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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Volcanic versus anthropogenic carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Which emits more carbon dioxide (CO2): Earth's volcanoes or human activities? Research findings indicate unequivocally that the answer to this frequently asked question is human activities. However, most people, including some Earth scientists working in fields outside volcanology, are surprised by this answer. The climate change debate has revived and reinforced the belief, widespread among climate skeptics, that volcanoes emit more CO2 than human activities [Gerlach, 2010; Plimer, 2009]. In fact, present-day volcanoes emit relatively modest amounts of CO2, about as much annually as states like Florida, Michigan, and Ohio.

Gerlach, Terry

2011-06-01

2

Annual volcanic carbon dioxide emission: An estimate from eruption chronologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing interest in the effects of carbon dioxide on climate has been promoted by the exponentially increasing anthropogenic production of CO2. Volcanoes are also a major source of carbon dioxide, but their average input to the atmosphere is generally considered minor relative to anthropogenic input. This study examines eruption chronologies to determine a new estimate of the volcanic CO2 input

Steven W. Leavitt

1982-01-01

3

Annual volcanic carbon dioxide emission: An estimate from eruption chronologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing interest in the effects of carbon dioxide on climate has been promoted by the exponentially increasing anthropogenic\\u000a production of CO2. Volcanoes are also a major source of carbon dioxide, but their average input to the atmosphere is generally considered minor\\u000a relative to anthropogenic input. This study examines eruption chronologies to determine a new estimate of the volcanic CO2 input

Steven W. Leavitt

1982-01-01

4

Diffuse volcanic emissions of carbon dioxide from Vulcano Island, Italy.  

PubMed

RECENT investigations on Mount Etna (Sicily)(1-3) have revealed that volcanoes may release abundant carbon dioxide not only from their active craters, but also from their flanks, as diffuse soil emanations. Here we present analyses of soil gases and air in water wells on Vulcano Island which provide further evidence of such lateral degassing. Nearly pure carbon dioxide, enriched in helium and radon, escapes from the slopes of the Fossa active cone, adding a total output of 30 tonnes per day to the fumarolic crater discharge ( 180 tonnes CO(2) per day). This emanation has similar He/CO(2) and (13)C/(12)C ratios to those of the crater fumaroles (300%ndash;500 degrees C) and therefore a similar volcanic origin. Gases rich in carbon dioxide also escape at sea level along the isthmus between the Fossa and Vulcanello volcanic cones, but their depletion in both He and (13)C suggests a distinct source. Diffuse volcanic gas emanations, once their genetic link with central fumarole degassing has been demonstrated, can be used for continuous volcano monitoring, at safe distances from active craters. Such monitoring has been initiated at Vulcano, where soil and well emanations of nearly pure CO(2) themselves represent a threat to the local population. PMID:18278024

Baubron, J C; Allard, P; Toutain, J P

1990-03-01

5

Diffuse volcanic emissions of carbon dioxide from Vulcano Island, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENT investigations on Mount Etna (Sicily)1-3 have revealed that volcanoes may release abundant carbon dioxide not only from their active craters, but also from their flanks, as diffuse soil emanations. Here we present analyses of soil gases and air in water wells on Vulcano Island which provide further evidence of such lateral degassing. Nearly pure carbon dioxide, enriched in helium

J. C. Baubron; P. Allard; J. P. Toutain

1990-01-01

6

Liquid carbon dioxide of magmatic origin and its role in volcanic eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural liquid carbon dioxide is produced commercially from a 2.5-km-deep well near the 4,500-yr-old maar volcano, Mount Gambier, South Australia. The carbon dioxide has accumulated in a dome that is located on the extension of a linear chain of volcanic activity. A magmatic origin for the fluid is suggested by the geological setting, delta13CPDB of -4.00\\/00, for the CO2 (where

Allan R. Chivas; Ivan Barnes; William C. Evans; John E. Lupton; John O. Stone

1987-01-01

7

Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) will almost certainly be double that of pre-industrial levels by 2100 and will be considerably higher than at any time during the past few million years. The oceans are a principal sink for anthropogenic CO2 where it is estimated to have caused a 30% increase in the concentration of H+ in ocean

Jason M. Hall-Spencer; Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa; Sophie Martin; Emma Ransome; Maoz Fine; Suzanne M. Turner; Sonia J. Rowley; Dario Tedesco; Maria-Cristina Buia

