variation.

Bai, J. H.; Wang, M. X.; Hu, F.; Greenberg, J. P.; Guenther, A. B.

2002-02-01

33

Production of poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) from waste organics by the two-stage process: focus on the intermediate volatile fatty acids.  

PubMed

The two-stage process, coupling volatile fatty acids (VFAs) fermentation and poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (P(HB/HV)) biosynthesis, was investigated for five waste organic materials. The overall conversion efficiencies were glycerol>starch>molasses>waste sludge>protein, meanwhile the maximum P(HB/HV) (1.674 g/L) was obtained from waste starch. Altering the waste type brought more effects on VFAs composition other than the yield in the first stage, which in turn greatly changed the yield in the second stage. Further study showed that even-number carbon VFAs (or odd-number ones) had a good positive linear relationship with P(HB/HV) content of HB (or HV). Additionally, VFA producing microbiota was analyzed by pyrosequencing methods for five wastes, which indicated that specific species (e.g., Lactobacillus for protein; Ethanoligenens for starch; Ruminococcus and Limnobacter for glycerol) were dominant in the community for VFAs production. Potential competition among acidogenic bacteria specially involved to produce some VFA was proposed as well. PMID:24907579

Shen, Liang; Hu, Hongyou; Ji, Hongfang; Cai, Jiyuan; He, Ning; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Yuanpeng

2014-08-01

34

Analysis of volatile organic compounds. [trace amounts of organic volatiles in gas samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method are described for reproducibly analyzing trace amounts of a large number of organic volatiles existing in a gas sample. Direct injection of the trapped volatiles into a cryogenic percolum provides a sharply defined plug. Applications of the method include: (1) analyzing the headspace gas of body fluids and comparing a profile of the organic volatiles with standard profiles for the detection and monitoring of disease; (2) analyzing the headspace gas of foods and beverages and comparing the profile with standard profiles to monitor and control flavor and aroma; and (3) analyses for determining the organic pollutants in air or water samples.

Zlatkis, A. (inventor)

1977-01-01

35

Measurement of volatile organic compounds inside automobiles†  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the types and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the passenger cabin of selected sedan automobiles under static (parked, unventilated) and specified conditions of operation (i.e., driving the vehicle using air conditioning alone, vent mode alone, or driver's window half open). Data were collected on five different passenger sedan vehicles

Marion J Fedoruk; Brent D Kerger

2003-01-01

36

Volatile organic sampling train soot interference report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses Method 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), as a tool in determining the destruction and removal efficiencies of industrial boilers co-firing hazardous waste. Recently, concerns have been expressed over possible measurement biases due to soot deposits within the VOST. A laboratory study was initiated to investigate the collection efficiency of the method under

G. Hinshaw; F. W. Wilshire; L. D. Johnson

1993-01-01

37

COMPLETE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF VOLATILE ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reviews heterogeneous catalytic oxidation, focusing on its application to the control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at operating conditions typical of field applications. The parameters for this review are: low to moderate temperatures (25-400 C), atmospheric pre...

38

VOLATILE ORGANIC SAMPLING TRAIN - SOOT INTERFERENCE REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses Method 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), as a tool in determining the destruction and removal efficiencies of industrial boilers co-firing hazardous waste. ecently, concerns have been expressed over possible measuremen...

39

Secondary organic aerosols formed from oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California  

E-print Network

, polyols and alkanes to quantify oxidized BVOCs. Terpene and isoprene oxidation products were amongSecondary organic aerosols formed from oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds and terpenes, can be oxidized to form less volatile carbonyls, acids, and multifunctional oxygenated products

Cohen, Ronald C.

40

Key volatile organic compounds emitted from swine nursery house  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out to quantify the concentration and emission levels of key volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - sulfides, indolics, phenolics and volatile fatty acids (VFA) - emitted from swine nursery house, and assess the effect of microclimate (including temperature, relative humidity and air speed) on the key odorous compounds. Samples were collected from the Experimental Farm of Seoul National University in Suwon, South Korea. And the collection took place for four seasons and the sampling time was fixed at 10:30 in the morning. The application of one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni t analyses revealed that, most of the odorous compound concentrations, such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), indole, p-cresol and all the volatile fatty acids were lowest during the summer ( P < 0.01). Meanwhile, negative correlations were observed between temperature and odorants, as well as air speed and odorants. A possible reason was that high ventilation transferred most of the odors out of the house during the summer. From the whole year data, non-linear multiple regressions were conducted and the equations were proposed depending upon the relationships between microclimate parameters and odorous compounds. The equations were applied in hope of easily calculating the concentrations of the odorous compounds in the commercial farms. The results obtained in this study should be used for reducing the volatile organic compounds by controlling microclimate parameters and also could be helpful in setting a guideline for good management practices in nursery house.

Yao, H. Q.; Choi, H. L.; Zhu, K.; Lee, J. H.

2011-05-01

41

Volatile organic compounds in ambient aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the concentration levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient aerosols, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) in the particulate phase were measured simultaneously with those in the gas phase in the urban atmosphere. Six compounds were detected in the aerosols at concentrations from 0.051 (1,2-dichloroethane) to 1.75 ng m - 3 (benzene). Benzene was detected as the most dominant compound in the aerosols, although toluene was the most dominant compound in the gas phase. The VOCs in the aerosols had concentrations comparable to those reported for some semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) in the aerosols. The concentrations of the VOCs in the aerosols were primarily controlled by the aerosol mass loading. Temperature and relative humidity had no significant effect on the gas/particle partitioning of the VOCs. Our results also suggested that the hygroscopic properties of the aerosols should be considered to discuss the partitioning of the VOCs.

Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Kumi; Mizuno, Riichi; Igawa, Manabu

2010-07-01

42

Analysis of the volatile organic compounds in seized cocaine hydrochloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volatile organic compounds in seized cocaine hydrochloride were analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Two different methods of sampling volatile compounds were investigated. In the first method, 20, 50, and 100 mg samples of seized cocaine hydrochloride were loaded into 2-inch glass tubes. The headspace of each tube was then purged with ultra high purity (UHP) helium and the gas exiting the tube was directed through a cryogenic loop filled with glass beads and maintained at liquid nitrogen temperature. The volatile organic compounds were collected onto the glass beads while the helium gas was vented. The organic compounds were subsequently thermally desorbed onto the column and analyzed by GC/MS. In the second method, 10 mg and 100 mg samples of seized cocaine hydrochloride were loaded into glass tubes fitted with glass frits at one end. UHP helium was purged through each sample and the purge gas containing organic compounds was collected onto a sorbent tube packed with Tenax TA. The concentrated organic compounds were then thermally desorbed onto a 4 m section of a split GC capillary column maintained at -70 degrees C with flow rates of 20-28 ml/min. Flow was returned to 2.8 ml/min during analysis. By sampling the seized samples of cocaine hydrochloride using a cryogenic loop, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, acetic acid, 2,2,4-trimethyl pentane, 2-methyl pentane, dichloromethane, 2-propanol, and 2-propanol, and 2-propane (acetone) were found in three different seized cocaine hydrochloride samples. The observed quantities of these volatile organic compounds were different for each of the three seized cocaine hydrochloride samples. THe observed quantities of these volatile organic compounds were different for each of the three seized samples labeled A, B, and C. By sampling the seized samples of cocaine hydrochloride using sorbent tubes, cocaine was consistently observed. Although volatile components other than cocaine were observed, the number and amount of volatile components were not consistent with the cryogenic loop results.

Dejarme, Lindy E.; Lawhon, Sara J.; Ray, Prasenjit; Kuhlman, Michael R.

1997-02-01

43

21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity...blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium...

2013-04-01

44

21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity...blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium...

2011-04-01

45

21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity...blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium...

2012-04-01

46

21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity...blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium...

2014-04-01

47

21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573.914 Food... § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive...the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

2010-04-01

48

Formation of volatile chemicals from thermal degradation of less volatile coffee components: quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid.  

PubMed

The less volatile constituents of coffee beans (quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid) were roasted under a stream of nitrogen, air, or helium. The volatile degradation compounds formed were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Caffeic acid produced the greatest amount of total volatiles. Quinic acid and chlorogenic acid produced a greater number of volatiles under the nitrogen stream than under the air stream. These results suggest that the presence of oxygen does not play an important role in the formation of volatile compounds by the heat degradation of these chemicals. 2,5-Dimethylfuran formed in relatively large amounts (59.8-2231.0 microg/g) in the samples obtained from quinic acid and chlorogenic acid but was not found in the samples from caffeic acid. Furfuryl alcohol was found in the quinic acid (259.9 microg/g) and caffeic acid (174.4 microg/g) samples roasted under a nitrogen stream but not in the chlorogenic sample. The three acids used in the present study do not contain a nitrogen atom, yet nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds, pyridine, pyrrole, and pyrazines, were recovered. Phenol and its derivatives were identified in the largest quantities. The amounts of total phenols ranged from 60.6 microg/g (quinic acid under helium) to 89893.7 microg/g (caffeic acid under helium). It was proposed that phenol was formed mainly from quinic acid and that catechols were formed from caffeic acid. Formation of catechol from caffeic acid under anaerobic condition indicates that the reaction participating in catechol formation was not oxidative degradation. PMID:20405916

Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

2010-05-12

49

TMVOC, simulator for multiple volatile organic chemicals  

SciTech Connect

TMVOC is a numerical simulator for three-phase non-isothermal flow of water, soil gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. It is an extension of the TOUGH2 general-purpose simulation program developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. TMVOC is designed for applications to contamination problems that involve hydrocarbon fuel or organic solvent spills in saturated and unsaturated zones. It can model contaminant behavior under ''natural'' environmental conditions, as well as for engineered systems, such as soil vapor extraction, groundwater pumping, or steam-assisted source remediation. TMVOC is upwards compatible with T2VOC (Falta et al., 1995) and can be initialized from T2VOC-style initial conditions. The main enhancements in TMVOC relative to T2VOC are as follows: a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals can be modeled; any and all combinations of the three phases water-oil-gas are treated; several non-condensible gases may be present; diffusion is treated in all phases in a manner that is fully coupled with phase partitioning. This paper gives a brief summary of the methodology used in TMVOC as well as highlighting some implementation issues. Simulation of a NAPL spill and subsequent remediation is discussed for a 2-D vertical section of a saturated-unsaturated flow problem.

Pruess, Karsten; Battistelli, Alfredo

2003-03-25

50

Volatile organic carbon/air separation test using gas membranes  

SciTech Connect

An estimated 900 metric tons of carbon tetrachloride were discharged to soil columns during the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operations at the Hanford Site. The largest percentage of this volatile organic compound was found in the vadose region of the 200 West Area. Using a Vacuum Extraction System, the volatile organic compound was drawn from the soil in an air mixture at a concentration of about 1,000 parts per million. The volatile organic compounds were absorbed from the air stream using granulated activated carbon canisters. A gas membrane separation system, developed by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., was tested at the Vacuum Extraction System site to determine if the volatile organic compound load on the granulated activated carbon could be reduced. The Vacuum Extraction System condensed most of the volatile organic compound into liquid carbon tetrachloride and vented the residual gas stream into the granulated activated carbon. This system reduced the cost of operation about $5/kilogram of volatile organic compound removed.

King, C.V.; Kaschemekat, J.

1993-08-01

51

Enhancing vacuum extraction of volatile organics using electrical heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum extraction is an effective tool for the in situ removal of liquid, residual and vapor phase volatile hydrocarbons from subsurface soils (Trowbridge, 1990). The vacuum extraction process creates air flow through soils by decreasing the gas phase pressure in the soil matrix. As the air flows through the pore spaces, volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) are volatilized and moved from

H. M. Buettner; W. Daily; A. Ramirez

1991-01-01

52

Enhancing vacuum extraction of volatile organics using electrical heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum extraction is an effective tool for the in situ removal of liquid, residual and vapor phase volatile hydrocarbons from subsurface soils (Trowbridge, 1990). The vacuum extraction process creates air flow through soils by decreasing the gas phase pressure in the soil matrix. As the air flows through the pore spaces, volatile organic compounds (VOC's) are volatilized and moved from

H. M. Buettner; W. Daily; A. Ramirez

1991-01-01

53

Volatility and aging of atmospheric organic aerosol.  

PubMed

Organic-aerosol phase partitioning (volatility) and oxidative aging are inextricably linked in the atmosphere because partitioning largely controls the rates and mechanisms of aging reactions as well as the actual amount of organic aerosol. Here we discuss those linkages, describing the basic theory of partitioning thermodynamics as well as the dynamics that may limit the approach to equilibrium under some conditions. We then discuss oxidative aging in three forms: homogeneous gas-phase oxidation, heterogeneous oxidation via uptake of gas-phase oxidants, and aqueous-phase oxidation. We present general scaling arguments to constrain the relative importance of these processes in the atmosphere, compared to each other and compared to the characteristic residence time of particles in the atmosphere. PMID:22955503

Donahue, Neil M; Robinson, Allen L; Trump, Erica R; Riipinen, Ilona; Kroll, Jesse H

2014-01-01

54

FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated exploratory work towards the development of new field screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of carbon-halogen bonds. Commercially available heated diode and corona discharge leak detectors were procured and evaluated for halogenated VOC response. The units were modified to provide a digital readout of signal related to VOC concentration. Sensor response was evaluated with carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE), which represent halogenated VOCs with and without double bonds. The response characteristics were determined for the VOCs directly in headspace in Tedlar bag containers. Quantitation limits in air were estimated. Potential interferences from volatile hydrocarbons, such as toluene and heptane, were evaluated. The effect of humidity was studied also. The performance of the new devices was evaluated in the laboratory by spiking soil samples and monitoring headspace for halogenated VOCs. A draft concept of the steps for a new analytical method was outlined. The results of the first year effort show that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work towards the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

2002-06-01

55

Alkaline dechlorination of chlorinated volatile organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

The vast majority of contaminated sites in the United States and abroad are contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE), trichloroethane (TCA), and chloroform. These VOCs are mobile and persistent in the subsurface and present serious health risks at trace concentrations. The goal of this project was to develop a new chemical treatment system that can rapidly and effectively degrade chlorinated VOCs. The system is based on our preliminary findings that strong alkalis such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) can absorb and degrade TCE. The main objectives of this study were to determine the reaction rates between chlorinated VOCs, particularly TCE, and strong alkalis, to elucidate the reaction mechanisms and by-products, to optimize the chemical reactions under various experimental conditions, and to develop a laboratory bench- scale alkaline destruction column that can be used to destroy vapor- phase TCE.

Gu, B.; Siegrist, R.L.

1996-06-01

56

Volatile organic monitor for industrial effluents  

SciTech Connect

1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have created the need for instruments capable of monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in public air space in an unattended and low cost manner. The purpose of the study was to develop and demonstrate the capability to do long term automatic and unattended ambient air monitoring using an inexpensive portable analytic system at a commercial manufacturing plant site. A gas chromatograph system personal computer hardware, meteorology tower & instruments, and custom designed hardware and software were developed. Comparison with an EPA approved method was performed. The system was sited at an aircraft engines manufacturing site and operated in a completely unattended mode for 60 days. Two VOCs were monitored every 30 minutes during the 24hr day. Large variation in the concentration from 800ppb to the limits of detection of about 10ppb were observed. Work to increase the capabilities of the system is ongoing.

Laguna, G.R.; Peter, F.J.; Stuart, A.D.; Loyola, V.M.

1993-07-01

57

High Arctic Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from terrestrial vegetation participate in oxidative reactions, affecting the tropospheric ozone concentration and the lifetimes of greenhouse gasses such as methane. Also, they affect the formation of secondary organic aerosols. BVOCs thus provide a strong link between the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the climate. Global models of BVOC emissions have assumed minimal emissions from the high latitudes due to low temperatures, short growing seasons and sparse vegetation cover. However, measurements from this region of the world are lacking and emissions from the High Arctic have not been published yet. The aim of this study was to obtain the first estimates for BVOC emissions from the High Arctic. Hereby, we wish to add new knowledge to the understanding of global BVOC emissions. Measurements were conducted in NE Greenland (74°30' N, 20°30' W) in four vegetation communities in the study area. These four vegetation communities were dominated by Cassiope tetragona, Salix arctica, Vaccinium uliginosum and Kobresia myosuroides/Dryas octopetela/Salix arctica, respectively. Emissions were measured by enclosure technique and collection of volatiles into adsorbent cartridges in August 2009. The volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following thermal desorption. Isoprene showed highest emissions in S. arctica-dominated heath, where it was the dominant single BVOC. However, isoprene emission decreased below detection limit in the end of August when the temperature was at or below 10°C. According to a principal component analysis, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions were especially associated with C. tetragona-dominated heath. Especially S. arctica and C. tetragona dominated heaths showed distinct patterns of emitted BVOCs. Emissions of BVOC from the studied high arctic heaths were clearly lower than the emissions observed previously in subarctic heaths with more dense vegetation and higher ambient temperature. However, high arctic BVOC emissions are expected to increase in the future as a result of the predicted pronounced climate warming effects in the High Arctic. Therefore, we suggest that further studies should be conducted to investigate the effects of climate changes in the region in order to gain new knowledge and understanding of future global BVOC emissions.

Schollert, Michelle; Buchard, Sebrina; Faubert, Patrick; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

2013-04-01

58

Atmospheric transformation of volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To be able to understand and predict the concentration of a target compound in the atmosphere one must understand the atmospheric chemistry involved. The transformation of volatile organic compounds in the troposphere is predominantly driven by the interaction with the hydroxyl and nitrate radicals. The hydroxyl radical exists in daylight conditions and its reaction rate constant with an organic compound is typically very fast. The nitrate radical drives the nighttime chemistry. These radicals can scavenge hydrogen from an organic molecule generating secondary products that are often overlooked in detection schemes. Secondary products can be more stable and serve as a better target compound in detection schemes. The gas phase reaction of the hydroxyl radical (OH) with cyclohexanol (COL) has been studied. The rate coefficient was determined to be (19.0 +/- 4.8) X 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 (at 297 +/- 3 K and 1 atmosphere total pressure) using the relative rate technique with pentanal, decane, and tridecane as the reference compounds. Assuming an average OH concentration of 1 X 106 molecules cm-3, an atmospheric lifetime of 15 h is calculated for cyclohexanol. Products of the OH + COL reaction were determined to more clearly define cyclohexanol's atmospheric degradation mechanism. The observed products were: cyclohexanone, hexanedial, 3- hydroxycyclohexanone, and 4-hydroxycyclohexanone. Consideration of the potential reaction pathways suggest that each of these products is formed via hydrogen abstraction at a different site on the cyclohexanol ring.

Henley, Michael V.; Bradley, William R.; Wyatt, Sheryl E.; Graziano, G. M.; Wells, J. R.

2000-07-01

59

SOIL SAMPLE COLLECTION AND HANDLING FOR VOLATILE ORGANICS ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The guidance document will detail the Region I EPA New England requirements for the collection of soil samples for volatile organics analysis by SW-846, Method 5035. The guidance will describe the project planning process for the collection of soil samples for volatile organics ...

60

COMPARISON OF AMBIENT AIR SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of fourteen experimental sampling runs were carried out at a field site to collect data from several ambient air monitoring methods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ambient air was drawn through a sampling manifold and was continuously spiked with volatile organic ...

61

PHASE DISTRIBUTIONS OF LOW VOLATILITY ORGANICS IN AMBIENT AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Current strategies to control photochemical air pollution rely on abating the emission of volatile organic compounds. Primarily, these compounds exist in the vapor phase, and are those with a carbon number of ten or less. Recent attention has been given to low-volatility organic ...

62

BIOCONCENTRATION FACTORS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN VEGETATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of air and leaves were taken at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas campus and analyzed for volatile organic compounds using vacuum distillation coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The data were used to estimate the bioconcentration of volatile organic compo...

63

TEMPORAL VARIABILITY MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Methodology was developed to determine unambiguously trace levels of volatile organic compounds as they vary in concentration over a variety of time scales. his capability is important because volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are usually measure by time-integrative techniques th...

64

PROTOCOL FOR THE COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE POHCS (PRINCIPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS) USING VOST (VOLATILE ORGANIC SAMPLING TRAIN)  

EPA Science Inventory

The document is a state-of-the-art operating protocol for sampling and analysis of volatile organic constituents of flue gas from hazardous waste incinerators or other similar combustor systems using the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST). It is intended to be used for guidan...

65

Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae  

PubMed Central

A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and ?-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. PMID:24471125

Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

2013-01-01

66

Volatile organic compound remedial action project  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) reviews a proposed project that is planned to reduce the levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants present in the Mound domestic water supply. The potable and industrial process water supply for Mound is presently obtained from a shallow aquifer via on-site production wells. The present levels of VOCs in the water supply drawn from the on-site wells are below the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) permissible for drinking water under Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA; 40 CFR 141); however, Mound has determined that remedial measures should be taken to further reduce the VOC levels. The proposed project action is the reduction of the VOC levels in the water supply using packed tower aeration (PTA). This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and associated Council on Environmental Quality regulations (40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508) as implemented through U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5440.1D and supporting DOE NEPA Guidelines (52 FR 47662), as amended (54 FR 12474; 55 FR 37174), and as modified by the Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) 15-90 and associated guidance. As required, this EA provides sufficient information on the probable environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives to support a DOE decision either to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1991-12-01

67

Microwave process for volatile organic compound abatement.  

PubMed

The CHA Corporation has completed the U.S. Air Force Phase II Small Business Innovation Research program to investigate the feasibility of using a novel microwave-based process for the removal and destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in effluents from noncombustion sources, such as paint booth ventilation streams. Removal of solvents by adsorption, followed by the regeneration of saturated granular activated carbon (GAC) by microwave energy, was achieved in a single fixed-bed reactor. Microwave regeneration of the fixed-bed-saturated carbon restored the original GAC adsorption capacity. After 20 adsorption/regeneration cycles, the adsorption capacity dropped from 13.5 g methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)/100 g GAC to 12.5 g MEK/100 g GAC. During microwave regeneration of the GAC fixed bed, the concentrated desorbed paint solvent was oxidized by passing the solvent mixture through a fixed bed of an oxidation catalyst mixed with silicon carbide in a microwave reactor. A 98% oxidation efficiency was consistently achieved from the oxidation of VOCs in the microwave catalytic reactor. PMID:15666467

Cha, C Y; Carlisle, C T

2001-12-01

68

Catalytic destruction of organic volatile nitrogen compounds  

SciTech Connect

A family of catalysts has been identified for purification of industrial gas streams which are contaminated with odorous and/or toxic volatile nitrogen compounds (VNC). Temperature-conversion curves were measured for destruction of a series of organic VNC`s in moist air at 15,000 hr {sup {minus}1} gas hourly space velocity (STP), and the yields of N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and total NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) were measured. The VNCs of interest included primary, secondary and tertiary amines, ethylenediamine, ethanolamine, acetonitrile, dimethylfomamide, pyridine, piperidine and aniline. The ease of destruction of these compounds over a monolithic platinum VNC catalyst as reflected in the temperature required or 95% conversion, ranged from n-propylamine (234{degrees}C) to acetonitrile (343{degrees}C). Selectivity to N{sub 2} plus N{sub 2}O at the temperatures of 95% conversion decreased with increasing T-95 from 93% to 46%. Additional studies were done with triethylamine at several space velocities with the VNC catalyst and with some related PT catalysts. The results of these tests suggest that N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) are formed by at least three competitive reaction pathways.

Lester, G.R.; Homeyer, S.T. [Allied Signal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

1993-12-31

69

Identification of volatile organic compounds in human cerumen.  

PubMed

We report here the initial examination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from human earwax (cerumen). Recent studies link a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette, sub-family C, member 11 gene (ABCC11) to the production of different types of axillary odorants and cerumen. ABCC11 encodes an ATP-driven efflux pump protein that plays an important function in ceruminous apocrine glands of the auditory canal and the secretion of axillary odor precursors. The type of cerumen and underarm odor produced by East Asians differ markedly from that produced by non-Asians. In this initial report we find that both groups emit many of the same VOCs but differ significantly in the amounts produced. The principal odorants are volatile organic C2-to-C6 acids. The physical appearance of cerumen from the two groups also matches previously reported ethnic differences, viz., cerumen from East Asians appears dry and white while that from non-Asians is typically wet and yellowish-brown. PMID:24572763

Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A; Thaler, Erica; Wysocki, Charles J; Preti, George

2014-03-15

70

Breath measurements as volatile organic compound biomarkers.  

PubMed Central

A brief review of the uses of breath analysis in studies of environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is provided. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's large-scale Total Exposure Assessment Methodology Studies have measured concentrations of 32 target VOCs in the exhaled breath of about 800 residents of various U.S. cities. Since the previous 12-hr integrated personal air exposures to the same chemicals were also measured, the relation between exposure and body burden is illuminated. Another major use of the breath measurements has been to detect unmeasured pathways of exposure; the major impact of active smoking on exposure to benzene and styrene was detected in this way. Following the earlier field studies, a series of chamber studies have provided estimates of several important physiological parameters. Among these are the fraction, f, of the inhaled chemical that is exhaled under steady-state conditions and the residence times. tau i in several body compartments, which may be associated with the blood (or liver), organs, muscle, and fat. Most of the targeted VOCs appear to have similar residence times of a few minutes, 30 min, several hours, and several days in the respective tissue groups. Knowledge of these parameters can be helpful in estimating body burden from exposure or vice versa and in planning environmental studies, particularly in setting times to monitor breath in studies of the variation with time of body burden. Improvements in breath methods have made it possible to study short-term peak exposure situations such as filling a gas tank or taking a shower in contaminated water. PMID:8933027

Wallace, L; Buckley, T; Pellizzari, E; Gordon, S

1996-01-01

71

Molecular Models of Volatile Organic Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This month's Featured Molecules come from the Report from Other Journals column, Nature: Our Atmosphere in the Year of Planet Earth, and the summary found there of the paper by Lelieveld et al. (1, 2) Added to the collection are several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted by a variety of plants. The term VOCs is a common one in environmental chemistry, and is interpreted quite broadly, typically referring to any organic molecule with a vapor pressure sufficiently high to allow for part-per-billion levels in the atmosphere. Common VOCs include methane (the most prevalent VOC), benzene and benzene derivatives, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and many others. The source may be natural, as in the case of the plant emissions, or anthropogenic, as in the case of a molecule such as the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).The oxidation of isoprene in the atmosphere has been a source of interest for many years. Several primary oxidation products are included in the molecule collection, although a number of isomeric forms are also possible (3).The area of VOCs provides innumerable topics for students research papers and projects at all levels of the curriculum from high-school chemistry through the undergraduate courses in chemistry and environmental science. Along the way students have the opportunity for exposure to fields such as epidemiology and toxicology, that may be new to them, but are of increasing importance in the environmental sciences. The MTBE story is an interesting one for students to discover, as it once again emphasizes the role that unintended consequences play in life. An exploration of the sources, structures, reactivity, health and environmental effects and ultimate fate of various VOCs reinforces in students minds just how interconnected the chemistry of the environment is, a lesson that bears repeating frequently.

72

75 FR 2090 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...applicability of Indiana's approved volatile organic compound (VOC) automobile...refinishing coatings or coating components that sell or distribute these...recordkeeping requirements, Volatile organic compounds. Dated:...

2010-01-14

73

Analysis of the volatile organic compounds in seized cocaine hydrochloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile organic compounds in seized cocaine hydrochloride were analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC\\/MS). Two different methods of sampling volatile compounds were investigated. In the first method, 20, 50, and 100 mg samples of seized cocaine hydrochloride were loaded into 2-inch glass tubes. The headspace of each tube was then purged with ultra high purity (UHP) helium and

Lindy E. Dejarme; Sara J. Lawhon; Prasenjit Ray; Michael R. Kuhlman

1997-01-01

74

Modeling the transport of volatile organics in variably saturated media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of the processes of dissolution, volatilization, and gas-liquid partitioning in porous media is very limited. The few models which attempt to characterize the transport of volatile organics such as petroleum products and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents in variably saturated media all assume that mass transfer processes are at equilibrium. In addition, gas phase advection is neglected by assuming that

B. E. Sleep; J. F. Sykes

1989-01-01

75

Secondary organic aerosol from biogenic volatile organic compound mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from the ozonolysis of a Siberian fir needle oil (SFNO), a Canadian fir needle oil (CFNO), and several SOA precursor mixtures containing reactive and non-reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. The use of precursor mixtures more completely describes the atmosphere where many VOCs exist. The addition of non-reactive VOCs such as bornyl acetate, camphene, and borneol had very little to no effect on SOA yields. The oxidation of VOC mixtures with VOC mass percentages similar to the SFNO produced SOA yields that became more similar to the SOA yield from SFNO as the complexity and concentration of VOCs within the mixture became more similar to overall SFNO composition. The SOA yield produced by the oxidation of CFNO was within the error of the SOA yield produced by the oxidation of SFNO at a similar VOC concentration. The SOA yields from SFNO were modeled using the volatility basis set (VBS), which predicts the SOA yields for a given mass concentration of mixtures containing similar VOCs.

Hatfield, Meagan L.; Huff Hartz, Kara E.

2011-04-01

76

Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile Organic Compound Analysis in Istanbul Ö. Çapraz1, A. Deniz1,3, A. Ozturk2, S. Incecik1, H. Toros1 and, M. Coskun1 (1) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Department of Meteorology, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (2) Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical, Chemical Engineering, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. (3) Marmara Clean Air Center, Ministry of Environment and Urbanization, Ni?anta??, 34365, ?stanbul, Turkey. One of the major problems of megacities is air pollution. Therefore, investigations of air quality are increasing and supported by many institutions in recent years. Air pollution in Istanbul contains many components that originate from a wide range of industrial, heating, motor vehicle, and natural emissions sources. VOC, originating mainly from automobile exhaust, secondhand smoke and building materials, are one of these compounds containing some thousands of chemicals. In spite of the risks to human health, relatively little is known about the levels of VOC in Istanbul. In this study, ambient air quality measurements of 32 VOCs including hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and carbonyls were conducted in Ka??thane (Golden Horn) region in Istanbul during the winter season of 2011 in order to develop the necessary scientific framework for the subsequent developments. Ka??thane creek valley is the source part of the Golden Horn and one of the most polluted locations in Istanbul due to its topographical form and pollutant sources in the region. In this valley, horizontal and vertical atmospheric motions are very weak. The target compounds most commonly found were benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl benzene. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons ranged between 1.0 and 10.0 parts per billion, by volume (ppbv). Ambient air levels of halogenated hydrocarbons appeared to exhibit unique spatial variations and no single factor seemed to explain trends for this group of compounds. N-octane, 3-methylheptane, n-nonane, 2,3,4-trimethylpentane and n-hexane parameters ranged between 3 ppbv and maximum value of 10 ppbv. The other VOC parameters are measured below 3 ppbv value. At participating urban locations for the year of data considered, levels of carbonyls were higher than the level of the other organic compound groups, suggesting that emissions from motor vehicles and photochemical reactions strongly in?uence ambient air concentrations of carbonyls. Of the most prevalent carbonyls, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the dominant compounds, ranging from 1.5-7.4 ppbv for formaldehyde, to 0.8-2.7 ppbv for acetaldehyde. Keywords: Air quality, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), industry, meteorology, urban, Ka??thane, ?stanbul. Acknowledgment: This work was part of the TUJJB-TUMEHAP-01-10 and Turkish Scientific and Technical Research Council Project No: 109Y132.

?apraz, Ö.; Deniz, A.; Öztürk, A.; Incecik, S.; Toros, H.; Co?kun, M.

2012-04-01

77

PROJECTION METHODOLOGY FOR FUTURE STATE LEVEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES (VERSION 1.8)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents the model framework used to estimate state level and national future volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and control costs for stationary industrial and utility sources. The framework involves a projection approach using the 1980 National Acid Precipitat...

78

Measuring the atmospheric organic aerosol volatility distribution: a theoretical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic compounds represent a significant fraction of submicrometer atmospheric aerosol mass. Even if most of these compounds are semi-volatile in atmospheric concentrations, the ambient organic aerosol volatility is quite uncertain. The most common volatility measurement method relies on the use of a thermodenuder (TD). The aerosol passes through a heated tube where its more volatile components evaporate, leaving the less volatile components behind in the particulate phase. The typical result of a thermodenuder measurement is the mass fraction remaining (MFR), which depends, among other factors, on the organic aerosol (OA) vaporization enthalpy and the accommodation coefficient. We use a new method combining forward modeling, introduction of "experimental" error, and inverse modeling with error minimization for the interpretation of TD measurements. The OA volatility distribution, its effective vaporization enthalpy, the mass accommodation coefficient and the corresponding uncertainty ranges are calculated. Our results indicate that existing TD-based approaches quite often cannot estimate reliably the OA volatility distribution, leading to large uncertainties, since there are many different combinations of the three properties that can lead to similar thermograms. We propose an improved experimental approach combining TD and isothermal dilution measurements. We evaluate this experimental approach using the same model, and show that it is suitable for studies of OA volatility in the lab and the field.

Karnezi, E.; Riipinen, I.; Pandis, S. N.

2014-09-01

79

Measuring the atmospheric organic aerosol volatility distribution: a theoretical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic compounds represent a significant fraction of submicrometer atmospheric aerosol mass. Even if most of these compounds are semi-volatile in atmospheric concentrations, the ambient organic aerosol volatility is quite uncertain. The most common volatility measurement method relies on the use of a thermodenuder (TD). The aerosol passes through a heated tube where its more volatile components evaporate leaving the less volatile behind in the particulate phase. The typical result of a~thermodenuder measurement is the mass fraction remaining (MFR), which depends among other factors on the organic aerosol (OA) vaporization enthalpy and the accommodation coefficient. We use a new method combining forward modeling, introduction of "experimental" error and inverse modeling with error minimization for the interpretation of TD measurements. The OA volatility distribution, its effective vaporization enthalpy, the mass accommodation coefficient and the corresponding uncertainty ranges are calculated. Our results indicate that existing TD-based approaches quite often cannot estimate reliably the OA volatility distribution, leading to large uncertainties, since there are many different combinations of the three properties that can lead to similar thermograms. We propose an improved experimental approach combining TD and isothermal dilution measurements. We evaluate this experimental approach using the same model and show that it is suitable for studies of OA volatility in the lab and the field.

Karnezi, E.; Riipinen, I.; Pandis, S. N.

2014-01-01

80

Measurement of volatile organic compounds inside automobiles.  

PubMed

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the types and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the passenger cabin of selected sedan automobiles under static (parked, unventilated) and specified conditions of operation (i.e., driving the vehicle using air conditioning alone, vent mode alone, or driver's window half open). Data were collected on five different passenger sedan vehicles from three major automobile manufacturers. Airborne concentrations were assessed using 90-min time-weighted average (TWA) samples under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method IP-1B to assess individual VOC compounds and total VOCs (TVOCs) calibrated to toluene. Static vehicle testing demonstrated TVOC levels of approximately 400-800 microg/m(3) at warm interior vehicle temperatures (approximately 80 degrees F), whereas TVOCs at least fivefold higher were observed under extreme heat conditions (e.g., up to 145 degrees F). The profile of most prevalent individual VOC compounds varied considerably according to vehicle brand, age, and interior temperature tested, with predominant compounds including styrene, toluene, and 8- to 12-carbon VOCs. TVOC levels under varied operating conditions (and ventilation) were generally four- to eightfold lower (at approximately 50-160 microg/m(3)) than the static vehicle measurements under warm conditions, with the lowest measured levels generally observed in the trials with the driver's window half open. These data indicate that while relatively high concentrations of certain VOCs can be measured inside static vehicles under extreme heat conditions, normal modes of operation rapidly reduce the inside-vehicle VOC concentrations even when the air conditioning is set on recirculation mode. PMID:12595882

Fedoruk, Marion J; Kerger, Brent D

2003-01-01

81

COMPACT, CONTINUOUS MONITORING FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Improved methods for onsite measurement of multiple volatile organic compounds are needed for process control, monitoring, and remediation. This Phase I SBIR project sets forth an optical measurement method that meets these needs. The proposed approach provides an instantaneous m...

82

GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FORM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes a global inventory anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions that includes a separate inventory for each of seven pollutant groups--paraffins, olefins, aromatics, formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds....

83

Micropatterned Polymeric Gratings as Chemoresponsive Volatile Organic Compound  

E-print Network

Micropatterned Polymeric Gratings as Chemoresponsive Volatile Organic Compound Sensors or physical means, including but not limited to covalent, ionic, van der Waals, or hydrogen- patterning of a "receptor" material, regardless of atomic or molecular structure, into a periodic array

84

IMPROVEMENT IN AIR TOXICS METHODS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Innovative and customized monitoring methods for air toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are being developed for applications in exposure and trends monitoring. This task addresses the following applications of specific interest: o Contributions to EPA Regional Monit...

85

40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On and...

2014-07-01

86

GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development of a global inventory of anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. t includes VOC estimates for seven classes of VOCs: paraffins, olefins, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and ...

