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1

Volatile organic acids generated from kerogen during laboratory heating.  

PubMed

Low molecular weight organic acids were studied in the course of pyrolysis experiments (200-400 degrees C, 2-1,000 h) of kerogen (Green River Formation and Monterey Formation) with and without the presence of water and minerals (montmorillonite, illite and calcite). C1-C10 aliphatic acids and benzoic acid were identified in the pyrolysis products of kerogen. Their distribution is characterized by a dominance of acetic acid followed by formic and propionic acids with an even/odd preference in the range of C4-C10. Total concentrations of these acids amounted to 0.3% of initial kerogen, indicating that kerogen has a good potential for producing organic acids. Geochemical implications of these organic acids are; (1) they are possible intermediates from kerogen to natural gas (CO2, H2, CH4, C2H6, etc.) by decarboxylation, and (2) they may be important and potential contributors to the generation of secondary porosity by dissolving minerals. PMID:11542117

Kawamura, K; Tannenbaum, E; Huizinga, B J; Kaplan, I R

1986-01-01

2

VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION FACTORS FOR THE NAPAP (NATIONAL ACID PRECIPITATION ASSESSMENT PROGRAM) EMISSION INVENTORY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of the generation of emission factors for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions for a number of source classification categories (SCCs), as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Each SCC represents a process or function t...

3

Determination of Organic Acids and Volatile Flavor Substances in Kefir during Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of organic acids and volatile flavor components was measured during kefir starter culture fermentation. Samples were collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 22 h of fermentation (final pH=4.6). Samples were analyzed for orotic, citric, pyruvic, uric, lactic, acetic, butyric, propionic and hippuric acids by HPLC. Acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetoin and diacetyl production were monitored using GC equipped with

Z. B. Güzel-Seydim; A. C. Seydim; A. K. Greene; A. B. Bodine

2000-01-01

4

Volatile Organic Compounds Derived from 2-Keto-Acid Decarboxylase in Microcystis aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol, were detected together with ?-cyclocitral from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843. These alcohols were optimally produced after 35 d of culture, during which nitrate nitrogen in the cultured broth became exhausted. Additionally, these alcohols were definitely produced using the 2-keto-acid decarboxylase (MaKDC) in Microcystis strains. These results suggested that these VOCs from Microcystis are significant for their lifecycle, because these compounds are not produced by any other genus of cyanobacteria. This is the first report of 2-keto-acid decarboxylase producing 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol by an oxygenic photosynthetic microorganism. PMID:23047148

Hasegawa, Masateru; Nishizawa, Akito; Tsuji, Kiyomi; Kimura, Shigenobu; Harada, Ken-ichi

2012-01-01

5

Optimization of microwave-assisted solvent extraction for volatile organic acids in tobacco and its comparison with conventional extraction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a new method using microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) technique followed directly GC analysis was developed for the extraction of volatile organic acids (VOAs) in tobacco. The MASE conditions (heating time, volume of extracting solvent and extraction temperature) were optimized by means of an orthogonal array design (OAD) procedure. The results suggested that extractant, temperature and heating

Xiaolan Zhu; Qingde Su; Jibao Cai; Jun Yang

2006-01-01

6

A rapid gas chromatographic method for direct determination of short-chain (C 2–C 12) volatile organic acids in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, rapid and accurate GC analytical method for direct quantification of short-chain volatile organic acids in liquid foods was established. Hydrophilic 1,3-butanediol was selected as the internal standard. Thirteen volatile organic acids including acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, caproic, heptanoic, caprylic, capric, lauric, lactic and levulinic acids were simultaneously determined with detection limits 0.025–1 ng . The recovery

Ming-Hua Yang; Youk-Meng Choong

2001-01-01

7

Volatile organic acid adsorption and cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite for enhancing hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes.  

PubMed

Volatile organic acid adsorption, cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite, and their effects on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes were evaluated through batch experiments. The acetic acid adsorption experiments show that pH was mainly regulated by H(+) adsorption. The mono-layer and multi-layer adsorption were found under the low (8.3-83.2 mmol/L) and high (133.22-532.89 mmol/L) initial acetic acid concentration, respectively. The dissociated cations concentration in acidic solution showed the predominance of Ca(2+). Porphyritic andesite addition elevated the pH levels and accelerated hydrolysis and acidogenesis in the batch fermentation experiment. Leachate of porphyritic andesite addition achieved the highest hydrolysis constant of 22.1 x 10(-3)kgm(-2)d(-1) and VS degradation rates of 3.9 g L(-1)d(-1). The highest activity of microorganisms represented by specific growth rate of ATP, 0.16d(-1), and specific consumption rate of Ca(2+), 0.18d(-1), was obtained by adding leachate of porphyritic andesite. PMID:20156676

Cheng, Fan; Li, Ming; Li, Dawei; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Kitamura, Yutaka; Li, Baoming

2010-07-01

8

Milk volatile organic compounds and fatty acid profile in cows fed timothy as hay, pasture, or silage.  

PubMed

Nutrient composition and organoleptic properties of milk can be influenced by cow diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the forage type effects on volatile organic compounds, fatty acid (FA) profile, and organoleptic properties of milk. Timothy grass was fed as hay, pasture, or silage during a period of 27 d to a group of 21 cows in a complete block design based on days in milk. Each cow also received 7.2 kg/d of a concentrate mix to meet their nutrient requirements. Forage dry matter intake averaged 13.9 kg/d and was not different among treatments. Milk yield was higher for cows fed pasture, intermediate for cows fed silage, and lowest for cows fed hay. However, milk fat content was higher for cows fed hay and silage, compared with cows fed pasture. As a result, fat-corrected milk and fat yield were not different among treatments. Increasing the supply of dietary cis-9,cis-12 18:2 (linoleic acid) and cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 (?-linolenic acid) when feeding pasture enhanced the concentration of these 2 essential FA in milk fat compared with feeding hay or silage. Moreover, the ratio of 16:0 (palmitic acid) to cis-9 18:1 (oleic acid), which is closely related to the melting properties of milk fat, was lower in milk from cows on pasture than in milk from cows fed hay or silage. Cows fed hay produced milk with higher levels of several free FA and ?-lactones, but less pentanal and 1-pentanol. More dimethyl sulfone and toluene were found in milk of cows on pasture. Cows fed silage produced milk with higher levels of acetone, 2-butanone, and ?-pinene. Results from a sensory evaluation showed that panelists could not detect a difference in flavor between milk from cows fed hay compared with silage. However, a significant number of assessors perceived a difference between milk from cows fed hay compared with milk from cows fed pasture. In a sensory ranking test, the percentage of assessors ranking for the intensity of total (raw milk, fresh milk, and farm milk), sweet (empyreumatic, vanilla, caramel, and sugar), and grassy (grass, leafy vegetable, and plant) flavors was higher for milk from cows fed pasture compared with hay and silage. Using timothy hay, pasture, or silage harvested at a similar stage of development, the current study shows that the taste of milk is affected by the forage type fed to cows. More research is, however, needed to establish a link between the sensory attributes of milk and the observed changes in volatile organic compounds and FA profile. PMID:24035021

Villeneuve, M-P; Lebeuf, Y; Gervais, R; Tremblay, G F; Vuillemard, J C; Fortin, J; Chouinard, P Y

2013-11-01

9

Volatile organic sampling train: Validation studies of the protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of volatile organic emissions from a hazardous waste incinerator is one of the more difficult source testing problems. Specific compounds called principal organic hazardous constituents (POHC) are to be identified and quantified at levels of 0.5 to 100 ppb in hot, wet incinerator exhaust gas, which may also contain high particulate and acid levels. The Volatile Organic Sampling

R. G. Fuerst; T. J. Logan; M. R. Midgett; J. Prohaska

1987-01-01

10

Protocol for the determination of selected neutral and acidic semi-volatile organic contaminants in fish tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress toward the development of a protocol for the determination of a broad spectrum of organic compounds in fish tissue is reported. Finely ground and homogenized fish tissue samples were Soxhlet extracted. Phenolic compounds in the extracts were acetylated and the derivatized extract containing the acetates and neutral semi-volatiles was cleaned up with silica gel and size-exclusion column chromatography. These

Roy Y Araki; Gerald H Dodo; Steven H Reimer; Margaret M Knight

2001-01-01

11

Volatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas  

E-print Network

transported into the aquifer (3.2 µmol·l-1·m·a-1), the CO2 production rate in the aquifer sands is 5.3 µmol·l-1·m·a-1. This slow mineralization rate of in situ organic matter is within the range for deep aquifers, and probably accounts for the long...

Routh, J.; Grossman, E. L.; Ulrich, G. A.; Suflita, J. M.

2000-01-01

12

Regeneration of carboxylic acid-laden basic sorbents by leaching with a volatile base in an organic solvent  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with an organic solution of alkylamine thus forming an alkylamine/carboxylic acid complex which is decomposed with improved efficiency to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. Carbon dioxide addition can be used to improve the adsorption or the carboxylic acids by the solid phase sorbent.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Husson, Scott M. (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01

13

Low volatile organic compound paints  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly stringent air emission standards in various states has dictated the elimination of engineering finishes which are derived from high volatile organic compound (VOC) paint chemistries. In July 1989, Allied-Signal, Inc., Kansas City Division, Kansas City, Missouri, voluntarily closed its paint facility, due to non-compliance with local air emission standards. The following details the materials selection and evaluations which led to current processing using low VOC paints, which permitted the Allied Signal, Inc., paint facility to achieve compliance and resume operations. 1 tab.

Martinez, F.E.

1991-01-01

14

Volatile organic compound sensor system  

DOEpatents

Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Waxahachie, TX); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY); Wong, Gregory K. (Laramie, WY)

2011-03-01

15

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOEpatents

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

1995-08-29

16

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOEpatents

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moore, Glenn A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Reagen, William K. (Stillwater, MN)

1995-01-01

17

Biofiltration of volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

The removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated airstreams has become a major air pollution concern. Improvement of the biofiltration process commonly used for the removal of odorous compounds has led to a better control of key parameters, enabling the application of biofiltration to be extended also to the removal of VOCs. Moreover, biofiltration, which is based on the ability of micro-organisms to degrade a large variety of compounds, proves to be economical and environmentally viable. In a biofilter, the waste gas is forced to rise through a layer of packed porous material. Thus, pollutants contained in the gaseous effluent are oxidised or converted into biomass by the action of microorganisms previously fixed on the packing material. The biofiltration process is then based on two principal phenomena: (1) transfer of contaminants from the air to the water phase or support medium, (2) bioconversion of pollutants to biomass, metabolic end-products, or carbon dioxide and water. The diversity of biofiltration mechanisms and their interaction with the microflora mean that the biofilter is defined as a complex and structured ecosystem. As a result, in addition to operating conditions, research into the microbial ecology of biofilters is required in order better to optimise the management of such biological treatment systems. PMID:15803311

Malhautier, Luc; Khammar, Nadia; Bayle, Sandrine; Fanlo, Jean-Louis

2005-07-01

18

A Micro-Orifice Volatilization Impactor coupled to a Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer for the detection of organic acids in atmospheric aerosol particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant uncertainties related to sources and removal processes of particulate organic matter persist due, in part, to a poor understanding of the molecular-level composition. To address these issues, we are developing a novel technique that couples a micro-orifice volatilization impactor (MOVI) to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) for fast, in situ measurements of specific organic acids expected to be in atmospheric particles. The MOVI-CIMS process has three steps: 1) aerosol collection by inertial impaction, 2) volatilization and sample transfer, and 3) chemical ionization and detection using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. We present results from laboratory characterization of two MOVI designs, one operating at low pressure (60 Torr) and the other at near ambient pressure. The low-pressure impactor has a theoretical cut point of 40nm while the atmospheric pressure impactor (API) has a theoretical cut point of 280nm with a pressure drop of less than 5%. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of these two designs in terms of typical atmospheric particle size distributions. Experimental tests of their theoretical cut-points are used to assess the importance of jet-to- plate distance and particle bounce. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the MOVI-CIMS technique by employing it in studies of heterogeneous oxidation of particle organics and of secondary organic aerosol formation from biogenic hydrocarbon oxidation. Based on typical signal-to-noise ratio, the MOVI-CIMS demonstrates a detection limit of ~50 ng for monocarboxylic acids when using the LPI version and the iodide ion as a chemical ionization reagent. Preliminary results suggest even lower detection limits are possible with other reagent ions.

Yatavelli, R. L.; Thornton, J. A.

2007-12-01

19

Microwave spectra of some volatile organic compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer-controlled microwave (MRR) spectrometer was used to catalog reference spectra for chemical analysis. Tables of absorption frequency, peak absorption intensity, and integrated intensity are included for 26 volatile organic compounds, all but one of which contain oxygen.

White, W. F.

1975-01-01

20

VOLATILE ORGANIC ANALYSIS BY DIRECT AQUEOUS INJECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Gas chromatographic environmental analysis by direct aqueous injection (DAI) was studied for 24 volatile organic analytes (VOAs). Internal standardization was used to determine the precision of analyzing these compounds by DAI. Aequous samples were directly introduced to a gas ch...

21

TOXIC ORGANIC VOLATILIZATION FROM LAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Methodology was evaluated for estimating volatilization of toxic organic chemicals from unsaturated soils. Projections were compared with laboratory data for simulated rapid infiltration wastewater treatment systems receiving primary municipal wastewater spiked with a suite of 18...

22

Biodiversity of volatile organic compounds from five French ferns.  

PubMed

Five French ferns belonging to different families were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) by GC-MS using organic solvent extraction. Fifty-five VOC biosynthesized from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and carotenoid-type compounds were identified. The main volatile compound of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. (Pteridaceae) was (E)-2-decenal with a plastic or "stink bug" odor. The volatile profiles of Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth (Woodsiaceae) and Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth (Blechnaceae) showed similarities, with small amounts of isoprenoids and the same main volatile compounds, i.e., 2-phenylethanal (odor of lilac and hyacinth) and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like odor). The main volatile compound of Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (Dryopteridaceae) was (E)-nerolidol with a woody or fresh bark note. Polyketides, as acylfilicinic acids, were mainly identified in this fern. Oreopteris limbosperma (Bellardi ex. All.) J. Holub (Thelypteridaceae), well-known for its lemon smell, contained the highest biodiversity of VOC. Eighty percent of the volatiles was issued from the terpenic pathway. The main volatiles were (E)-nerolidol, alpha-terpineol, beta-caryophyllene and other minor monoterpenes (for example, linalool, pinenes, limonene, and gamma-terpinen-7-al). It was also the fern with the highest number of carotenoid-type derivatives, which were identified in large amounts. Our results were of great interest underlying new industrial valorisation for ferns based on their broad spectrum of volatiles. PMID:21121267

Fons, Françoise; Froissard, Didier; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Buatois, Bruno; Rapior, Sylvie

2010-10-01

23

Catalyst for Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is a process for oxidizing volatile organic compounds to carbon dioxide and water with the minimal addition of energy. A mixture of the volatile organic compound and an oxidizing agent (e.g. ambient air containing the volatile organic compound) is exposed to a catalyst which includes a noble metal dispersed on a metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state. Especially good results are obtained when the noble metal is platinum, and the metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state is tin oxide. A promoter (i.e., a small amount of an oxide of a transition series metal) may be used in association with the tin oxide to provide very beneficial results.

Wood, George M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Schyryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

24

Photosynthetic hydrogen evolution with volatile organic acids derived from the fermentation of source selected municipal solid wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV cells were cultivated on lactate containing solutions derived from the acidogenesis of source selected municipal solid wastes. Cells were also used for the phototrophic hydrogen evolution using the same substrate. Batch-wise and continuous experiments showed that the acidic aqueous stream obtained from such refuse is quite a good substrate for the growth of R. sphaeroides RV without

E. Fascetti; E. D'Addario; O. Todini; A. Robertiello

1998-01-01

25

Validation Studies of the Protocol for theVolatile Organic Sampling Train  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of volatile organic emissions from a hazardous waste incinerator is one of the more difficult source testing problems. Specific compounds called principal organic hazardous constituents (POHC) are to be identified and quantified at levels of 0.5 to 100 ppb in hot, wet incinerator exhaust gas, which may also contain high particulate and acid levels. The Volatile Organic Sampling

Robert G. Fuerst; Thomas J. Logan; M. Rodney Midgett; John Prohaska

1987-01-01

26

Analysis of volatile organic compounds. [trace amounts of organic volatiles in gas samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method are described for reproducibly analyzing trace amounts of a large number of organic volatiles existing in a gas sample. Direct injection of the trapped volatiles into a cryogenic percolum provides a sharply defined plug. Applications of the method include: (1) analyzing the headspace gas of body fluids and comparing a profile of the organic volatiles with standard profiles for the detection and monitoring of disease; (2) analyzing the headspace gas of foods and beverages and comparing the profile with standard profiles to monitor and control flavor and aroma; and (3) analyses for determining the organic pollutants in air or water samples.

Zlatkis, A. (inventor)

1977-01-01

27

Volatile organic compounds of Schenella pityophilus.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds of Schenella pityophilus have been identified via solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Ten compounds have been identified, in which 3-methylthio-1-propene was the most significant component. Some other components were previously identified in Tuber aestivum and Tuber melanosporum. PMID:22236093

D'Auria, Maurizio; Racioppi, Rocco; Rana, Gian Luigi

2013-01-01

28

Emerging Control Technologies for Volatile Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere have provided the driving force for sustained fundamental and applied research in the area of environmental remediation. Conventional methods currently used to treat VOCs include incineration, condensation, adsorption, and absorption. Incineration and condensation are cost-effective only for moderate to high VOC concentrations. Adsorption and absorption do not destroy VOCs

Geeta Rani Parmar; N. N. Rao

2008-01-01

29

Volatile organic compounds of Schenella pityophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compounds of Schenella pityophilus have been identified via solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Ten compounds have been identified, in which 3-methylthio-1-propene was the most significant component. Some other components were previously identified in Tuber aestivum and Tuber melanosporum.

Maurizio D’Auria; Rocco Racioppi; Gian Luigi Rana

2012-01-01

30

COMPLETE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF VOLATILE ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reviews heterogeneous catalytic oxidation, focusing on its application to the control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at operating conditions typical of field applications. The parameters for this review are: low to moderate temperatures (25-400 C), atmospheric pre...

31

Secondary organic aerosols formed from oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, such as isoprene and terpenes, can be oxidized to form less volatile carbonyls, acids, and multifunctional oxygenated products that may condense to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA). This research was designed to assess the contribution of oxidized BVOC emissions to SOA in coniferous forests by collecting high-volume particulate samples for 6 days and 5

Thomas M. Cahill; Vincent Y. Seaman; M. Judith Charles; Rupert Holzinger; Allen H. Goldstein

2006-01-01

32

40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60...Standards of Performance for Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

2010-07-01

33

40 CFR 60.602 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.602 Section 60...Standards of Performance for Synthetic Fiber Production Facilities § 60.602 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On and after...

2011-07-01

34

40 CFR 60.742 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.742 Section 60.742 Protection...Supporting Substrates Facilities § 60.742 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each owner or operator...

2010-07-01

35

40 CFR 60.432 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.432 Section 60.432 Protection...Publication Rotogravure Printing § 60.432 Standard for volatile organic compounds. During the period of the...

2010-07-01

36

Key volatile organic compounds emitted from swine nursery house  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out to quantify the concentration and emission levels of key volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - sulfides, indolics, phenolics and volatile fatty acids (VFA) - emitted from swine nursery house, and assess the effect of microclimate (including temperature, relative humidity and air speed) on the key odorous compounds. Samples were collected from the Experimental Farm of Seoul National University in Suwon, South Korea. And the collection took place for four seasons and the sampling time was fixed at 10:30 in the morning. The application of one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni t analyses revealed that, most of the odorous compound concentrations, such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), indole, p-cresol and all the volatile fatty acids were lowest during the summer ( P < 0.01). Meanwhile, negative correlations were observed between temperature and odorants, as well as air speed and odorants. A possible reason was that high ventilation transferred most of the odors out of the house during the summer. From the whole year data, non-linear multiple regressions were conducted and the equations were proposed depending upon the relationships between microclimate parameters and odorous compounds. The equations were applied in hope of easily calculating the concentrations of the odorous compounds in the commercial farms. The results obtained in this study should be used for reducing the volatile organic compounds by controlling microclimate parameters and also could be helpful in setting a guideline for good management practices in nursery house.

Yao, H. Q.; Choi, H. L.; Zhu, K.; Lee, J. H.

2011-05-01

37

Volatile organic compounds in ambient aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate the concentration levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient aerosols, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) in the particulate phase were measured simultaneously with those in the gas phase in the urban atmosphere. Six compounds were detected in the aerosols at concentrations from 0.051 (1,2-dichloroethane) to 1.75 ng m - 3 (benzene). Benzene was detected as the most dominant compound in the aerosols, although toluene was the most dominant compound in the gas phase. The VOCs in the aerosols had concentrations comparable to those reported for some semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) in the aerosols. The concentrations of the VOCs in the aerosols were primarily controlled by the aerosol mass loading. Temperature and relative humidity had no significant effect on the gas/particle partitioning of the VOCs. Our results also suggested that the hygroscopic properties of the aerosols should be considered to discuss the partitioning of the VOCs.

Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Kumi; Mizuno, Riichi; Igawa, Manabu

2010-07-01

38

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils may act as sources or sinks of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Many of the formed VOCs are produced by microorganisms,\\u000a and it would be a challenge to investigate soil microbial communities by studying their VOC profile. Such “volatilomics” would\\u000a have the advantage of avoiding extraction steps that are often a limit in genomic or proteomic approaches. Abundant literature\\u000a on

Heribert Insam; Martin S. A. Seewald

2010-01-01

39

Photochemistry complicates attribution of volatile organics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the sources of air pollution is important in mitigation efforts. Commonly used models known as receptor models often do not take into account chemical reactions that may occur between the source of the emission and the site where measurements are taken. To determine to what extent photochemical reactions in the atmosphere may be affecting source attribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), Yuan et al. measured VOCs at an urban site in Beijing in August-September 2010 and identified emission sources.

Balcerak, Ernie

2013-02-01

40

Formation of volatile chemicals from thermal degradation of less volatile coffee components: quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid.  

PubMed

The less volatile constituents of coffee beans (quinic acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid) were roasted under a stream of nitrogen, air, or helium. The volatile degradation compounds formed were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Caffeic acid produced the greatest amount of total volatiles. Quinic acid and chlorogenic acid produced a greater number of volatiles under the nitrogen stream than under the air stream. These results suggest that the presence of oxygen does not play an important role in the formation of volatile compounds by the heat degradation of these chemicals. 2,5-Dimethylfuran formed in relatively large amounts (59.8-2231.0 microg/g) in the samples obtained from quinic acid and chlorogenic acid but was not found in the samples from caffeic acid. Furfuryl alcohol was found in the quinic acid (259.9 microg/g) and caffeic acid (174.4 microg/g) samples roasted under a nitrogen stream but not in the chlorogenic sample. The three acids used in the present study do not contain a nitrogen atom, yet nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds, pyridine, pyrrole, and pyrazines, were recovered. Phenol and its derivatives were identified in the largest quantities. The amounts of total phenols ranged from 60.6 microg/g (quinic acid under helium) to 89893.7 microg/g (caffeic acid under helium). It was proposed that phenol was formed mainly from quinic acid and that catechols were formed from caffeic acid. Formation of catechol from caffeic acid under anaerobic condition indicates that the reaction participating in catechol formation was not oxidative degradation. PMID:20405916

Moon, Joon-Kwan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

2010-05-12

41

Volatile Organic Compound Emissions by Agricultural Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) participate in ozone and aerosol formation, and comprise a substantial fraction of reactive VOC emission inventories. In the agriculturally intensive Central Valley of California, emissions from crops may substantially influence regional air quality, but emission potentials have not been extensively studied with advanced instrumentation for many important crops. Because crop emissions may vary according to the species, and California emission inventories are constructed via a bottom-up approach, a better knowledge of the emission rate at the species-specific level is critical for reducing uncertainties in emission inventories and evaluating emission model performance. In the present study we identified and quantified the BVOCs released by dominant agricultural crops in California. A screening study to investigate both volatile and semivolatile BVOC fractions (oxygenated VOCs, isoprene, monoterepenes, sesquiterpenes, etc.) was performed for 25 crop species (at least 3 replicates plants each), including branch enclosures of woody species (e.g. peach, mandarin, grape, pistachio) and whole plant enclosures for herbaceous species (e.g. onion, alfalfa, carrot), through a dynamic cuvette system with detection by PTRMS, in-situ GCMS/FID, and collection on carbon-based adsorbents followed by extraction and GCMS analysis. Emission data obtained in this study will allow inclusion of these crops in BVOC emission inventories and air quality simulations.

Ormeno, E.; Farres, S.; Gentner, D.; Park, J.; McKay, M.; Karlik, J.; Goldstein, A.

2008-12-01

42

High Arctic Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from terrestrial vegetation participate in oxidative reactions, affecting the tropospheric ozone concentration and the lifetimes of greenhouse gasses such as methane. Also, they affect the formation of secondary organic aerosols. BVOCs thus provide a strong link between the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the climate. Global models of BVOC emissions have assumed minimal emissions from the high latitudes due to low temperatures, short growing seasons and sparse vegetation cover. However, measurements from this region of the world are lacking and emissions from the High Arctic have not been published yet. The aim of this study was to obtain the first estimates for BVOC emissions from the High Arctic. Hereby, we wish to add new knowledge to the understanding of global BVOC emissions. Measurements were conducted in NE Greenland (74°30' N, 20°30' W) in four vegetation communities in the study area. These four vegetation communities were dominated by Cassiope tetragona, Salix arctica, Vaccinium uliginosum and Kobresia myosuroides/Dryas octopetela/Salix arctica, respectively. Emissions were measured by enclosure technique and collection of volatiles into adsorbent cartridges in August 2009. The volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following thermal desorption. Isoprene showed highest emissions in S. arctica-dominated heath, where it was the dominant single BVOC. However, isoprene emission decreased below detection limit in the end of August when the temperature was at or below 10°C. According to a principal component analysis, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions were especially associated with C. tetragona-dominated heath. Especially S. arctica and C. tetragona dominated heaths showed distinct patterns of emitted BVOCs. Emissions of BVOC from the studied high arctic heaths were clearly lower than the emissions observed previously in subarctic heaths with more dense vegetation and higher ambient temperature. However, high arctic BVOC emissions are expected to increase in the future as a result of the predicted pronounced climate warming effects in the High Arctic. Therefore, we suggest that further studies should be conducted to investigate the effects of climate changes in the region in order to gain new knowledge and understanding of future global BVOC emissions.

Schollert, Michelle; Buchard, Sebrina; Faubert, Patrick; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

2013-04-01

43

Counter-Current Chromatographic Separation of Nucleic Acid Constituents with a Polar Volatile Organic-Aqueous Two-Phase Solvent Systems with ELSD Detection  

PubMed Central

Highly hydrophilic volatile organic/aqueous two-phase solvent systems containing an organic salt such as, acetonitrile/800 mM and 1200 mM ammonium acetate (1 : 1, v/v) were efficiently utilized for high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) to separate hydrophilic compounds. The retention of the upper and the lower stationary phases in the column of the cross-axis coil planet centrifuge (CCC instrument) was studied by changing the flow-rate of the mobile phase (1.0–3.0 ml/min). Using the acetonitrile/800 mM ammonium acetate two-phase solvent system, the stationary phase was retained at 46.3% relative to the total column capacity of 65 ml by the reversed-phase elution mode at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min. The best retention of the stationary upper phase of 51.5% was obtained by the solvent system of the acetonitrile/1200 mM ammonium acetate at the above flow-rate. With the acetonitrile/800 mM ammonium acetate system the base line separation of adenine and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) detected by evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and UV was achieved with lower phase mobile at a flow-rate of 1.0 ml/min within 70 min. PMID:24634703

Shibusawa, Yoichi; Morikawa, Go; Yanagida, Akio; Ito, Yoichiro

2014-01-01

44

78 FR 11119 - Air Quality: Revision to Definition of Volatile Organic Compounds-Exclusion of trans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Definition of Volatile Organic Compounds--Exclusion...definition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for...Honeywell under the trade names Solstice TM...small businesses, small organizations, and small governmental...requirements, Volatile organic compounds....

2013-02-15

45

PHASE DISTRIBUTIONS OF LOW VOLATILITY ORGANICS IN AMBIENT AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Current strategies to control photochemical air pollution rely on abating the emission of volatile organic compounds. Primarily, these compounds exist in the vapor phase, and are those with a carbon number of ten or less. Recent attention has been given to low-volatility organic ...

46

BIOCONCENTRATION FACTORS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN VEGETATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Samples of air and leaves were taken at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas campus and analyzed for volatile organic compounds using vacuum distillation coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The data were used to estimate the bioconcentration of volatile organic compo...

47

40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection...Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic compounds On and after the date on which...

2010-07-01

48

40 CFR 60.622 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.622 Section 60.622 Protection...Performance for Petroleum Dry Cleaners § 60.622 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) Each affected petroleum...

2010-07-01

49

40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.442 Section 60.442 Protection...Label Surface Coating Operations § 60.442 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on...

2010-07-01

50

40 CFR 60.492 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds. 60.492 Section 60.492 Protection...Beverage Can Surface Coating Industry § 60.492 Standards for volatile organic compounds. On or after the date on which...

2010-07-01

51

40 CFR 60.582 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.582 Section 60.582 Protection...and Urethane Coating and Printing § 60.582 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on...

2010-07-01

52

40 CFR 60.452 - Standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.452 Section 60.452 Protection...Surface Coating: Large Appliances § 60.452 Standard for volatile organic compounds. On or after the date on which the...

2010-07-01

53

COMPARISON OF AMBIENT AIR SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of fourteen experimental sampling runs were carried out at a field site to collect data from several ambient air monitoring methods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ambient air was drawn through a sampling manifold and was continuously spiked with volatile organic ...

54

SOIL SAMPLE COLLECTION AND HANDLING FOR VOLATILE ORGANICS ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The guidance document will detail the Region I EPA New England requirements for the collection of soil samples for volatile organics analysis by SW-846, Method 5035. The guidance will describe the project planning process for the collection of soil samples for volatile organics ...

55

Chronic effect of cadmium in sediments on colonization by benthic marine organisms: An evaluation of the role of interstitial cadmium and acid-volatile sulfide in biological availability  

SciTech Connect

The role of interstitial cadmium and acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) in controlling the bioavailability of sediment-associated metal was examined using the chronic saltwater benthic colonization test. Sediments were spiked to achieve nominal cadmium/AVS molar ratios of 0.0 (control), 0.1, 0.8, and 3.0 in this 118-d test. Oxidation of AVS in the surficial 2.4 cm within 2 to 4 weeks resulted in sulfide profiles similar to those occurring naturally in local sediments. In the nominal 0.1 cadmium/AVS treatment measured simultaneously extracted metal (SEM{sub Cd}) was always less than AVS. Interstitial cadmium concentrations were less than those likely to cause biological effects. No significant biological effects were detected. In the nominal 0.8 cadmium/AVS treatment, measured SEM{sub Cd} commonly exceeded AVS in the surficial 2.4 cm of sediment. Interstitial cadmium concentrations were of likely toxicological significance to highly sensitive species. Shifts in the presence or absence over all taxa, and fewer macrobenthic polychaetes (Mediomastus ambiseta, Streblospio benedicti, and Podarke obscurea) and unidentified meiofaunal nematodes, were observed. In the nominal 3.0 cadmium/AVS treatment, concentrations of SEM{sub Cd} were always greater than AVS throughout the sediment column. Interstitial cadmium ranged from 28,000 to 174,000 {micro}g/L. In addition to the effects above, the sediments were colonized by fewer macrobenthic species, polychaete species, and harpacticoids; had lower densities of diatoms; lacked bivalve molluscs; and exhibited other impacts. Over all treatments, the observed biological responses were consistent with SEM{sub Cd}/AVS ratios in surficial sediments and interstitial water cadmium concentrations.

Hansen, D.J.; Berry, W.J.; Benyi, S.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); Mahony, J.D. [Manhattan Coll., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Corbin, J.M. [Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Austin, TX (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Pratt, S.D. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI (United States). Graduate School of Oceanography; Toro, D.M. di [Manhattan Coll., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering]|[HydroQual, Inc., Mahwah, NJ (United States); Abel, M.B. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Botany Dept.

1996-12-01

56

Fatty Acid Composition and Volatile Constituents of Protaetia brevitarsis Larvae  

PubMed Central

A total of 48 different volatile oils were identified form P. brevitarsis larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Acids (48.67%) were detected as the major group in P. brevitarsis larvae comprising the largest proportion of the volatile compounds, followed by esters (19.84%), hydrocarbons (18.90%), alcohols (8.37%), miscellaneous (1.71%), aldehydes (1.35%) and terpenes (1.16%). The major volatile constituents were 9-hexadecenoic acid (16.75%), 6-octadecenoic acid (14.88%) and n-hexadecanoic acid (11.06%). The composition of fatty acid was also determined by GC analysis and 16 fatty acids were identified. The predominant fatty acids were oleic acid (C18:1, 64.24%) followed by palmitic acid (C16:0, 15.89%), palmitoleic acid (C16:1, 10.43%) and linoleic acid (C18:2, 4.69%) constituting more than 95% of total fatty acids. The distinguished characteristic of the fatty acid profile of P. brevitarsis larvae was the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (80.54% of total fatty acids) versus saturated fatty acids (19.46% of total fatty acids). Furthermore, small but significant amounts of linoleic, linolenic and ?-linolenic acids bestow P. brevitarsis larvae with considerable nutritional value. The novel findings of the present study provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of the insect as a nutritionally promising food source and a possibility for more effective utilization. PMID:24471125

Yeo, Hyelim; Youn, Kumju; Kim, Minji; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

2013-01-01

57

Volatile organic compound remedial action project  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) reviews a proposed project that is planned to reduce the levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants present in the Mound domestic water supply. The potable and industrial process water supply for Mound is presently obtained from a shallow aquifer via on-site production wells. The present levels of VOCs in the water supply drawn from the on-site wells are below the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) permissible for drinking water under Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA; 40 CFR 141); however, Mound has determined that remedial measures should be taken to further reduce the VOC levels. The proposed project action is the reduction of the VOC levels in the water supply using packed tower aeration (PTA). This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and associated Council on Environmental Quality regulations (40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508) as implemented through U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5440.1D and supporting DOE NEPA Guidelines (52 FR 47662), as amended (54 FR 12474; 55 FR 37174), and as modified by the Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) 15-90 and associated guidance. As required, this EA provides sufficient information on the probable environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives to support a DOE decision either to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

NONE

1991-12-01

58

Production of volatile organic compounds by mycobacteria.  

PubMed

The need for improved rapid diagnostic tests for tuberculosis disease has prompted interest in the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. We have investigated VOCs emitted by Mycobacterium bovis BCG grown on Lowenstein-Jensen media using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compounds observed included dimethyl sulphide, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, butanone, 2-methyl-1-butanol, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2-phenylethanol and hydrogen sulphide. Changes in levels of acetaldehyde, methanol and ammonia were also observed. The compounds identified are not unique to M. bovis BCG, and further studies are needed to validate their diagnostic value. Investigations using an ultra-rapid gas chromatograph with a surface acoustic wave sensor (zNose) demonstrated the presence of 2-phenylethanol (PEA) in the headspace of cultures of M. bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis, when grown on Lowenstein-Jensen supplemented with glycerol. PEA is a reversible inhibitor of DNA synthesis. It is used during selective isolation of gram-positive bacteria and may also be used to inhibit mycobacterial growth. PEA production was observed to be dependent on growth of mycobacteria. Further study is required to elucidate the metabolic pathways involved and assess whether this compound is produced during in vivo growth of mycobacteria. PMID:22224870

McNerney, Ruth; Mallard, Kim; Okolo, Phyllis Ifeoma; Turner, Claire

2012-03-01

59

Volatile organic compound emissions from Siberian larch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determined hourly emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes from Siberian larch, one of the major tree species in Siberian forests. Summer volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission from Siberian larch consisted mainly of monoterpenes (about 90%). The monoterpene emission spectrum remained constant during the measurement period, almost half was sabinene and other major monoterpenes were ?3-carene, ?- and ?-pinene. During spring and summer, about 10% of the VOCs were sesquiterpenes, mainly ?-farnesene. The sesquiterpene emissions declined to 3% in the fall. Isoprene, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and 1,8-cineole contributed to less than 3% of the VOC emission during the whole period. The diurnal variation of the emissions could be explained using a temperature-dependent parameterization. Emission potentials normalized to 30 °C were 5.2-21 ?g g dw-1 h -1 (using ?-value of 0.09 °C -1) for monoterpenes and 0.4-1.8 ?g g dw-1 h -1 (using ?-value of 0.143 °C -1, mean of determined values) for sesquiterpenes. Normalized monoterpene emission potentials were highest in late summer and elevated again in late fall. Sesquiterpene emission potentials were also highest in late summer, but decreased towards fall.

Ruuskanen, T. M.; Hakola, H.; Kajos, M. K.; Hellén, H.; Tarvainen, V.; Rinne, J.

60

77 FR 38761 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compounds; Consumer Products...the addition of a new rule that sets volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions limits...Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Volatile organic compounds. Dated: June...

2012-06-29

61

Breath measurements as volatile organic compound biomarkers.  

PubMed Central

A brief review of the uses of breath analysis in studies of environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is provided. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's large-scale Total Exposure Assessment Methodology Studies have measured concentrations of 32 target VOCs in the exhaled breath of about 800 residents of various U.S. cities. Since the previous 12-hr integrated personal air exposures to the same chemicals were also measured, the relation between exposure and body burden is illuminated. Another major use of the breath measurements has been to detect unmeasured pathways of exposure; the major impact of active smoking on exposure to benzene and styrene was detected in this way. Following the earlier field studies, a series of chamber studies have provided estimates of several important physiological parameters. Among these are the fraction, f, of the inhaled chemical that is exhaled under steady-state conditions and the residence times. tau i in several body compartments, which may be associated with the blood (or liver), organs, muscle, and fat. Most of the targeted VOCs appear to have similar residence times of a few minutes, 30 min, several hours, and several days in the respective tissue groups. Knowledge of these parameters can be helpful in estimating body burden from exposure or vice versa and in planning environmental studies, particularly in setting times to monitor breath in studies of the variation with time of body burden. Improvements in breath methods have made it possible to study short-term peak exposure situations such as filling a gas tank or taking a shower in contaminated water. PMID:8933027

Wallace, L; Buckley, T; Pellizzari, E; Gordon, S

1996-01-01

62

Molecular Models of Volatile Organic Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This month's Featured Molecules come from the Report from Other Journals column, Nature: Our Atmosphere in the Year of Planet Earth, and the summary found there of the paper by Lelieveld et al. (1, 2) Added to the collection are several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted by a variety of plants. The term VOCs is a common one in environmental chemistry, and is interpreted quite broadly, typically referring to any organic molecule with a vapor pressure sufficiently high to allow for part-per-billion levels in the atmosphere. Common VOCs include methane (the most prevalent VOC), benzene and benzene derivatives, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and many others. The source may be natural, as in the case of the plant emissions, or anthropogenic, as in the case of a molecule such as the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).The oxidation of isoprene in the atmosphere has been a source of interest for many years. Several primary oxidation products are included in the molecule collection, although a number of isomeric forms are also possible (3).The area of VOCs provides innumerable topics for students research papers and projects at all levels of the curriculum from high-school chemistry through the undergraduate courses in chemistry and environmental science. Along the way students have the opportunity for exposure to fields such as epidemiology and toxicology, that may be new to them, but are of increasing importance in the environmental sciences. The MTBE story is an interesting one for students to discover, as it once again emphasizes the role that unintended consequences play in life. An exploration of the sources, structures, reactivity, health and environmental effects and ultimate fate of various VOCs reinforces in students minds just how interconnected the chemistry of the environment is, a lesson that bears repeating frequently.

63

Identification of volatile organic compounds in human cerumen.  

PubMed

We report here the initial examination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from human earwax (cerumen). Recent studies link a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette, sub-family C, member 11 gene (ABCC11) to the production of different types of axillary odorants and cerumen. ABCC11 encodes an ATP-driven efflux pump protein that plays an important function in ceruminous apocrine glands of the auditory canal and the secretion of axillary odor precursors. The type of cerumen and underarm odor produced by East Asians differ markedly from that produced by non-Asians. In this initial report we find that both groups emit many of the same VOCs but differ significantly in the amounts produced. The principal odorants are volatile organic C2-to-C6 acids. The physical appearance of cerumen from the two groups also matches previously reported ethnic differences, viz., cerumen from East Asians appears dry and white while that from non-Asians is typically wet and yellowish-brown. PMID:24572763

Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A; Thaler, Erica; Wysocki, Charles J; Preti, George

2014-03-15

64

Volatility of secondary organic aerosol during OH radical induced ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate oxidation of SOA formed from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene and limonene by hydroxyl radicals. This paper focuses on changes of particle volatility, using a Volatility Tandem DMA (VTDMA) set-up, in order to explain and elucidate the mechanism behind atmospheric ageing of the organic aerosol. The experiments were conducted at the AIDA chamber facility

K. Salo; M. Hallquist; Å. M. Jonsson; H. Saathoff; K.-H. Naumann; C. Spindler; R. Tillmann; H. Fuchs; B. Bohn; F. Rubach; Th. F. Mentel; L. Müller; M. Reinnig; T. Hoffmann; N. M. Donahue

2011-01-01

65

Ecological functions of volatile organic compounds in aquatic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In terrestrial ecosystems, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely acknowledged as an important group of infochemicals. They play a major role in pollinator attraction by terrestrial plants and as insect pheromones. Furthermore, they are the mediating agent of so-called ‘tritrophic interactions’. When plants are attacked by herbivorous insects, volatile signal substances are emitted, which act as attractants for parasitoids that

Patrick Fink

2007-01-01

66

Measuring the atmospheric organic aerosol volatility distribution: a theoretical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic compounds represent a significant fraction of submicrometer atmospheric aerosol mass. Even if most of these compounds are semi-volatile in atmospheric concentrations, the ambient organic aerosol volatility is quite uncertain. The most common volatility measurement method relies on the use of a thermodenuder (TD). The aerosol passes through a heated tube where its more volatile components evaporate, leaving the less volatile components behind in the particulate phase. The typical result of a thermodenuder measurement is the mass fraction remaining (MFR), which depends, among other factors, on the organic aerosol (OA) vaporization enthalpy and the accommodation coefficient. We use a new method combining forward modeling, introduction of "experimental" error, and inverse modeling with error minimization for the interpretation of TD measurements. The OA volatility distribution, its effective vaporization enthalpy, the mass accommodation coefficient and the corresponding uncertainty ranges are calculated. Our results indicate that existing TD-based approaches quite often cannot estimate reliably the OA volatility distribution, leading to large uncertainties, since there are many different combinations of the three properties that can lead to similar thermograms. We propose an improved experimental approach combining TD and isothermal dilution measurements. We evaluate this experimental approach using the same model, and show that it is suitable for studies of OA volatility in the lab and the field.