2008-01-01

8

Diffuse Degassing Rate of Carbon Dioxide and Volcanic Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanoes release to the atmosphere significant amount of gases through visible and non-visible manifestations. Monitoring diffuse degassing rate from volcanoes is becoming a potential geochemical tool for volcanic surveillance. During the last 15 years, ground efflux studies had been mainly focused on CO2 because it is the most abundant volatile component in magma after the H2O and the first major

N. Perez; J. Salazar; P. Hernandez; R. Lima; L. Castro; G. Melian; I. Galindo; E. Padron; T. Mori; K. Notsu

2001-01-01

9

Carbon dioxide emission from Katanuma volcanic lake, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report herein the first results of a CO2 efflux survey carried out at Katanuma volcanic lake, Japan. A total of 110 CO2 efflux measurements were undertaken at the lake by means of the floating accumulation chamber method during August 2010 to estimate the total CO2 output from the studied area. Two different mechanisms of degassing were observed during the survey; (1) diffusion through the water-air interface and (2) bubbling. CO2 efflux values ranged from 0.5 up to 322 g m-2 d-1. In addition, the probability graph was used to distinguish the existence of different geochemical populations in the measured values. Sequential Gaussian Simulation was used to construct a map of CO2 efflux from 200 simulations and to compute the total CO2 diffuse emission at the studied area, i.e., 17 ± 0.6 t d-1.

Hernįndez, P. A.; Mori, T.; Padrón, E.; Sumino, H.; Pérez, N.

2011-11-01

10

Carbon dioxide emissions from Deccan volcanism and at K/T boundary greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

A greenhouse warming caused by increased emissions of carbon dioxide from the Deccan Traps volcanism has been suggested as the cause of the terminal Cretaceous extinctions on land and in the sea. The authors estimate total eruptive and noneruptive CO{sub 2} output by the Deccan eruptions (from 6 to 20 {times} 10{sup 16} moles) over a period of several hundred thousand years based on best estimates of the CO{sub 2} weight fraction of the original basalts and basaltic melts, the fraction of CO{sub 2} degassed, and the volume of the Deccan Traps eruptions. Results of a model designed to estimate the effects of increased CO{sub 2} on climate and ocean chemistry suggest that increases in atmospheric pCO{sub 2} due to Deccan Traps CO{sub 2} emissions would have been less than 75 ppm, leading to a predicted global warming of less than 1C over several hundred thousand years. They conclude that the direct climate effects of CO{sub 2} emissions from the Deccan eruptions would have been too weak to be an important factor in the end-Cretaceous mass extinctions.

Caldeira, K. (New York Univ., NY (USA)); Rampino, M.R. (New York Univ., NY (USA) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, New York, NY (USA))

1990-08-01

11

Volcanic carbon dioxide emissions: observation strategies using GOSAT FTS SWIR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

About one tenth of the Earth's human population lives under direct threat of volcanic hazards. Being able to provide sufficiently early and scientifically sound warning is a key to volcanic hazard mitigation. Forecasting volcanic eruptions is based on epidemiological and probabilistic analyses of monitoring data. In times of crisis, the extremely short time for decisions, validation and response leads to

F. M. Schwandner; S. A. Carn; E. M. Head; C. G. Newhall

2010-01-01

12

Carbon dioxide diffuse degassing and estimation of heat release from volcanic and hydrothermal systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a reliable methodology to estimate the energy associated with the subaerial diffuse degassing of volcanic-hydrothermal fluids. The fumaroles of 15 diffuse degassing structures (DDSs) located in eight volcanic systems in the world were sampled and analyzed. Furthermore, each area was measured for soil temperature gradients and for soil CO2 fluxes. The results show that each hydrothermal or volcanic

G. Chiodini; D. Granieri; R. Avino; S. Caliro; A. Costa; C. Werner

2005-01-01

13

Carbon dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bubbles are an indicator of a chemical reaction. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. In the sugar test, carbon dioxide gas release is an indicator that yeast is using sugar to grow. The more gas produced, the more sugar a specific substance contains.