87

Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to <2m above ground level. Emissions at leaf scale are well documented and widely presented, and are not discussed here. Instead we describe some details of recent research on rhizosphere bVOCs, and bVOCs associated with pollination of flowers. Although bVOC emissions from soil surfaces are small, bVOCs are exuded by roots of some plant species, and can be extracted from decaying litter. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the rhizosphere provide a specialised carbon source for micro-organisms, helping to define the micro-organism community structure, and impacting on nutrient cycles which are partly controlled by microorganisms. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the soil system could also affect the aboveground structure of ecosystems because of their role in plant defence strategies and as mediating chemicals in allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (?-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, ?-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the degradation rate in soil of the persistant organic pollutants, likely acting as analogues for the cometabo-lism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Flowers of a ginger species (Alpinia kwangsiensis) and a fig species (Ficus hispida) showed different bVOC signals pre- and post pollination. For Ficus hispida, there are three floral stages of a fig-wasp dependency mechanism: receptive, post pollinator and interfloral. Of 28 compounds detected, transcaryophyllene with trans-?-farnesene were the most important at the receptor stage, trans-caryophyllene was the most abundant at the post-pollinator stage, and isoprene was the most abundant in the interfloral stage. Alpinia kwangsiensis presents two morphologies for the reproductive parts of the flower. The "anaflexistyle" morphology has the flower style lowered in the morning and raised in the afternoon. This is reversed for the "cataflexistyle" morphology. The bVOC mixture emitted by each morphology in morning and afternoon was complex. However for compounds showing a difference (cis-ocimene and Z + E epoxy -ocimene), the emissions from the anaflexistyle were greater than from the cataflexistyle, and were greater in the afternoon compared with the morning emissions. Where large flowering plant species are abundant, big changes in monoterpene emissions at < 2m above ground level over relatively small periods of time during pollination are likely to be missed in larger scale integrated flux measurements.

Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.

2012-12-01

88

Volatile organic compound sources for Southern Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have several sources, both biogenic and anthropogenic. Emissions of biogenic VOCs in a global scale are estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic ones. However, in densely populated areas and during winter time the anthropogenic VOC emissions dominate over the biogenic ones. The aim of this study was to clarify potential local sources and source areas of VOCs in different seasons. Diurnal behaviour in winter and spring were also compared at two different sites in Finland: SMEAR II and III (Station for Measuring Ecosystem - Atmosphere Relations). SMEAR II is a rural site located in Hyytiälä in Southern Finland 220 km North-West from Helsinki whereas SMEAR III is background urban site located 5 km from the downtown of Helsinki. The volume mixing ratios of VOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, Ionicon Analytik GmbH, Austria) during years 2006-2011. Other trace gases such as CO, NOXand SO2 were also measured in both sites and used for source analysis. Source areas for long term VOC measurements were investigated with trajectory analysis and sources for local and regional concentrations were determined by Unmix multivariate receptor model. Forest fires affect air quality and the biggest smoke plumes can be seen in satellite images and even hinder visibility in the plume areas. They provide temporally and spatially well-defined sources that can be used to verify source area estimates. During the measurement periods two different forest fire episodes with several hotspots, happened in Russia. Forest fires which showed up in these measurements were in 2006 near the border of Finland in Vyborg area and 2010 in Moscow area. Forest fire episodes were clearly observed in trajectory analysis for benzene, toluene and methanol and also CO and NOX. In addition to event sources continuous source areas were determined. Anthropogenic local sources seemed to be dominant during winter in both sites. However during spring biogenic influence increased. In addition to source analysis this behaviour was visible in enhanced diurnal cycles of VOCs (Patokoski et al., 2014, in press). We will present important sources and source areas for Southern Finland's concentrations. References: Patokoski, J., Ruuskanen, T.M., Hellén, H., Taipale, R., Grönholm, T., Kajos, M.K., Petäjä, T., Hakola, H., Kulmala, M. & Rinne, J., 2014. Winter to spring transition and diurnal variation of VOCs in Finland at an urban background site and a rural site. Boreal Env. Res. 19. In press.

Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Kajos, Maija K.; Taipale, Risto; Rantala, Pekka; Aalto, Juho; Ryyppö, Timo; Hakola, Hannele; Rinne, Janne

2014-05-01

89

FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

2003-07-01

90

Microorganisms for producing organic acids  

DOEpatents

Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

2014-09-30

91

Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) have been assigned environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation where two important members dimethyl sulfide (CH3)2 S, DMS, and methanethiol, CH3SH, MT, of VOSC group are involved.

Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

2004-01-01

92

Fate of Volatile Organic Compounds in Constructed Wastewater Treatment Wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fate of volatile organic compounds was evaluated in a wastewater-dependent constructed wetland near Phoenix, AZ, using field measurements and solute transport modeling. Numerically based volatilization rates were determined using inverse modeling techniques and hydraulic parameters established by sodium bromide tracer experiments. Theoretical volatilization rates were calculated from the two-film method incorporating physicochemical properties and environmental conditions. Additional analyses were conducted using graphically determined volatilization rates based on field measurements. Transport (with first-order removal) simulations were performed using a range of volatilization rates and were evaluated with respect to field concentrations. The inverse and two-film reactive transport simulations demonstrated excellent agreement with measured concentrations for 1,4-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, dichloromethane, and trichloromethane and fair agreement for dibromochloromethane, bromo-dichloromethane, and toluene. Wetland removal efficiencies from inlet to outlet ranged from 63% to 87% for target compounds.

Keefe, S.H.; Barber, L.B.; Runkel, R.L.; Ryan, J.N.

2004-01-01

93

Recovery of organic acids  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

2009-10-13

94

Recovery of organic acids  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

2011-11-01

95

Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft  

E-print Network

A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the ...

Herndon, S. C.

96

Reduction of volatile acidity of acidic wines by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.  

PubMed

Excessive volatile acidity in wines is a major problem and is still prevalent because available solutions are nevertheless unsatisfactory, namely, blending the filter-sterilized acidic wine with other wines of lower volatile acidity or using reverse osmosis. We have previously explored the use of an empirical biological deacidification procedure to lower the acetic acid content of wines. This winemaker's enological practice, which consists in refermentation associated with acetic acid consumption by yeasts, is performed by mixing the acidic wine with freshly crushed grapes, musts, or marc from a finished wine fermentation. We have shown that the commercial strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae S26 is able to decrease the volatile acidity of acidic wines with a volatile acidity higher than 1.44 g?L(-1) acetic acid, with no detrimental impact on wine aroma. In this study, we aimed to optimize the immobilization of S26 cells in alginate beads for the bioreduction of volatile acidity of acidic wines. We found that S26 cells immobilized in double-layer alginate-chitosan beads could reduce the volatile acidity of an acidic wine (1.1 g?L(-1) acetic acid, 12.5 % (v/v) ethanol, pH 3.12) by 28 and 62 % within 72 and 168 h, respectively, associated with a slight decrease in ethanol concentration (0.7 %). Similar volatile acidity removal efficiencies were obtained in medium with high glucose concentration (20 % w/v), indicating that this process may also be useful in the deacidification of grape musts. We, therefore, show that immobilized S. cerevisiae S26 cells in double-layer beads are an efficient alternative to improve the quality of wines with excessive volatile acidity. PMID:23361840

Vilela, A; Schuller, D; Mendes-Faia, A; Côrte-Real, M

2013-06-01

97

Effects of pH control and concentration on microbial oil production from Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in the effluent of a low-cost organic waste fermentation system producing volatile fatty acids.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of applying volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced from low-cost organic waste to the major carbon sources of microalgae cultivation for highly efficient biofuel production. An integrated process that consists of a sewage sludge fermentation system producing VFAs (SSFV) and mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was operated to produce microbial lipids economically. The effluents from the SSFV diluted to different concentrations at the level of 100%, 50%, and 15% were prepared for the C. vulgaris cultivation and the highest biomass productivity (433±11.9mg/L/d) was achieved in the 100% culture controlling pH at 7.0. The harvested biomass included lipid contents ranging from 12.87% to 20.01% under the three different effluent concentrations with and without pH control. The composition of fatty acids from C. vulgaris grown on the effluents from the SSFV complied with the requirements of high-quality biodiesel. These results demonstrated that VFAs produced from the SSFV are favorable carbon sources for cultivating C. vulgaris. PMID:25280600

Cho, Hyun Uk; Kim, Young Mo; Choi, Yun-Nam; Xu, Xu; Shin, Dong Yun; Park, Jong Moon

2015-05-01

98

Analysis of volatile organic compounds from illicit cocaine samples  

SciTech Connect

Detection of illicit cocaine hydrochloride shipments can be improved if there is a greater understanding of the identity and quantity of volatile compounds present. This study provides preliminary data concerning the volatile organic compounds detected in a limited Set of cocaine hydrochloride samples. In all cases, cocaine was one of the major volatile compounds detected. Other tropeines were detected in almost all samples. Low concentrations of compounds that may be residues of processing solvents were observed in some samples. The equilibrium emissivity of. cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride was investigated and a value of 83 parts-per-trillion was determined.

Robins, W.H.; Wright, B.W.

1994-07-01

99

FIELD VALIDATION OF THE VOLATILE ORGANIC SAMPLING TRAIN (VOST) PROTOCOL  

EPA Science Inventory

With the development of the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) Protocol (February 1984) to measure organic emissions from hazardous waste incinerators, a wide variety of compounds have been collected and analyzed. Because its use is currently being recommended by regulatory a...

100

Bioconcentration factors for volatile organic compounds in vegetation.  

PubMed

Samples of air and leaves were taken at the University of Nevada [Formula: see text] Las Vegas campus and analyzed for volatile organic compounds using vacuum distillation coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The data were used to estimate the bioconcentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and to characterize the equilibration of VOCs between the leaves and air. The bioconcentration of volatiles in the leaves of some species can be predicted using the partition coefficients between air and octanol (K(oa)) and only considering VOC absorption in the lipid fraction of leaves. For these leaves, the bioconcentration factors agreed with existing models. Leaves of some species displayed a bioconcentration of volatiles that greatly exceeded theory. These hyperbioconcentration leaves also contain appreciable concentrations of monoterpenes, suggesting that a terpenoid compartment should be considered for the bioconcentration of organic compounds in leaves. Adding an additional "terpenoid" compartment should improve the characterization of volatile organic compounds in the environment. The uptake of VOCs from air by leaves is rapid, and the equilibration rates are seen to be quicker for compounds that have higher vapor pressures. The release of VOCs from the leaves of plants is slower for hyperbioconcentration leaves. PMID:21644617

Hiatt, M H

1998-03-01

101

Volatile organic compounds at swine facilities: a critical review.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are regulated aerial pollutants that have environmental and health concerns. Swine operations produce and emit a complex mixture of VOCs with a wide range of molecular weights and a variety of physicochemical properties. Significant progress has been made in this area since the first experiment on VOCs at a swine facility in the early 1960s. A total of 47 research institutions in 15 North American, European, and Asian countries contributed to an increasing number of scientific publications. Nearly half of the research papers were published by U.S. institutions. Investigated major VOC sources included air inside swine barns, in headspaces of manure storages and composts, in open atmosphere above swine wastewater, and surrounding swine farms. They also included liquid swine manure and wastewater, and dusts inside and outside swine barns. Most of the sample analyses have been focusing on identification of VOC compounds and their relationship with odors. More than 500 VOCs have been identified. About 60% and 10% of the studies contributed to the quantification of VOC concentrations and emissions, respectively. The largest numbers of VOC compounds with reported concentrations in a single experimental study were 82 in air, 36 in manure, and 34 in dust samples. The relatively abundant VOC compounds that were quantified in at least two independent studies included acetic acid, butanoic acid (butyric acid), dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, iso-valeric, p-cresol, propionic acid, skatole, trimethyl amine, and valeric acid in air. They included acetic acid, p-cresol, iso-butyric acid, butyric acid, indole, phenol, propionic acid, iso-valeric acid, and skatole in manure. In dust samples, they were acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, p-cresol, hexanal, and decanal. Swine facility VOCs were preferentially bound to smaller-size dusts. Identification and quantification of VOCs were restricted by using instruments based on gas Chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) with different detectors most of which require time-consuming procedures to obtain results. Various methodologies and technologies in sampling, sample preparation, and sample analysis have been used. Only four publications reported using GC based analyzers and PTR-MS (proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry) that allowed continuous VOC measurement. Because of this, the majority of experimental studies were only performed on limited numbers of air, manure, or dust samples. Many aerial VOCs had concentrations that were too low to be identified by the GC peaks. Although VOCs emitted from swine facilities have environmental concerns, only a few studies investigated VOC emission rates, which ranged from 3.0 to 176.5mgd(-1)kg(-1) pig at swine finishing barns and from 2.3 to 45.2gd(-1)m(-2) at manure storages. Similar to the other pollutants, spatial and temporal variations of aerial VOC concentrations and emissions existed and were significantly affected by manure management systems, barn structural designs, and ventilation rates. Scientific research in this area has been mainly driven by odor nuisance, instead of environment or health concerns. Compared with other aerial pollutants in animal agriculture, the current scientific knowledge about VOCs at swine facilities is still very limited and far from sufficient to develop reliable emission factors. PMID:22682363

Ni, Ji-Qin; Robarge, Wayne P; Xiao, Changhe; Heber, Albert J

2012-10-01

102

78 FR 11583 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans Tennessee: Revisions to Volatile Organic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...definition of ``Volatile Organic Compound'' (VOC...on tropospheric ozone formation. Tropospheric ozone...Compounds of carbon (or organic compounds) have different...requirements, Volatile organic compounds. Dated...term ``particulate matter emissions'' at...

2013-02-19

103

78 FR 29032 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans Tennessee: Revisions to Volatile Organic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...definition of ``Volatile Organic Compound'' (VOC...on tropospheric ozone formation. The compounds were...Compounds of carbon (or organic compounds) have different...requirements, Volatile organic compounds. Dated...term ``particulate matter emissions'' at...

2013-05-17

104

Fatty Acid Engineering 2011 p. 1 Lipid signals: jasmonic acid & green leaf volatiles  

E-print Network

to prime other inducible defense #12;Fatty Acid Engineering 2011 p. 2 Fatty Acids and Genetic EngineeringFatty Acid Engineering 2011 p. 1 Lipid signals: jasmonic acid & green leaf volatiles i. Jasmonic occurrence of modified 'specialty' FAs - genetic transformation technology available (NB: oil seeds amenable

Constabel, Peter

105

MAGNESIUM ABSORPTION IN THE CCUM OF RATS RELATED TO VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS PRODUCTION  

E-print Network

MAGNESIUM ABSORPTION IN THE C�CUM OF RATS RELATED TO VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS PRODUCTION Y. RAYSSIGUIER RELATIONS ENTRE L'ABSORPTION C,4ECALE DE MAGNESIUM CHEZ LE RAT ET LA PRODUCTION D'ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS du caecum, pH, acides gras volatils, activité microbienne. Introduction The mode of magnesium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively.

The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

2006-01-01

107

Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were acetic acid, furylaldehyde, methyl acetate, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 mgC/gC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and the pyrolysis of vegetation heated under low turbulence conditions produces concentrations near leaves that reach the lower limits of flammability and the emissions may be important in the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

2005-09-01

108

AERATION TO REMOVE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM GROUND WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The interim report presents general information on the use of aeration to remove volatile organic compounds from drinking water for public health reasons. The report illustrates the types of aerators, shows where they are being used, presents a means of estimating aeration perfor...

109

Speciation of volatile organic compounds from poultry production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The air consent agreement between EPA and large animal feeding operations (AFO) is designed to determine at what level compounds are being emitted from these facilities. However, the methodology used for quantifying total non-methane hydrocarbons and speciation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) n...

110

CHARACTERIZATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND PROFILES OF BACTERIAL THREAT AGENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles are potentially an underutilized class of threat agent signatures that may be exploited in the identification of threat agents. In the present study we first focused on determining if VOC profiles collected from liquid culture headspace could be utilized to differentiate between bacterium of different genus, in this case Bacillus and Yersinia. The second focus

Jennifer Horsmon; Kathy Crouse

111

EFFECTS IN HUMANS OF A VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MIXTURE: SENSORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Time-course actions for symptoms of the sick building syndrome were derived from 66 healthy males exposed to clean air and a volatile organic (VOC) mixture in separate sessions. he mixture contained 22 VOCs (25 mg/m3 total concentration) commonly found air-borne in new or recentl...

112

Destruction of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Catalytic Oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic oxidation is an air pollution control technique in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and vapor-phase air toxics in an air emission stream are oxidized with the help of a catalyst Design of catalytic systems for control of point source emissions is based on stream-specific characteristics and desired control efficiency. This paper discusses the key emission stream characteristics and VOC

Michael Kosusko; Carlos M. Nunez

1990-01-01

113

Effects of airborne volatile organic compounds on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air have shown that average concentrations are very much smaller than those used in laboratory experiments designed to study the effects of VOCs on plants. However, maximum hourly concentrations of some VOCs can be 100 times larger than the average, even in rural air. Experimental studies have rarely extended for longer than

J. N. Cape

2003-01-01

114

Volatile organic compounds in Gulf of Mexico sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compounds (VOC), concentrations and compositions were documented for estuarine, coastal, shelf, slope, and deep water sediments from the Gulf of Mexico. VOC were measured (detection limit >0.01 ppb) using a closed-loop stripping apparatus with gas chromatography (GC) and flame ionization, flame photometric, and mass spectrometric detectors. The five primary sources of Gulf of Mexico sediment VOC are: (1)

1988-01-01

115

Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Photochemical smog is a major air pollution problem and a significant cause of premature death in the U.S. Smog forms in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are emitted primarily from industry and motor vehicles in the U.S. However, dairy farms may be an important source in so...

116

EXPOSURE OF HUMANS TO VOLATILE ORGANIC MIXTURE. III. INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE  

EPA Science Inventory

A set of symptoms has been described during the past two decades which has been called the "sick building syndrome." hese symptoms include eye, nose, and throat irritation; headache; mental fatigue; and respiratory distress. t is likely that volatile organic compounds (VOC) prese...

117

MODERN CONTINUOUS SAMPLERS FOR VOLATILE ORGANICS AND INORGANIC GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

The manuscript discusses EPA methods development in two areas: VOC monitoring and monitoring of dry depositon components. Whole air collection over periods of up to one day in specially prepared stainless steel canisters is beginning to be used routinely for volatile organic comp...

118

EMISSIONS OF REACTIVE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the measurement of emission factors for reactive volatile organic compounds (VOC) from 43 utility boilers firing bituminous coal, lignite, oil, and natural gas. The boilers ranged in size from 9 to 910 MW. The median reactive VOC emission factors were ...

119

Measuring Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Silage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are considered to be important precursors to smog and ozone production. An experimental protocol was developed to obtain undisturbed silage samples from silage storages. Samples were placed in a wind tunnel where temperature, humidity, and air flow were cont...

120

Volatile organic compound emissions from dairy facilities in central California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dairy facilities are thought to be an important contributor to high ozone levels in central California, but emissions inventories from these sources contain significant uncertainties. In this work, VOC emissions were measured at two central Califor...

121

Predicting the emission of volatile organic compounds from silage systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major VOC emission source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols wit...

122

Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative identification of sorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on biochar was conducted by headspace thermal desorption coupled to capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. VOCs may have a mechanistic role influencing plant and microbial responses to biochar amendments, since VOCs can directly inhibit\\/stimulate microbial and plant processes. Over 70 biochars encompassing a variety of parent feedstocks and manufacturing processes were evaluated and

Kurt A. Spokas; Jeffrey M. Novak; Catherine E. Stewart; Keri B. Cantrell; Minori Uchimiya; Martin G. DuSaire; Kyoung S. Ro

2011-01-01

123

SPATIALLY RESOLVED MONITORING FOR VOLATILE ORGANICS USING REMOTE SECTOR SAMPLING  

EPA Science Inventory

Sector sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) employs an integrated sampling scheme coupled to a wind direction sensor. hole air is collected at a constant rate into one of two canisters depending upon wind direction; when the wind comes from the suspected emissions area,...

124

Destruction of volatile organic compounds via catalytic incineration (journal version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives results of an investigation of the effect of catalytic incinerator design and operation on the destruction of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs), both singly and in mixtures. A range of operating and design parameters were tested on a wide variety of compounds and compound mixtures. Conclusions of the study, presented here as applying only to the test

M. A. Palazzolo; B. A. Tichenor

1987-01-01

125

Destruction of volatile organic compounds via catalytic incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory conducts and sponsors research on technology to reduce or eliminate emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from industrial\\/commercial sources. Recently, a study on the use of catalytic oxidation to destroy VOC's (including potentially toxic air pollutants) was completed by Radian Corporation under an EPA contract. The study was designed to investigate the effect

B. A. Tichenor; M. A. Palazzolo

1985-01-01

126

DESTRUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS VIA CATALYTIC INCINERATION (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an investigation of the effect of catalytic incinerator design and operation on the destruction of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs), both singly and in mixtures. A range of operating and design parameters were tested on a wide variety of compo...

127

DESTRUCTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS VIA CATALYTIC INCINERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an investigation of the effect of catalytic incinerator design and operation the destruction of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs), both singly and in mixtures. A range of operating and design parameters were tested on a wide variety of compound...

128

Destruction of volatile organic compounds via catalytic incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives results of an investigation of the effect of catalytic-incinerator design and operation the destruction of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs), both singly and in mixtures. A range of operating and design parameters were tested on a wide variety of compounds and compound mixtures. Conclusions of the study, presented here as applying only to the test catalyst and

B. A. Tichenor; M. A. Palazzolo

1985-01-01

129

FIELD-DEPLOYABLE MONITORS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile organic compounds in ambient air are usually estimated by trapping them from air or collecting whole air samples and returning them to a laboratory for analysis by gas chromatography using selective detection. ata do not appear for several days, during which sample integ...

130

LEAVES AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...

131

NATIONAL AMBIENT VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOCS) DATA BASE UPDATE, DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Data on the observed concentrations of three hundred twenty (320) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were compiled, critically evaluated, and assembled into a relational data base. Ambient (i.e., outdoor) measurements, indoor data, and data collected with personal monitors are inc...

132

FIELD STRATEGY FOR SORTING VOLATILE ORGANICS INTO SOURCE RELATED GROUPS  

EPA Science Inventory

A monitoring strategy has been developed to use fixed site ambient air monitoring results for determining the number and composition of dispersed source emissions of volatile organics. he procedure involves the interpretation of a sequence of ambient ir gas chromatograms generate...

133

A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical assessments of global air quality and potential changes in atmospheric chemical constituents require estimates of the surface fluxes of a variety of trace gas species. We have developed a global model to estimate emissions of volatile organic compounds from natural sources (NVOC). Methane is not considered here and has been reviewed in detail elsewhere. The model has a highly

Alex Guenther; C. Nicholas Hewitt; David Erickson; Ray Fall; Chris Geron; Tom Graedel; Peter Harley; Lee Klinger; Manuel Lerdau; W. A. McKay; Tom Pierce; Bob Scholes; Rainer Steinbrecher; Raja Tallamraju; John Taylor; Pat Zimmerman

1995-01-01

134

MICROBIAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES AND EXPOSURE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents the results from a study that examined microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions from six fungi and one bacterial species (Streptomyces spp.) commonly found in indoor environments. Data are presented on peak emission rates from inoculated agar plate...

135

Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), necessary reactants for photochemical smog formation, are emitted from numerous sources. Limited available data suggest that dairy farms emit VOCs with cattle feed, primarily silage, being the primary source. Process-based models of VOC transfer within and from si...

136

REACTIVITY/VOLATILITY CLASSIFICATION OF SELECTED ORGANIC CHEMICALS: EXISTING DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

This study deals with the reactivity/volatility classification of some 118 organic chemicals specified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The classification system has been developed based on existing and available information. It was clear at the outset that lit...

137

Flammability of gas mixtures containing volatile organic compounds and hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of some current methods for predicting the flammability of gas mixtures containing hydrogen and flammable or nonflammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. The specific VOCs tested were toluene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 2-butanone, and carbon tetrachloride. The lower flammability limits (LFLs) of gas mixtures containing equal molar quantities of the components were determined

Kevin J. Liekhus; Isaac A. Zlochower; Kenneth L. Cashdollar; Sinisa M. Djordjevic; Cindy A. Loehr

2000-01-01

138

PHOTOTHERMAL DESTRUCTION OF THE VAPOR OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The contamination of subsurface soil and groundwater by volatile organic compounds (VOCS) is a pervasive problem in the United States. n-situ soil vapor extraction (SVE) and ex-situ thermal desorption are the most adapted technologies for the remediation of contaminated soil whil...

139

Qualitative analysis of volatile organic compounds on biochar  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Qualitative identification of sorbed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on biochar was conducted by headspace thermal desorption coupled to capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry. VOCs may have a mechanistic role influencing plant and microbial responses to biochar amendments, since VOCs ca...

140

History of Martian volatiles - Implications for organic synthesis.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical reconstruction of the history of Martian volatiles indicates that Mars probably possessed a substantial reducing atmosphere at the outset of its history, and that its present tenuous and more oxidized atmosphere is the result of extensive chemical evolution. As a consequence, it is probable that Martian atmospheric chemical conditions, now hostile with respect to abiotic organic synthesis in the gas phase, were initially favorable. Evidence indicating the chronology and degradational history of Martian surface features, surface mineralogy, bulk volatile content, internal mass distribution, and thermal history suggests that Mars catastrophically developed a substantial reducing atmosphere as the result of rapid accretion.

Fanale, F. P.

1971-01-01

141

Volatile organic compounds from garden waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 170 compounds were identified in the headspace or liquid exudate from garden waste. Typical for microbiological growth were branched and straight chain alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters C2–C8. Several of the substances have been identified in early studies of compost For some waste samples the organosulfur compound concentration (C1 and C3 mono-, di- and trisulfides) was ca. 10 mg\\/m3

Ken Wilkins; Kjeld Larsen

1996-01-01

142

Can volatile organic compounds be markers of sea salt?  

PubMed

Sea salt is a handmade food product that is obtained by evaporation of seawater in saltpans. During the crystallisation process, organic compounds from surroundings can be incorporated into sea salt crystals. The aim of this study is to search for potential volatile markers of sea salt. Thus, sea salts from seven north-east Atlantic Ocean locations (France, Portugal, Continental Spain, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde) were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 165 compounds were detected, ranging from 32 to 71 compounds per salt. The volatile composition revealed the variability and individuality of each salt, and a set of ten compounds were detected in all samples. From these, seven are carotenoid-derived compounds that can be associated with the typical natural surroundings of ocean hypersaline environment. These ten compounds are proposed as potential volatile markers of sea salt. PMID:25236204

Silva, Isabel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Barros, António S; Marriott, Philip J; Rocha, Sílvia M

2015-02-15

143

75 FR 82363 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound Emission Control Measures...lithographic and letterpress printing volatile organic compound (VOC) rule for approval...press, with potential VOC ink oil emissions from the...

2010-12-30

144

LOCATING VOLATILE ORGANIC PLUMES ENTERING WATER BODIES USING PASSIVE VAPOR DIFFUSION SAMPLERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many water bodies in New England are impacted by volatile organic contaminated groundwater intrusions. To determine the health and ecological impacts of these intrusions, it is important to locate fracture zones that transport groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compou...

145

75 FR 57412 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans Alabama: Volatile Organic Compounds  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Implementation Plans Alabama: Volatile Organic Compounds AGENCY: Environmental...definition of ``volatile organic compounds'' (VOCs) found...Planning Branch, Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management Division...Air Planning Branch, Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management...

2010-09-21

146

ABSORPTION DES ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS DANS L'OMASUM DE LA VACHE  

E-print Network

ABSORPTION DES ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS DANS L'OMASUM DE LA VACHE C. DARDILLAT Station de rôle du feuillet et ses capacités d'absorption sont très mal connus car il est difficile d'accé- der à cet organe sans perturber son fonctionnement. Nous avons fixé par effet ventouse une chambre d'absorption

Boyer, Edmond

147

A large source of low-volatility secondary organic aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests emit large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. Their condensable oxidation products can form secondary organic aerosol, a significant and ubiquitous component of atmospheric aerosol, which is known to affect the Earth's radiation balance by scattering solar radiation and by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. The quantitative assessment of such climate effects remains hampered by a number of factors, including an incomplete understanding of how biogenic VOCs contribute to the formation of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol. The growth of newly formed particles from sizes of less than three nanometres up to the sizes of cloud condensation nuclei (about one hundred nanometres) in many continental ecosystems requires abundant, essentially non-volatile organic vapours, but the sources and compositions of such vapours remain unknown. Here we investigate the oxidation of VOCs, in particular the terpene ?-pinene, under atmospherically relevant conditions in chamber experiments. We find that a direct pathway leads from several biogenic VOCs, such as monoterpenes, to the formation of large amounts of extremely low-volatility vapours. These vapours form at significant mass yield in the gas phase and condense irreversibly onto aerosol surfaces to produce secondary organic aerosol, helping to explain the discrepancy between the observed atmospheric burden of secondary organic aerosol and that reported by many model studies. We further demonstrate how these low-volatility vapours can enhance, or even dominate, the formation and growth of aerosol particles over forested regions, providing a missing link between biogenic VOCs and their conversion to aerosol particles. Our findings could help to improve assessments of biosphere-aerosol-climate feedback mechanisms, and the air quality and climate effects of biogenic emissions generally.

Ehn, Mikael; Thornton, Joel A.; Kleist, Einhard; Sipilä, Mikko; Junninen, Heikki; Pullinen, Iida; Springer, Monika; Rubach, Florian; Tillmann, Ralf; Lee, Ben; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe; Andres, Stefanie; Acir, Ismail-Hakki; Rissanen, Matti; Jokinen, Tuija; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kontkanen, Jenni; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kurtén, Theo; Nielsen, Lasse B.; Jørgensen, Solvejg; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.; Canagaratna, Manjula; Maso, Miikka Dal; Berndt, Torsten; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wahner, Andreas; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wildt, Jürgen; Mentel, Thomas F.

2014-02-01

148

A large source of low-volatility secondary organic aerosol.  

PubMed

Forests emit large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. Their condensable oxidation products can form secondary organic aerosol, a significant and ubiquitous component of atmospheric aerosol, which is known to affect the Earth's radiation balance by scattering solar radiation and by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. The quantitative assessment of such climate effects remains hampered by a number of factors, including an incomplete understanding of how biogenic VOCs contribute to the formation of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol. The growth of newly formed particles from sizes of less than three nanometres up to the sizes of cloud condensation nuclei (about one hundred nanometres) in many continental ecosystems requires abundant, essentially non-volatile organic vapours, but the sources and compositions of such vapours remain unknown. Here we investigate the oxidation of VOCs, in particular the terpene ?-pinene, under atmospherically relevant conditions in chamber experiments. We find that a direct pathway leads from several biogenic VOCs, such as monoterpenes, to the formation of large amounts of extremely low-volatility vapours. These vapours form at significant mass yield in the gas phase and condense irreversibly onto aerosol surfaces to produce secondary organic aerosol, helping to explain the discrepancy between the observed atmospheric burden of secondary organic aerosol and that reported by many model studies. We further demonstrate how these low-volatility vapours can enhance, or even dominate, the formation and growth of aerosol particles over forested regions, providing a missing link between biogenic VOCs and their conversion to aerosol particles. Our findings could help to improve assessments of biosphere-aerosol-climate feedback mechanisms, and the air quality and climate effects of biogenic emissions generally. PMID:24572423

Ehn, Mikael; Thornton, Joel A; Kleist, Einhard; Sipilä, Mikko; Junninen, Heikki; Pullinen, Iida; Springer, Monika; Rubach, Florian; Tillmann, Ralf; Lee, Ben; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe; Andres, Stefanie; Acir, Ismail-Hakki; Rissanen, Matti; Jokinen, Tuija; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kontkanen, Jenni; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kurtén, Theo; Nielsen, Lasse B; Jørgensen, Solvejg; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Canagaratna, Manjula; Maso, Miikka Dal; Berndt, Torsten; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wahner, Andreas; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Wildt, Jürgen; Mentel, Thomas F

2014-02-27

149

Quantitative estimates of the volatility of ambient organic aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the sensitivity of organic aerosol (OA, and its components) mass to changes in temperature were recently reported by Huffman et al. (2009) using a tandem thermodenuder-aerosol mass spectrometer (TD-AMS) system in Mexico City and the Los Angeles area. Here, we use these measurements to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol volatility within the framework of absorptive partitioning theory using a kinetic model of aerosol evaporation in the TD. OA volatility distributions (or "basis-sets") are determined using several assumptions as to the enthalpy of vaporization (?Hvap). We present two definitions of "non-volatile OA," one being a global and one a local definition. Based on these definitions, our analysis indicates that a substantial fraction of the organic aerosol is comprised of non-volatile components that will not evaporate under any atmospheric conditions, on the order of 50-80% when the most realistic ?Hvap assumptions are considered. The sensitivity of the total OA mass to dilution and ambient changes in temperature has been assessed for the various ?Hvap assumptions. The temperature sensitivity is relatively independent of the particular ?Hvap assumptions whereas dilution sensitivity is found to be greatest for the low (?Hvap = 50 kJ/mol) and lowest for the high (?Hvap = 150 kJ/mol) assumptions. This difference arises from the high ?Hvap assumptions yielding volatility distributions with a greater fraction of non-volatile material than the low ?Hvap assumptions. If the observations are fit using a 1 or 2-component model the sensitivity of the OA to dilution is unrealistically high. An empirical method introduced by Faulhaber et al. (2009) has also been used to independently estimate a volatility distribution for the ambient OA and is found to give results consistent with the high and variable ?Hvap assumptions. Our results also show that the amount of semivolatile gas-phase organics in equilibrium with the OA could range from ~20% to 400% of the OA mass, with smaller values generally corresponding to the higher ?Hvap assumptions. The volatility of various OA components determined from factor analysis of AMS spectra has also been assessed. In general, it is found that the fraction of non-volatile material follows the pattern: biomass burning OA < hydrocarbon-like OA < semivolatile oxygenated OA < low-volatility oxygenated OA. Correspondingly, the sensitivity to dilution and the estimated amount of semivolatile gas-phase material for the OA factors follows the reverse order. Primary OA has a substantial semivolatile fraction, in agreement with previous results, while the non-volatile fraction appears to be dominated by oxygenated OA produced by atmospheric aging. The overall OA volatility is thus controlled by the relative contribution of each aerosol type to the total OA burden. Finally, the model/measurement comparison appears to require OA having an evaporation coefficient (?e) substantially greater than 10-2; at this point it is not possible to place firmer constraints on ?e based on the observations.

Cappa, C. D.; Jimenez, J. L.

2010-01-01

150

Quantitative estimates of the volatility of ambient organic aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the sensitivity of organic aerosol (OA, and its components) mass to changes in temperature were recently reported by Huffman et al.~(2009) using a tandem thermodenuder-aerosol mass spectrometer (TD-AMS) system in Mexico City and the Los Angeles area. Here, we use these measurements to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol volatility within the framework of absorptive partitioning theory using a kinetic model of aerosol evaporation in the TD. OA volatility distributions (or "basis-sets") are determined using several assumptions as to the enthalpy of vaporization (?Hvap). We present two definitions of "non-volatile OA," one being a global and one a local definition. Based on these definitions, our analysis indicates that a substantial fraction of the organic aerosol is comprised of non-volatile components that will not evaporate under any atmospheric conditions; on the order of 50-80% when the most realistic ?Hvap assumptions are considered. The sensitivity of the total OA mass to dilution and ambient changes in temperature has been assessed for the various ?Hvap assumptions. The temperature sensitivity is relatively independent of the particular ?Hvap assumptions whereas dilution sensitivity is found to be greatest for the low (?Hvap = 50 kJ/mol) and lowest for the high (?Hvap = 150 kJ/mol) assumptions. This difference arises from the high ?Hvap assumptions yielding volatility distributions with a greater fraction of non-volatile material than the low ?Hvap assumptions. If the observations are fit using a 1 or 2-component model the sensitivity of the OA to dilution is unrealistically high. An empirical method introduced by Faulhaber et al. (2009) has also been used to independently estimate a volatility distribution for the ambient OA and is found to give results consistent with the high and variable ?Hvap assumptions. Our results also show that the amount of semivolatile gas-phase organics in equilibrium with the OA could range from ~20% to 400% of the OA mass, with smaller values generally corresponding to the higher ?Hvap assumptions. The volatility of various OA components determined from factor analysis of AMS spectra has also been assessed. In general, it is found that the fraction of non-volatile material follows the pattern: biomass burning OA < hydrocarbon-like OA < semivolatile oxygenated OA < low-volatility oxygenated OA. Correspondingly, the sensitivity to dilution and the estimated amount of semivolatile gas-phase material for the OA factors follows the reverse order. Primary OA has a substantial semivolatile fraction, in agreement with previous results, while the non-volatile fraction appears to be dominated by oxygenated OA produced by atmospheric aging. The overall OA volatility is thus controlled by the relative contribution of each aerosol type to the total OA burden. Finally, the model/measurement comparison appears to require OA having an evaporation coefficient (?e) substantially greater than 10-2; at this point it is not possible to place firmer constraints on ?e based on the observations.

Cappa, C. D.; Jimenez, J. L.