Karnezi, E.; Riipinen, I.; Pandis, S. N.

2014-09-01

67

Measuring the atmospheric organic aerosol volatility distribution: a theoretical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic compounds represent a significant fraction of submicrometer atmospheric aerosol mass. Even if most of these compounds are semi-volatile in atmospheric concentrations, the ambient organic aerosol volatility is quite uncertain. The most common volatility measurement method relies on the use of a thermodenuder (TD). The aerosol passes through a heated tube where its more volatile components evaporate leaving the less volatile behind in the particulate phase. The typical result of a~thermodenuder measurement is the mass fraction remaining (MFR), which depends among other factors on the organic aerosol (OA) vaporization enthalpy and the accommodation coefficient. We use a new method combining forward modeling, introduction of "experimental" error and inverse modeling with error minimization for the interpretation of TD measurements. The OA volatility distribution, its effective vaporization enthalpy, the mass accommodation coefficient and the corresponding uncertainty ranges are calculated. Our results indicate that existing TD-based approaches quite often cannot estimate reliably the OA volatility distribution, leading to large uncertainties, since there are many different combinations of the three properties that can lead to similar thermograms. We propose an improved experimental approach combining TD and isothermal dilution measurements. We evaluate this experimental approach using the same model and show that it is suitable for studies of OA volatility in the lab and the field.

Karnezi, E.; Riipinen, I.; Pandis, S. N.

2014-01-01

68

COMPACT, CONTINUOUS MONITORING FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

Improved methods for onsite measurement of multiple volatile organic compounds are needed for process control, monitoring, and remediation. This Phase I SBIR project sets forth an optical measurement method that meets these needs. The proposed approach provides an instantaneous m...

69

ODOR AND IRRITATION EFFECTS OF A VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND MIXTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Human exposure to volatile organic compounds elicits a variety ofsymptoms, many of which are thought to be mediated by the olfactoryand trigeminal systems. his report describes evidence indicatingthat perceived odor intensity diminishes during prolonged exposure,whearas irritatin...

70

IMPROVEMENT IN AIR TOXICS METHODS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Innovative and customized monitoring methods for air toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are being developed for applications in exposure and trends monitoring. This task addresses the following applications of specific interest: o Contributions to EPA Regional Monit...

71

GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development of a global inventory of anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. t includes VOC estimates for seven classes of VOCs: paraffins, olefins, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and ...

72

Reduction of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Automobile Refinishing,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Automobile refinishing (repainting) is a source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The study was conducted to evaluate available techniques that can be used to reduce VOC emissions from this source. The document provides information on the step...

C. Athey, C. Hester, M. McLaughlin, R. M. Neulicht, M. B. Turner

1988-01-01

73

Volatile organic compounds from a Tuber melanosporum fermentation system.  

PubMed

A total of 59 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified from Tuber melanosporum fermentation: 53 from its fermented mycelia and 32 from the fermentation broth. Alcohol-derived compounds were predominant in both the fermentation mycelia and the broth, although long chain fatty acids and isoprenoids were, for the first time, also found in the mycelia. The intense wine bouquet properties of the broth arose from several specific flavor substances, including sulfur compounds, pyrazines, furans and jasmones. Comparing the VOCs identified in this work with those previously reported, our results are more similar to the composition of the Tuber fruiting-body than previous Tuber fermentations. The composition and accumulation of flavor volatiles (e.g., pyrazines, sulfur compounds, and esters) and major constituents (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol) in this fermentation were significantly influenced by the sucrose concentration in the medium. The obtained information could therefore be useful in applications to convert the flavors of truffle mycelia similar to those of the fruiting-body by optimising the fermentation process. PMID:22980851

Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Guan; Li, Hong-Mei; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Tang, Ya-Jie

2012-12-15

74

FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

2003-07-01

75

Volatile organic compound sources for Southern Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have several sources, both biogenic and anthropogenic. Emissions of biogenic VOCs in a global scale are estimated to be an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic ones. However, in densely populated areas and during winter time the anthropogenic VOC emissions dominate over the biogenic ones. The aim of this study was to clarify potential local sources and source areas of VOCs in different seasons. Diurnal behaviour in winter and spring were also compared at two different sites in Finland: SMEAR II and III (Station for Measuring Ecosystem - Atmosphere Relations). SMEAR II is a rural site located in Hyytiälä in Southern Finland 220 km North-West from Helsinki whereas SMEAR III is background urban site located 5 km from the downtown of Helsinki. The volume mixing ratios of VOCs were measured with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS, Ionicon Analytik GmbH, Austria) during years 2006-2011. Other trace gases such as CO, NOXand SO2 were also measured in both sites and used for source analysis. Source areas for long term VOC measurements were investigated with trajectory analysis and sources for local and regional concentrations were determined by Unmix multivariate receptor model. Forest fires affect air quality and the biggest smoke plumes can be seen in satellite images and even hinder visibility in the plume areas. They provide temporally and spatially well-defined sources that can be used to verify source area estimates. During the measurement periods two different forest fire episodes with several hotspots, happened in Russia. Forest fires which showed up in these measurements were in 2006 near the border of Finland in Vyborg area and 2010 in Moscow area. Forest fire episodes were clearly observed in trajectory analysis for benzene, toluene and methanol and also CO and NOX. In addition to event sources continuous source areas were determined. Anthropogenic local sources seemed to be dominant during winter in both sites. However during spring biogenic influence increased. In addition to source analysis this behaviour was visible in enhanced diurnal cycles of VOCs (Patokoski et al., 2014, in press). We will present important sources and source areas for Southern Finland's concentrations. References: Patokoski, J., Ruuskanen, T.M., Hellén, H., Taipale, R., Grönholm, T., Kajos, M.K., Petäjä, T., Hakola, H., Kulmala, M. & Rinne, J., 2014. Winter to spring transition and diurnal variation of VOCs in Finland at an urban background site and a rural site. Boreal Env. Res. 19. In press.

Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Kajos, Maija K.; Taipale, Risto; Rantala, Pekka; Aalto, Juho; Ryyppö, Timo; Hakola, Hannele; Rinne, Janne

2014-05-01

76

Fatty Acid and Volatile Oil Compositions of Allomyrina dichotoma Larvae  

PubMed Central

Thirty-two different volatile oils were identified from Allomyrina dichotoma (A. dichotoma) larvae by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major volatile components were 2,2,4-trimethyl-3-carboxyisopropyl pentanoic acid isobutyl ester (5.83%), phenol,2,6-bis(a,a-dimethyl ethyl)-4-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl) (5.72%), heptacosane (5.49%) and phenol,2,4-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl) (5.47%). The composition of the fatty acids in A. dichotoma larvae was also determined by gas chromatography (GC) and fourteen constituents were identified. Oleic acid (19.13%) was the most abundant fatty acid followed by palmitic acid (12.52%), palmitoleic acid (3.71%) and linoleic acid (2.08%) in 100 g of A. dichotoma larvae on a dry weight basis. The quantity of unsaturated fatty acids (64.00%) were higher than that of saturated ones (36.00%). The predominant fatty acids in A. dichotoma consist of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA, 57.70%) such as oleic acid, myristoleic acid and palmitoleic acid, followed by saturated fatty acids (36.00%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 6.50%). In particular, the presence of essential fatty acids, such as linoleic (5.30%) and linolenic acid (0.40%) give A. dichotoma larvae considerable nutritional and functional value and it may be a useful source for food and/or industrial utilization. PMID:24471102

Youn, Kumju; Kim, Ji-Young; Yeo, Hyelim; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jun, Mira

2012-01-01

77

Fate of Volatile Organic Compounds in Constructed Wastewater Treatment Wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fate of volatile organic compounds was evaluated in a wastewater-dependent constructed wetland near Phoenix, AZ, using field measurements and solute transport modeling. Numerically based volatilization rates were determined using inverse modeling techniques and hydraulic parameters established by sodium bromide tracer experiments. Theoretical volatilization rates were calculated from the two-film method incorporating physicochemical properties and environmental conditions. Additional analyses were conducted using graphically determined volatilization rates based on field measurements. Transport (with first-order removal) simulations were performed using a range of volatilization rates and were evaluated with respect to field concentrations. The inverse and two-film reactive transport simulations demonstrated excellent agreement with measured concentrations for 1,4-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, dichloromethane, and trichloromethane and fair agreement for dibromochloromethane, bromo-dichloromethane, and toluene. Wetland removal efficiencies from inlet to outlet ranged from 63% to 87% for target compounds.

Keefe, S. H.; Barber, L. B.; Runkel, R. L.; Ryan, J. N.

2004-01-01

78

Volatile fatty acids as indicators of process imbalance in anaerobic digestors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In continuously stirred tank reactor experiments, with manure as substrate at thermophilic temperatures, the use of volatile fatty acids (VFA) as process indicators was investigated. Changes in VFA level were shown to be a good parameter for indicating process instability. The VFA were evaluated according to their relative changes caused by changes in hydraulic loading, organic loading or temperature. Butyrate

B. K. Ahring; M. Sandberg; I. Angelidaki

1995-01-01

79

MODIFICATION OF METAL PARTITIONING BY SUPPLEMENTING ACID VOLATILE SULFIDE IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid volatile sulfide is a component of sediments which complexes some cationic metals and thereby influences the toxicity of these metals to benthic organisms. EPA has proposed AVS as a key normalization phase for the development of sediment quality criteria for metals. Experime...

80

Synergism among volatile organic compounds resulting in increased antibiosis in Oidium sp.  

PubMed

Oidium sp. has been recovered as an endophyte in Terminalia catappa (tropical chestnut) in Costa Rica. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of this organism uniquely and primarily consist of esters of propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-, and butanoic acid, 3-methyl-. The VOCs of Oidium sp. are slightly inhibitory to many plant pathogenic fungi. Previous work on the VOCs of Muscodor albus demonstrated that besides esters of small organic acids, a small organic acid and a naphthalene derivative were needed to obtain maximum antibiotic activity. Thus, the addition of exogenous volatile compounds such as isobutyric acid and naphthalene, 1,1'-oxybis caused a dramatic synergistic increase in the antibiotic activity of the VOCs of Oidium sp. against Pythium ultimum. In fact, at elevated concentrations, there was not only 100% inhibition of P. ultimum but killing as well. In addition, a coculture of Muscodor vitigenus (making only naphthalene) and Oidium sp. plus isobutyric acid produced an additive antibiosis effect against P. ultimum. The biological implications of multiple volatile compounds acting to bring about antibiosis in nature are discussed. PMID:18422630

Strobel, Gary A; Spang, Shanney; Kluck, Katreena; Hess, W M; Sears, Joe; Livinghouse, Tom

2008-06-01

81

Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft  

E-print Network

A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the ...

Herndon, S. C.

82

Enantiomer distribution of major chiral volatile organic compounds in selected types of herbal honeys.  

PubMed

In this article, volatile organic compounds in 14 honey samples (rosemary, eucalyptus, orange, thyme, sage, and lavender) were identified. Volatile organic compounds were extracted using a solid phase microextraction method followed by gas chromatography connected with mass spectrometry analysis. The studied honey samples were compared based on their volatile organic compounds composition. In total, more than 180 compounds were detected in the studied samples. The detected compounds belong to various chemical classes such as terpenes, alcohols, acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters, norisoprenoids, benzene and furane derivatives, and organic compounds containing sulfur and nitrogen heteroatom. Ten chiral compounds (linalool, trans-linalool oxide, cis-linalool oxide, 4-terpineol, ?-terpineol, hotrienol, and four stereoisomers of lilac aldehydes) were selected for further chiral separation. Chirality 26:670-674, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25099214

Pažitná, Alexandra; Džúrová, Jana; Spánik, Ivan

2014-10-01

83

Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds of Environmental Interest: Dimethyl Sulfide and Methanethiol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) have been assigned environmental roles in global warming, acid precipitation, and cloud formation where two important members dimethyl sulfide (CH3)2 S, DMS, and methanethiol, CH3SH, MT, of VOSC group are involved.

Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald

2004-01-01

84

Reduction of volatile acidity of wines by selected yeast strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herein, we isolate and characterize wine yeasts with the ability to reduce volatile acidity of wines using a refermentation\\u000a process, which consists in mixing the acidic wine with freshly crushed grapes or musts or, alternatively, in the incubation\\u000a with the residual marc. From a set of 135 yeast isolates, four strains revealed the ability to use glucose and acetic acid

A. Vilela-Moura; D. Schuller; A. Mendes-Faia; M. Côrte-Real

2008-01-01

85

Analysis of volatile organic compounds from illicit cocaine samples  

SciTech Connect

Detection of illicit cocaine hydrochloride shipments can be improved if there is a greater understanding of the identity and quantity of volatile compounds present. This study provides preliminary data concerning the volatile organic compounds detected in a limited Set of cocaine hydrochloride samples. In all cases, cocaine was one of the major volatile compounds detected. Other tropeines were detected in almost all samples. Low concentrations of compounds that may be residues of processing solvents were observed in some samples. The equilibrium emissivity of. cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride was investigated and a value of 83 parts-per-trillion was determined.

Robins, W.H.; Wright, B.W.

1994-07-01

86

Belowground volatiles facilitate interactions between plant roots and soil organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many interactions between organisms are based on the emission and perception of volatiles. The principle of using volatile\\u000a metabolites as communication signals for chemo-attractant or repellent for species-specific interactions or mediators for\\u000a cell-to-cell recognition does not stop at an apparently unsuitable or inappropriate environment. These infochemicals do not\\u000a only diffuse through the atmosphere to process their actions aboveground, but belowground

Katrin Wenke; Marco Kai; Birgit Piechulla

2010-01-01

87

Production of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) by basidiomycetous yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-seven basidiomycetous yeasts belonging to 30 species of seven genera were grown on media containing l-cysteine or l-methionine as sole nitrogen sources with the objective of evaluating volatile organic sulfur compound (VOSC) production. The headspace of yeast cultures was analyzed by the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method, and volatile compounds were quantified and identified by GC-MS techniques. Ten strains assimilating

Pietro Buzzini; Sergio Romano; Benedetta Turchetti; Ann Vaughan; Ugo Maria Pagnoni; Paolo Davoli

2005-01-01

88

DEVELOPMENT OF VOST (VOLATILE ORGANIC SAMPLING TRAIN) SAMPLE ANALYSIS PROTOCOL FOR WATER-SOLUBLE VOLATILE POHCS (PRINCIPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS) AND PICS (PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a literature review and laboratory research associated with applying the volatile organic sampling train (VOST) to the sampling and analysis of water-soluble, volatile, principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) and products of incomplete combust...

89

FIELD VALIDATION OF THE VOLATILE ORGANIC SAMPLING TRAIN (VOST) PROTOCOL  

EPA Science Inventory

With the development of the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) Protocol (February 1984) to measure organic emissions from hazardous waste incinerators, a wide variety of compounds have been collected and analyzed. Because its use is currently being recommended by regulatory a...

90

Field validation of the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) Protocol (February 1984) to measure organic emissions from hazardous-waste incinerators, a wide variety of compounds were collected and analyzed. Because its use is currently being recommended by regulatory agencies to measure emissions for compliance determinations, the VOST Protocol was subjected to a methods-validation study. This paper documents the results of

T. J. Logan; R. G. Fuerst; M. R. Midgett; J. Prohaska

1986-01-01

91

Quantifying commuter exposures to volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motor-vehicles can be a predominant source of air pollution in cities. Traffic-related air pollution is often unavoidable for people who live in populous areas. Commuters may have high exposures to traffic-related air pollution as they are close to vehicle tailpipes. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one class of air pollutants of concern because exposure to VOCs carries risk for adverse health effects. Specific VOCs of interest for this work include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), which are often found in gasoline and combustion products. Although methods exist to measure time-integrated personal exposures to BTEX, there are few practical methods to measure a commuter's time-resolved BTEX exposure which could identify peak exposures that could be concealed with a time-integrated measurement. This study evaluated the ability of a photoionization detector (PID) to measure commuters' exposure to BTEX using Tenax TA samples as a reference and quantified the difference in BTEX exposure between cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed. To determine the suitability of two measurement methods (PID and Tenax TA) for use in this study, the precision, linearity, and limits of detection (LODs) for both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were determined in the laboratory with standard BTEX calibration gases. Volunteers commuted from their homes to their work places by cycling or driving while wearing a personal exposure backpack containing a collocated PID and Tenax TA sampler. Volunteers completed a survey and indicated if the windows in their vehicle were open or closed. Comparing pairs of exposure data from the Tenax TA and PID sampling methods determined the suitability of the PID to measure the BTEX exposures of commuters. The difference between BTEX exposures of cyclists and drivers with windows open and closed in Fort Collins was determined. Both the PID and Tenax TA measurement methods were precise and linear when evaluated in the laboratory using standard BTEX gases. The LODs for the Tenax TA sampling tubes (determined with a sample volume of 1,000 standard cubic centimeters which is close to the approximate commuter sample volumes collected) were orders of magnitude lower (0.04 to 0.7 parts per billion (ppb) for individual compounds of BTEX) compared to the PIDs' LODs (9.3 to 15 ppb of a BTEX mixture), which makes the Tenax TA sampling method more suitable to measure BTEX concentrations in the sub-parts per billion (ppb) range. PID and Tenax TA data for commuter exposures were inversely related. The concentrations of VOCs measured by the PID were substantially higher than BTEX concentrations measured by collocated Tenax TA samplers. The inverse trend and the large difference in magnitude between PID responses and Tenax TA BTEX measurements indicates the two methods may have been measuring different air pollutants that are negatively correlated. Drivers in Fort Collins, Colorado with closed windows experienced greater time-weighted average BTEX exposures than cyclists (p: 0.04). Commuter BTEX exposures measured in Fort Collins were lower than commuter exposures measured in prior studies that occurred in larger cities (Boston and Copenhagen). Although route and intake may affect a commuter's BTEX dose, these variables are outside of the scope of this study. Within the limitations of this study (including: small sample size, small representative area of Fort Collins, and respiration rates not taken into account), it appears health risks associated with traffic-induced BTEX exposures may be reduced by commuting via cycling instead of driving with windows closed and living in a less populous area that has less vehicle traffic. Although the PID did not reliably measure low-level commuter BTEX exposures, the Tenax TA sampling method did. The PID measured BTEX concentrations reliably in a controlled environment, at high concentrations (300-800 ppb), and in the absence of other air pollutants. In environments where there could be multiple chemicals present that may produce a PID signal (such a

Kayne, Ashleigh

92

UTILIZATION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS AND IMPROVEMENT OF FLUID THERAPY  

E-print Network

UTILIZATION OF VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS AND IMPROVEMENT OF FLUID THERAPY FOR TREATMENT OF DEHYDRATATION for treatment of watery diarrhea in situa- tions where resources are limited. However, oral therapy proved, whatever the additional treatments (antibiotics essentially), oral therapy and suppression of milk feeding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Validation of the volatile organic sampling train (VOST) protocol. Volume 1. Laboratory validation phase. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of volatile organic emissions from a hazardous-waste incinerator is one of the more-difficult source testing problems. Specific compounds called principal organic hazardous constituents (POHC) are to be identified and quantified at levels of 0.5 to 100 ppb in hot, wet incinerator exhaust gas, which may also contain high particulate and acid levels. The protocol, which describes the practices

T. J. Logan; R. G. Fuerst; M. R. Midgett; J. Prohaska

1986-01-01

94

Emission, oxidation, and secondary organic aerosol formation of volatile organic compounds as observed at Chebogue Point,  

E-print Network

Emission, oxidation, and secondary organic aerosol formation of volatile organic compounds, methanol, and MEK measured by other in situ instrumentation. On the other hand these oxidized volatile show these compounds match the oxidation products of isoprene observed in smog chamber studies, and we

Silver, Whendee

95

On the flux of oxygenated volatile organic compounds from organic aerosol oxidation  

E-print Network

On the flux of oxygenated volatile organic compounds from organic aerosol oxidation Alan J. Kwan,1. Avery,4 Cameron S. McNaughton,3 William H. Brune,5 Hanwant B. Singh,6 and Paul O. Wennberg1,7 Received

Clarke, Antony

96

Biological organisms as volatile compound detectors: a review.  

PubMed

The detection and identification of volatile compounds is essential to the successful undertaking of numerous forensic analyses. Biological olfactory systems possess the extraordinary ability to not only detect many thousands of distinct volatile compounds (odors) but also to discriminate between them. Whole-organism biological sensors, such as detection canines, have been employed in forensic science as volatile compound detectors for many years. A variety of insects including bees, wasps, and moths, which have also been shown to detect volatile compounds of forensic significance, have been investigated for their potential application in field-based detection systems. While the fundamental aim for many developers of portable instruments is to replicate the remarkable ability of biological olfactory systems, such analytical equipment is yet to possess the detection and discriminatory powers achieved by biological sensors. Recent literature reveals an increasing interest in olfactory receptors - the biological components that impart olfactory ability - for detecting volatile compounds associated with forensically significant substances such as explosives and illicit drugs. This paper reviews the literature regarding the current, and potential future, use of biological organisms as sensors for forensic science applications. PMID:24053870

Leitch, Olivia; Anderson, Alisha; Kirkbride, K Paul; Lennard, Chris

2013-10-10

97

MAGNESIUM ABSORPTION IN THE CCUM OF RATS RELATED TO VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS PRODUCTION  

E-print Network

MAGNESIUM ABSORPTION IN THE C�CUM OF RATS RELATED TO VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS PRODUCTION Y. RAYSSIGUIER RELATIONS ENTRE L'ABSORPTION C,4ECALE DE MAGNESIUM CHEZ LE RAT ET LA PRODUCTION D'ACIDES GRAS VOLATILS du caecum, pH, acides gras volatils, activité microbienne. Introduction The mode of magnesium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

98

Role of volatile acids in development of the cecal microflora in broilers chickens during growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that volatile fatty acids can inhibit growth of species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in vitro. However, whether these volatile fatty acids affect bacterial populations in the ceca of chickens is unknown. Therefore, a study was conducted to investigate if changes in volatile fatty acids in ceca of broiler chickens during growth affect bacterial populations. Results showed that

Wielen van der P. W. J. J; STEEF BIESTERVELD; S. Notermans; H. Hofstra; B. A. P. Urlings; F. van Knapen

2000-01-01

99

Radiotracer Experiments on Biological Volatilization of Organic Iodine from Coastal Seawaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological volatilization of iodine from seawaters was studied using a radiotracer technique. Seawater samples were incubated aerobically in serum bottles with radioactive iodide tracer (I), and volatile organic and inorganic iodine were collected with activated charcoal and silver wool trap, respectively. Iodine was volatilized mainly as organic iodine, and inorganic iodine volatilization was not observed. Influence of light intensity on

Seigo Amachi; Mizuyo Kasahara; Takaaki Fujii; Hirofumi Shinoyama; Satoshi Hanada; Yoichi Kamagata; Tadaaki Ban-nai; Yasuyuki Muramatsu

2004-01-01

100

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MEASURED IN DEARS PASSIVE SAMPLERS  

EPA Science Inventory

A suite of 27 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored in personal exposures, indoors and outdoors of participant's residences, and at a central community site during the DEARS summer 2004 monitoring season. The list of VOCs focused on compounds typically associated with ...

101

Volatile organic compounds in Gulf of Mexico sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compounds (VOC), concentrations and compositions were documented for estuarine, coastal, shelf, slope, and deep water sediments from the Gulf of Mexico. VOC were measured (detection limit >0.01 ppb) using a closed-loop stripping apparatus with gas chromatography (GC) and flame ionization, flame photometric, and mass spectrometric detectors. The five primary sources of Gulf of Mexico sediment VOC are: (1)

1988-01-01

102

2 Extracting and trapping biogenic 3 volatile organic compounds stored  

E-print Network

, Subcritical water extraction; UAE, Ultrasound-assisted extraction 36 1. Introduction Plants release2 Extracting and trapping biogenic 3 volatile organic compounds stored 4 in plant species 5 Elena are weakly synthesized. These BVOCs can be studied directly through traditional extraction 18 techniques (e

Goldstein, Allen

103

[Consumption of volatile organic compounds by alcaliphilic microorganisms].  

PubMed

It has been shown that various microbial species used in bioreactors for purification of air from volatile organic compounds can grow at alkaline pH values consuming the xenobiotics as sole carbon sources. The alkali tolerance depends on the carbon source. The alkaline pH of the medium reduces the foreign microbial population restricting the potential of the bioreactor. PMID:17476810

Ulezlo, I V; Bezborodov, A M

2007-01-01

104

Membrane bioreactor for control of volatile organic compound emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane bioreactor system that overcomes many of the limitations of conventional compost biofilters is described. The system utilizes microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes for mass transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the gas phase to a microbially active liquid phase. The reactor design provides a high biomass concentration, a method for wasting biomass, and a method for addition

Sarina J. Ergas; Michael S. McGrath

1997-01-01

105

LEAVES AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...

106

REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM GROUND WATER BY ADSORPTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory and field studies are underway to determine the effectiveness of activated carbon for removing volatile organic compounds from ground water. For fifteen C1 through C6 compounds being considered for possible regulatory action, the adsorption isotherm capacity ranges fro...

107

Effects of airborne volatile organic compounds on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air have shown that average concentrations are very much smaller than those used in laboratory experiments designed to study the effects of VOCs on plants. However, maximum hourly concentrations of some VOCs can be 100 times larger than the average, even in rural air. Experimental studies have rarely extended for longer than

J. N. Cape

2003-01-01

108

FIELD STRATEGY FOR SORTING VOLATILE ORGANICS INTO SOURCE RELATED GROUPS  

EPA Science Inventory

A monitoring strategy has been developed to use fixed site ambient air monitoring results for determining the number and composition of dispersed source emissions of volatile organics. he procedure involves the interpretation of a sequence of ambient ir gas chromatograms generate...

109

FIELD-DEPLOYABLE MONITORS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile organic compounds in ambient air are usually estimated by trapping them from air or collecting whole air samples and returning them to a laboratory for analysis by gas chromatography using selective detection. ata do not appear for several days, during which sample integ...

110

Can volatile organic compounds be markers of sea salt?  

PubMed

Sea salt is a handmade food product that is obtained by evaporation of seawater in saltpans. During the crystallisation process, organic compounds from surroundings can be incorporated into sea salt crystals. The aim of this study is to search for potential volatile markers of sea salt. Thus, sea salts from seven north-east Atlantic Ocean locations (France, Portugal, Continental Spain, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde) were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 165 compounds were detected, ranging from 32 to 71 compounds per salt. The volatile composition revealed the variability and individuality of each salt, and a set of ten compounds were detected in all samples. From these, seven are carotenoid-derived compounds that can be associated with the typical natural surroundings of ocean hypersaline environment. These ten compounds are proposed as potential volatile markers of sea salt. PMID:25236204

Silva, Isabel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Barros, António S; Marriott, Philip J; Rocha, Sílvia M

2015-02-15

111

LOCATING VOLATILE ORGANIC PLUMES ENTERING WATER BODIES USING PASSIVE VAPOR DIFFUSION SAMPLERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Many water bodies in New England are impacted by volatile organic contaminated groundwater intrusions. To determine the health and ecological impacts of these intrusions, it is important to locate fracture zones that transport groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compou...

112

77 FR 52630 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compounds; Architectural and Industrial Maintenance...addition of a new rule that sets emissions limits on the amount of volatile organic compounds in architectural and industrial...

2012-08-30

113

75 FR 24404 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound Automobile Refinishing Rules for Indiana AGENCY...Plan (SIP) amendments to Indiana's automobile refinishing rule. These rule revisions...approved volatile organic compound (VOC) automobile refinishing rules to all persons...

2010-05-05

114

75 FR 2090 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound Automobile Refinishing Rules for Indiana AGENCY...submitted amendments to Indiana's automobile refinishing rule for approval into its...approved volatile organic compound (VOC) automobile refinishing rules to all persons...

2010-01-14

115

A large source of low-volatility secondary organic aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests emit large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. Their condensable oxidation products can form secondary organic aerosol, a significant and ubiquitous component of atmospheric aerosol, which is known to affect the Earth's radiation balance by scattering solar radiation and by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. The quantitative assessment of such climate effects remains hampered by a number of factors, including an incomplete understanding of how biogenic VOCs contribute to the formation of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol. The growth of newly formed particles from sizes of less than three nanometres up to the sizes of cloud condensation nuclei (about one hundred nanometres) in many continental ecosystems requires abundant, essentially non-volatile organic vapours, but the sources and compositions of such vapours remain unknown. Here we investigate the oxidation of VOCs, in particular the terpene ?-pinene, under atmospherically relevant conditions in chamber experiments. We find that a direct pathway leads from several biogenic VOCs, such as monoterpenes, to the formation of large amounts of extremely low-volatility vapours. These vapours form at significant mass yield in the gas phase and condense irreversibly onto aerosol surfaces to produce secondary organic aerosol, helping to explain the discrepancy between the observed atmospheric burden of secondary organic aerosol and that reported by many model studies. We further demonstrate how these low-volatility vapours can enhance, or even dominate, the formation and growth of aerosol particles over forested regions, providing a missing link between biogenic VOCs and their conversion to aerosol particles. Our findings could help to improve assessments of biosphere-aerosol-climate feedback mechanisms, and the air quality and climate effects of biogenic emissions generally.

Ehn, Mikael; Thornton, Joel A.; Kleist, Einhard; Sipilä, Mikko; Junninen, Heikki; Pullinen, Iida; Springer, Monika; Rubach, Florian; Tillmann, Ralf; Lee, Ben; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe; Andres, Stefanie; Acir, Ismail-Hakki; Rissanen, Matti; Jokinen, Tuija; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kontkanen, Jenni; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kurtén, Theo; Nielsen, Lasse B.; Jørgensen, Solvejg; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.; Canagaratna, Manjula; Maso, Miikka Dal; Berndt, Torsten; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wahner, Andreas; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wildt, Jürgen; Mentel, Thomas F.

2014-02-01

116

A large source of low-volatility secondary organic aerosol.  

PubMed

Forests emit large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. Their condensable oxidation products can form secondary organic aerosol, a significant and ubiquitous component of atmospheric aerosol, which is known to affect the Earth's radiation balance by scattering solar radiation and by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. The quantitative assessment of such climate effects remains hampered by a number of factors, including an incomplete understanding of how biogenic VOCs contribute to the formation of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol. The growth of newly formed particles from sizes of less than three nanometres up to the sizes of cloud condensation nuclei (about one hundred nanometres) in many continental ecosystems requires abundant, essentially non-volatile organic vapours, but the sources and compositions of such vapours remain unknown. Here we investigate the oxidation of VOCs, in particular the terpene ?-pinene, under atmospherically relevant conditions in chamber experiments. We find that a direct pathway leads from several biogenic VOCs, such as monoterpenes, to the formation of large amounts of extremely low-volatility vapours. These vapours form at significant mass yield in the gas phase and condense irreversibly onto aerosol surfaces to produce secondary organic aerosol, helping to explain the discrepancy between the observed atmospheric burden of secondary organic aerosol and that reported by many model studies. We further demonstrate how these low-volatility vapours can enhance, or even dominate, the formation and growth of aerosol particles over forested regions, providing a missing link between biogenic VOCs and their conversion to aerosol particles. Our findings could help to improve assessments of biosphere-aerosol-climate feedback mechanisms, and the air quality and climate effects of biogenic emissions generally. PMID:24572423

Ehn, Mikael; Thornton, Joel A; Kleist, Einhard; Sipilä, Mikko; Junninen, Heikki; Pullinen, Iida; Springer, Monika; Rubach, Florian; Tillmann, Ralf; Lee, Ben; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe; Andres, Stefanie; Acir, Ismail-Hakki; Rissanen, Matti; Jokinen, Tuija; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kontkanen, Jenni; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kurtén, Theo; Nielsen, Lasse B; Jørgensen, Solvejg; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Canagaratna, Manjula; Maso, Miikka Dal; Berndt, Torsten; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wahner, Andreas; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Wildt, Jürgen; Mentel, Thomas F

2014-02-27

117

Emissions of volatile organic compounds from vegetation and the implications for atmospheric chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation provides a major source of reactive carbon entering the atmosphere. These compounds play an important role in (1) shaping global tropospheric chemistry, (2) regional photochemical oxidant formation, (3) balancing the global carbon cycle, and (4) production of organic acids which contribute to acidic deposition in rural areas. Present estimates place the total annual global emission of these compounds between approximately 500 and 825 Tg yr-1. The volatile olefinic compounds, such as isoprene and the monoterpenes, are thought to constitute the bulk of these emissions. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that a variety of partially oxidized hydrocarbons, principally alcohols, are also emitted. The available information concerning the terrestrial vegetation as sources of volatile organic compounds is reviewed. The biochemical processes associated with these emissions of the compounds and the atmospheric chemistry of the emitted compounds are discussed.

Fehsenfeld, Fred; Calvert, Jack; Fall, Ray; Goldan, Paul; Guenther, Alex B.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Lamb, Brian; Liu, Shaw; Trainer, Michael; Westberg, Hal; Zimmerman, Pat

1992-12-01

118

Modeling the transport of volatile organics in variably saturated media  

SciTech Connect

The understanding of the processes of dissolution, volatilization, and gas-liquid partitioning in porous media is very limited. The few models which attempt to characterize the transport of volatile organics such as petroleum products and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents in variably saturated media all assume that mass transfer processes are at equilibrium. In addition, gas phase advection is neglected by assuming that gas phase pressures are uniformly atmospheric and that density gradients are negligible. In this study a model was developed to solve for water phase flow and transport and density dependent gas phase flow and transport. Simple expressions for dissolution, volatilization, and gas-liquid partitioning, employing the concept of an overall mass transfer coefficient, were incorporated into the model. The transport of trichloroethylene in a variably saturated vertical cross section, under a variety of conditions, was simulated. Results of the simulations appeared qualitatively correct. The importance of gas phase processes in increasing subsurface contamination from volatile organics, and in dissipating residual amounts of these substances, was demonstrated. The lack of similar analytical and/or numerical models, or suitable experimental studies, excluded the possibility of validating, or verifying, the model.

Sleep, B.E.; Sykes, J.F. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

1989-01-01

119

Acid Catalysis in Modern Organic  

E-print Network

Acid Catalysis in Modern Organic Synthesis "Acid is one of the oldest, but the most important follows their earlier book "Lewis Acids in Organic Synthesis (2000)", and covers the new developments of university studies, in which an evil-smelling carbox- ylic acid and an alcohol were converted into a fragrant

Snyder, Scott A.

120

Hydrolysis rates of dissolved volatile organic compounds: Principles, temperature effects and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrhenius parameters, 25 and 10 C rate constants for hydrolysis of most EPA 601\\/602 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), their hydrolytic progeny, and selected other VOCs are tabulated. Data include Arrhenius parameters for base-mediated hydrolysis of bromodichloromethane, bromoform, dibromochloromethane, and the acid-mediated hydrolysis of ethylene oxide which have not been published before. The average activation energy of the tabulated values, excepting

John W. Washington

1995-01-01

121

Treatment of odorous volatile fatty acids using a biotrickling filter.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel fibrous bioreactor was developed for treating odorous compounds present in contaminated air. The first stage of this work was a preliminary study which aimed at investigating the feasibility of using the fibrous bioreactor for the removal of malodorous volatile fatty acids (VFA) that is a common odorous contaminant generated from anaerobic degradation of organic compounds. The kinetics of microbial growth and VFA degradation in the selected culture, and the performance of the submerged bioreactor at different VFA mass loadings were studied. Above 95% of VFA removal efficiencies were achieved at mass loadings up to 22.4 g/m(3)/h. In the second stage, the odour treatment process was scaled up with system design and operational considerations. A trickling biofilter with synthetic fibrous packing medium was employed. The effects of inlet VFA concentration and empty bed retention time (EBRT) on the process performance were investigated. The bioreactor was effective in removing VFA at mass loadings up to 32 g/m(3)/h, beyond which VFA started to accumulate in the recirculation liquid, indicating the biofilm was unable to degrade all of the VFA introduced. Although VFA accumulated in the liquid phase, the removal efficiency remained above 99%. This suggested that the biochemical reaction rather than gas-liquid mass transfer was the limiting step of the treatment process. In addition, the biotrickling filter was stable for long-term operation with relatively low and steady pressure drop, no clogging and degeneration of the packing material occurred during the four-month study. PMID:17321131

Tsang, Y F; Chua, H; Sin, S N; Chan, S Y

2008-02-01

122

Volatile organic compound emissions from dry mill fuel ethanol production.  

PubMed

Ethanol fuel production is growing rapidly in the rural Midwest, and this growth presents potential environmental impacts. In 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) entered into enforcement actions with 12 fuel ethanol plants in Minnesota. The enforcement actions uncovered underreported emissions and resulted in consent decrees that required pollution control equipment be installed. A key component of the consent decrees was a requirement to conduct emissions tests for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with the goal of improving the characterization and control of emissions. The conventional VOC stack test method was thought to underquantify total VOC emissions from ethanol plants. A hybrid test method was also developed that involved quantification of individual VOC species. The resulting database of total and speciated VOC emissions from 10 fuel ethanol plants is relatively small, but it is the most extensive to date and has been used to develop and gauge compliance with permit limits and to estimate health risks in Minnesota. Emissions were highly variable among facilities and emissions units. In addition to the variability, the small number of samples and the presence of many values below detection limits complicate the analysis of the data. To account for these issues, a nested bootstrap procedure on the Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate means and upper confidence limits. In general, the fermentation scrubbers and fluid bed coolers emitted the largest mass of VOC emissions. Across most facilities and emissions units ethanol was the pollutant emitted at the highest rate. Acetaldehyde, acetic acid, and ethyl acetate were also important emissions from some units. Emissions of total VOCs, ethanol, and some other species appeared to be a function of the beer feed rate, although the relationship was not reliable enough to develop a production rate-based emissions factor. PMID:17912928

Brady, Daniel; Pratt, Gregory C

2007-09-01

123

Analyses of volatile organic compounds from human skin  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Human skin emits a variety of volatile metabolites, many of them odorous. Much previous work has focused upon chemical structure and biogenesis of metabolites produced in the axillae (underarms), which are a primary source of human body odour. Nonaxillary skin also harbours volatile metabolites, possibly with different biological origins than axillary odorants. Objectives To take inventory of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the upper back and forearm skin, and assess their relative quantitative variation across 25 healthy subjects. Methods Two complementary sampling techniques were used to obtain comprehensive VOC profiles, viz., solid-phase micro extraction and solvent extraction. Analyses were performed using both gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Results Nearly 100 compounds were identified, some of which varied with age. The VOC profiles of the upper back and forearm within a subject were, for the most part, similar, although there were notable differences. Conclusions The natural variation in nonaxillary skin odorants described in this study provides a baseline of compounds we have identified from both endogenous and exogenous sources. Although complex, the profiles of volatile constituents suggest that the two body locations share a considerable number of compounds, but both quantitative and qualitative differences are present. In addition, quantitative changes due to ageing are also present. These data may provide future investigators of skin VOCs with a baseline against which any abnormalities can be viewed in searching for biomarkers of skin diseases. PMID:18637798

Gallagher, M.; Wysocki, C.J.; Leyden, J.J.; Spielman, A.I.; Sun, X.; Preti, G.

2008-01-01

124

Transport, behavior, and fate of volatile organic compounds in streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compounds with chemical and physical properties that allow the compounds to move freely between the water and air phases of the environment. VOCs are widespread in the environment because of this mobility. Many VOCs have properties making them suspected or known hazards to the health of humans and aquatic organisms. Consequently, understanding the processes affecting the concentration and distribution VOCs in the environment is necessary. The U.S. Geological Survey selected 55 VOCs for study. This report reviews the characteristics of the various process that could affect the transport, behavior, and fate of these VOCs in streams.

Rathbun, R.E.

1998-01-01

125

Preliminary evaluation of selected in situ remediation technologies for Volatile Organic Compound contamination at Arid sites  

SciTech Connect

To support the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Site (VOC-Arid) Integrated Demonstration (ID) in its technical, logistical, institutional, and economical testing of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) is evaluating several in situ remediation technologies for possible inclusion in the demonstration. The evaluations are made with respect to the initial focus of the VOC-Arid ID: the carbon tetrachloride contamination at the Hanford Site, where it was disposed to the vadose zone along with other volatile and nonvolatile organic wastes. heavy metals, acids. and radionuclides. The purposes of this report are (1) to identify candidate in situ technologies for inclusion in the program, (2) to evaluate the candidate technologies based on their potential applicability to VOC contamination at arid sites and geologic conditions representative of the ID host site (i.e., Hanford Site), and (3) to prioritize those technologies for future US Department of Energy (DOE) support.

Lenhard, R.J.; Gerber, M.A.; Amonette, J.E.