Arie Melamed-Katz (None;)

2007-06-19

14

Measured carbon dioxide emissions from Oldoinyo Lengai and the skewed distribution of passive volcanic fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne measurements of CO2 released from Oldoinyo Lengai, the only carbonatite-erupting volcano in the world, reveal a CO2 flux of 0.055 × 1012 mol\\/yr. This flux is substantially smaller than that of Mount Etna (1 × 1012 mol\\/yr), which accounts for over half of the global carbon flux attributed to subaerial volcanoes (1 2 × 1012 mol\\/yr). We propose that

Susan L. Brantley; Kevin W. Koepenick

1995-01-01

15

Screen for Carbon Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a set of laboratory experiments that can assist students in the detection of carbon dioxide. Offers a variation of the supported drop method of carbon dioxide detection that provides readily visible positive results. Includes background information on carbon dioxide. (ML)|

Foster, John; And Others

1986-01-01

16

Carbon Dioxide Reduction System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automatically operated carbon dioxide reduction system was developed, fabricated and tested. The system was designed to reduce the carbon dioxide equivalent to that produced by one man, and to produce carbon and oxygen. A system such as this is require...

H. Chandler

1964-01-01

17

Temperature VS Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students examine the relationship between carbon dioxide levels and global temperature change by studying a graph of these two variables. They will discover that by using data from ice cores, scientists can determine temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the air as far back as a hundred thousand years in the past. The students try to predict which variable is the independent one and then make a graph of temperature change and carbon dioxide levels. After making their graph, students describe the relationship between temperature and carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere to determine if their predictions were correct.

18

Production of Carbon Dioxide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry activity, learners use common chemicals to produce carbon dioxide and observe its properties. This resource includes brief questions for learners to answer after the experiment. Use this activity to introduce learners to carbon dioxide and its use as a fire extinguisher. Note: this activity involves an open flame.

House, The S.

2013-05-15

19

Carbon Dioxide and Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing at a rate that could cause significant warming of the Earth's climate in the not too distant future. Oceanographers are studying the role of the ocean as a source of carbon dioxide and as a sink for the gas. (Author/BB)

Brewer, Peter G.

1978-01-01

20

Carbon Dioxide Fountain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the development of a carbon dioxide fountain. The advantages of the carbon dioxide fountain are that it is odorless and uses consumer chemicals. This experiment also is a nice visual experiment that allows students to see evidence of a gaseous reagent being consumed when a pressure sensor is available. (Contains 3 figures.)…

Kang, Seong-Joo; Ryu, Eun-Hee

2007-01-01

21

Carbon Dioxide Disposal via Carbonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonation is a solidification\\/stabilization process. The availability of a carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation technology would serve as insurance in case global warming causes severe restrictions on CO2 emissions. In order to prevent rapid climate change, it will be necessary to stabilize CO2 as carbonate by the carbonation process. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (Mg2SiO4) converts CO2 into an

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

22

Carbon dioxide (reduction).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The twin problems of global warming, caused by an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and limited fossil fuel resources have stimulated research in the utilization of CO2. These problems would be partially alleviated by the develo...

A. Fujita

2000-01-01

23

Carbon Dioxide Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The collection of luminescent microorganisms are maintained under cultivation to provide suitable biosensors for the testing program for carbon dioxide. The basic bioluminescent agar medium is currently being used for growth of the cultures. Tests of lumi...

P. S. Biernacki J. J. Kalvinskas

1973-01-01

24

Carbon Dioxide Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program was initiated to establish the feasibility of applying bioluminescent technology for monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) in life-support systems for divers, swimmers and underwater habitats. Experiments were performed to obtain bioluminescent c...

P. S. Biernacki J. J. Kalvinskas

1973-01-01

25

Carbon Dioxide Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program was initiated to establish the feasibility of applying bioluminescent technology for monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO2) in life-support systems for divers, swimmers and underwater habitats. Experiments were performed to obtain bioluminescent c...

P. S. Biernacki J. L. Kalvinskas

1974-01-01

26

Carbon Dioxide Absorption Manifold.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The device is for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere without the attendant release or production of noxious chemicals. It is for use in a submerged submarine. The device includes a housing, inlets, canisters containing lithium hydroxide, a blower...