2010-06-01

151

Model studies of volatile diesel exhaust particle formation: organic vapours involved in nucleation and growth?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High concentration of volatile nucleation mode particles (NUP) formed in the atmosphere during exhaust cools and dilutes have hazardous health effects and impair visibility in urban areas. Nucleation mechanisms in diesel exhaust are only poorly understood. We performed model studies using two sectional aerosol dynamics process models AEROFOR and MAFOR on the formation of particles in the exhaust of a diesel engine, equipped with an oxidative after-treatment system and running with low fuel sulphur content (FSC), under laboratory sampling conditions where the dilution system mimics real-world conditions. Different nucleation mechanisms were tested; based on the measured gaseous sulphuric acid (GSA) and non-volatile core and soot particle number concentrations of the raw exhaust, the model simulations showed that the best agreement between model predictions and measurements in terms of particle number size distribution was obtained by barrierless heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation between GSA and semi-volatile organic vapour (for example adipic acid) combined with the homogeneous nucleation of GSA alone. Major growth of the particles was predicted to occur by the same organic vapour at concentrations of (1-2) ×1012cm-3. The pre-existing core and soot mode concentrations had opposite trend on the NUP formation, and maximum NUP formation was predicted if a diesel particle filter (DPF) was used. On the other hand, NUP formation was ceased if the GSA concentration was less than 1010cm-3 which suggests, based on the measurements, the usage of biofuel to prevent volatile particles in diesel exhaust.

Pirjola, L.; Karl, M.; Rönkkö, T.; Arnold, F.

2015-02-01

152

Anthropogenic emissions of highly reactive volatile organic compounds in eastern Texas  

E-print Network

Anthropogenic emissions of highly reactive volatile organic compounds in eastern Texas inferred) columns provide top-down constraints on emissions of highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOCs Anthropogenic highly reactive volatile organic compounds (AHRVOCs) with atmospheric lifetimes of less than a day

Mickley, Loretta J.

153

Strong Emissive Nanofibers of Organogels for the Detection of Volatile Acid Vapors.  

PubMed

Two L-phenylalanine derivatives with 5,8-bis(2-(carbazol-3-yl)vinyl)quinoxaline (PCQ) and 5,8-bis[2-(carbazol-3-yl)]-2,3-dimethylquinoxaline (DCQ) as fluorophores were synthesized, and their photophysical properties were measured and compared. The two compounds were found to gelate some organic solvents and self-assemble into 1D nanofibers in gels. The wet gel of PCQ emitted a weak orange fluorescence, but the DCQ gel had a strong green one. This result can be due to the presence of two methyl groups and the nonplanar conformation of fluorophore in DCQ. The gel film of DCQ also showed significantly stronger fluorescence than that of PCQ. Thus, the wet gel and xerogel film of DCQ were selected to study their sensing properties to acids. The yellow wet gel of DCQ transformed into a brown sol upon the addition of 0.2?equiv trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), accompanied by emission quenching. The xerogel film of DCQ rapidly responded to volatile acids, such as TFA, HCl, and HOAc. The fluorescence of the xerogel film was gradually quenched with increased concentration of volatile acid vapors. The fibrous film exhibited low detection limits for volatile acid. The detection limits of the thin films for TFA, HCl, and HOAc reached 43, 122, and 950?ppb, respectively. PMID:25393379

Xue, Pengchong; Sun, Jiabao; Yao, Boqi; Gong, Peng; Zhang, Zhenqi; Qian, Chong; Zhang, Yuan; Lu, Ran

2014-11-13

154

A laboratory formulated sediment incorporating synthetic acid volatile sulfide  

SciTech Connect

The usefulness of laboratory formulated sediment (LFS) for sediment research applications might be expanded if sediment characteristics other than particle size distribution, organic carbon and pH could be artificially manipulated. This report describes the development of a LFS containing synthetic acid volatile sulfide (AVS). Several formulations were evaluated with respect to their toxicological effects on Hyalella azteca, and their chemical stability and oxidation dynamics in the H. azteca toxicity test system. Optimal amphipod survival was obtained in prepared LFS formulations where the molar cation-to-sulfide ratio was near unity. The synthetic AVS at the surface of the test system oxidized quickly, but was fairly stable for up to 28 days when isolated from air or oxygenated water. AVS analysis of core slices show a clear, dissolved oxygen-diffusion limited oxidation profile. A selected synthetic AVS formulation, as determined by (maximum) H. azteca survival, was evaluated with respect to complexation of copper and nickel, and the corresponding reduction in metal bioavailability. The toxicity of whole sediment and pore water from metal-spiked LFS containing synthetic AVS was evaluated by the 10-d H. azteca toxicity test and the Microtox{reg_sign} bioassay, respectively. As expected, test responses to amended LFS with metal-to-AVS molar ratios less than one were not significantly different than the unspiked, amended LFS. In contrast, amended LFS with metal-to AVS molar ratios greater than one had significant effects on the response of the two test species. Complexation of the metals was confirmed by sediment and pore water chemical analyses. This formulation may provide consistent and controlled substrates with which to investigate metal/sediment chemistry and toxicity, and to develop sediment quality criteria for metals.

Gonzalez, A.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31

155

Treatment of odorous volatile fatty acids using a biotrickling filter.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel fibrous bioreactor was developed for treating odorous compounds present in contaminated air. The first stage of this work was a preliminary study which aimed at investigating the feasibility of using the fibrous bioreactor for the removal of malodorous volatile fatty acids (VFA) that is a common odorous contaminant generated from anaerobic degradation of organic compounds. The kinetics of microbial growth and VFA degradation in the selected culture, and the performance of the submerged bioreactor at different VFA mass loadings were studied. Above 95% of VFA removal efficiencies were achieved at mass loadings up to 22.4 g/m(3)/h. In the second stage, the odour treatment process was scaled up with system design and operational considerations. A trickling biofilter with synthetic fibrous packing medium was employed. The effects of inlet VFA concentration and empty bed retention time (EBRT) on the process performance were investigated. The bioreactor was effective in removing VFA at mass loadings up to 32 g/m(3)/h, beyond which VFA started to accumulate in the recirculation liquid, indicating the biofilm was unable to degrade all of the VFA introduced. Although VFA accumulated in the liquid phase, the removal efficiency remained above 99%. This suggested that the biochemical reaction rather than gas-liquid mass transfer was the limiting step of the treatment process. In addition, the biotrickling filter was stable for long-term operation with relatively low and steady pressure drop, no clogging and degeneration of the packing material occurred during the four-month study. PMID:17321131

Tsang, Y F; Chua, H; Sin, S N; Chan, S Y

2008-02-01

156

Microbial cycling of volatile organic sulfur compounds in anoxic environments.  

PubMed

Microbial cycling of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSC) is investigated due to the impact these compounds are thought to have on environmental processes like global temperature control, acid precipitation and the global sulfur cycle. Moreover, in several kinds of industries like composting plants and the paper industry VOSC are released causing odor problems. Waste streams containing these compounds must be treated in order to avoid the release of these compounds to the atmosphere. This paper describes the general mechanisms for the production and degradation of methanethiol (MT) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), two ubiquitous VOSC in anaerobic environments. Slurry incubations indicated that methylation of sulfide and MT resulting in MT and DMS, respectively, is one of the major mechanisms for VOSC in sulfide-rich anaerobic environments. An anaerobic bacterium that is responsible for the formation of MT and DMS through the anaerobic methylation of H2S and MT was isolated from a freshwater pond after enrichment with syringate as a methyl group donating compound and sole carbon source. In spite of the continuous formation of MT and DMS, steady state concentrations are generally very low. This is due to the microbial degradation of these compounds. Experiments with sulfate-rich and sulfate-amended sediment slurries demonstrated that besides methanogens, sulfate-reducing bacteria can also degrade MT and DMS, provided that sulfate is available. A methanogen was isolated that is able to grow on DMS as the sole carbon source. A large survey of sediments slurries of various origin demonstrated that both isolates are commonly occurring inhabitants of anaerobic environments. PMID:12188577

Lomans, B P; Pol, A; Op den Camp, H J M

2002-01-01

157

Degradation of volatile organic compounds with thermally activated persulfate oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the extent and treatability of the degradation of 59 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in the EPA SW-846 Method 8260B with thermally activated persulfate oxidation. Data on the degradation of the 59 VOCs (in mixture) reacted with sodium persulfate in concentrations of 1gl?1 and 5gl?1 and at temperatures of 20°C, 30°C, and 40°C were obtained. The results

Kun-Chang Huang; Zhiqiang Zhao; George E. Hoag; Amine Dahmani; Philip A. Block

2005-01-01

158

DEVELOPMENT OF OZONE REACTIVITY SCALES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for ranking photochemical ozone formation reactivities of volatile organic compounds(VOCs) are discussed. Photochemical mechanisms for the atmospheric reactions of 118 VOCs were usedto calculate their effects on ozone formation under various NO x conditions in model scenarios representing39 different urban areas. Their effects on ozone were used to derive 18 different ozone reactivity scales,one of which is the Maximum

William P. L. Carter

1994-01-01

159

Volatile organic compound emissions: an inventory for Western Europe  

SciTech Connect

The report gives details of an inventory compiled by CONCAWE and covering man-made non-methane volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in Western Europe. The survey shows that the major man-made sources are road transport and solvents, each contributing around 40%. Total oil industry operations account for around 8%, with refining operations contribution about 2%. The major oil industry contribution comes from the distribution of gasoline, including vehicle refuelling (5%).

Edwards, A.H.; Campobasso, A.; Camps, R.; Cremer, G.; Long, M.D.

1986-01-01

160

Trees and VOCs: Measuring volatile organic compounds from urban forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site describes a research project to measure volatile organic compounds emitted from species of trees and shrubs found in urban areas. Topics include a description of the project and a section on trees and air quality. A page updated each month or so reports field and lab work on the project. There is also a glossary, profiles of community partners, and profiles of the scientists and students involved in the project.

Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) at the University of Colorado-Boulder

161

Seasonal characteristics of ambient volatile organic compounds in Seoul, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurements of C2–C9 volatile organic compounds (VOC) were carried out at a site in Seoul, the capital of Korea from August 1998 to July 1999. Air samples were collected for 24h in 6l SUMMA canisters every 6 days. The canister samples were quantitatively analyzed by a GC\\/FID and GC\\/MS. The species with the highest mean concentration among the 70

Kwangsam Na; Yong Pyo Kim

2001-01-01

162

Analyses of volatile organic compounds from human skin  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Human skin emits a variety of volatile metabolites, many of them odorous. Much previous work has focused upon chemical structure and biogenesis of metabolites produced in the axillae (underarms), which are a primary source of human body odour. Nonaxillary skin also harbours volatile metabolites, possibly with different biological origins than axillary odorants. Objectives To take inventory of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the upper back and forearm skin, and assess their relative quantitative variation across 25 healthy subjects. Methods Two complementary sampling techniques were used to obtain comprehensive VOC profiles, viz., solid-phase micro extraction and solvent extraction. Analyses were performed using both gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Results Nearly 100 compounds were identified, some of which varied with age. The VOC profiles of the upper back and forearm within a subject were, for the most part, similar, although there were notable differences. Conclusions The natural variation in nonaxillary skin odorants described in this study provides a baseline of compounds we have identified from both endogenous and exogenous sources. Although complex, the profiles of volatile constituents suggest that the two body locations share a considerable number of compounds, but both quantitative and qualitative differences are present. In addition, quantitative changes due to ageing are also present. These data may provide future investigators of skin VOCs with a baseline against which any abnormalities can be viewed in searching for biomarkers of skin diseases. PMID:18637798

Gallagher, M.; Wysocki, C.J.; Leyden, J.J.; Spielman, A.I.; Sun, X.; Preti, G.

2008-01-01

163

Effects of trichloroacetic acid, a new contaminant found from chlorinating water with organic material, on dragonfly nymphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been recognized since the mid-1970's that chlorination of water rich in organic matter results in the formation of chloroform and some related volatile organic contaminants (Rook 1974). However, it was only relatively recently that chlorination of water rich in organic matter was found to produce an array of non-volatile chemical products including trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and dichloroacetic acid

Manuel Correa; Edward J. Calabrese; Robert A. Coler

1985-01-01

164

Inhibition of reticulo-ruminal motility by volatile fatty acids and lactic acid in sheep.  

PubMed Central

1. A study was made of the influence on reticulo-ruminal motility, recorded by electromyography, of ruminal infusions of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and lactic acid in twenty-four sheep maintained by intragastric infusion of a complete liquid diet, in three sheep fed grass pellets, and in nine chronically vagotomized sheep; abomasal and duodenal infusions of VFA and lactic acid were tested in five sheep fed grass pellets. 2. Ruminal infusions of VFAs and lactic acid progressively inhibited the amplitude of the reticulo-ruminal contractions. In many experiments there was no effect on contraction frequency until the cessation of all reticulo-ruminal contractions at which point the maximal concentration of VFA recorded in the abomasum was 28 mM, and that of lactic acid was 20 mM. 3. The concentrations of undissociated VFAs causing cessation of reticulo-ruminal contractions in the vagus-intact sheep were very similar to the concentrations causing abolition of the organized intrinsic motility of the chronically vagotomized sheep. 4. The inhibition of reticulo-ruminal motility with ruminal infusions of mixtures of VFAs and of lactic acid together with VFAs could largely be explained by the sum of the effects of the individual acids present. 5. Abomasal infusion of VFA or lactic acid inhibited the amplitude of ruminal, especially primary ruminal, contractions at concentrations of undissociated acid of 60 mM and above and increased the frequency of reticulum and primary ruminal contractions at about 80 mM. 6. Duodenal infusion of VFAs and lactic acid (100 mM, 5 ml/min) strongly inhibited abomasal motility without affecting reticulo-ruminal motility, and at a higher rate (100 mM, 10 ml/min) abolished motility and inhibited both the amplitude and frequency of reticulo-ruminal contractions. 7. It is concluded that the initial inhibition of reticulo-ruminal motility in ruminal acidosis is unlikely to involve any significant influence from duodenal, or abomasal receptors. The final cessation of reticulo-ruminal motility with ruminal acidosis could involve local effects of VFAs in the reticulo-rumen as well as through excitation of acid-sensitive reticulo-ruminal receptors. PMID:3625553

Gregory, P C

1987-01-01

165

Continuous volatile fatty acid production from waste activated sludge hydrolyzed at pH 12.  

PubMed

This study adopted rapid alkaline treatment at pH 12 to hydrolyze 66% of total chemical oxygen demands. Then the hydrolyzed liquor was fermented in a continuous-flow stirred reactor to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at 8-h hydraulic retention time and at 35 °C. The maximum VFA productivity reached 365 mg VFAs g(-1) volatile suspended solids in a 45-d operation, with most produced VFAs being acetate and propionate, principally produced by protein degradation. The Bacteroidia, ?-proteobacteria and the Clostridia were identified to be the classes correlating with the fermentation processes. The fermented liquor was applied to denitrifying phosphorus removal process as alternative carbon source after excess phosphorus and nitrogen being recycled via struvite precipitation. Fermented liquors from alkaline hydrolysis-acid fermentation on waste activated sludge are a potential renewable resource for applications that need organic carbons. PMID:24630368

Yang, Xue; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Du, Maoan; Pan, Xiangliang; Wan, Fang

2014-09-01

166

Surfactant treatment to reduce vapors from volatile organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Significant environmental health and fire hazards are associated with spills or leaks of solvents and fuels. Hazardous effects of vapor inhalation and the potential for fires in spill or leak situations are often overlooked as environmental hazards. Flammable and noxious organic vapors can be reduced significantly by treatment with a nonionic surfactant, FUELBUSTER{reg_sign}. Vapors above solvent solutions were sampled and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Organic vapors were reduced 80--95% following treatment with a 6% aqueous solution of FUELBUSTER. Significant vapor reduction occurred within seconds of surfactant treatment. Experiments have been applied to a wide range of polar and nonpolar volatile compounds.

Cobb, G.P.; Stephens, M.D.; Waldrop, V.C. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

167

Preliminary evaluation of selected in situ remediation technologies for Volatile Organic Compound contamination at Arid sites  

SciTech Connect

To support the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Site (VOC-Arid) Integrated Demonstration (ID) in its technical, logistical, institutional, and economical testing of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) is evaluating several in situ remediation technologies for possible inclusion in the demonstration. The evaluations are made with respect to the initial focus of the VOC-Arid ID: the carbon tetrachloride contamination at the Hanford Site, where it was disposed to the vadose zone along with other volatile and nonvolatile organic wastes. heavy metals, acids. and radionuclides. The purposes of this report are (1) to identify candidate in situ technologies for inclusion in the program, (2) to evaluate the candidate technologies based on their potential applicability to VOC contamination at arid sites and geologic conditions representative of the ID host site (i.e., Hanford Site), and (3) to prioritize those technologies for future US Department of Energy (DOE) support.

Lenhard, R.J.; Gerber, M.A.; Amonette, J.E.

1992-10-01

168

A two-dimensional volatility basis set – Part 2: Diagnostics of organic-aerosol evolution  

E-print Network

We discuss the use of a two-dimensional volatility-oxidation space (2-D-VBS) to describe organic-aerosol chemical evolution. The space is built around two coordinates, volatility and the degree of oxidation, both of which ...

Donahue, N. M.

169

Simple plant-based design strategies for volatile organic pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Vegetation which enhances in-situ biodegradation of organic compounds can play a key role in the bioremediation of such contaminants in polluted soils and groundwater. Plants may act directly on some contaminants by degrading them, but their main effect is to enhance microbial populations in the thizosphere. Microbially mediated transformations are thus indirectly facilitated by root exudates which nourish the indigenous microorganisms. Plants may also be viewed as a solar driven pump-and-treat system which can contain a plume and reduce the spread of contaminated water. Laboratory investigations carried out in a growth chamber with alfalfa plants provide evidence for the (microbially mediated) biodegradation of organic compounds such as toluene, phenol and TCE. Alfalfa plants tolerate concentrations of these organics in contaminated water up to 100 mg/L. They facilitate transfer of the contaminants from the saturated to the vadose zone. For volatile organic compounds such as TCE, vegetation provides a controlled release of compounds and hence assures dilution of the TCE evapotranspired into the atmosphere from contaminated soils. Using a range of calculated plausible scenarios, it is shown that intermedia transfer caused by volatilization associated with plants is most unlikely to lead to exceedance of standards for gas phase contamination, for most volatile contaminants. Possible action level exceedances might occur with highly toxic substances including vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride, if they re present in ground water at levels above kilogram amounts in a single plume of a few hectares, and released by vigorously growing plants under hot dry conditions. Information needed for the calculation and design of plant-based bioremediation systems for typical sites is discussed in this paper.

Narayanan, M.; Erickson, L.E.; Davis, L.C.

1999-12-31

170

Removal of volatile organic compounds from air streams and industrial flue gases by non-thermal plasma technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaseous pollution control technologies for acid gases (NOx , SOx, etc.), volatile organic compounds (VOC), greenhouse gases, ozone layer depleting substance (ODS), etc., have been commercialized based on catalysis, incineration and adsorption methods. However, non-thermal plasma techniques based on electron beams and corona discharges become significant due to advantages such as lower cost, higher removal efficiency, smaller space volume, etc.

Kuniko Urashima; Jen-Shih Chang

2000-01-01

171

Geographical provenance of palm oil by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting techniques.  

PubMed

Analytical methods are required in addition to administrative controls to verify the geographical origin of vegetable oils such as palm oil in an objective manner. In this study the application of fatty acid and volatile organic compound fingerprinting in combination with chemometrics have been applied to verify the geographical origin of crude palm oil (continental scale). For this purpose 94 crude palm oil samples were collected from South East Asia (55), South America (11) and Africa (28). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to develop a hierarchical classification model by combining two consecutive binary PLS-DA models. First, a PLS-DA model was built to distinguish South East Asian from non-South East Asian palm oil samples. Then a second model was developed, only for the non-Asian samples, to discriminate African from South American crude palm oil. Models were externally validated by using them to predict the identity of new authentic samples. The fatty acid fingerprinting model revealed three misclassified samples. The volatile compound fingerprinting models showed an 88%, 100% and 100% accuracy for the South East Asian, African and American class, respectively. The verification of the geographical origin of crude palm oil is feasible by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting. Further research is required to further validate the approach and to increase its spatial specificity to country/province scale. PMID:23200002

Tres, A; Ruiz-Samblas, C; van der Veer, G; van Ruth, S M

2013-04-15

172

Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0-2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m yr. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere. PMID:22751077

Baker, Ronald J; Andraski, Brian J; Stonestrom, David A; Luo, Wentai

2012-01-01

173

Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0–2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m-2 yr-1. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere.

Baker, Ronald J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Luo, Wentai

2012-01-01

174

Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

1992-11-01

175

Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

1992-11-01

176

Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from ?-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured a large suite of gas and particle phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gas and particle phases, the latter being detected upon temperature programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25-50% of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e. multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50% of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption temperature based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas-particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the conversion of lower volatility components into the detected higher volatility compounds.

Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Carrasquillo, A.; Daumit, K.; Hunter, J.; Kroll, J. H.; Worsnop, D.; Thornton, J. A.

2015-02-01

177

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Thanatophilus sinuatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Silphidae) to selected cadaveric volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

Soon after death, carcasses release volatile chemicals that attract carrion insects including Silphidae. Nevertheless, it is not known which chemical cues are involved in the attractiveness of the carcass. So far, little information is available on the chemical ecology of carrion beetles, particularly concerning the subfamily of Silphinae. The biological role of selected cadaveric volatile organic compounds including dimethyldisulfide (DMDS), butan-1-ol, n-butanoic acid, indole, phenol, p-cresol, putrescine, and cadaverine on the silphine species, Thanatophilus sinuatus Fabricius, was investigated using both electrophysiological and behavioral techniques. Among the tested cadaveric compounds, butan-1-ol and DMDS elicited the strongest electroantennography (EAG) from both T. sinuatus male and female antennae. In a two-arm olfactometer, males and females were significantly attracted to DMDS for both tested doses, whereas only males were attracted to p-cresol at 100 ng. Putrescine was repellent to males at the dose of 1 ?g. PMID:23822801

Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederickx, Christine; Lognay, Georges; Brostaux, Yves; Verheggen, Francois J; Haubruge, Eric

2013-07-01

178

Fungal volatile organic compounds and their role in ecosystems.  

PubMed

All odorants are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), i.e., low molecular weight compounds that easily evaporate at normal temperatures and pressure. Fungal VOCs are relatively understudied compared to VOCs of bacterial, plant, or synthetic origin. Much of the research to date on fungal VOCs has focused on their food and flavor properties, their use as indirect indicators of fungal growth in agriculture, or their role as semiochemicals for insects. In addition, research into fungal volatiles has also taken place to monitor spoilage, for purposes of chemotaxonomy, for use in biofilters and for biodiesel, to detect plant and animal disease, for "mycofumigation," and with respect to plant health. As methods for the analysis of gas phase molecules have improved, it has become apparent that fungal VOC are more chemically varied and more biologically active than has generally been realized. In particular, there is increasing data that show that fungal VOCs frequently mediate interactions between organisms within and across different ecological niches. The goal of this mini review is to orchestrate data on fungal VOCs obtained from disparate disciplines as well as to draw attention to the ecological importance of fungal VOCs in signaling between different species. Technologies and approaches that are common in one area of research are often unknown in others, and the study of fungal VOCs would benefit from more cross talk between subdisciplines. PMID:25773975

Hung, Richard; Lee, Samantha; Bennett, Joan W

2015-04-01

179

Cyclodextrin-based microsensors for volatile organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Host-guest chemistry and self-assembly techniques are being explored to develop species selective thin-films for real-time sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Cyclodextrin (CD) and calixarene (CA) molecules are known to form guest-host inclusion complexes with a variety of organic molecules. Through the control of the cavity size and chemical functionality on the rims of these bucket-like molecules, the binding affinities for formation of inclusion complexes can be controlled and optimized for specific agents. Self-assembly techniques are used to covalently bond these reagent molecules to the surface of acoustic transducers to create dense, highly oriented, and stable thin films. Self-assembly techniques have also been used to fabricate multilayer thin film containing molecular recognition reagents through alternating adsorption of charged species in aqueous solutions. Self-assembly of polymeric molecules of the SAW device was also explored for fabricating species selective interfaces.

Swanson, B.; Johnson, S.; Shi, J.; Yang, Xiaoguang

1997-10-01

180

Effect of soot build-up while sampling with the volatile organic sampling train (VOST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Method 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), is used to determine the destruction and removal efficiencies of volatile organic emission from industrial boilers co-firing hazardous waste. Previous reports detailing a hysteresis effect for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), resulting from soot build-up on the interior surfaces of boilers and industrial furnaces, raised concerns of possible

F. W. Wilshire; L. D. Johnson; G. D. Hinshaw

1994-01-01

181

Exogenous ACC enhances volatiles production mediated by jasmonic acid in lima bean leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the synergistic effects of exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and jasmonic acid (JA) on production of induced volatiles by excised lima bean leaves. Application of ACC alone to leaves induced trace amounts of volatiles. ACC positively affected three JA-induced volatiles, (E)- and (Z)-?-ocimene, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. The ethylene inhibitor, silver thiosulfate, inhibited the production of these compounds. The results

Jun-ichiro Horiuchi; Gen-ichiro Arimura; Rika Ozawa; Takeshi Shimoda; Junji Takabayashi; Takaaki Nishioka

2001-01-01

182

Gas chromatography of volatile fatty acids. Method involving separation from biological material by vacuum distillation.  

PubMed

A method is described for the quantitation of C2-C5 volatile fatty acids present in biological tissues. It involved recovery of the acids from their biological matrix by vacuum micro-distillation at room temperature, followed by gas phase separation of aqueous solutions on orthophosphoric acid-modified Phasepak Q columns. The subsequent gas chromatographic procedure resolved iso from normal isomers and showed a linear response for each volatile acid over the range 10-400 ng. There was no evidence of ghosting, isomer peak broadening, or peak tailing. Relative molar response values were shown to be linear with carbon number for all the volatile fatty acids studied. PMID:1141407

Tyler, J E; Dibdin, G H

1975-02-19

183

A method for the combined measurement of volatile and condensable organic AMC in semiconductor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring airborne molecular contamination (AMC) at the parts per trillion (ppt) level in cleanroom environments, scanner applications and compressed gas lines is essential for processes, equipment and yield-control. For the operation of EUV tools, in particular, volatile organic contamination is known to have as much impact as condensable organic compounds, which requires a suitable sampling and measurement methodology. Some of the current industry standards use sample traps comprised of porous 2,6-diphenylene-oxide polymer resin, such as Tenax®, for measuring volatile organic (<6 C-atoms, approximately IPA/acetone to toluene) and condensable organic (>6 C atoms, about toluene and higher) AMC. Inherent problems associated with these traps are a number of artifacts and chemical reactions that reduce accuracy of reported organic AMC concentrations. The break-down of the polymeric material forms false positive artifacts when used in the presence of reactive gases, such as nitrous acid and ozone, which attack and degrade the polymer to form detectable AMC. Most importantly, these traps have poor capture efficiency for volatile organic compounds (VOC). To address the disadvantages of polymer-based sample traps, we developed a method based on carbonaceous, multi-layered adsorbent traps to replace the 2,6-diphenylene-oxide polymer resin sample trap type. Along with the new trap's ability to retain volatile organics, the trap was found to provide artifact-free results. With industry trends towards detecting more contaminants while continuously reducing required reporting limits for those compounds, artifact-free and accurate detection of AMC is needed at the parts per quadrillion (ppq) level. The proposed, multi-layered trap substantially increases laboratory productivity and reduces cost by eliminating the need to analyze condensable and volatile organic compounds in two separate methods. In our studies, even some organic compounds with six C-atoms, that are part of exposure tool OEM requirements, were not effectively retained by polymeric traps, but were fully retained on the multi-layered adsorbent trap. This demonstrates that the standard trap used in the industry will result in significantly underreporting actual AMC concentrations for volatile organic compounds, including some siloxanes (TMS, HMDSO, D3). Performance of the proposed trap was excellent at both zero and 50% relative humidity, an important metric, as the trap is used for AMC detection in dry supply gases and humidified environments. Retention of all organic compounds was quantitative for more than 30 liters of air, sufficient for ppq-level detection limits. Desorption efficiency was 94% for C26 compounds. Pressure drop through the new trap was comparable to that of polymer-based traps and much lower than other, commercially available carbonaceous traps. Precision of repeated analyses was 5%, a very good result. Resolution of IPA and acetone was complete and that of a mix of halogenated refrigerants was much improved over existing methods. We propose to adopt this methodology as a new industry standard to overcome widespread inaccuracy in the reporting of volatile organic AMC and false positive condensable AMC.

Miller, Charles M.; Zaloga, Emily C.; Lobert, Jürgen M.

2014-04-01

184

Emissions and Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Semivolatile and Intermediate Volatility Organic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic aerosols are a highly-dynamic system dominated by both variable gas-particle partitioning and chemical evolution. Important classes of organics include semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SVOC and IVOC, respectively). SVOCs are compounds that exist in both the gas and particle phases at typical atmospheric conditions while IVOC are low-volatility vapors that exist exclusively in the gas phase. Both classes have saturation concentrations that are orders of magnitude lower than volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are the traditional subjects of atmosphere chemistry, such as monoterpenes, alkyl benzenes, etc. The SVOC and IVOC are poorly represented for in current atmospheric chemistry models. Source testing indicates that SVOC and IVOC emissions from biomass combustion, diesel engines and other sources exceed the primary organic aerosol emissions; thus the oxidation of these vapors could serve as a significant source of organic aerosol in the atmosphere. The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the reactions between OH radicals and SVOCs and IVOCs was investigated in the Carnegie Mellon University smog chamber. Experiments were conducted with n-alkanes and emission surrogates (diesel fuel and lubricating oil). SVOC oxidation produces oxidized organic aerosol but little new organic aerosol mass. This behavior can be explained by the coupled effects of partitioning and aging. Oxidation of SVOC vapors creates low volatility species that partition into the condensed phase; this oxidation also reduces the SVOC vapor concentration which, in turn, requires particle-phase SVOC to evaporate to maintain phase equilibrium. In contrast, oxidation of IVOC results in sustained production of SOA consistent with a reaction with relatively slow kinetics and high mass yield. Aerosol Mass Spectrometer data indicates that the SOA formed from IVOC has a mass spectrum that is quite similar to the oxygenated organic aerosol factor observed in field studies.

Robinson, A. L.; Presto, A. A.; Miracolo, M. A.; Donahue, N. M.; Kroll, J. H.; Worsnop, D. R.

2008-12-01

185

Evaluation of volatile organic emissions from hazardous waste incinerators.  

PubMed Central

Conventional methods of risk assessment typically employed to evaluate the impact of hazardous waste incinerators on public health must rely on somewhat speculative emissions estimates or on complicated and expensive sampling and analytical methods. The limited amount of toxicological information concerning many of the compounds detected in stack emissions also complicates the evaluation of the public health impacts of these facilities. An alternative approach aimed at evaluating the public health impacts associated with volatile organic stack emissions is presented that relies on a screening criterion to evaluate total stack hydrocarbon emissions. If the concentration of hydrocarbons in ambient air is below the screening criterion, volatile emissions from the incinerator are judged not to pose a significant threat to public health. Both the screening criterion and a conventional method of risk assessment were employed to evaluate the emissions from 20 incinerators. Use of the screening criterion always yielded a substantially greater estimate of risk than that derived by the conventional method. Since the use of the screening criterion always yielded estimates of risk that were greater than that determined by conventional methods and measuring total hydrocarbon emissions is a relatively simple analytical procedure, the use of the screening criterion would appear to facilitate the evaluation of operating hazardous waste incinerators. PMID:1954928

Sedman, R M; Esparza, J R

1991-01-01

186

TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile chlorinated and non-chlorinated compounds occur in both untreated and treated drinking water. Because volatilization is restricted, ground waters rather than surface waters are more likely to have high concentrations of these compounds. This document reviews properties, ...

187

Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

2012-03-22

188

Exposure of humans to a volatile organic mixture. 2. Sensory  

SciTech Connect

Time-course functions for symptoms of the sick building syndrome were derived from 66 healthy males exposed to clean air and a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture in separate sessions. The mixture contained 22 VOCs (25 mg/cu m total concentration) commonly found air-borne in new or recently renovated buildings. Subjects rated the intensity of perceived irritation, odor, and other variables before and twice during 2.75 hr exposure periods. Eye and throat irritation, headache, and drowsiness increased or showed no evidence of adaptation during exposure, whereas odor intensity decreased by 30%. These results indicate that irritation intensity and other symptoms are not related in any simple fashion to odor intensity, suggesting that the symptoms may not be a psychosomatic response to detection of an aversive odor. Instead, subthreshold levels of VOCs may interact additively or hyperadditively and stimulate trigeminal nerve receptors.

Hudnell, H.K.; Otto, D.A.; House, D.E.; Molhave, L.

1992-01-01

189

Volatile organic components in the Skylab 4 spacecraft atmosphere.  

PubMed

The volatile organic components in the spacecraft cabin atmosphere of Skylab 4 were trapped on a solid adsorbent at various times during the mission. In post-flight analyses, more than 300 compounds in concentrations from less than 1 ppb up to 8000 ppb could be detected by high-resolution gas chromatography. In the samples of the 11th, 47th, and 77th day of the mission, approximately 100 components in the molecular weight range of 58 to 592 were identified by mass spectrometry. Besides components known from other environments, such as alkanes, alkenes, and alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons, components typical for the human metabolism such as ketones and alcohols were found. Other typical components in the spacecraft atmosphere are fluorocarbons (freons) and various silicone compounds, mostly normal and cyclic methylsiloxanes. PMID:240349

Liebich, H M; Bertsch, W; Zlatkis, A; Schneider, J

1975-08-01

190

Destruction of volatile organic compounds using catalytic oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic oxidation is an air pollution control technique in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and vapor-phase air toxics in an air emission stream are oxidized with the help of a catalyst. Design of catalytic systems for control of point source emissions is based on stream-specific characteristics and desired control efficiency. The paper discusses the key emission stream characteristics and VOC characteristics that affect the applicability of catalytic oxidation. The application of catalytic oxidation technology to four types of air emission sources is discussed: (1) groundwater stripping operations; (2) graphic arts facilities; (3) flexographic printing plants; and (4) latex monomer production. The characteristics of each of these emissions are discussed along with the catalytic technology used to control these emissions.

Kosusko, M.; Nunez, C.M.

1990-01-01

191

Destruction of volatile organic compounds using catalytic oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic oxidation is an air pollution control technique in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and vapor-phase air toxics in an air emission stream are oxidized with the help of a catalyst. Design of catalytic systems for control of point source emissions is based on stream-specific characteristics and desired control efficiency. This paper discusses the key emission stream characteristics and VOC characteristics that affect the applicability of catalytic oxidation. The application of catalytic oxidation technology to four types of air emission sources is discussed: (1) groundwater stripping operations; (2) graphic arts facilities; (3) flexographic printing plants; and (4) latex monomer production. The characteristics of each of these emissions are discussed along with the catalytic technology used to control these emissions.

Kosusko, M.; Nunez, C.M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1990-02-01

192

Volatile Organic Compound Optical Fiber Sensors: A Review  

PubMed Central

Volatile organic compound (VOC) detection is a topic of growing interest with applications in diverse fields, ranging from environmental uses to the food or chemical industries. Optical fiber VOC sensors offering new and interesting properties which overcame some of the inconveniences found on traditional gas sensors appeared over two decades ago. Thanks to its minimum invasive nature and the advantages that optical fiber offers such as light weight, passive nature, low attenuation and the possibility of multiplexing, among others, these sensors are a real alternative to electronic ones in electrically noisy environments where electronic sensors cannot operate correctly. In the present work, a classification of these devices has been made according to the sensing mechanism and taking also into account the sensing materials or the different methods of fabrication. In addition, some solutions already implemented for the detection of VOCs using optical fiber sensors will be described with detail.

Elosua, Cesar; Matias, Ignacio R.; Bariain, Candido; Arregui, Francisco J.

2006-01-01

193

Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Tehran, Iran.  

PubMed

Identifying the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is key issue to reducing ground-level ozone and PAN. A multivariate receptor model (Unmix) was used for the determination of the contributions of VOCs sources in Tehran-Iran. Concentrations of ambient C2-C10 VOCs were measured continuously and online at the center of Tehran city during the winter of 2012. A high correlation coefficient existed between measured and predicted values (R (2) = 0.99), indicating that the data were well modeled. Five possible VOCs source categories were identified and mobile sources such as vehicle exhaust (61 %) and fuel evaporation (12 %) more than half of the total VOC concentration. City gas and CNG sources, biogenic source, and industrial solvent source categories accounted for 17 %, 8 % and 2 % of the total VOC, respectively. Result showed Unmix for VOCs source apportionment can be used to analyze and generate air pollution control strategies and policies. PMID:23283536

Sarkhosh, Maryam; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Borji, Saeedeh Hemmati; Bajgirani, Ali Ghiami

2013-04-01

194

Apparatus for sensing volatile organic chemicals in fluids  

DOEpatents

A chemical-sensing apparatus is formed from the combination of a chemical preconcentrator which sorbs and concentrates particular volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and one or more chemiresistors that sense the VOCs after the preconcentrator has been triggered to release them in concentrated form. Use of the preconcentrator and chemiresistor(s) in combination allows the VOCs to be detected at lower concentration than would be possible using the chemiresistor(s) alone and further allows measurements to be made in a variety of fluids, including liquids (e.g. groundwater). Additionally, the apparatus provides a new mode of operation for sensing VOCs based on the measurement of decay time constants, and a method for background correction to improve measurement precision.

Hughes, Robert C.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Kottenstette, Richard; Patel, Sanjay V.