1992-10-01

126

A two-dimensional volatility basis set – Part 2: Diagnostics of organic-aerosol evolution  

E-print Network

We discuss the use of a two-dimensional volatility-oxidation space (2-D-VBS) to describe organic-aerosol chemical evolution. The space is built around two coordinates, volatility and the degree of oxidation, both of which ...

Donahue, N. M.

127

Effects of trichloroacetic acid, a new contaminant found from chlorinating water with organic material, on dragonfly nymphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been recognized since the mid-1970's that chlorination of water rich in organic matter results in the formation of chloroform and some related volatile organic contaminants (Rook 1974). However, it was only relatively recently that chlorination of water rich in organic matter was found to produce an array of non-volatile chemical products including trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and dichloroacetic acid

Manuel Correa; Edward J. Calabrese; Robert A. Coler

1985-01-01

128

Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0-2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m yr. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere. PMID:22751077

Baker, Ronald J; Andraski, Brian J; Stonestrom, David A; Luo, Wentai

2012-01-01

129

Volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds in suburban Paris: variability, origin and importance for SOA formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of gaseous and particulate organic carbon were performed during the MEGAPOLI experiments, in July 2009 and January-February 2010, at the SIRTA observatory in suburban Paris. Measurements comprise primary and secondary volatile organic compounds (VOCs), of both anthropogenic and biogenic origins, including C12-C16 n-alkanes of intermediate volatility (IVOCs), suspected to be efficient precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The time series of gaseous carbon are generally consistent with times series of particulate organic carbon at regional scale, and are clearly affected by meteorology and air mass origin. Concentration levels of anthropogenic VOCs in urban and suburban Paris were surprisingly low (2-963 ppt) compared to other megacities worldwide and to rural continental sites. Urban enhancement ratios of anthropogenic VOC pairs agree well between the urban and suburban Paris sites, showing the regional extent of anthropogenic sources of similar composition. Contrary to other primary anthropogenic VOCs (aromatics and alkanes), IVOCs showed lower concentrations in winter (< 5 ppt) compared to summer (13-27 ppt), which cannot be explained by the gas-particle partitioning theory. Higher concentrations of most oxygenated VOCs in winter (18-5984 ppt) suggest their dominant primary anthropogenic origin. The respective role of primary anthropogenic gaseous compounds in regional SOA formation was investigated by estimating the SOA mass concentration expected from the anthropogenic VOCs and IVOCs (I / VOCs) measured at SIRTA. From an integrated approach based on emission ratios and SOA yields, 38 % of the SOA measured at SIRTA is explained by the measured concentrations of I / VOCs, with a 2% contribution by C12-C16 n-alkane IVOCs. From the results of an alternative time-resolved approach, the average IVOC contribution to SOA formation is estimated to be 7%, which is half of the average contribution of the traditional aromatic compounds (15%). Both approaches, which are based on in situ observations of particular I / VOCs, emphasize the importance of the intermediate volatility compounds in the SOA formation, and support previous results from chamber experiments and modeling studies. They also support the need to make systematic the IVOCs' speciated measurement during field campaigns.

Ait-Helal, W.; Borbon, A.; Sauvage, S.; de Gouw, J. A.; Colomb, A.; Gros, V.; Freutel, F.; Crippa, M.; Afif, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Beekmann, M.; Doussin, J.-F.; Durand-Jolibois, R.; Fronval, I.; Grand, N.; Leonardis, T.; Lopez, M.; Michoud, V.; Miet, K.; Perrier, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Schneider, J.; Siour, G.; Zapf, P.; Locoge, N.

2014-10-01

130

Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

1992-11-01

131

Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

1992-11-01

132

Chemistry of secondary organic aerosol: Formation and evolution of low-volatility organics in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary organic aerosol (SOA), particulate matter composed of compounds formed from the atmospheric transformation of organic species, accounts for a substantial fraction of tropospheric aerosol. The formation of low-volatility (semivolatile and possibly nonvolatile) compounds that make up SOA is governed by a complex series of reactions of a large number of organic species, so the experimental characterization and theoretical description of SOA formation presents a substantial challenge. In this review we outline what is known about the chemistry of formation and continuing transformation of low-volatility species in the atmosphere. The primary focus is chemical processes that can change the volatility of organic compounds: (1) oxidation reactions in the gas phase, (2) reactions in the particle phase, and (3) continuing chemistry (in either phase) over several generations. Gas-phase oxidation reactions can reduce volatility by the addition of polar functional groups or increase it by the cleavage of carbon-carbon bonds; key branch points that control volatility are the initial attack of the oxidant, reactions of alkylperoxy (RO2) radicals, and reactions of alkoxy (RO) radicals. Reactions in the particle phase include oxidation reactions as well as accretion reactions, non-oxidative processes leading to the formation of high-molecular-weight species. Organic carbon in the atmosphere is continually subject to reactions in the gas and particle phases throughout its atmospheric lifetime (until lost by physical deposition or oxidized to CO or CO2), implying continual changes in volatility over the timescales of several days. The volatility changes arising from these chemical reactions must be parameterized and included in models in order to gain a quantitative and predictive understanding of SOA formation.

Kroll, Jesse H.; Seinfeld, John H.

2008-05-01

133

Removal of volatile organic compounds from air streams and industrial flue gases by non-thermal plasma technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaseous pollution control technologies for acid gases (NOx , SOx, etc.), volatile organic compounds (VOC), greenhouse gases, ozone layer depleting substance (ODS), etc., have been commercialized based on catalysis, incineration and adsorption methods. However, non-thermal plasma techniques based on electron beams and corona discharges become significant due to advantages such as lower cost, higher removal efficiency, smaller space volume, etc.

Kuniko Urashima; Jen-Shih Chang

2000-01-01

134

Influence of the nature of the surface of polypyrrole films upon their interaction with volatile organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although conducting polymers have been increasingly used in sensing devices to assess the quality of food and beverages, at present the details of the interaction mechanism between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the polymeric films used are not completely understood. In this work we examine how the sensitivity of polypyrrole films doped with different counter-ions (metanesulfonic acid sodium salt, octanesulfonic

C. P. de Melo; B. B. Neto; L. F. B. Lira; J. E. G. de Souza

2005-01-01

135

Abscisic Acid ELISA: Organic Acid Interference 1  

PubMed Central

Consideration must be exercised in determination of buffers and solutions used when carrying out enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A commercial monoclonal antibody kit for abscisic acid (Idetek, Inc.) gives significant false-positives with tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. The organic acids or contaminants interfered with ELISA assays for ABA as indicated by deviations in the slopes of standard curves of ABA in the organic acids. The interference, in the case of ?-ketoglutarate, was caused by a contaminant. Of the organic buffers tested—Tris, Tricine, and Hepes—only Hepes showed false-positive ABA. In addition, we present data indicating the presence of ABA in commercial mannitol and provide a simple procedure for removal of the ABA. PMID:16667202

Belefant, Helen; Fong, Franklin

1989-01-01

136

Detection of aromatic catabolic gene expression in heterogeneous organic matter used for reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by biofiltration.  

PubMed

A qualitative procedure of purified DNA/RNA co-extraction from complex organic matter, used as biofilter support for removing volatile organic compounds, was set up and applied to detect xylene monooxygenase gene expression by RT-PCR. A DNA/RNA extraction protocol based on a combination of sample lyophilization pre-treatment and CTAB--phenol/chloroform extraction procedure was optimized for the recovery of purified nucleic acids [100-500 ng DNA (10 kb) and 0.5-2 microg of rRNA 16S from 100 mg matrix]. PCR and RT-PCR protocols were established to detect xylene monooxygenase gene expression starting from differentially induced organic matrices obtained by biofiltration technology. This work allowed the microbial degradation activities in heterogeneous organic solid media to be studied and suggests a rapid method to follow specific biological activities during solid and/or semisolid organic substrates biotransformation. PMID:17016674

Tell, Gianluca; Paron, Igor; Civilini, Marcello

2007-01-01

137

Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from PVC floor coverings.  

PubMed

In this study 29 PVC floor coverings were tested for emission of vinyl chloride (VC) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A study on the effect of higher temperature on emission of VOCs from newly manufactured PVC flooring was also carried out. The study was conducted in climatic chamber, according to Polish Standard PN-89/Z-04021. GC method was used for analyzing of the compounds emitted. VC was not emitted from any of the floorings tested. Other VOCs were emitted in different concentrations. The influence of temperature on emission was conducted at temperatures of 23 degrees C and 35 degrees C from 2 hrs up to 180 days after introduction of materials in the chamber. The increase of temperature caused increase of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) emission during 24 hrs of experiment. Then the emission was comparable for both temperatures. After 9 days emission of identified and unidentified compounds (TVOC) showed a rapid decay and stayed on very low level during a few months. The study conducted showed that PVC floorings after 10 days of installation in the room should not be source of indoor air contamination. PMID:10431652

Wiglusz, R; Igielska, B; Sitko, E; Nikel, G; Jarnuszkiewicz, I

1998-01-01

138

Evaporation of volatile organic compounds from human skin in vitro.  

PubMed

The specific evaporation rates of 21 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from either human skin or a glass substrate mounted in modified Franz diffusion cells were determined gravimetrically. The diffusion cells were positioned either on a laboratory bench top or in a controlled position in a fume hood, simulating indoor and outdoor environments, respectively. A data set of 54 observations (34 skin and 20 glass) was assembled and subjected to a correlation analysis employing 5 evaporative mass transfer relationships drawn from the literature. Models developed by Nielsen et al. (Prediction of isothermal evaporation rates of pure volatile organic compounds in occupational environments: a theoretical approach based on laminar boundary layer theory. Ann Occup Hyg 1995;39:497-511.) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Peress, Estimate evaporative losses from spills. Chem Eng Prog 2003; April: 32-34.) were found to be the most effective at correlating observed and calculated evaporation rates under the various conditions. The U.S. EPA model was selected for further use based on its simplicity. This is a turbulent flow model based only on vapor pressure and molecular weight of the VOC and the effective air flow rate u. Optimum values of u for the two laboratory environments studied were 0.23 m s(-1) (bench top) and 0.92 m s(-1) (fume hood). PMID:23609116

Gajjar, Rachna M; Miller, Matthew A; Kasting, Gerald B

2013-08-01

139

Screening of ground water samples for volatile organic compounds using a portable gas chromatograph  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A portable gas chromatograph was used to screen 32 ground water samples for volatile organic compounds. Seven screened samples were positive; four of the seven samples had volatile organic substances identified by second-column confirmation. Four of the seven positive, screened samples also tested positive in laboratory analyses of duplicate samples. No volatile organic compounds were detected in laboratory analyses of samples that headspace screening indicated to be negative. Samples that contained volatile organic compounds, as identified by laboratory analysis, and that contained a volatile organic compound present in a standard of selected compounds were correctly identified by using the portable gas chromatography. Comparisons of screened-sample data with laboratory data indicate the ability to detect selected volatile organic compounds at concentrations of about 1 microgram per liter in the headspace of water samples by use of a portable gas chromatography. -Author

Buchmiller, R.C.

1989-01-01

140

Modeling of volatile organic contaminant transport in soils  

SciTech Connect

The three-dimensional model, CSUISV, was developed for approximating the removal of volatile organic compounds via in situ volatilization (ISV). The basic principle behind ISV is that by inducing soil gas flow through a contaminated region the gas-liquid contacting which occurs air strips the volatile compounds from the soil environment. CSUISV simulates the flow of gas through variably saturated soils, the transport of contaminant vapors within the gas, and accounts for the interphase mass transfer to the soil gas. The mass transfer mechanisms considered are the evaporation from free product liquid surfaces, partitioning of contaminant vapors from aqueous solution in the soil moisture, and adsorptive/desorptive interactions of contaminant vapors with the soil particle surfaces. Two contaminant transport mechanisms are considered: (1) the advective transport of the vapors within the dynamic gas; and (2) molecular diffusion of contaminant vapors through the soil pore spaces. The mass transfer rates are expressed in terms of an overall mass transfer coefficient and an overall concentration difference. The overall mass transfer coefficient characterizes the interphase mass transfer in terms of a mass transfer rate and the interfacial contact area. The mass transfer driving force is proportional to the difference between equilibrium and actual concentrations. The numerical model was verified against several analytic solutions, laboratory data, and field data. Results from the various cases show a good agreement between the model and the analytic solutions and observed data. A case study of an actual contaminated site is presented to demonstrate the applicability and use of CSUISV. The mass transport and transfer mechanisms selected are demonstrated to effectively characterize ISV operations.

Sabadell, G.P.

1989-01-01

141

Evaluation of volatile organic emissions from hazardous waste incinerators.  

PubMed Central

Conventional methods of risk assessment typically employed to evaluate the impact of hazardous waste incinerators on public health must rely on somewhat speculative emissions estimates or on complicated and expensive sampling and analytical methods. The limited amount of toxicological information concerning many of the compounds detected in stack emissions also complicates the evaluation of the public health impacts of these facilities. An alternative approach aimed at evaluating the public health impacts associated with volatile organic stack emissions is presented that relies on a screening criterion to evaluate total stack hydrocarbon emissions. If the concentration of hydrocarbons in ambient air is below the screening criterion, volatile emissions from the incinerator are judged not to pose a significant threat to public health. Both the screening criterion and a conventional method of risk assessment were employed to evaluate the emissions from 20 incinerators. Use of the screening criterion always yielded a substantially greater estimate of risk than that derived by the conventional method. Since the use of the screening criterion always yielded estimates of risk that were greater than that determined by conventional methods and measuring total hydrocarbon emissions is a relatively simple analytical procedure, the use of the screening criterion would appear to facilitate the evaluation of operating hazardous waste incinerators. PMID:1954928

Sedman, R M; Esparza, J R

1991-01-01

142

Effects of additional nonmethane volatile organic compounds, organic nitrates, and direct emissions of oxygenated organic species on global tropospheric chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work evaluates the sensitivity of tropospheric ozone and its precursors to the representation of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and organic nitrates. A global 3-D tropospheric chemistry/transport model (IMPACT) has been exercised initially using the GEOS-Chem chemical reaction mechanism. The model was then extended by adding emissions and photochemical reactions for aromatic and terpenoid hydrocarbons, and by adding explicit representation of hydroxy alkyl nitrates produced from isoprene. Emissions of methanol, phenol, acetic acid and formic acid associated with biomass burning were also added. Results show that O3 increases by 20% in most of the troposphere, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) increases by 30% over much of the troposphere and OH increases by 10%. NOx (NO + NO2) decreases near source regions and increases in remote locations, reflecting increased transport of NOx away from source regions by organic nitrates. The increase in O3 was driven largely by the increased role of PAN as a transporter of NOx and by the rerelease of NOx from isoprene nitrates. The increased PAN production was associated with increases in methyl glyoxal and hydroxyacetone. Comparison with measured values show reasonable agreement for O3 and PAN, but model measurement agreement does not either improve or degrade in the extended model. The extended model shows improved agreement with measurements for methanol, acetic acid and peroxypropional nitrate (PPN). Results from the extended model were consistent with measured alkyl nitrates and glycolaldehyde, but hydroxyacetone and methyl glyoxal were overestimated. The latter suggests that the effect of the isoprene nitrates is somewhat smaller than estimated here. Although the model measurement comparison does not show specific improvements with the extended model, it provides a more complete description of tropospheric chemistry that we believe is important to include.

Ito, Akinori; Sillman, Sanford; Penner, Joyce E.

2007-03-01

143

The effects of fungal volatile organic compounds on bone marrow stromal cells.  

PubMed

Evidence has shown that individuals exposed to indoor toxic molds for extended periods of time have elevated risk of developing numerous respiratory illnesses. It is not clear at the cellular level what impact mold exposure has on the immune system. Herein, we show that 2 fungal volatiles (E)-2-octenal and oct-1-en-3-ol have cytotoxic effects on murine bone marrow stromal cells. To further analyze alterations to the cell, we evaluated the impact these volatile organic compounds have on membrane composition and hence fluidity. Both (E)-2-octenal and oct-1-en-3-ol exposure caused a shift to unsaturated fatty acids and lower cholesterol levels in the membrane. This indicates that the volatile organic compounds under investigation increased membrane fluidity. These vast changes to the cell membrane are known to contribute to the breakdown of normal cell function and possibly lead to death. Since bone marrow stromal cells are vital for the appropriate development and activation of immune cells, this study provides the foundation for understanding the mechanism at a cellular level for how mold exposure can lead to immune-related disease conditions. PMID:24392920

Hokeness, Kirsten; Kratch, Jacqueline; Nadolny, Christina; Aicardi, Kristie; Reid, Christopher W

2014-01-01

144

Nanoenabled microelectromechanical sensor for volatile organic chemical detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nanoenabled gravimetric chemical sensor prototype based on the large scale integration of single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as nanofunctionalization layer for aluminum nitride contour-mode resonant microelectromechanical (MEM) gravimetric sensors has been demonstrated. The capability of two distinct single strands of DNA bound to SWNTs to enhance differently the adsorption of volatile organic compounds such as dinitroluene (simulant for explosive vapor) and dymethyl-methylphosphonate (simulant for nerve agent sarin) has been verified experimentally. Different levels of sensitivity (17.3 and 28 KHz ?m2/fg) due to separate frequencies of operation (287 and 450 MHz) on the same die have also been shown to prove the large dynamic range of sensitivity attainable with the sensor. The adsorption process in the ss-DNA decorated SWNTs does not occur in the bulk of the material, but solely involves the surface, which permits to achieve 50% recovery in less than 29 s.

Zuniga, Chiara; Rinaldi, Matteo; Khamis, Samuel M.; Johnson, A. T.; Piazza, Gianluca

2009-06-01

145

Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Tehran, Iran.  

PubMed

Identifying the sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is key issue to reducing ground-level ozone and PAN. A multivariate receptor model (Unmix) was used for the determination of the contributions of VOCs sources in Tehran-Iran. Concentrations of ambient C2-C10 VOCs were measured continuously and online at the center of Tehran city during the winter of 2012. A high correlation coefficient existed between measured and predicted values (R (2) = 0.99), indicating that the data were well modeled. Five possible VOCs source categories were identified and mobile sources such as vehicle exhaust (61 %) and fuel evaporation (12 %) more than half of the total VOC concentration. City gas and CNG sources, biogenic source, and industrial solvent source categories accounted for 17 %, 8 % and 2 % of the total VOC, respectively. Result showed Unmix for VOCs source apportionment can be used to analyze and generate air pollution control strategies and policies. PMID:23283536

Sarkhosh, Maryam; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Borji, Saeedeh Hemmati; Bajgirani, Ali Ghiami

2013-04-01

146

Source fingerprints for receptor modeling of volatile organics  

SciTech Connect

The development of receptor models for the determination of the sources of an ambient air pollution requires that the composition of the pollutant at the point of emissions be known. For this study, composition information for 10 sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were evaluated and source fingerprints developed. The source categories include motor vehicles, gasoline vapor, petroleum refineries, architectural coatings, graphic arts, waste-water treatment, vapor degreasing, dry cleaning, automobile assembly (including body painting), and polyethylene production. The fingerprints are presented for a group of 23 compounds. These compounds were selected for a variety of reasons including ease of measurement in the ambient environment, compound toxicity, reactivity, and usefulness in previous receptor modeling applications. In general, the data for sources of VOC are remarkably consistent from study to study. Because the profiles for many of the sources of VOC are controlled by physical and chemical process (e.g. combustion) and not raw material composition, the fingerprints have general applicability.

Scheff, P.A. (Illinois Institute of Chicago (USA)); Wadden, R.A.; Bates, B.A. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (USA)); Aronian, P.F. (UOP Inc., Des Plaines, IL (USA))

1989-04-01

147

Measurement of volatile organic chemicals at selected sites in California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Urban air concentrations of 24 selected volatile organic chemicals that may be potentially hazardous to human health and environment were measured during field experiments conducted at two California locations, at Houston, and at Denver. Chemicals measured included chlorofluorocarbons, halomethanes, haloethanes, halopropanes, chloroethylenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons. With emphasis on California sites, data from these studies are analyzed and interpreted with respect to variabilities in ambient air concentrations, diurnal changes, relation to prevailing meteorology, sources and trends. Except in a few instances, mean concentrations are typically between 0 and 5 ppb. Significant variabilities in atmospheric concentrations associated with intense sources and adverse meteorological conditions are shown to exist. In addition to short-term variability, there is evidence of systematic diurnal and seasonal trends. In some instances it is possible to detect declining trends resulting from the effectiveness of control strategies.

Singh, Hanwant B.; Salas, L.; Viezee, W.; Sitton, B.; Ferek, R.

1992-01-01

148

Detection of volatile organic compounds using surface enhanced Raman scattering  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the detection of volatile organic compounds directly in their vapor phase by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on lithographically-defined two-dimensional rectangular array of nanopillars. The type of nanopillars is known as the tapered pillars. For the tapered pillars, SERS enhancement arises from the nanofocusing effect due to the sharp tip on top. SERS experiments were carried out on these substrates using various concentrations of toluene vapor. The results show that SERS signal from a toluene vapor concentration of ppm level can be achieved, and the toluene vapor can be detected within minutes of exposing the SERS substrate to the vapor. A simple adsorption model is developed which gives results matching the experimental data. The results also show promising potential for the use of these substrates in environmental monitoring of gases and vapors.

Chang, A S; Maiti, A; Ileri, N; Bora, M; Larson, C C; Britten, J A; Bond, T C

2012-03-22

149

Identification of volatile organic compounds in flowers of Astragalus lagopoides.  

PubMed

Composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in flowers of Astragalus lagopoides was studied using a hydrodistillation extraction procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analyses allowed the identification of a number of 25 compounds, among which the presence of several bioactive aromatic derivatives such as guaiacol, eugenol, linalool, ?- and 4-terpineol as well as nerol was attention-grabbing. Moreover, some other compounds like cyclohexane, 2-bromoethyl with repellent function also appeared to be present in the flower. As a result, the floral VOCs profile of A. lagopoides might reflect an adaptation to attract specialised pollinator insects. These findings provide important information for advances in understanding the ecological and evolutionary perspectives of pollination biology of the giant genus Astragalus. PMID:21878004

Movafeghi, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Amini, Majid; Asnaashari, Solmaz

2012-01-01

150

Volatile organic components in the Skylab 4 spacecraft atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The volatile organic components in the spacecraft cabin atmosphere of Skylab 4 were trapped on a solid adsorbent at various times during the mission. In post-flight analyses, more than 300 compounds in concentrations from less than 1 ppb up to 8000 ppb could be detected by high-resolution gas chromatography. In the samples of the 11th, 47th, and 77th day of the mission, approximately 100 components in the molecular weight range from 58 to 592 were identified by mass spectrometry. Besides components known from other environments, such as alkanes, alkenes, and alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons, components typical of the human metabolism, such as ketones and alcohols, were found. Other typical components in the spacecraft atmosphere included fluorocarbons and various silicone compounds, mostly normal and cyclic methylsiloxanes.

Liebich, H. M.; Bertsch, W.; Zlatkis, A.; Schneider, H. J.

1975-01-01

151

Effects of airborne volatile organic compounds on plants.  

PubMed

Routine measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air have shown that average concentrations are very much smaller than those used in laboratory experiments designed to study the effects of VOCs on plants. However, maximum hourly concentrations of some VOCs can be 100 times larger than the average, even in rural air. Experimental studies have rarely extended for longer than a few days, so there is little information on potential long-term effects of exposure to small concentrations. This review considers the available evidence for long-term effects, based on laboratory and field data. Previous reviews of the literature from Germany and the USA are cited, prior to an assessment of the effects of individual VOCs. Although hydrocarbons from vehicle exhausts have been implicated in the observed effects on roadside vegetation, the evidence suggests that it is the nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases that are mostly responsible. There is evidence that aromatic hydrocarbons can be metabolised in plants, although the fate of the metabolites is not known. There is a large literature on the effects of ethylene, because of its role as a plant hormone. Effects have been reported in the field, in response to industrial emissions, and dose-response experiments over several weeks in laboratory studies have clearly identified the potential for effects at ambient concentrations. The main responses are morphological (e.g. epinasty), which may be reversible, and on the development of flowers and fruit. Effects on seed production may be positive or negative, depending on the exposure concentration. Chlorinated hydrocarbons have been identified as potentially harmful to vegetation, but only one long-term experiment has studied dose-response relationships. As for ethylene, the most sensitive indication of effect was on seed production, although long-term accumulation of trichloroacetic acid in tissue may also be a problem. There is little evidence of the direct effects of oxygenated hydrocarbons on plants. Plants are a significant emission source of short-chain alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) has a well-documented history as damaging to vegetation. There have been few long-term experimental studies despite the field evidence for damaging effects. Early studies in California have been followed by more recent data from east Asia, but there is still a dearth of information on the potential for effects of PAN and related peroxyacyl nitrates on vegetation typical of regions around tropical and sub-tropical cities where PAN pollution is increasingly important. The lack of long-term measurements, coupled with the available evidence that effects are not linearly related to 'dose' measured as the product of exposure concentration and time, means that the possibility of adverse effects of VOCs on vegetation cannot be safely rejected, particularly in urban and industrial areas. Although reproductive processes (flowering, seed production) appear to be most sensitive, there have been no experimental studies on subsequent seed viability and the consequences at the ecosystem level of changes to plant phenology. The potential for VOC metabolites to accumulate in plant tissue has been demonstrated, but any subsequent effects on herbivores and phytophagous insects have yet to be investigated. PMID:12535603

Cape, J N

2003-01-01

152

Arsenic speciation and volatilization from flooded paddy soils amended with different organic matters.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) methylation and volatilization in soil can be increased after organic matter (OM) amendment, though the factors influencing this are poorly understood. Herein we investigate how amended OM influences As speciation as well as how it alters microbial processes in soil and soil solution during As volatilization. Microcosm experiments were conducted on predried and fresh As contaminated paddy soils to investigate microbial mediated As speciation and volatilization under different OM amendment conditions. These experiments indicated that the microbes attached to OM did not significantly influence As volatilization. The arsine flux from the treatment amended with 10% clover (clover-amended treatment, CT) and dried distillers grain (DDG) (DDG-amended treatment, DT2) were significantly higher than the control. Trimethylarsine (TMAs) was the dominant species in arsine derived from CT, whereas the primary arsine species from DT2 was TMAs and arsine (AsH(3)), followed by monomethylarsine (MeAsH(2)). The predominant As species in the soil solutions of CT and DT2 were dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) and As(V), respectively. OM addition increased the activities of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria (harboring aroA-like genes), though they did not increase or even decrease the abundance of arsenite oxidizers. In contrast, the abundance of arsenate reducers (carrying the arsC gene) was increased by OM amendment; however, significant enhancement of activity of arsenate reducers was observed only in CT. Our results demonstrate that OM addition significantly increased As methylation and volatilization from the investigated paddy soil. The physiologically active bacteria capable of oxidization, reduction, and methylation of As coexisted and mediated the As speciation in soil and soil solution. PMID:22295880

Huang, Hai; Jia, Yan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Zhu, Yong-Guan

2012-02-21

153

[Biochemistry of the evolutive cycle of Triatoma infestans (vinchuca). V. Volatile fatty acids emission].  

PubMed

The composition of the volatile fatty acids emitted by Triatoma infestans of both sexes was studied. They were constituted by a mixture of the acids acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, isovaleric, valeric and traces of isohexanoic and octanoic. Acetic acid was predominant followed by isobutyric and then by propionic acid. The other fatty acids are minor constituents. When acetic acid was discounted, the remaining composition was similar to the volatile fatty acid distribution pattern of Brindley gland. Both sexes showed a similar composition and therefore discard the possibility that they may function as sexual pheromones. PMID:6765007

Juárez, P; Brenner, R R

1981-01-01

154

ASSESSMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM A PETROLEUM REFINERY LAND TREATMENT SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

A field assessment was performed to measure the emissions of volatile organics from a petroleum refinery landtreatment site. As part of the study, the emissions of total volatile organics from surface-applied and subsurface-injected oily sludge were measured over a five week peri...

155

Low-Level Detections of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater  

E-print Network

Low-Level Detections of Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater: Use in Vulnerability of halogenated volatile organic compounds VOCs were determined by gas chromatography GC with an electron study areas in the United States. In each case, the untreated water sample was used for drinking

156

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING VOLATILE ORGANICS IN WATER (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

A comprehensive procedure for isolation of volatile organic compounds from various waters was developed through the use of representative volatile organic compounds as part of the EPA Master Analytical Scheme. Preliminary recoveries were determined for a broad range of analytes i...

157

40 CFR 60.112 - Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). 60.112 Section 60.112...1973, and Prior to May 19, 1978 § 60.112 Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). (a) The owner or...

2010-07-01

158

40 CFR 60.312 - Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). 60.312 Section 60.312...Surface Coating of Metal Furniture § 60.312 Standard for volatile organic compounds (VOC). (a) On and after the date...

2010-07-01

159

40 CFR 60.542a - Alternate standard for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternate standard for volatile organic compounds. 60.542a Section 60.542a Protection...Manufacturing Industry § 60.542a Alternate standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date...

2010-07-01

160

DEVELOPMENT OF THE VOLATILE ORGANIC SAMPLING TRAIN (VOST) FOR USE IN DETERMINING INCINERATOR EFFICIENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the development, initial evaluation, and field application to incinerators of a new sampling train for volatile organic species. The Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) is a simple portable device, combining Tenax and Tenax/charcoal cartridges as collection...

161

COMPOSITING WATER SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Thomas J. Lopes1  

E-print Network

1 COMPOSITING WATER SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Thomas J. Lopes1 , James D. Fallon2 , Terry L. Maluk3 Abstract: Accurate mean concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can, 720 Gracern Road, Columbia, South Carolina, 29210-7651 Any use of trade names is for descriptive

162

Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds—Old, However, Actual Analytical and Toxicological Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest in chlorinated volatile organic compounds is not a new task but still draws the attention of scientists. The role they play in human organism, is an important aspect to consider, since the development of analytical techniques and instrumental solutions gives new possibilities of their application in the analytics of volatile compounds and recognition of properties, so far impossible

El?bieta Dobrzy?ska; Ma?gorzata Po?niak; Ma?gorzata Szewczy?ska; Bogus?aw Buszewski

2010-01-01

163

A survey of household products for volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A total of 1159 common household products were analysed for 31 volatile organic compounds as potential sources of indoor air pollution. The products were distributed among 65 product categories within 8 category classes: automotive products (14.4% of the products); household cleaners/polishes (9.6%); paint-related products (39.9%); fabric and leather treatments (7.9%); cleaners for electronic equipment (6.0%); oils, greases and lubricants (9.6%); adhesive-related products (6.6%); and miscellaneous products (6.1%). The study was conducted in two parts. In the first part, or the original study, the products were reanalysed for methylene chloride and five other chlorocarbons using purge-and-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and a data base containing the analytical results was developed. Because full mass spectra were taken, the original set of GC/MS data also contained information regarding other volatile chemicals in the products. However, this additional data was not reported at that time. In the second part of the study, the GC/MS data were reanalysed to determine the presence and concentrations of an additional 25 volatile chemicals. The 31 chemicals included in both parts of this study were: carbon tetrachloride; methylene chloride; tetrachloroethylene; 1,1,1-trichloroethane; trichlorethylene; 1,1,2-tricholorotrifluoroethane; acetone; benzene; 2-butanone; chlorobenzene; chloroform; cyclohexane; 1,2-dichloroethane; 1,4-dioxane; ethylbenzene; n-hexane; d-limonene; methylcyclohexane; methylcyclopentane; methyl isobutyl ketone; n-nonane; n-octane; ?-pinene; propylene oxide; styrene; 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; tetrahydrofuran; toluene; m-mxylene; o-xylene; and p-xylene. Of the 31 chemicals, toluene, the xylenes and methylene chloride were found to occur most frequently—in over 40% of the products tested. Chemicals that were typically found in relatively high concentrations in the samples (i.e. greater than 20% w/w) included acetone, 2-butanone, hexane, methylene chloride, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane and the xylenes. Chlorobenzene, d-limonene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, n-nonane and styrene were not found in any of the products at or above the 0.1% level. In all, 935 of the products contained one or more of the target solvents at levels greater than 0.1%. The resulting data base contains information regarding the 1159 products, such as origin, cost, container type, lot number, etc., as well as quantitative information for each of the 31 chemicals. The frequency of occurrence and average concentrations for the target chemicals are summarized for each of the product classes.

Sack, Thomas M.; Steele, David H.; Hammerstrom, Karen; Remmers, Janet

164

Chemical oxidation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in soil  

SciTech Connect

Subsurface contamination with fuel hydrocarbons or chlorinated hydrocarbons is prevalent throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in many sites managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund program. The most commonly reported chlorinated hydrocarbons (occurring > 50% of DOE contaminated sites) were trichloroethylene (TCE), 1, 1, 1,-trichloroethane (TCA), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with concentrations in the range of 0.2 {mu}g/kg to 12,000 mg/kg. The fuel hydrocarbons most frequently reported as being present at DOE sites include aromatic compounds and polyaromatic compounds such as phenanthrene, pyrene, and naphthalene. The primary sources of these semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are coal waste from coal fired electric power plants used at many of these facilities in the past and gasoline spills and leaks. Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) can migrate within the subsurface for long periods of time along a variety of pathways including fractures, macropores, and micropores. Diffusion of contaminants in the non-aqueous, aqueous, and vapor phase can occur from the fractures and macropores into the matrix of fine-textured media. As a result of these contamination processes, removal of contaminants from the subsurface and the delivery of treatment agents into and throughout contaminated regions are often hindered, making rapid and extensive remediation difficult.

Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.; Cline, S.R.

1995-06-01

165

Multiple microbial activities for volatile organic compounds reduction by biofiltration.  

PubMed

In the northeast of Italy, high volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions originate from small-medium companies producing furniture. In these conditions it is difficult to propose a single, efficient, and economic system to reduce pollution. Among the various choices, the biofiltration method could be a good solution, because microbial populations possess multiple VOC degradation potentials used to oxidize these compounds to CO2. Starting from the air emissions of a typical industrial wood-painting plant, a series of experiments studied in vitro microbial degradation of each individual VOC. Isolated strains were then added to a laboratory-scale biofiltration apparatus filled with an organic matrix, and the different VOC behavior demonstrated the potential of single and/or synergic microbial removal actions. When a single substrate was fed, the removal efficiency of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated reactor was 1.1, 1.17, and 0.33 g m(-3) hr(-1), respectively, for xylene, toluene, and ethoxy propyl acetate. A VOC mixture composed of butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, diacetin alcohol, ethoxy propanol acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, and xylene was then fed into a 2-m(3) reactor treating 100 m3 hr(-1) of contaminated air. The reactor was filled with the same mixture of organic matrix, enriched with all of the isolated strains together. During reactor study, different VOC loading rates were used, and the behavior was evaluated continuously. After a short acclimation period, the removal efficiency was > 65% at VOC load of 150-200 g m(-3) hr(-1). Quantification of removal efficiencies and VOC speciation confirmed the relationship among removal efficiencies, compound biodegradability, and the dynamic transport of each mixture component within the organic matrix. Samples of the fixed bed were withdrawn at different intervals and the heterogeneous microbial community evaluated for both total and differential compound counts. PMID:16878585

Civilini, Marcello

2006-07-01

166

Treatability of hazardous chemicals in soils: Volatile and semivolatile organics  

SciTech Connect

Selected hazardous organics, primarily volatiles and semivolatiles, were evaluated for toxicity to soil microorganisms, sorption to soil, degradation, and potential for bioaccumulation in terrestrial plants and animals. In addition, a structure-activity approach was used for data analysis, because this technique may prove useful to predict rate constants for critical environmental processes in soils as well as to provide criteria to prescreen hazardous organic contaminants for ecotoxicological potential. These capabilities are needed for mathematical modeling of chemical fate in the terrestrial environment and for conducting environmental risk assessments. The chemicals included in the study were acrylonitrile, furan, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, benzene, toluene, 1,2-dichloroethane, p-xylene, chlorobenzene, chloroform, nitrobenzene, trans-1,4-dichloro-2-butene, cis-1,4-dichloro-2-butene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, carbon tetrachloride, 2-chloronaphthalene, benzidine, ethylene dibromide, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, methapyrilene, and hexachlorobenzene. 49 refs., 9 figs., 21 tabs.

Walton, B.T.; Hendricks, M.S.; Anderson, T.A.; Talmage, S.S.

1989-07-01

167

Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation fires.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art on research into the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation fires. Significant amounts of VOCs are emitted from vegetation fires, including several reactive compounds, the majority belonging to the isoprenoid family, which rapidly disappear in the plume to yield pollutants such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. This makes determination of fire-induced BVOC emission difficult, particularly in areas where the ratio between VOCs and anthropogenic NOx is favourable to the production of ozone, such as Mediterranean areas and highly anthropic temperate (and fire-prone) regions of the Earth. Fire emissions affecting relatively pristine areas, such as the Amazon and the African savannah, are representative of emissions of undisturbed plant communities. We also examined expected BVOC emissions at different stages of fire development and combustion, from drying to flaming, and from heatwaves coming into contact with unburned vegetation at the edge of fires. We conclude that forest fires may dramatically change emission factors and the profile of emitted BVOCs, thereby influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, the physiology of plants and the evolution of plant communities within the ecosystem. PMID:24689733

Ciccioli, Paolo; Centritto, Mauro; Loreto, Francesco

2014-08-01

168

RECOVERY OF PRINCIPAL ORGANIC HAZARDOUS CONSTITUENTS AND PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM A VOLATILE ORGANIC SAMPLING TRAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes an investigation of the recovery efficiencies of selected principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs) from the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST) under laboratory conditions. The compounds included: vinyl chloride, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethy...

169

Pretreatment of macroalgae for volatile fatty acid production.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel method was proposed for the biological pretreatment of macroalgae (Laminaria japonica, Pachymeniopsis elliptica, and Enteromorpha crinita) for production of volatile fatty acid (VFA) by anaerobic fermentation. The amount of VFA produced from 40 g/L of L. japonica increased from 8.3 g/L (control) to 15.6 g/L when it was biologically pretreated with Vibrio harveyi. The biological treatment of L. japonica with Vibrio spp. was most effective likely due to the alginate lyase activity of Vibrio spp. However, a considerable effect was also observed after biological pretreatment of P. elliptica and E. crinita, which are red and green algae, respectively. Alkaline pretreatment of 40 g/L of L. japonica with 0.5 N NaOH resulted in an increase of VFA production to 12.2 g/L. These results indicate that VFA production from macroalgae can be significantly enhanced using the proposed biological pretreatments. PMID:23942360

Pham, Thi Nhan; Um, Youngsoon; Yoon, Hyon Hee

2013-10-01

170

Tomato aromatic amino acid decarboxylases participate in synthesis of the flavor volatiles  

E-print Network

Tomato aromatic amino acid decarboxylases participate in synthesis of the flavor volatiles 2 to flavor in many foods, including fresh fruits, such as tomato, and an insect- attracting scent in roses-phenylethanol and other phenylalanine-derived volatiles in tomato fruits and a small family of decarboxylases

Klee, Harry J.

171

Compositing water samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurate mean concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can easily and economically be obtained from a single VOC analysis by using proven methods of collecting representative, discrete water samples and compositing them with a gas-tight syringe. The technique can be used in conjunction with chemical analysis by a conventional laboratory, field-portable equipment, or a mobile laboratory. The type of mean concentration desired depends on the objectives of monitoring. For example, flow-weighted mean VOC concentrations can be used to estimate mass loadings in wastewater and urban storm water, and spatially integrated mean VOC concentrations can be used to assess sources of drinking water (e.g., reservoirs and rivers). The mean error in a discrete sample due to compositing is about 2% for most VOC concentrations greater than 0.1 ??g/L. The total error depends on the number of discrete samples comprising the composite sample and precision of the chemical analysis.Accurate mean concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can easily and economically be obtained from a single VOC analysis by using proven methods of collecting representative, discrete water samples and compositing them with a gas-tight syringe. The technique can be used in conjunction with chemical analysis by a conventional laboratory, field-portable equipment, or a mobile laboratory. The type of mean concentration desired depends on the objectives of monitoring. For example, flow-weighted mean VOC concentrations can be used to estimate mass loadings in wastewater and urban storm water, and spatially integrated mean VOC concentrations can be used to assess sources of drinking water (e.g., reservoirs and rivers). The mean error in a discrete sample due to compositing is about 2% for most VOC concentrations greater than 0.1 ??g/L. The total error depends on the number of discrete samples comprising the composite sample and precision of the chemical analysis.Researchers are able to derive accurate values for the mean concentration of VOCs from a single VOC analysis using established techniques for the collection of representative, discrete water samples. Such samples are then composited with a gas-tight syringe. This methodology can be employed in conjunction with chemical assessment using a conventional laboratory, field-portable equipment, or a mobile laboratory. Estimates of mass loadings in wastewater and urban storm runoff can be generated using values for the flow-weighted mean VOC concentrations. Spatially integrated mean VOC concentrations are useful for the evaluation of drinking waters. Factors that influence the value for the total error are identified.

Lopes, T.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Maluk, T.L.

2000-01-01

172

Improving production of volatile fatty acids from food waste fermentation by hydrothermal pretreatment.  