W. E. McConnaughey

1965-01-01

27

Carbon dioxide poisoning.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide is a physiologically important gas, produced by the body as a result of cellular metabolism. It is widely used in the food industry in the carbonation of beverages, in fire extinguishers as an 'inerting' agent and in the chemical industry. Its main mode of action is as an asphyxiant, although it also exerts toxic effects at cellular level. At low concentrations, gaseous carbon dioxide appears to have little toxicological effect. At higher concentrations it leads to an increased respiratory rate, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias and impaired consciousness. Concentrations >10% may cause convulsions, coma and death. Solid carbon dioxide may cause burns following direct contact. If it is warmed rapidly, large amounts of carbon dioxide are generated, which can be dangerous, particularly within confined areas. The management of carbon dioxide poisoning requires the immediate removal of the casualty from the toxic environment, the administration of oxygen and appropriate supportive care. In severe cases, assisted ventilation may be required. Dry ice burns are treated similarly to other cryogenic burns, requiring thawing of the tissue and suitable analgesia. Healing may be delayed and surgical intervention may be required in severe cases. PMID:16499405

Langford, Nigel J

2005-01-01

28

Carbon dioxide foam flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of conducting an enhanced oil recovery process in a subterranean reservoir is described. There is injected into the reservoir as a sweep fluid a foam containing carbon dioxide, water, and a foaming agent having the formula ROCOCHāSOāOM, where R is a straight chain alkyl radical having from 10 to 16 carbon atoms, and M is an alkali metal

P. W. Fischer; L. W. Holm; D. S. Pye

1978-01-01

29

Carbon Dioxide Removal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment using sprigs of Elodea, learners will observe a natural process that removes carbon dioxide (CO2) from Earth's atmosphere. This process is a part of the carbon cycle and results in temperature suitable for life. Note: this experiment requires that learners make observations an hour or the next day after they set up the materials.

History, American M.

2008-01-01

30

Aspects of carbon dioxide utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide reacts with hydrogen, alcohols, acetals, epoxides, amines, carbon–carbon unsaturated compounds, etc. in supercritical carbon dioxide or in other solvents in the presence of metal compounds as catalysts. The products of these reactions are formic acid, formic acid esters, formamides, methanol, dimethyl carbonate, alkylene carbonates, carbamic acid esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, polycarbonate (bisphenol-based engineering polymer), aliphatic polycarbonates, etc. Especially,

Iwao Omae

2006-01-01

31

Carbon dioxide as a feedstock.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources,...

Creutz Fujita

2000-01-01

32

Carbon dioxide absorption methanol process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for removing carbon dioxide from a feed stream of natural gas, having at least methane, ethane and heavier hydrocarbon, comprising: separating the feed stream in a first separator to form a first stream, having substantially all of the propane and heavier hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide and ethane, and a second stream, having methane, carbon dioxide and

Apffel

1987-01-01

33

Bench Remarks: Carbon Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the properties of carbon dioxide in its solid "dry ice" stage. Suggests several demonstrations and experiments that use dry ice to illustrate Avogadro's Law, Boyle's Law, Kinetic-Molecular Theory, and the effects of dry ice in basic solution, in limewater, and in acetone. (TW)|

Bent, Henry A.

1987-01-01

34

Carbon dioxide fixation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO(sub 2) conv...

E. Fujita

2000-01-01

35

Aqueous carbon dioxide monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus for measuring low levels of carbon dioxide in water sample. It comprises: means for exchanging cations for hydrogen connected to a sample stream; a first membrane separator connected to the cation exchanging means, the first membrane separator having a first and second compartment with the first and second compartments being separated by a membrane, the

1991-01-01

36

Satellite Monitoring of Volcanic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions for Early Warning of Volcanic Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite-based remote sensing measurements of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) provide critical information for reducing volcanic hazards. This paper describes the use of SO2 measurements from the thermal infrared sounder IASI and the UV-VIS instrument GOME-2 in services related to aviation hazard and early warning of volcanic unrest. The high sensitivity of both instruments to SO2 allows the detection and global

Meike Rix; Pieter Valks; Nan Hao; Jos van Geffen; Catherine Clerbaux; Lieven Clarisse; Pierre-FranĒois Coheur; Thilo Erbertseder; Walt Zimmer; Sunil Emmadi

2009-01-01

37

Carbon dioxide diffuse emission from the soil: ten years of observations at Vesuvio and Campi Flegrei (Pozzuoli), and linkages with volcanic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide flux from the soil is regularly monitored in selected areas of Vesuvio and Solfatara (Campi Flegrei, Pozzuoli)\\u000a with the twofold aim of i) monitoring spatial and temporal variations of the degassing process and ii) investigating if the\\u000a surface phenomena could provide information about the processes occurring at depth. At present, the surveyed areas include\\u000a 15 fixed points around