2005-06-07

195

Volatile organic components in the Skylab 4 spacecraft atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The volatile organic components in the spacecraft cabin atmosphere of Skylab 4 were trapped on a solid adsorbent at various times during the mission. In post-flight analyses, more than 300 compounds in concentrations from less than 1 ppb up to 8000 ppb could be detected by high-resolution gas chromatography. In the samples of the 11th, 47th, and 77th day of the mission, approximately 100 components in the molecular weight range from 58 to 592 were identified by mass spectrometry. Besides components known from other environments, such as alkanes, alkenes, and alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons, components typical of the human metabolism, such as ketones and alcohols, were found. Other typical components in the spacecraft atmosphere included fluorocarbons and various silicone compounds, mostly normal and cyclic methylsiloxanes.

Liebich, H. M.; Bertsch, W.; Zlatkis, A.; Schneider, H. J.

1975-01-01

196

Alveolar air volatile organic compound extractor for clinical breath sampling.  

PubMed

Alveolar air Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) extractor is a handheld breath-sampling device for clinical breath analysis. The device consists two main components: (1) An alveolar air separator, (2) A VOC extractor. The alveolar air separator splits exhaled air based on total exhaled air volume directing alveolar air towards the VOC extractor and dead space air to into an exhaust channel. The VOC extractor collects the VOCs from alveolar air into a modified Sold Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) filament. Feasibility of using the SPME filament to collect a quantifiable breath sample directly from exhaled breath is experimentally validated. Exhaled breath acetone is quantified using alveolar air VOC extractor and a GC/MS system. PMID:25571207

de Silva, Geethanga; Beyette, Fred R

2014-01-01

197

Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Landscape  

SciTech Connect

Direct measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions that include all anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources in urban areas are a missing requirement to evaluate emission inventories and constrain current photochemical modelling practices. Here we demonstrate the use of micrometeorological techniques coupled with fast-response sensors to measure urban VOC fluxes from a neighborhood of Mexico City, where the spatial variability of surface cover and roughness is high. Fluxes of olefins, methanol, acetone, toluene and C2-benzenes were measured and compared with the local gridded emission inventory. VOC fluxes exhibited a clear diurnal pattern with a strong relationship to vehicular traffic. Recent photochemical modeling results suggest that VOC emissions are significantly underestimated in Mexico City1, but the measured VOC fluxes described here indicate that the official emission inventory2 is essentially correct. Thus, other explanations are needed to explain the photochemical modelling results.

Velasco, E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Pressley, S.; Allwine, Eugene J.; Westberg, Halvor; Jobson, B Tom T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Prazeller, Peter; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.

2005-10-19

198

Emission of volatile organic compounds after land application of cattle manure.  

PubMed

Beef cattle manure can serve as a valuable source of nutrients for crop production. However, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) after land application may pose an odor nuisance to downwind populations. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of land application method, diet, soil moisture content, and time since manure application on VOC emissions. Manure was collected from feedlot pens where cattle were fed diets containing 0, 10, or 30% wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS). Land application methods included surface-applying manure (i.e., no-tillage) or incorporating manure using disk tillage. The effects of soil moisture content on VOC emissions was determined by adding water to each of the plots approximately 24 h after manure application. Isovaleric acid, butyric acid, and 4-methylphenol contributed 28.9, 18.0, and 17.7%, respectively, of the total measured odor activity values. In general, the largest emissions of volatile fatty acids and aromatics were measured during the initial collection periods on the no-tillage plots under dry soil moisture conditions. Emissions of volatile fatty acids and aromatics were reduced after water additions because these compounds were stored in the soil-water matrix rather than released into the atmosphere. In contrast, sulfide emissions generally increased with the addition of the water, especially on the plots containing manure from the 30% WDGS diet. Sulfur content of manure increases with higher percentages of WDGS feed stock. Application method, diet, soil moisture content, and time since application should be considered when estimating VOC emissions. PMID:25603069

Woodbury, Bryan L; Gilley, John E; Parker, David B; Marx, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Eigenberg, Roger A

2014-07-01

199

Capillary chromatographic analysis of volatile organic compounds in the indoor environment.  

PubMed

The wide variety of volatile organic compounds found in the indoor environment can present a difficult chromatographic problem for the analyst. Capillary-column gas chromatography is required to achieve adequate separation. Thermal desorption/capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is usually the preferred method for broad spectrum analysis of the volatile organics detected indoors. Cryogenic trapping is required for capillary gas chromatographic analysis of the more volatile components. PMID:3558698

Bayer, C W; Black, M S

1987-02-01

200

Analysis of low- and non-volatile organic substances in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Three analytical techniques were utilized for the analysis of low- and non-volatile organic materials in various environmental samples. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to characterize lipid materials extracted from atmospheric aerosol samples collected over the equatorial Pacific ocean. Although terrestrial-derived lipids were present, the major source of the aerosol lipids appeared to be local marine sources whereas previous reports of non-equatorial Pacific ocean aerosols indicated a major terrestrial source of lipids. A supercritical fluid chromatograph (SFC), with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detectors, was constructed for analysis of compound mixtures which could not be adequately separated by gas chromatography or liquid chromatography. One such application was the separation and quantitation of glycerol tetraether lipids of archaebacteria. A new theory of solute retention in SFC, in which entropy changes play a significant role, was also developed. Pattern recognition procedures were applied to pyrolysis-mass spectrometry (Py-MS) data for the characterization of complex non-volatile organic mixtures. In one study, Py-MS data were used to distinguish humic acids from fulvic acids in a varied suite of humic materials. Another Py-MS study involved the classification of southeast Asian environmental samples associated with yellow rain. The method classified samples as either pollen or bee feces with a 95% success rate.

DeLuca, S.J.

1986-01-01

201

Inorganic salts interact with oxalic acid in submicron particles to form material with low hygroscopicity and volatility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatility and hygroscopicity are two key properties of organic aerosol components, and both are strongly related to chemical identity. While the hygroscopicities of pure salts, di-carboxylic acids (DCA), and DCA salts are known, the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures of these components, as they are typically found in the atmosphere, has not been fully characterized. Here we show that inorganic-organic component interactions typically not considered in atmospheric models can lead to very strongly bound metal-organic complexes and greatly affect aerosol volatility and hygroscopicity; in particular, the bi-dentate binding of DCA to soluble inorganic ions. We have studied the volatility of pure, dry organic salt particles and the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures of oxalic acid (OxA, the dominant DCA in the atmosphere) and a number of salts, both mono- and di-valent. The formation of very low volatility organic salts was confirmed, with minimal evaporation of oxalate salt particles below 75 °C. Dramatic increases in the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation diameter for particles with di-valent salts (e.g., CaCl2) and relatively small particle volume fractions of OxA indicate that standard volume additivity rules for hygroscopicity do not apply. Thus small organic compounds with high O : C ratios are capable of forming low-volatility and very low hygroscopicity particles. Given current knowledge of the formation mechanisms of OxA and M-Ox salts, surface enrichment of insoluble M-Ox salts is expected. The resulting formation of an insoluble coating of metal-oxalate salts can explain low-particle hygroscopicities. The formation of particles with a hard coating could offer an alternative explanation for observations of glass-like particles without the need for a phase transition.

Drozd, G.; Woo, J.; Häkkinen, S. A. K.; Nenes, A.; McNeill, V. F.

2014-05-01

202

Characterization of microbial species in a regenerative bio-filter system for volatile organic compound removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective removal of volatile organic compounds is critical for indoor air quality control. The performance of traditional technologies of volatile organic compound removal is limited by inadequate selection of filter media, poor airflow management inside the cleaning devices, insufficient catalytic reaction surface area, and poor distribution of UV light irradiation. In comparison, the relatively new regenerative air filtration systems use

Wen-Hsuan Huang; Zhiqiang Wang; Geetika Choudhary; Beverly Guo; Jianshun Zhang; Dacheng Ren

2012-01-01

203

ASSESSMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM A PETROLEUM REFINERY LAND TREATMENT SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

A field assessment was performed to measure the emissions of volatile organics from a petroleum refinery landtreatment site. As part of the study, the emissions of total volatile organics from surface-applied and subsurface-injected oily sludge were measured over a five week peri...

204

Submitted Manuscript: Confidential 7 November 2013 Volatile and Organic Compositions of Sedimentary Rocks in  

E-print Network

., Volatile and Organic Compositions of Sedimentary Rocks on Mars 2 14 Department of Space Sciences, NASA AmesSubmitted Manuscript: Confidential 7 November 2013 Volatile and Organic Compositions of Sedimentary Rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars D. W. Ming1,* , P. D. Archer, Jr.2 , D. P. Glavin3 , J. L

Faraon, Andrei

205

Removal of hydrophobic Volatile Organic Compounds1 in an integrated process coupling Absorption and2  

E-print Network

1 Removal of hydrophobic Volatile Organic Compounds1 in an integrated process coupling Absorption, the treatment of atmospheric58 emission, including Volatile Organic Compounds, has become an ecological integrated process, silicone oils and ionic liquids.33 Key words: Hydrophobic VOC; Absorption; Two

Boyer, Edmond

206

Supplementary Material1 "The Atmospheric Potential of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds from Needles of2  

E-print Network

1 Supplementary Material1 "The Atmospheric Potential of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds from degradation of volatile organic compounds, Chem. Rev., 103,26 4605-4638, 2003.27 Hoskovec, M., Grygarova, D. The retention time and8 mass spectrum of -phellandrene were obtained using Angelica seed oil (Shiono Koryo9

Meskhidze, Nicholas

207

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MODEL-QUALITY ASSURANCE AND SENSITIVITY TESTING (VERSION 1.8)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes test runs of the Volatile Organic Compound Model (VOCM), Version 1.8. VOCM predicts future emission levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by projecting uncontrolled base year emissions into the future. These projected emissions are then reduced by const...

208

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING VOLATILE ORGANICS IN WATER (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

A comprehensive procedure for isolation of volatile organic compounds from various waters was developed through the use of representative volatile organic compounds as part of the EPA Master Analytical Scheme. Preliminary recoveries were determined for a broad range of analytes i...

209

Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds—Old, However, Actual Analytical and Toxicological Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest in chlorinated volatile organic compounds is not a new task but still draws the attention of scientists. The role they play in human organism, is an important aspect to consider, since the development of analytical techniques and instrumental solutions gives new possibilities of their application in the analytics of volatile compounds and recognition of properties, so far impossible

El?bieta Dobrzy?ska; Ma?gorzata Po?niak; Ma?gorzata Szewczy?ska; Bogus?aw Buszewski

2010-01-01

210

40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart II of... - Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits for Marine Coatings  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits for Marine...to Subpart II of Part 63—Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits for Marine...compounds and that the volumes of all components within a coating are...

2010-07-01

211

Contributions of biogenic volatile organic compounds to net ecosystem carbon flux in a ponderosa pine plantation  

E-print Network

of carbon assimilated by an ecosystem is defined as the gross primary productivity (GPP). MuchContributions of biogenic volatile organic compounds to net ecosystem carbon flux in a ponderosa 2012 Keywords: Biogenic volatile organic compounds Net ecosystem exchange Carbon balance a b s t r a c

Cohen, Ronald C.

212

Temperature dependence of volatile organic compound evaporative emissions from motor vehicles  

E-print Network

summer 2001. Additional gasoline- related VOC emissions not shown in Figure 1 occur at service stationsTemperature dependence of volatile organic compound evaporative emissions from motor vehicles Juli tailpipe sources to motor vehicle volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Contributions were determined

Silver, Whendee

213

DEVELOPMENT OF THE VOLATILE ORGANIC SAMPLING TRAIN (VOST) FOR USE IN DETERMINING INCINERATOR EFFICIENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development, initial evaluation, and field application to incinerators of a new sampling train for volatile organic species. The Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) is a simple portable device, combining Tenax and Tenax/charcoal cartridges as collection...

214

Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Larrea tridentate (Creosote bush) during the North American Monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North American monsoon is experienced as a pronounced increase in rainfall from an extremely dry June (< 5 mm precipitation) to a rainy July (> 80 mm) over large areas of the Sonoran desert in southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. While the sudden availability of water, high temperatures and solar insolation is known to stimulate the primary productivity of the Sonoran desert, little is known about the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from this region. Atmospheric VOCs impact climate and air quality by influencing the oxidizing capacity and acidity of the atmosphere and by contributing to aerosol particles. Although it is often a dominant species in North and South American deserts and is known for the production of a rich set of VOCs, few measurements of VOC emissions from creosote bush exist. We present preliminary results from a field study in southern Arizona aimed at quantifying the exchange rates of VOCs from a creosote bush dominated ecosystem during and after the monsoon season. Ecosystem exchange rates were measured with the technique of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (PTR-MS) and relaxed eddy accumulation (GC-MS). Branch enclosure studies show a diurnal pattern of VOCs emissions typically observed in other forest sites including oxygenated VOCs and volatile isoprenoids. However, a large number of additional VOCs mainly derived from the oxidation of fatty acids and the Shikimic Acid Pathway are also released.

Jardine, K. J.; Kurc, S. A.; Guenther, A. B.; Scott, R. L.; Huxman, T. E.; Abrell, L.

2009-12-01

215

Extraction and identification of volatile organic substances (VOS) from Scottish peat cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degradation of organic matter in peat bogs is complex and not yet well understood. Recent investigations of the trace gases CO 2 and CH 4 focussed on the impact of these greenhouse gases on global warming. However, there have to be metabolic intermediates between complex organic structures (i.e., humic acids) and gaseous end products (CH 4, CO 2, N 2, NO x and H 2S) other than water-soluble substances (i.e., aromatic acids, amino acids, fatty acids). Deoxygenation during microbial decomposition of plant material also produces anoxic conditions that favor the formation of kinetically stable hydrocarbons. In this study, volatile organic substances (VOS) in peat bogs were investigated using two techniques: purge-and-trap and closed-loop stripping. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis revealed mainly branched hydrocarbons (C 8H 18) in concentrations up to 260 nM in peat pore-water. Additionally, alkylated benzenes were found in concentrations of up to 464 nM, in the peat pore-water, and up to 23 pptv in the headspace of peat cores. However, one-third of all the compounds in the complex VOS-fraction extracted from the peat system remain to be identified, especially those substances containing oxygen.

Beckmann, Manfred; Lloyd, David

216

High throughput volatile fatty acid skin metabolite profiling by thermal desorption secondary electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The non-invasive nature of volatile organic compound (VOC) sampling from skin makes this a priority in the development of new screening and diagnostic assays. Evaluation of recent literature highlights the tension between the analytical utility of ambient ionisation approaches for skin profiling and the practicality of undertaking larger campaigns (higher statistical power), or undertaking research in remote locations. This study describes how VOC may be sampled from skin and recovered from a polydimethylsilicone sampling coupon and analysed by thermal desorption (TD) interfaced to secondary electrospray ionisation (SESI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) for the high throughput screening of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from human skin. Analysis times were reduced by 79% compared to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods (GC-MS) and limits of detection in the range 300 to 900 pg cm(-2) for VFA skin concentrations were obtained. Using body odour as a surrogate model for clinical testing 10 Filipino participants, 5 high and 5 low odour, were sampled in Manilla and the samples returned to the UK and screened by TD-SESI-MS and TD-GC-MS for malodour precursors with greater than >95% agreement between the two analytical techniques. Eight additional VFAs were also identified by both techniques with chains 4 to 15 carbons long being observed. TD-SESI-MS appears to have significant potential for the high throughput targeted screening of volatile biomarkers in human skin. PMID:24992564

Martin, Helen J; Reynolds, James C; Riazanskaia, Svetlana; Thomas, C L Paul

2014-09-01

217

Volatile organic compound emissions from different stages of Cananga odorata flower development.  

PubMed

Headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the different flower development stages of Cananga odorata for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism as a basis to determine the best time of harvest. Electronic nose results, coupled with discriminant factor analysis, suggested that emitted odors varied in different C. odorata flower development stages, including the bud, display-petal, initial-flowering, full-flowering, end-flowering, wilted-flower, and dried flower stages. The first two discriminant factors explained 97.52% of total system variance. Ninety-two compounds were detected over the flower life, and the mean Bray-Curtis similarity value was 52.45% among different flower development stages. A high level of volatile polymorphism was observed during flower development. The VOCs were largely grouped as hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, phenols, acids, ketones, and ethers, and the main compound was ?-caryophyllene (15.05%-33.30%). Other identified compounds were ?-cubebene, D-germacrene, benzyl benzoate, and ?-cubebene. Moreover, large numbers of VOCs were detected at intermediate times of flower development, and more hydrocarbons, esters, and alcohols were identified in the full-flowering stage. The full-flowering stage may be the most suitable period for C. odorata flower harvest. PMID:24979401

Qin, Xiao-Wei; Hao, Chao-Yun; He, Shu-Zhen; Wu, Gang; Tan, Le-He; Xu, Fei; Hu, Rong-Suo

2014-01-01

218

EVALUATION OF THE WALKTHROUGH SURVEY METHOD FOR DETECTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND LEAKS  

EPA Science Inventory

During 1978 and 1979, the Emission Standards and Engineering Division of EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards conducted a fugitive volatile organic compound (VOC) emission sampling program in organic chemical manufacturing plants and petroleum refineries. As a part ...

219

40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 ...Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 ...Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and...

2014-07-01

220

40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 ...Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 ...Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and...

2012-07-01

221

40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 ...Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 ...Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and...

2013-07-01

222

40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 ...Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 ...Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and...

2011-07-01

223

40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. 60.502 ...Standards of Performance for Bulk Gasoline Terminals § 60.502 ...Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and...

2010-07-01

224

A survey of household products for volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 1159 common household products were analysed for 31 volatile organic compounds as potential sources of indoor air pollution. The products were distributed among 65 product categories within 8 category classes: automotive products (14.4% of the products); household cleaners/polishes (9.6%); paint-related products (39.9%); fabric and leather treatments (7.9%); cleaners for electronic equipment (6.0%); oils, greases and lubricants (9.6%); adhesive-related products (6.6%); and miscellaneous products (6.1%). The study was conducted in two parts. In the first part, or the original study, the products were reanalysed for methylene chloride and five other chlorocarbons using purge-and-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and a data base containing the analytical results was developed. Because full mass spectra were taken, the original set of GC/MS data also contained information regarding other volatile chemicals in the products. However, this additional data was not reported at that time. In the second part of the study, the GC/MS data were reanalysed to determine the presence and concentrations of an additional 25 volatile chemicals. The 31 chemicals included in both parts of this study were: carbon tetrachloride; methylene chloride; tetrachloroethylene; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; trichlorethylene; 1,1,2-tricholorotrifluoroethane; acetone; benzene; 2-butanone; chlorobenzene; chloroform; cyclohexane; 1,2-dichloroethane; 1,4-dioxane; ethylbenzene; n-hexane; d-limonene; methylcyclohexane; methylcyclopentane; methyl isobutyl ketone; n-nonane; n-octane; ?-pinene; propylene oxide; styrene; 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; tetrahydrofuran; toluene; m-mxylene; o-xylene; and p-xylene. Of the 31 chemicals, toluene, the xylenes and methylene chloride were found to occur most frequently—in over 40% of the products tested. Chemicals that were typically found in relatively high concentrations in the samples (i.e. greater than 20% w/w) included acetone, 2-butanone, hexane, methylene chloride, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane and the xylenes. Chlorobenzene, d-limonene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, n-nonane and styrene were not found in any of the products at or above the 0.1% level. In all, 935 of the products contained one or more of the target solvents at levels greater than 0.1%. The resulting data base contains information regarding the 1159 products, such as origin, cost, container type, lot number, etc., as well as quantitative information for each of the 31 chemicals. The frequency of occurrence and average concentrations for the target chemicals are summarized for each of the product classes.

Sack, Thomas M.; Steele, David H.; Hammerstrom, Karen; Remmers, Janet

225

Chemical oxidation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in soil  

SciTech Connect

Subsurface contamination with fuel hydrocarbons or chlorinated hydrocarbons is prevalent throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in many sites managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund program. The most commonly reported chlorinated hydrocarbons (occurring > 50% of DOE contaminated sites) were trichloroethylene (TCE), 1, 1, 1,-trichloroethane (TCA), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with concentrations in the range of 0.2 {mu}g/kg to 12,000 mg/kg. The fuel hydrocarbons most frequently reported as being present at DOE sites include aromatic compounds and polyaromatic compounds such as phenanthrene, pyrene, and naphthalene. The primary sources of these semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are coal waste from coal fired electric power plants used at many of these facilities in the past and gasoline spills and leaks. Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) can migrate within the subsurface for long periods of time along a variety of pathways including fractures, macropores, and micropores. Diffusion of contaminants in the non-aqueous, aqueous, and vapor phase can occur from the fractures and macropores into the matrix of fine-textured media. As a result of these contamination processes, removal of contaminants from the subsurface and the delivery of treatment agents into and throughout contaminated regions are often hindered, making rapid and extensive remediation difficult.

Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.; Cline, S.R.

1995-06-01

226

Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation fires  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art on research into the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation fires. Significant amounts of VOCs are emitted from vegetation fires, including several reactive compounds, the majority belonging to the isoprenoid family, which rapidly disappear in the plume to yield pollutants such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. This makes determination of fire-induced BVOC emission difficult, particularly in areas where the ratio between VOCs and anthropogenic NOx is favourable to the production of ozone, such as Mediterranean areas and highly anthropic temperate (and fire-prone) regions of the Earth. Fire emissions affecting relatively pristine areas, such as the Amazon and the African savannah, are representative of emissions of undisturbed plant communities. We also examined expected BVOC emissions at different stages of fire development and combustion, from drying to flaming, and from heatwaves coming into contact with unburned vegetation at the edge of fires. We conclude that forest fires may dramatically change emission factors and the profile of emitted BVOCs, thereby influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, the physiology of plants and the evolution of plant communities within the ecosystem. PMID:24689733

CICCIOLI, PAOLO; CENTRITTO, MAURO; LORETO, FRANCESCO

2014-01-01

227

Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation fires.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art on research into the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation fires. Significant amounts of VOCs are emitted from vegetation fires, including several reactive compounds, the majority belonging to the isoprenoid family, which rapidly disappear in the plume to yield pollutants such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. This makes determination of fire-induced BVOC emission difficult, particularly in areas where the ratio between VOCs and anthropogenic NOx is favourable to the production of ozone, such as Mediterranean areas and highly anthropic temperate (and fire-prone) regions of the Earth. Fire emissions affecting relatively pristine areas, such as the Amazon and the African savannah, are representative of emissions of undisturbed plant communities. We also examined expected BVOC emissions at different stages of fire development and combustion, from drying to flaming, and from heatwaves coming into contact with unburned vegetation at the edge of fires. We conclude that forest fires may dramatically change emission factors and the profile of emitted BVOCs, thereby influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, the physiology of plants and the evolution of plant communities within the ecosystem. PMID:24689733

Ciccioli, Paolo; Centritto, Mauro; Loreto, Francesco

2014-08-01

228

Anaerobic rotating disc batch reactor nutrient removal process enhanced by volatile fatty acid addition.  

PubMed

RBC effluent needs further treatment because of water-quality standards requiring low nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. It may be achieved by using reactors with biomass immobilized on the filling's surface as post-denitrification biofilm reactors. Due to the lack of organic matter in treated wastewater, the introduction of external carbon sources becomes necessary. The new attached growth bioreactor - anaerobic rotating disc batch reactor (ARDBR) - was examined as a post-denitrification reactor. The impact of selected volatile fatty acids on nutrient removal efficiency in an ARDBR was studied. The biofilm was developing on totally submerged discs mounted coaxially on a vertical shaft. Acetic, propionic, butyric and caproic acids were applied. Wastewaters were removed from the reactors after 24-h treatment, together with the excess solids. In the ARDBR tank, there was no biomass in the suspended form at the beginning of the treatment process. Acids with a higher number of carbon atoms (butyric and caproic) were the most efficient in denitrification process. The highest phosphorus removal efficiency was noted in the ARDBR with butyric and propionic acids. The lowest unitary consumption of the external source of carbon in denitrification was recorded for acetic acid, whereas the highest one for caproic acid. PMID:25252632

Rodziewicz, Joanna; Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Mielcarek, Artur; Filipkowska, Urszula; K?odowska, Izabella; Ostrowska, Kamila; Duchniewicz, Sylwia

2015-04-01

229

Volatile organic compounds and trace metal level in some beers collected from Romanian market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beer is one of the most popular beverages at worldwide level. Through this study fifteen different types of beer collected from Romanian market were analysed in order to evaluate their mineral, trace element as well the their organic content. Importance of such characterization of beer samples is supported by the fact that their chemical composition can affect both taste and stability of beer, as well the consumer health. Minerals and trace elements analysis were performed on ICP-MS while organic compounds analysis was done through GC-MS. Through ICP-MS analysis, elements as Ca, Na, K and Mg were evidenced at mg?kg-1 order while elements as Cr, Ba, Co, Ni were detected at lower level. After GC-MS analysis the major volatile compounds that were detected belong to alcohols namely ethanol, propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and linalool. Selected fatty acids and esters were evidenced also in the studied beer samples.

Voica, Cezara; Kovacs, Melinda; Vadan, Marius

2013-11-01

230

Using electromagnetic induction technology to predict volatile fatty acid, source area differences  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Subsurface sampling techniques have been adapted to measure manure accumulation on feedlot surface. Objectives of this study were to determine if sensor data could be used to predict differences in volatile fatty acids (VFA) and other volatiles produced on the feedlot surface three days following a...

231

UNDERSTANDING THE CONTRIBUTIONS AND INTERACTIONS OF SUGARS, ACIDS AND AROMA VOLATILES TO OVERALL TOMATO FLAVOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The contribution and interaction of sugars, acids and volatiles to tomato (Lycoperscon esculentum Mill.) flavor is little understood. Coarsely chopped deodorized tomato puree was spiked with different levels of individual food grade volatiles, reported to contribute to tomato flavor, as well as two...

232

Aqueous Oxidation of Green Leaf Volatiles as a Source of Secondary Organic Aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation emits volatile oxygenated hydrocarbons - the green leaf volatiles (GLVs) - which are formed from the biochemical conversion of linoleic and linolenic acids within plant cells. Stress or damage to vegetation can significantly elevate emission fluxes of these compounds, some of which are fairly water soluble. Aqueous-phase reactions of the GLVs with photochemically generated oxidants - such as hydroxyl radical (OH), singlet oxygen (1O2) and excited triplet states of organic compounds (3C*) _ might then form low-volatility products that can act as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In order to determine if GLVs can be a significant source of secondary organic carbon in fogwater, studies of GLVs in laboratory solutions are needed to elucidate the oxidation kinetics and the corresponding SOA mass yields. In this study we are determining the second-order rate constants, and SOA mass yields, for five GLVs (cis-3-hexen-1-ol, cis-3-hexenylacetate, methyl salicylate, methyl jasmonate, and 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol) reacting with OH,1O2 and 3C*. Experiments are performed at relevant fog water pHs, temperatures, and oxidant concentrations. Rate constants are determined using a relative rate approach in which the decay of GLVs and reference compounds are monitored as function of time by HPLC. The capacity of GLVs to form aqueous SOA was determined by following the formation of their decomposition products with HPLC-UV/DAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. SOA mass yields are measured gravimetrically from laboratory solutions containing atmospherically relevant concentrations of photooxidants and GLVs, and irradiated with simulated sunlight. We will use our results to assess the potential contribution of aqueous GLV reactions as a source of SOA in cloudy or foggy atmospheres.

Richards-Henderson, N. K.; Hansel, A.; Pham, A. T.; Vempati, H. S.; Valsaraj, K. T.; Anastasio, C.

2013-12-01

233

A universal temperature controlled membrane interface for the analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

A universal temperature controlled membrane interface (TCMI) has been constructed for hollow-fibre membranes. The membrane temperature is controllable in the range -70 to 250 degrees C using an electric heater and a flow of cooled nitrogen or helium gas. Volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds may be detected either by continuous diffusion across the membrane or by in-membrane pre-concentration followed by thermal desorption into the detector. The TCMI interface is demonstrated in combination with mass spectrometry and GC-MS, for the determination of VOCs and SVOCs in aqueous and air samples and for the on-line monitoring of a bioreactor. PMID:14529022

Creaser, Colin S; Lamarca, David Gómez; dos Santos, Luisa M Freitas; New, Anthony P; James, Phillip A

2003-09-01

234

Volatile and amino acid profiling of dry cured hams from different swine breeds and processing methods.  

PubMed

The flavor of dry cured ham explains the high appreciation of this product and it determines consumer acceptance. Volatile compounds provide valuable information about the odor and sensory quality of dry cured hams. Since amino acids are the origin of some volatile compounds of dry cured ham, the volatile and amino acid compositions of forty-one dry cured hams from Spain and France were determined to establish associations between them. The samples included different pig breeds (non Iberian vs. Iberian), which were additionally affected by different maturation times and feeding types (acorn vs. fodder). Results showed that 20 volatile compounds were able to distinguish Iberian and non Iberian hams, and 16 of those had relevant sensory impact according to their odor activity values. 3-Methylbutanol, 2-heptanol and hexanal were among the most concentrated volatile compounds. In the case of non-volatile compounds, the concentrations of amino acids were generally higher in Iberian hams, and all the amino acids were able to distinguish Iberian from non Iberian hams with the exception of tryptophan and asparagine. A strong correlation of some amino acids with volatile compounds was found in the particular case of alcohols and aldehydes when only Iberian hams were considered. The high correlation values found in some cases proved that proteolysis plays an important role in aroma generation. PMID:23552905

García-González, Diego L; Aparicio, Ramón; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón

2013-01-01

235

Chemically-Resolved Volatility Measurements of Organic Aerosol from Different Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly modified fast temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD) was coupled to a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) for rapid quantification of chemically-resolved volatility of organic aerosols (OA) emitted from individual sources. The TD-AMS system was used to characterize primary OA (POA) from biomass burning, trash burning surrogates (paper and plastic), and meat cooking as well as chamber-generated secondary OA (SOA) from a-pinene and gasoline vapor. Almost all atmospheric models represent POA as non-volatile, with no allowance for evaporation upon heating or dilution, or condensation upon cooling. Our results indicate that all OAs observed show semi-volatile behavior and that most POAs are at least as volatile as SOA measured in urban environments. Biomass-burning OA (BBOA) exhibited a wide range of volatilities, but more often showed volatility similar to urban OA. Paper-burning resembles BBOA because of its high volatility and intermediate atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratio, while meat-cooking OAs (MCOA) have consistently lower volatility than ambient OA. Chamber-generated SOA was significantly more volatile than urban SOA, challenging extrapolation of traditional laboratory volatility measurements to the atmosphere. Most OAs sampled show increasing O/C ratio and decreasing H/C (hydrogen-to-carbon) ratio with temperature, further indicating that more oxygenated OA components are less volatile.

Huffman, J. A.; Docherty, K. S.; Mohr, C.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Ziemann, P. J.; Onasch, T. B.; Jimenez, J. L.

2009-04-01

236

Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Megacities and Wildfires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a critical role in determining air quality through their impact on ozone production and other pollutants. Tropospheric chemistry models use a variety of treatments for the lumping of VOCs in their chemical mechanisms, as a compromise between detailed treatment and computational speed. However, emission inventories are frequently provided for only total VOCs with little or no information on how to split the emissions among the model species, introducing additional uncertainty to the model simulations. Global model simulations using the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART-4) and several different emission inventories are evaluated through detailed comparison to aircraft and surface observations. In particular, correlations between measured VOCs and CO are used to test the emission inventory emission ratios of the modeled VOC species. For example, megacity VOC emissions will be evaluated with surface measurements in Mumbai, Shanghai and Tokyo, as well as aircraft measurements from the NSF/MIRAGE experiment downwind of Mexico City. Wildfire emissions in Siberia, Canada and California will be evaluated using airborne observations of the NASA/ARCTAS experiment.

Emmons, L. K.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Riemer, D. D.; Lamarque, J.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Mirage Science Team; Arctas Science Team

2011-12-01

237

Real time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in centenarians.  

PubMed

Centenarians are a model to study human longevity and the physiological process of aging. A plethora of studies on this model show the complexity of the system. Laboratory studies fail to find a biomarker of senescence. The real time exhaled breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. VOCs exhaled by centenarians have not been studied in the general population and across-age-groups. In the present study we investigated, in real time, the breath properties and VOC exhaled content in healthy centenarians as compared with non-centenarian seniors and young healthy subjects. We found distinctly different breath pattern and distribution profiles of VOCs in the centenarians. Thus, the VOCs measurement allowed to discriminate the differences between the age-groups. We propose a VOCs fingerprint as a biomarker underlying the physiological mechanisms of aging and longevity. Longevity should be considered physiologically as a new phase of life, characteristic of the well adapted subject. PMID:25542135

Mazzatenta, Andrea; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Di Giulio, Camillo

2015-04-01

238

Characterization of volatile organic chemical emissions from carpet cushions  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission is investigating chemical emissions from carpet systems in order to determine whether the emissions may be responsible for the numerous health complaints associated with carpet installation. As part of this effort, a study was conducted to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the air by five major product types of new carpet cushions. Cushion samples were tested in small-volume dynamic chambers over a six-hour exposure period. Airborne VOCs collected on multisorbent samplers were identified using sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A separate chamber method was developed to screen polyurethane cushions for emissions of toluene diisocyanates (TDI). Over 100 VOCs, spanning a broad range of chemical classes, were emitted from 17 carpet cushions. The pattern of emitted VOCs varied between and among product types, which reflects probable differences in manufacturing processes and ingredients. No significant quantities of TDI or formaldehyde were released by any cushions. Emission profiles were characterized for total VOCs and for the predominant individual VOCs. As a group, the synthetic fiber cushion samples emitted the lowest quantities of VOCs. Cushion samples purchased from carpet retailers released lesser amounts of VOCs than samples of the same cushion types obtained directly from the manufacturing mills. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Schaeffer, V.H.; Bhooshan, B.; Chen, S.B.; Sonenthal, J.S. [Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Hodgson, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1996-09-01

239

Constituents of volatile organic compounds of evaporating essential oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential oils containing aromatic compounds can affect air quality when used indoors. Five typical and popular essential oils—rose, lemon, rosemary, tea tree and lavender—were investigated in terms of composition, thermal characteristics, volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents, and emission factors. The activation energy was 6.3-8.6 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.8, and the frequency factor was 0.01-0.24 min -1. Toluene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene and m-diethylbenzene were the predominant VOCs of evaporating gas of essential oils at 40 °C. In addition, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m-diethylbenzene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene revealed high emission factors during the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis procedures. The sequence of the emission factors of 52 VOCs (137-173 mg g -1) was rose ? rosemary > tea tree ? lemon ? lavender. The VOC group fraction of the emission factor of aromatics was 62-78%, paraffins were 21-37% and olefins were less than 1.5% during the TG process. Some unhealthy VOCs such as benzene and toluene were measured at low temperature; they reveal the potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lo, Cho-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2009-12-01

240

Volatile organic compounds in foods: a five year study.  

PubMed

A purge and trap procedure was used with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination to analyze 70 foods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The results from analyses over a 5 year period (1996-2000) are reported. VOCs were found in at least one sample of all foods tested, although no single compound was found in each of the foods. The total amount of VOCs found in a single food item over the 5 year period ranged from 24 to 5328 ppb, with creamed corn (canned) the lowest and cheddar cheese the highest. Benzene was found in all foods except American cheese and vanilla ice cream. Benzene levels ranged from 1 to 190 ppb, with the highest level found in fully cooked ground beef. Benzene was found in 12 samples of cooked ground beef, with an average of 40 ppb. Benzene levels above 100 ppb were also seen in at least one sample each of a cola (138 ppb), raw bananas (132 ppb), and cole slaw (102 ppb). This compares to a maximum contaminant level of 5 ppb set by the U.S. EPA for drinking water. PMID:14690406

Fleming-Jones, Mary Ellen; Smith, Robert E

2003-12-31

241

Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total U.S. VOC emissions. The 'Toxic-Release Inventory' of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing, refrigerant production, and wood products production. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase 1 report documents 3M's work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. The Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient, and economically priced.

1992-03-01

242

Predicting the emission rate of volatile organic compounds fromvinyl flooring  

SciTech Connect

A model for predicting the rate at which a volatile organic compound (VOC) is emitted from a diffusion-controlled material is validated for three contaminants (n-pentadecane, n-tetradecane, and phenol) found in vinyl flooring (VF). Model parameters are the initial VOC concentration in the material-phase (C{sub 0}), the material/air partition coefficient (K), and the material-phase diffusion coefficient (D). The model was verified by comparing predicted gas-phase concentrations to data obtained during small-scale chamber tests, and by comparing predicted material-phase concentrations to those measured at the conclusion of the chamber tests. Chamber tests were conducted with the VF placed top side up and bottom side up. With the exception of phenol, and within the limits of experimental precision, the mass of VOCs recovered in the gas phase balances the mass emitted from the material phase. The model parameters (C{sub 0}, K, and D) were measured using procedures that were completely independent of the chamber test. Gas- and material-phase predictions compare well to the bottom-side-up chamber data. The lower emission rates for the top-side-up orientation may be explained by the presence of a low-permeability surface layer. The sink effect of the stainless steel chamber surface was shown to be negligible.

Cox, Steven S.; Little, John C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.