PubMed

Food waste (FW) was pretreated by a hydrothermal method and then fermented for volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production. The soluble substance in FW increased after hydrothermal pretreatment (?200°C). Higher hydrothermal temperature would lead to mineralization of the organic compounds. The optimal temperature for organic dissolution was 180°C, at which FW dissolved 42.5% more soluble chemical oxygen demand than the control. VFA production from pretreated FW fermentation was significantly enhanced compared with the control. The optimal hydrothermal temperature was 160°C with a VFA yield of 0.908g/g VSremoval. Butyrate and acetate were the prevalent VFAs followed by propionate and valerate. FW fermentation was inhibited after 200°C pretreatment. The VFAs were extracted from the fermentation broth by liquid-liquid extraction. The VFA recovery was 50-70%. Thus, 0.294-0.411g VFAs could be obtained per gram of hydrothermally pretreated FW (in dry weight) by this method. PMID:25218204

Yin, Jun; Wang, Kun; Yang, Yuqiang; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Mo, Han

2014-11-01

173

Possible Role of Volatile Fatty Acids and Abscisic Acid in the Dormancy of Oats  

PubMed Central

Species of Avena differ markedly in their levels of pre- and post-harvest dormancy. These species offer the opportunity of determining if dormancy is related to the endogenous level of growth inhibitor. Germinability in two species of differing levels of dormancy, common oat Avena sativa L., and wild oat Avena fatua L. was assessed as were the contents of abscisic acid and volatile fatty acids of chain length C6-C10. In A. sativa which did not possess postharvest dormancy there was no correlation between germination and inhibitor levels but in A. fatua the relationship between the content of fatty acid and dormancy was good. The loss of these fatty acids in dry storage by evaporation could explain after ripening. PMID:16660807

Berrie, Alex M. M.; Buller, David; Don, Ronald; Parker, William

1979-01-01

174

Possible role of volatile Fatty acids and abscisic Acid in the dormancy of oats.  

PubMed

Species of Avena differ markedly in their levels of pre- and post-harvest dormancy. These species offer the opportunity of determining if dormancy is related to the endogenous level of growth inhibitor. Germinability in two species of differing levels of dormancy, common oat Avena sativa L., and wild oat Avena fatua L. was assessed as were the contents of abscisic acid and volatile fatty acids of chain length C(6)-C(10). In A. sativa which did not possess postharvest dormancy there was no correlation between germination and inhibitor levels but in A. fatua the relationship between the content of fatty acid and dormancy was good. The loss of these fatty acids in dry storage by evaporation could explain after ripening. PMID:16660807

Berrie, A M

1979-04-01

175

Emission and Chemical Transformation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (echo)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are complex sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the planetary boundary layer. The impact of biogenic VOC on tropospheric photochem- istry, air quality, and the formation of secondary products affects our climate on a regional and global scale but is far from being understood. A considerable lack of knowledge exists concerning a forest stand as a net source of reactive trace com- pounds, which are transported directly into the planetary boundary layer (PBL). In particular, little is known about the amounts of VOC which are processed within the canopy. The goal of ECHO, which is presented in this poster, is to investigate these questions and to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and their effects on the PBL. The investigation of emissions, chemical processing and vertical transport of biogenic VOC will be carried out in and above a mixed forest stand in Jülich, Germany. A large set of trace gases, free radicals and meteorologi- cal parameters will be measured at different heights in and above the canopy, covering concentrations of VOC, CO, O3, organic nitrates und NOx as well as organic aerosols. For the first time concentration profiles of OH, HO2, RO2 und NO3 radicals will be measured as well together with the actinic UV radiation field and photolysis frequen- cies of all relevant radical precursors (O3, NO2, peroxides, oxygenated VOC). The different tasks of the field experiments will be supported by simulation experiments investigating the primary emission and the uptake of VOC by the plants in stirred tank reactors, soil parameters and soil emissions in lysimeter experiments, and the chem- ical processing of the trace gases as observed in and above the forest stand in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR. The planning and interpretation of the field experiments is supported by simulations of the field site in a wind tunnel.

Koppmann, R.; Hoffmann, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Schatzmann, M.

176

Aqueous Oxidation of Green Leaf Volatiles as a Source of Secondary Organic Aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation emits volatile oxygenated hydrocarbons - the green leaf volatiles (GLVs) - which are formed from the biochemical conversion of linoleic and linolenic acids within plant cells. Stress or damage to vegetation can significantly elevate emission fluxes of these compounds, some of which are fairly water soluble. Aqueous-phase reactions of the GLVs with photochemically generated oxidants - such as hydroxyl radical (OH), singlet oxygen (1O2) and excited triplet states of organic compounds (3C*) _ might then form low-volatility products that can act as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In order to determine if GLVs can be a significant source of secondary organic carbon in fogwater, studies of GLVs in laboratory solutions are needed to elucidate the oxidation kinetics and the corresponding SOA mass yields. In this study we are determining the second-order rate constants, and SOA mass yields, for five GLVs (cis-3-hexen-1-ol, cis-3-hexenylacetate, methyl salicylate, methyl jasmonate, and 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol) reacting with OH,1O2 and 3C*. Experiments are performed at relevant fog water pHs, temperatures, and oxidant concentrations. Rate constants are determined using a relative rate approach in which the decay of GLVs and reference compounds are monitored as function of time by HPLC. The capacity of GLVs to form aqueous SOA was determined by following the formation of their decomposition products with HPLC-UV/DAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. SOA mass yields are measured gravimetrically from laboratory solutions containing atmospherically relevant concentrations of photooxidants and GLVs, and irradiated with simulated sunlight. We will use our results to assess the potential contribution of aqueous GLV reactions as a source of SOA in cloudy or foggy atmospheres.

Richards-Henderson, N. K.; Hansel, A.; Pham, A. T.; Vempati, H. S.; Valsaraj, K. T.; Anastasio, C.

2013-12-01

177

Volatile organic compounds and trace metal level in some beers collected from Romanian market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beer is one of the most popular beverages at worldwide level. Through this study fifteen different types of beer collected from Romanian market were analysed in order to evaluate their mineral, trace element as well the their organic content. Importance of such characterization of beer samples is supported by the fact that their chemical composition can affect both taste and stability of beer, as well the consumer health. Minerals and trace elements analysis were performed on ICP-MS while organic compounds analysis was done through GC-MS. Through ICP-MS analysis, elements as Ca, Na, K and Mg were evidenced at mg?kg-1 order while elements as Cr, Ba, Co, Ni were detected at lower level. After GC-MS analysis the major volatile compounds that were detected belong to alcohols namely ethanol, propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and linalool. Selected fatty acids and esters were evidenced also in the studied beer samples.

Voica, Cezara; Kovacs, Melinda; Vadan, Marius

2013-11-01

178

Volatile and amino acid profiling of dry cured hams from different swine breeds and processing methods.  

PubMed

The flavor of dry cured ham explains the high appreciation of this product and it determines consumer acceptance. Volatile compounds provide valuable information about the odor and sensory quality of dry cured hams. Since amino acids are the origin of some volatile compounds of dry cured ham, the volatile and amino acid compositions of forty-one dry cured hams from Spain and France were determined to establish associations between them. The samples included different pig breeds (non Iberian vs. Iberian), which were additionally affected by different maturation times and feeding types (acorn vs. fodder). Results showed that 20 volatile compounds were able to distinguish Iberian and non Iberian hams, and 16 of those had relevant sensory impact according to their odor activity values. 3-Methylbutanol, 2-heptanol and hexanal were among the most concentrated volatile compounds. In the case of non-volatile compounds, the concentrations of amino acids were generally higher in Iberian hams, and all the amino acids were able to distinguish Iberian from non Iberian hams with the exception of tryptophan and asparagine. A strong correlation of some amino acids with volatile compounds was found in the particular case of alcohols and aldehydes when only Iberian hams were considered. The high correlation values found in some cases proved that proteolysis plays an important role in aroma generation. PMID:23552905

García-González, Diego L; Aparicio, Ramón; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón

2013-01-01

179

Chemically-Resolved Volatility Measurements of Organic Aerosol from Different Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A newly modified fast temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD) was coupled to a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) for rapid quantification of chemically-resolved volatility of organic aerosols (OA) emitted from individual sources. The TD-AMS system was used to characterize primary OA (POA) from biomass burning, trash burning surrogates (paper and plastic), and meat cooking as well as chamber-generated secondary OA (SOA) from a-pinene and gasoline vapor. Almost all atmospheric models represent POA as non-volatile, with no allowance for evaporation upon heating or dilution, or condensation upon cooling. Our results indicate that all OAs observed show semi-volatile behavior and that most POAs are at least as volatile as SOA measured in urban environments. Biomass-burning OA (BBOA) exhibited a wide range of volatilities, but more often showed volatility similar to urban OA. Paper-burning resembles BBOA because of its high volatility and intermediate atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratio, while meat-cooking OAs (MCOA) have consistently lower volatility than ambient OA. Chamber-generated SOA was significantly more volatile than urban SOA, challenging extrapolation of traditional laboratory volatility measurements to the atmosphere. Most OAs sampled show increasing O/C ratio and decreasing H/C (hydrogen-to-carbon) ratio with temperature, further indicating that more oxygenated OA components are less volatile.

Huffman, J. A.; Docherty, K. S.; Mohr, C.; Ulbrich, I. M.; Ziemann, P. J.; Onasch, T. B.; Jimenez, J. L.

2009-04-01

180

Proton Transfer Rate Coefficient Measurements of Selected Volatile Organic Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an apparatus based on the selected ion flow tube (SIFT)footnote D. Smith and N.G. Adams, Ads. At. Mol. Phys. 24, 1 (1987). that allows the study of proton transfer between various positive ions and volatile organic molecules. Reactions in the flow tube occur at pressures of approximately 300 mTorr, eliminating the requirement of thermal beam production. The proton donor molecule H_3O^+ has been produced using several types of electrical discharges in water vapor, such as a capacitively coupled RF discharge and a DC hollow cathode discharge. Presently we are developing an Asmussen-type microwave cavity discharge using the components of a standard microwave oven that has the advantages of simple design and operation, as well as low cost. We will be presenting the results of the microwave cavity ion source to produce H_3O^+, and compare it to the other studied sources. In addition, we will be presenting a preliminary measurement of the proton transfer rate coefficient in the reaction of H_3O^+ with acetone and methanol.

Brooke, G.; Popovi?, S.; Vuškovi?, L.

2002-05-01

181

Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium  

SciTech Connect

The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water in this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ``pump-and-treat`` technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations.

Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

1994-03-01

182

Volatile organic emissions from adhesives with indoor applications  

SciTech Connect

Studies have shown that volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from building materials are a potentially important source of indoor air pollution. In this study, we investigated emissions of VOC from both solvent- and water-based adhesives. Adhesives were applied to an inert substrate and dried for at least a week. VOC were cryogenically trapped and identified by GC-MS or sorbent trapped, solvent extracted, and quantified by GC-FID. Among the compounds emitted by adhesives were toluene, styrene, and a variety of normal, branched, and cyclic alkanes. The measured emission rates ranged from below the limit of detection for some adhesives to a total alkane emission rate of over 700 ..mu..g g/sup -1/h/sup -1/ for a water-based adhesive. A simple, well-mixed tank model was used to assess the potential impacts of the adhesives studied and to demonstrate that adhesives can be significant sources of VOC. 8 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Girman, J.R.; Hodgson, A.T.; Newton, A.S.; Winkes, A.W.

1984-02-01

183

Volatile organic compounds in fourteen U.S. retail stores.  

PubMed

Retail buildings have a potential for both short-term (customer) and long-term (occupational) exposure to indoor pollutants. However, little is known about volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the retail sector and influencing factors, such as ventilation, in-store activities, and store type. We measured VOC concentrations and ventilation rates in 14 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania. With the exception of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, VOCs were present in retail stores at concentrations well below health guidelines. Indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 4.6 ppb to 67 ppb. The two mid-sized grocery stores in the sample had the highest levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde, with concentrations up to 2.6 ppm and 92 ppb, respectively, possibly due to the preparation of dough and baking activities. Indoor-to-outdoor concentration ratios indicated that indoor sources were the main contributors to indoor VOC concentrations for the majority of compounds. There was no strong correlation between ventilation and VOC concentrations across all stores. However, increasing the air exchange rates at two stores led to lower indoor VOC concentrations, suggesting that ventilation can be used to reduce concentrations for some specific stores. PMID:24471978

Nirlo, E L; Crain, N; Corsi, R L; Siegel, J A

2014-10-01

184

Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Personal exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in the three industrial cities in the Czech Republic, Ostrava, Karvina and Havirov, while the city of Prague served as a control in a large-scale molecular epidemiological study identifying the impacts of air pollution on human health. Office workers from Ostrava and city policemen from Karvina, Havirov and Prague were monitored in the winter and summer of 2009. Only adult non-smokers participated in the study (N=160). Radiello-diffusive passive samplers were used to measure the exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, meta- plus para-xylene and ortho-xylene (BTEX). All participants completed a personal questionnaire and a time-location-activity diary (TLAD). The average personal BTEX exposure levels in both seasons were 7.2/34.3/4.4/16.1??g/m(3), respectively. The benzene levels were highest in winter in Karvina, Ostrava and Prague: 8.5, 7.2 and 5.3??g/m(3), respectively. The personal exposures to BTEX were higher than the corresponding stationary monitoring levels detected in the individual localities (P<0.001; except m,p-xylene in summer). The indoor environment, ETS (environmental tobacco smoke), cooking, a home-heating fireplace or gas stove, automobile use and being in a restaurant were important predictors for benzene personal exposure. Ostrava's outdoor benzene pollution was a significant factor increasing the exposure of the Ostrava study participants in winter (P<0.05). PMID:22669500

Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J

2012-09-01

185

Reduction of volatile organic compound emissions from automobile refinishing  

SciTech Connect

Automobile refinishing (repainting) is a source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. The study was conducted to evaluate available techniques that can be used to reduce VOC emissions from this source. The document provides information on the steps involved in the refinishing process which result in emissions, available emission reduction techniques, VOC emission levels, VOC emission reductions, and costs associated with the reduction techniques. Techniques investigated include (1) reduced-VOC cleaners, (2) replacement of lacquers with enamels, (3) replacement of enamels with polyurethanes, (4) replacement of solvent-borne primers with waterborne primers, (5) replacement of conventional clearcoats with higher-solids clearcoats, (6) installation of cleanup solvent recovery systems, (7) replacement of conventional spray guns with higher transfer efficiency equipment, and (8) add-on controls. The primary conclusions from the study are: (1) the use of available techniques could result in VOC emission reductions ranging from 3-50% of the current estimated baseline emissions from typical refinishing shops; and (2) the annualized costs for many of the available techniques are less than the cost of current practices.

Athey, C.; Hester, C.; McLaughlin, M.; Neulicht, R.M.; Turner, M.B.

1988-10-01

186

Indoor carpet as an adsorptive reservoir for volatile organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Carpet is recognized as a potential source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air. However, carpet systems can also serve as adsorptive sinks with the potential for reductions in peak VOC concentrations and subsequent re-emission of VOCs over prolonged periods of time. A series of experiments involving eight VOCs, and several carpet systems and environmental conditions were completed using a set of parallel chambers to characterize carpet systems as sinks of VOCs. A linear adsorption and desorption model was used to describe interactions between VOCs and carpet. New carpet fibers treated with stain protection generally accounted for only a very small fraction of mass sorbed to carpet. Most of the sorbed mass for carpet systems was accounted for by either the underlying pad or a combination of the pad and structural backing. Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was the only compound to exhibit greater sorption to nylon fibers than to other carpet components. Vapor pressure was observed to be one of the properties that can be related to sorption parameters. Variations in relative humidity (RH) had a significant effect on the degree of sorption for a highly soluble VOC (isopropanol). However, RH had no apparent effect on other VOCs. Air exchange rates (0.5, 2.1, 3.2 /hr) and inlet concentrations (2.5, 5, 15 ppm) generally had little effect on sorption.

Won, D.; Corsi, R.L.; Rynes, M.

1999-07-01

187

Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Megacities and Wildfires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a critical role in determining air quality through their impact on ozone production and other pollutants. Tropospheric chemistry models use a variety of treatments for the lumping of VOCs in their chemical mechanisms, as a compromise between detailed treatment and computational speed. However, emission inventories are frequently provided for only total VOCs with little or no information on how to split the emissions among the model species, introducing additional uncertainty to the model simulations. Global model simulations using the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART-4) and several different emission inventories are evaluated through detailed comparison to aircraft and surface observations. In particular, correlations between measured VOCs and CO are used to test the emission inventory emission ratios of the modeled VOC species. For example, megacity VOC emissions will be evaluated with surface measurements in Mumbai, Shanghai and Tokyo, as well as aircraft measurements from the NSF/MIRAGE experiment downwind of Mexico City. Wildfire emissions in Siberia, Canada and California will be evaluated using airborne observations of the NASA/ARCTAS experiment.

Emmons, L. K.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Riemer, D. D.; Lamarque, J.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Mirage Science Team; Arctas Science Team

2011-12-01

188

Elimination of volatile organic compounds by biofiltration: a review.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are pollutants that are responsible for the formation of the tropospheric ozone, one of the precursors of smog. VOCs are emitted by various industries including chemical plants, pulp and paper mills, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, electronics and agri-food industries. Some VOCs cause odor pollution while many of them are harmful to environment and human or animal health. For the removal of VOCs, biofiltration, a biological process, has proved to be reliable when properly operated. This process has therefore been widely applied in Europe and North America. The main advantages associated with the use of biofiltration are related to its set-up, maintenance, and operating costs which are usually lower than those related to other VOCs control technologies and because it is less harmful for the environment than conventional processes like incineration. In the present paper, the main parameters (type, moisture, pH, and temperature of filter bed, microbial population, nutrients concentrations, and VOCs' inlet load) to be controlled during the biofiltration are identified and described in detail. The main phenomena involved in biofiltration are also discussed. For improving the efficiency of VOC control biotechnology, new techniques are now proposed that include the use of membranes, biphasic reactors, UV photolysis, and many others. PMID:18351227

Nikiema, Josiane; Dastous, Paul-André; Heitz, Michèle

2007-01-01

189

Identification and quantification of volatile organic compounds from a dairy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that contribute to odor and air quality problems have been identified from the Washington State University Knott Dairy Farm using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Eighty-two VOCs were identified at a lactating cow open stall and 73 were detected from a slurry wastewater lagoon. These compounds included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, ethers, aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, terpenes, other hydrocarbons, amines, other nitrogen containing compounds, and sulfur-containing compounds. The concentration of VOCs directly associated with cattle waste increased with ambient air temperature, with the highest concentrations present during the summer months. Concentrations of most detected compounds were below published odor detection thresholds. Emission rates of ethanol (1026±513 ?g cow -1 s -1) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) (13.8±10.3 ?g cow -1 s -1) were measured from the lactating stall area using an atmospheric tracer method and concentrations were plotted using data over a 2-year period. Emission rates of acetone (3.03±0.85 ng cow -1 s -1), 2-butanone (145±35 ng cow -1 s -1), methyl isobutyl ketone (3.46±1.11 ng cow -1 s -1), 2-methyl-3-pentanone (25.1±8.0 ng cow -1 s -1), DMS (2.19±0.92 ng cow -1 s -1), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) (16.1±3.9 ng cow -1 s -1) were measured from the slurry waste lagoon using a laboratory emission chamber.

Filipy, Jenny; Rumburg, Brian; Mount, George; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian

190

Predicting the emission rate of volatile organic compounds fromvinyl flooring  

SciTech Connect

A model for predicting the rate at which a volatile organic compound (VOC) is emitted from a diffusion-controlled material is validated for three contaminants (n-pentadecane, n-tetradecane, and phenol) found in vinyl flooring (VF). Model parameters are the initial VOC concentration in the material-phase (C{sub 0}), the material/air partition coefficient (K), and the material-phase diffusion coefficient (D). The model was verified by comparing predicted gas-phase concentrations to data obtained during small-scale chamber tests, and by comparing predicted material-phase concentrations to those measured at the conclusion of the chamber tests. Chamber tests were conducted with the VF placed top side up and bottom side up. With the exception of phenol, and within the limits of experimental precision, the mass of VOCs recovered in the gas phase balances the mass emitted from the material phase. The model parameters (C{sub 0}, K, and D) were measured using procedures that were completely independent of the chamber test. Gas- and material-phase predictions compare well to the bottom-side-up chamber data. The lower emission rates for the top-side-up orientation may be explained by the presence of a low-permeability surface layer. The sink effect of the stainless steel chamber surface was shown to be negligible.

Cox, Steven S.; Little, John C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.

2001-03-01

191

Mapping of volatile organic chemicals in New Jersey water systems.  

PubMed

To characterize volatile organic chemical (VOC) contamination in public water in New Jersey from 1978 through 1990, detailed GIS maps were developed, along with descriptive text and an associated contaminant database, broken into half-year periods. All water providers that served more than 500 service connections were mapped. Contamination status for nine VOCs, including total trihalomethanes (THMs), was estimated for about 90% of the state's population. Many water systems were partitioned into smaller subsystems in order to map service areas that were more homogeneous with regard to water quality in order to minimize exposure misclassification. Data used for this work included test results taken by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection or the water utilities (raw, plant, and distribution system samples), an analysis of probable water use and water flow (based on pumpage, population, system architecture, and advice from the water systems), and information on service area extensions during the period. Using GIS applications, these maps and databases were used to estimate the size of the population exposed to contaminants over time, demonstrating a dramatic decrease in exposed population after the New Jersey Safe Drinking Water Act was signed in 1984. PMID:10412666

Cohn, P; Savrin, J; Fagliano, J

1999-01-01

192

Resonance Raman spectroscopy of volatile organics -- Carbon tetrachloride  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic chemicals are a class of pollutants which are regulated at very low levels by the EPA. Consequently a need exists as a part of site remediation efforts within DOE to develop technologies which will allow for the in situ monitoring of these chemicals. Resonance Raman spectroscopy is a potential technique to accomplish this if the resonance enhancement is sufficiently high. Carbon tetrachloride was selected as a test case. Measurements under resonance conditions at 248 nm showed an enhancement factor of 2 {times} 10{sup 4}. Using this value an estimate of the sensitivity for both in situ and remote monitoring of CCl{sup 4} was made. It was concluded that resonance Raman could be used to detect these chemicals at levels of regulatory interest. Future effort directed towards the development of a suitable probe as well as a field-portable system would be desirable. Such effort could be directed towards the solution of a particular monitoring problem within a DOE waste remediation project. Once developed, however, it should be easily generalized to the analysis of other VOC`s in other environments.

Barletta, R.E.; Veligdan, J.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

1994-09-01

193

[Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from large furniture].  

PubMed

Indoor air pollution by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which may cause a hazardous influence on human being such as sick building (sick house) syndrome, has become a serious problem. In this study, VOCs emitted from nine pieces of home furniture, three sets of dining tables, three sets of chest of drawers and three sofas, were analyzed as potential sources of indoor air pollution by large chamber test method (JIS A 1911). Based on the emission rates of total VOC (TVOC), the impacts on the indoor TVOC was estimated by the sample model with a volume of 20 m3 and ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The estimated TVOC increment values were exceeded the provisional target value for indoor air (400 microg/m3) in three sets of dining tables, one set of chest of drawer and one sofa. The estimated increment of formaldehyde were exceeded the guideline value (100 microg/m3) in one set of dining table, two sets of chest of drawers and one sofa. These results revealed that VOC emissions from furniture may influence significantly indoor air quality. Also, in this study, to establish the alternative method for large chamber test methods, emission rates from representative three parts of furniture unit were evaluated using the small chamber and emission rate from full-sized furniture was predicted. Emission rates of TVOC and formaldehyde predicted by small chamber test were 3-46% and 6-252% of the data obtained using large chamber test, respectively. PMID:22259846

Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Furuta, Mitsuko; Shibatsuji, Masayoshi; Jinno, Hideto; Nishimura, Tetsuji

2011-01-01

194

Sources of volatile organic compounds in Cairo's ambient air.  

PubMed

The greater Cairo area suffers from extreme levels of gas and particulate phase air pollutants. In order to reduce the levels of ambient pollution, the USAID and the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) have supported the Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP). As part of this project, two intensive ambient monitoring studies were carried out during the period of February 22 to March 4 and October 27 to November 27, 1999. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured on a 24-h basis at six sampling stations during each of the intensive periods. During the February/March study, samples were collected daily, while in the October/November study samples were collected every other day. The six intensive measurement sites represented background levels, mobile source impacts, industrial impacts, and residential exposure. High levels of NMHC were observed at all locations. NMHC concentrations ranged from 365 ppb C at Helwan to 1,848 ppb C at El Qualaly during winter, 1999 and from 461 ppb C at Kaha to 2,037 ppb C at El Qualaly during fall, 1999. El Qualaly, the site chosen to represent mobile emissions, displayed the highest average NMHC concentrations of any site, by a factor of 2 or more. The highest mobile source contributions were estimated at this site. The major contributors to NMHC at all sites were mobile emissions, lead smelting, and compressed natural gas. PMID:18843549

Abu-Allaban, M; Lowenthal, D H; Gertler, A W; Labib, M

2009-10-01

195

Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total U.S. VOC emissions. The 'Toxic-Release Inventory' of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing, refrigerant production, and wood products production. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase 1 report documents 3M's work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. The Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient, and economically priced.

1992-03-01

196

Biofiltration of a mixture of volatile organic emissions.  

PubMed

Air biofiltration is now under active consideration for the removal of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from polluted airstreams. To optimize this emerging environmental technology and to understand compound removal mechanisms, a biofilter packed with peat was developed to treat a complex mixture of VOCs: oxygenated, aromatic, and chlorinated compounds. The removal efficiency of this process was high. The maximum elimination capacity (ECmax) obtained was approximately 120 g VOCs/m3 peat/hr. Referring to each of the mixture's components, the ECmax showed the limits in terms of biodegradability of VOCs, especially for the halogenated compounds and xylene. A stratification of biodegradation was observed in the reactor. The oxygenated compounds were metabolized before the aromatic and halogenated ones. Two assumptions are suggested. There was a competition between bacterial communities. Different communities colonized the peat-based biofilter, one specialized for the elimination of oxygenated compounds, the others more specialized for elimination of aromatic and halogenated compounds. There was also substrate competition. Bacterial communities were the same over the height of the column, but the more easily biodegradable compounds were used first for the microorganism metabolism when they were present in the gaseous effluent. PMID:15666471

Aizpuru, A; Malhautier, L; Roux, J C; Fanlo, J L

2001-12-01

197

Constituents of volatile organic compounds of evaporating essential oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential oils containing aromatic compounds can affect air quality when used indoors. Five typical and popular essential oils—rose, lemon, rosemary, tea tree and lavender—were investigated in terms of composition, thermal characteristics, volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents, and emission factors. The activation energy was 6.3-8.6 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.8, and the frequency factor was 0.01-0.24 min -1. Toluene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene and m-diethylbenzene were the predominant VOCs of evaporating gas of essential oils at 40 °C. In addition, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m-diethylbenzene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene revealed high emission factors during the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis procedures. The sequence of the emission factors of 52 VOCs (137-173 mg g -1) was rose ? rosemary > tea tree ? lemon ? lavender. The VOC group fraction of the emission factor of aromatics was 62-78%, paraffins were 21-37% and olefins were less than 1.5% during the TG process. Some unhealthy VOCs such as benzene and toluene were measured at low temperature; they reveal the potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lo, Cho-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

2009-12-01

198

Volatile Organic Compounds in the Global Atmosphere (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) - Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) has been guiding the implementation of a global program for the monitoring of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOC). Essential features are 1. regular, in-situ, high temporal resolution measurements of VOC at surface stations, 2. VOC analyses in samples collected within flask sampling networks for wide geographical coverage, and 3. a concerted calibration and data quality control effort. A centerpiece of the flask sampling component builds upon the US NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory - Global Cooperative Air Sampling Network. Nine non-methane hydrocarbon species (NMHC; ethane, propane, iso-butane, n-butane, iso-pentane, n-pentane, isoprene, benzene, toluene) are currently analyzed by an automated gas chromatography system at the University of Colorado’s Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) in pairs of samples collected bi-weekly at 41 global background monitoring sites. Since the implementation of this program in 2004 more than 7000 measurements have been obtained. The obtained data allow elucidating the geographical and seasonal behavior of atmospheric NMHC, as well as interannual variations. Results show a wide dynamic range of mixing ratio changes. Concentration maxima and seasonal cycles are most pronounced in regions of highest emission sources and highest changes in the seasonal OH radical sink, i.e. the northern high and mid-latitudes. Seasonal southern hemisphere (SH) maxima are ~7 times and ~20 times lower for ethane and propane than in the northern hemisphere, which mainly reflects the smaller source strength of these gases in the SH. The richness of information in these data will help constraining the variability in global atmospheric oxidation chemistry and regional budgets of greenhouse gases, such as of methane and CO2, and most certainly stimulate further interests and applications in many fields of atmospheric chemistry and climate research. Global distribution of ethane during 2004-2010 as derived from in ~7000 flask samples collected at 41 remote sites of the NOAA-ESRL network.

Helmig, D.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Galbally, I.; Lewis, A. C.; Masarie, K.; Milton, M.; Penkett, S.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Reimann, S.; Steinbrecher, R.; Tans, P. P.; Thiel, S.

2010-12-01

199

Volatile organic compounds in ambient air of Mumbai—India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a major group of air pollutants which play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry. These contribute to toxic oxidants which are harmful to ecosystem, human health and atmosphere. The variability of pollutants is an important factor in determining human exposure to these chemicals. Data on levels of VOCs in developing countries, including India, are lacking. The present work deals with the estimation of target VOCs at 15 locations of five categories in Mumbai. The categories are residential, industrial, commercial, traffic intersections and petrol refueling stations. The monitoring was carried out during peak hours in the morning and evening, once every month, during May 2001 to April 2002. The study focused on target VOCs as defined by USEPA. Concentrations of benzene, at all the locations, were found to be much above the guidelines values prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO) for ambient air quality. All other VOCs were observed to be below the WHO guideline values. The results show that levels of VOCs in Mumbai were high. There is need for a regular monitoring schedule of VOCs in the urban environment. Variability studies are important to assess the exposure potential of pollutants which are an important parameter for health impact studies. This study also presents the variability of VOCs in the urban area of Mumbai. Variability was divided into measurement spatial, temporal and temporal-spatial interaction components. The temporal component along with temporal-spatial interaction component were the major contributors to variability. VOCs associated with mobile source emissions and emissions from marine source were found to be distributed uniformly in the urban atmosphere in Mumbai. the need for continuous monitoring, to capture short term peak concentrations and averages, is evident.

Srivastava, Anjali; Joseph, A. E.; Devotta, S.

200

Volatile fatty acid fermentation of lime-treated biomass by rumen microorganisms  

E-print Network

VOLATILE FATTY ACID FERMENTATION OF LIME-TREATED BIOMASS BY RUMEN MICROORGANISMS A Thesis by CHARLES ROBERT RAPIER Submitted to the Office of Cnaduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1995 Major Subject: Chemical Engineeriug VOLATILE FATTY ACID FERMENTATION OF LIME-TREATED BIOMASS BY RUMEN MICROORGANISMS A Thesis by CHARLES ROBERT RAPIER Submitted to Texas AkM University in partial fultillment...

Rapier, Charles Robert

2012-06-07

201

Salt lakes of Western Australia - Natural abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by global climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its many ephemeral saline and hypersaline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters that have gradually changed over the last fifty years. Historically, the region was covered by eucalyptus trees and shrubs, but was cleared mainly within 10 years after WWII to make room for wheat and live stock. After the clearance of the deep rooted native plants the groundwater started to rise, bringing increased amounts of dissolved salts and minerals to the surface and discharging them into streams and lakes. Thus most of Western Australia is influenced by secondary salinisation (soil salting) [1]. Another problem is that the discharged minerals affect the pH of ground and surface water, which ranges from acidic to slightly basic. During the 2011 campaign surface water was measured with a pH between 2.5 and 7.1. Another phenomenon in Western Australia is the decrease of rainfall over the last decades assumed to be linked to the secondary salinisation. The rising saline and mineral rich groundwater increases the biotical and abiotical activity of the salt lakes. Halogenated and non-halogenated volatile organic compounds emitted from those lakes undergo fast oxidation and chemical reactions to form small particles modifying cloud microphysics and thus suppressing rain events [2]. Our objective is to gain a better understanding of this extreme environment with its hypersaline acidic lakes with regard to the potential abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds and its impact on the local climate. In spring 2011 fifty-three sediment samples from ten salt lakes in the Lake King region where taken, freeze-dried and ground. In order to simulate the abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds the soil samples were resuspended with water in gas-tight headspace vials. The headspace was measured using a purge and trap GC/MS. Especially the acidic lakes are sources for trihalomethanes in agreement with laboratory studies on model compounds like catechol [3]. Other compounds that are formed are chloromethane, -butane, -hexane and heptane as well as monocyclic terpenes and furan derivatives. Additionally, there are different sulphur compounds such as thiophene derivatives, carbon disulfide and dimethyl sulfide. Western Australia offers a variety of hypersaline environments with various hydrogeochemical parameters that will help to understand the abiotic formation of different volatile organic compounds. The field of research includes the complex relationships between agriculture, secondary salinisation and particle formation from volatile organic compounds emitted from the salt lakes. [1] Williams, 2001, Hydrobiologia, 466, 329-337. [2] Junkermann et al., 2009, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6531-6539. [3] Huber et al., 2009, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43 (13), 4934-4939.

Krause, T.; Studenroth, S.; Mulder, I.; Tubbesing, C.; Kotte, K.; Ofner, J.; Junkermann, W.; Schöler, H. F.

2012-04-01

202

Assessment of rainwater volatile organic carbon in southeastern North Carolina, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive production of ethanol and vehicular use of this biofuel have recently been suggested as possible sources of elevated volatile organic carbon (VOC) in rain in Brazil (Campos, M.L.A.M., Nogueira, R.F.P., Dametto, P.R., Francisco, J.G., Coelho, C.H., 2007. Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater: glassware decontamination and sample preservation and volatile organic carbon. Atmos. Environ. 41, 8924–8931; Coelho, C.H., Francisco, J.G.,

G. B. Avery Jr.; J. L. Dickson Brown; J. D. Willey; R. J. Kieber

2009-01-01

203

Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon ( Acipenser transmontanus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid

Fabio Caprino; Vittorio Maria Moretti; Federica Bellagamba; Giovanni Mario Turchini; Maria Letizia Busetto; Ivan Giani; Maria Antonietta Paleari; Mario Pazzaglia

2008-01-01

204

VAPORIZATION TECHNIQUE TO MEASURE MUTAGENIC ACTIVITY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN THE AMES/'SALOMELLA' ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the research was to develop and characterize a sensitive test method to detect mutagenic activity of volatile liquid organic chemicals (i.e., volatiles) in the Ames/Salmonella assay. A Tedlar bag vaporization technique was developed which increased contact time bet...

205

Kinetics and mechanisms of the sonolytic destruction of non-volatile organic compounds: investigation of the sonochemical reaction zone using several OH monitoring techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the sonolytic degradation mechanism of non-volatile organic compounds and reaction sites for its degradation using various tools that allow OH to be monitored, such as: the spin-trapping method of OH detection using non-volatile nitrone trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), the hydrogen peroxide analytical methods and the p-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)-probe method. These methods can successfully monitor OH produced during sonochemical

Seong-Nam Nam; Sang-Kuk Han; Joon-Wun Kang; Heechul Choi

2003-01-01

206

Effects of additional nonmethane volatile organic compounds, organic nitrates, and direct emissions of oxygenated organic species on global tropospheric chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work evaluates the sensitivity of tropospheric ozone and its precursors to the representation of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and organic nitrates. A global 3-D tropospheric chemistry\\/transport model (IMPACT) has been exercised initially using the GEOS-Chem chemical reaction mechanism. The model was then extended by adding emissions and photochemical reactions for aromatic and terpenoid hydrocarbons, and by adding explicit

Akinori Ito; Sanford Sillman; Joyce E. Penner

2007-01-01

207

Rapid changes of induced volatile organic compounds in Pinus massoniana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the thermal-desorption cold trap gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometer (TCT-GC-MS) technique, the composition and relative\\u000a contents of volatile compounds were analyzed in undamaged (control), insect-damaged (ID) and artificially-damaged (AD) leaves\\u000a of Pinus massoniana in field at different times and levels of damage. Results showed that although volatile substances were highly released earlier\\u000a in AD leaves plants, they were significantly less abundant

Qin Ren; Youju Jin; Yongjian Hu; Huajun Chen; Zhenyu Li

2007-01-01

208

Production of volatile organic compounds in cultures of cryptophytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to be produced by macroalgae, phytoplankton and bacteria in the ocean. Some phytoplankton species are known for the production of VOCs such as halomethanes and isoprene in cultures. To discuss the diversity of VOCs production among phytoplankton species, we incubated the strains of cryptophytes and measured concentrations of VOCs and chlorophyll a. Because VOCs productions of cryptophytes were poorly understood, we selected them to cover the lack of data for VOCs production. Phytoplankton cultures were grown in autoclaved f/2-Si medium with GF/F filtered aged seawater. Culture temperature and light conditions were 24.1 ± 0.2°C and 78 ± 4 ?E m-2 s-1 (1 E = 1 mol of photons) from full-spectrum vita-lite fluorescent lamp (12 h light:12 h dark cycle). VOCs concentrations in the medium were measured using a purge and trap (Tekmar PT 5000J)- gas chromatograph (Agilent 6890N)- mass spectrometer (Agilent 5973N). The concentrations of chlorophyll a was also measured using fluorometer (Turner TD-700). Isoprene concentrations were increased to 290 pmol L-1 during the exponential phase in Rhodomonas salina culture. Isoprene production rate was 0.78 ?mol g chl.a-1 day-1. This value is within the range of isoprene production by other phytoplankton species reported in the previous paper. As for halomethanes, dibromomethane concentrations were increased during the incubation time. Some iodohalomethanes were also increased during the death phase. We are currently examining the production of halomethanes in other strains of Cryptophyta.

Yamakoshi, T.; Kurihara, M.; Hashimoto, S.

2010-12-01

209

Identification and Quantification of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Dairy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Livestock operations in the United States are an escalating environmental concern. The increasing density of livestock within a farm results in an increased emission of odorous gases, which have gained considerable attention by the public in recent years (National Research Council (NRC), 2002). Odorous compounds such as ammonia (NH3), volatile organic compounds (VOC's), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were reported to have a major effect on the quality of life of local residents living near livestock facilities (NRC, 2002). There has been little data collected related to identification and quantification of gaseous compounds collected from open stall dairy operations in the United States. The research to be presented identifies and quantifies VOCs produced from a dairy operation that contribute to odor and other air quality problems. Many different VOCs were identified in the air downwind of an open lactating cow stall area and near a waste lagoon at the Washington State University dairy using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis techniques. Identified compounds were very diverse and included many alcohols, aldehydes, amines, aromatics, esters, ethers, a fixed gas, halogenated hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons, ketones, other nitrogen containing compounds, sulfur containing compounds, and terpenes. The VOCs directly associated with cattle waste were dependent on ambient temperature, with the highest emissions produced during the summer months. Low to moderate wind speeds were ideal for VOC collection. Concentrations of quantified compounds were mostly below odor detection thresholds found in the literature, however the combined odor magnitude of the large number of compounds detected was most likely above any minimum detection threshold.

Filipy, J.; Mount, G.; Westberg, H.; Rumburg, B.

2003-12-01

210

Dominant microbial volatile organic compounds in 23 US homes.  

PubMed

Associating Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (MVOCs) with the species producing them may open the path to more rapid and reliable chemical methods to detect mold problems, especially for mold hidden in wall cavities or small enclosed spaces. This study associated the dominant MVOCs in a convenience sample of 23 homes with the mold species present. Three semi-quantitative predictors of mold growth ("MOW scores") were assessed in the homes through a comparison of basement to main floor areas. MVOC samples were collected and analyzed by GC/MS. Aerotek N-6 samplers were co-located with the MVOC samplers to collect bioaerosols. Concentration and prevalence data for 19 definitive MVOCs were compared with the bioaerosol data. Mold predictor scores were elevated in basement locations as compared with main floor areas. Of the 23 mold genera identified, the predominant genera (ranked occurrences) were Cladosporium, Penicillium, Basidiomycetes, and Aspergilli. The MVOCs 2-octen-1-ol, 3-octenone, 2-heptanone, 1-octen-3-ol, and 1-butanol showed the highest average concentrations (11-37 ?g m(-3)), but no single MVOC was significantly elevated in basement locations as compared with main floor living areas in these non-problematic homes. Using a less conservative one-tail test of significance, average 2-octen-1-ol concentrations in basements were higher (p<0.040), and both 3-octenone and 1-octen-3-ol were elevated (p<0.095). Differences in MVOC occurrence were greatest between homes, with MVOCs found in basement locations typically detected in living areas at similar concentrations and frequencies. Based on these findings, the C(8) MVOCs show promise as gross indicators of fungal growth related to the most frequently found mold genera. PMID:22892356

Ryan, Timothy J; Beaucham, Catherine

2013-01-01

211

Geographical variation in the exhaled volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

Breath-gas analysis has demonstrated that concentration profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) could be used for detecting a variety of diseases, among them gastric cancer (GC) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Here, we explore how geographical variation affects the disease-specific changes in the chemical composition of breath samples, as compared to control states (less severe gastric conditions). Alveolar exhaled breath samples from 260 patients were collected at two remotely different geographic locations (China and Latvia), following similar breath-collection protocols. Each cohort included 130 patients that were matched in terms of diagnosis (37 GC/32 PUD/61 controls), average age, gender ratio and smoking habits. Helicobacter Pylori infection, which is a major cause for GC and PUD, was found in part of the patients, as well as in part of the controls, at both locations. The breath samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, using the same equipment and protocol-of-experiment. We observed similar characteristic differences in the chemical composition of the breath samples between the study groups at the two locations, even though the exact composition of the breath samples differed. Both in China and Latvia, the GC patients and controls could be distinguished by differences in the average levels of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; PUD patients were distinguished from controls by the levels of aromatic compounds and alcohols; GC and PUD patients could not be distinguished at either site. This pilot study indicates the limitations of chemical breath-gas analysis alone for identifying gastric diseases based on the concentration profiles of separate VOCs in international patient cohorts. We assume that these limitations would apply to other diseases as well. The presented data could potentially be useful for developing an alternative, universally applicable diagnostic method that relies on the detection of changes in the collective patterns of the disease-specific classes of exhaled VOCs. PMID:24184568

Amal, Haitham; Leja, Marcis; Broza, Yoav Y; Tisch, Ulrike; Funka, Konrads; Liepniece-Karele, Inta; Skapars, Roberts; Xu, Zhen-Qin; Liu, Hu; Haick, Hossam

2013-12-01

212

Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the UAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry system has been used to identify major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sources in the UAE (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E). VOCs are emitted from an extensive number of sources in urban environments including fuel production, distribution, and consumption. Transport sources contribute a substantial portion of the VOC burden to the urban atmosphere in developed regions. UAE is located at the edge of the Persian Gulf and is highly affected by emissions from petrochemical industries in neighbouring Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Iran. VOCs emerging from these industries can be transported to the UAE with jet streams. The analysis of the collected air samples at three locations in Sharjah, UAE during the autumn and winter seasons indicates the presence of more than 100 VOC species. The concentrations of these species vary in magnitudes but the most prominent are: acetylene, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, benzene, and toluene. The possible tracers for various emission sources have also been identified such as 2-methylpentane, 1, 3-butadiene and 2, 2-dimethlybutane for vehicle exhaust, the light hydrocarbons, namely n-butane, trans-2-butene, and n-pentane for gasoline vapor, and n-nonane, n-decane, and n-undecane for diesel vapor and asphalt application processes. As various emission sources are characterized by overlapping VOC species, the ratio of possible VOC tracers are used to quantify the contribution of different sources. Our aim in this paper is to explore and discuss possible impacts of transported emissions on the local VOC emission inventory from various sources for the UAE. This work is partially supported by Office of Development and Alumni Affairs at the American University of Sharjah, U.A.E.