D. Granieri; R. Avino; G. Chiodini

2010-01-01

38

Balancing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Rising carbon dioxide and global temperatures are causing increasingworldwide concern, and pressure towards an internationallaw of the atmosphere is rapidly escalating, yet widespread misconceptions about the greenhouse effect's inevitability, time scale, and causes have inhibited effective consensus and action. Observations from Antarctic ice cores, Amazonian rainforests, and Caribbean coral reefs suggest that the biological,effects,of climate,change,may,be more,severe,than,climate,models,predict. Efforts to limit

J. Goreau

39

Carbon dioxide absorption methanol process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for removing carbon dioxide from a feed stream of natural gas having at least methane, ethane and heavier. It comprises: first, separating the feed stream in a first separator to form a first stream having substantially all of the propane and heavier hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide and ethane and a second stream, having methane, carbon

Apffel

1989-01-01

40

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

Not Available

1990-10-01

41

Coral reefs and carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This commentary argues the conclusion from a previous article, which investigates diurnal changes in carbon dioxide partial pressure and community metabolism on coral reefs, that coral `reefs might serve as a sink, not a source, for atmospheric carbon dioxide.` Commentaries from two groups are given along with the response by the original authors, Kayanne et al. 27 refs.

Buddemeier, R.W. [Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence, KS (United States)

1996-03-01

42

Absorption of Carbon Dioxide on Carbonic Anhydrase Containing Substrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme catalyzing carbon dioxide hydration, was evaluated for its enhancement of carbon dioxide removal when it is present in granular materials with high water content during exposure to carbon dioxide in an aerating stream. A...

J. P. Allen

1968-01-01

43

Response of Early Cretaceous carbonate platforms to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Late Barremian and Early Aptian (about 120 million years ago) intense volcanic degassing and extremely rapid release of methane hydrates contained in marine sediments added high amounts of carbon to the ocean and atmosphere, and resulted most probably in rising atmospheric carbon dioxide pressure. In order to document the response of the shallow water carbonate-producing communities to this

Lukas Wissler; Hanspeter Funk; Helmut Weissert

2003-01-01

44

Carbon dioxide: atmospheric overload  

SciTech Connect

The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing and may double within the next century. The result of this phenomenon, climatic alterations, will adversely affect crop production, water supplies, and global temperatures. Sources of CO2 include the combustion of fossil fuels, photosynthesis, and the decay of organic matter in soils. The most serious effect of possible climatic changes could occur along the boundaries of arid and semiarid regions. Shifts is precipitation patterns could accelerate the processes of desertification. An increase of 5..cap alpha..C in the average temperature of the top 1000 m of ocean water would raise sea level by 2 m. CO2 releases to the atmosphere can be reduced by controlling emissions from fossil fuel-fired facilities and by careful harvesting of forest regions. (3 photos, 5 references)

Not Available

1980-04-01

45

Climate impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The global temperature rose by 0.2/sup 0/C between the middle 1960's and 1980, yielding a warming of 0.4/sup 0/C in the past century. This temperature increase is consistent with the calculated greenhouse effect due to measured increases of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Variations of volcanic aerosols and possibly solar luminosity appear to be primary causes of observed fluctuations about the mean trend of increasing temperature. It is shown that the anthropogenic carbon dioxide warming should emerge from the noise level of natural climate variability by the end of the century, and there is a high probability of warming in the 1980's. Potential effects on climate in the 21st century include the creation of drought-prone regions in North America and central Asia as part of a shifting of climatic zones, erosion of the West Antarctic ice sheet with a consequent worldwide rise in sea level, and opening of the fabled Northwest Passage.

Hansen, J.; Johnson, D.; Lacis, A.; Lebedeff, S.; Lee, P.; Rind, D.; Russell, G.