2001-03-01

243

Cost effective passive sampling device for volatile organic compounds monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory-built passive sampler was developed as a simple and cost effective device for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX). Common glass bottles (screw cap, 10 ml, 67.6×10.6 mm ID), packed with 75 mg of activated Tenax TA, were used as passive samplers. After exposed to real sample, the adsorbent was desorbed using a laboratory-built thermal desorption device. The analytes were purged to fill a sampling loop and then injected by a gas sampling valve to a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (FID). All parameters, i.e. , desorption time, purge flow rate, gas chromatograph conditions were optimized to obtain high sensitivity, resolution and short analysis time. The system was calibrated by BTX standard gas and the linear regression coefficient of greater than 0.99 was obtained with detection limits 0.3, 0.2 and 0.7 ?g m -3 for benzene, toluene and xylene, respectively. The proposed method was implemented for the monitoring of BTX at 10 gasoline stations in Hat Yai, Thailand. The concentrations were found in the range of N.D.-19, 12-200 and 23-200 ?g m -3 for benzene, toluene and xylene, respectively.

Thammakhet, Chongdee; Muneesawang, Vilailuk; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

244

Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The Toxic-Release Inventory'' of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M's work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

Not Available

1992-03-01

245

Volatile organic compound monitoring by photo acoustic radiometry  

SciTech Connect

Two methods for sampling and analyzing volatile organics in subsurface pore gas were developed for use at the Hazardous Waste Disposal Site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. One is Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (TDGCMS), the other is Photoacoustic Radiometry (PAR). Presented here are two years worth of experience and lessons learned as both techniques matured. The sampling technique is equally as important as the analysis method. PAR is a nondispersive infrared technique utilizing band pass filters in the region from 1 to 15 {mu}m. A commercial instrument, the Model 1302 Multigas Analyzer, made by Bruel and Kjaer, was adapted for field use. To use the PAR there must be some a priori knowledge of the constellation of analytes to be measured. The TDGCMS method is sensitive to 50 analytes. Hence TDGCMS is used in an initial survey of the site to determine what compounds are present and at what concentration. Once the major constituents of the soil-gas vapor plume are known the PAR can be configured to monitor for the five analytes of most interest. The PAR can analyse a sample in minutes, while in the field. The PAR is also quite precise in controlled situations.

Sollid, J.E.; Trujillo, V.L.; Limback, S.P.; Woloshun, K.A.

1995-12-01

246

Volatile organic compounds in fourteen U.S. retail stores.  

PubMed

Retail buildings have a potential for both short-term (customer) and long-term (occupational) exposure to indoor pollutants. However, little is known about volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the retail sector and influencing factors, such as ventilation, in-store activities, and store type. We measured VOC concentrations and ventilation rates in 14 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania. With the exception of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, VOCs were present in retail stores at concentrations well below health guidelines. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 4.6 ppb to 67 ppb. The two mid-sized grocery stores in the sample had the highest levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde, with concentrations up to 2.6 ppm and 92 ppb, respectively, possibly due to the preparation of dough and baking activities. Indoor-to-outdoor concentration ratios indicated that indoor sources were the main contributors to indoor VOC concentrations for the majority of compounds. There was no strong correlation between ventilation and VOC concentrations across all stores. However, increasing the air exchange rates at two stores led to lower indoor VOC concentrations, suggesting that ventilation can be used to reduce concentrations for some specific stores. PMID:24471978

Nirlo, E L; Crain, N; Corsi, R L; Siegel, J A

2014-10-01

247

Degradation of volatile organic compounds with thermally activated persulfate oxidation.  

PubMed

This study investigated the extent and treatability of the degradation of 59 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in the EPA SW-846 Method 8260B with thermally activated persulfate oxidation. Data on the degradation of the 59 VOCs (in mixture) reacted with sodium persulfate in concentrations of 1 g l(-1) and 5 g l(-1) and at temperatures of 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 40 degrees C were obtained. The results indicate that persulfate oxidation mechanisms are effective in degrading many VOCs including chlorinated ethenes (CEs), BTEXs and trichloroethanes that are frequently detected in the subsurface at contaminated sites. Most of the targeted VOCs were rapidly degraded under the experimental conditions while some showed persistence to the persulfate oxidation. Compounds with "CC" bonds or with benzene rings bonded to reactive functional groups were readily degraded. Saturated hydrocarbons and halogenated alkanes were much more stable and difficult to degrade. For those highly persulfate-degradable VOCs, degradation was well fitted with a pseudo first-order decay model. Activation energies of reactions of CEs and BTEXs with persulfate were determined. The degradation rates increased with increasing reaction temperature and oxidant concentration. Nevertheless, to achieve complete degradation of persulfate-degradable compounds, the systems required sufficient amounts of persulfate to sustain the degradation reaction. PMID:16202809

Huang, Kun-Chang; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Hoag, George E; Dahmani, Amine; Block, Philip A

2005-10-01

248

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) fingerprint of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a profoundly life changing condition and once diagnosis occurs, this is typically at a relatively late stage into the disease process. Therefore, a shift to earlier diagnosis, which means several decades before the onset of the typical manifestation of the disease, will be an important step forward for the patient. A promising diagnostic and screening tool to answer this purpose is represented by breath and exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis. In fact, human exhaled breath contains several thousand of VOCs that vary in abundance and number in correlation with the physiological status. The exhaled VOCs reflect the metabolism, including the neuronal ones, in healthy and pathological conditions. A growing number of studies clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of VOCs analysis in identifying pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we recorded, in real time, breath parameters and exhaled VOCs. We were able to demonstrate a significant alteration in breath parameters induced by the pathology of AD. Further, we provide the putative VOCs fingerprint of AD. These vital findings are an important step toward the early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25308706

Mazzatenta, Andrea; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Sartucci, Ferdinando; Domenici, Luciano; Di Giulio, Camillo

2015-04-01

249

Predicting flammability of gas mixtures containing volatile organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

One requirement regarding the transportation of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste containers currently limits the total concentration of potentially flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and flammable gases in the headspace of the waste container. Typical VOCs observed in the drums include aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, cyclohexane, as well as chlorinated hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes). Flammable gases, such as hydrogen and methane, may be generated in the containers by radiation-induced decomposition (radiolysis) of water and hydrocarbon waste forms. An experimental program was initiated to identify an accurate means for predicting flammability for gas mixtures containing one or more of the following species: hydrogen, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, toluene, or 2-butanone. The lower flammability limits (LFL) of gas mixtures containing equimolar quantity for each species were determined in a 19-liter laboratory flammability chamber using a strong spark ignition source. The group factor contribution method was determined to be more accurate than the LeChatelier method for estimating the LFL for these gas mixtures.

Liekhus, K. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Zlochower, I. [National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.; Djordjevic, S.; Loehr, C. [Benchmark Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-12-31

250

Salt lakes of Western Australia - Natural abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by global climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its many ephemeral saline and hypersaline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters that have gradually changed over the last fifty years. Historically, the region was covered by eucalyptus trees and shrubs, but was cleared mainly within 10 years after WWII to make room for wheat and live stock. After the clearance of the deep rooted native plants the groundwater started to rise, bringing increased amounts of dissolved salts and minerals to the surface and discharging them into streams and lakes. Thus most of Western Australia is influenced by secondary salinisation (soil salting) [1]. Another problem is that the discharged minerals affect the pH of ground and surface water, which ranges from acidic to slightly basic. During the 2011 campaign surface water was measured with a pH between 2.5 and 7.1. Another phenomenon in Western Australia is the decrease of rainfall over the last decades assumed to be linked to the secondary salinisation. The rising saline and mineral rich groundwater increases the biotical and abiotical activity of the salt lakes. Halogenated and non-halogenated volatile organic compounds emitted from those lakes undergo fast oxidation and chemical reactions to form small particles modifying cloud microphysics and thus suppressing rain events [2]. Our objective is to gain a better understanding of this extreme environment with its hypersaline acidic lakes with regard to the potential abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds and its impact on the local climate. In spring 2011 fifty-three sediment samples from ten salt lakes in the Lake King region where taken, freeze-dried and ground. In order to simulate the abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds the soil samples were resuspended with water in gas-tight headspace vials. The headspace was measured using a purge and trap GC/MS. Especially the acidic lakes are sources for trihalomethanes in agreement with laboratory studies on model compounds like catechol [3]. Other compounds that are formed are chloromethane, -butane, -hexane and heptane as well as monocyclic terpenes and furan derivatives. Additionally, there are different sulphur compounds such as thiophene derivatives, carbon disulfide and dimethyl sulfide. Western Australia offers a variety of hypersaline environments with various hydrogeochemical parameters that will help to understand the abiotic formation of different volatile organic compounds. The field of research includes the complex relationships between agriculture, secondary salinisation and particle formation from volatile organic compounds emitted from the salt lakes. [1] Williams, 2001, Hydrobiologia, 466, 329-337. [2] Junkermann et al., 2009, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6531-6539. [3] Huber et al., 2009, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43 (13), 4934-4939.

Krause, T.; Studenroth, S.; Mulder, I.; Tubbesing, C.; Kotte, K.; Ofner, J.; Junkermann, W.; Schöler, H. F.

2012-04-01

251

Formaldehyde and other volatile organic chemical emissions in four FEMA temporary housing units.  

PubMed

Indoor concentrations of 33 volatile organic chemicals were measured in four unoccupied temporary housing units (THUs) belonging to the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA). The highest level contaminants in the THUs include formaldehyde, acetic acid, and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB) with median concentrations of 440, 425, and 36 ppb, respectively. A number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were higher than published concentrations in other dwellings, but whole THU emission factors for most chemicals were either lower than or similar to values reported for newly constructed homes. However, several chemicals exceeded previously measured new building emission rates by over a factor of 5. Materials were collected from the THUs, and emission factors were determined using small chambers to identify the potential source of indoor contaminants. The individual materials were grouped by material type, and emissions were used to derive exposure concentrations for comparison to reference values. Using material loading factors and ventilation rates that are relevant to the trailers, all of the material types we tested had at least two chemicals (formaldehyde and nonanal) with derived concentrations in excess of chronic reference exposure levels or odor thresholds. The extensive use of composite wood products, sealants, and vinyl coverings, combined with the low air exchange rates relative to material surface areas, may explain the high concentrations of some VOCs and formaldehyde. PMID:19731654

Maddalena, Randy; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P; Apte, Michael G

2009-08-01

252

Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...

253

Volatile Organic Compounds in the Global Atmosphere (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) - Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) has been guiding the implementation of a global program for the monitoring of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOC). Essential features are 1. regular, in-situ, high temporal resolution measurements of VOC at surface stations, 2. VOC analyses in samples collected within flask sampling networks for wide geographical coverage, and 3. a concerted calibration and data quality control effort. A centerpiece of the flask sampling component builds upon the US NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory - Global Cooperative Air Sampling Network. Nine non-methane hydrocarbon species (NMHC; ethane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane, iso-pentane, n-pentane, isoprene, benzene, toluene) are currently analyzed by an automated gas chromatography system at the University of Colorado’s Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) in pairs of samples collected bi-weekly at 41 global background monitoring sites. Since the implementation of this program in 2004 more than 7000 measurements have been obtained. The obtained data allow elucidating the geographical and seasonal behavior of atmospheric NMHC, as well as interannual variations. Results show a wide dynamic range of mixing ratio changes. Concentration maxima and seasonal cycles are most pronounced in regions of highest emission sources and highest changes in the seasonal OH radical sink, i.e. the northern high and mid-latitudes. Seasonal southern hemisphere (SH) maxima are ~7 times and ~20 times lower for ethane and propane than in the northern hemisphere, which mainly reflects the smaller source strength of these gases in the SH. The richness of information in these data will help constraining the variability in global atmospheric oxidation chemistry and regional budgets of greenhouse gases, such as of methane and CO2, and most certainly stimulate further interests and applications in many fields of atmospheric chemistry and climate research. Global distribution of ethane during 2004-2010 as derived from in ~7000 flask samples collected at 41 remote sites of the NOAA-ESRL network.

Helmig, D.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Galbally, I.; Lewis, A. C.; Masarie, K.; Milton, M.; Penkett, S.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Reimann, S.; Steinbrecher, R.; Tans, P. P.; Thiel, S.

2010-12-01

254

Volatility and oxidative aging of aqueous maleic acid aerosol droplets and the dependence on relative humidity.  

PubMed

The microphysical structure and heterogeneous oxidation by ozone of single aerosol particles containing maleic acid (MA) has been studied using aerosol optical tweezers and cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The evaporation rate of MA from aqueous droplets has been measured over a range of relative humidities and the pure component vapor pressure determined to be (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10(-3) Pa. Variation in the refractive index (RI) of an aqueous MA droplet with relative humidity (RH) allowed the subcooled liquid RI of MA to be estimated as 1.481 ± 0.001. Measurements of the hygroscopic growth are shown to be consistent with equilibrium model predictions from previous studies. Simultaneous measurements of the droplet composition, size, and refractive index have been made during ozonolysis at RHs in the range 50-80%, providing insight into the volatility of organic products, changes in the droplet hygroscopicity, and optical properties. Exposure of the aqueous droplets to ozone leads to the formation of products with a wide range of volatilities spanning from involatile to volatile. Reactive uptake coefficients show a weak dependence on ozone concentration, but no dependence on RH or salt concentration. The time evolving RI depends significantly on the RH at which the oxidation proceeds and can even show opposing trends; while the RI increases with ozone exposure at low relative humidity, the RI decreases when the oxidation proceeds at high relative humidity. The variations in RI are broadly consistent with a framework for predicting RIs for organic components published by Cappa et al. ( J. Geophys. Res. 2011 , 116 , D15204 ). Once oxidized, particles are shown to form amorphous phases on drying rather than crystallization, with slow evaporation kinetics of residual water. PMID:25003240

Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J; Marshall, Frances H; Miles, Rachael E H; Preston, Thomas C; Reid, Jonathan P

2014-07-31

255

Source apportionment modeling of volatile organic compounds in streams.  

PubMed

It often is of interest to understand the relative importance of the different sources contributing to the concentration c(w) of a contaminant in a stream; the portions related to sources 1, 2, 3, etc. are denoted c(w,1), c(w2), c(w3), etc. Like c(w), the fractions alpha1 = c(w,1)/c(w), alpha2 = c(w,2)/c(w), alpha3 = c(w,3)/c(w), etc. depend on location and time. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can undergo absorption from the atmosphere into stream water or loss from stream water to the atmosphere, causing complexities affecting the source apportionment (SA) of VOCs in streams. Two SA rules are elaborated. Rule 1: VOC entering a stream across the air/water interface exclusively is assigned to the atmospheric portion of c(w). Rule 2: VOC loss by volatilization, flow loss to groundwater, in-stream degradation, etc. is distributed over c(w,1), c(w,2), c(w3), etc. in proportion to their corresponding alpha values. How the two SA rules are applied, as well as the nature of the SA output for a given case, will depend on whether transport across the air/water interface is handled using the net flux F convention or using the individual fluxes J convention. Four hypothetical stream cases involving acetone, methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, chloroform, and perchloroethylene (PCE) are considered. Acetone and MTBE are sufficiently water soluble from air for a domestic atmospheric source to be capable of yielding c(w) values approaching the common water quality guideline range of 1 to 10 microg/L. For most other VOCs, such levels cause net outgassing (F > 0). When F > 0 in a given section of stream, in the net flux convention, all of the alpha(j) for the compound remain unchanged over that section while c(w) decreases. A characteristic time tau(d) can be calculated to predict when there will be differences between SA results obtained by the net flux convention versus the individual fluxes convention. Source apportionment modeling provides the framework necessary for comparing different strategies for mitigating contamination at points of interest along a stream. PMID:16629131

Pankow, James F; Asher, William E; Zogorski, John S

2006-04-01

256

Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds measured in Edmonton, Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From 2003 to 2009, whole air samples were collected at two sites in Edmonton and analyzed for over 77 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs were sampled in the downtown area (Central site) and an industrial area on the eastern side of the city (East site). Concentrations of most VOCs were highest at the East site, with an average total VOC mass concentration of 221 ?g m-3. The average total VOC mass concentration at the Central site was 65 ?g m-3. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's positive matrix factorization receptor model (EPA PMF) was used to apportion ambient concentrations of VOCs into eleven factors, which were associated with emissions sources. On average, 94 and 99% of the measured mass were apportioned by PMF at the East and Central site, respectively. Factors include transportation combustion (gasoline and diesel), industrial sources (industrial evaporative, industrial feedstock, gasoline production/storage, industrial chemical use), mixed mobile and industrial (gasoline evaporative, fugitive butane), a biogenic source, a natural gas related source, and a factor that was associated with global background pollutants transported into the area. Transportation sources accounted for more than half of the reconstructed VOC mass concentration at the Central site, but less than 10% of the reconstructed mass concentration at the East site. By contrast, industrial sources accounted for ten times more of the reconstructed VOC mass concentration at the East site than at the Central site and were responsible for approximately 75% of the reconstructed VOC mass concentration observed at the East site. Of the six industrial factors identified at the East site, four were linked to petrochemical industry production and storage. The two largest contributors to the reconstructed VOC mass concentration at the East site were associated with fugitive emissions of volatile species (butanes, pentanes, hexane, and cyclohexane); together, these two factors accounted for more than 50% of the reconstructed VOC mass concentration at the East site in contrast to less than 2% of the reconstructed mass concentration at the Central site. Natural gas related emissions accounted for 10%-20% of the reconstructed mass concentration at both sites. Biogenic emissions and VOCs associated with well-mixed global background were less than 10% of the reconstructed VOC mass concentration at the Central site and less than 3% of the reconstructed mass concentration at the East site.

McCarthy, Michael C.; Aklilu, Yayne-Abeba; Brown, Steven G.; Lyder, David A.

2013-12-01

257

Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Bacteria from the Poultry Processing Environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from food-borne bacteria has prompted studies on the development of approaches to utilize the profile of volatiles emitted as a way of detecting contamination. We have examined VOCs from poultry with this in mind. Patt...

258

VAPORIZATION TECHNIQUE TO MEASURE MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN THE AMES/'SALOMELLA' ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the research was to develop and characterize a sensitive test method to detect mutagenic activity of volatile liquid organic chemicals (i.e., volatiles) in the Ames/Salmonella assay. A Tedlar bag vaporization technique was developed which increased contact time bet...

259

Engineered endophytic bacteria improve phytoremediation of water-soluble, volatile, organic pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation of highly water soluble and volatile organic xenobiotics is often inefficient because plants do not completely degrade these compounds through their rhizospheres. This results in phytotoxicity and\\/or volatilization of chemicals through the leaves, which can cause additional environmental problems. We demonstrate that endophytic bacteria equipped with the appropriate degradation pathway improve the in planta degradation of toluene. We introduced

Tanja Barac; Safiyh Taghavi; Brigitte Borremans; Ann Provoost; Licy Oeyen; Jan V Colpaert; Jaco Vangronsveld; Daniel van der Lelie

2004-01-01

260

Intrinsic degradation of volatile fatty acids in laboratory-compacted clayey soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) represent the major organic constituent of landfill leachate and provide the greatest potential for leachate induced organic contamination of groundwater (e.g. as represented by an increase in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand). Long-term diffusion tests were performed for laboratory-compacted clayey soil plugs exposed to continuous supply of synthetic leachate containing VFAs. Significant microbial activity developed upon exposure of the soil's indigenous microorganisms to these degradable contaminants. The growth of heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (HAB, which include facultative anaerobes), sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and methanogenic bacteria carrying out fermentation and mineralization of the VFAs became evident after 30-50 days of testing. The maximum microbial counts of (2-8)×10 8 and (0.1-1)×10 8 cfu/g for HAB and SRB were localized in the soil layer at the interface with the source of organic and inorganic nutrients. Regardless of this rapid growth in microbial population, the VFA consumption was small and measurable only after a lag of 140-180 days. It is considered that this lag of otherwise readily degradable organic compounds (such as VFAs) persisted due to a combination of the effects of a high initial concentration of these acids (2.4 g/l as dissolved organic carbon, DOC) applied to carbon starved soil microorganisms and the small pore size of the compacted clay. Once the significant amounts of gas were generated from fermentation, conditions developed for improved mass transport and exchange of the nutrients and bacteria and the outcome of the intrinsic degradation was more apparent. The breakdown of VFAs that followed after the lag was localized near the top of the soil and was characterized by a short half-life of 0.75-5 days for DOC (total VFAs as dissolved organic carbon).

Hrapovic, L.; Rowe, R. K.

2002-10-01

261

Use of Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy to Characterize Organic Acids and Aerosols Emitted in Biomass Burning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One poorly understood, but significant class of volatile organic compounds (VOC) present in biomass burning is gas-phase organic acids and inorganic acids. These acids are extremely difficult to measure because of their adsorptive nature. Particulates and aerosols are also produced during biomass burning and impact the radiation budget of the Earth and, hence, impact global climate. Use cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRD) to measure absorption cross sections for OH overtone induced photochemistry in some organic acids (acetic acid and peracetic acid) will be presented and planed measurements of optical properties of aerosols composed of mixtures of different absorbing and non-absorbing species using CRD will be discussed.

Bililign, Solomon; Fiddler, Marc; Singh, Sujeeta

2012-02-01

262

40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Performance for the Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile...0.29 kilogram of VOC per litre of coating solids from each two-piece can exterior base coating operation, except clear base coat;...

2010-07-01

263

Production of volatile organic compounds in cultures of cryptophytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to be produced by macroalgae, phytoplankton and bacteria in the ocean. Some phytoplankton species are known for the production of VOCs such as halomethanes and isoprene in cultures. To discuss the diversity of VOCs production among phytoplankton species, we incubated the strains of cryptophytes and measured concentrations of VOCs and chlorophyll a. Because VOCs productions of cryptophytes were poorly understood, we selected them to cover the lack of data for VOCs production. Phytoplankton cultures were grown in autoclaved f/2-Si medium with GF/F filtered aged seawater. Culture temperature and light conditions were 24.1 ± 0.2°C and 78 ± 4 ?E m-2 s-1 (1 E = 1 mol of photons) from full-spectrum vita-lite fluorescent lamp (12 h light:12 h dark cycle). VOCs concentrations in the medium were measured using a purge and trap (Tekmar PT 5000J)- gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N)- mass spectrometer (Agilent 5973N). The concentrations of chlorophyll a was also measured using fluorometer (Turner TD-700). Isoprene concentrations were increased to 290 pmol L-1 during the exponential phase in Rhodomonas salina culture. Isoprene production rate was 0.78 ?mol g chl.a-1 day-1. This value is within the range of isoprene production by other phytoplankton species reported in the previous paper. As for halomethanes, dibromomethane concentrations were increased during the incubation time. Some iodohalomethanes were also increased during the death phase. We are currently examining the production of halomethanes in other strains of Cryptophyta.

Yamakoshi, T.; Kurihara, M.; Hashimoto, S.

2010-12-01

264

Exposure to volatile organic compounds: Comparison among different transportation modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing trend of promoting public transportation (bus tram, metro, train) and more environmental friendly and sustainable non fossil-fuel alternatives (walking, cycling etc) as substitutes for auto vehicles brings forward new questions with regard to pollutant levels to which commuters are exposed. In this study, three transportation modes (tram, auto vehicle and bicycle) are studied and concentration levels of 84 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygen containing hydrocarbons, terpenes and halogenated compounds) are measured along a route in the city of Ghent, Belgium. The concentration levels are obtained by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent tubes followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) using deuterated toluene as an internal standard. The median total VOC concentrations for the tram mode (33 ?g/m³) is 1.7 times higher than that of the bicycle mode (20 ?g/m³) and 1.5 times higher than for the car mode (22 ?g/m³). It is found that aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant proportion in the total VOCs concentration (TVOCs) being as high as 41-57%, 59-72% and 58-72% for the tram, car and bicycle respectively. In all transportation modes, there was a high (r > 0.6) degree of correlation between BTEX compounds, isopropylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. When comparing time weighed average concentrations along a fixed route in Ghent, it is found that commuters using the tram mode experience the highest TVOCs concentration levels. However, next to the concentration level to which commuters are exposed, the physical activity level involving the mode of transportation is important to assess the exposure to toxic VOCs. It is proven that the commuter using a bicycle (4.3 ± 1.5 ?g) inhales seven and nine times more benzene compared to the commuter using the car and tram respectively, when the same route is followed.

Do, Duc Hoai; Van Langenhove, Herman; Chigbo, Stephen Izuchukwu; Amare, Abebech Nuguse; Demeestere, Kristof; Walgraeve, Christophe

2014-09-01

265

Passive remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds using barometric pumping  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program, sponsored by the Department of Energy, is to demonstrate new subsurface characterization, monitoring, and remediation technologies. The interbedded clay and sand layers at the Integrated Demonstration Site (IDS) are contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). Characterization studies show that the bulk of the contamination is located in the approximately 40 m thick vadose zone. The most successful strategy for removing contaminants of this type from this environment is vapor extraction alone or in combination with other methods such as air sparging or enhanced bioremediation. Preliminary work at the IDS has indicated that natural pressure differences between surface and subsurface air caused by surface barometric fluctuations can produce enough gas flow to make barometric pumping a viable method for subsurface remediation. Air flow and pressure were measured in wells that are across three stratigraphic intervals in the vadose zone` The subsurface pressures were correlated to surface pressure fluctuations but were damped and lagging in phase corresponding to depth and stratum permeability. Piezometer wells screened at lower elevations exhibited a greater phase lag and damping than wells screened at higher elevations where the pressure wave from barometric fluctuations passes through a smaller number of low permeable layers. The phase lag between surface and subsurface pressures results in significant fluxes through these wells. The resultant air flows through the subsurface impacts CVOC fate and transport. With the appropriate controls (e.g. solenoid valves) a naturally driven vapor extraction system can be implemented requiring negligible operating costs yet capable of a large CVOC removal rate (as much as 1--2 kg/day in each well at the IDS).

Rossabi, J.; Looney, B.B.; Dilek, C.A.E.; Riha, B.; Rohay, V.J.

1993-12-31

266

Source apportionment of ambient volatile organic compounds in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at four stations with different environments in Hong Kong (HK) during two sampling campaigns. Positive matrix factorization was applied to characterize major VOC sources in HK. Nine sources were identified, and the spatial and seasonal variations of their contributions were derived. The most significant local VOC sources are vehicle and marine vessel exhausts or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) at different stations. Vehicle- and marine vessel-related sources accounted for 2.9-12.7ppbv in 2002-2003 and increased to 4.3-15.2ppbv in 2006-2007. Different from the emission inventory, solvent-related sources only contributed 11- 19% at both sampling campaigns. Therefore, emission control from transport sector should be prioritized to alleviate ambient local VOC levels. Additionally, the contribution of aged VOC, which roughly represents contributions from regional and super-regional transport, also showed moderate increase during the four years, indicating cooperation with environmental authorities in the Pearl River Delta and beyond should be strengthened. All the anthropogenic sources contribute most to Yuen Long and least to Tap Mun. However, Tap Mun exhibited different trends in comparison with the other three stations, especially for sources of vehicle and marine vessel exhausts, LPG and paint solvents. When the local source contributions were incorporated with wind data to derive the directional dependences of sources, we may conclude that the rapid development of Yantian Container Terminal, the associated emissions from marine vessels around the Terminal and the on-site activities were likely responsible for the distinct VOC features at Tap Mun. The current impact from the Terminal is mainly concentrated in the northeastern corner of HK; however, it has the potential threat to other locations if the Terminal continues to expand in such a rapid speed in the coming years. More stringent VOC control measures on activities related to the operation of the Terminal is therefore highly recommended. PMID:20554313

Lau, Alexis Kai Hon; Yuan, Zibing; Yu, Jian Zhen; Louie, Peter K K

2010-09-01

267

Peat fires and air quality: volatile organic compounds and particulates.  

PubMed

There are numerous localized peat deposits on the Swan Coastal Plain, an urban and rural bioregion otherwise dominated by wetland ecosystems in southwestern Australia. Hydrological change is significant in the bioregion: urban development encroaches on wetlands, groundwater extraction provides the city population with most of its water, and rainfall declines will not recharge aquifers in the future. The wetland processes which contribute to the formation of these peat deposits have therefore changed and are becoming vulnerable to fire events with residents increasingly exposed to peat smoke. There is an imperative to characterise this peat smoke to determine if exposures are harmful or toxic, and opportunities to do so in this setting arise due to the absence of bushfire smoke which has confounded other international studies. We have measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate concentrations from an opportunistic assessment of two peat fires. SUMMA canister grab samples and a portable GCMS were used to determine the VOCs with high 1h benzene concentrations of 16 and 30 ppm v/v. PM10 and PM2.5 particulate data were collected using an Osiris continuous analyser with 24h concentrations recorded at varying time periods (within a 5 months timeframe) ranging from 1h maximums of between 23-37 microgm(-3) for PM10 and 50.5-106 microgm(-3) for PM2.5. While the 24h averages were generally below national air quality standards, elevated 1h concentrations were observed on numerous occasions and on most days. Given the proximity of residential development to many peat deposits, a drying climate and the increased risk of arson in peri-urban environments, the health impacts of exposure to peat smoke need to be determined and if necessary measures developed to prevent exposure (which would include maintaining wetland sediment integrity so as to reduce its vulnerability to fire). PMID:19394676

Blake, D; Hinwood, A L; Horwitz, P

2009-07-01

268

Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the UAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry system has been used to identify major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sources in the UAE (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E). VOCs are emitted from an extensive number of sources in urban environments including fuel production, distribution, and consumption. Transport sources contribute a substantial portion of the VOC burden to the urban atmosphere in developed regions. UAE is located at the edge of the Persian Gulf and is highly affected by emissions from petrochemical industries in neighbouring Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Iran. VOCs emerging from these industries can be transported to the UAE with jet streams. The analysis of the collected air samples at three locations in Sharjah, UAE during the autumn and winter seasons indicates the presence of more than 100 VOC species. The concentrations of these species vary in magnitudes but the most prominent are: acetylene, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, benzene, and toluene. The possible tracers for various emission sources have also been identified such as 2-methylpentane, 1, 3-butadiene and 2, 2-dimethlybutane for vehicle exhaust, the light hydrocarbons, namely n-butane, trans-2-butene, and n-pentane for gasoline vapor, and n-nonane, n-decane, and n-undecane for diesel vapor and asphalt application processes. As various emission sources are characterized by overlapping VOC species, the ratio of possible VOC tracers are used to quantify the contribution of different sources. Our aim in this paper is to explore and discuss possible impacts of transported emissions on the local VOC emission inventory from various sources for the UAE. This work is partially supported by Office of Development and Alumni Affairs at the American University of Sharjah, U.A.E.

Abbasi, Naveed; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Riemer, Daniel; Apel, Eric; Lootah, Nadia

269

Volatile organic compounds in the strongly fragrant fern genus Melpomene (Polypodiaceae).  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are common among plants, both as attractants for pollinators and as defence against herbivores. While much studied among flowering plants, the prevalence and function of VOCs among ferns is little known. Using headspace sorption and gas chromatography, we analysed the VOCs of dried specimens of six species of grammitid fern (Polypodiaceae), including two species of the genus Melpomene, which is characterised by a distinctive sweet smell. We identified 38 VOCs, including 22 not previously recorded among ferns. The two species of Melpomene had distinct VOC cocktails, including 12 substances not found in the other four studied genera, mainly involving fatty acid derivatives (FADs) and aromatics. We propose that these VOCs have, at least in part, a function in herbivore defence, but note that the VOC bouquet of Melpomene is distinct from that typically found in angiosperms. PMID:25427549

Kessler, M; Connor, E; Lehnert, M

2015-03-01

270

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR AND BLOOD FROM THE GENERAL POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: The relationships between levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in blood and air have not been well characterized in the general population where exposure concentrations are generally at ppb levels. Objectives: This study investigates relationships between ...

271

SOIL SORPTION OF VOLATILE AND SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN A MIXTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were conducted to evaluate lipophilicity as a predictor sorption for a mixture of organic compounds with high vapor pressures commonly present at hazardous waste sites. Sorption partition coefficients (Kp) for the mixture of 16 volatile and semivolatile ...

272

AUTOMATED CRYOGENIC PRECONCENTRATION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The performances of two nominally identical automated monitors for quantifying volatile organic compounds were compared on identical ambient laboratory air samples. The monitors incorporate cryogenic preconcentration subunits specially designed for controlled release of liquid ni...

273

40 CFR 60.542a - Alternate standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry § 60.542a Alternate standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and...

2013-07-01

274

Electrospun Polyurethane Fibers for Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds from Air  

E-print Network

Electrospun polyurethane fibers for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air with rapid VOC absorption and desorption have been developed. Polyurethanes based on 4,4-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) (MDI) and ...

Scholten, Elke

275

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES FROM MIXED DECIDUOUS AND CONIFEROUS FORESTS IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from forests play an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including global tropospheric ozone concentrations. However, more information is needed on VOC emission rates from different forest regio...

276

FIELD EVALUATION OF A SIMPLE MICROCOSM SIMULATING THE BEHAVIOR OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SUBSURFACE MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple batch microcosm had previously been developed to simulate the behavior of volatile organic compounds in unconsolidated subsurface material. The microcosm was evaluated by comparing the behavior of tetrachloroethylene, bromoform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichlorobenzene,...

277

HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS AND MICELLAR PARTITIONING OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SURFACTANT SOLUTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Partitioning of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into surfactant micelles affects the apparent vapor-liquid equilibrium of VOCs in surfactant solutions. This partitioning will complicate removal of VOCs from surfactant solutions by standard separation processes. Headspace expe...

278

40 CFR 60.112a - Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Petroleum Liquids for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 18, 1978, and Prior to July 23, 1984 § 60.112a Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). (a) The owner or operator of each storage vessel...

2012-07-01

279

40 CFR 60.112a - Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Petroleum Liquids for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 18, 1978, and Prior to July 23, 1984 § 60.112a Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). (a) The owner or operator of each storage vessel...

2011-07-01

280

40 CFR 60.112a - Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Petroleum Liquids for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 18, 1978, and Prior to July 23, 1984 § 60.112a Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). (a) The owner or operator of each storage vessel...

2010-07-01

281

40 CFR 60.112a - Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Petroleum Liquids for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 18, 1978, and Prior to July 23, 1984 § 60.112a Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). (a) The owner or operator of each storage vessel...

2014-07-01

282

40 CFR 60.112a - Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Petroleum Liquids for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 18, 1978, and Prior to July 23, 1984 § 60.112a Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). (a) The owner or operator of each storage vessel...

2013-07-01

283

EXPOSURE OF HUMANS TO A VOLATILE ORGANIC MIXTURE: I. BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Subjective reactions of discomfort, impaired air quality, irritation of mucosal membranes, and impaired memory have been reported to chemically sensitive subjects during exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC's) found in new buildings. 6 normal healthy male subjects aged 18-...

284

EVALUATION OF SOLID ADSORBENTS FOR THE COLLECTION AND ANALYSES OF AMBIENT BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Micrometeorological flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) usually require that large volumes of air be collected (whole air samples) or focused during the sampling process (cryogenic trapping or gas-solid partitioning on adsorbents) in order to achiev...

285

Analysis of breath volatile organic compounds as a screening tool for detection of Tuberculosis in cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

• Keywords: bovine tuberculosis; Mycobacterium bovis; breath analysis; volatile organic compound; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; NaNose • Introduction: This presentation describes two studies exploring the use of breath VOCs to identify Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle. • Methods: ...

286

CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) EMISSIONS BY CATALYTIC INCINERATION. VOLUME 9. QUALITY ASSURANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Radian Corporation, under contract to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, performed site selection, test plan development, and performance tests of catalytic incinerators used for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions control at industrial sites. VOC emissions are of co...

287

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN INDOOR AIR: A SURVEY OF VARIOUS STRUCTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Co-workers collected indoor air samples in their homes in SUMMA polished canisters. Upon receipt in the laboratory, the whole air samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using cryogenic sample preconcentration and subsequent capillary column chromatography. Ea...

288

TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN UPFLOW WETLAND MESOCOSMS. (R828773C003)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sorption, biodegradation and hydraulic parameters were determined in the laboratory for two candidate soil substrate mixtures for construction of an upflow treatment wetland for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a Superfund site. The major parent contaminants in the groundw...

289

Exposure of humans to a volatile organic mixture. 1. Behavioral assessment  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to a low-level mixture of volatile organic compounds, typical of those found in new buildings, has been reported to impair neurobehavioral function in persons who have experienced sick building syndrome (SBS). Sixty-six healthy young males who had no history of chemical sensitivity were exposed for 2.75 h to a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds at 0 and 25 mg/cu m. Even though subjects reported more fatigue and more mental confusion following exposure to volatile organic compounds than to clean air, performance on 13 neurobehavioral tests was not affected. Practice or learning effects were observed if administration of many behavioral tests were repeated. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship of exposure to volatile organic chemicals, neurobehavioral performance, and subject characteristics, e.g., age, gender, and chemical sensitivity.

Otto, D.A.; Hudnell, H.K.; House, D.E.; Moelhave, L.; Counts, W.

1991-01-01

290

Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign  

E-print Network

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) on a rooftop in the urban mixed residential and industrial area North Northeast of downtown Mexico City as part of ...

Fortner, E. C.

291

SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION-GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) FROM TENAX DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development and evaluation of on-line supercritical fluid extraction-gas chromatography instrumentation and methodology for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from adsorbent sampling devices. Supercritical fluid extraction offers potential a...

292

A theoretical study of discrete air phase migration contaminated with a volatile organic  

E-print Network

A theoretical study of discrete air phase migration contaminated with a volatile organic is developed in order to study air bubble migration through granular porous media in air sparging technology. The experiment is performed in a homogeneous...