Abbasi, Naveed; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Riemer, Daniel; Apel, Eric; Lootah, Nadia

213

Exposure to volatile organic compounds: Comparison among different transportation modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing trend of promoting public transportation (bus tram, metro, train) and more environmental friendly and sustainable non fossil-fuel alternatives (walking, cycling etc) as substitutes for auto vehicles brings forward new questions with regard to pollutant levels to which commuters are exposed. In this study, three transportation modes (tram, auto vehicle and bicycle) are studied and concentration levels of 84 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygen containing hydrocarbons, terpenes and halogenated compounds) are measured along a route in the city of Ghent, Belgium. The concentration levels are obtained by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent tubes followed by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) using deuterated toluene as an internal standard. The median total VOC concentrations for the tram mode (33 ?g/m³) is 1.7 times higher than that of the bicycle mode (20 ?g/m³) and 1.5 times higher than for the car mode (22 ?g/m³). It is found that aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant proportion in the total VOCs concentration (TVOCs) being as high as 41-57%, 59-72% and 58-72% for the tram, car and bicycle respectively. In all transportation modes, there was a high (r > 0.6) degree of correlation between BTEX compounds, isopropylbenzene, n-propylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. When comparing time weighed average concentrations along a fixed route in Ghent, it is found that commuters using the tram mode experience the highest TVOCs concentration levels. However, next to the concentration level to which commuters are exposed, the physical activity level involving the mode of transportation is important to assess the exposure to toxic VOCs. It is proven that the commuter using a bicycle (4.3 ± 1.5 ?g) inhales seven and nine times more benzene compared to the commuter using the car and tram respectively, when the same route is followed.

Do, Duc Hoai; Van Langenhove, Herman; Chigbo, Stephen Izuchukwu; Amare, Abebech Nuguse; Demeestere, Kristof; Walgraeve, Christophe

2014-09-01

214

Adsorption of volatile organic compounds in porous metal-organic frameworks functionalized by polyoxometalates  

SciTech Connect

The functionalization of porous metal-organic frameworks (Cu{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}) was achieved by incorporating Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POMs), and further optimized via alkali metal ion-exchange. In addition to thermal gravimetric analysis, IR, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and powder X-ray diffraction, the adsorption properties were characterized by N{sub 2} and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) adsorption measurements, including short-chain alcohols (C<4), cyclohexane, benzene, and toluene. The adsorption enthalpies estimated by the modified Clausius-Clapeyron equation provided insight into the impact of POMs and alkali metal cations on the adsorption of VOCs. The introduction of POMs not only improved the stability, but also brought the increase of adsorption capacity by strengthening the interaction with gas molecules. Furthermore, the exchanged alkali metal cations acted as active sites to interact with adsorbates and enhanced the adsorption of VOCs. - Graphical Abstract: The adsorption behavior of volatile organic compounds in porous metal-organic frameworks functionalized by polyoxometalates has been systematically evaluated. Highlights: > Functionalization of MOFs was achieved by incorporating Keggin-type POMs. > Introduction of POMs improved the thermal stability and adsorption capacity. > Alkali metal ion-exchange modified the inclusion state and also enhanced the adsorption. > Adsorption enthalpies were estimated to study the impact of POMs and alkali metal cations.

Ma Fengji [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Liu Shuxia, E-mail: liusx@nenu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Liang Dadong; Ren Guojian; Wei Feng; Chen Yaguang; Su Zhongmin [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

2011-11-15

215

Diagnosis of anaerobic infection by gas chromatographic estimation of volatile fatty acids.  

PubMed

Nine hundred and eighty-one fluid specimens were analysed by culture and by gas chromatography. The presence of obligate anaerobes was best predicted if one or more of the volatile acids isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, isocaproic or caproic acid were detected in the specimen. Propionic acid was not a good indicator of the presence of obligate anaerobes. The agreement between gas chromatography and culture for obligate anaerobes in the main study (841 specimens, 232 culture positive) was: co-positivity 82%; co-negativity 92%. Falsely negative specimens contained anaerobes which had probably not produced sufficient of their characteristic volatile fatty acids to be detected. When it was the sole infecting anaerobe, Bacteroides fragilis seemed especially likely to be missed by gas chromatography. Forty-five of the 51 falsely positive specimens probably represented failure to culture anaerobes rather than spurious volatile fatty acid detection. PMID:7160368

Nichols, W W; Crow, M R; Nicholls, K

1982-12-01

216

Assessing the effects of solids residence time and volatile fatty acid augmentation on biological phosphorus removal using real wastewater.  

PubMed

The purpose of the research presented herein was to evaluate the effects of solids residence time (SRT) and organic acid augmentation on biological phosphorus removal (BPR), with a focus on how these operational variables affect key metabolisms and the distribution of the microbial population. Using laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors seeded with a mixed microbial consortium and fed real wastewater, we observed that longer SRTs can improve BPR performance; organic acid augmentation can stabilize BPR, but it is not necessary for process success; and higher volatile suspended solids concentrations correlate with improved phosphorus removal. The results also suggest that organic acids may not be critical in driving anaerobic phosphorus release, but in driving aerobic growth. Finally, given an observed population similarity across all tested bioreactors, BPR variability appears to be less influenced by the presence of specific microbes and more affected by the induction of critical metabolisms. PMID:20369565

Horgan, Christopher J; Coats, Erik R; Loge, Frank J

2010-03-01

217

EVALUATION OF SOLID ADSORBENTS FOR THE COLLECTION AND ANALYSES OF AMBIENT BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

Micrometeorological flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) usually require that large volumes of air be collected (whole air samples) or focused during the sampling process (cryogenic trapping or gas-solid partitioning on adsorbents) in order to achiev...

218

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES FROM MIXED DECIDUOUS AND CONIFEROUS FORESTS IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from forests play an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including global tropospheric ozone concentrations. However, more information is needed on VOC emission rates from different forest regio...

219

TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN UPFLOW WETLAND MESOCOSMS. (R828773C003)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sorption, biodegradation and hydraulic parameters were determined in the laboratory for two candidate soil substrate mixtures for construction of an upflow treatment wetland for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at a Superfund site. The major parent contaminants in the groundw...

220

HUMAN EXPOSURES TO VOLATILE HALOGENATED ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile halogenated organic chemicals are found in indoor and outdoor air, often at concentrations substantially above those in remote, unpopulated areas. The outdoor ambient concentrations vary considerably among sampling stations throughout the United States, as well as diurna...

221

PERTURBATION OF VOLTAGE-SENSITIVE CALCIUM FUNCTION IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELLS BY VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile organic solvents such as toluene (TOL) and trichloroethylene perturb nervous system function and share characteristic effects with other central nervous system depressants such as anesthetic gasses, ethanol, benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Recently, mechanistic studies...

222

EXPOSURE OF HUMANS TO A VOLATILE ORGANIC MIXTURE: I. BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Subjective reactions of discomfort, impaired air quality, irritation of mucosal membranes, and impaired memory have been reported to chemically sensitive subjects during exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC's) found in new buildings. 6 normal healthy male subjects aged 18-...

223

BREAKPOINT CHLORINATION/ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT: EFFECT ON VOLATILE HALOGENATED ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The production and removal of six volatile halogenated organic compounds during treatment of tertiary clarified and filtered wastewater by breakpoint chlorination and activated carbon was examined in a continuous flow pilot plant. Short contact time breakpoint chlorination of fil...

224

COMPARISON OF PROCEDURES TO DETERMINE ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON ACTIVATED CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are under regulatory consideration for inclusion in the National Primary Drinking Water Standards. Adsorption is a cost-effective treatment technology for control of VOCs. Adsorption capacities were determined for fifteen VOCs in distill...

225

FIELD EVALUATION OF A SIMPLE MICROCOSM SIMULATING THE BEHAVIOR OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SUBSURFACE MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A simple batch microcosm had previously been developed to simulate the behavior of volatile organic compounds in unconsolidated subsurface material. The microcosm was evaluated by comparing the behavior of tetrachloroethylene, bromoform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichlorobenzene,...

226

Impacts of herbaceous bioenergy crops on atmospheric volatile organic composition and potential consequences  

E-print Network

Impacts of herbaceous bioenergy crops on atmospheric volatile organic composition and potential compared BVOC emissions from three potential bioenergy crops and estimated their theoretical impacts on bioenergy agroecosystems. The crops chosen were miscanthus (Miscanthus 9 giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum

DeLucia, Evan H.

227

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEVELS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR AND BLOOD FROM THE GENERAL POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: The relationships between levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in blood and air have not been well characterized in the general population where exposure concentrations are generally at ppb levels. Objectives: This study investigates relationships between ...

228

CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) EMISSIONS BY CATALYTIC INCINERATION. VOLUME 9. QUALITY ASSURANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Radian Corporation, under contract to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, performed site selection, test plan development, and performance tests of catalytic incinerators used for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions control at industrial sites. VOC emissions are of co...

229

QUANTIFYING NON-POINT SOURCES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN STORMWATER FROM A PARKING LOT  

E-print Network

stormwater, volatile organic compounds, impervious area, atmosphere #12;3 INTRODUCTION Protecting the quality non-point source of VOCs is residue from spills trapped in the pore space of concrete and asphalt

230

A theoretical study of discrete air phase migration contaminated with a volatile organic  

E-print Network

A theoretical study of discrete air phase migration contaminated with a volatile organic is developed in order to study air bubble migration through granular porous media in air sparging technology. The experiment is performed in a homogeneous...

Drazenovic, Mirna

2012-06-07

231

Electrospun Polyurethane Fibers for Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds from Air  

E-print Network

Electrospun polyurethane fibers for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air with rapid VOC absorption and desorption have been developed. Polyurethanes based on 4,4-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) (MDI) and ...

Scholten, Elke

232

HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS AND MICELLAR PARTITIONING OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SURFACTANT SOLUTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Partitioning of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into surfactant micelles affects the apparent vapor-liquid equilibrium of VOCs in surfactant solutions. This partitioning will complicate removal of VOCs from surfactant solutions by standard separation processes. Headspace expe...

233

75 FR 82363 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9245-8] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Ohio; Volatile Organic Compound Emission Control Measures for Lithographic and Letterpress Printing in Cleveland AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)....

2010-12-30

234

Development and Application of Improved Methods for Measurement of Ozone Formation Potentials of Volatile Organic Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was aimed at developing improved and lower-cost alternative experimental procedures for evaluating chemical mechanisms for predicting ozone impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). More precise measurements of effects of VOCs on OH radic...

W. P. L. Carter, I. Malkina

2002-01-01

235

INTERLABORATORY STUDY OF A TEST METHOD FOR MEASURING TOTAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND CONTENT OF CONSUMER PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes results of an interlaboratory study to estimate repeatability (precision of analyses performed by a single laboratory) and reproducibility (precision analyses performed by different laboratories) of a consumer products volatile organic compound (VOC) measurem...

236

IMPROVED METHOD FOR THE STORAGE OF GROUND WATER SAMPLES CONTAINING VOLATILE ORGANIC ANALYTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The sorption of volatile organic analytes from water samples by the Teflon septum surface used with standard glass 40-ml sample collection vials was investigated. Analytes tested included alkanes, isoalkanes, olefins, cycloalkanes, a cycloalkene, monoaromatics, a polynuclear arom...

237

Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry during the MILAGRO 2006 Campaign  

E-print Network

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) on a rooftop in the urban mixed residential and industrial area North Northeast of downtown Mexico City as part of ...

Fortner, E. C.

238

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A MEMS CHEMICAPACITIVE SENSOR FOR THE DETECTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

E-print Network

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A MEMS CHEMICAPACITIVE SENSOR FOR THE DETECTION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC by Todd Jackson Plum entitled Design and Fabrication of a MEMS Chemicapacitive Sensor for the Detection ............................................................................................................... 3 Techniques Used for Sensor Development

Baker, R. Jacob

239

Reaction of ozone with c5 and c6 biogenic volatile organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

REACTION OF OZONE WITH C5 AND C6 BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS M. O'Connor, M. O'Dwyer, J. Wenger CRAC-Centre for Research into Atmospheric Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University College Cork, Ireland. jwenger@chemistry.ucc.ie Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) account for around 90% of hydrocarbon emissionsinto the Earth's atmosphere. During the last ten years an increasing number of oxygenated BVOCs have also been

M. O Connor; M. O Dwyer; J. Wenger

2003-01-01

240

Catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds on gold\\/cerium oxide catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic combustion of some representative volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (2-propanol, methanol and toluene) was investigated on gold\\/cerium oxide catalysts prepared by coprecipitation (CP) and deposition–precipitation (DP). The presence of gold has been found to enhance the activity of cerium oxide towards the oxidation of the selected volatile organic compounds, the extent of this effect depending on the preparation method of

Salvatore Scirè; Simona Minicò; Carmelo Crisafulli; Cristina Satriano; Alessandro Pistone

2003-01-01

241

Analysis of volatile fatty acids in wastewater collected from a pig farm by a solid phase microextraction method.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this study is to develop a reliable Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) method for monitoring the concentration of volatile fatty acid (VFA) in the wastewater collected from pig farms. Ten volatile fatty acid species were spiked in 2 ml of swine wastewater and extracted with a carbowax coated extraction fiber to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the method. The fiber was introduced into a gas chromatography system by thermal desorption and detected by a mass spectrometer detector. The estimated method detection limits ranged from 11.5 mM/L for formic acid to 0.03 mM/L for heptanoic acid. The method is more sensitive than the sample direct injection method. The percentage recovery of analytes ranged from 77.3 for propanoic acid to 114.1 for formic acid at the spike level of 19.09 mM/L. The compound absorption rate varied significantly with the fiber absorption time for n-Valeric, isocaproic, n-caproic and heptanoic acids. An SPME method with twenty minutes fiber absorption and three minutes thermal desorption was tested in this study and resulted in good reproducibility for analyzing VFAs in swine wastewater. The method may be applied for scanning a wide spectrum of polar organic compounds in environmental samples. PMID:10903114

Yo, S P

1999-02-01

242

Emission of volatile organic compounds from silage: Compounds, sources, and implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silage, fermented cattle feed, has recently been identified as a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. A small number of studies have measured VOC emission from silage, but not enough is known about the processes involved to accurately quantify emission rates and identify practices that could reduce emissions. Through a literature review, we have focused on identifying the most important compounds emitted from corn silage (the most common type of silage in the US) and the sources of these compounds by quantifying their production and emission potential in silage and describing production pathways. We reviewed measurements of VOC emission from silage and assessed the importance of individual silage VOCs through a quantitative analysis of VOC concentrations within silage. Measurements of VOC emission from silage and VOCs present within silage indicated that alcohols generally make the largest contribution to emission from corn silage, in terms of mass emitted and potential ozone formation. Ethanol is the dominant alcohol in corn silage; excluding acids, it makes up more than half of the mean mass of VOCs present. Acids, primarily acetic acid, may be important when emission is high and all VOCs are nearly depleted by emission. Aldehydes and esters, which are more volatile than acids and alcohols, are important when exposure is short, limiting emission of more abundant but less volatile compounds. Variability in silage VOC concentrations is very high; for most alcohols and acids, tolerance intervals indicate that 25% of silages have concentrations a factor of two away from median values, and possibly much further. This observation suggests that management practices can significantly influence VOC concentrations. Variability also makes prediction of emissions difficult. The most important acids, alcohols, and aldehydes present in silage are probably produced by bacteria (and, in the case of ethanol, yeasts) during fermentation and storage of silage. Aldehydes may also be produced aerobically by spoilage microorganisms through the oxidation of alcohols. Abiotic reactions may be important for production of methanol and esters. Although silage additives appear to affect VOC production in individual studies, bacterial inoculants have not shown a consistent effect on ethanol, and effects on other VOCs have not been studied. Production of acetic acid is understood, and production could be minimized, but a decrease could lead to an increase in other, more volatile and more reactive, VOCs. Chemical additives designed for controlling yeasts and undesirable bacteria show promise for reducing ethanol production in corn silage. More work is needed to understand silage VOC production and emission from silage, including: additional measurements of VOC concentrations or production in silage of all types, and an exploration of the causes of variability; accurate on-farm measurements of VOC emission, including an assessment of the importance of individual ensiling stages and practices that could reduce emission of existing VOCs; and work on understanding the sources of silage VOCs and possible approaches for reducing production.

Hafner, Sasha D.; Howard, Cody; Muck, Richard E.; Franco, Roberta B.; Montes, Felipe; Green, Peter G.; Mitloehner, Frank; Trabue, Steven L.; Rotz, C. Alan

2013-10-01

243

Volatile acetic acid and formaldehyde emission from plywood treated with boron compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of plywood on formaldehyde and volatile acetic acid emissions treated with borax and boric acid were investigated. The treated plywood samples were manufactured by using two different methods; each veneer was first impregnated by a dipping method before the first group of plywood was manufactured. The second group of plywood panels was produced by adding preservatives (borax, boric

S. Colak; G. Colakoglu

2004-01-01

244

Volatile Organic Compounds Produced During Irradiation of Mail  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, Bacillus anthracis spores were delivered through the United States postal system in a series of bioterrorist acts. Controls proposed for this threat included sanitization with high-energy electrons. Solid phase microextraction was used with gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry for field sampling and analysis of volatile compounds apparently produced from polymeric materials such as cellulose and plastics, immediately following processing of

Philip A. Smith; Michael V. Sheely; Shelly J. Hakspiel; Stephen Miller

2003-01-01

245

40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile...of a new VOC control device (other than a condenser) on a magnetic tape coating operation shall control emissions from the...

2013-07-01

246

40 CFR 60.712 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Magnetic Tape Coating Facilities § 60.712 Standards for volatile...of a new VOC control device (other than a condenser) on a magnetic tape coating operation shall control emissions from the...

2012-07-01

247

40 CFR 60.722 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines § 60.722 Standards for volatile...coating of plastic parts for business machines. (2) 1.5 kilograms of VOC's...coating of plastic parts for business machines. (3) 2.3 kilograms of...

2011-07-01

248

40 CFR 60.722 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines § 60.722 Standards for volatile...coating of plastic parts for business machines. (2) 1.5 kilograms of VOC's...coating of plastic parts for business machines. (3) 2.3 kilograms of...

2013-07-01

249

40 CFR 60.722 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Coating of Plastic Parts for Business Machines § 60.722 Standards for volatile...coating of plastic parts for business machines. (2) 1.5 kilograms of VOC's...coating of plastic parts for business machines. (3) 2.3 kilograms of...

2012-07-01

250

Differentiating a Diverse Range of Volatile Organic Compounds with Polyfluorophore Sensors Built on a DNA Scaffold  

PubMed Central

Oligodeoxyfluorosides (ODFs) are short DNA-like oligomers in which DNA bases are replaced with fluorophores. A preliminary study reported that some sequences of ODFs were able to respond to a few organic small molecules in the vapor phase, giving a change in fluorescence. Here we follow up on this finding by investigating a larger range of volatile organic analytes, and a considerably larger set of sensors. A library of tetramer ODFs of 2401 different sequences was prepared using combinatorial methods, and was screened in air for fluorescence responses to a set of ten different volatile organics, including multiple aromatic and aliphatic compounds, acids and bases, varied functional groups and closely related structures. Nineteen responding sensors were selected and characterized; these were cross-screened against all ten analytes, and responses were measured qualitatively (by changes in color and intensity) and quantitatively (by measuring ?(R,G,B) values averaged over 5–6 sensor beads). The results show that sensor responses were diverse, with a single sensor responding differently to as many as eight of the ten analytes; multiple classes of responses were seen, including quenching, lighting up, and varied shifts in wavelength. Responses were strong, with raw ?(R,G,B) values of as high as >200 on a 256-unit scale and unamplified changes in many cases apparent to the naked eye. Sensors were identified that could distinguish clearly between even very closely related compounds such as acrolein and acrylonitrile. Statistical methods were applied to select a small set of four sensors that, as a pattern response, could distinguish between all ten analytes with high confidence. Sequence analysis of the full set of sensors suggested that sequence/order of the monomer components, and not merely composition, was highly important in the responses. PMID:21207614

Samain, Florent; Dai, Nan; Kool, Eric T.

2011-01-01

251

Regeneration of carboxylic acid-amine extracts by back-extraction with an aqueous solution of a volatile amine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tertiar amines are effective extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from aqueous solution. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle.

I. J. Poole; C. Judson King

1991-01-01

252

Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid composition. Irrespective of dietary treatments, palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (OA, 18:1 n-9) were the most abundant fatty acid followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicopentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3). Thirty-three volatile compounds were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and identified by GC-MS. The largest group of volatiles were represented by aldehydes with 20 compounds, representing the 60% of the total volatiles. n-Alkanals, 2-alkenals and 2,4-alkadienals are largely the main responsible for a wide range of flavours in caviar from farmed white surgeon. PMID:18486649

Caprino, Fabio; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bellagamba, Federica; Turchini, Giovanni Mario; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Giani, Ivan; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Pazzaglia, Mario

2008-06-01

253

Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds by Weight-Detectable Sensors coated with Metal-Organic Frameworks.  

PubMed

Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using weight-detectable quartz microbalance and silicon-based microcantilever sensors coated with crystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films is described in this paper. The thin films of two MOFs were grown from COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayers onto the gold electrodes of sensor platforms. The MOF layers worked as the effective concentrators of VOC gases, and the adsorption/desorption processes of the VOCs could be monitored by the frequency changes of weight-detectable sensors. Moreover, the MOF layers provided VOC sensing selectivity to the weight-detectable sensors through the size-selective adsorption of the VOCs within the regulated nanospace of the MOFs. PMID:25175808

Yamagiwa, Hiroki; Sato, Seiko; Fukawa, Tadashi; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Ryutaro; Mihara, Takashi; Kimura, Mutsumi

2014-01-01

254

Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds by Weight-Detectable Sensors coated with Metal-Organic Frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using weight-detectable quartz microbalance and silicon-based microcantilever sensors coated with crystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films is described in this paper. The thin films of two MOFs were grown from COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayers onto the gold electrodes of sensor platforms. The MOF layers worked as the effective concentrators of VOC gases, and the adsorption/desorption processes of the VOCs could be monitored by the frequency changes of weight-detectable sensors. Moreover, the MOF layers provided VOC sensing selectivity to the weight-detectable sensors through the size-selective adsorption of the VOCs within the regulated nanospace of the MOFs.

Yamagiwa, Hiroki; Sato, Seiko; Fukawa, Tadashi; Ikehara, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Ryutaro; Mihara, Takashi; Kimura, Mutsumi

2014-09-01

255

Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi  

E-print Network

12 Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi Jon K. Magnuson and Linda L. Lasure 1. Introduction Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less vis- ible impact on human well

256

7, 69997034, 2007 Organic acid uptake  

E-print Network

as a function of rela- tive humidity (RH), organic acid pressure and clay mass. A high vacuum chamber equippedACPD 7, 6999­7034, 2007 Organic acid uptake on a swelling clay C. D. Hatch et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Heterogeneous uptake of the C1 to C4 organic acids on a swelling clay

Boyer, Edmond

257

Volatile buffers can override the "pH memory" of subtilisin catalysis in organic media  

PubMed Central

The protonation state and activity of enzymes in low-water media are affected by the aqueous pH before drying (“pH memory”). However, both protonation and activity will change if buffer ions can be removed as volatile or organic-extractable weak acids or bases. With NH4OOCH buffers, in which both ions can be removed, pH memory disappears completely for subtilisin-catalyzed transesterification in hexane. Only weak pH memory is found with buffers having one volatile component, NH4-phosphate and NaOOCH. The changes in ionization state result from proton exchanges like Protein-COO?NH4+ ? Protein-COOH + NH3 (g) and Protein-NH3+HCOO? ? Protein-NH2 + HOOCH (g). An equivalent, complementary picture is that net charges on the protein and buffer ions must remain equal and opposite. With NaOOCH buffers, loss of some HCOO? ions gives a more negative net charge on the protein, balanced by the excess Na+. With NH4-phosphate buffers, loss of NH3 gives protein with a more positive net charge. The resulting catalytic activities were high and low, respectively, similar to those after drying from Na-phosphate buffers of optimal (8.5) and acid pH. All of the above effects have been demonstrated for both covalently immobilized subtilisin and the lyophilized free enzyme. Subtilisin lyophilized from NH4OOCH buffers gave pH ?4 after redissolution in water, probably because removal of HCOO? counterions remains incomplete. The resulting catalytic activity was low. The effects are discussed in relation to the possible locations, in low-dielectric media, of the positive charge that balances the net negative catalytic triad in active subtilisin. PMID:9990001

Zacharis, Evagelos; Halling, Peter J.; Rees, D. Gareth

1999-01-01

258

A volatile organics concentrator for use in monitoring Space Station water quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process used to identify, select, and design an approach to the isolation and concentration of volatile organic compounds from a water sample prior to chemical analysis in a microgravity environment is discerned. The trade analysis leading to the recommended volatile organics concentrator (VOC) concept to be tested in a breadboard device is presented. The system covers the areas of gases, volatile separation from water, and water removal/gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer interface. Five options for potential use in the VOC and GC/MS system are identified and ranked, and also nine options are presented for separation of volatiles from the water phase. Seven options for use in the water removal/GC column and MS interface are also identified and included in the overall considerations. A final overall recommendation for breadboard VOC testing is given.

Ehntholt, Daniel J.; Bodek, Itamar; Valentine, James R.; Trabanino, Rudy; Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

1990-01-01

259

The development of a volatile organics concentrator for use in monitoring Space Station water quality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A breadboard concept of a volatile organics concentrator (VOC) is manufactured and tested for optimized water-quality analysis in a space environment. The VOC system is attached to a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to analyze the volatile chemicals relevant to the operation of Space Station Freedom. The preliminary tests include: (1) comparisons with analyses based on direct on-column injections of standards; (2) analyses of iodinated volatile organics; (3) comparisons of nitrogen vs helium as the chromatography carrier gas; and (4) measurements of collection efficiency. The VOC can analyze EPA method-624 analytes at comparable detection using flame-ionization detection and can analyze volatile iodinated compounds. The breadboard has good reproducibility and can use nitrogen as a carrier gas; good results are noted for the collection and concentration levels and for water removal.

Bodek, Itamar; Ehntholt, Daniel J.; Stolki, Thomas J.; Valentine, James R.; Trabanino, Rudy; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

1991-01-01

260

Factors influencing the production of volatile phenols by wine lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aimed to evaluate the effect of certain factors on the production of volatile phenols from the metabolism of p-coumaric acid by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus plantarum, L. collinoides and Pediococcus pentosaceus). The studied factors were: pH, l-malic acid concentration, glucose and fructose concentrations and aerobic\\/anaerobic conditions. It was found that, in the pH range of 3.5 to

Isa Silva; Francisco M. Campos; Tim Hogg; José António Couto

2011-01-01

261

Organic acids tunably catalyze carbonic acid decomposition.  

PubMed

Density functional theory calculations predict that the gas-phase decomposition of carbonic acid, a high-energy, 1,3-hydrogen atom transfer reaction, can be catalyzed by a monocarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid, including carbonic acid itself. Carboxylic acids are found to be more effective catalysts than water. Among the carboxylic acids, the monocarboxylic acids outperform the dicarboxylic ones wherein the presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond hampers the hydrogen transfer. Further, the calculations reveal a direct correlation between the catalytic activity of a monocarboxylic acid and its pKa, in contrast to prior assumptions about carboxylic-acid-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer reactions. The catalytic efficacy of a dicarboxylic acid, on the other hand, is significantly affected by the strength of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Transition-state theory estimates indicate that effective rate constants for the acid-catalyzed decomposition are four orders-of-magnitude larger than those for the water-catalyzed reaction. These results offer new insights into the determinants of general acid catalysis with potentially broad implications. PMID:24933150

Kumar, Manoj; Busch, Daryle H; Subramaniam, Bala; Thompson, Ward H

2014-07-10

262

The consequences of volatile organic compound mediated bacterial and fungal interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial interactions via infochemicals are fundamental to the development of spatial distribution and activity variations\\u000a in ecosystems. Microorganisms produce a wide range of infochemicals, frequently secondary metabolites, most of which are soluble\\u000a and many volatile. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been identified in soil atmospheres and related to community structure\\u000a and function. VOC profiles produced by microorganisms are consistent, relating

R. E. Wheatley

2002-01-01

263

Influence of adjunct cultures on volatile free fatty acids in reduced-fat Edam cheeses.  

PubMed

The effects of the adjunct cultures Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Brevibacterium linens BL2, Lactobacillus helveticus LH212, and Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272 on volatile free fatty acid production in reduced-fat Edam cheese were studied. Lipase activity evaluation using p-nitrophenyl fatty acid ester substrates indicated that L. lactis ssp. diacetylactis showed the highest activity among the 4 adjunct cultures. Full-fat and 33% reduced-fat control cheeses (no adjunct) were made along with 5 treatments of reduced-fat cheeses, which included individual, and a mixture of the adjunct cultures. Volatile free fatty acids of cheeses were analyzed using static headspace analysis with 4-bromofluorobenzene as an internal standard. Changes in volatile free fatty acid concentrations were found in headspace gas of cheeses after 3-and 6-mo ripening. Acetic acid was the most abundant acid detected throughout ripening. Full-fat cheese had the highest relative amount of propionic acid among the cheeses. Certain adjunct cultures had a definite role in lipolysis at particular times. Reduced-fat cheese with L. lactis ssp. diacetylactis at 3-mo showed the highest levels of butyric, isovaleric, n-valeric, iso-caproic, and n-caproic acid. Reduced-fat cheese with Lactobacillus reuteri at 6 mo produced the highest relative concentration of isocaproic, n-caproic, and heptanoic, and the highest relative concentration of total acids. PMID:15377601

Tungjaroenchai, W; White, C H; Holmes, W E; Drake, M A

2004-10-01

264

Modeling organic aerosols in a megacity: potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to estimate the potential contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic precursors (S/IVOC) in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA), their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007) ("ROB") and Grieshop et al. (2009) ("GRI") are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (2-4 times) with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009), both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The predicted production from anthropogenic and biomass burning S/IVOC represents 40-60% of the total measured SOA at the surface during the day and is somewhat larger than that from commonly measured aromatic VOCs, especially at the T1 site at the edge of the city. The SOA production from the continued multi-generation S/IVOC oxidation products continues actively downwind. Similar to aircraft observations, the predicted OA/?CO ratio for the ROB case increases from 20-30 ?g sm-3 ppm-1 up to 60-70 ?g sm-3 ppm-1 between a fresh and 1-day aged air mass, while the GRI case produces a 30% higher OA growth than observed. The predicted average O/C ratio of total OA for the ROB case is 0.16 at T0, substantially below observed value of 0.5. A much better agreement for O/C ratios and temporal variability (R2=0.63) is achieved with the updated GRI treatment. Both treatments show a deficiency in regard to POA ageing with a tendency to over-evaporate POA upon dilution of the urban plume suggesting that atmospheric HOA may be less volatile than assumed in these parameterizations. This study highlights the important potential role of S/IVOC chemistry in the SOA budget in this region, and highlights the need for further improvements in available parameterizations. The agreement observed in this study is not sufficient evidence to conclude that S/IVOC are the major missing SOA source in megacity environments. The model is still very underconstrained, and other possible pathways such as formation from very volatile species like glyoxal may explain some of the mass and especially increase the O/C ratio.

Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Madronich, S.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Decarlo, P. F.; Kleinman, L.; Fast, J.

2010-06-01

265

Interaction of volatiles, sugars, and acids on perception of tomato aroma and flavor descriptors.  

PubMed

To better understand the effect of sugars and acid levels on perception of aroma volatiles, intensity of tomato earthy/medicinal/musty, green/grassy/viney, and fruity/floral aroma and flavor descriptors were evaluated using coarsely chopped partially deodorized tomato puree. This puree was spiked with 1.5% to 3% sugar (glucose/fructose combinations), 0.1% to 0.2% acid (citric/malic acid combinations), or water and 2 levels of 12 individual food-grade volatiles reported to contribute to tomato flavor. A panel consisting of 6 to 8 trained members rated 9 aroma, 8 taste, and 1 aftertaste descriptors of the spiked and nonspiked purees. The panelists detected significant differences (P < or = 0.1) for various individual aroma compound/sugar/acid combinations for a range of descriptors. Adding 0.2% acids alone to bland tomato puree decreased green and floral aromas as well as sweet taste. Adding 3% sugars alone increased green and musty aromas and decreased floral aroma as well as sour, citrus, and bitter tastes. Principal component analysis (PCA) explained 56.5% of the variation in the first 3 principal components (PCs) for added acids and volatiles to bland tomato puree. The effect of added acids with the various aroma compounds generally increased perception of overall and ripe tomato taste and aroma, tropical aroma, and sour taste, and decreased sweet, fruity, and bitter tastes. PCA for added sugars with volatiles explained 67.8% of the variation in first 3 PCs, and sugars generally decreased perception of sour, bitter, and citrus tastes and green aroma, while enhancing perception of flavors associated with ripe, tropical, and aromatic tomatoes. Adding sugars, acids, and volatiles together had a similar effect to addition of sugars alone. PMID:19241574

Baldwin, E A; Goodner, K; Plotto, A

2008-08-01

266

Environmental Aspects of Two Volatile Organic Compound Groundwater Treatment Designs at the Rocky Flats Site - 13135  

SciTech Connect

DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado is a former nuclear weapons production facility that began operations in the early 1950's. Because of releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the federally owned property and adjacent offsite areas were placed on the CERCLA National Priorities List in 1989. The final remedy was selected in 2006. Engineered components of the remedy include four groundwater treatment systems that were installed before closure as CERCLA-accelerated actions. Two of the systems, the Mound Site Plume Treatment System and the East Trenches Plume Treatment System, remove low levels of volatile organic compounds using zero-valent iron media, thereby reducing the loading of volatile organic compounds in surface water resulting from the groundwater pathway. However, the zero-valent iron treatment does not reliably reduce all volatile organic compounds to consistently meet water quality goals. While adding additional zero-valent iron media capacity could improve volatile organic compound removal capability, installation of a solar powered air-stripper has proven an effective treatment optimization in further reducing volatile organic compound concentrations. A comparison of the air stripper to the alternative of adding additional zero-valent iron capacity to improve Mound Site Plume Treatment System and East Trenches Plume Treatment System treatment based on several key sustainable remediation aspects indicates the air stripper is also more 'environmentally friendly'. These key aspects include air pollutant emissions, water quality, waste management, transportation, and costs. (authors)

Michalski, Casey C.; DiSalvo, Rick; Boylan, John [Stoller LMS Team, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)] [Stoller LMS Team, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)

2013-07-01

267

Conductive-carbon-black filled PDMS chemiresistor sensor for the detection of volatile organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the conductive-carbon-black filled PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) composite as the sensing material for the detection of volatile organic compounds (cyclohexane and isopropanol). The sensing composite film is immobilized on the interdigitated gold microelectrode pairs. The resistance change ratios with the organic compounds vapors have been examined. The measurement results show that the outputs of the sensor as a function of

Jian Wang; Bo Feng; Wengang Wu

2011-01-01

268

Ventilation Control of Volatile Organic Compounds in New U.S. Homes: Results of a  

E-print Network

1 Ventilation Control of Volatile Organic Compounds in New U.S. Homes: Results of a Controlled, process, or service by its trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily organic compounds (VOCs) was assessed by measuring air exchange rates and VOC concentrations at three

269

Plant Volatiles-based Insect Pest Management in Organic Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic agriculture is increasing in popularity worldwide due to the rapidly growing market for organic products. In organic production, insects present a major pest challenge that negatively impacts crop health and yield. To successfully manage an organic farmland, an effective insect pest management program is key. In this review, we first describe the approaches currently used for pest management in

Gitika Shrivastava; Mary Rogers; Annette Wszelaki; Dilip R. Panthee; Feng Chen

2010-01-01

270

Aggregation and analysis of volatile organic compound emissions for regional modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general two-step procedure for aggregating the hundreds of reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into a much smaller set of lumped classes appropriate for regional airshed modeling is described. In the first step, the compounds are condensed into a manageable number of emission categories which could be adapted to a variety of molecularly-based lumped chemical mechanisms. In the second step, the emissions are further aggregated into a smaller set of VOC classes which directly correspond to those in a particular model's mechanism. The application of this procedure is illustrated by aggregating the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) anthropogenic VOC emissions inventory the U.S. first into the 32-class system, and then into the groups of model species used in the latest version of the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM2.0). The importance of different VOC categories and source types on regional pollution production is explored by comparing the contributions of each of the emissions groupings, RADM model species, and major emissions sources, to total moles carbon VOC reacted in model simulations. For this particular anthropogenic inventory and chemical mechanism, it is found that over 50% of the moles carbon reacted is associated with mobile sources. Such analysis can help indicate which uncertainties in anthropogenic emissions inventories may have the greatest impact on results of regional simulations.

Middleton, Paulette; Stockwell, William R.; Carter, William P. L.

271

Influence du pH sur les transferts des acides gras volatils dans la paroi ccale isole du rat  

E-print Network

Influence du pH sur les transferts des acides gras volatils dans la paroi cæcale isolée du rat P du 11-Novembre-1918 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France Summary. Influence of pH on volatile fatty acid transfer through the rat caecum wall. The influence of pH on the transfer of acetic, propionic and butyric

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

272

1.5-Dimensional volatility basis set approach for modeling organic aerosol in CAMx and CMAQ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid volatility basis set (VBS) approach to modeling atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) is developed that combines the simplicity of the 1-dimensional (1-D) VBS with the ability to describe evolution of OA in the 2-dimensional space of oxidation state and volatility. This 1.5-D scheme uses four basis sets to describe varying degrees of oxidation in ambient OA: two basis sets for chemically aged oxygenated OA (anthropogenic and biogenic) and two for freshly emitted OA (from anthropogenic sources and biomass burning). Each basis set has five volatility bins including a zero-volatility bin for essentially non-volatile compounds. The scheme adjusts oxidation state as well as volatility in response to chemical aging by simplifying the 2-dimensional VBS model. The 1.5-D VBS module is implemented in two widely used photochemical grid models (CAMx and CMAQ) and evaluated for summer and winter 2005 episodes over the eastern U.S. CAMx performs reasonably well in predicting observed organic carbon (OC) concentrations while CMAQ under-estimates OC, with differences between models being attributed to science algorithms other than the VBS. Oxygenated OA accounts for less than half of the modeled OA mass in winter but about 80% of total OA in summer due to more rapid chemical aging in summer.

Koo, Bonyoung; Knipping, Eladio; Yarwood, Greg

2014-10-01

273

Ion-trap detection of volatile organic compounds in alveolar breath  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for the collection and microanalysis of the volatile organic compounds in human breath. A transportable apparatus supplies subjects with purified air and samples their alveolar breath; the volatile organic compounds are captured in an adsorptive trap containing activated carbon and molecular sieve. The sample is thermally desorbed from the trap in an automated microprocessor-controlled device, concentrated by two-stage cryofocusing, and assayed by gas chromatography with ion-trap detection. Compounds are identified by reference to a computer-based library of mass spectra with subtraction of the background components present in the inspired air. We used this device to study 10 normal subjects and determined the relative abundance of the volatile organic compounds in their alveolar breath. The breath-collecting apparatus was convenient to operate and was well tolerated by human volunteers.