1981-08-28

46

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using COā\\/SOā from volcanic gas analyses and SOā flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 Ć 10Ā¹Ā² g COā\\/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 Ć 10Ā¹Ā² g COā\\/yr from eruptions. Volcanic COā presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects

S. N. Williams; S. J. Schaefer; M. L. Calvache V; D. Lopez

1992-01-01

47

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using CO2\\/SO2 from volcanic gas analyses and SO2 flux, to be 34 +\\/- 24 x 10 exp 12 g CO2\\/yr from passive degassing and 31 +\\/- 22 x 10 exp 12 g CO2\\/yr from eruptions. Volcanic CO2 presently represents only 0.22 percent of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to

Stanley N. Williams; Stephen J. Schaeffer; Marta L. Calvache; Dina Lopez

1992-01-01

48

Carbon dioxide transport in crustal magmatic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volatile chemistry of juvenile volcanic glasses has suggested that shallow-stored crustal magmas often suffer the open-system addition of a carbon-dioxide-rich fluid from below, probably from a mantle-derived basaltic source ("carbon dioxide fluxing"). However, the actual mechanism of such a fluid transport is poorly understood. To constrain the volatile transport mechanism, we formulated this phenomenon as a reactive transport process and clarified the fundamental characteristics of chemical exchange in the system. The model assumes that a carbon-dioxide-rich fluid is introduced into a water-rich rhyolitic magma column from below and ascends at a constant velocity whilst a volatile exchange takes place between the fluid and melt. Two types of exchange modes were examined. One is the equilibrium mode where the volatile exchange is instantaneously achieved at all column depths. The second is the diffusive mode where the volatile exchange is rate limited by diffusion. In the equilibrium mode, the extent of re-equilibration of the entire column is controlled solely by the mass ratio of the integrated fluid to the melt. In the diffusive mode, the extent of re-equilibration is controlled by the Damköhler number, a dimensionless parameter representing the ratio of the advection time to the diffusion time. When the Damköhler number for carbon dioxide exceeds 10, the diffusive exchange becomes indistinguishable from the equilibrium exchange. Both exchange modes produce a negative correlation between the concentrations of carbon dioxide and water in the melt, which cannot be explained by conventional degassing models without significant crystallisation. The fluid emitted from the column as a volcanic gas changes its composition from carbon dioxide rich to water rich, and the emission rate decreases monotonically during fluxing. The simulation enables us to constrain the mechanism of fluid transport. For the melt inclusion data from the Bishop Tuff (Wallace et al., 1999; Anderson et al., 2000), fluid velocity in this magma was estimated to be 10 - 6 -10 - 7 m/s. The corresponding mechanism of fluid transport may include permeable flow with a permeability of ~ 10 - 15 m 2 or a buoyant ascent of individual bubbles with a radius of 4-7 mm.

Yoshimura, Shumpei; Nakamura, Michihiko

2011-07-01

49

Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Carbonation Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gases with higher heat capacities than those of O2 and N2 cause greenhouse effects. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas associated with global climate change. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30–40% of world CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. There was a higher correlation between the amount of carbon dioxide emission and percentage of carbon

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

50

Magnesite disposal of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we report our progress on developing a method for carbon dioxide disposal whose purpose it is to maintain coal energy competitive even is environmental and political pressures will require a drastic reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. In contrast to most other methods, our approach is not aiming at a partial solution of the problem, or at buying time for phasing out fossil energy. Instead, its purpose is to obtain a complete and economic solution of the problem, and thus maintain access to the vast fossil energy reservoir. A successful development of this technology would guarantee energy availability for many centuries even if world economic growth the most optimistic estimates that have been put forward. Our approach differs from all others in that we are developing an industrial process which chemically binds the carbon dioxide in an exothermic reaction into a mineral carbonate that is thermodynamically stable and environmentally benign.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Wendt, C.H.

1997-08-01

51

Carbon dioxide and climate: a bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography with abstracts presents 394 citations retrieved from the Energy Data Base of the Department of Energy Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The citations cover all aspects of the climatic effects of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. These include carbon cycling, temperature effects, carbon dioxide control technologies, paleoclimatology, carbon dioxide sources and sinks, mathematical models, energy policies,

Ringe

1980-01-01

52

Carbon dioxide and climate. A bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This updated bibliography with abstracts presents 667 citations retrieved from the Energy Data Base of the Department of Energy Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The citations cover all aspects of the climatic effects of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. These include carbon cycling, temperature effects, carbon dioxide control technologies, paleoclimatology, carbon dioxide sources and sinks, mathematical models, energy

Ringe

1981-01-01

53

Carbon Dioxide Information Center thesaurus  

SciTech Connect

This thesaurus lists the keywords (including narrower, broader, and related terms, as well as forbidden terms) used by the Carbon Dioxide Information Center for the input and retrieval of records for its Bibliographic Information System (BIS), BIS is a specialized bibliographic data base on carbon dioxide and climate. It is being merged into the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base (EDB). The keywords used in the BIS Thesaurus are also used in the much larger EDB thesaurus so EDB may be searched for CO2 references using either thesaurus.