Drazenovic, Mirna

1997-01-01

293

PERTURBATION OF VOLTAGE-SENSITIVE Ca2+ CHANNEL FUNCTION BY VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The mechanisms underlying the acute neurophysiological and behavioral effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remain to be elucidated. However, the function of neuronal ion channels is perturbed by VOCs. The present study examined effects of toluene (TOL), trichloroethylene ...

294

COMPARISON OF PROCEDURES TO DETERMINE ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON ACTIVATED CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are under regulatory consideration for inclusion in the National Primary Drinking Water Standards. Adsorption is a cost-effective treatment technology for control of VOCs. Adsorption capacities were determined for fifteen VOCs in distill...

295

BREAKPOINT CHLORINATION/ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT: EFFECT ON VOLATILE HALOGENATED ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The production and removal of six volatile halogenated organic compounds during treatment of tertiary clarified and filtered wastewater by breakpoint chlorination and activated carbon was examined in a continuous flow pilot plant. Short contact time breakpoint chlorination of fil...

296

INTERLABORATORY STUDY OF A TEST METHOD FOR MEASURING TOTAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT OF CONSUMER PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes results of an interlaboratory study to estimate repeatability (precision of analyses performed by a single laboratory) and reproducibility (precision analyses performed by different laboratories) of a consumer products volatile organic compound (VOC) measurem...

297

Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires detailed measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground, 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from ground idle (~4% maximum rated thrust) through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine-idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC) measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10-20% of the total organic gas phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (?30%) and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.

Cross, E. S.; Hunter, J. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Franklin, J. P.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kroll, J. H.

2013-03-01

298

Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from idle (4% maximum rated thrust) through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC) measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10-20% of the total organic gas-phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas-phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (?30%) and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.

Cross, E. S.; Hunter, J. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Franklin, J. P.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kroll, J. H.

2013-08-01

299

Exchange of volatile organic compounds in the boreal forest floor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial ecosystems, mainly plants, emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. In addition to plants, VOCs also have less-known sources, such as soil. VOCs are a very diverse group of reactive compounds, including terpenoids, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Due to their high reactivity, VOCs take part in formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere and thus affect also Earth's radiation balance (Kulmala et al. 2004). We have studied boreal soil and forest floor VOC fluxes with chamber and snow gradient techniques we were developed. Spatial and temporal variability in VOC fluxes was studied with year-round measurements in the field and the sources of boreal soil VOCs in the laboratory with fungal isolates. Determination of the compounds was performed mass spectrometrically. Our results reveal that VOCs from soil are mainly emitted by living roots, above- and belowground litter and microbes. The strongest source appears to be litter, in which both plant residuals and decomposers play a role in the emissions. Soil fungi showed high emissions of lighter VOCs, like acetone, acetaldehyde and methanol, from isolates. Temperature and moisture are the most critical physical factors driving VOC fluxes. Since the environment in boreal forests undergoes strong seasonal changes, the VOC flux strength of the forest floor varies markedly during the year, being highest in spring and autumn. The high spatial heterogeneity of the forest floor was also clearly visible in VOC fluxes. The fluxes of other trace gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) from soil, which are also related to the soil biological activity and physical conditions, did not show correlations with the VOC fluxes. These results indicate that emissions of VOCs from the boreal forest floor account for as much as several tens of percent, depending on the season, of the total forest ecosystem VOC emissions. This emphasises that forest floor compartment should be taken into consideration when assessing ecosystem level VOC fluxes. These results can be utilized also in air chemistry models, which are almost entirely lacking the below-canopy compartment. Kulmala, M., Suni, T., Lehtinen, K.E.J., Dal Maso, M., Boy, M., Reissell, A., Rannik, Ü., Aalto, P., Keronen, P., Hakola, H., Bäck, J., Hoffmann, T., Vesala, T. & Hari, P. 2004. A new feedback mechanism linking forests, aerosols, and climate. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4: 557-562.

Aaltonen, Hermanni; Bäck, Jaana; Pumpanen, Jukka; Pihlatie, Mari; Hakola, Hannele; Hellén, Heidi; Aalto, Juho; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kajos, Maija K.; Kolari, Pasi; Taipale, Risto; Vesala, Timo

2013-04-01

300

Catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds on gold\\/cerium oxide catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic combustion of some representative volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (2-propanol, methanol and toluene) was investigated on gold\\/cerium oxide catalysts prepared by coprecipitation (CP) and deposition–precipitation (DP). The presence of gold has been found to enhance the activity of cerium oxide towards the oxidation of the selected volatile organic compounds, the extent of this effect depending on the preparation method of

Salvatore Scirè; Simona Minicò; Carmelo Crisafulli; Cristina Satriano; Alessandro Pistone

2003-01-01

301

Reaction Rates of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds with the Hydroxyl Radical  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmosphere is the primary route of global dispersion of many semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. While the long-distance atmospheric transport of these compounds has been well established, the importance of chemical reactions that may occur while SOCs are in the atmosphere is largely unknown. For most semi-volatile organic compounds in the vapor phase, the

Philip Neal Anderson

1995-01-01

302

Determination of the volatile and semi-volatile secondary metabolites, and aristolochic acids in Aristolochia ringens Vahl.  

PubMed

Volatile and semi-volatile secondary metabolites, as well as aristolochic acids (AA), present in leaves, stems, and flowers of Aristolochia ringens were determined by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, respectively. Metabolite isolation was performed using different extraction techniques: microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD), supercritical fluid extraction, and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The chemical composition of the extracts and oils was established by GC-MS. The determinations of AAI and AAII were conducted by methanolic extraction of different plant parts followed by HPLC analysis. Essential oil yields from leaves and stems were 0.008 +/- 0.0022% and 0.047 +/- 0.0026%, respectively. Aristolochia ringens flowers did not yield essential oil under MWHD. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (66%) were the main compounds in the essential oil isolated from leaves whereas monoterpene hydrocarbons (73%) predominated in the stems essential oil. Yields of extracts isolated by SFE from leaves, stems, and flowers were 4 +/- 1.8%, 1.2 +/- 0.25%, and 4 +/- 1.8%, respectively. In vivo HS-SPME of flowers isolated compounds with known unpleasant smells such as volatile aldehydes and short-chain carboxylic acids. HPLC analysis detected the presence of AAII in the flowers of Aristolochia ringens at a concentration of 610 +/- 47 mg/kg of dried flower. PMID:19835696

Stashenko, Elena E; Andrés Ordóñez, Sergio; Marín, Néstor Armando; Martínez, Jairo René

2009-10-01

303

Evolution of the aroma volatiles of pear fruits supplemented with fatty acid metabolic precursors.  

PubMed

To examine the biochemical metabolism of aroma volatiles derived from fatty acids, pear fruits were incubated in vitro with metabolic precursors of these compounds. Aroma volatiles, especially esters, were significantly increased, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in pear fruits fed on fatty acid metabolic precursors. Cultivars having different flavor characteristics had distinctly different aroma volatile metabolisms. More esters were formed in fruity-flavored "Nanguoli" fruits than in green-flavored "Dangshansuli" fruits fed on the same quantities of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexanal and hexanol were more efficient metabolic intermediates for volatile synthesis than linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexyl esters were the predominant esters produced by pear fruits fed on hexanol, and their contents in "Dangshansuli" fruits were higher than in "Nanguoli" fruits. Hexyl esters and hexanoate esters were the primary esters produced in pear fruits fed on hexanal, however the content of hexyl ester in "Dangshansuli" was approximately three times that in "Nanguoli". The higher contents of hexyl esters in "Dangshansuli" may have resulted from a higher level of hexanol derived from hexanal. In conclusion, the synthesis of aroma volatiles was largely dependent on the metabolic precursors presented. PMID:25474290

Qin, Gaihua; Tao, Shutian; Zhang, Huping; Huang, Wenjiang; Wu, Juyou; Xu, Yiliu; Zhang, Shaoling

2014-01-01

304

Emission of volatile organic compounds from silage: Compounds, sources, and implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silage, fermented cattle feed, has recently been identified as a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. A small number of studies have measured VOC emission from silage, but not enough is known about the processes involved to accurately quantify emission rates and identify practices that could reduce emissions. Through a literature review, we have focused on identifying the most important compounds emitted from corn silage (the most common type of silage in the US) and the sources of these compounds by quantifying their production and emission potential in silage and describing production pathways. We reviewed measurements of VOC emission from silage and assessed the importance of individual silage VOCs through a quantitative analysis of VOC concentrations within silage. Measurements of VOC emission from silage and VOCs present within silage indicated that alcohols generally make the largest contribution to emission from corn silage, in terms of mass emitted and potential ozone formation. Ethanol is the dominant alcohol in corn silage; excluding acids, it makes up more than half of the mean mass of VOCs present. Acids, primarily acetic acid, may be important when emission is high and all VOCs are nearly depleted by emission. Aldehydes and esters, which are more volatile than acids and alcohols, are important when exposure is short, limiting emission of more abundant but less volatile compounds. Variability in silage VOC concentrations is very high; for most alcohols and acids, tolerance intervals indicate that 25% of silages have concentrations a factor of two away from median values, and possibly much further. This observation suggests that management practices can significantly influence VOC concentrations. Variability also makes prediction of emissions difficult. The most important acids, alcohols, and aldehydes present in silage are probably produced by bacteria (and, in the case of ethanol, yeasts) during fermentation and storage of silage. Aldehydes may also be produced aerobically by spoilage microorganisms through the oxidation of alcohols. Abiotic reactions may be important for production of methanol and esters. Although silage additives appear to affect VOC production in individual studies, bacterial inoculants have not shown a consistent effect on ethanol, and effects on other VOCs have not been studied. Production of acetic acid is understood, and production could be minimized, but a decrease could lead to an increase in other, more volatile and more reactive, VOCs. Chemical additives designed for controlling yeasts and undesirable bacteria show promise for reducing ethanol production in corn silage. More work is needed to understand silage VOC production and emission from silage, including: additional measurements of VOC concentrations or production in silage of all types, and an exploration of the causes of variability; accurate on-farm measurements of VOC emission, including an assessment of the importance of individual ensiling stages and practices that could reduce emission of existing VOCs; and work on understanding the sources of silage VOCs and possible approaches for reducing production.

Hafner, Sasha D.; Howard, Cody; Muck, Richard E.; Franco, Roberta B.; Montes, Felipe; Green, Peter G.; Mitloehner, Frank; Trabue, Steven L.; Rotz, C. Alan

2013-10-01

305

A Push-Pull Test to Measure Volatilization Fluxes of Organic Pollutants without Flux Chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatilization of organic contaminants is a potentially significant removal mechanism from wetlands, but field measurements are scarce and the physiochemical controls on volatilization from wetland soils remain poorly understood. It has been established that volatilization rates of certain pollutants are enhanced by vegetation and are strongly correlated with evapotranspiration (ET). These observations rely on flux chambers measurements, which are characterized by significant uncertainty due the chamber's effects on the meteorological variables around the plant and consequent impact on the biophysical processes governing ET and plant uptake of soil contaminants. Here we present data from a mesocosm study using a modified single-well push-pull test to measure in-situ volatilization rates from inundated soils vegetated with the wetland macrophytes Scirpus acutus and Typha latifolia, as well as from unplanted soil. This new method uses a test solution containing the volatile tracers sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), helium (He), and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to estimate first-order volatilization rates and examine the relationship between physiochemical properties and volatilization rates. The test also yields an estimate for the volume of subsurface gas bubbles, which is used to derive a retardation factor for the effect of interphase partitioning on the estimation of kinetic parameters. We evaluate models to partition observed fluxes into different pathways for plant-mediated volatilization: transpirational uptake and consequent volatilization, and gas-phase diffusion through porous root aerenchyma. Those models are then used to scale tracer-derived volatilization fluxes to priority organic pollutants including benzene, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. We also discuss the implementation of this method at field scales to estimate volatilization as a component of phytoremediation applications.

Reid, M. C.; Jaffe, P. R.

2011-12-01

306

A Quantitative Determination of the Ammonia, Amino Nitrogen, Lactose, Total Acid, and Volatile Acid Content of Cows’ Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative determination of the ammollia, Bznlno nitrogen, lactose, total acid, and volatile acid content of 27 samples of commercial milk obtained from Baltimore dairies has been made within the past year. As this milk was to be used in a later bacteriological investigation, it was sterilized by autoclaving before being subjected to chemical analysis. AMMONIA Shaffer (1903) published a

Henrietta Lisk

1924-01-01

307

Volatile acetic acid and formaldehyde emission from plywood treated with boron compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of plywood on formaldehyde and volatile acetic acid emissions treated with borax and boric acid were investigated. The treated plywood samples were manufactured by using two different methods; each veneer was first impregnated by a dipping method before the first group of plywood was manufactured. The second group of plywood panels was produced by adding preservatives (borax, boric

S. Colak; G. Colakoglu

2004-01-01

308

Pinhole corrosion of CH-TRU waste containers by volatile organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

In the spring of 1996 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex, an epidemic of corroded CH-TRU waste drums was encountered. The observed corrosion was in the form of rusty brown streaks that emanated from pinholes in about the upper one-third of the 55 gal drums. Wet streaks were tested as highly acidic by litmus paper. The liquid that emanated from the pinholes was found to be hydrochloric (HCl) acid. An investigation concluded that the pinholes were localized pitting corrosion caused by HCl acid formed in the drum headspace from reactions involving chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste and the unlined steel of the internal drum wall. The pinholes occurred in the upper parts of the drums because this corresponds to the internal headspace region above the rigid liner. Affected drums had a few to hundreds of pinholes with no detectable release of radioactivity. This was due to the internal packaging of waste in heavy polyethylene and/or polyvinyl chloride waste bags inside a rigid high-density polyethylene liner. The corrective action taken was to overpack pinhole corrosion drums into polyethylene-lined 83-gal drums and to test hundreds of drums with drum filters, but without pinhole corrosion, for the presence of HCl acid in the headspace gas with colorimetric tubes fitted to the drum filters. These colorimetric tubes contain a substance that changes color in reaction to HCl acid when headspace gas is drawn by a hand pump. Only drums that had a significant probability for the presence of HCl acid in the headspace were segregated in storage to allow ready inspection and efficient handling, if needed. It is recommended that any facility involved in the long-term storage of waste or other contents, that include chlorinated VOCs in unlined steel containers, be wary for the possible development of pinhole corrosion.

Zeek, D.P.

1998-03-01

309

Airborne flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds over California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK + MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ∼10 000 km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate "instantaneous" fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using "racetrack" profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z / zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently at 400 ± 50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and coniferous forests were extremely low, high concentrations of methanol and monoterpenes were found above some of these regions. These observations demonstrate the ability to measure fluxes from specific sources by eddy covariance from an aircraft, and suggest the utility of measurements using fast response chemical sensors to constrain emission inventories and map out source distributions for a much broader array of trace gases than was observed in this study. This paper reports the first regional direct eddy covariance fluxes of isoprene. The emissions of VOCs measured from aircraft with 2 km spatial resolution can quantify the distribution of major sources providing the observations required for testing statewide emission inventories of these important trace gases. These measurements will be used in a future study to assess BVOC emission models and their driving variable datasets.

Misztal, P. K.; Karl, T.; Weber, R.; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

2014-03-01

310

Volatile Organic Compound Investigation Results, 300 Area, Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Unexpectedly high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were discovered while drilling in the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site’s 300 Area during 2006. The discovery involved an interval of relatively finer-grained sediment within the unconfined aquifer, an interval that is not sampled by routine groundwater monitoring. Although VOC contamination in the unconfined aquifer has been identified and monitored, the concentrations of newly discovered contamination are much higher than encountered previously, with some new results significantly higher than the drinking water standards. The primary contaminant is trichloroethene, with lesser amounts of tetrachloroethene. Both chemicals were used extensively as degreasing agents during the fuels fabrication process. A biological degradation product of these chemicals, 1,2-dichloroethene, was also detected. To further define the nature and extent of this contamination, additional characterization drilling was undertaken during 2007. Four locations were drilled to supplement the information obtained at four locations drilled during the earlier investigation in 2006. The results of the combined drilling indicate that the newly discovered contamination is limited to a relatively finer-grained interval of Ringold Formation sediment within the unconfined aquifer. The extent of this contamination appears to be the area immediately east and south of the former South Process Pond. Samples collected from the finer-grained sediment at locations along the shoreline confirm the presence of the contamination near the groundwater/river interface. Contamination was not detected in river water that flows over the area where the river channel potentially incises the finer-grained interval of aquifer sediment. The source for this contamination is not readily apparent. A search of historical documents and the Hanford Waste Information Data System did not provide definitive clues as to waste disposal operations and/or spills that might have resulted in groundwater contamination in this sediment, although several relatively small accidental releases of VOCs have occurred in the past in the northern portion of the 300 Area. It is likely that large quantities of degreasing solutions were disposed to the North and South Process Ponds during the 1950s and 1960s, and that evidence for them in the upper portion of the unconfined aquifer has been removed because of groundwater movement through the much more transmissive sediment. Also, investigations to date have revealed no evidence to suggest that a dense, non-aqueous phase liquid remains undetected in the subsurface. Potential pathways for contamination to migrate from this finer-grained sediment include groundwater movement through the interval to offshore locations in the Columbia River channel, dispersion out of the finer-grained interval into the overlying transmissive sediment (again, with transport to the riverbed), and potential future withdrawal via water supply wells.

Peterson, Robert E.; Williams, Bruce A.; Smith, Ronald M.

2008-07-07

311

The Reduction of HNO3 to HONO by Volatile Organic Compounds Associated with Rush Hour Traffic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important source of OH radicals in urban environments. However, the sources of HONO are not completely understood, which makes modeling urban atmospheric chemistry difficult. During a previous field study in Houston, TX a correlation was observed between increases in HONO and organic aerosol freshly emitted by motor vehicle traffic during morning rush hours (Ziemba et al., 2010). This source of HONO could not be explained by primary HONO emissions, and the hypothesis was drawn that the HONO was being formed from the reduction of HNO3 by the organic aerosols emitted by motor vehicles. To test this hypothesis, nitric acid (HNO3) was combined in a flow tube with aerosols made from automobile engine oil, which were used as a model for the organic aerosols emitted by rush hour traffic. Reduction of the HNO3 to HONO was observed, although the reaction was found to occur with the volatile organic carbon compounds (VOCs) found in the aerosol vapor, and not the particle surfaces. To explore this further Teflon raschig rings were added to the flow tube to increase surface area but the reaction was not enhanced, confirming the reaction to be homogeneous. The HONO formation observed ranged between 0.1 and 0.5 ppb hr-1 with a mean of 0.3±0.1 ppb hr-1, for typical nitric acid concentrations of 4-5 ppb and estimated concentrations of the reactive components in the engine oil vapor of between 200 and 300 ppt. The observations in this study compared well to the cited field study which observed formation rates between 0.05 and 0.5 ppb hr-1 with an average of 0.3±0.15 ppb hr-1. Water vapor was found to decrease the HONO formation rate by 0.1 ppb hr-1 for every1% of increase in the water mixing ratio. Reference Ziemba L.D., Dibb J.E., Griffin R.J., Anderson C.H., Whitlow S.I., Lefer B.L., Rappenglueck B., and Flynn J. (2010) Heterogeneous conversion of nitric acid to nitrous acid on the surface of primary organic aerosol in an urban atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 44, 4081-4089 (33). doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.12.024. Available on the Internet at ://WOS:000282866300009.

Rutter, A. P.; Malloy, Q.; Scheuer, E.; Gutierrez, C.; Calzada, M.; Dibb, J. E.; Griffin, R. J.

2012-12-01

312

DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE ORGANICS IN INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes the systematic evaluation of a series of parameters leading to the development of a test procedure for 36 volatile priority pollutants in wastewaters. A study of the effect of pH, temperature, and residual chlorine on the aqueous stability of the compounds l...

313

40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile...of a new VOC control device (other than a condenser) on a magnetic tape coating operation shall control emissions from the...

2010-07-01

314

Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% ?-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+?-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

Ahn, D. U.; Nam, K. C.

2004-09-01

315

Adsorption of volatile organic compounds in porous metal-organic frameworks functionalized by polyoxometalates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functionalization of porous metal-organic frameworks (Cu 3( BTC) 2) was achieved by incorporating Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POMs), and further optimized via alkali metal ion-exchange. In addition to thermal gravimetric analysis, IR, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and powder X-ray diffraction, the adsorption properties were characterized by N 2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) adsorption measurements, including short-chain alcohols ( C<4), cyclohexane, benzene, and toluene. The adsorption enthalpies estimated by the modified Clausius-Clapeyron equation provided insight into the impact of POMs and alkali metal cations on the adsorption of VOCs. The introduction of POMs not only improved the stability, but also brought the increase of adsorption capacity by strengthening the interaction with gas molecules. Furthermore, the exchanged alkali metal cations acted as active sites to interact with adsorbates and enhanced the adsorption of VOCs.

Ma, Feng-Ji; Liu, Shu-Xia; Liang, Da-Dong; Ren, Guo-Jian; Wei, Feng; Chen, Ya-Guang; Su, Zhong-Min

2011-11-01

316

Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds by Weight-Detectable Sensors coated with Metal-Organic Frameworks  

PubMed Central

Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using weight-detectable quartz microbalance and silicon-based microcantilever sensors coated with crystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films is described in this paper. The thin films of two MOFs were grown from COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayers onto the gold electrodes of sensor platforms. The MOF layers worked as the effective concentrators of VOC gases, and the adsorption/desorption processes of the VOCs could be monitored by the frequency changes of weight-detectable sensors. Moreover, the MOF layers provided VOC sensing selectivity to the weight-detectable sensors through the size-selective adsorption of the VOCs within the regulated nanospace of the MOFs. PMID:25175808

Yamagiwa, Hiroki; Sato, Seiko; Fukawa, Tadashi; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Ryutaro; Mihara, Takashi; Kimura, Mutsumi

2014-01-01

317

Detection of Non-volatile Acids in Sweet Cherry Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten sweet cherry cultivars were analysed for their content of acids. The acids were precipitated as lead salts, and measured as trimethylsilylderivatives (TMS), applying gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). The results confirmed that malic acid is dominating in sweet cherry fruits, comprising 70–85% of total acidity, and also the presence of quinic, citric, chlorogenic and phosphoric acids.

Håkon Oen; Sigbjørn Vestrheim

1985-01-01

318

A Novel Method for Analyzing Microbially Affiliated Volatile Organic Compounds in Soil Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concerted, international effort by citizens, governments, industries and educational systems is necessary to address the myriad environmental issues that face us today. The authors of this paper concentrate on soil environments and, specifically, the methods currently used to characterize them. The ability to efficiently and effectively monitor and characterize various soils is desired, allows for the study, supervision, and protection of natural and cultivated ecosystems, and may assist stakeholders in meeting governmentally-imposed environmental standards. This research addresses soil characterization by a comparison of four methods that emphasize a combination of microbial community and metabolic measures: BIOLOG, fatty acid methyl-ester analysis (FAME), descriptive physical and chemical analysis (moisture content, pH, carbon content, nutrient content, and grain size), and the novel soil-microbe volatile organic compound analysis (SMVOC) presented in this work. In order to achieve the method comparison, soils were collected from three climatic regions (Bahamas, Michigan, and Mississippi), with three samples taken from niche ecosystems found at each climatic region (a total of nine sites). Of interest to the authors is whether or not an investigation of microbial communities and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by microbial communities from nine separate soil ecosystems provides useful information about soil dynamics. In essence, is analysis of soil-derived VOCs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) an effective method for characterizing microbial communities and their metabolic activity of soils rapidly and accurately compared with the other three traditional characterization methods? Preliminary results suggest that VOCs in each of these locales differ with changes in soil types, soil moisture, and bacterial community. Each niche site shows distinct patterns in both VOCs and BIOLOG readings. Results will be presented to show the efficacy of the SMVOC approach and the statistical alignment of the VOC and community measures.

Ruhs, C. V.; McNeal, K. S.

2010-12-01

319

A volatile organics concentrator for use in monitoring Space Station water quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process used to identify, select, and design an approach to the isolation and concentration of volatile organic compounds from a water sample prior to chemical analysis in a microgravity environment is discerned. The trade analysis leading to the recommended volatile organics concentrator (VOC) concept to be tested in a breadboard device is presented. The system covers the areas of gases, volatile separation from water, and water removal/gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer interface. Five options for potential use in the VOC and GC/MS system are identified and ranked, and also nine options are presented for separation of volatiles from the water phase. Seven options for use in the water removal/GC column and MS interface are also identified and included in the overall considerations. A final overall recommendation for breadboard VOC testing is given.

Ehntholt, Daniel J.; Bodek, Itamar; Valentine, James R.; Trabanino, Rudy; Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

1990-01-01

320

The development of a volatile organics concentrator for use in monitoring Space Station water quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A breadboard concept of a volatile organics concentrator (VOC) is manufactured and tested for optimized water-quality analysis in a space environment. The VOC system is attached to a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to analyze the volatile chemicals relevant to the operation of Space Station Freedom. The preliminary tests include: (1) comparisons with analyses based on direct on-column injections of standards; (2) analyses of iodinated volatile organics; (3) comparisons of nitrogen vs helium as the chromatography carrier gas; and (4) measurements of collection efficiency. The VOC can analyze EPA method-624 analytes at comparable detection using flame-ionization detection and can analyze volatile iodinated compounds. The breadboard has good reproducibility and can use nitrogen as a carrier gas; good results are noted for the collection and concentration levels and for water removal.

Bodek, Itamar; Ehntholt, Daniel J.; Stolki, Thomas J.; Valentine, James R.; Trabanino, Rudy; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

1991-01-01

321

Systemic Resistance Induced by Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Plant Growth-Promoting Fungi in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) were extracted and identified from plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF), Phoma sp., Cladosporium sp. and Ampelomyces sp., using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the three VOC extracted, two VOC blends (emitted from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp.) significantly reduced disease severity in Arabidopsis plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst). Subsequently, m-cresol and methyl benzoate (MeBA) were identified as major active volatile compounds from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp., respectively, and found to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) against the pathogen. Molecular signaling for disease suppression by the VOC were investigated by treating different mutants and transgenic Arabidopsis plants impaired in salicylic acid (SA) or Jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling pathways with m-cresol and MeBA followed by challenge inoculation with Pst. Results show that the level of protection was significantly lower when JA/ET-impaired mutants were treated with MeBA, and in SA-, and JA/ET-disrupted mutants after m-cresol treatment, indicating the involvement of these signal transduction pathways in the ISR primed by the volatiles. Analysis of defense-related genes by real-time qRT-PCR showed that both the SA-and JA-signaling pathways combine in the m-cresol signaling of ISR, whereas MeBA is mainly involved in the JA-signaling pathway with partial recruitment of SA-signals. The ET-signaling pathway was not employed in ISR by the volatiles. Therefore, this study identified two novel volatile components capable of eliciting ISR that may be promising candidates in biological control strategy to protect plants from diseases. PMID:24475190

Naznin, Hushna Ara; Kiyohara, Daigo; Kimura, Minako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

2014-01-01

322

Determination of organic volatile impurities in nepafenac by GC method.  

PubMed

The methods for controlling volatile impurities, including reagent and starting material, in Nepafenac active pharmaceutical ingredient, are reported. The proposed methods were developed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography with headspace injection (GC-HS) and validated according to the requirements of the ICH (International Conference of Harmonization) validation guidelines Q2R1 and the guideline for residual solvents Q3C. PMID:25745773

Mucha, Mariola; Groman, Aleksandra; Zagrodzka, Joanna; Cybulski, Marcin

2014-01-01

323

Semi-volatile secondary organic aerosol in urban atmospheres: meeting a measurement challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonium nitrate and semi-volatile organic compounds are significant components of fine particles in urban atmospheres. These components, however, are not properly determined with current US EPA accepted methods such as the PM2.5 FRM or other single filter samplers due to significant losses of semi-volatile material (SVM) from particles collected on the filter during sampling. Continuous PM2.5 mass measurements are attempted

Delbert J. Eatough; Russell W. Long; William K. Modey; Norman L. Eatough

2003-01-01

324

Screening processed milk for volatile organic compounds using vacuum distillation/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An adaptation is presented of method 8261--from the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846)-to analyze milk for an expanded list of volatile organic compounds is presented. The milk matrix exhibits a strong affinity for organic compounds and the surrogate based matrix normalization described in method 8261 provided accurate results. This method had the sensitivity necessary to detect volatile organic analytes at or below maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) set by EPA for drinking water. In a survey of milk samples available in Las Vegas, Nevada, 32 of 88 targeted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected. Many of the detected VOCs have not previously been reported and a rationale for their presence in milk is presented. PMID:15106669

Hiatt, M H; Pia, J H

2004-02-01

325

Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit  

PubMed Central

The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and ?-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[13C6]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective ?-keto acids, utilizing ?-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6?kDa and 42.7?kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants. PMID:20065117

Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J.; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

2010-01-01

326

Environmental Aspects of Two Volatile Organic Compound Groundwater Treatment Designs at the Rocky Flats Site - 13135  

SciTech Connect

DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado is a former nuclear weapons production facility that began operations in the early 1950's. Because of releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the federally owned property and adjacent offsite areas were placed on the CERCLA National Priorities List in 1989. The final remedy was selected in 2006. Engineered components of the remedy include four groundwater treatment systems that were installed before closure as CERCLA-accelerated actions. Two of the systems, the Mound Site Plume Treatment System and the East Trenches Plume Treatment System, remove low levels of volatile organic compounds using zero-valent iron media, thereby reducing the loading of volatile organic compounds in surface water resulting from the groundwater pathway. However, the zero-valent iron treatment does not reliably reduce all volatile organic compounds to consistently meet water quality goals. While adding additional zero-valent iron media capacity could improve volatile organic compound removal capability, installation of a solar powered air-stripper has proven an effective treatment optimization in further reducing volatile organic compound concentrations. A comparison of the air stripper to the alternative of adding additional zero-valent iron capacity to improve Mound Site Plume Treatment System and East Trenches Plume Treatment System treatment based on several key sustainable remediation aspects indicates the air stripper is also more 'environmentally friendly'. These key aspects include air pollutant emissions, water quality, waste management, transportation, and costs. (authors)

Michalski, Casey C.; DiSalvo, Rick; Boylan, John [Stoller LMS Team, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)] [Stoller LMS Team, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)

2013-07-01

327

A luminescent metal-organic framework constructed using a tetraphenylethene-based ligand for sensing volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

By using a tetraphenylethene (TPE)-based ligand, tetrakis[4-(4-carboxyphenyl)phenyl]ethene (H4TCPPE), a porous metal-organic framework [Zn2(TCPPE)] (1) is synthesized, which exhibits strong fluorescence and is capable of gas adsorption and sensing volatile organic compounds. PMID:25502496

Liu, Xun-Gao; Wang, Hui; Chen, Bin; Zou, Yang; Gu, Zhi-Guo; Zhao, Zujin; Shen, Liang

2015-01-31

328

SOIL SORPTION OF VOLATILE AND SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN A MIXTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies were conducted to evaluate lipophilicity as a predictor of sorption for a mixture of organic compounds with high vapor pressures commonly present at hazardous waste sites. orption partition coefficients (Kp) for the mixture of 16 volatile and semivolatile organic compound...

329

LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF THE SEMI-VOST (SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC SAMPLING TRAIN) METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory studies and a second field evaluation have been completed to assess the performance of the Semi-Volatile Organic Sampling Train (Semi-VOST) method for measuring concentrations of principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) with boiling points greater than 100 deg ...

330

Online monitoring of concentration and dynamics of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion processes with mid-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

An ATR-MIR-FTIR spectrometer was integrated into a laboratory scale anaerobic digestion setup. Automatically, a sludge sample from the digester was transferred to a measurement cell; an IR spectrum was recorded and evaluated by chemometric models to estimate the concentration of the individual volatile fatty acids (VFA). The calibration set included semi-artificial samples spiked with known concentrations of the VFA as well as original samples from a continuous fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference analysis of the samples. The models were optimized for a low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP). R (2) for acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, and isovaleric acid were 0.94, 0.88, 0.83, 0.75, 0.59, and 0.90, respectively. The accuracy of the models was validated in a second experiment. Considering the complex and heterogeneous sludge composition and the chemical similarity of VFA, absolute concentration and dynamic (increasing and decreasing concentration of VFA) was predicted well for acetic, propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric acid (in their respective concentration range); Butyric acid could not be detected. The installed setup was able to gather and measure native samples from the digester (every 2 h) automatically over a period of 6 months without problems of clogging or biofouling. The instant and continuous analysis of the concentration of the VFA made it possible to evaluate the current bioprocess status and adjust the organic loading rate accordingly. PMID:25142153

Falk, Harry Michael; Reichling, Peter; Andersen, Christian; Benz, Roland

2015-02-01

331

Plant Volatiles-based Insect Pest Management in Organic Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic agriculture is increasing in popularity worldwide due to the rapidly growing market for organic products. In organic production, insects present a major pest challenge that negatively impacts crop health and yield. To successfully manage an organic farmland, an effective insect pest management program is key. In this review, we first describe the approaches currently used for pest management in

Gitika Shrivastava; Mary Rogers; Annette Wszelaki; Dilip R. Panthee; Feng Chen

2010-01-01

332

Human-induced changes in US biogenic volatile organic compound emissions: evidence from long-term forest  

E-print Network

Human-induced changes in US biogenic volatile organic compound emissions: evidence from long Road, Durham, NH 03824-3525, USA Abstract Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by woody vegetation organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by vegeta- tion are important chemical species that affect the oxidative

Moorcroft, Paul R.

333

Influence du pH sur les transferts des acides gras volatils dans la paroi ccale isole du rat  

E-print Network

Influence du pH sur les transferts des acides gras volatils dans la paroi cæcale isolée du rat P du 11-Novembre-1918 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France Summary. Influence of pH on volatile fatty acid transfer through the rat caecum wall. The influence of pH on the transfer of acetic, propionic and butyric

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

Ion-trap detection of volatile organic compounds in alveolar breath  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for the collection and microanalysis of the volatile organic compounds in human breath. A transportable apparatus supplies subjects with purified air and samples their alveolar breath; the volatile organic compounds are captured in an adsorptive trap containing activated carbon and molecular sieve. The sample is thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated microprocessor-controlled device, concentrated by two-stage cryofocusing, and assayed by gas chromatography with ion-trap detection. Compounds are identified by reference to a computer-based library of mass spectra with subtraction of the background components present in the inspired air. We used this device to study 10 normal subjects and determined the relative abundance of the volatile organic compounds in their alveolar breath. The breath-collecting apparatus was convenient to operate and was well tolerated by human volunteers.

Phillips, M.; Greenberg, J. (Department of Medicine, St. Vincent's Medical Center of Richmond, Staten Island, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

335

Oil-field emissions of volatile organic compounds. Final report, April 1988-March 1989  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data that determine the composition of volatile organic compound emissions from oil production fields in Tulsa County, Oklahoma. Five points in the crude-oil production process were samples: well heads, gathering tasks, oilfield pipeline tanks, pipeline terminal tanks, and refinery crude-oil storage tanks. The samples were collected in Summa polished stainless steel canisters and analyzed by a gas chromatograph with dual flame ionization detectors. The analytical technique looked for ninety specific compounds; thirty were detected and are reported. In general the compounds in greatest abundance were ethane, propane, n-butane, 2-methyl butane, and n-pentane. The data developed are for the composition of the volatile organic compounds; volatile organic-compound emission rates were not determined.

Viswanath, R.S.; Van Sandt, J.H.

1989-04-01

336

Effect of soot build-up while sampling with the volatile organic sampling train (VOST)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), is used to determine the destruction and removal efficiencies of volatile organic emissions from industrial boilers co-firing hazardous waste. Previous reports detailing hysteresis effect for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), resulting from soot build-up on the interior surfaces of boilers and industrial furnaces, raised concerns of possible VOST measurement biases due to soot deposits within the VOST. This possiblity required laboratory investigation of the method under sooty conditions. Statistical evaluation of the data collected indicated that recoveries for two of the higher boiling VOCs (chlorobenzene and octane) appeared to be negatively influenced by the presence of soot on previously collected hazardous waste incinerator data, since the VOST-Soot effect was determined at moderately high soot loadings, which are atypical of properly operating hazardous waste incinerators.

Wilshire, F.W.; Johnson, L.D.; Hinshaw, G.D.

1994-01-01

337

HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal sewage sludge.  