Phillips, M.; Greenberg, J. (Department of Medicine, St. Vincent's Medical Center of Richmond, Staten Island, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

274

Volatile organic compounds of polyethylene vinyl acetate plastic are toxic to living organisms.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic products readily evaporate; as a result, hazardous gases enter the ecosystem, and cause cancer in humans and other animals. Polyethylene vinyl acetate (PEVA) plastic has recently become a popular alternative to PVC since it is chlorine-free. In order to determine whether PEVA is harmful to humans, this research employed the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus as a model to compare their oxygen intakes while they were exposed to the original stock solutions of PEVA, PVC or distilled water at a different length of time for one day, four days or eight days. During the exposure periods, the oxygen intakes in both PEVA and PVC groups were much higher than in the distilled water group, indicating that VOCs in both PEVA and PVC were toxins that stressed L. variegatus. Furthermore, none of the worms fully recovered during the24-hr recovery period. Additionally, the L. variegatus did not clump together tightly after four or eight days' exposure to either of the two types of plastic solutions, which meant that both PEVA and PVC negatively affected the social behaviors of these blackworms. The LD50 tests also supported the observations above. For the first time, our results have shown that PEVA plastic has adverse effects on living organisms, and therefore it is not a safe alternative to PVC. Further studies should identify specific compounds causing the adverse effects, and determine whether toxic effect occurs in more complex organisms, especially humans. PMID:25242410

Meng, Tingzhu Teresa

2014-01-01

275

Effect of fermentable carbohydrates on volatile fatty acids, ammonia and mineral absorption in the rat caecum  

E-print Network

Effect of fermentable carbohydrates on volatile fatty acids, ammonia and mineral absorption. Theix 63110 Beaumont, France Summary. The effects of poorly digested carbohydrates in the small for cellulose, the carbohydrates (bran, pectin, guar-gum, crude potato-starch, lactose, lactulose) favoured

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate into  

E-print Network

Effects on milk yield and composition of infusions of volatile fatty acids and caseinate Laitière, Saint-Gilles, 35590 L'Hermitage, France Changes in milk secretion and composi- tion, particularly concentrate and 7.5% soya bean meal. Duodenal infusion of casein increased milk yield (+ 1.9 kg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Origin and utilization of volatile fatty acids in the rat C. RMSY C. DEMIGN F. CHARTIER  

E-print Network

at a higher rate than propionate after intra- caecal loads. Propionate was very efficiently utilizedOrigin and utilization of volatile fatty acids in the rat C. RÃ?MÃ?SY C. DEMIGNÃ? F. CHARTIER- at the cellular level is still unknown. Acetate uptake by the liver was enhanced when acetate in the afferent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

VOLATILE FATTY ACIDS AND ESSENTIAL OILS (BIACID) IMPROVE TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP's) will soon no longer be available to the poultry producer in Europe and a similar outcome is envisaged for Australia. This paper discusses and reports on the research and developmental efforts within Provimi to provide the poultry industry with an effective alternative to AGP's consisting of a blend of volatile fatty acids and essential oils.

H. KLEIN-HESSLING; D. J. LANGHOUT; P. WIJTTEN

279

ACID-VOLATILE SULFIDE AS A FACTOR MEDIATING CADMIUM AND NICKEL BIOAVAILABILITY IN CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

We investigated the influence of sulfide, measured as acid-volatile sulfide (AVS), on the bioavailability of cadmium and nickel in sediments. eventeen samples from an estuarine system heavily contaminated with cadmium and nickel were analyzed for AVS and simultaneously extracted ...

280

Multisorbent tubes for collecting volatile organic compounds in spacecraft air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sampling capability of Tenax-TA tubes, used in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's solid sorbent air sampler to trap and concentrate contaminants from air aboard spacecraft, was improved by incorporating two sorbents within the tubes. Existing tubes containing only Tenax-TA allowed highly volatile compounds to "break through" during collection of a 1.5 L air sample. First the carbon molecular sieve-type sorbents Carboxen 569 and Carbosieve S-III were tested for their ability to quantitatively trap the highly volatile compounds. Breakthrough volumes were determined with the direct method, whereby low ppm levels of methanol or Freon 12 in nitrogen were flowed through the sorbent tubes at 30 mL/min, and breakthrough was detected by gas chromatography. Breakthrough volumes for methanol were about 9 L/g on Carboxen 569 and 11 L/g on Carbosieve S-III; breakthrough volumes for Freon 12 were about 7 L/g on Carboxen 569 and > 26 L/g on Carbosieve S-III. Next, dual-bed tubes containing either Tenax-TA/Carbosieve S-III, Tenax-TA/Carboxen 569, or Carbotrap/Carboxen 569 to a 10-component gas mixture were exposed, in dry and in humidified air (50% relative humidity), and percentage recoveries of each compound were determined. The Tenax-TA/Carboxen 569 combination gave the best overall recoveries (75-114% for the 10 compounds). Acetaldehyde had the lowest recovery (75%) of the 10 compounds, but this value was still an improvement over either the other two sorbent combinations or the original single-sorbent tubes.

Matney, M. L.; Beck, S. W.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

2000-01-01

281

Thermal engine driven heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for separating volatile organic compounds from a stream of process gas. An internal combustion engine drives a plurality of refrigeration systems, an electrical generator and an air compressor. The exhaust of the internal combustion engine drives an inert gas subsystem and a heater for the gas. A water jacket captures waste heat from the internal combustion engine and drives a second heater for the gas and possibly an additional refrigeration system for the supply of chilled water. The refrigeration systems mechanically driven by the internal combustion engine effect the precipitation of volatile organic compounds from the stream of gas.

Drake, Richard L. (Schenectady, NY)

1991-01-01

282

2nd dimensional GC-MS analysis of sweat volatile organic compounds prepared by solid phase micro-extraction.  

PubMed

The characteristics of an individual's odor from sweat, breath and skin provide important information for criminal tracking in field of forensic science. Solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) was used to determine human sweat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles. The mass spectrometric analysis (with electron impact mode) followed by 2nd dimensional separation with two different GC columns (one polar and one relatively nonpolar) connected in parallel were used to identify the 574 compounds from sweat samples. The components included alcohols, aldehydes, aliphatics/aromatics, carboxylic acids, esters, ketones, and other organic compounds (amides/amines, thio/thioesters, oxide, sulfides, nitro compounds). Of these compounds, 1-tridecanol, 1,3-bis(1,1-dimethyl ethyl)-benzene, 4,4'-(1-methylethylidene) bis-phenol and 7-acetyl-6-ethyl-1,1,4,4,-tetramethyl-tetraline were common components in all donor's sweat volatile samples. Age-related specific compounds were also detected. The results suggest that characteristic volatile profiles of human sweat emanations could provide the valuable information to forensic scientists. PMID:24763202

Choi, Mi-Jung; Oh, Chang-Hwan

2014-01-01

283

Emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from open crop residue burning in the Yangtze River Delta region, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

crop residue burning is one of the major sources of air pollutants including the precursors of photooxidants like ozone and secondary organic aerosol. We made measurements of trace gases including nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) in a rural area in central East China in June 2010. During the campaign, we identified six biomass burning events in total through the simultaneous enhancement of carbon monoxide and acetonitrile. Four cases represented fresh plumes (<2 h after emission), and two cases represented aged plumes (>3 h after emission), as determined by photochemical age. While we were not able to quantify formic acid, we identified an enhancement of major oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) as well as low molecular alkanes and alkenes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in these plumes. The observed normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs) of OVOCs and alkenes showed dependence on air mass age, even in fresh smoke plumes, supporting the view that these species are rapidly produced and destructed, respectively, during plume evolution. Based on the NEMR data in the fresh plumes, we calculated the emission factors (EFs) of individual NMVOC. The comparison to previous reports suggests that the EFs of formaldehyde and acetic acid have been overestimated, while those of alkenes have been underestimated. Finally, we suggest that open burning of wheat residue in China releases about 0.34 Tg NMVOCs annually. If we applied the same EFs to all crops, the annual NMVOC emissions would be 2.33 Tg. The EFs of speciated NMVOCs can be used to improve the existing inventories.

Kudo, Shinji; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Inomata, Satoshi; Saito, Shinji; Pan, Xiaole; Kanaya, Yugo; Taketani, Fumikazu; Wang, Zifa; Chen, Hongyan; Dong, Huabin; Zhang, Meigen; Yamaji, Kazuyo

2014-06-01

284

Analysis of volatile organic compounds of ‘Fuji’ apples following electron beam irradiation and storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volatile organic compounds of non-irradiated and electron-beam irradiated 'Fuji' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) at 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy were isolated through simultaneous distillation extractions and analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. A total of 53 volatile organic compounds were characterized in 0 and 1 kGy irradiated samples, whereas two more compounds related to ketone and terpenoid group were identified in 0.5 kGy irradiated samples. The contents of volatile compounds were 24.33, 36.49, and 35.28 mg/kg in 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy irradiated samples, respectively. The major compounds identified were butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, and hexanol in all samples. The relative content of alcohol increased after 30 days of storage in all samples, whereas that of aldehyde decreased. Although the contents of some volatile compounds were changed by electron-beam irradiation, the total yield and major flavor compounds of irradiated 'Fuji' apples were similar to, or even greater than, those of the control. Therefore, the application of e-beam irradiation if required for microbial decontamination of 'Fuji' apples is an acceptable method as it does not bring about any major quantitative changes of volatile organic compounds.

Song, Hyun-Pa; Shim, Sung-Lye; Lee, Sun-Im; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

2012-08-01

285

The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge based on short-term experiments is risky being transferred to an ecotype which is governed under natural conditions by long term flooding. Furthermore, contrasting such experiments with usually young trees (saplings or a few years old) nothing is known about the emission behavior of adult trees under field conditions.

Kesselmeier, J.

2012-12-01

286

Performance of rotating drum biofilter for volatile organic compound removal at high organic loading rates.  

PubMed

Uneven distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biomass, and excess biomass accumulation in some biofilters hinder the application of biofiltration technology. An innovative multilayer rotating drum biofilter (RDB) was developed to correct these problems. The RDB was operated at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 30 s and a rotational rate of 1.0 r/min. Diethyl ether was chosen as the model VOC. Performance of the RDB was evaluated at organic loading rates of 32.1, 64.2, 128, and 256 g ether/(m3 x h) (16.06 g ether/(m3 x h) approximately 1.0 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3 x d)). The EBCT and organic loading rates were recorded on the basis of the medium volume. Results show that the ether removal efficiency decreased with an increased VOC loading rate. Ether removal efficiencies exceeding 99% were achieved without biomass control even at a high VOC loading rate of 128 g ether/(m3 x h). However, when the VOC loading rate was increased to 256 g ether/(m3 x h), the average removal efficiency dropped to 43%. Nutrient limitation possibly contributed to the drop in ether removal efficiency. High biomass accumulation rate was also observed in the medium at the two higher ether loading rates, and removal of the excess biomass in the media was necessary to maintain stable performance. This work showed that the RDB is effective in the removal of diethyl ether from waste gas streams even at high organic loading rates. The results might help establish criteria for designing and operating RDBs. PMID:18595394

Yang, Chunping; Chen, Hong; Zeng, Guangming; Zhu, Xueqing; Suidan, Makram T

2008-01-01

287

Secondary organic aerosol formation from intermediate-volatility organic compounds: cyclic, linear, and branched alkanes.  

PubMed

Intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) are an important class of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors that have not been traditionally included in chemical transport models. A challenge is that the vast majority of IVOCs cannot be speciated using traditional gas chromatography-based techniques; instead they are classified as an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) that is presumably made up of a complex mixture of branched and cyclic alkanes. To better understand SOA formation from IVOCs, a series of smog chamber experiments was conducted with different alkanes, including cyclic, branched, and linear compounds. The experiments focused on freshly formed SOA from hydroxyl (OH) radical-initiated reactions under high-NO(x) conditions at typical atmospheric organic aerosol concentrations (C(OA)). SOA yields from cyclic alkanes were comparable to yields from linear alkanes three to four carbons larger in size. For alkanes with equivalent carbon numbers, branched alkanes had the lowest SOA mass yields, ranging between 0.05 and 0.08 at a C(OA) of 15 ?g m(-3). The SOA yield of branched alkanes also depends on the methyl branch position on the carbon backbone. High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer data indicate that the SOA oxygen-to-carbon ratios were largely controlled by the carbon number of the precursor compound. Depending on the precursor size, the mass spectrum of SOA produced from IVOCs is similar to the semivolatile-oxygenated and hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol factors derived from ambient data. Using the new yield data, we estimated SOA formation potential from diesel exhaust and predict the contribution from UCM vapors to be nearly four times larger than the contribution from single-ring aromatics and comparable to that of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after several hours of oxidation at typical atmospheric conditions. Therefore, SOA from IVOCs may be an important contributor to urban OA and should be included in SOA models; the yield data presented in this study are suitable for such use. PMID:22823284

Tkacik, Daniel S; Presto, Albert A; Donahue, Neil M; Robinson, Allen L

2012-08-21

288

Reactions of Volatile Furandiones, Aldehydes and Water Vapor in Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation and in Gas Chromatography Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile furandiones and aldehydes are important atmospheric oxidation products of simple aromatic compounds found in gasoline. A mechanism of secondary organic aerosol formation by furandiones was identified using particle chamber observations and FTIR measurements of model condensed phases. Growth of inorganic seed aerosol was monitored by scanning mobility particle sizing in the presence of humidity and high concentrations of 2,5-furandione (maleic anhydride), 3-methyl-2,5-furandione (citraconic anhydride), benzaldehyde, and trans-cinnamaldehyde. Particle growth began when the gas-phase saturation level of each organic compound (relative to its pure liquid) and water vapor, when summed together, reached a threshold near one. This threshold implies that equilibrium is established between the gas phase and a newly formed, mixed condensed phase containing both organic compounds and water. This equilibrium appears to be governed by Raoult's Law, where the vapor pressure of each component is reduced proportionally to its mole fraction in the condensed phase. However, bulk liquid phase experiments showed that these organics are immiscible with water at the mole fractions expected in the particle phase in our chamber experiments. Thus, non-reactive condensation of these compounds into a mixed organic / aqueous phase is ruled out. Instead, we show that reactions between furandiones and water produce unusually strong dicarboxylic acids: cis-methylbutenedioic acid (citraconic acid) and cis-butenedioic acid (maleic acid). Bulk phase pH microprobe and FTIR attenuated total reflectance measurements demonstrated that an aqueous phase is rapidly acidified during exposure to furandiones. In addition, the presence of furandiones also greatly increased benzaldehyde solubility. This solubility increase has two causes. First, the entry of maleate (or methylmaleate) ions into the water layer lowers the polarity of the phase. Second, the increase in acidity may enhance reactivity at the aldehyde functional group. Thus the uptake of both furandiones and aldehydes onto particles in the presence of humidity appears to be reaction-dependent. When subjected to normal GC injector temperatures, the cis-butenedioic acids produced in these reactions recyclize back to furandiones with much greater ease than similar alkanedioic or trans-alkenedioic acids. This production of volatile compounds during GC analysis could cause large artifacts in gas / particle phase distribution measurements if chemical derivatization techniques are not employed.

Koehler, C. A.; Fillo, J. D.; Ries, K. A.; Sanchez, J. T.; de Haan, D. O.

2004-05-01

289

AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS SAMPLES CONTAINING PESTICIDES, ACIDIC/BASIC/NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILES AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GC/MS  

EPA Science Inventory

Data is presented on the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with GC/MS spectrometry for the single-run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of organic compounds. The system uses commercially available automated in-line 10-m...

290

Significance and treatment of volatile organic compounds in water supplies  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 1 covers the statutory and regulatory basis for the control of chemicals in drinking water and the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Chapter 2 reviews: (1) the nature and extent of groundwater contamination, and (2) management controls. Chapter 3 describes research methods for determination of aqueous VOCs. Chapter 4 reviews the EPA-approved analytical methods for VOC analysis in drinking water. Chapter 5 presents sampling and analysis procedures to minimize volatilization loss. Chapter 6 reviews past and present approaches of fiber optics to measure VOCs in groundwater. Chapter 7 reviews the national surveys of VOCs in ground and surface waters. Chapter 9 presents a conceptual overview of VOC transport in groundwater. Chapter 10 discusses the physical-chemical properties and fate of VOCs using the fugacity approach. Chapter 11 focuses on biologically mediated transformations that affect the fate of VOCs in the environment. Chapter 12 reviews the theory and applications of VOC removal from drinking water by adsorption. Chapter 13 presents a detailed model for a packed tower aeration (PTA) system. Chapter 14 describes oxidative treatment methods that convert VOCs to relatively harmless substances. Chapter 15 reviews research, being conducted by EPA's Drinking Water Research Division. Chapter 16 describes point-of-use/point-of-entry systems technology. Chapter 17 presents an economic analysis of GA and PTA. The remaining five chapters discuss the risks involved in water treatment for VOCs. Separate abstracts are processed for 21 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Ram, N.M.; Christman, R.F.; Cantor, K.P. (ed.)

1990-01-01

291

Assessing the fate of biodegradable volatile organic contaminants in unsaturated soil filter systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of contaminant biodegradation in the subsurface is challenged by various abiotic processes leading to a reduction of contaminant concentration without a destructive mass removal of the contaminant. In unsaturated porous media, this interplay of processes is further complicated by volatilization. Many organic contaminants are sufficiently volatile to allow for significant fluxes from the water phase into the soil air, which can eventually lead to an emission of contaminants into the atmosphere. Knowledge of the magnitude of these emissions is thus required to evaluate the efficiency of bioremediation in such porous media and to estimate potential risks due to these emissions. In the present study, vertical flow constructed wetlands were investigated at the pilot scale as part of the SAFIRA II project. The investigated wetland system is intermittently irrigated by contaminated groundwater containing the volatile compounds benzene and MTBE. Measured concentration at the in- and outflow of the system demonstrate a high mass removal rate, but the highly transient flow and transport processes in the system challenge the quantification of biodegradation and volatilization and their contribution to the observed mass removal. By a combination of conservative solute tracer tests, stable isotope fractionation and measurements of natural radon concentration is the treated groundwater is was possible to determine the contribution of biodegradation and volatilization to total mass removal. The results suggest that for the investigated volatile compounds biodegradation is the dominating mass removal process with volatilization contributing only to minor or negligible amounts. These results can be confirmed by reactive transport simulations and were further supported by laboratory studies showing that also gas phase gradients of volatile compounds can be affected by biodegradation suggesting the unsaturated zone to act as a biofilter for contaminants in the soil air.

Thullner, Martin; de Biase, Cecilia; Hanzel, Joanna; Reger, Daniel; Wick, Lukas; Oswald, Sascha; van Afferden, Manfred; Schmidt, Axel; Reiche, Nils; Jechalke, Sven

2010-05-01

292

Arachidonic acid-dependent carbon-eight volatile synthesis from wounded liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha).  

PubMed

Eight-carbon (C8) volatiles, such as 1-octen-3-ol, octan-3-one, and octan-3-ol, are ubiquitously found among fungi and bryophytes. In this study, it was found that the thalli of the common liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a model plant species, emitted high amounts of C8 volatiles mainly consisting of (R)-1-octen-3-ol and octan-3-one upon mechanical wounding. The induction of emission took place within 40min. In intact thalli, 1-octen-3-yl acetate was the predominant C8 volatile while tissue disruption resulted in conversion of the acetate to 1-octen-3-ol. This conversion was carried out by an esterase showing stereospecificity to (R)-1-octen-3-yl acetate. From the transgenic line of M. polymorpha (des6(KO)) lacking arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, formation of C8 volatiles was only minimally observed, which indicated that arachidonic and/or eicosapentaenoic acids were essential to form C8 volatiles in M. polymorpha. When des6(KO) thalli were exposed to the vapor of 1-octen-3-ol, they absorbed the alcohol and converted it into 1-octen-3-yl acetate and octan-3-one. Therefore, this implied that 1-octen-3-ol was the primary C8 product formed from arachidonic acid, and further metabolism involving acetylation and oxidoreduction occurred to diversify the C8 products. Octan-3-one was only minimally formed from completely disrupted thalli, while it was formed as the most abundant product in partially disrupted thalli. Therefore, it is assumed that the remaining intact tissues were involved in the conversion of 1-octen-3-ol to octan-3-one in the partially disrupted thalli. The conversion was partly promoted by addition of NAD(P)H into the completely disrupted tissues, suggesting an NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase was involved in the conversion. PMID:25174554

Kihara, Hirotomo; Tanaka, Maya; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Horibata, Akira; Yamada, Atsushi; Kita, Sayaka; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kajikawa, Masataka; Fukuzawa, Hideya; Kohchi, Takayuki; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Kenji

2014-11-01

293

Volatile organic compound emissions from green waste composting: Characterization and ozone formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composting of green waste separated from the disposed solid waste stream reduces biodegradable inputs into landfills, and contributes valuable soil amendments to agriculture. Agencies in regions with severe air quality challenges, such as California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV), have raised concerns about gases emitted during the composting process, which are suspected to contribute to persistent high levels of ground-level ozone formation. The goal of the current study is to thoroughly characterize volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from green waste compost piles of different ages (fresh tipped piles, 3-6 day old windrows, and 2-3 week old windrows). Multiple sampling and analytical approaches were applied to ensure the detection of most gaseous organic components emitted. More than 100 VOCs were detected and quantified in this study, including aliphatic alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, biogenic organics, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, furans, acids, esters, ether, halogenated hydrocarbons and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Alcohols were found to be the dominating VOC in the emissions from a compost pile regardless of age, with fluxes ranging from 2.6 to 13.0 mg m -2 min -1 with the highest emissions coming from the younger composting windrows (3-6 days). Average VOC emissions other than alcohols were determined to be 2.3 mg m -2 min -1 from younger windows, which was roughly two times higher than either the fresh tipping pile (1.2 mg m -2 min -1) or the older windrows (1.4 mg m -2 min -1). It was also observed that the older windrows emit a slightly larger proportion of more reactive compounds. Approximately 90% of the total VOCs were found to have maximum incremental reactivity of less than 2. Net ozone formation potential of the emissions was also assessed.

Kumar, Anuj; Alaimo, Christopher P.; Horowitz, Robert; Mitloehner, Frank M.; Kleeman, Michael J.; Green, Peter G.

2011-04-01

294

LEAF, BRANCH, STAND & LANDSCAPE SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND FLUXES FROM U.S. WOODLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Natural volatile organic compounds (VOC) fluxes were measured in three U.S. woodlands in summer 1993. Fluxes from individual leaves and branches were estimated with enclosure techniques and used to initialize and evaluate VOC emission model estimates. Ambient measurements were us...

295

LONG-PATH FTIR MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AN INDUSTRIAL SETTING  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) field program, a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer vas used to make open path measurements of volatile organic compounds in the New Castle, Delaware, area. he SITE program requires that new technologies b...

296

Apparatus and method for thermally stripping volatile organic compounds from soil using a recirculating combustible gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for removing volatile organic compounds from sod, comprising the steps of: (a) loading said soil into an opening in a drum; (b) transporting said soil into said drum by rotating said drum in a first direction; (c) flowing a hot gas through said drum; (d) mechanically causing said hot gas to come into contact with said

R. A. Crosby; J. L. Crosby

1993-01-01

297

The development of low volatile organic compound emission house—a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aim in developing low volatile organic compound (VOCs) emission house is to reduce the level of VOCs in domestic housing. In this study, a case study for the reduction of exposure to VOCs from a newly constructed residential house was presented. Before application, the construction materials used in the house were tested in an environmental chamber and low VOC

H. Guo; F. Murray; S. C. Lee

2003-01-01

298

APPLICABILITY OF PASSIVE MONITORING DEVICES TO MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN AMBIENT AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Commercial passive monitoring devices for volatile organic chemicals were evaluated to determine their potential application to ambient air concentrations (0.1 to 50 ppbv). A high-performance passive device was developed for short-term, low-level monitoring applications. The stai...

299

Cadaveric volatile organic compounds released by decaying pig carcasses ( Sus domesticus L.) in different biotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology uses pig carcasses to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal colonization. Insects communicate with their environment through the use of chemical mediators, which in the case of necrophagous insects, may consist in the cadaveric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the corpse under decomposition. Previous studies have focused on cadaveric VOCs released from human corpses. Nevertheless,

J. Dekeirsschieter; F. J. Verheggen; M. Gohy; F. Hubrecht; L. Bourguignon; G. Lognay; E. Haubruge

2009-01-01

300

Thermal engine driven heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for separating volatile organic compounds from a stream of process gas. An internal combustion engine drives a plurality of refrigeration systems, an electrical generator and an air compressor. The exhaust of the internal combustion engine drives an inert gas subsystem and a heater for the gas. A water jacket captures waste

Drake; Richard L

1991-01-01

301

Thermal engine driven heat pump for recovery of volatile organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for separating volatile organic compounds from a stream of gas. It comprises an internal combustion engine including a rotating shaft; an inert gas generating means for converting at least a portion of exhaust from the internal combustion engine into an inert gas and mixing the inert gas into the stream of gas; heat transfer means

Drake

1991-01-01

302

CONTROL OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN GROUNDWATER BY IN-WELL AERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

At a 0.1 mgd well contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs), principally trichloroethylene (TCE), several in-well aeration schemes were evaluated as control technologies. The well was logged by the USGS to define possible zones of VOC entry. A straddle packer an...

303

IDENTIFICATION OF POLAR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMON MICROENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Polar volatile organic compounds were identified in the headspace of 31 fragrance products such as perfumes, colognes and soaps. About 150 different chemicals were identified in a semiquantitative fashion, using two methods to analyze the headspace: direct injection into a gas ch...

304

Volatile organic compound concentrations in ambient air of Kaohsiung petroleum refinery in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air quality assessment for volatile organic compounds (VOC) was conducted in and around Chinese petroleum corporation (CPC) refinery at Kaohsiung, located in southern Taiwan, during 2001 by collecting air samples at 26 sites. Benzene and toluene were detected as the most abundant VOC by both gas chromatography and ultra-violet differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-DOAS) techniques. BTXE concentrations showed day

Tsai-Yin Lin; Usha Sree; Sen-Hong Tseng; Kong Hwa Chiu; Chien-Hou Wu; Jiunn-Guang Lo

2004-01-01

305

Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations around a petrochemical complex and a petroleum refinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air samples were collected between September 2000 and September 2001 in Izmir, Turkey at three sampling sites located around a petrochemical complex and an oil refinery to measure ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations. VOC concentrations were 4–20-fold higher than those measured at a suburban site in Izmir, Turkey. Ethylene dichloride, a leaded gasoline additive used in petroleum refining and

Eylem Cetin; Mustafa Odabasi; Remzi Seyfioglu

2003-01-01

306

Internal Standards: A Source of Analytical Bias For Volatile Organic Analyte Determinations  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of internal standards in the determination of volatile organic compounds as described in SW-846 Method 8260C introduces a potential for bias in results once the internal standards (ISTDs) are added to a sample for analysis. The bias is relative to the dissimilarity betw...

307

Field evaluation of a simple microcosm simulating the behavior of volatile organic compounds in subsurface materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple batch microcosm had previously been developed to simulate the behavior of volatile organic compounds in unconsolidated subsurface material. The microcosm was evaluated by comparing the behavior of tetrachloroethylene, bromoform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and hexachloroethane in (1) the microcosm, (2) the microcosm constructed with autoclaved material, and (3) an experimental plume constructed in a joint field study conducted by

John T. Wilson; Garmon B. Smith; Jack W. Cochran; James F. Barker; Paul V. Roberts

1987-01-01

308

Accelerated solid-phase dynamic extraction for the analysis of biogenic volatile organic compounds in air  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, accelerated solid phase dynamic extraction (ASPDE) technique was used to identify biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from Norway spruce (Picea abies). Compounds that were determined in tree samples are: tricycylene, ?-pinene, camphene, ?-pinene, myrcene, 3-carene, p-cymene, limonene, cineole, ?-phellandrene, ?-terpinene, ?-terpinene and terpinolene. ASPDE showed a potential for the analysis of environmental samples as well as

Olga Pokorska; Jo Dewulf; Herman Van Langenhove

2011-01-01

309

Fluxes of Primary and Secondary Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) During the BEWA Field Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) play a crucial role in the formation of photo-oxidants and particles through the diverse BVOC degradation pathways. Yet, current estimations about temporal and spatial BVOC emissions, including the specific BVOC mix are rather vague. This paper reports results from the determination of BVOC net emission rates that were obtained within the frame of the BEWA

R. Steinbrecher; B. Rappenglück; D. Steigner; A. Hansel; M. Graus; C. Lindinger

2003-01-01

310

Volatile organic compounds in snow in the Quebec-Windsor Corridor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) were determined in snow to investigate the role of the snowpack as an exchange medium for atmospherically active compounds of anthropogenic and biogenic origin. The major question was which VOC species occur in snow and how the species identity and selected concentrations are related to the sampling area and environmental conditions. Samples were collected using a

G. Kos; P. A. Ariya

2010-01-01

311

Analytical modelling of stable isotope fractionation of volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical models were developed that simulate stable isotope ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) near a point source contamination in the unsaturated zone. The models describe diffusive transport of VOCs, biodegradation and source ageing. The mass transport is governed by Fick's law for diffusion. The equation for reactive transport of VOCs in the soil gas phase was solved for different

Daniel Bouchard; Fabien Cornaton; Patrick Höhener; Daniel Hunkeler

2011-01-01

312

Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma for remediation of volatile organic compounds.  

E-print Network

??The University of ManchesterZaenab Abd AllahDoctor of PhilosophyNon-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma for remediation of volatile organic compounds29/02/2012Non-thermal plasma generated in a dielectric barrier packed-bed reactor… (more)

Abd Allah, Zaenab

2012-01-01

313

Housing Characteristics and Indoor Concentrations of Selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Quebec City, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of 26 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured continuously for 7 days during winter in 96 homes in Quebec City, Canada. Characteristics of the houses and activities of the occupants were documented through detailed questionnaires filled out by one adult per household. VOCs were sampled using passive monitors and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Results indicate contributions

Marie-Ève Héroux; Denis Gauvin; Nicolas L. Gilbert; Mireille Guay; Geneviève Dupuis; Michel Legris; Benoît Lévesque

2008-01-01

314

Compositions of Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted from Melted Virgin and Waste Plastic Pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize potential air pollution issues related to recycling facilities of waste plastics, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from melted virgin and waste plastics pellets were analyzed. In this study, laboratory experiments were performed to melt virgin and waste plastic pellets under various temperatures (150, 200, and 250 °C) and atmospheres (air and nitrogen [N2]). In the study presented here,

Kyoko Yamashita; Naomichi Yamamoto; Atsushi Mizukoshi; Miyuki Noguchi; Yueyong Ni; Yukio Yanagisawa; Richard Hoffbeck; Yongping Li; Guohe Huang; James Schwab; John Spicer; Kenneth Demerjian; Mark Gibson; Judith Guernsey; Stephen Beauchamp; David Waugh; Mathew Heal; Jeffrey Brook; Robert Maher; Graham Gagnon; Johnny McPherson; Barbara Bryden; Richard Gould; Liming Zhou; Philip Hopke; Weixiang Zhao; Elisabeth Hawley; Neven Kresic; Alexandra Wright; Michael Kavanaugh; Pat Saathoff; Amit Gupta; Ted Stathopoulos; Louis Lazure; ABM Khan; Nigel Clark; Mridul Gautam; W. Wayne; Gregory Thompson; Donald Lyons; Yu-Ming Kuo; Yasuhiro Fukushima

2009-01-01

315

EVALUATION OF THE FLUX CHAMBER METHOD FOR MEASURING VOLATILE ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research deals with the validation of the flux chamber method for measuring volatile organic emissions from liquid surfaces in treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDF). A simulated surface impoundment was constructed so that method precision and accuracy could be de...

316

DEVELOPMENT OF A SAMPLER FOR PARTICULATE-ASSOCIATED AND LOW VOLATILITY ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN RESIDENTIAL AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the development of a sampler for particulate-associated and low volatility organic pollutants in residential air. The performance of the sampler inlet, which is compatible with the proposed PM-10 regulations for particulate sampling, is documented under a var...

317

REVIEW OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND SOURCE APPORTIONMENT BY CHEMICAL MASS BALANCE. (R826237)  

EPA Science Inventory

The chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model has apportioned volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in more than 20 urban areas, mostly in the United States. These applications differ in terms of the total fraction apportioned, the calculation method, the chemical compounds used ...

318

EXTRACTION METHODS FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM FORTIFIED DRY SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Recovery of 8 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dry soils, each fortified at 800 ng/g soil, was studied in relation to the extraction method and time of extraction. Extraction procedures studied on desiccator-dried soils were modifications of EPA low-and high-level purge-and...

319

LONG-TERM STUDY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND RECOVERY FROM AMPULATED, DRY, FORTIFIED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Our objective was to evaluate the stability and extractability of volatile organic compound (VOCs) when fortified on dry soils and stored in sealed ampules. Two desiccator-dried soils were fortified with eight neat VOCs, benzene,toluene,ethylbenzene,o-xylene,1,1,1-trichloroethane...

320

Controlling Strategies and Technologies of Volatile Organic Compounds Pollution in Interior Air of Cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

In interior air environment of cars, the mass concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are so high that human health is threatened. Their sources are analyzed and the controlling strategies and technologies are discussed. Reduce interior temperature, enhance vehicle ventilation, control interior materials, clean air-conditioning on time and use photo catalytic oxidation or adsorptive technology are the effective manners to

Xiaokai Chen; Guoqiang Zhang; Hong Chen

2010-01-01

321

NON-POLAR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WHOLE AIR SAMPLES FROM THE AUTOEX STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Air samples were captured in SUMMA polished stainless steel canisters and returned to the laboratory for analysis of trace level volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. ampling was performed over 2-hour periods at various distances from heavily trave...

322

A GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

As part of an effort to assess the potential impacts associated with global climate change, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development is supporting global atmospheric chemistry research by developing global scale estimates of volatile organic c...

323

Biodegradation technology for volatile organic compound removal from airstreams. Phase 1: Performance verification. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and toxic air pollutants are emitted in significant quantities from wastewater treatment plants (POTWs, or publicly owned treatment works). However, the concentrations are low, presenting a challenge for emissions control. Laboratory and field studies verified the potential application of microbial packed bed systems (biofilters) for the removal of VOCs from off-gases resulting from wastewater treatment. The

S. J. Ergas; E. D. Schroeder; D. P. Y. Chang

1992-01-01

324

COLD TRAPPING OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON FUSED SILICA CAPILLARY COLUMNS  

EPA Science Inventory

A 30m, 0.25mm ID, fused silica capillary column at temperatures from -60 to -100C has been shown to be a quantitative trap for organic compounds with volatilities ranging from that of 1.1-dichloroethene to that of chlorobenzene. This type of 'whole column cryotrapping' provided s...

325

Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds  

E-print Network

1 Field Test to Demonstrate Real-Time In-Situ Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds Hazmat Spill Center, Nevada Test Site September 19-25, 2001 Clifford K. Ho Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque-filled 55- gallon drum at the Hazmat Spill Center at the Nevada Test Site. Background and Objectives Tens

Ho, Cliff

326

Measurement of volatile organic compounds by the US Environmental Protection Agency Compendium Method TO17  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of performance criteria for US Environmental Protection Agency Compendium Method TO-17 for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air has been accomplished. The method is a solid adsorbent-based sampling and analytical procedure including performance criteria for four merit parameters. These are: (1) the method detection limit (MDL); (2) the method precision; (3) the agreement between two samples taken

William A McClenny; Maribel Colón

1998-01-01

327

Volatile organic compound emissions from automobile refinishing: Background information for promulgated standards. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A final rule for the regulation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from automobile refinishing is being promulgated under the authority of Section 183(e) of the Clean Air Act. This document contains comments received from the public, and the EPA`s responses to these comments.

NONE

1998-08-01

328

COMPARISON OF SAMPLING METHODS FOR SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON ASSOCIATED WITH PM 2.5  

EPA Science Inventory

This study evaluates the influence of denuder sampling methods and filter collection media on the measurement of semi-volatile organic carbon (SVOC) associated with PM2.5. Two types of collection media, charcoal (activated carbon) and XAD, were used both in diffusion denuders ...

329

The role of boundary layers in the removal of volatile organic compounds from water by pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from water by pervaporation is dominated by boundary layer effects (concentration polarization). A simple analysis shows these effects to be much more severe in pervaporation than in ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis because of the high VOC enrichment that can be obtained by pervaporation. In pervaporation, the concentration of solute at the membrane surface is

J. G. Wijmans; A. L. Athayde; R. Daniels; J. H. Ly; H. D. Kamaruddin; I. Pinnau

1996-01-01

330

Microbial consumption and production of volatile organic compounds at the soil-litter interface  

E-print Network

Kelly S. Ramirez · Christian L. Lauber · Noah Fierer Received: 17 August 2009 / Accepted: 13 November 2009 � Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Substantial amounts of volatile organic harvested at the end of the incubation to determine how litter VOCs influenced soil C dynamics, N

Fierer, Noah

331

NATURAL VOLATILE ORGANIC SUBSTANCES AND THEIR EFFECT ON AIR QUALITY IN THE UNITED STATES (REVIEW)  

EPA Science Inventory

Large quantities of volatile organic substances are emitted from mobile and stationary sources in the United States. When the US, east of 105 west longitude is divided into 80 by 80 km grids, most of these grid areas east of the Mississippi River and many west of the river, have ...

332

PATTERN RECOGNITION/EXPERT SYSTEM FOR MASS SPECTRA OF VOLATILE TOXIC AND OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

A system based on principles of pattern recognition has been developed for identifying toxic and other volatile organic pollutants in complex environmental samples. t interprets the most commonly used monitoring data, mass spectral data, and produces a class designation, an estim...

333

IMPROVED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING MOLECULAR WEIGHTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM LOW RESOLUTION MASS SPECTRA  

EPA Science Inventory

An improved method of estimating molecular weights of volatile organic compound from their mass spectra has been developed and implemented with an expert system. he method is based on the strong correlation of MAXMASS, the highest mass with an intensity of 5% of the base peak in ...

334

HISTORIC EMISSIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE UNITED STATES FROM 1900 TO 1985  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives an estimate of historic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for each state (and the District of Columbia) of the contiguous U.S. Annual emissions were estimated on the national level from 1960 to 1985. For 1940, 1950, and every fifth year from 1960 to ...

335

Survey of bottled drinking water sold in Canada. Part 2. Selected volatile organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants were determined in 182 samples of retail bottled waters purchased in Canada. Samples included spring water (86) packaged in containers of polyethylene or in smaller containers of transparent plastic or glass, mineral water (61) packaged only in transparent plastic or glass, and miscellaneous bottled waters (35). Analyses were performed by 3 laboratories, each using

B. D. Page; H. B. S. Conacher; J. Salminen

1993-01-01

336

Volatile Organic Metabolites Identify Patients with Breast Cancer, Cyclomastopathy, and Mammary Gland Fibroma  

PubMed Central

The association between cancer and volatile organic metabolites in exhaled breaths has attracted increasing attention from researchers. The present study reports on a systematic study of gas profiles of metabolites in human exhaled breath by pattern recognition methods. Exhaled breath was collected from 85 patients with histologically confirmed breast disease (including 39 individuals with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 25 individuals with cyclomastopathy and from 21 individuals with mammary gland fibroma) and 45 healthy volunteers. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were used to process the final data. The volatile organic metabolites exhibited significant differences between breast cancer and normal controls, breast cancer and cyclomastopathy, and breast cancer and mammary gland fibroma; 21, 6, and 8 characteristic metabolites played decisive roles in sample classification, respectively (P < 0.05). Three volatile organic metabolites in the exhaled air, 2,5,6-trimethyloctane, 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-butanediol, and cyclohexanone, distinguished breast cancer patients from healthy individuals, mammary gland fibroma patients, and patients with cyclomastopathy (P < 0.05). The identified three volatile organic metabolites associated with breast cancer may serve as novel diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:24947160

Wang, Changsong; Sun, Bo; Guo, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Ke, Chaofu; Liu, Shanshan; Zhao, Wei; Luo, Suqi; Guo, Zhigang; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Guowang; Li, Enyou

2014-01-01

337

EMISSION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM DRUM-MIX ASPHALT PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research program was undertaken in order to develop a quantitative estimate of the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from drum-mix asphalt plants. The study was carried out by field sampling of five drum-mix plants under a variety of operating conditions. Include...

338

DETERMINATION OF POLAR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WATER BY MEMBRANE PERMEATE AND TRAP GC-MS  

EPA Science Inventory

A novel approach is presented combining semipermeable membranes with the accepted purge and trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology to produce a method of selectively extracting polar, volatile organic compounds from water, particularly those compounds not am...

339

Emissions of isoprenoids and oxygenated biogenic volatile organic compounds from a New England mixed forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds, including isoprene, monoterpenes, and oxygenated VOCs measured above a mixed forest canopy in central Massachusetts during the 2005 and 2007 growing seasons are reported. Mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and fluxes computed by the disjunct eddy covariance technique. Isoprene was by far the predominant BVOC emitted at this

K. A. McKinney; B. H. Lee; A. Vasta; T. V. Pho; J. W. Munger

2011-01-01

340

Emissions of isoprenoids and oxygenated biogenic volatile organic compounds from a New England mixed forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds, including isoprene, monoterpenes, and oxygenated VOCs measured above a mixed forest canopy in western Massachusetts during the 2005 and 2007 growing seasons are reported. Measurements were made using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and converted to fluxes using the disjunct eddy covariance technique. Isoprene was by far the predominant BVOC emitted at this

K. A. McKinney; B. H. Lee; A. Vasta; T. V. Pho; J. W. Munger

2010-01-01

341

Major sources of exposure to benzene and other volatile organic chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major sources of human exposure to about a dozen volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) have recently been identified. For nearly every chemical, the major sources of exposure are completely different from the major sources of emissions. This finding implies that current environmental regulations and control strategies are misdirected. Important sources of exposure are typically not regulated in any way, whereas

Lance Wallace

1990-01-01

342

Detection volatile organic compounds in breath as markers of lung cancer using a novel electronic nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we developed a novel electronic nose for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene derivatives and alkane derivatives in breath of lung cancer patients. This electronic nose employed capillary column GC and a pair of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. We applied Tedlar bags to collect exhaled air and calibration gas, and then solid phase

Hao Yu; Liang Xu; Mingfu Caol; Xing Chenl; Ping Wang; Jiwei Jiao; Yuelin Wang

2003-01-01

343

Diurnal and seasonal emissions of volatile organic compounds from cork oak ( Quercus suber) trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emissions of volatile organic compounds from Quercus suber (cork oak) were investigated at two rural sites in Portugal using a branch enclosure method with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography\\/flame ionization detection. Q. suber leaves released important amounts of monoterpenes, mainly in the form of limonene, ?-pinene, ?-pinene and sabinene. However, significant temporal and intraspecific variations in the relative abundance

C. A. Pio; P. A. Silva; M. A. Cerqueira; T. V. Nunes

2005-01-01

344

A POLYMER-CERAMIC COMPOSITE MEMBRANE FOR RECOVERING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM WASTEWATERS BY PERVAPORATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A composite membrane was constructed on a porous ceramic support from a block copolymer of styrene and butadiene (SBS). It was tested in a laboratory pervaporation apparatus for recovering volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such a 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethylene ...