PubMed

The aim of the research involved identification and semi-quantitative determination of unknown volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds emitted to air by sewage sludge formed in the process of municipal wastewater treatment in a sewage treatment plant. Samples taken directly after completion of the technological process as well as the sludge stored on the premise of the sewage treatment plant were analyzed. A simple method using off-line headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been proposed for extraction and detection of organic pollutants. For reliable identification of compounds, combination of two independent parameters: mass spectra and linear temperature programmed retention indices were employed. Over 170 compounds of different structure were identified including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, carbonyls, as well as sulfur, nitrogen, and chlorine containing compounds. The prevailing substances included: ethyl ether, n-hexane, p-xylene, o-xylene, mesitylene, m-ethylbenzene, limonene, n-decane, n-undecane, and n-dodecane. A few compounds such as methanetiol, dimethyl polisulfide, octaatomic sulfur, phthalic anhydride, and indoles were identified in the sludge for the first time. PMID:21688031

Kotowska, Urszula; ?alikowski, Maciej; Isidorov, Valery A

2012-05-01

338

Emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from open crop residue burning in the Yangtze River Delta region, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open crop residue burning is one of the major sources of air pollutants including the precursors of photooxidants like ozone and secondary organic aerosol. We made measurements of trace gases including nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) in a rural area in central East China in June 2010. During the campaign, we identified six biomass burning events in total through the simultaneous enhancement of carbon monoxide and acetonitrile. Four cases represented fresh plumes (<2 h after emission), and two cases represented aged plumes (>3 h after emission), as determined by photochemical age. While we were not able to quantify formic acid, we identified an enhancement of major oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) as well as low molecular alkanes and alkenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in these plumes. The observed normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs) of OVOCs and alkenes showed dependence on air mass age, even in fresh smoke plumes, supporting the view that these species are rapidly produced and destructed, respectively, during plume evolution. Based on the NEMR data in the fresh plumes, we calculated the emission factors (EFs) of individual NMVOC. The comparison to previous reports suggests that the EFs of formaldehyde and acetic acid have been overestimated, while those of alkenes have been underestimated. Finally, we suggest that open burning of wheat residue in China releases about 0.34 Tg NMVOCs annually. If we applied the same EFs to all crops, the annual NMVOC emissions would be 2.33 Tg. The EFs of speciated NMVOCs can be used to improve the existing inventories.

Kudo, Shinji; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Inomata, Satoshi; Saito, Shinji; Pan, Xiaole; Kanaya, Yugo; Taketani, Fumikazu; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Hongyan; Dong, Huabin; Zhang, Meigen; Yamaji, Kazuyo

2014-06-01

339

Antifungal activity of volatile organic compounds from Streptomyces alboflavus TD-1.  

PubMed

Streptomyces sp. TD-1 was identified as Streptomyces alboflavus based on its morphological characteristics, physiological properties, and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The antifungal activity of the volatile-producing S. alboflavus TD-1 was investigated. Results showed that volatiles generated by S. alboflavus TD-1 inhibited storage fungi Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillum citrinum in vitro. GC/MS analysis revealed that 27 kinds of volatile organic compounds were identified from the volatiles of S. alboflavus TD-1 mycelia, among which the most abundant compound was 2-methylisoborneol. Dimethyl disulfide was proved to have antifungal activity against F. moniliforme by fumigation in vitro. PMID:23351181

Wang, Changlu; Wang, Zhifang; Qiao, Xi; Li, Zhenjing; Li, Fengjuan; Chen, Mianhua; Wang, Yurong; Huang, Yufang; Cui, Haiyan

2013-04-01

340

Measurement of the temperature dependent partitioning of semi-volatile organics onto aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volatility of the organic aerosol (OA) fraction has received a great deal of attention of late in light of new volatility-based modelling approaches and the inability of current models to fully account for secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this regard, evaporation of primary organic aerosol (POA) species and their subsequent oxidation may contribute significantly to SOA downwind of sources. To assess the importance of the temperature dependence of these primary organic aerosol species a temperature controlled inlet capable of heating and cooling was coupled to a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and was deployed in Southern Ontario as part of the Fast Evolution of Vehicle Emissions near Roadways (FEVER) 2010 field campaign. The instrument and inlet system were mounted on a mobile platform to measure upwind and downwind of the roadway. Changes in"volatility" were observed when the mobile lab moved from an upwind to a downwind location, clearly demonstrating the impact of the roadway. Measured OA mass changes observed ranged from 0.5 to ~1 %/°C over a range of 15 degrees below to 25 degrees above ambient, depending on the location of the mobile lab and meteorological conditions at the time. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to the complete data set (ambient and temperature controlled data) and yielded a 3 factor solution with factors consistent with hydro carbon like organic aerosol (HOA), aged organic aerosol (OOA-1) and a fresher organic aerosol (OOA-2). Mass changes as a function of temperature were observed for all three factors and were found to be similar over the temperature range studied. The potential use of this data for deriving parameters such as average molecular mass of semi-volatile (SVOC) and intermediate volatility organic (IVOC) gases taken up onto organic aerosol using the parameterization of gas-particle partitioning of Pankow (1994) will be discussed.

Wentzell, J. J.; Liggio, J.; Li, S.; Brook, J. R.; Makar, P.; Staebler, R. M.; Evans, G. J.; Jeong, C.; Lu, G.; Gordon, M.; Mihele, C.

2011-12-01

341

ACID-VOLATILE SULFIDE AS A FACTOR MEDIATING CADMIUM AND NICKEL BIOAVAILABILITY IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

We investigated the influence of sulfide, measured as acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), on the bioavailability of cadmium and nickel in sediments. eventeen samples from an estuarine system heavily contaminated with cadmium and nickel were analyzed for AVS and simultaneously extracted ...

342

RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND ITS AFFECT ON THE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS ON SORBENT TUBES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are a major component of odor from swine operations. Thermodesorption has been used in the analysis of VFA in air; however, no study has been conducted to validate this air sampling technique. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects relative humidity h...

343

Interaction of volatiles, sugars and acids on perception of tomato aroma and flavor descriptors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To better understand the effect of sugars and acid levels on perception of aroma volatiles, intensity of tomato characteristic earthy/medicinal/musty, green/grassy/viny and fruity/floral aroma and flavor descriptors were evaluated using coarsely choped partially deodorized tomato puree spiked with 1...

344

Effect of fermentable carbohydrates on volatile fatty acids, ammonia and mineral absorption in the rat caecum  

E-print Network

Effect of fermentable carbohydrates on volatile fatty acids, ammonia and mineral absorption. Theix 63110 Beaumont, France Summary. The effects of poorly digested carbohydrates in the small for cellulose, the carbohydrates (bran, pectin, guar-gum, crude potato-starch, lactose, lactulose) favoured

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

345

Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate into  

E-print Network

Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate Laitière, Saint-Gilles, 35590 L'Hermitage, France Changes in milk secretion and composi- tion, particularly concentrate and 7.5% soya bean meal. Duodenal infusion of casein increased milk yield (+ 1.9 kg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

346

Atmospheric PM and volatile organic compounds released from Mediterranean shrubland wildfires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires produce a significant release of gases and particles affecting climate and air quality. In the Mediterranean region, shrublands significantly contribute to burned areas and may show specific emission profiles. Our objective was to depict and quantify the primary-derived aerosols and precursors of secondary particulate species released during shrubland experimental fires, in which fire-line intensity values were equivalent to those of moderate shrubland wildfires, by using a number of different methodologies for the characterization of organic and inorganic compounds in both gas-phase and particulate-phase. Emissions of PM mass, particle number concentrations and organic and inorganic PMx components during flaming and smouldering phases were characterized in a field shrubland fire experiment. Our results revealed a clear prevalence of K+ and SO42- as inorganic ions released during the flaming-smouldering processes, accounting for 68-80% of the inorganic soluble fraction. During the residual-smouldering phases, in addition to K+ and SO42-, Ca2+ was found in significant amounts probably due the predominance of re-suspension processes (ashes and soil dust) over other emission sources during this stage. Concerning organic markers, the chromatograms were dominated by phenols, n-alkanals and n-alkanones, as well as by alcohol biomarkers in all the PMx fractions investigated. Levoglucosan was the most abundant degradation compound with maximum emission factors between 182 and 261 mg kg-1 in PM2.5 and PM10 respectively. However, levoglucosan was also observed in significant amounts in the gas-phase. The most representative organic volatile constituents in the smoke samples were alcohols, carbonyls, acids, monocyclic and bicyclic arenes, isoprenoids and alkanes compounds. The emission factors obtained in this study may contribute to the validation and improvement of national and international emission inventories of this intricate and diffuse emission source.

Garcia-Hurtado, Elisa; Pey, Jorge; Borrás, Esther; Sánchez, Pilar; Vera, Teresa; Carratalá, Adoración; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Vallejo, V. Ramon

2014-06-01

347

Thermal engine driven heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for separating volatile organic compounds from a stream of process gas. An internal combustion engine drives a plurality of refrigeration systems, an electrical generator and an air compressor. The exhaust of the internal combustion engine drives an inert gas subsystem and a heater for the gas. A water jacket captures waste heat from the internal combustion engine and drives a second heater for the gas and possibly an additional refrigeration system for the supply of chilled water. The refrigeration systems mechanically driven by the internal combustion engine effect the precipitation of volatile organic compounds from the stream of gas.

Drake, Richard L. (Schenectady, NY)

1991-01-01

348

IN VITRO LACTIC ACID INHIBITION AND ALTERATIONS IN VOLATILE FATTY ACID PRODUCTION BY ANTIMICROBIAL FEED ADDITIVES 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch culture fermentations were used to determine the effects of avoparcin, lasalocid, monen- sin, narasin, salinomycin, thiopeptin, tylosin, virginiamycin, monensin + tylosin combination, and two new ionophore compounds (RO22--6924\\/004 and RO21--6447\\/009) on lactic acid and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. Ruminai fluid from cattle fed a high alfalfa hay diet was incubated with glucose for 12 h in a buffered

T. G. Nagaraja; M. B. Taylor; D. L. Harmon; J. E. Boyer

349

Roots volatiles and fatty acids of coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) grown in saline medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An hydroponic culture was conducted to investigate the effect of saline stress on the essential oil and fatty acid composition\\u000a of Tunisian coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) roots. Ten days old coriander seedlings were treated during 3 weeks with different NaCl concentrations (0, 25, 50 and\\u000a 75 mM). Roots volatile components and fatty acids were analyzed. The essential oil yield was 0.06% in

Manel Neffati; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

350

The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge based on short-term experiments is risky being transferred to an ecotype which is governed under natural conditions by long term flooding. Furthermore, contrasting such experiments with usually young trees (saplings or a few years old) nothing is known about the emission behavior of adult trees under field conditions.

Kesselmeier, J.

2012-12-01

351

Biological upgrading of volatile fatty acids, key intermediates for the valorization of biowaste through dark anaerobic fermentation.  

PubMed

VFAs can be obtained from lignocellulosic agro-industrial wastes, sludge, and various biodegradable organic wastes as key intermediates through dark fermentation processes and synthesized through chemical route also. They are building blocks of several organic compounds viz. alcohol, aldehyde, ketones, esters and olefins. These can serve as alternate carbon source for microbial biolipid, biohydrogen, microbial fuel cells productions, methanisation, and for denitrification. Organic wastes are the substrate for VFA platform that is of zero or even negative cost, giving VFA as intermediate product but their separation from the fermentation broth is still a challenge; however, several separation technologies have been developed, membrane separation being the most suitable one. These aspects will be reviewed and results obtained during anaerobic treatment of slaughterhouse wastes with further utilisation of volatile fatty acids for yeast cultivation have been discussed. PMID:23339903

Singhania, Reeta Rani; Patel, Anil Kumar; Christophe, Gwendoline; Fontanille, Pierre; Larroche, Christian

2013-10-01

352

Volatile organic chemical emissions from structural insulated panel (SIP) materials and implications for indoor air quality  

SciTech Connect

The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from structural insulated panel (SIP) materials were investigated. Specimens of newly produced SIPs and associated panel adhesives were obtained from two relatively large manufacturers. Additionally, specimens of the oriented strand board (OSB) used as the inner and outer sheathing and the extruded polystyrene core for the SIP were obtained from one manufacturer. Using small-scale chambers, emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and other VOCs from SIPs, OSB and polystyrene were measured over a period of four months and from the adhesives over two months. SIP specimens overlaid by gypsum board panels were also tested over four months. The predominant VOCs emitted by the SIPs included acetic acid, pentanal, hexanal and styrene. The emissions of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were relatively low. Acetic acid and the aldehydes derived from the OSB, while styrene derived from the polystyrene. One of the SIPs emitted toluene and methyl acetate. The adhesives primarily emitted a mixture of hydrocarbons. The emission rates of most VOCs from the SIP/gypsum board assemblies were approximately the same or higher than their respective emission rates from the unfinished SIPs. Modeling using VOC emission factors obtained for the SIP/gypsum board assemblies demonstrated the potential for SIP materials to degrade indoor air quality in houses. A field study to investigate VOC concentrations and emission rates in SIP houses relative to closely matched conventionally constructed houses is necessary to determine the actual impacts of SIPs. If significant impacts are observed, to it may be desirable to develop control measures to reduce the emissions of VOCs from SIPs, such as the substitution of lower emitting materials or the use of vapor diffusion barriers.

Hodgson, Alfred T.

2003-09-01

353

Digestion and rumen volatile fatty acid production by heifers fed reconstituted sorghum grain  

E-print Network

-day collection period. Fecal grab samples were collected every 12 hours for 6 days, in such a way that after each 24 hour period, grab samples were collected 2 hours later than on the pre?ious day. On the last day of tho experiment, rumen ilvid...& ctive 2. Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) BL'HURTS AiC) DISCUSSION 17 20 Percent Chemiral Composition of Peed Hixtures 20 VI ~ Dry Hatter Intake Digestibility of Feed Hixtures Volatile Fatty Aci. ds (VFA) ST. E'MARY 2O 22 29 33 LITERATURE C1TED...

Pantin, Eduardo Jose

1969-01-01

354

Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi  

SciTech Connect

Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less visible impact on human well-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been overshadowed by the successful deployment of the ?-lactam processes. Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal organic acid processes may be the best examples of all. For example, commercial processes using Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80% efficiency and at final concentrations in hundreds of grams per liter. Surprisingly, this phenomenal productivity has been the object of relatively few research programs. Perhaps a greater understanding of this extraordinary capacity of filamentous fungi to produce organic acids in high concentrations will allow greater exploitation of these organisms via application of new knowledge in this era of genomics-based biotechnology. In this chapter, we will explore the biochemistry and modern genetic aspects of the current and potential commercial processes for making organic acids. The organisms involved, with a few exceptions, are filamentous fungi, and this review is limited to that group. Although yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, species of Rhodotorula, Pichia, and Hansenula are important organisms in fungal biotechnology, they have not been significant for commercial organic acid production, with one exception. The yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002). Furthermore, in the near future engineered yeasts may provide new commercial processes to make lactic acid (Porro, Bianchi, Ranzi, Frontali, Vai, Winkler, & Alberghina, 2002). This chapter is divided into two parts. The first contains a review of the commercial aspects of current and potential large-scale processes for fungal organic acid production. The second presents a detailed review of current knowledge of the biochemistry and genetic regulation of organic acid biosynthesis. The organic acids considered are limited to polyfunctional acids containing one or more carboxyl groups, hydroxyl groups, or both, that are closely tied to central metabolic pathways. A major objective of the review is to link the biochemistry of organic acid production to the available genomic data.

Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

2004-05-03

355

Volatile organic compound emissions from green waste composting: Characterization and ozone formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composting of green waste separated from the disposed solid waste stream reduces biodegradable inputs into landfills, and contributes valuable soil amendments to agriculture. Agencies in regions with severe air quality challenges, such as California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV), have raised concerns about gases emitted during the composting process, which are suspected to contribute to persistent high levels of ground-level ozone formation. The goal of the current study is to thoroughly characterize volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from green waste compost piles of different ages (fresh tipped piles, 3-6 day old windrows, and 2-3 week old windrows). Multiple sampling and analytical approaches were applied to ensure the detection of most gaseous organic components emitted. More than 100 VOCs were detected and quantified in this study, including aliphatic alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, biogenic organics, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, furans, acids, esters, ether, halogenated hydrocarbons and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Alcohols were found to be the dominating VOC in the emissions from a compost pile regardless of age, with fluxes ranging from 2.6 to 13.0 mg m -2 min -1 with the highest emissions coming from the younger composting windrows (3-6 days). Average VOC emissions other than alcohols were determined to be 2.3 mg m -2 min -1 from younger windows, which was roughly two times higher than either the fresh tipping pile (1.2 mg m -2 min -1) or the older windrows (1.4 mg m -2 min -1). It was also observed that the older windrows emit a slightly larger proportion of more reactive compounds. Approximately 90% of the total VOCs were found to have maximum incremental reactivity of less than 2. Net ozone formation potential of the emissions was also assessed.

Kumar, Anuj; Alaimo, Christopher P.; Horowitz, Robert; Mitloehner, Frank M.; Kleeman, Michael J.; Green, Peter G.

2011-04-01

356

Alcohol, volatile fatty acid, phenol, and methane emissions from dairy cows and fresh manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are approximately 2.5 million dairy cows in California. Emission inventories list dairy cows and their waste as the major source of regional air pollutants, but data on their actual emissions remain sparse, particularly for smog-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) and greenhouse gases (GH...

357

AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS SAMPLES CONTAINING PESTICIDES, ACIDIC/BASIC/NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILES AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GC/MS  

EPA Science Inventory

Data is presented on the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with GC/MS spectrometry for the single-run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of organic compounds. The system uses commercially available automated in-line 10-m...

358

Arachidonic acid-dependent carbon-eight volatile synthesis from wounded liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha).  

PubMed

Eight-carbon (C8) volatiles, such as 1-octen-3-ol, octan-3-one, and octan-3-ol, are ubiquitously found among fungi and bryophytes. In this study, it was found that the thalli of the common liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a model plant species, emitted high amounts of C8 volatiles mainly consisting of (R)-1-octen-3-ol and octan-3-one upon mechanical wounding. The induction of emission took place within 40min. In intact thalli, 1-octen-3-yl acetate was the predominant C8 volatile while tissue disruption resulted in conversion of the acetate to 1-octen-3-ol. This conversion was carried out by an esterase showing stereospecificity to (R)-1-octen-3-yl acetate. From the transgenic line of M. polymorpha (des6(KO)) lacking arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, formation of C8 volatiles was only minimally observed, which indicated that arachidonic and/or eicosapentaenoic acids were essential to form C8 volatiles in M. polymorpha. When des6(KO) thalli were exposed to the vapor of 1-octen-3-ol, they absorbed the alcohol and converted it into 1-octen-3-yl acetate and octan-3-one. Therefore, this implied that 1-octen-3-ol was the primary C8 product formed from arachidonic acid, and further metabolism involving acetylation and oxidoreduction occurred to diversify the C8 products. Octan-3-one was only minimally formed from completely disrupted thalli, while it was formed as the most abundant product in partially disrupted thalli. Therefore, it is assumed that the remaining intact tissues were involved in the conversion of 1-octen-3-ol to octan-3-one in the partially disrupted thalli. The conversion was partly promoted by addition of NAD(P)H into the completely disrupted tissues, suggesting an NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase was involved in the conversion. PMID:25174554

Kihara, Hirotomo; Tanaka, Maya; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Horibata, Akira; Yamada, Atsushi; Kita, Sayaka; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kajikawa, Masataka; Fukuzawa, Hideya; Kohchi, Takayuki; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Kenji

2014-11-01

359

Effect of ammonia on the volatility of organic diacids.  

PubMed

The effect of ammonia on the partitioning of two dicarboxylic acids, oxalic (C2) and adipic (C6) is determined. Measurements by a tandem differential mobility analysis system and a thermodenuder (TD-TDMA) system are used to estimate the saturation vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of ammonium oxalate and adipate. Ammonia dramatically lowered the vapor pressure of oxalic acid, by several orders of magnitude, with an estimated vapor pressure of 1.7 ± 0.8 × 10(–6) Pa at 298 K. The vapor pressure of ammonium adipate was 2.5 ± 0.8 × 10(–5) Pa at 298 K, similar to that of adipic acid. These results suggest that the dominance of oxalate in diacid concentrations measured in ambient aerosol could be attributed to the salt formation with ammonia. PMID:25356879

Paciga, Andrea L; Riipinen, Ilona; Pandis, Spyros N

2014-12-01

360

Measurement of the ambient organic aerosol volatility distribution: application during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment (FAME2008)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variable residence time thermodenuder (TD) was combined with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) to measure the volatility distribution of aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May of 2008 (FAME-2008). A new method for the quantification of the organic aerosol volatility distribution was developed

B. H. Lee; E. Kostenidou; L. Hildebrandt; I. Riipinen; G. J. Engelhart; C. Mohr; P. F. Decarlo; N. Mihalopoulos; A. S. H. Prevot; U. Baltensperger; S. N. Pandis

2010-01-01

361

Supplementary Material for "Direct ecosystem fluxes of1 volatile organic compounds from oil palms in South-East2  

E-print Network

1 Supplementary Material for "Direct ecosystem fluxes of1 volatile organic compounds from oil palms organic compounds (BVOCs) were7 measured by a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) operated Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS)6 The concentrations and eddy fluxes of biogenic volatile

Meskhidze, Nicholas

362

The reduction of HNO3 by volatile organic compounds emitted by motor vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitric acid (HNO3) was reduced in a flow tube by volatile organic carbon compounds (VOCs) generated from engine oil vapor. The primary reaction product was believed to be HONO. The reaction was not enhanced when Teflon® Raschig rings were added to the flow tube to increase surface area, thereby showing the reaction to be homogeneous under the conditions studied. The HONO formation observed ranged between 0.1 and 0.6 ppb h-1, with a mean of 0.3 ± 0.1 ppb h-1, for typical HNO3 concentrations of 4-5 ppb and estimated concentrations of the reactive components in the engine oil vapor between 200 and 300 ppt. The observations in this study compare well to a recently published field study conducted in Houston that observed average formation rates of 0.6 ± 0.3 ppb h-1. Water vapor was found to decrease the HONO formation rate by ?0.1 ppb h-1 for every 1% increase in the water mixing ratio.

Rutter, A. P.; Malloy, Q. G. J.; Leong, Y. J.; Gutierrez, C. V.; Calzada, M.; Scheuer, E.; Dibb, J. E.; Griffin, R. J.

2014-04-01

363

Tunable volatile organic compounds sensor by using thiolated ligand conjugation on MoS2.  

PubMed

One of the most important issues in the development of gas sensors for breath analysis is the fabrication of gas sensor arrays that possess different responses for recognizing patterns for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here, we develop a high-performance chemiresistor with a tunable sensor response and high sensitivity for representative VOC groups by using molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and by conjugating a thiolated ligand (mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA)) to MoS2 surface. Primitive and MUA-conjugated MoS2 sensing channels exhibit distinctly different sensor responses toward VOCs. In particular, the primitive MoS2 sensor presents positive responses for oxygen-functionalized VOCs, while the MUA-conjugated MoS2 sensor presents negative responses for the same analytes. Such characteristic sensor responses demonstrate that ligand conjugation successfully adds functionality to a MoS2 matrix. Thus, this will be a promising approach to constructing a versatile sensor array, by conjugating a wide variety of thiolated ligands on the MoS2 surface. Furthermore, these MoS2 sensors in this study exhibit high sensitivity to representative VOCs down to a concentration of 1 ppm. This approach to fabricating a tunable and sensitive VOC sensor may lead to a valuable real-world application for lung cancer diagnosis by breath analysis. PMID:25191976

Kim, Jong-Seon; Yoo, Hae-Wook; Choi, Hyung Ouk; Jung, Hee-Tae

2014-10-01

364

Volatile organic carbon emissions. Phase 2. Final report, April 1985-December 1986  

SciTech Connect

Engineering studies evaluated bisulfite (HS0/sub 3/) absorbent solutions in a bench-scale absorption unit for the control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from the manufacture of multi-base propellent at Radford Army Ammunition Plant. An optimization study showed that a dual-column absorption system is required for the removal of solvent vapors: a recycle column containing 15 wt% (HS0/sub 3/) absorbent solution and a single-pass column using plant-process water. The recycle column concentrated acetone to 1.6 wt% in the absorber bottoms, resulting in 40-85% solvent recovery by distillation; the single-pass column failed to concentrate ethanol sufficiently for recovery. The 15 wt % HS0/sub 3/ absorbent solution also destroyed both neat and vaporous nitroglycerin. Economic analyses of the proposed process designs for the multi-base propellant mixing process and forced air drying operations indicated HSO/sub 3/ absorbent systems to be uneconomical. Therefore, alternative VOC abatement systems were cursorily evaluated, including glycols and sulfuric acid as absorbents, membrane technology, Ceilcote's VOC control system, and Union Carbide's PURASIV HR solvent recovery process.

Jake, C.A.

1987-02-01

365

Exhaled volatile organic compounds as lung cancer biomarkers during one-lung ventilation.  

PubMed

In this study, single-lung ventilation was used to detect differences in the volatile organic compound (VOCs) profiles between lung tissues in healthy and affected lungs. In addition, changes that occurred after lung cancer resection in both the VOCs profiles of exhaled breath from ipsilateral and contralateral lungs and the VOCs profiles of exhaled breath and blood sample headspaces were also determined. Eighteen patients with non-small cell carcinoma were enrolled. Alveolar breath samples were taken separately from healthy and diseased lungs before and after the tumor resection. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to assess the exhaled VOCs of the study participants. The VOCs exhibited significant differences between the contralateral and ipsilateral lungs before surgery, the contralateral and ipsilateral lungs after surgery, the ipsilateral lungs before and after surgery, and the blood samples from before and after surgery; 12, 19, 12 and 5 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively. 2,2-Dimethyldecane, tetradecane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane, 2,3,4-trimethyldecane, nonane, 3,4,5,6-tetramethyloctane, and hexadecane may be generated from lipid peroxidation during surgery. Caprolactam and propanoic acid may be more promising exhaled breath biomarkers for lung cancer. PMID:25482491

Wang, Changsong; Dong, Ran; Wang, Xiaoyang; Lian, Ailing; Chi, Chunjie; Ke, Chaofu; Guo, Lei; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

2014-01-01

366

Exhaled volatile organic compounds as lung cancer biomarkers during one-lung ventilation  

PubMed Central

In this study, single-lung ventilation was used to detect differences in the volatile organic compound (VOCs) profiles between lung tissues in healthy and affected lungs. In addition, changes that occurred after lung cancer resection in both the VOCs profiles of exhaled breath from ipsilateral and contralateral lungs and the VOCs profiles of exhaled breath and blood sample headspaces were also determined. Eighteen patients with non-small cell carcinoma were enrolled. Alveolar breath samples were taken separately from healthy and diseased lungs before and after the tumor resection. Solid phase microextraction–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to assess the exhaled VOCs of the study participants. The VOCs exhibited significant differences between the contralateral and ipsilateral lungs before surgery, the contralateral and ipsilateral lungs after surgery, the ipsilateral lungs before and after surgery, and the blood samples from before and after surgery; 12, 19, 12 and 5 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively. 2,2-Dimethyldecane, tetradecane, 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane, 2,3,4-trimethyldecane, nonane, 3,4,5,6-tetramethyloctane, and hexadecane may be generated from lipid peroxidation during surgery. Caprolactam and propanoic acid may be more promising exhaled breath biomarkers for lung cancer. PMID:25482491

Wang, Changsong; Dong, Ran; Wang, Xiaoyang; Lian, Ailing; Chi, Chunjie; Ke, Chaofu; Guo, Lei; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

2014-01-01

367

FIELD AUDIT RESULTS WITH ORGANIC GAS STANDARDS ON VOLATILE ORGANIC AMBIENT AIR SAMPLERS EQUIPPED WITH TENAX GC (GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY)  

EPA Science Inventory

The results from two field audits of Tenax-equipped sampling systems measuring the volatile organic (VOC) concentrations in ambient air are reported. The audited samplers collected the VOC's on Tenax GC (a solid adsorbent) with the VOC's later thermally desorbed and then analyzed...

368

Heterogeneous Photocatalysis for Control of Volatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research results concerning the photocatalytic activity and selectivity of benzene are discussed. This compound, which represents one of an important class of volatile organic compounds found in indoor air, was oxidized in an annular photocatalytic reactor featuring a thin film of titanium dioxide and illuminated by a fluorescent black light. The gas phase products, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, were

William A. Jacoby; Daniel M Blake; John A. Penned; James E. Boulter; LeAnn M. Vargo; Marya C George; Suzanne K. Dolberg

1996-01-01

369

Adsorption and Regeneration on Activated Carbon Fiber Cloth for Volatile Organic Compounds at Indoor Concentration Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are increasing concerns about indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) regarding their health effects and frequent occurrence. Adsorption using granular activated carbon (GAC) is a safe methodology for removing VOCs from indoor air. Although GAC has been widely used to remove VOCs from indoor air, the use of activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) is a promising substitute to the conventional

Meng Yao; Qiong Zhang; David W. Hand; David Perram; Roy Taylor; Mridul Gautam; Nigel Clark; Thomas Spencer; Daniel Carder; Thomas Balon; Paul Moynihan; Joshua Fu; David Streets; Carey Jang; Jiming Hao; Kebin He; Litao Wang; Qiang Zhang; Jan Paca; Martin Halecky; Mark Fitch; David Williams; William Potter; William Clarkson; Dee Sanders; John Stevens; Hazem El-Zanan; Barbara Zielinska; Lynn Mazzoleni; D. Hansen; Hyun-Sun Kim; Seung-Muk Yi; Eric Edgerton; Gary Casuccio; Rick Saylor; Traci Lersch; Benjamin Hartsell; John Jansen; Roger Wayson; Gregg Fleming; Ralph Iovinelli; Hans Grimm; Delbert Eatough

2009-01-01

370

Development of the colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives and volatile organic compounds in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the research project 'Xsense' at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection of explosives like DNT and TNT, and identification of volatile organic compounds in the presence of water vapor in air. The technology is based on an array of chemo-responsive dyes immobilized on a solid support. Upon exposure to the analyte in suspicion the dye array changes color. Each chosen dye reacts chemo selectively with analytes of interest. A change in a color signature indicates the presence of unknown explosives and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We are working towards the selection of dyes that undergo color changes in the presence of explosives and VOCs, as well as the development of an immobilization method for the molecules. Digital imaging of the dye array before and after exposure to the analytes creates a color difference map which gives a unique fingerprint for each explosive and volatile organic compound. Such sensing technology can be used to screen for relevant explosives in a complex background as well as to distinguish mixtures of volatile organic compounds distributed in gas phase. This sensor array is inexpensive, and can potentially be produced as single use disposable.

Kostesha, N. V.; Alstrøm, T. S.; Johnsen, C.; Nilesen, K. A.; Jeppesen, J. O.; Larsen, J.; Jakobsen, M. H.; Boisen, A.

2010-04-01

371

REASSESSMENT OF BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS IN THE ATLANTA AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a reassessment of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions in the Atlanta area, using a new system for specific tree genera at hourly and county levels. (NOTE: Localized estimates of BVOC emissions are important inputs for photochemical oxidant simu...

372

AMBIENT LEVEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) MONITORING USING SOLID ADSORBANTS - RECENT U.S. EPA STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient air spiked with 1-10 ppbv concentrations of 41 toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Compendium Method TO-14A was monitored using solid sorbents for sample collection and a Varian Saturn 2000 ion trap mass spectrome...

373

Performance evaluation soil samples for volatile organic compounds utilizing solvent encapsulation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was encapsulated and mixed with a soil to produce a product suitable for use as a double blind source of VOCs in a soil performance evaluation sample. Two independent laboratories analyzed the standard encapsulated VOC\\/soil mixture for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene by using US EPA SW-846 Method 5035 in conjunction with SW-846

James Dahlgran; Curt Thies

1999-01-01

374

COLD TRAPPING OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON FUSED SILICA CAPILLARY COLUMNS  

EPA Science Inventory

A 30m, 0.25mm ID, fused silica capillary column at temperatures from -60 to -100C has been shown to be a quantitative trap for organic compounds with volatilities ranging from that of 1.1-dichloroethene to that of chlorobenzene. This type of 'whole column cryotrapping' provided s...

375

78 FR 22197 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans for Tennessee: Revisions to Volatile Organic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...01 to add a total of 17 compounds to the list of compounds excluded from the definition of ``Volatile Organic Compound...01 to add a total of 17 compounds to the list of compounds excluded from the definition of VOC to be consistent with EPA's...

2013-04-15

376

Combustion of non-halogenated volatile organic compounds over group VIII metal catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), present in low concentrations (10–1000 ppm) in industrial effluent streams, is a promising air abatement technology. The oxidation of benzene, butanol and ethyl acetate over group VII metal catalysts supported on alumina carriers has been investigated. Pt, Pd and Co were found to be the most active among group VIII metals, while ethyl

Panagiotis Papaefthimiou; Theophilos Ioannides; Xenophon E. Verykios

1997-01-01

377

Major sources of exposure to benzene and other volatile organic chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major sources of human exposure to about a dozen volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) have recently been identified. For nearly every chemical, the major sources of exposure are completely different from the major sources of emissions. This finding implies that current environmental regulations and control strategies are misdirected. Important sources of exposure are typically not regulated in any way, whereas

Lance Wallace

1990-01-01

378

Biological purification of air polluted with volatile organic compounds by using active sludge recirculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the air are applied in the world. Their selection is determined by the efficiency and costs of the method. Biofiltration is a new technology to control environmental pollutants helping to regulate emissions of VOC with unpleasant odours in to the air and working environment.When VOC are to be removed from

Aušra Zigmontienë; Pranas Baltrënas

2004-01-01

379

OPTIMIZATION OF MULTICOMPONENT PERVAPORATION FOR REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Optimal operation of a hollow fiber membrane module for pervaporative removal of multicomponent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater was studied. A shell-and-tube heat-exchange type of hollow fiber module was considered for treatment of a wastewater containing toluen...

380

EVALUATION OF THE FLUX CHAMBER METHOD FOR MEASURING VOLATILE ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research deals with the validation of the flux chamber method for measuring volatile organic emissions from liquid surfaces in treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDF). A simulated surface impoundment was constructed so that method precision and accuracy could be de...

381

Impacts of environmental conditions on the sorption of volatile organic compounds onto tire powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of batch tests were performed and the impacts of environmental conditions and phase change on the sorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated. Benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and ethylbenzene were selected as target VOCs. Sorption of VOCs onto tire powder was well demonstrated by a linear-partitioning model. Water–tire partition coefficients of VOCs (not tested in this study) could

Dong I. Oh; Kyongphile Nam; Jae W. Park; Jee H. Khim; Yong K. Kim; Jae Y. Kim

2008-01-01

382

ISOTOPIC (14C) AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND FRACTIONS - PRECURSORS TO OZONE FORMATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an important factor in the production of ozone near ground level [3]. Many hydrocarbons originate from auto exhaust. However, a number of VOCs, e.g., isoprene, are known to be natural in origin. To develop reliable models for un...

383

APPLICABILITY OF PASSIVE MONITORING DEVICES TO MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN AMBIENT AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Commercial passive monitoring devices for volatile organic chemicals were evaluated to determine their potential application to ambient air concentrations (0.1 to 50 ppbv). A high-performance passive device was developed for short-term, low-level monitoring applications. The stai...

384

NATURAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATE ESTIMATES FOR U.S. WOODLAND LANDSCAPES  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rate factors are estimated for 49 tree genera based on a review of foliar emission rate measurements. oliar VOC emissions are grouped into three categories: isoprene, monoterpenes and other VOC'S. ypical emission rates at a leaf temperatur...

385

LEAF, BRANCH, STAND & LANDSCAPE SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND FLUXES FROM U.S. WOODLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Natural volatile organic compounds (VOC) fluxes were measured in three U.S. woodlands in summer 1993. Fluxes from individual leaves and branches were estimated with enclosure techniques and used to initialize and evaluate VOC emission model estimates. Ambient measurements were us...

386

SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION WITH GS/MS DETERMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA's vacuum distillation of water, soil, oil, and fish samples is presented as an alternative technique for determining volatile organic compounds. nalysis of samples containing VOCs and non-VOCs at 50 ppb concentrations were performed to evaluate method limitations. na...

387

SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION WITH GC/MS DETERMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Vacuum distillation of water, soil, oil, and fish samples is presented as an alternative technique for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Analyses of samples containing VOCs and non-VOCs at 50ppb concentrations were performed to evaluate method limitations. Analyte re...

388

Emissions of volatile organic compounds during the decomposition of plant litter  

E-print Network

Emissions of volatile organic compounds during the decomposition of plant litter Christopher M plant litter decomposition, and such VOCs can have wideranging impacts on atmospheric chemistry of the relative importance of biotic versus abiotic sources of these VOCs and whether distinct types of litter

Fierer, Noah

389

Microbial consumption and production of volatile organic compounds at the soil-litter interface  

E-print Network

Microbial consumption and production of volatile organic compounds at the soil-litter interface, belowground processes, and the structure of microbial communities in litter and soil. However, we have a limited understanding of the types, quantities and ecological impacts of VOCs emitted from litter. Here we

Fierer, Noah

390

Microbial consumption and production of volatile organic compounds at the soil-litter interface  

E-print Network

Microbial consumption and production of volatile organic compounds at the soil-litter interface communities in litter and soil. However, we have a limited understanding of the types, quantities and ecological impacts of VOCs emitted from litter. Here we used a closed flow-through system and proton transfer

Weiblen, George D

391

NON-POLAR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WHOLE AIR SAMPLES FROM THE AUTOEX STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Air samples were captured in SUMMA polished stainless steel canisters and returned to the laboratory for analysis of trace level volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. ampling was performed over 2-hour periods at various distances from heavily trave...

392

MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND PARTICLES DURING APPLICATION OF LATEX PAINT WITH AN AIRLESS SPRAYER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses experiments, conducted at EPA's Indoor Air Quality Research House, to measure airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles during and following the spray-application of latex wall paint. (NOTE: Paint may be applied indoors by a v...

393

COMPARISON OF TWO FIELD SAMPLING PROCEDURES (EN CORE AND FIELD METHANOL EXTRACTION) FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

In-situ Lasagna technology was recently evaluated at a contaminated site at Offutt Air Force Base. The site was contaminated with low levels (< 30 mg/kg) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Originally, researchers planned to use field methanol extraction for both pre- and pos...

394

PATTERN RECOGNITION/EXPERT SYSTEM FOR MASS SPECTRA OF VOLATILE TOXIC AND OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A system based on principles of pattern recognition has been developed for identifying toxic and other volatile organic pollutants in complex environmental samples. t interprets the most commonly used monitoring data, mass spectral data, and produces a class designation, an estim...

395

IMPROVED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING MOLECULAR WEIGHTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM LOW RESOLUTION MASS SPECTRA  

EPA Science Inventory

An improved method of estimating molecular weights of volatile organic compound from their mass spectra has been developed and implemented with an expert system. he method is based on the strong correlation of MAXMASS, the highest mass with an intensity of 5% of the base peak in ...

396

A study on volatile organic sulfide causes of odors at Philadelphia's Northeast Water Pollution Control Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic sulfide (VOS) causes of odors were studied at Philadelphia's Northeast Water Pollution Control Plant between September 11 and November 25, 2003. Results showed that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dominated the VOS pool whenever VOS concentration rose above the background level (<50?g\\/L). Methanethiol was generally less than 10% of VOS and it was mainly found at sites with limited or

Xianhao Cheng; Earl Peterkin; Gary A. Burlingame

2005-01-01

397

LONG-PATH FTIR MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AN INDUSTRIAL SETTING  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) field program, a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer vas used to make open path measurements of volatile organic compounds in the New Castle, Delaware, area. he SITE program requires that new technologies b...

398

Effect of soot build-up while sampling with the volatile organic sampling train (VOST)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Method 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), is used to determine the destruction and removal efficiencies of volatile organic emission from industrial boilers co-firing hazardous waste. Previous reports detailing a hysteresis effect for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), resulting from soot build-up on the interior surfaces of boilers and industrial furnaces, raised concerns of possible VOST measurement biases due to soot deposits within the VOST. This possibility required laboratory investigation of the method under sooty conditions. Method collection efficiency was evaluated by comparing volatile organic compound levels collected in a control VOST (using a soot-free particulate filter in the sampling probe), to VOC recoveries while using a soot-laden particulate filter in the probe. Emphasis was directed to substances in the upper range of VOC boiling points (120 to 130{degrees}C). Statistical evaluation of the data collected indicated that recoveries for two of the higher boiling VOCs (chlorobenzene and octane) appeared to be negatively influenced by the presence of soot on the VOST fiber. It is not likely, however, that these findings will have a major impact on previously collected hazardous waste incinerator data, since the VOST-Soot effect was determined at moderately high soot loadings, which are atypical of properly operating hazardous waste incinerators. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Wilshire, F.W., Johnson, L.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hinshaw, G.D. [Midwest Research Institute, Kansas City, MO (United States)

1994-12-31

399

Remediation of a volatile organic compound plume in an anisotropic, fractured bedrock groundwater system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This New York site has a history of halogenated solvent usage and is underlain by mica schist bedrock which is covered by glacial deposits. Dilute wastewater releases resulted in a 2,000-foot long plume of dissolved volatile organic compounds, the shape of which reflects the control of bedrock fractures on groundwater flow. The site has a large number of bedrock monitoring

L. F. Roach; C. G. Robertson; C. A. Rine

1995-01-01

400

Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations around a petrochemical complex and a petroleum refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air samples were collected between September 2000 and September 2001 in Izmir, Turkey at three sampling sites located around a petrochemical complex and an oil refinery to measure ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. VOC concentrations were 4–20-fold higher than those measured at a suburban site in Izmir, Turkey. Ethylene dichloride, a leaded gasoline additive used in petroleum refining and

Eylem Cetin; Mustafa Odabasi; Remzi Seyfioglu

2003-01-01

401

Volatile organic compound concentrations in ambient air of Kaohsiung petroleum refinery in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air quality assessment for volatile organic compounds (VOC) was conducted in and around Chinese petroleum corporation (CPC) refinery at Kaohsiung, located in southern Taiwan, during 2001 by collecting air samples at 26 sites. Benzene and toluene were detected as the most abundant VOC by both gas chromatography and ultra-violet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-DOAS) techniques. BTXE concentrations showed day

Tsai-Yin Lin; Usha Sree; Sen-Hong Tseng; Kong Hwa Chiu; Chien-Hou Wu; Jiunn-Guang Lo

2004-01-01

402

Mesoporous Thin Films of "Molecular Squares" as Sensors for Volatile Organic Compounds  

E-print Network

-metal-based "molecular squares"1-8 and related ligand-bridged met- allacycles (rectangles,9 triangles,10 hexagons,11 etcMesoporous Thin Films of "Molecular Squares" as Sensors for Volatile Organic Compounds Melinda H films of rhenium-based "molecular squares", [Re(CO)3Cl(L)]4 (L ) pyrazine, 4,4- bipyridine), have been

403

COMPARISON OF SAMPLING METHODS FOR SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON ASSOCIATED WITH PM 2.5  

EPA Science Inventory

This study evaluates the influence of denuder sampling methods and filter collection media on the measurement of semi-volatile organic carbon (SVOC) associated with PM2.5. Two types of collection media, charcoal (activated carbon) and XAD, were used both in diffusion denuders ...

404

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANALYSIS METHOD FOR TOTAL NONMETHANE VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The accurate measurement of the total nonmethane volatile organic carbon emissions from stationary sources is critical to characterizing many industrial processes and for regulating according to the Clean Air Act. urrent methods are difficult to use and the ability to do performa...

405

BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM A LOWLAND TROPICAL WET FOREST IN COSTA RICA  

EPA Science Inventory

Twenty common plant species were screened for emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS) at a lowland tropical wet forest site in Costa Rica. Ten of the species. examined emitted substantial quantities of isoprene. These species accounted for 35-50% of the total bas...

406

Volatile organic compounds in coatings. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the production of coatings that meet regulations set to reduce volatile organic compounds (VOC). Environmental Protection Agency regulations and coating compositions designed to meet those regulations are discussed. Citations of selected patents are included. Applications in automotive coatings, appliance paints, and printing inks are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-02-01

407

Volatile organic compounds in coatings. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the production of coatings that meet regulations set to reduce volatile organic compounds (VOC). Environmental Protection Agency regulations and coating compositions designed to meet those regulations are discussed. Citations of selected patents are included. Applications in automotive coatings, appliance paints, and printing inks are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-03-01

408

EPA ORD VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS RECOVERY SEMINAR, OVERVIEW AND CONCLUDING REMARKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA conducted a seminar during 9/98 in Cincinnati, OH which focused on recovering Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). The seminar emphasized new/innovative VOC Recovery technologies as well as commercially available technologies and addressed applications in all environmenta...

409

APPLICATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC REFERENCE MATERIALS TO AMBIENT AIR MONITORING MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory (EMSL), U.S. EPA, is currently funding research programs to develop reference and audit standards to evaluate performance and data quality of air monitoring measurements for volatile organic compounds. As a result of this effort, wh...

410

ASSESSING THE PERFORMANCE OF AMBIENT AIR SAMPLERS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Performance audit results of two different ambient air monitoring projects for volatile organic compounds (VOC's) are presented. An NBS traceable gas cylinder containing several VOC's in dry nitrogen at parts per billion (ppb) concentration levels was used at the field sampling s...

411

Spatial Gradients and Source Apportionment of Volatile Organic Compounds Near Roadways  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentrations of 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are reported near a highway in Raleigh, NC (traffic volume of approximately 125,000 vehicles/day). Levels of VOCs generally decreased exponentially with perpendicular distance from the roadway 10-100m). The EPA Chemical Mass ...

412

Internal Standards: A Source of Analytical Bias For Volatile Organic Analyte Determinations  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of internal standards in the determination of volatile organic compounds as described in SW-846 Method 8260C introduces a potential for bias in results once the internal standards (ISTDs) are added to a sample for analysis. The bias is relative to the dissimilarity betw...

413

SCREENING PROCESSED MILK FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An adaptation of Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response' Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846) method 8261 to analyze milk for an expanded list of volatile organic compounds is presented. The milk matriz exhibits a strong affinity for o...

414

COMPARISON OF SOLID ADSORBENT SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AMBIENT AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The specific objective of the study was to compare the performance of three solid adsorbents (Tenax, an experimental polyimide resin, and Spherocarb) as well as cryogenic trapping/gas chromatography for sampling and analysis of a target list of volatile organic compounds in ambie...

415

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING  

EPA Science Inventory

Real-time breath measurement technology was used to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to serve as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to toba...

416

Controlling Strategies and Technologies of Volatile Organic Compounds Pollution in Interior Air of Cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In interior air environment of cars, the mass concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are so high that human health is threatened. Their sources are analyzed and the controlling strategies and technologies are discussed. Reduce interior temperature, enhance vehicle ventilation, control interior materials, clean air-conditioning on time and use photo catalytic oxidation or adsorptive technology are the effective manners to

Xiaokai Chen; Guoqiang Zhang; Hong Chen

2010-01-01

417

Risk Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds Through Daily Life Cycle in the Industrial City in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzed the risk of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) through a study of activity patterns in the Korean industrial city, Ulsan. The daily life cycle patterns(LCPs) of 331 people in Ulsan were surveyed and the average LCPs in Ulsan were obtained by statistical analysis. Nine to twelve personal air samples of VOC exposure at the breathing zones

Byeong-Kyu Lee; Jungbum Cho

2002-01-01

418

EVALUATION OF INNOVATIVE LOW-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE (IM) COATINGS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a field evaluation of the feasibility of using alternative low-volatile organic compound (VOC) coatings to replace higher-VOC coatings. he evaluation includes chemical, performance, and outdoor exposure testing. he feasibility of five alternative coatings for ...

419

Emission of volatile organic compounds after land application of cattle manure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beef cattle manure can serve as a valuable source of nutrients for crop production. However, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) following land application may pose an odor nuisance to downwind populations. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of application method, diet, so...

420

Volatile Organic Metabolites Identify Patients with Breast Cancer, Cyclomastopathy, and Mammary Gland Fibroma  

PubMed Central

The association between cancer and volatile organic metabolites in exhaled breaths has attracted increasing attention from researchers. The present study reports on a systematic study of gas profiles of metabolites in human exhaled breath by pattern recognition methods. Exhaled breath was collected from 85 patients with histologically confirmed breast disease (including 39 individuals with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 25 individuals with cyclomastopathy and from 21 individuals with mammary gland fibroma) and 45 healthy volunteers. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were used to process the final data. The volatile organic metabolites exhibited significant differences between breast cancer and normal controls, breast cancer and cyclomastopathy, and breast cancer and mammary gland fibroma; 21, 6, and 8 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively (P < 0.05). Three volatile organic metabolites in the exhaled air, 2,5,6-trimethyloctane, 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-butanediol, and cyclohexanone, distinguished breast cancer patients from healthy individuals, mammary gland fibroma patients, and patients with cyclomastopathy (P < 0.05). The identified three volatile organic metabolites associated with breast cancer may serve as novel diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:24947160

Wang, Changsong; Sun, Bo; Guo, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Ke, Chaofu; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Luo, Suqi; Guo, Zhigang; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

2014-01-01

421

Low temperature atmospheric pressure discharge plasma processing for volatile organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1,000 ppm VOCs (volatile organic compounds) decomposition performance of SPCP (Surfaced Discharge Induced Plasma Chemical Processing) was studied relating to various carrier gas effects, plasma exposing methods and others in order to understand the decomposition mechanisms. In any carrier gas, a direct SPCP can decompose every VOC tested. The efficient decomposing carrier gases are oxygen, air and nitrogen in

T. Oda; A. Kumada; K. Tanaka; T. Takahashi; S. Masuda

1995-01-01

422

MODELING OF MULTICOMPONENT PERVAPORATION FOR REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A resistance-in-series model was used to study the pervaporation of multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs)-water mixtures. Permeation experiments were carried out for four membranes: poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polyether-block-polyamides (PEBA), polyurethane (PUR) and sil...

423

FINAL REPORT: MEMBRANE-MEDIATED EXTRACTION AND BIODEGRADATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes feasibility tests of a two-step strategy for air pollution control applicable to exhaust air contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from painting aircraft. In the first step, the VOC-contaminated air passes over coated, polypropylene, hollow-fibe...

424

ANALYSIS OF AMBIENT POLAR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING CHEMICAL IONIZATION -- ION TRAP DETECTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The current approach to measuring trace levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air requires cryogenic trapping of the analytes, followed by thermal desorption and low-temperature refocussing onto a column for analysis by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrome...

425

Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds  

E-print Network

Center, Nevada Test Site September 19-25, 2001 Clifford K. Ho Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque and groundwater that may be contaminated with toxic chemicals can be expensive, time consuming system that can be used to detect volatile organic contaminants in soils and groundwater. A microchemical

Ho, Cliff

426

COMPARISON OF EMISSION PROFILES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM COTTON AND POLYPROPYLENE-BASED TARP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A high electric field, radio-frequency ion mobility analyzer (RF-IMS) was used as a small detector in gas chromatographic separations of mixtures of volatile organic compounds including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, pheromes, and other chemical attractants for insects. The detector was equip...

427

STORAGE STABILITY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SUMMA (TRADE NAME) POLISHED CANISTERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Six-liter volume SUMMA polished canisters were filled with air samples containing certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of environmental interest at concentrations at or below 2 ppbv. Samples were periodically withdrawn from the canisters and analyzed using capillary-column g...

428

IDENTIFICATION OF VOLATILE HYDROCARBONS AS MOBILE SOURCE TRACERS FOR FINE PARTICULATE ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been identified as candidates for tracers of fine particulate carbon and EOM from mobile sources. he identification resulted from a multiple screening procedure in which the ambient concentrations of a candidate VOC were first requir...

429

Combined air stripper\\/membrane vapor separation systems. [Volatile organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air stripping is an economical and efficient method of removing dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater. Air strippers, however, produce a vent air stream, which must meet the local air quality limits. If the VOC content exceeds the limits, direct discharge is not possible; therefore, a carbon adsorption VOC capture system is used to treat the vent air.

J. G. Wijmans; R. W. Baker; H. D. Kamaruddin; J. Kaschemekat; R. P. Olsen; M. E. Rose; S. V. Segelke

1992-01-01

430

TEST METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN CONSUMER PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses two test methods for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in consumer products. he development of test methods for determining VOC emissions from consumer products has been identified by many states as the highest priority research activity in the con...

431

EXTRACTION METHODS FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM FORTIFIED DRY SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recovery of 8 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dry soils, each fortified at 800 ng/g soil, was studied in relation to the extraction method and time of extraction. Extraction procedures studied on desiccator-dried soils were modifications of EPA low-and high-level purge-and...

432

76 FR 41086 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

EPA is approving into the Ohio State Implementation Plan (SIP) a new rule for the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from reinforced plastic composites production operations. This rule applies to any facility that has reinforced plastic composites production operations. This rule is approvable because it satisfies the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA). EPA proposed this......

2011-07-13

433

EMISSION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM DRUM-MIX ASPHALT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program was undertaken in order to develop a quantitative estimate of the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from drum-mix asphalt plants. The study was carried out by field sampling of five drum-mix plants under a variety of operating conditions. Include...

434

ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL VOLATILE ORGANIC SUBSTANCES AND THEIR EFFECT ON AIR QUALITY IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

This research brief is a summary of the extensive review and critical analysis of the literature on natural volatile organic substances, sometimes referred to as biogenic hydrocarbons, and an assessment of that body of scientific information. The review is reported separately (Na...

435

LONG-TERM STUDY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND RECOVERY FROM AMPULATED, DRY, FORTIFIED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Our objective was to evaluate the stability and extractability of volatile organic compound (VOCs) when fortified on dry soils and stored in sealed ampules. Two desiccator-dried soils were fortified with eight neat VOCs, benzene,toluene,ethylbenzene,o-xylene,1,1,1-trichloroethane...

436

CONTROL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN GROUNDWATER BY IN-WELL AERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

At a 0.1 mgd well contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs), principally trichloroethylene (TCE), several in-well aeration schemes were evaluated as control technologies. The well was logged by the USGS to define possible zones of VOC entry. A straddle packer an...

437

EVALUATION OF CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND IN INDOOR AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducts and sponsors research on technology to reduce or eliminate emissions of potentially toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from industrial/commercial sources. The r...

438

INHIBITION OF HUMAN A7 NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS BY THE VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENT TRICHLOROETHYLENE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile organic compounds such as toleune, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene are potent and reversible blockers of voltage-gated calcium current in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. It is hypothesized that effects of VOCs on ICa contri...

439

KINETICS AND SELECTIVITY OF DEEP CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a fundamental study of low-temperature deep (complete) oxidation of n-hexane, benzene, and ethyl-acetate over a 0.1% Pt, 3% Ni/gamma-AL203 catalyst. (NOTE: Deep catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds--VOCs--is emerging as an important emissi...

440

OPTIMIZATION OF MULTICOMPONENT PERVAPORATION FOR REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Optimal operation of a hollow fiber membrane module for pervaporative removal of multicomponent volatile organic compounds (VOCS) from wastewater was studied. hell-and-tube heat-exchanger type of hollow fiber module was considered for treatment of a wastewater containing toluene,...

441

INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS.  

EPA Science Inventory

INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS. A.S. Bale*; P.J. Bushnell; C.A. Meacham; T.J. Shafer Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Toluene (TOL...

442

Optimization of a Polydimethylsiloxane Based Passive Sampler of Common Household Volatile Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dangerous volatile organic compounds, or VOCs, can accumulate as indoor air pollution within homes causing health problems in the habitants. In order to determine the concentration of VOCs in such areas a field-deployable sampler is necessary. The focus of this work has been to develop an inexpensive, reusable, sensitive fielddeployable passive sampler for monitoring VOCs in indoor air. We have

Jennifer Lynn Osborne

2009-01-01

443

SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM PARTICLES  

EPA Science Inventory

A nitrogen oxide flux chamber was modified to measure the flux of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). Part of the modification involved the development of methods to extract SVOCs from polyurethane foam (PUF), sand, and soil. Breakthroughs and extraction efficiencies were ...

444

DEVELOPMENT OF A SAMPLER FOR PARTICULATE-ASSOCIATED AND LOW VOLATILITY ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN RESIDENTIAL AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of a sampler for particulate-associated and low volatility organic pollutants in residential air. The performance of the sampler inlet, which is compatible with the proposed PM-10 regulations for particulate sampling, is documented under a var...

445

Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds at a landfill site in Guangzhou, South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient air monitoring was conducted at Datianshan landfill, Guangzhou, South China in 1998 to investigate the seasonal and horizontal variations of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Twelve sampling points over the Datianshan landfill were selected and samples were collected simultaneously using CarbontrapTM adsorption tubes. Thirty eight VOCs were detected in the winter, whereas 60 were detected in the summer. The

S. C. Zou; S. C. Lee; C. Y. Chan; K. F. Ho; X. M. Wang; L. Y. Chan; Z. X. Zhang

2003-01-01

446

CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM INTERIOR ALKYD PAINT  

EPA Science Inventory

Alkyd paint continues to be used indoors for application to wood trim, cabinet surfaces, and some kitchen and bathroom walls. Paint may represent a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) indoors depending on the frequency of use and amount of surface paint. The U...

447

DETERMINATION OF POLAR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WATER BY MEMBRANE PERMEATE AND TRAP GC-MS  

EPA Science Inventory

A novel approach is presented combining semipermeable membranes with the accepted purge and trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology to produce a method of selectively extracting polar, volatile organic compounds from water, particularly those compounds not am...

448

TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF A CRYOGENIC TRAP FOR TRACE-LEVEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Reduced temperature preconcentration of volatile organic compounds in a packed trap is examined experimentally as a function of trapping temperatures ranging from -180C to +100C. Trapped compounds are thermally desorbed into a capillary column-equipped gas chromatograph and quant...

449

The relationship between soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds and indoor air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds and indoor air quality was examined. Measurements in the soil and indoor air were taken in 77 houses built on different types of contaminated soil. In seven houses, the influence of soil contamination on indoor air quality was detected. Repeated measurements showed that the contribution to indoor air pollution was consistent,

J. Kliest; T. Fast; J. S. M. Boleij; H. van de Wiel; H. Bloemen

1989-01-01

450

Diurnal and Seasonal Variability of Gasoline-Related Volatile Organic Compounds in Riverside, CA  

Microsoft Academic Search

On and off-road mobile source emissions are the dominant contributor to urban anthropogenic volatile organic compound (AVOC) emissions. Analyses of speciated gasoline samples from California for both summer and winter indicate significant differences in chemical composition due to intentional seasonal adjustments to liquid fuel composition. Ambient air measurements of ~60 compounds, including VOCs, were measured via in-situ gas chromatography during

D. R. Gentner; R. A. Harley; A. M. Miller; A. H. Goldstein

2008-01-01

451

A GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of an effort to assess the potential impacts associated with global climate change, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development is supporting global atmospheric chemistry research by developing global scale estimates of volatile organic c...

452

Association of domestic exposure to volatile organic compounds with asthma in young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To investigate the association between domestic exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and asthma in young children.Methods: A population based case-control study was conducted in Perth, Western Australia in children aged between 6 months and 3 years. Cases (n = 88) were children recruited at Princess Margaret Hospital accident and emergency department and discharged with asthma as the primary

K Rumchev; J Spickett; M Bulsara; M Phillips; S Stick

2004-01-01

453

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Volatile Organic Compounds around an Industrial Park of Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of spatial and temporal distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air surrounding the Hsinchu Science-Based Industrial Park (SBIP), Taiwan during February 2001 to November 2001 are presented. The sampling was performed at 13 different sites around the SBIP for 24 hrs once every month, and a total of 130 samples were collected. The effects of geographical

I-Fu Hung; C G Deshpande; Chuen-Jinn Tsai; Shih-Hsuan Huang

2005-01-01

454

Characterization of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Vicinity of an Optoelectronics Industrial Park in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and investigate the impacts of traffic and industrial activities on the concentration of VOCs near the Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP) in Taiwan during 2005. Twelve-hour canister sampling was performed at 10 sites near CTSP every season. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with a mass-selective detector. The

Ta-Yuan Chang; Shen-Ju Lin; Ruei-Hao Shie; Shih-Wei Tsai; Hui-Tsung Hsu; Ching-Tsan Tsai; Hsien-Wen Kuo; Chow-Feng Chiang; Jim-Shoung Lai; David Dubois; Ramesh Vellore; John Watson; Darko Koracin; L.-W. Chen; Naresh Kumar; Eladio Knipping; Neil Wheeler; Kenneth Craig; Stephen Reid; Douglas Lowenthal; Xiaosheng Qin; Guohe Huang; Lei Liu; Xiaohan Chen; Natalia Schmid; Lijuan Wang; Nigel Clark; Thabet Tolaymat; Roger Green; Gary Hater; Morton Barlaz; Paul Black; Doug Bronson; Jon Powell; Pablo Ruiz; Claudia Toro; Jorge Caceres; Gianni pez; Pedro Oyola; Petros Koutrakis

2010-01-01

455

A study of odor stability of commercial stearic acid through isolation and identification of its volatile odoriferous compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial stearic acid may have an iodine value of less than 0.5. However, it develops a characteristic objectionable odor\\u000a quite rapidly, sometimes before a shipment has reached its destination. The present investigation is an identification of\\u000a the volatile odoriferous compounds which are responsible for this undesirable odor. Volatile compounds were isolated from\\u000a commercial stearic acid and separated into acidic and

Hisung Cheng; Stephen S. Chang

1974-01-01

456

Distribution of volatile organic compounds in a New Jersey coastal plain aquifer system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds were collected from 315 wells in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in southwestern New Jersey and a small adjacent area in Pennsylvania during 1980-82. Volatile organic compounds were detected in all three aquifer units of the Potomac-Raritan-Magoth aquifer system in the study area. Most of the contamination appears to be confined to the outcrop area at present. Low levels of contamination, however, were found downdip of the outcrop area in the upper and middle aquifers. Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and benzene were the most frequently detected compounds. Differences in the areal distributions of light chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as trichloroethylene, and aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, were noted and are probably due to differences in the uses of the compounds and the distribution patterns of potential contamination sources. The distribution patterns of volatile organic compounds differed greatly among the three aquifer units. The upper aquifer, which crops out mostly in less-developed areas, had the lowest percentage of wells with volatile organic compounds detected (10 percent of wells sampled). The concentrations in most wells in the upper aquifer which had detectable levels were less than 10 ??g/l. In the middle aquifer, which crops out beneath much of the urban and industrial area adjacent to the Delaware River, detectable levels of volatile organic compounds were found in 22 percent of wells sampled, and several wells contained concentrations above 100 ??g/l. The lower aquifer, which is confined beneath much of the outcrop area of the aquifer system, had the highest percentage of wells (28 percent) with detectable levels. This is probably due to (1) vertical leakage of contamination from the middle aquifer, and (2) the high percentage of wells tapping the lower aquifer in the most heavily developed areas of the outcrop.

Fusillo, T.V.; Hochreiter, J.J., Jr.; Lord, D.G.

1985-01-01

457

Substrate-induced volatile organic compound emissions from compost-amended soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agronomic effects of composts, mineral fertiliser and combinations thereof on chemical, biological and physiological soil\\u000a properties have been studied in an 18-year field experiment. The present study aimed at tracing treatment effects by evaluating\\u000a the volatile organic compound (VOC) emission of the differently treated soils: non-amended control, nitrogen fertilisation\\u000a and composts (produced from organic waste and sewage sludge, respectively)

Martin S. A. Seewald; Wolfgang Singer; Brigitte A. Knapp; Ingrid H. Franke-Whittle; Armin Hansel; Heribert Insam

2010-01-01

458

Screening Processed Milk for Volatile Organic Compounds Using Vacuum Distillation\\/Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptation is presented of method 8261—from the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste Physical\\/Chemical Methods (SW-846)—to analyze milk for an expanded list of volatile organic compounds is presented. The milk matrix exhibits a strong affinity for organic compounds and the surrogate based matrix normalization described in method 8261 provided accurate results. This

M. H. Hiatt; J. H. Pia

2004-01-01

459

An Investigation of Fecal Volatile Organic Metabolites in Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Diagnosing irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can be a challenge; many clinicians resort to invasive investigations in order to rule out other diseases and reassure their patients. Volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) are emitted from feces; understanding changes in the patterns of these VOMs could aid our understanding of the etiology of the disease and the development of biomarkers, which can assist in the diagnosis of IBS. We report the first comprehensive study of the fecal VOMs patterns in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D), active Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy controls. 30 patients with IBS-D, 62 with CD, 48 with UC and 109 healthy controls were studied. Diagnosis of IBS-D was made using the Manning criteria and all patients with CD and UC met endoscopic, histologic and/or radiologic criteria. Fecal VOMs were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 240 VOMs were identified. Univariate analysis showed that esters of short chain fatty acids, cyclohexanecarboxylic acid and its ester derivatives were associated with IBS-D (p<0.05), while aldehydes were more abundant in IBD (p<0.05). A predictive model, developed by multivariate analysis, separated IBS-D from active CD, UC and healthy controls with a sensitivity of 94%, 96% and 90%; and a specificity of 82%, 80% and 80% respectively (p<0.05). The understanding of the derivation of these VOMs may cast light on the etiology of IBS-D and IBD. These data show that fecal VOMs analyses could contribute to the diagnosis of IBS-D, for which there is no laboratory test, as well as IBD. PMID:23516449

Ahmed, Iftikhar; Greenwood, Rosemary; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Ratcliffe, Norman M.; Probert, Chris S.

2013-01-01

460

On-line removal of volatile fatty acids from CELSS anaerobic bioreactor via nanofiltration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CELSS (controlled ecological life support system) resource recovery system, which is a waste processing system, uses aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors to recover plants nutrients and secondary foods from the inedible biomass. The anaerobic degradation of the inedible biomass by means of culture of rumen bacteria,generates organic compounds such as volatile fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric, VFA) and ammonia. The presence of VFA in the bioreactor medium at fairly low concentrations decreases the microbial population's metabolic reactions due to end-product inhibition. Technologies to remove VFA continuously from the bioreactor are of high interest. Several candidate technologies were analyzed, such as organic solvent liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption and/or ion exchange, dialysis, electrodialysis, and pressure driven membrane separation processes. The proposed technique for the on-line removal of VFA from the anaerobic bioreactor was a nanofiltration membrane recycle bioreactor. In order to establish the nanofiltration process performance variables before coupling it to the bioreactor, a series of experiments were carried out using a 10,000 MWCO tubular ceramic membrane module. The variables studied were the bioreactor slurry permeation characteristics, such as, the permeate flux, VFA and the nutrient removal rates as a function of applied transmembrane pressure, fluid recirculation velocity, suspended matter concentration, and process operating time. Results indicate that the permeate flux, VFA and nutrients removal rates are directly proportional to the fluid recirculation velocity in the range between 0.6 to 1.0 m/s, applied pressure when these are low than 1.5 bar, and inversely proportional to the total suspended solids concentration in the range between 23,466 to 34,880. At applied pressure higher than 1.5 bar the flux is not more linearly dependent due to concentration polarization and fouling effects over the membrange surface. It was also found that the permeate flux declines rapidly during the first 5 to 8 hours, and then levels off with a diminishing rate of flux decay.

Colon, Guillermo

1995-01-01

461

REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT TO CONTROL INORGANIC AND VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of the versatility of reverse osmosis for removing a wide range of contaminants, U.S. EPA (Drinking Water Research Division) has been conducting laboratory and field studies to determine its effectiveness on specific inorganic and organic contaminants of concern to the wa...

462

Volatile Metabolites  

PubMed Central

Volatile organic compounds (volatiles) comprise a chemically diverse class of low molecular weight organic compounds having an appreciable vapor pressure under ambient conditions. Volatiles produced by plants attract pollinators and seed dispersers, and provide defense against pests and pathogens. For insects, volatiles may act as pheromones directing social behavior or as cues for finding hosts or prey. For humans, volatiles are important as flavorants and as possible disease biomarkers. The marine environment is also a major source of halogenated and sulfur-containing volatiles which participate in the global cycling of these elements. While volatile analysis commonly measures a rather restricted set of analytes, the diverse and extreme physical properties of volatiles provide unique analytical challenges. Volatiles constitute only a small proportion of the total number of metabolites produced by living organisms, however, because of their roles as signaling molecules (semiochemicals) both within and between organisms, accurately measuring and determining the roles of these compounds is crucial to an integrated understanding of living systems. This review summarizes recent developments in volatile research from a metabolomics perspective with a focus on the role of recent technical innovation in developing new areas of volatile research and expanding the range of ecological interactions which may be mediated by volatile organic metabolites. PMID:24957243

Rowan, Daryl D.

2011-01-01

463

Field and Laboratory Studies of Reactions between Atmospheric Water Soluble Organic Acids and Inorganic Particles  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric inorganic particles undergo complex heterogeneous reactions that change their physicochemical properties. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids [1-2]. Recently, we showed that NaCl can react with water soluble organic acids (WSOA) and release gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) resulting in formation of organic salts [3]. A similar mechanism is also applicable to mixed WSOA/nitrate particles where multi-phase reactions are driven by the volatility of nitric acid. Furthermore, secondary organic material, which is a complex mixture of carboxylic acids, exhibits the same reactivity towards chlorides and nitrates. Here, we present a systematic study of reactions between atmospheric relevant WSOA, SOM, and inorganic salts including NaCl, NaNO3, and Ca(NO3)2 using complementary micro-spectroscopy analysis.

Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Sellon, Rachel E.; Shilling, John E.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

2013-06-25

464

Design and construction of a simple Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS) system for vapour pressure measurements of low volatility organics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design of and initial results from a Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS) are presented. The design was adapted from high temperature alloy studies with a view to using it to measure vapour pressures for low volatility organics. The system uses a temperature controlled cell with an effusive orifice. This produces a molecular beam which is sampled by a quadropole mass spectrometer with electron impact ionization calibrated to a known vapour pressure. We have determined P298 and ?Hsub of the first 5 unsaturated straight chain dicarboxylic acids: 2.15±1.19×10-2 Pa and 75±19 kJ mol-1 respectively for Oxalic acid, 5.15±0.76×10-4 Pa and 91±4 kJ mol-1 for Malonic acid, 9.19±2.26×10-5 Pa and 93±6 kJ mol-1 for Succinic acid, 4.21±1.66×10-4 Pa and 123±22 kJ mol-1 for Glutaric acid and 5.21±3.84×10-6 Pa and 125±40 kJ mol-1 for Adipic acid.

Booth, A. M.; Markus, T.; McFiggans, G.; Percival, C. J.; McGillen, M. R.; Topping, D. O.

2009-03-01

465

Design and construction of a simple Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS) system for vapour pressure measurements of low volatility organics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design of and initial results from a Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS) are presented. The design was adapted from high temperature alloy studies with a view to using it to measure vapour pressures for low volatility organics. The system uses a temperature controlled cell with an effusive orifice. This produces a molecular beam which is sampled by a quadropole mass spectrometer with electron impact ionization calibrated to a known vapour pressure. We have determined P(298 K) and ?Hsub of the first 5 saturated straight chain dicarboxylic acids: 2.15±1.19×10-2 Pa and 75±19 KJ mol-1 respectively for oxalic acid, 5.73±1.14×10-4 Pa and 91±4 KJ mol-1 for Malonic acid, 1.13±0.47×10-4 Pa and 93±6 KJ mol-1 for Succinic acid, 4.21±1.66×10-4 Pa and 123±22 KJ mol-1 for Glutaric acid and 6.09±3.85×10-6 Pa and 125±40 KJ mol-1 for Adipic acid.

Booth, A. M.; Markus, T.; McFiggans, G.; Percival, C. J.; McGillen, M. R.; Topping, D. O.

2009-07-01

466

Impact of addition of aromatic amino acids on non-volatile and volatile compounds in lychee wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MERIT.ferm.  

PubMed

The impact of individual aromatic amino acid addition (L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine) on non-volatile and volatile constituents in lychee wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. cerevisiae MERIT.ferm was studied. None of the added amino acids had any significant effect on the yeast cell count, pH, soluble solid contents, sugars and ethanol. The addition of L-phenylalanine significantly reduced the production of pyruvic and succinic acids. The addition of each amino acid dramatically reduced the consumption of proline and decreased the production of glycerol. Supplementation of the lychee juice with L-phenylalanine resulted in the formation of significantly higher amounts of 2-phenylethyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2-phenylethyl isobutyrate and 2-phenylethyl hexanoate. In contrast, supplementation with L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine had negligible effects on the volatile profile of lychee wines. These findings suggest that selectively adding amino acids may be used as a tool to modulate the volatile profile of lychee wines so as to diversify and/or intensify wine flavour and style. PMID:24287295

Chen, Dai; Chia, Jing Yee; Liu, Shao-Quan

2014-01-17

467

Volatile organic components of fresh leaves as indicators of indigenous and cultivated citrus species in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The volatile components of fresh leaves from 15 citrus species were investigated by headspace SPME with a GC-MS analysis. Three indigenous Taiwan citrus species, Citrus taiwanica, C. tachibana and C. depressa, were the major subjects. Eighty volatile organic compounds were detected as indicators of the genetic relationship. Linalool was the most abundant compound, and citronellal, geranial, neral, limonene and trans-beta-ocimene were the major volatile compounds in fresh leaves. Linalool (56.37%) and myrcene (7.21%) were predominant in C. tawanica. An aldehyde-rich profile with citronellal (24.54%) contributed most to the aroma of leaves in C. tachibana, while Citrus depressa exhibited a high linalool/citronellal composition (23.56%/12.51%). The qualitative and quantitative patterns of the volatiles revealed that C. taiwanica was linked with sour orange, and either C. tachibana or C. depressa belonged to the mandarin group with C. tankan. Dendrograms also showed that the volatile patterns were related to the genetic classification. PMID:20378980

Lin, Shu Yen; Roan, Su Feng; Lee, Ching Lung; Chen, Iou Zen

2010-01-01

468

Volatility of primary organic aerosol emitted from light duty gasoline vehicles.  

PubMed

Primary organic aerosol (POA) emitted from light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) exhibits a semivolatile behavior in which heating the aerosol and/or diluting the aerosol leads to partial evaporation of the POA. A single volatility distribution can explain the median evaporation behavior of POA emitted from LDGVs but this approach is unable to capture the full range of measured POA volatility during thermodenuder (TD) experiments conducted at atmospherically relevant concentrations (2-5 ?g m(-3)). Reanalysis of published TD data combined with analysis of new measurements suggest that POA emitted from gasoline vehicles is composed of two types of POA that have distinctly different volatility distributions: one low-volatility distribution and one medium-volatility distribution. These correspond to fuel combustion-derived POA and motor oil POA, respectively. Models that simultaneously incorporate both of these distributions are able to reproduce experimental results much better (R(2) = 0.94) than models that use a single average or median distribution (R(2) = 0.52). These results indicate that some fraction of POA emitted from LDGVs is essentially nonvolatile under typical atmospheric dilution levels. Roughly 50% of the vehicles tested in the current study had POA emissions dominated by fuel combustion products (essentially nonvolatile). Further testing is required to determine appropriate fleet-average emissions rates of the two POA types from LDGVs. PMID:25493342

Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Collier, Sonya; Forestieri, Sara; Brady, James M; Bertram, Timothy H; Cappa, Christopher D; Zhang, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J

2015-02-01