345

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANALYSIS METHOD FOR TOTAL NONMETHANE VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The accurate measurement of the total nonmethane volatile organic carbon emissions from stationary sources is critical to characterizing many industrial processes and for regulating according to the Clean Air Act. urrent methods are difficult to use and the ability to do performa...

346

Effects of chemical aging on global secondary organic aerosol using the volatility basis set approach  

E-print Network

, regional climate implications. For example, the regional DRF change due to chemical aging of SOAEffects of chemical aging on global secondary organic aerosol using the volatility basis set, School of Earth and Environmental Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747, Republic of Korea b

Park, Rokjin

347

The tropospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds: a protocol for mechanism development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic and mechanistic data relevant to the tropospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are used to define a series of rules for the construction of detailed degradation schemes for use in numerical models. These rules are intended to apply to the treatment of a wide range of non-aromatic hydrocarbons and oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs, and are currently being used

Sandra M. Saunders; Michael J. Pilling

1997-01-01

348

VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS) FUGITIVE EMISSION DATA - HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE PROCESS UNIT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives data from a 10-month study of volatile organic compound (VOC) fugitive emissions from a high density polyethylene process unit. It gives statistics on leak frequency, leak occurrence, and leak recurrence, with a leak defined as having a screening value equal to o...

349

The Complexity of Factors Driving Volatile Organic Compound Emissions by Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emissions of volatile organic compounds, VOC, from plants have strong relevance for plant physiology, plant ecology, and atmospheric chemistry. We report here on the current knowledge of the many internal (genetic and biochemical) and external (abiotic - temperature, light, water availability, wind, ozone, and biotic - animal, plant and microorganisms interactions) factors that control emission rates of different VOC

J. Peñuelas; J. Llusià

2001-01-01

350

EPA ORD VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS RECOVERY SEMINAR, OVERVIEW AND CONCLUDING REMARKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA conducted a seminar during 9/98 in Cincinnati, OH which focused on recovering Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). The seminar emphasized new/innovative VOC Recovery technologies as well as commercially available technologies and addressed applications in all environmenta...

351

ASSESSING THE PERFORMANCE OF AMBIENT AIR SAMPLERS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Performance audit results of two different ambient air monitoring projects for volatile organic compounds (VOC's) are presented. An NBS traceable gas cylinder containing several VOC's in dry nitrogen at parts per billion (ppb) concentration levels was used at the field sampling s...

352

APPLICATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC REFERENCE MATERIALS TO AMBIENT AIR MONITORING MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory (EMSL), U.S. EPA, is currently funding research programs to develop reference and audit standards to evaluate performance and data quality of air monitoring measurements for volatile organic compounds. As a result of this effort, wh...

353

COMPARISON OF SOLID ADSORBENT SAMPLING TECHNIQUES FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AMBIENT AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

The specific objective of the study was to compare the performance of three solid adsorbents (Tenax, an experimental polyimide resin, and Spherocarb) as well as cryogenic trapping/gas chromatography for sampling and analysis of a target list of volatile organic compounds in ambie...

354

Ambient air levels of volatile organic compounds in Latin American and Asian cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been measured during short monitoring campaigns in four cities in Latin America; Caracas (Venezuela), Quito (Ecuador), Santiago (Chile), São Paulo (Brazil), and two cities in Asia; Bangkok (Thailand) and Manila (Philippines). The aim of the study was to identify typical levels of VOCs in these cities where monitoring of this unregulated but important

Ivan L. Gee; Christopher J. Sollars

1998-01-01

355

AMBIENT LEVEL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) MONITORING USING SOLID ADSORBANTS - RECENT U.S. EPA STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient air spiked with 1-10 ppbv concentrations of 41 toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Compendium Method TO-14A was monitored using solid sorbents for sample collection and a Varian Saturn 2000 ion trap mass spectrome...

356

ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL VOLATILE ORGANIC SUBSTANCES AND THEIR EFFECT ON AIR QUALITY IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

This research brief is a summary of the extensive review and critical analysis of the literature on natural volatile organic substances, sometimes referred to as biogenic hydrocarbons, and an assessment of that body of scientific information. The review is reported separately (Na...

357

FLARES AS A MEANS OF DESTROYING VOLATILE ORGANIC AND TOXIC COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses the use of flares to destroy volatile organic and toxic compounds. Flares are used to destroy industrial gases from which the heating cannot be economically recovered. Results of an EPA investigation of overall flare combustion efficiency and specific compound...

358

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING  

EPA Science Inventory

Real-time breath measurement technology was used to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to serve as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to toba...

359

Reassessment of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in the Atlanta area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Localized estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are important inputs for photochemical oxidant simulation models. Since forest tree species are the primary emitters of BVOCs, it is important to develop reliable estimates of their areal coverage and BVOC emission rates. A new system is used to estimate these emissions in the Atlanta area for specific tree genera at

Christopher D. Geron; Thomas E. Pierce; Alex B. Guenther

1995-01-01

360

THIN-FILM EVAPORATION AS A PRETREATMENT TECHNIQUE FOR REMOVING VOLATILE ORGANICS FROM PETROLEUM REFINERY WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

Oily wastes from petroleum refineries can result in air emissions during the land treatment of these wastes. A pilot-scale thin film evaporator (TFE) was used to remove volatile organics (VO) from refinery tank bottom sludge. Different TFE operating parameters were utilized to de...

361

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE AMBIENT ATMOSPHERE OF THE NEW JERSEY, NEW YORK AREA  

EPA Science Inventory

From 1979 through 1981 data were collected on selected volatile organics in the ambient atmosphere of New Jersey and New York. The sites selected included urban, suburban rural, and industrial areas: Newark, Rutherford, South Amboy, Elizabeth, Camden and Batsto Village in New Jer...

362

Spatial Gradients and Source Apportionment of Volatile Organic Compounds Near Roadways  

EPA Science Inventory

Concentrations of 55 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are reported near a highway in Raleigh, NC (traffic volume of approximately 125,000 vehicles/day). Levels of VOCs generally decreased exponentially with perpendicular distance from the roadway 10-100m). The EPA Chemical Mass ...

363

A study of volatile organic compounds evolved from the decaying human body  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two men were found dead near the island of Samos, Greece, in the Mediterranean sea. The estimated time of death for both victims was 3–4 weeks. Autopsy revealed no remarkable external injuries or acute poisoning. The exact cause of death remained unclear because the bodies had advanced decomposition. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) evolved from these two corpses were determined by

M. Statheropoulos; C. Spiliopoulou; A. Agapiou

2005-01-01

364

Patterns in volatile organic compound emissions along a savanna-rainforest gradient in central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In temperate regions the chemistry of the lower troposphere is known to be significantly affected by biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants. The chemistry of the lower troposphere over the tropics, however, is poorly understood, in part because of the considerable uncertainties in VOC emissions from tropical ecosystems. Present global VOC models predict that base emissions of isoprene

L. F. Klinger; J. Greenberg; A. Guenther; G. Tyndall; P. Zimmerman; J.-M. Moutsamboté; D. Kenfack

1998-01-01

365

Development of the colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives and volatile organic compounds in air  

E-print Network

Development of the colorimetric sensor array for detection of explosives and volatile organic for detecting explosives, such as ammonium nitrate, mineral explosives, and DNT in low concentrations [4 of Denmark (DTU) we are developing a simple colorimetric sensor array which can be useful in detection

366

Chemical characterization of volatile organic compounds near the World Trade Center: Ambient concentrations and source apportionment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of 53 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are reported from four locations near the World Trade Center (WTC) (New York, USA) complex for canister samples collected from September 2001 through January 2002. Across the four sampling sites, mean concentrations ranged from 94.5 to 219?gm-3 for total VOCs. The highest mean concentrations for individual VOCs at any site were for ethane

David A. Olson; Gary A. Norris; Robert L. Seila; Matthew S. Landis; Alan F. Vette

2007-01-01

367

BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM DESERT VEGETATION OF THE SOUTHWESTERN U.S.  

EPA Science Inventory

Thirteen common plant species in the Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the western United States were tested for emissions of biogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Only two of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates of 10 µgCg?1 ...

368

Novel Zinc Oxide Nanostructured thin Films for Volatile Organic Compaunds Gas Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel zinc oxide nanostructured thin films have been obtained by chemical deposition technique and rapid photothermal processing (RPP). ZnO nanostructures were studied for the development of volatile organic compounds (VOC) sensors. The investigations results indicate that by RPP is possible to control the sensing properties and operating temperature. A correlation taking into account the nanostructure of the material, the effects

T. Shishiyanu; S. Shishiyanu; O. Lupan; V. Ontea; A. Bragorenco

2006-01-01

369

Adsorption and Regeneration on Activated Carbon Fiber Cloth for Volatile Organic Compounds at Indoor Concentration Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are increasing concerns about indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) regarding their health effects and frequent occurrence. Adsorption using granular activated carbon (GAC) is a safe methodology for removing VOCs from indoor air. Although GAC has been widely used to remove VOCs from indoor air, the use of activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) is a promising substitute to the conventional

Meng Yao; Qiong Zhang; David W. Hand; David Perram; Roy Taylor; Mridul Gautam; Nigel Clark; Thomas Spencer; Daniel Carder; Thomas Balon; Paul Moynihan; Joshua Fu; David Streets; Carey Jang; Jiming Hao; Kebin He; Litao Wang; Qiang Zhang; Jan Paca; Martin Halecky; Mark Fitch; David Williams; William Potter; William Clarkson; Dee Sanders; John Stevens; Hazem El-Zanan; Barbara Zielinska; Lynn Mazzoleni; D. Hansen; Hyun-Sun Kim; Seung-Muk Yi; Eric Edgerton; Gary Casuccio; Rick Saylor; Traci Lersch; Benjamin Hartsell; John Jansen; Roger Wayson; Gregg Fleming; Ralph Iovinelli; Hans Grimm; Delbert Eatough

2009-01-01

370

INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS.  

EPA Science Inventory

INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS. A.S. Bale*; P.J. Bushnell; C.A. Meacham; T.J. Shafer Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Toluene (TOL...

371

INHIBITION OF HUMAN A7 NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS BY THE VOLATILE ORGANIC SOLVENT TRICHLOROETHYLENE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile organic compounds such as toleune, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene are potent and reversible blockers of voltage-gated calcium current in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. It is hypothesized that effects of VOCs on ICa contri...

372

Regional Analysis of Nonmethane Volatile Organic Compounds in the Lower Troposphere of the Southeast  

E-print Network

with winter seasonal values below the level of detection. Isoprene was observed to be the most dominant NMOC of volatile organic compounds VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NOx NO2 NO) as tropospheric O3 precursors have been on the hydrocarbon levels at these rural sites. The data for the sites show similar seasonal patterns for total NMOC

Aneja, Viney P.

373

Pattern recognition\\/expert system for mass spectra of volatile toxic and other organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system based on principles of pattern recognition has been developed for identifying toxic and other volatile organic pollutants in complex environmental samples. It interprets the most commonly used monitoring data, mass spectral data, and produces a class designation, an estimate of the molecular weight and, if possible, a target pollutant identity. The system was developed and implemented with a

Donald R. Scott

1992-01-01

374

Southern California Bunkering Operations Get On Board with Volatile Organic Compound Abatement No. 42  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compound (VOC) abatement regulations in Southern California have driven the development of a vapor processing plant that is suitable for the bunkering barges it serves. A system was required that could be mounted on board existing bunker barges, could be operated by existing tankerman crews and had no need for additional pumps and blowers, which would require additional

Kevin J. Reynolds; Foss Maritime

375

Emissions of Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds from Plants Part I: Emissions from Lipoxygenase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC) from several plant species were measured in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). High emission pulses of OVOCs were observed when plants were exposed to stress. Absolute emission rates were highly variable ranging up to 10-13 mol · cm-2 · s-1. The temporal shape of these emissions was described by a formalism similar to

A. C. Heiden; K. Kobel; C. Langebartels; G. Schuh-Thomas; J. Wildt

2003-01-01

376

FIELD AUDIT RESULTS WITH ORGANIC GAS STANDARDS ON VOLATILE ORGANIC AMBIENT AIR SAMPLERS EQUIPPED WITH TENAX GC (GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY)  

EPA Science Inventory

The results from two field audits of Tenax-equipped sampling systems measuring the volatile organic (VOC) concentrations in ambient air are reported. The audited samplers collected the VOC's on Tenax GC (a solid adsorbent) with the VOC's later thermally desorbed and then analyzed...

377

Odor and volatile organic compound removal from wastewater treatment plant headworks ventilation air using a biofilter.  

PubMed

Laboratory-scale experiments and field studies were performed to evaluate the feasibility of biofilters for sequential removal of hydrogen sulfide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater treatment plant waste air. The biofilter was designed for spatially separated removal of pollutants to mitigate the effects of acid production resulting from hydrogen sulfide oxidation. The inlet section of the upflow units was designated for hydrogen sulfide removal and the second section was designated for VOC removal. Complete removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was accomplished at loading rates of 8.3 g H2S/(m3 x h) (15-second empty bed retention time [EBRT]) and 33 g MTBE/(m3 x h) (60-second EBRT), respectively. In field studies performed at the Hyperion Treatment Plant in Los Angeles, California, excellent removal of hydrogen sulfide, moderate removal of nonchlorinated VOCs such as toluene and benzene, and poor removal of chlorinated VOCs were observed in treating the headworks waste air. During spiking experiments on the headworks waste air, the percentage removals were similar to the unspiked removals when nonchlorinated VOCs were spiked; however, feeding high concentrations of chlorinated VOCs reduced the removal percentages for all VOCs. Thus, biofilters offer a distinct advantage over chemical scrubbers currently used at publicly owned treatment works in that they not only remove odor and hydrogen sulfide efficiently at low cost, but also reduce overall toxicity by partially removing VOCs and avoiding the use of hazardous chemicals. PMID:14587955

Converse, B M; Schroeder, E D; Iranpour, R; Cox, H H J; Deshusses, M A

2003-01-01

378

Tunable Volatile Organic Compounds Sensor by Using Thiolated Ligand Conjugation on MoS2.  

PubMed

One of the most important issues in the development of gas sensors for breath analysis is the fabrication of gas sensor arrays that possess different responses for recognizing patterns for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here, we develop a high-performance chemiresistor with a tunable sensor response and high sensitivity for representative VOC groups by using molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and by conjugating a thiolated ligand (mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA)) to MoS2 surface. Primitive and MUA-conjugated MoS2 sensing channels exhibit distinctly different sensor responses toward VOCs. In particular, the primitive MoS2 sensor presents positive responses for oxygen-functionalized VOCs, while the MUA-conjugated MoS2 sensor presents negative responses for the same analytes. Such characteristic sensor responses demonstrate that ligand conjugation successfully adds functionality to a MoS2 matrix. Thus, this will be a promising approach to constructing a versatile sensor array, by conjugating a wide variety of thiolated ligands on the MoS2 surface. Furthermore, these MoS2 sensors in this study exhibit high sensitivity to representative VOCs down to a concentration of 1 ppm. This approach to fabricating a tunable and sensitive VOC sensor may lead to a valuable real-world application for lung cancer diagnosis by breath analysis. PMID:25191976

Kim, Jong-Seon; Yoo, Hae-Wook; Choi, Hyung Ouk; Jung, Hee-Tae

2014-10-01

379

The reduction of HNO3 by volatile organic compounds emitted by motor vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitric acid (HNO3) was reduced in a flow tube by volatile organic carbon compounds (VOCs) generated from engine oil vapor. The primary reaction product was believed to be HONO. The reaction was not enhanced when Teflon® Raschig rings were added to the flow tube to increase surface area, thereby showing the reaction to be homogeneous under the conditions studied. The HONO formation observed ranged between 0.1 and 0.6 ppb h-1, with a mean of 0.3 ± 0.1 ppb h-1, for typical HNO3 concentrations of 4-5 ppb and estimated concentrations of the reactive components in the engine oil vapor between 200 and 300 ppt. The observations in this study compare well to a recently published field study conducted in Houston that observed average formation rates of 0.6 ± 0.3 ppb h-1. Water vapor was found to decrease the HONO formation rate by ?0.1 ppb h-1 for every 1% increase in the water mixing ratio.

Rutter, A. P.; Malloy, Q. G. J.; Leong, Y. J.; Gutierrez, C. V.; Calzada, M.; Scheuer, E.; Dibb, J. E.; Griffin, R. J.

2014-04-01

380

Testing the optimal defence hypothesis for two indirect defences: extrafloral nectar and volatile organic compounds  

PubMed Central

Many plants respond to herbivory with an increased production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) and/or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to attract predatory arthropods as an indirect defensive strategy. In this study, we tested whether these two indirect defences fit the optimal defence hypothesis (ODH), which predicts the within-plant allocation of anti-herbivore defences according to trade-offs between growth and defence. Using jasmonic acid-induced plants of Phaseolus lunatus and Ricinus communis, we tested whether the within-plant distribution pattern of these two indirect defences reflects the fitness value of the respective plant parts. Furthermore, we quantified photosynthetic rates and followed the within-plant transport of assimilates with 13C labelling experiments. EFN secretion and VOC emission were highest in younger leaves. Moreover, the photosynthetic rate increased with leaf age, and pulse-labelling experiments suggested transport of carbon to younger leaves. Our results demonstrate that the ODH can explain the within-plant allocation pattern of both indirect defences studied. PMID:18493790

Radhika, Venkatesan; Kost, Christian; Bartram, Stefan; Heil, Martin

2008-01-01

381

Volatile organic compound emissions from Miscanthus and short rotation coppice willow bioenergy crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miscanthus × giganteus and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix spp.) are increasingly important bioenergy crops. Above-canopy fluxes and mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in summer for the two crops at a site near Lincoln, UK, by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and virtual disjunct eddy covariance. The isoprene emission rate above willow peaked around midday at ?1 mg m-2 h-1, equivalent to 20 ?g gdw-1 h-1 normalised to 30 °C and 1000 ?mol m-2 s-1 PAR, much greater than for conventional arable crops. Average midday peak isoprene mixing ratio was ?1.4 ppbv. Acetone and acetic acid also showed small positive daytime fluxes. No measurable fluxes of VOCs were detected above the Miscanthus canopy. Differing isoprene emission rates between different bioenergy crops, and the crops or vegetation cover they may replace, means the impact on regional air quality should be taken into consideration in bioenergy crop selection.

Copeland, Nichola; Cape, J. Neil; Heal, Mathew R.

2012-12-01

382

RECEPTOR MODEL COMPARISONS AND WIND DIRECTION ANALYSES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND SUBMICROMETER PARTICLES IN AN ARID, BINATIONAL, URBAN AIRSHED  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between continuous measurements of volatile organic compounds sources and particle number was evaluated at a Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station Network (PAMS) site located near the U.S.-Mexico Border in central El Paso, TX. Sources of volatile organic...

383

Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi  

SciTech Connect

Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less visible impact on human well-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been overshadowed by the successful deployment of the ?-lactam processes. Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal organic acid processes may be the best examples of all. For example, commercial processes using Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80% efficiency and at final concentrations in hundreds of grams per liter. Surprisingly, this phenomenal productivity has been the object of relatively few research programs. Perhaps a greater understanding of this extraordinary capacity of filamentous fungi to produce organic acids in high concentrations will allow greater exploitation of these organisms via application of new knowledge in this era of genomics-based biotechnology. In this chapter, we will explore the biochemistry and modern genetic aspects of the current and potential commercial processes for making organic acids. The organisms involved, with a few exceptions, are filamentous fungi, and this review is limited to that group. Although yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, species of Rhodotorula, Pichia, and Hansenula are important organisms in fungal biotechnology, they have not been significant for commercial organic acid production, with one exception. The yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002). Furthermore, in the near future engineered yeasts may provide new commercial processes to make lactic acid (Porro, Bianchi, Ranzi, Frontali, Vai, Winkler, & Alberghina, 2002). This chapter is divided into two parts. The first contains a review of the commercial aspects of current and potential large-scale processes for fungal organic acid production. The second presents a detailed review of current knowledge of the biochemistry and genetic regulation of organic acid biosynthesis. The organic acids considered are limited to polyfunctional acids containing one or more carboxyl groups, hydroxyl groups, or both, that are closely tied to central metabolic pathways. A major objective of the review is to link the biochemistry of organic acid production to the available genomic data.

Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

2004-05-03

384

Distribution of volatile organic compounds in a New Jersey coastal plain aquifer system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds were collected from 315 wells in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in southwestern New Jersey and a small adjacent area in Pennsylvania during 1980-82. Volatile organic compounds were detected in all three aquifer units of the Potomac-Raritan-Magoth aquifer system in the study area. Most of the contamination appears to be confined to the outcrop area at present. Low levels of contamination, however, were found downdip of the outcrop area in the upper and middle aquifers. Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and benzene were the most frequently detected compounds. Differences in the areal distributions of light chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as trichloroethylene, and aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, were noted and are probably due to differences in the uses of the compounds and the distribution patterns of potential contamination sources. The distribution patterns of volatile organic compounds differed greatly among the three aquifer units. The upper aquifer, which crops out mostly in less-developed areas, had the lowest percentage of wells with volatile organic compounds detected (10 percent of wells sampled). The concentrations in most wells in the upper aquifer which had detectable levels were less than 10 ??g/l. In the middle aquifer, which crops out beneath much of the urban and industrial area adjacent to the Delaware River, detectable levels of volatile organic compounds were found in 22 percent of wells sampled, and several wells contained concentrations above 100 ??g/l. The lower aquifer, which is confined beneath much of the outcrop area of the aquifer system, had the highest percentage of wells (28 percent) with detectable levels. This is probably due to (1) vertical leakage of contamination from the middle aquifer, and (2) the high percentage of wells tapping the lower aquifer in the most heavily developed areas of the outcrop.

Fusillo, T.V.; Hochreiter, J.J., Jr.; Lord, D.G.

1985-01-01

385

REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT TO CONTROL INORGANIC AND VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of the versatility of reverse osmosis for removing a wide range of contaminants, U.S. EPA (Drinking Water Research Division) has been conducting laboratory and field studies to determine its effectiveness on specific inorganic and organic contaminants of concern to the wa...

386

Volatile organic solvents in correction fluids: Identification and potential hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to organic solvents is widespread in today's environment. The extent of exposure differs, high concentration exposure is being often experienced by workers in uncontrolled factories. Exposure in schools, however, was not an area of concern until recently when glue sniffing was reported to be practiced by children of school going age. The common solvents encountered in schools include paint

C. N. Ong; D. Koh; S. C. Foo; P. W. Kok; H. Y. Ong; T. C. Aw

1993-01-01

387

Volatile organic compounds from arctic bacteria of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group: a retrobiosynthetic approach in chemotaxonomic investigations.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds emitted by different marine arctic strains of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group were investigated by using a modified closed-loop stripping apparatus (CLSA). Seven of nine strains emitted volatiles, dominated by methyl ketones, in specific patterns. The methyl ketones were aliphatic saturated, or unsaturated, and comprised 12 to 18 C-atoms, sometimes with terminal Me branches. They were identified by GC/MS, retention-index calculations, derivatization with dimethyl disulfide for C=C bond location, and GC/FTIR to elucidate their uniform (Z)-configuration. The proposed structures of all methyl ketones were subsequently confirmed by synthesis, while the absolute configuration of chiral volatiles was elucidated by stereoselective synthesis. From retrobiosynthetic considerations, it was found that strain ARK10267 uses mainly valine, and strain ARK10063 mainly isoleucine for formation of starters for the ketone biosynthesis, which is correlated to fatty acid biosynthesis. Four strains (ARK10223, ARK10044, ARK10141, and ARK10146) use leucine. These separations are supported by phylogenetic affiliations based on 16S rRNA. Strain ARK10255b, in the course of this study found to be not a member of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum, did not emit aliphatic ketones of medium chain length, but methionine-derived 4-(methylsulfanyl)butan-2-one and corresponding 4-(methylsulfanyl)butan-2-ol. Most of the compounds described have not been reported previously from nature. PMID:17191983

Dickschat, Jeroen S; Helmke, Elisabeth; Schulz, Stefan

2005-03-01

388

Substrate-induced volatile organic compound emissions from compost-amended soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agronomic effects of composts, mineral fertiliser and combinations thereof on chemical, biological and physiological soil\\u000a properties have been studied in an 18-year field experiment. The present study aimed at tracing treatment effects by evaluating\\u000a the volatile organic compound (VOC) emission of the differently treated soils: non-amended control, nitrogen fertilisation\\u000a and composts (produced from organic waste and sewage sludge, respectively)

Martin S. A. Seewald; Wolfgang Singer; Brigitte A. Knapp; Ingrid H. Franke-Whittle; Armin Hansel; Heribert Insam

2010-01-01

389

Amino Acid Composition of Rumen Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid analyses were made of 22 strains of rumen bacteria grown in pure culture. The organisms used were selected to represent some of the predominant or- ganisms found in the rumen when either concentrates or roughages are fed. The amino acid results expressed as grams per 100 g total amino acids showed very little variation over the entire range

D. B. Purser; Suzanne M. Buechler

1966-01-01

390

Combined volatility and mass spectrometric measurements of biogenic secondary organic aerosol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the oxidation of mixtures of biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) has been investigated in the SAPHIR facility in Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, by using a Volatility Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (VTDMA). The standard VTDMA setup comprises three main parts: 1) An initial DMA, where a nearly monodisperse size fraction of the aerosol particles is selected (typically 100 or 150 nm), 2) the oven unit, i.e. four ovens in parallel where each oven includes a heating and adsorption section where the evaporation and adsorption of the volatile fraction occurs and 3) a final SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) system where the residual particle number distribution is measured. For this measurement campaign the set-up also contained a Quadrupole Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne QAMS). The temperature of the ovens can be varied between 298 and well above 573 K. In parallel to the final SMPS the AMS was used for chemical composition and density measurements. When the system was dedicated for AMS measurements the initial DMA was bypassed to improve the aerosol concentration. However, the produced SOA has a narrow size distribution still making it possible to follow small changes in the aerosol peak diameter. A general feature of the thermo-denuder system is that a less volatile SOA gives a larger residual particle size distribution compared to more volatile SOA. The experiments conducted were based on photochemical oxidation of selected terpene mixtures. A reference boreal mixture of terpenes, consisting of ?-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, ^-3-carene, and ocimene was used as base case. Secondary organic aerosol was formed from the precursor compounds by reaction with O3/H2O/OH in SAPHIR on the first day. The particles were kept in the chamber for up to two further days and were exposed to natural sunlight and OH radicals to initiate close to natural chemical ageing. The VTDMA results show that SOA becomes less volatile during ageing and this ageing was further enhanced when the mixtures were exposed to sunlight. The volatility was also affected by changes in the terpene mixtures. With the AMS we measured mass spectra of the organic aerosol particles at a reference temperature of 298 K and two additional elevated temperatures. Size distributions of the particles were obtained from the particle-time-of-flight mode of the AMS at sixteen representative m/z values. The residual total mass measured at the elevated oven temperatures was related to the total mass at the reference temperature to obtain the mass fraction remaining (MFR), which is higher for less volatile SOA. In agreement with the decreasing volatility during aging measured with the VTDMA, the MFR increases with time. An effective density of the particles was calculated comparing the mode position of the size distributions measured with the AMS and the SMPS. The effective density increases with ongoing photochemical ageing. In addition, the density of the low volatile residual particles that passed a high-temperature oven is higher than the density of particles at reference temperature. In order to investigate if the observed changes in density and volatility can be attributed to changes of the chemical composition of the particles, the mass spectra obtained at different oven temperatures and different chemical age were compared. We found that the ratio of heavy fragments (m/z > 90) increases with higher temperatures. Furthermore the fraction of the CO2+-fragment at m/z 44 to the total mass increases during the ageing process.

Emanuelsson, E.; Buchholz, A.; Hallquist, M.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Mentel, T.; Spindler, C.

2009-04-01

391

Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory.  

PubMed

Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic. PMID:22900143

Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E; Lavery, Leah L; Whiting, Gregory L; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

2012-01-01

392

Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory  

PubMed Central

Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic. PMID:22900143

Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E.; Lavery, Leah L.; Whiting, Gregory L.; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Broms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

2012-01-01

393

Organic Acid Production by Basidiomycetes  

PubMed Central

Sixty-seven strains belonging to 47 species of Basidiomycetes were examined for their acid-producing abilities in glucose media, in both the presence and absence of CaCO3, in stationary and shake cultures. Some strains were found to produce large quantities of oxalic acid. The oxalic acid-producing strains could be separated into two groups. Strains of one group (mostly brown-rot fungi) were able to produce oxalic acid, regardless of whether CaCO3 was present in the medium. Strains of the other group (mostly white-rot fungi) were characterized by their ability to produce oxalic acid only when CaCO3 was added to the medium. With the latter group, shake-culturing was generally more effective than stationary culturing in respect to acid production. In the CaCO3-containing media, Schizophyllum commune, Merulius tremellosus, and Porodisculus pendulus were found to produce substantial amounts of L-malic acid as a main metabolic product, along with small quantities of oxalic and other acids in shake cultures. Especially, S. commune and M. tremellosus may be employed as malic acid-producing species. PMID:5867653

Takao, Shoichi

1965-01-01

394

Impact of addition of aromatic amino acids on non-volatile and volatile compounds in lychee wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae MERIT.ferm.  

PubMed

The impact of individual aromatic amino acid addition (L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine) on non-volatile and volatile constituents in lychee wine fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. cerevisiae MERIT.ferm was studied. None of the added amino acids had any significant effect on the yeast cell count, pH, soluble solid contents, sugars and ethanol. The addition of L-phenylalanine significantly reduced the production of pyruvic and succinic acids. The addition of each amino acid dramatically reduced the consumption of proline and decreased the production of glycerol. Supplementation of the lychee juice with L-phenylalanine resulted in the formation of significantly higher amounts of 2-phenylethyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl acetate, 2-phenylethyl isobutyrate and 2-phenylethyl hexanoate. In contrast, supplementation with L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine had negligible effects on the volatile profile of lychee wines. These findings suggest that selectively adding amino acids may be used as a tool to modulate the volatile profile of lychee wines so as to diversify and/or intensify wine flavour and style. PMID:24287295

Chen, Dai; Chia, Jing Yee; Liu, Shao-Quan

2014-01-17

395

Natural Formation and Degradation of Chloroacetic Acids and Volatile Organochlorines in Forest Soil. Challenges to understanding (12 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background. The anthropogenic environmental emissions of chloroacetic acids and volatile organochlorines have been under scrutiny in recent years because the two compound groups are suspected to contribute to forest dieback and stratospheric ozone destruction, respectively. The two organochlorine groups are linked because the atmospheric photochemical oxidation of some volatile organochlorine compounds is one source of phytotoxic chloroacetic

Frank Laturnus; Isabelle Fahimi; Milan Gryndler; Anton Hartmann; Mathew R. Heal; Miroslav Matucha; Heinz Friedrich Schöler; Reiner Schroll; Teresia Svensson

2005-01-01

396

Interlaboratory comparison of measurements of acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted nickel in spiked sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An interlaboratory comparison of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted nickel (SEM_Ni) measurements of sediments was conducted among five independent laboratories. Relative standard deviations for the seven test samples ranged from 5.6 to 71% (mean?=?25%) for AVS and from 5.5 to 15% (mean?=?10%) for SEM_Ni. These results are in stark contrast to a recently published study that indicated AVS and SEM analyses were highly variable among laboratories.

Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Zanella, Luciana; Rogevich, Emily; Salata, Gregory; Bolek, Radoslaw

2011-01-01

397

Interlaboratory comparison of measurements of acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted nickel in spiked sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An interlaboratory comparison of acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted nickel (SEM-Ni) measurements of sediments was conducted among five independent laboratories. Relative standard deviations for the seven test samples ranged from 5.6 to 71% (mean=25%) for AVS and from 5.5 to 15% (mean=10%) for SEM-Ni. These results are in stark contrast to a recently published study that indicated AVS and SEM analyses were highly variable among laboratories. ?? 2011 SETAC.

Brumbaugh, W. G.; Hammerschmidt, C. R.; Zanella, L.; Rogevich, E.; Salata, G.; Bolek, R.

2011-01-01

398

Measurements of Low Volatility Organic Compounds (LVOCs) in Aircraft Engine Exhaust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas phase low volatilty organic compounds (LVOCs) comprise an atmospherically important, largely unmeasured class of organic species in the atmosphere. LVOCs consist of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs; i.e. C13-C20 n-alkanes) and semivolatile organic compunds (SVOCs; i.e. C21-C32 n-alkanes). Atmospheric oxidation of gas phase LVOCs results in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) which in turn has direct implications for climate and human health. The rates and the chemical properties of LVOC emissions and oxidation products (in the gas phase and particle phase) are poorly characterized and not accurately parameterized in atmospheric chemistry models. This paper will provide an overview of experimental results obtained with a novel technique that provides a volatility-resolved, quantitative measure of LVOCs (and LVOC oxidation products) in the atmosphere. Results from the Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment (AAFEX-II) conducted at the NASA Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility in April 2011 will be presented. The experiment was designed to characterize the gas phase and particulate emissions from the NASA DC-8 Aircraft as a function of engine power and fuel type. Differences in the desorption profile (i.e. volatility) and chemical characteristics of the LVOC emissions will be highlighted.

Cross, E. S.; Hunter, J. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Daumit, K. E.; Herndon, S. C.; Franklin, J. P.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Jayne, J.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kroll, J. H.

2011-12-01

399

Measurement of volatile organic compounds emitted in libraries and archives: an inferential indicator of paper decay?  

PubMed Central

Background A sampling campaign of indoor air was conducted to assess the typical concentration of indoor air pollutants in 8 National Libraries and Archives across the U.K. and Ireland. At each site, two locations were chosen that contained various objects in the collection (paper, parchment, microfilm, photographic material etc.) and one location was chosen to act as a sampling reference location (placed in a corridor or entrance hallway). Results Of the locations surveyed, no measurable levels of sulfur dioxide were detected and low formaldehyde vapour (< 18??g?m-3) was measured throughout. Acetic and formic acids were measured in all locations with, for the most part, higher acetic acid levels in areas with objects compared to reference locations. A large variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was measured in all locations, in variable concentrations, however furfural was the only VOC to be identified consistently at higher concentration in locations with paper-based collections, compared to those locations without objects. To cross-reference the sampling data with VOCs emitted directly from books, further studies were conducted to assess emissions from paper using solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres and a newly developed method of analysis; collection of VOCs onto a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer strip. Conclusions In this study acetic acid and furfural levels were consistently higher in concentration when measured in locations which contained paper-based items. It is therefore suggested that both acetic acid and furfural (possibly also trimethylbenzenes, ethyltoluene, decane and camphor) may be present in the indoor atmosphere as a result of cellulose degradation and together may act as an inferential non-invasive marker for the deterioration of paper. Direct VOC sampling was successfully achieved using SPME fibres and analytes found in the indoor air were also identified as emissive by-products from paper. Finally a new non-invasive, method of VOC collection using PDMS strips was shown to be an effective, economical and efficient way of examining VOC emissions directly from the pages of a book and confirmed that toluene, furfural, benzaldehyde, ethylhexanol, nonanal and decanal were the most concentrated VOCs emitted directly from paper measured in this study. PMID:22587759

2012-01-01

400

Tracing CO2 fluxes and plant volatile organic compound emissions by stable isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant metabolic processes exert a large influence on global climate and air quality through the emission of the greenhouse gas CO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Despite the enormous importance, processes controlling plant carbon allocation into primary and secondary metabolism, such as respiratory CO2 emission and VOC synthesis, remains unclear. The vegetation exerts a large isotopic imprint on the atmosphere through both, photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and fractionation during respiratory CO2 release (?13Cres). While the former is well understood, many processes driving carbon isotope fractionation during respiration are unknown1. There are striking differences in variations of ?13Cres between plant functional groups, which have been proposed to be related to carbon partitioning in the metabolic branching points of the respiratory pathways and secondary metabolism, which are linked via a number of interfaces including the central metabolite pyruvate2. Notably, it is a known substrate in a large array of secondary pathways leading to the biosynthesis of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, aromatics, fatty acid oxidation products, which can be emitted by plants. Here we investigate if carbon isotope fractionation in light and dark respired CO2 is associated with VOC emissions in the atmosphere. Specifically, we hypothesize that a high carbon flux through the pyruvate into various VOC synthesis pathways is associated with a pronounced 13C-enrichment of respired CO2 above the putative substrate, as it involves the decarboxylation of the 13C-enriched C-1 from pyruvate. Based on simultaneous real-time measurements of stable carbon isotope composition of branch respired CO2 (CRDS) and VOC fluxes (PTR-MS) we traced carbon flow into these pathways by pyruvate positional labeling. We demonstrated that in a Mediterranean shrub the 13C-enriched C-1 from pyruvate is released in substantial amounts as CO2 in the light. Simultaneously, naturally 13C depleted C-2 and C-3 carbon atoms of the acetyl-moiety are emitted as a variety of VOCs. Moreover, during light-dark transitions leaf emission bursts of the oxygenated metabolite acetaldehyde were observed as part of the PDH bypass pathway in the cytosol2. This may be a new piece of evidence for the origin of 13C-enriched ?13CO2 which is released during Light-Enhanced Dark Respiration (LEDR). Our study provides the first evidence that the isotopic signature of respired CO2 is closely linked to carbon partitioning between anabolic and catabolic pathways and plants strategies of carbon investment into secondary compound synthesis. Werner C. & Gessler A. (2011) Diel variations in the carbon isotope composition of respired CO2 and associated carbon sources: a review of dynamics and mechanisms. Biogeosciences 8, 2437-2459 Jardine K, Wegener F, Abrell L, vonHaren J, Werner C (2014) Phytogenic biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate. PCE 37, 414-424.

Werner, Christiane; Wegener, Frederik; Jardine, Kolby

2014-05-01

401

[Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds from wastewater treatment system of vitamin C production].  

PubMed

Using a portable gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution in each unit of the wastewater treatment system for vitamin C production was studied, and the species characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed and summarized. The results showed that 32 kinds of volatile organic compounds were identified, and the total mass concentration range of volatilizing VOCs was 0.9629-32.0970 mg x m(-3). The most species and the largest concentration (25 and 32.0970 mg x m(-3)) of volatilizing VOCs were found in grit chamber, which was located in the most front-end of the wastewater treatment system and was in semi-closed state. The proportion of molecular sulfide in the grit chamber was as high as 30.02%; Higher proportions of aromatic hydrocarbons were monitored in the subsequent processing units, with percentages of 21.06%-31.48%. The main types of VOCs monitored were chlorinated hydrocarbons and ketones, accounting for 6.39%-55.80% and 10.40%-58.08% of the total amount, respectively; 14 kinds of VOCs were detected in every unit of the wastewater treatment system: acetone, 2-butanone, n-hexane, chloroform, chlorobenzene etc, among which, vinyl chloride, styrene and 1,3-butadiene belong to the highly toxic substances. The vinyl chloride concentration exceeded the standard of "atmospheric pollutants emission standards" (GB 16297-1996), while 1,3-butadiene and other pollutants have no national standard limits. The results of this study provide a scientific basis for the revision of China's pharmaceutical wastewater VOCs emission standards. PMID:24640904

Guo, Bin; Lu, Guo-Li; Ren, Ai-Ling; Du, Zhao; Xing, Zhi-Xian; Han, Peng; Gao, Bo; Liu, Shu-Ya

2013-12-01

402

Immunological detection of mellitic acid in the Atacama desert: Implication for organics detection on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The restrictions imposed by instrumentation and some methodological constraints make that only volatile organic compounds have been analyzed by in situ instruments in planetary exploration. It has been argued that polycarboxilic acids like the hexacarboxylic acid (mellitic acid) can be produced and accumulated in the martian regolith from the oxidation of meteoritic organic matter. However, these compounds are non-volatile and instruments designed for the analysis of volatile compounds would not detect them. Herein we report the production of an antibody to mellitic acid and the development of a fluorescent inhibition microarray immunoassay (IMI) to detect this substance to a limit of 5 ppb (ng mL-1). We used the anti-mellitic antibody to detect mellitic acid in drill core samples obtained from different depths in the Atacama desert (Chile), a highly relevant terrestrial analogue for Mars. The presence of mellitic acid was corroborated by organic extraction and GC/MS analysis. Our results showed a smooth gradient of mellitic acid concentration, being higher at the surface and near the surface (1.17-1.57 ppm) and diminishing with depth to be undetectable at a depth of 4 m. Our immunoassay can be easily implemented in instruments for in situ analysis.

Blanco, Yolanda; Rivas, Luis A.; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Parro, Víctor

2013-06-01

403

BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO VARIATION OF ACID-VOLATILE SULFIDES AND METALS IN FIELD-EXPOSED SPIKED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Vertical and temporal variations of acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in sediment can control biological impacts of metals. To assess the significance of these variations in field sediments, sediments spiked with cadmium, copper, lead, nickel ...

404

Field and Laboratory Studies of Reactions between Atmospheric Water Soluble Organic Acids and Inorganic Particles  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric inorganic particles undergo complex heterogeneous reactions that change their physicochemical properties. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids [1-2]. Recently, we showed that NaCl can react with water soluble organic acids (WSOA) and release gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) resulting in formation of organic salts [3]. A similar mechanism is also applicable to mixed WSOA/nitrate particles where multi-phase reactions are driven by the volatility of nitric acid. Furthermore, secondary organic material, which is a complex mixture of carboxylic acids, exhibits the same reactivity towards chlorides and nitrates. Here, we present a systematic study of reactions between atmospheric relevant WSOA, SOM, and inorganic salts including NaCl, NaNO3, and Ca(NO3)2 using complementary micro-spectroscopy analysis.

Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Sellon, Rachel E.; Shilling, John E.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

2013-06-25

405

A microfluidic device for open loop stripping of volatile organic compounds.  

PubMed

The detection of volatile organic compounds is of great importance for assessing the quality of water. In this contribution, we describe a miniaturized stripping device that allows fast online detection of organic solvents in water. The core component is a glass microfluidic chip that facilitates the creation of an annular-flowing stream of water and nitrogen gas. Volatile compounds are transferred efficiently from the water into the gas phase along the microfluidic pathway at room temperature within less than 5 s. Before exiting the microchip, the liquid phase is separated from the enriched gas phase by incorporating side capillaries through which the hydrophilic water phase is withdrawn. The gas phase is conveniently collected at the outlet reservoir by tubing. Finally, a semiconductor gas sensor analyzes the concentration of (volatile) organic compounds in the nitrogen gas. The operation and use of the stripping device is demonstrated for the organic solvents THF, 1-propanol, toluene, ethylbenzene, benzaldehyde, and methanol. The mobile, inexpensive, and continuously operating system with liquid flow rates in the low range of microliters per minute can be connected to other detectors or implemented in chemical production line for process control. PMID:23232959

Cvetkovi?, Benjamin Z; Dittrich, Petra S

2013-03-01

406

Monitoring Volatile Organic Tank Waste Using Cermet Microsensors  

SciTech Connect

Presently, very few inexpensive technologies exist in the marketplace that can determine the contents of tank waste or monitor the chemistry of tank constituents in near-real time. The research addressed this problem by developing and assessing ceramic-metallic based microsensors for determining the constituents of a liquid organic storage tank by examining the gases in the headspace of the tank. Overall, the WBO and YSZ sensors responded well to the chemicals in this study. Responses to various concentrations were distinguishable visually. This is a clear indication that pattern recognition tools will be effective in resolving the constituents and concentrations. In tests, such as the test with acetophenone, one sensor, the WBO sensor is not extremely effective. However, the other sensor, the YSZ sensor, is effective in resolving the concentrations. This supports the need to use an array of sensors, as one sensor may be reactive to a compound while another may not. In the course of this research, several interesting phenomena surfaced. New sensors, that were fabricated but not used in a contaminant gas, seemed to function more effectively and predictably if a ?conditioning? step was imposed upon them prior to use in square wave voltammetry. A conditioning step consists of running cyclic voltammetry prior to running square wave voltammetry. This step tends to ?cleanse? the sensor surface by providing a full -1.0 V to +1.0V sweep and both oxidizing and reducing compounds on the sensor surface. [Note: squarewave voltammetry will simply oxidize or reduce compounds ? it will not induce both reactions.] This sweep is essential for recovery between samples.

Edward G. Gatliff, Ph.D.; Laura R. Skubal, Ph.D.; Michael C. Vogt, Ph.D.

2006-03-13

407

Determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater by solvent extraction and gas chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction method for the analysis of volatile fatty acids collected at the elutriation units of Unit 3, 4 and 5 at Johannesburg Water-Northern Works Wastewater Treatment Plant. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method employing dichloromethane (DCM) and methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) as extracting solvents was used during the quantitative analysis of volatile fatty acids namely acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and heptanoic acid. The detection of the extracts was by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating under electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). The results showed that MTBE was a better extraction solvent than DCM as it gave much higher recoveries (>5 folds). On the other hand, the overall reactor performance for all the three units in the period when the samples were collected, which was measured by the ratio of propionic to acetic acid was good since the ratio o did not exceed 1.4 with the exception of the samples collected on the 3rd of October where the ratio exceeded 1.4 significantly. The concentration of acetic acid, another indicator for the reactor performance in all three units was way below 800 mg/L thus the digester balance was on par.

Mkhize, Nontando T.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Momba, Maggy

408

Antimicrobial volatile organic compounds affect morphogenesis-related enzymes in Guignardia citricarpa, causal agent of citrus black spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although non-volatile substances toxic to plant pathogenic microorganisms have been extensively studied over the years, few studies have focused on microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The VOCs produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CR-1, used in fermentative processes for fuel ethanol production, are able to inhibit the vegetative development of the fungus Guignardiacitricarpa, causal agent of the disease citrus

Mauricio Batista Fialho; Luiz Fernando Romanholo Ferreira; Regina Teresa Rosim Monteiro; Sérgio Florentino Pascholati

2010-01-01

409

Antimicrobial volatile organic compounds affect morphogenesis-related enzymes in Guignardia citricarpa, causal agent of citrus black spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although non-volatile substances toxic to plant pathogenic microorganisms have been extensively studied over the years, few studies have focused on microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The VOCs produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CR-1, used in fermentative processes for fuel ethanol production, are able to inhibit the vegetative development of the fungus Guignardiacitricarpa, causal agent of the disease citrus

Mauricio Batista Fialho; Luiz Fernando Romanholo Ferreira; Regina Teresa Rosim Monteiro; Sérgio Florentino Pascholati

2011-01-01

410

TheRoleof Organic VolatileProfiles inClinicalDiagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic volatile constituents of biological fluids contain clinicallyusefuldiagnostic information for the recognition of metabolicdisordersin man.To gainaccessto thisin- formation,it was necessaryto developthe methodology for reproduciblystrippingthe trace concentrationsof volatilesfrom biologicalfluids(dynamicheadspace,gas phase-stripping, solventextraction,andthe transevapo- rator technique),to separate the complex extracts by high-resolution capillarycolumngas chromatography, and to develop computer-aideddata-handlingand pattern- recognition techniques for analyzing the immenseamount of information generated. The normal and pathological

Albert Zlatkis; Roswitha S. Brazell; Cohn F. Poole

1981-01-01

411

GC × GC-MS HYPHENATED TECHNIQUES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN AIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) and its direct applications to measurement of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in air are reviewed and discussed. The paper includes a brief discussion of the instrumental set-up and theory for the comprehensive GC × GC hyphenated with different detection techniques. Several reviewed types of modulators demonstrate that the applications of comprehensive GC × GC are still under development,

Cecilia Arsene; Davide Vione; Nelu Grinberg; Romeo Iulian Olariu

2011-01-01

412

Factors affecting indoor air concentrations of volatile organic compounds at a site of subsurface gasoline contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a field study of soil-gas transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into a building at a site contaminated with gasoline. High VOC concentrations (30-60 g m⁻³) were measured in a soil gas 0.7 m below the building. Measured indoor air concentrations were nearly 10⁶ lower due to a sharp gradient in soil-gas VOC concentrations between 0.1 and 0.7

Marc L. Fischer; Abra J. Bentley; A. T. Hodgson; R. G. Sextro; J. M. Daisey; K. A. Dunkin; W. W. Nazaroff

1996-01-01

413

Behavior and determination of volatile organic compounds in soil: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report is a comprehensive literature review that presents and assesses research results that pertain to the problems and inconsistencies observed in the sampling and analysis of soil volatile organic compounds (VOC) by SW-846 method 5030 (purge and trap) for sample preparation and extraction and methods 8240\\/8260 (gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry) for sample analysis. Topics discussed include: interphase transfer mechanisms for

Minnich

1993-01-01

414

Factors Affecting Indoor Air Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds at a Site of Subsurface Gasoline Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a field study of soil gas transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into a slab-on-grade building found at a site contaminated with gasoline. Although the high VOC concentrations (30-60 g m³) measured in the soil gas at depths of 0.7 m below the building suggest a potential for high levels of indoor VOC, the measured indoor air concentrations

M. L. Fischer; A. J. Bentley; K. A. Dunkin; A. T. Hodgson; W. W. Nazaroff; R. G. Sextro; J. M. Daisey

1995-01-01

415

Testing the optimal defence hypothesis for two indirect defences: extrafloral nectar and volatile organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plants respond to herbivory with an increased production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) and\\/or volatile organic compounds\\u000a (VOCs) to attract predatory arthropods as an indirect defensive strategy. In this study, we tested whether these two indirect\\u000a defences fit the optimal defence hypothesis (ODH), which predicts the within-plant allocation of anti-herbivore defences according\\u000a to trade-offs between growth and defence. Using jasmonic

Venkatesan Radhika; Christian Kost; Stefan Bartram; Martin Heil; Wilhelm Boland

2008-01-01

416

[Headspace analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in drinking water by the method of gas chromatography].  

PubMed

In the paper there is presented a methodology of analysis of headspace 52 volatile organic compounds in drinking water by the method of gas chromatography with the use of the chromatograph "Crystal 5000.2" with three detectors and automatic attachment Lab Hut 200N NT-200 for the preparation of the sample water and vapor phase input. The lower limit of detection for all compounds in the 2-10 times lower than that of the corresponding standard value. PMID:25051750

Sotnikov, E E; Zagaynov, V F; Mikhaylova, R I; Milochkin, D A; Ryzhova, I N; Kornilov, I O

2014-01-01

417

A polymer-ceramic composite membrane for recovering volatile organic compounds from wastewaters by pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite membrane was constructed on a porous ceramic support from a block copolymer of styrene and butadiene (SBS). It was tested in a laboratory pervaporation apparatus for recovering volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethylene (TCE) from dilute aqueous solutions. This polymer-ceramic composite membrane yielded significantly higher VOC selectivity than an SBS membrane without the ceramic

Sowmya Ganapathi-Desai; Subhas K. Sikdar

2000-01-01

418

Investigation of partitioning mechanism for volatile organic compounds in a multiphase system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the partitioning behavior of a set of diverse volatile organic compounds (VOCs). After equilibration at a temperature of 25°C, the VOC concentrations were measured by headspace method in combination with gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). The obtained data were used to determine the partition coefficients (KP) of VOCs in a gas–liguid–solid system. The results have

Elena Starokozhev; Karsten Sieg; Elke Fries; Willhelm Püttmann

2011-01-01

419

Real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

DOEpatents

A system for on-line quantitative monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) includes pressure reduction means for carrying a gaseous sample from a first location to a measuring input location maintained at a low pressure, the system utilizing active feedback to keep both the vapor flow and pressure to a chemical ionization mode mass spectrometer constant. A multiple input manifold for VOC and gas distribution permits a combination of calibration gases or samples to be applied to the spectrometer.

Mowry, Curtis Dale (Albuquerque, NM); Thornberg, Steven Michael (Peralta, NM)

1999-01-01

420

Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Controlled Environment: Ethylene Gas Measurement Studies on Radish  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volatile organic compound(VOC), ethylene gas, was characterized and quantified by GC/FID. 20-50 ppb levels were detected during the growth stages of radish. SPME could be a good analytical tool for the purpose. Low temperature trapping method using dry ice/diethyl ether and liquid nitrogen bath was recommended for the sampling process for GC/PID and GC/MS analysis.

Kong, Suk Bin

2001-01-01

421

Volatile organic components migrating from plastic pipes (HDPE, PEX and PVC) into drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-density polyethylene pipes (HDPE), crossbonded polyethylene pipes (PEX) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes for drinking water were tested with respect to migration of volatile organic components (VOC) to water. The odour of water in contact with plastic pipes was assessed according to the quantitative threshold odour number (TON) concept. A major migrating component from HDPE pipes was 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol (2,4-DTBP) which

Ingun Skjevrak; Anne Due; Karl Olav Gjerstad; Hallgeir Herikstad

2003-01-01

422

Electrospun Polyurethane Fibers for Absorption of Volatile Organic Compounds from Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrospun polyurethane fibers for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air with rapid VOC absorption and desorption have been developed. Polyurethanes based on 4,4-methylenebis(phenylisocyanate) (MDI) and aliphatic isophorone diisocyanate as the hard segments and butanediol and tetramethylene glycol as the soft segments were electrospun from their solutions in N,N-dimethylformamide to form micrometer-sized fibers. Although activated carbon possessed a many-fold

E. Scholten; L. Bromberg; G. C. Rutledge; T. A. Hatton

2011-01-01

423

Variations in amounts and potential sources of volatile organic chemicals in new cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines inter-brand, intra-brand and intra-model variations in volatile organic chemical (VOC) levels inside new cars. The effect of temperature on interior VOC levels was examined using model automobiles with and without the air-conditioning running. Potential sources of VOC were assessed by comparing VOC levels with two interior trims (leather and fabric) and by analyzing VOC emissions from various

Yeh-Chung Chien

2007-01-01

424

Reversibly enhanced aqueous solubilization of volatile organic compounds using a redox-reversible surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) is an effective method for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated soils and groundwater. To reuse the surfactant the VOCs must be separated from the surfactant solutions. The water solubility of VOCs can be enhanced using reversible surfactants with a redox-acive group, (ferrocenylmethyl)dodecyldimethylammonium bromide (Fcl2) and (ferrocenylmethyl)tetradecanedimethylammonium bromide (Fcl4), above and below their critical

Yingjie Li; Senlin Tian; Hong Mo; Ping Ning

2011-01-01

425

Catalytic Combustion of Volatile Organic Compounds on Supported Precious Metal Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic combustion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was investigated on supported precious metal catalysts. The activities for the combustion of methane and acetaldehyde were closely related to the reducibility of the precious metal oxides of the catalysts. On the other hand, light-off temperatures for toluene combustion on PdO\\/Al2O3, PdO\\/SnO2, and PdO\\/CeO2 were around 200 °C, although PdO\\/ZrO2 showed a higher

Tatsuya Takeguchi; Satoshi Aoyama; Junya Ueda; Ryuji Kikuchi; Koichi Eguchi

2003-01-01

426

Performance specifications for technology development: Application for characterization of volatile organic compounds in the environment  

SciTech Connect

This report contains information about technology development for the monitoring and remediation of environmental pollution caused by the release of volatile organic compounds. Topics discussed include: performance specification processes, gas chromatography, mass spectrometer, fiber-optic chemical sensors, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, piezoelectric sensors and electrochemical sensors. These methods are analyzed for their cost efficiency, accuracy, and the ability to meet the needs of the customer.

Carpenter, S.E.; Doskey, P.V.; Erickson, M.D.; Lindahl, P.C.

1994-07-01

427

Volatile organic compounds in a multi-storey shopping mall in guangzhou, South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) specified in the USEPA TO-14 list were analysed in microenvironments of a multi-storey shopping mall in Guangzhou city, South China. The microenvironments studied include both indoor (department store, supermarket, fast-food court, electronic games room, children's playground, gallery and book store) and outdoor ones (rooftop and ground level entrance). The characteristics and concentration of VOCs varied widely

Jianhui Tang; C. Y. Chan; Xinming Wang; L. Y. Chan; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu

2005-01-01

428

Testing of organic acids in engine coolants  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of 30 organic acids as inhibitors in engine coolants is reported. Tests include glassware corrosion of coupled and uncoupled metals. FORD galvanostatic and cyclic polarization electrochemistry for aluminum pitting, and reserve alkalinity (RA) measurements. Details of each test are discussed as well as some general conclusions. For example, benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In general, the organic acids provide little RA when titrated to a pH of 5.5, titration to a pH of 4.5 can result in precipitation of the acid. Trends with respect to acid chain length are reported also.

Weir, T.W. [ARCO Chemical Co., Newtown Square, PA (United States)

1999-08-01

429

Volatile organic compounds of six French Dryopteris species: natural odorous and bioactive resources.  

PubMed

Aerial parts of six Dryopteris species collected in France were investigated for volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the first time. Fifty-three biosynthesized VOC from the shikimic, lipidic and terpenic pathways were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Many bioactive polyketide compounds as filicinic derivatives (from 8.5 to 23.5%) and phloroglucinol derivatives (from 8.2 to 53.8%) with various pharmacological activities were detected in high amount from five analysed Dryopteris species, in particular D. oreades and D. borreri, i.e., propionylfilicinic acid (> 10% in D. affinis and D. ardechensis) and 2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-3-methylbutyrophenone (aspidinol) (19.1% and 14.6% in D. oreades and D. borreri, respectively). Several terpenic derivatives with a low odor threshold were identified, i.e., carota-5,8-diene (from 2.5 to 18.4%: floral, woody or fresh bark note), (E)-nerolidol (> 10% for D. borreri and D. cambrensis; floral or woody odor), alpha-selinene (> 7% for D. ardechensis; woody-spicy odor), and aristolene (12.8% in D. affinis; flower, sweet odor). The main isoprenoid derivatives were 4-hydroxy-5,6-epoxyionol, 3-oxo-alpha-ionol and 4-oxo-7,8-dihydro-beta-ionone (essentially in D. remota), whereas the main aromatic compound was 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone (20.6% and 12.6% in D. cambrensis and D. borreri, respectively) and the main lipid derivative was 1-octen-3-ol with a mushroom-like odor (from 0.4 to 8.3%). Dryopteris species resources are of great interest as a reservoir of odorous and bioactive compounds. PMID:24660483

Froissard, Didier; Rapior, Sylvie; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Fruchier, Alain; Buatois, Bruno; Fons, Françoise

2014-01-01

430

Selective sensing of volatile organic compounds using novel conducting polymer-metal nanoparticle hybrids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conducting polymer-metal nanoparticle hybrids, fabricated by assembling metal nanoparticles on top of functionalized conducting polymer film surfaces using conjugated linker molecules, enable the selective sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In these conducting polymer-metal nanoparticle hybrids, selectivity is achieved by assembling different metals on the same conducting polymer film. This eliminates the need to develop either different polymers chemistries or device configurations for each specific analyte. In the hybrids, chemisorption of the analyte vapor induces charge redistribution in the metal nanoparticles and changes their work function. The conjugated linker molecule causes this change in the work function of the tethered nanoparticles to affect the electronic states in the underlying conducting polymer film. The result is an easily measurable change in the resistance of the hybrid structure. The fabrication of these sensing elements involved the covalent assembly of nickel (Ni) and palladium (Pd) metal nanoparticles on top of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-co-thiophene-3-acetic acid), poly(EDOT-co-TAA), films using 4-aminothiophenol linker molecules. The change in resistance of hybrid Pd/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) and Ni/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) hybrid films to acetone and toluene, respectively, is observed to be in proportion to their concentrations. The projected detection limits are 2 and 10 ppm for toluene and acetone, respectively. A negligible response (resistance change) of the Pd/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) films to toluene exposure confirmed its selectivity for detecting acetone. Similarly, lack of response to acetone confirmed the selectivity of the Ni/poly(EDOT-co-TAA) stacks for detecting toluene. It is anticipated that the assembly of other metals such as Ag, Au and Cu on top of poly(EDOT-co-TAA) would provide selectivity for detecting and discriminating other VOCs.

Vaddiraju, Sreeram; Gleason, Karen K.

2010-03-01

431

Different fecal microbiotas and volatile organic compounds in treated and untreated children with celiac disease.  

PubMed

This study aimed at investigating the fecal microbiotas of children with celiac disease (CD) before (U-CD) and after (T-CD) they were fed a gluten-free diet and of healthy children (HC). Brothers or sisters of T-CD were enrolled as HC. Each group consisted of seven children. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis with V3 universal primers revealed a unique profile for each fecal sample. PCR-DGGE analysis with group- or genus-specific 16S rRNA gene primers showed that the Lactobacillus community of U-CD changed significantly, while the diversity of the Lactobacillus community of T-CD was quite comparable to that of HC. Compared to HC, the ratio of cultivable lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium to Bacteroides and enterobacteria was lower in T-CD and even lower in U-CD. The percentages of strains identified as lactobacilli differed as follows: HC (ca. 38%) > T-CD (ca. 17%) > U-CD (ca. 10%). Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus rossiae, and Lactobacillus pentosus were identified only in fecal samples from T-CD and HC. Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus gasseri were identified only in several fecal samples from HC. Compared to HC, the composition of Bifidobacterium species of T-CD varied, and it varied even more for U-CD. Forty-seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) belonging to different chemical classes were identified using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry-solid-phase microextraction analysis. The median concentrations varied markedly for HC, T-CD, and U-CD. Overall, the r(2) values for VOC data for brothers and sisters were equal to or lower than those for unrelated HC and T-CD. This study shows the effect of CD pathology on the fecal microbiotas of children. PMID:19376912

Di Cagno, Raffaella; Rizzello, Carlo G; Gagliardi, Francesca; Ricciuti, Patrizia; Ndagijimana, Maurice; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta; Crecchio, Carmine; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria

2009-06-01

432

Laboratory investigations of the hydroxyl radical-initiated oxidation of atmospheric volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydroxyl radical (OH) is one of the most important oxidants in the atmosphere, because reaction with OH is the dominant atmospheric fate of most trace atmospheric species. OH is intimately involved in a complex non-linear photochemical pathway involving anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides that are emitted from vehicular exhaust and industrial emissions. This chemistry generates secondary tropospheric ozone which is an important greenhouse gas as well as a component of photochemical smog. In addition, this chemistry leads to the formation of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere which have implications for public health and climate change. The focus of this dissertation is to improve our understanding of this complex chemistry by investigating the rate-limiting elementary reactions which are part of the OH-initiated oxidation of important VOCs. Experimental (discharge flow technique coupled with resonance fluorescence and laser induced fluorescence) and theoretical studies (Density Functional Theory computations) of the kinetics of three atmospheric VOCs, acetic acid, 1,3-butadiene and methyl ethyl ketone are discussed. The acetic acid and OH reaction has been thought to undergo a hydrogen-bonded complex mediated pathway instead of a direct one leading to faster rate constants at lower temperature. Our results for the experimental investigation between 263-373 K and pressures of 2-5 Torr for the gas phase reaction of acetic acid with OH confirm the complex mediated reaction mechanism and indicate that acetic acid can play an important role especially in the oxidative chemistry of upper troposphere. The 1,3-butadiene and OH reaction is thought to undergo electrophilicaddition by OH which could display a complex pressure dependence similar to isoprene and 232-butenol as noted earlier in this laboratory. However, our results for the kinetics of the reaction between 273-423 K and a pressure range of 1-6 Torr indicate a lack of pressure independence owing to a more efficient scavenging of the intermediate butadiene-OH peroxy radicals by oxygen. The reaction of methyl ethyl ketone and OH has relatively few kinetic investigations and its reaction mechanism is thought to be similar to that of acetone, mediated by a hydrogen bonded prereactive complex. Our kinetic investigations between 2-5 Torr and 263-388 K confirm the above mechanism but are contrary to earlier product studies that suggest that the preferential abstraction of an alpha-hydrogen from MEK by OH takes place. Instead, based on the results of our kinetic isotope effect we propose that the reaction proceeds via the abstraction of beta-hydrogen. In addition, results from measurements and model simulations of OH and HO2 radicals in photooxidation of isoprene in a photochemical reaction chamber at Purdue University are presented. Isoprene is one of the most important reactive biogenic VOCs in the atmosphere because it can contribute to regional ozone production as well secondary organic aerosol production. Measurements of OH, isoprene and its oxidation products in an environmental chamber are compared to model predictions using the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism to test and validate current models of isoprene oxidation in the atmosphere.

Vimal, Deepali

433

Laboratory and field screening strategies for measuring volatile organic compounds in landfill gas  

SciTech Connect

Distinct patterns often exist in the presence and absence of hazardous contaminants in the environment. These patterns can be used to select efficient screening tools, or groups of compounds that provide the most information on overall occurrences of a larger target group of compounds. By using these screens to indicate whether a sample is contaminated with detectable amounts of the compounds of interest, attention can be focused on those samples considered most likely to contain measurable concentrations of targeted compounds. The cost savings that result from eliminating samples that are most likely uncontaminated can be applied to obtaining additional samples that more accurately characterize the spatial or temporal variability of the environmental problem. In a retrospective application of screening techniques to the State of California's database of volatile organic compounds in landfill gas, two laboratory screening compounds, perchloroethylene and methylene chloride, represent over 95% of the total number of positive detections of a target group of 10 volatile organic compounds. Benzene and vinyl chloride, two field screening compounds that were selected using the characteristics of commercially available colorimetric detector tubes, recorded 74% of the total contaminant detections and a 52% savings in analytical costs as compared to an exhaustive analysis of every sample for all 10 volatile organic compounds. The number of detections recorded could have been improved if more sensitive and less selective field screening devices were available.

Emerson, C.W.

1999-11-01

434

Organic Phosphoric Acid of the Soil.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN NO. +6CT /36 CHEMICAL SECTION, FEBRUARY, 191 1 I TECHNICAL BULLETIN Organic Phosphoric Acid of the Soil BY G. S. FRAPS, Chemist POSTOFFICE College Station, Brazos County, 'Texas. ,\\ustin... . ................................................ introduction 5 .............................. hmmonia-Soluble Phosphoric Acid 5 ................ Solubility of Phosphates in Ammonia 6 I Fixation of Phosphoric Acid from Ammonia .......... 7 Effect of Ratio of Soil to Solvent in Extraction of Phos- I I...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1911-01-01

435

Volatile general anesthetic sensing with organic field-effect transistors integrating phospholipid membranes.  

PubMed

The detailed action mechanism of volatile general anesthetics is still unknown despite their effect has been clinically exploited for more than a century. Long ago it was also assessed that the potency of an anesthetic molecule well correlates with its lipophilicity and phospholipids were eventually identified as mediators. As yet, the direct effect of volatile anesthetics at physiological relevant concentrations on membranes is still under scrutiny. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) integrating a phospholipid (PL) functional bio inter-layer (FBI) are here proposed for the electronic detection of archetypal volatile anesthetic molecules such as diethyl ether and halothane. This technology allows to directly interface a PL layer to an electronic transistor channel, and directly probe subtle changes occurring in the bio-layer. Repeatable responses of PL FBI-OFET to anesthetics are produced in a concentration range that reaches few percent, namely the clinically relevant regime. The PL FBI-OFET is also shown to deliver a comparably weaker response to a non-anesthetic volatile molecule such as acetone. PMID:22921091

Daniela Angione, Maria; Magliulo, Maria; Cotrone, Serafina; Mallardi, Antonia; Altamura, Davide; Giannini, Cinzia; Cioffi, Nicola; Sabbatini, Luigia; Gobeljic, Danka; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Palazzo, Gerardo; Torsi, Luisa

2013-02-15

436

Emission rates of selected volatile organic compounds from skin of healthy volunteers  

PubMed Central

Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC–MS) coupled with solid phase micro-extraction as pre-concentration method (SPME) was applied to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by human skin. A total of 64 C4-C10 compounds were quantified in skin emanation of 31 healthy volunteers. Amongst them aldehydes and hydrocarbons were the predominant chemical families with eighteen and seventeen species, respectively. Apart from these, there were eight ketones, six heterocyclic compounds, six terpenes, four esters, two alcohols, two volatile sulphur compounds, and one nitrile. The observed median emission rates ranged from 0.55 to 4790 fmol cm?2 min?1. Within this set of analytes three volatiles; acetone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and acetaldehyde exhibited especially high emission rates exceeding 100 fmol cm?2 min?1. Thirty-three volatiles were highly present in skin emanation with incidence rates over 80%. These species can be considered as potential markers of human presence, which could be used for early location of entrapped victims during Urban Search and Rescue Operations (USaR). PMID:24768920

Mochalski, Pawe?; King, Julian; Unterkofler, Karl; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Amann, Anton

2014-01-01

437

Potential contribution of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility primary organic compounds to secondary organic aerosol in the Mexico City region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been established that observed local and regional levels of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in polluted areas cannot be explained by the oxidation and partitioning of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors, at least using current mechanisms and parameterizations. In this study, the 3-D regional air quality model CHIMERE is applied to quantify the contribution to SOA formation of recently identified semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic vapors (S/IVOC) in and around Mexico City for the MILAGRO field experiment during March 2006. The model has been updated to include explicitly the volatility distribution of primary organic aerosols (POA), their gas-particle partitioning and the gas-phase oxidation of the vapors. Two recently proposed parameterizations, those of Robinson et al. (2007) ("ROB") and Grieshop et al. (2009) ("GRI") are compared and evaluated against surface and aircraft measurements. The 3-D model results are assessed by comparing with the concentrations of OA components from Positive Matrix Factorization of Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) data, and for the first time also with oxygen-to-carbon ratios derived from high-resolution AMS measurements. The results show a substantial enhancement in predicted SOA concentrations (3-6 times) with respect to the previously published base case without S/IVOCs (Hodzic et al., 2009), both within and downwind of the city leading to much reduced discrepancies with the total OA measurements. The predicted anthropogenic POA levels are found to agree within 20% with the observed HOA concentrations for both the ROB and GRI simulations, consistent with the interpretation of the emissions inventory by previous studies. The impact of biomass burning POA within the city is underestimated in comparison to the AMS BBOA, presumably due to insufficient nighttime smoldering emissions. Model improvements in OA predictions are associated with the better-captured SOA magnitude and diurnal variability. The predicted production from anthropogenic and biomass burning S/IVOC represents 40-60% of the total SOA at the surface during the day and is somewhat larger than that from aromatics, especially at the T1 site at the edge of the city. The SOA production from the continued multi-generation S/IVOC oxidation products continues actively downwind. Similar to aircraft observations, the predicted OA/?CO ratio for the ROB case increases from 20-30 ?g sm-3 ppm-1 up to 60-70 ?g sm-3 ppm-1 between a fresh and 1-day aged air mass, while the GRI case produces a 30-40% higher OA growth than observed. The predicted average O/C ratio of total OA for the ROB case is 0.16 at T0, substantially below observed value of 0.5. A much better agreement for O/C ratios and temporal variability (R2=0.63) is achieved with the updated GRI treatment. Both treatments show a deficiency in regard to POA evolution with a tendency to over-evaporate POA upon dilution of the urban plume suggesting that atmospheric HOA may be less volatile than assumed in these parameterizations. This study highlights the important potential role of S/IVOC chemistry in the SOA budget in this region, and highlights the need for improvements in current parameterizations. We note that our simulations did not include other proposed pathways of SOA formation such as formation from very volatile species like glyoxal, which can also contribute SOA mass and especially increase the O/C ratio.

Hodzic, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Madronich, S.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Decarlo, P. F.; Kleinman, L.; Fast, J.

2010-01-01

438

Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles: Influences of volatile organic vapors and particle core dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of hexanethiolate-protected gold nanoparticles was studied in the presence of volatile organic vapors. The particles were immobilized onto a Au(1 1 1) surface that was modified with a hexanethiol self-assembled monolayer. It was found that particle dimensions played a critical role in dictating the STS behaviors in response to exposure to organic vapors, with the optimal core diameter around 4.9 nm. This was interpreted on the basis of solvent penetration into the nanoparticle/self-assembled monolayer interface and the resulting manipulation of nanojunction capacitance and resistance. These fundamental insights may be exploited as a sensing mechanism for chemical vapor detection.

Xu, Li-Ping; Chen, Shaowei

2009-01-01

439

The contribution of evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles to the volatile organic compound inventory in Mexico City.  

PubMed

The strategy for decreasing volatile organic compound emissions in Mexico has been focused much more on tailpipe emissions than on evaporative emissions, so there is very little information on the contribution of evaporative emissions to the total volatile organic compound inventory. We examined the magnitudes of exhaust and evaporative volatile organic compound emissions, and the species emitted, in a representative fleet of light-duty gasoline vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City. The US "FTP-75" test protocol was used to estimate volatile organic compound emissions associated with diurnal evaporative losses, and when the engine is started and a journey begins. The amount and nature of the volatile organic compounds emitted under these conditions have not previously been accounted in the official inventory of the area. Evaporative emissions from light-duty vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City were estimated to be 39 % of the total annual amount of hydrocarbons emitted. Vehicles built before 1992 (16 % of the fleet) were found to be responsible for 43 % of the total hydrocarbon emissions from exhausts and 31 % of the evaporative emissions of organic compounds. The relatively high amounts of volatile organic compounds emitted from older vehicles found in this study show that strong emission controls need to be implemented in order to decrease the contribution of evaporative emissions of this fraction of the fleet. PMID:24526614

Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; González-Macías, C

2014-06-01

440

NEAR-REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT OF TRACE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM COMBUSTION PROCESSES USING AN ON-LINE GAS CHROMATOGRAPH  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA's current regulatory approach for combustion and incineration sources emphasizes the use of real-time continuous emission monitors (CEMs) for particulate, Metals, and volatile, semivolatile, and of nonvolatile organic compounds to monitor source emissions. Currently...

441

NATURAL EMISSIONS OF NON-METHANE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, CARBON MONOXIDE, AND OXIDES OF NITROGEN FROM NORTH AMERICA  

EPA Science Inventory

The magnitudes, distributions, controlling processes and uncertainties associated with North American natural emissions of oxidant precursors are reviewed. Natural emissions are repsonsible for a major portion of the compounds, including non-methane volatile organic compounds (N...

442

RECOVERY OF SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DURING SAMPLE PREPARATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Semi-volatile compounds present special analytical challenges not met by conventional methods for analysis of ambient particulate matter (PM). Accurate quantification of PM-associated organic compounds requires validation of the laboratory procedures for recovery over a wide v...

443

Airborne and ground based measurements of volatile organic compounds using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry in Texas and Mexico City  

E-print Network

Measurements of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) are reported from recent airborne and surface based field campaigns. The Southeast Texas Tetroon Study (SETTS) was a project within...

Fortner, Edward Charles

2009-05-15

444

Determination of Partition coefficients for a Mixture of Volatile Organic Compounds in Rats and Humans at Different Life Stages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pharmacokinetic differences in child, adult and elderly populations remain ill defined. Partition coefficients (PCs) are an integral component of pharmacokinetic models and determining differences in tissue partitioning of volatile organic chemicals acros...

D. A. Mahle, J. M. Gearhart, R. J. Godfrey, D. R. Mattie, R. S. Cook

2004-01-01

445

SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF EXPOSURES TO VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: I. EVALUATION OF RECEPTOR MODELS USING SIMULATED EXPOSURE DATA. (R826788)  

EPA Science Inventory

Four receptor-oriented source apportionment models were evaluated by applying them to simulated personal exposure data for select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that were generated by Monte Carlo sampling from known source contributions and profiles. The exposure sources mo...

446

A NONSTEADY-STATE ANALYTICAL MODEL TO PREDICT GASEOUS EMISSIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM LANDFILLS. (R825689C072)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract A general mathematical model is developed to predict emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from hazardous or sanitary landfills. The model is analytical in nature and includes important mechanisms occurring in unsaturated subsurface landfill environme...

447

Organic acids enhance halogen activation on mildly acidic water surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine species of marine origin are ubiquitous in the marine boundary layer (MBL). They are found over the open ocean (even in the absence of biogenic sources), the Antarctic coast, in rain, aerosols, ice, and snow, and participate in HOx/NOx cycles in the MBL. Surface-active organic acids coating the surface marine microlayer (SML) and marine aerosols could affect their chemical/physical properties. Recent field measurements show that organic acids represent ˜50% of the mass of fog waters collected in the US Gulf Coast. Here we report that I2(g) emissions from the heterogeneous reactions of O3(g) with I- (aq) are dramatically enhanced in the presence of surface-active organic acids under mildly acidic condition that are typical of fine marine aerosols. The amphiphilic weak carboxylic acids appear to promote I2(g) emissions by donating the interfacial protons more efficiently than water itself. We infer that the organic acids coating aerosol particles ejected from ocean's surface films could enhance I2(g) production in the MBL.

Hayase, S.; Enami, S.; Yabushita, A.; Kawasaki, M.; Hoffmann, M. R.; Colussi, A. J.

2011-12-01

448

Assessment of volatile organic compounds in surface water at Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, November 1999-September 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds in surface-water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, from November 1999 through September 2000. The report describes the differences between years with below normal and normal precipitation, the effects of seasons, tide stages, and location on volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water, and provides estimates of volatile organic concentration loads to the tidal Gunpowder River. Eighty-four environmental samples from 20 surface-water sites were analyzed. As many as 13 different volatile organic compounds were detected in the samples. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds in surface-water samples ranged from below the reporting limit of 0.5 micrograms per liter to a maximum of 50.2 micrograms per liter for chloroform. Chloroform was detected most frequently, and was found in 55 percent of the environmental samples that were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (46 of 84 samples). Carbon tetrachloride was detected in 56 percent of the surface-water samples in the tidal part of the creek (34 of 61 samples), but was only detected in 3 of 23 samples in the nontidal part of the creek. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane was detected in 43 percent of the tidal samples (26 of 61 samples), but was detected at only two nontidal sites and only during November 1999. Three samples were collected from the tidal Gunpowder River about 300 feet from the mouth of Canal Creek in May 2000, and none of the samples contained volatile organic compound concentrations above detection levels. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water were highest in the reaches of the creek adjacent to the areas with the highest known levels of ground-water contamination. The load of total volatile organic compounds from Canal Creek to the Gunpowder River is approximately 1.85 pounds per day (0.84 kilograms per day), or 674 pounds per year. Volatile organic compounds that reach the Gunpowder River become substantially diluted. Although natural-attenuation processes in the study area such as biodegradation are highly effective at reducing contaminant concentration in ground water before it discharges to the creek, natural attenuation is not 100 percent effective at all locations or under all tidal, seasonal, and climatic conditions as indicated by detection of volatile organic compounds in Canal Creek.

Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Senus, Michael P.; Spencer, Tracey A.

2001-01-01

449

PTR-MS analysis of reference and plant-emitted volatile organic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was applied to the analysis of a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that emit from various plants. These include a group of alcohols (methanol, ethanol and butanol), carbonyl-containing compounds (acetic acid, acetone and benzaldehyde), isoprene, acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran (THF), pyrazine, toluene and xylene and a series of terpenes (p-cymene, camphene, 2-carene, limonene, [beta]-myrcene, [alpha]-pinene, [beta]-pinene, [gamma]-tepinene and terpinolene) and oxygen-containing terpenes (1,8-cineole and linalool). These mass spectral data were compared to an electron ionization (EI) database identifying that not all PTR-MS fragments were common to EI. PTR-MS studies of these reference compounds were utilized to identify VOCs emitted from Eucalyptus grandis leaf at a temperature range of 30-100 °C. In addition to protonated molecules (M + H)+, abundant proton-bound dimers or trimers were detected for alcohols, acetone, acetonitrile and THF. Abundant fragment ions attributed to the loss of water from these proton-bound clusters were also observed. The stability of butyl (C4H9+ m/z 57) and acetyl (CH3CO+ m/z 43) fragment ions directed the proton-transfer reactions of butanol and acetic acid. Abundant (M + H)+ ions were detected for pyrazine, THF, toluene and xylene, as well as for all terpenes except those containing oxygen. For linalool and 1,8-cineole, the loss of water generated an abundant fragment ion at m/z 137. PTR-MS fragmentation patterns for terpenes were proposed for m/z 81 (C6H9+), 93 (C7H9+), 95 (C7H11+), 107 (C8H11+), 109 (C8H13+), 119 (C9H11+), 121 (C9H13+) and 137 (loss of water for oxygen-containing terpenes; C10H17+). The relative abundances of (M + H)+ and fragments for all terpenes (except linalool) were dependent on the drift tube voltage and the optimum voltage for detection of molecular ions was different for various terpenes.

Maleknia, Simin D.; Bell, Tina L.; Adams, Mark A.

2007-05-01

450

Final report on CCQM-K47: Volatile organic compounds in methanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the October 2005 CCQM Organic Analysis Working Group Meeting (IRMM, Belgium), the decision was made to proceed with a Key Comparison study (CCQM-K47) addressing the calibration function for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) used for water quality monitoring. This was coordinated by CENAM and NIST. Benzene, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene were chosen as representative VOCs. The solvent of choice was methanol. Key Comparison CCQM-K47 demonstrated the capabilities of participating NMIs to identify and measure the four target VOCs in a calibration solution using GC-based methods. The measurement challenges in CCQM-K47, such as avoiding volatility loss, achieving adequate chromatographic resolution and isolating potential interferences, are typical of those required for value-assigning volatile reference materials. Participants achieving comparable measurements for all four VOCs in this Key Comparison should be capable of providing reference materials and measurements for VOCs in solutions when present at concentration levels greater than 10 µg/g. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Pérez Urquiza, Melina; Maldonado Torres, Mauricio; Mitani, Yoshito; Schantz, Michele M.; Duewer, David L.; May, Wille E.; Parris, Reenie M.; Wise, Stephen A.; Kaminski, Katja; Philipp, Rosemarie; Win, Tin; Rosso, Adriana; Kim, Dal Ho; Ishikawa, Keiichiro; Krylov, A. I.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Baldan, Annarita

2013-01-01

451

Soft ionization chemical analysis of secondary organic aerosol from green leaf volatiles emitted by turf grass.  

PubMed

Globally, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions contribute 90% of the overall VOC emissions. Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are an important component of plant-derived BVOCs, including cis-3-hexenylacetate (CHA) and cis-3-hexen-1-ol (HXL), which are emitted by cut grass. In this study we describe secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from the ozonolysis of dominant GLVs, their mixtures and grass clippings. Near-infrared laser desorption/ionization aerosol mass spectrometry (NIR-LDI-AMS) was used for chemical analysis of the aerosol. The chemical profile of SOA generated from grass clippings was correlated with that from chemical standards of CHA and HXL. We found that SOA derived from HXL most closely approximated SOA from turf grass, in spite of the approximately 5× lower emission rate of HXL as compared to CHA. Ozonolysis of HXL results in formation of low volatility, higher molecular weight compounds, such as oligomers, and formation of ester-type linkages. This is in contrast to CHA, where the hydroperoxide channel is the dominant oxidation pathway, as oligomer formation is inhibited by the acetate functionality. PMID:24666343

Jain, Shashank; Zahardis, James; Petrucci, Giuseppe A

2014-05-01

452

Effects of chemical aging on global secondary organic aerosol using the volatility basis set approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) is used with the volatility basis set (VBS) approach to examine the effects of chemical aging on global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations and budgets. We present full-year simulations and their comparisons with the global aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) dataset, the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) dataset from the United States, the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) dataset from Europe, and water-soluble organic carbon observation data collected over East Asia. Using different chemical aging constants, we find that the model results with 4 × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 are in better a