Millemann, R.E.; Cushman, R.M.

1986-04-01

54

21 CFR 582.1240 - Carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives Ā§ 582.1240 Carbon dioxide. (a) Product. Carbon dioxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with...

2009-04-01

55

Will peak oil accelerate carbon dioxide emissions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative scarcity of oil suggests that oil production is peaking and will decline thereafter. Some have suggested that this represents an opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. However, in the absence of constraints on carbon dioxide emission, \\

K. Caldeira; S. J. Davis; L. Cao

2008-01-01

56

Dust Retardation Studies of Carbon Dioxide Sorbents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surfaces of carbon dioxide sorbent granules were treated with various liquid preparations to diminish dusting tendency and to improve carbon dioxide capacity. Emphasis was placed on a screening program whereby granules of lithium hydroxide were impregnate...

F. Tepper J. V. Friel

1968-01-01

57

Reaction of Calcium Hydroxide with Carbon Dioxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Details for carrying out an experiment on the reaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide are given. The addition of water is necessary for a reaction between dry calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide. (ERA citation 02:005491)

F. W. Dorst

1975-01-01

58

Carbon dioxide adsorption on nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, CO2 adsorption in the presence and absence of co-adsorbed H2O was investigated on different nanomaterials including nanocrystalline NaY zeolite (nano NaY), ZnO, MgO and gamma-Al 2O3 nanoparticles as well as mixed phase aluminum nanowhiskers. In the case of nano NaY, FTIR spectra show that a majority of CO2 adsorbs in the pores of these zeolites in a linear complex with the exchangeable cation. Most interesting is the formation of carbonate and bicarbonate on the external surface of nano NaY zeolites, suggesting unique sites for CO 2 adsorption on the surface of these small nanomaterials. Adsorption of 18O-labeled carbon dioxide and theoretical quantum chemical calculations confirms the assignment of these different species. For aluminum oxyhydroxide nanowhiskers and gamma alumina in the absence of co-adsorbed water, CO2 reacts with surface hydroxyl groups to yield adsorbed bicarbonate as well as some carbonate. C18O2 adsorption confirms these assignments. In the case of nanoparticulate ZnO, CO2 adsorption under dry conditions results in formation of carbonate, bicarbonates as well as carboxylates. However, in the presence of co-adsorbed water, only carbonate species is formed. 18O-labeled carbon dioxide adsorption and theoretical quantum chemical calculations confirm the vibrational assignment for these different species. Mixed isotope studies with H2 16O + C18O2 and H2 18O + C16O2 suggest that there is extensive exchange between oxygen in adsorbed water and oxygen atoms in gas-phase carbon dioxide. CO2 adsorption on MgO surfaces, under dry conditions results in formation of carbonate and bicarbonates. Implications for the use of these nanomaterials in carbon dioxide uptake and storage are discussed.

Galhotra, Pragati

59

Carbon Dioxide - Sources and Sinks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, students use a chemical indicator (bromothymol blue) to detect the presence of carbon dioxide in animal and plant respiration and in the burning of fossil fuels and its absence in the products of plant photosynthesis. After completing the five parts of this activity, students compare the colors of the chemical indicator in each part and interpret the results in terms of the qualitative importance of carbon sinks and sources.

Universe, Windows T.

60

Aircraft monitoring of surface carbon dioxide exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft-mounted sensors were used to measure the exchange of carbon dioxide above a cornfield, a forest, and a lake under midday conditions. Mean absorption values of 3400, 1200, and 100 milligrams of carbon dioxide per square meter per hour, respectively, are consistent with reported ground-based observations of carbon dioxide flux. Such information, gathered by aircraft, could be used to provide

R. L. Desjardins; P. Alvo; P. H. Schuepp

1982-01-01

61

Aircraft Monitoring of Surface Carbon Dioxide Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft-mounted sensors were used to measure the exchange of carbon dioxide above a cornfield, a forest, and a lake under midday conditions. Mean absorption values of 3400, 1200, and 100 milligrams of carbon dioxide per square meter per hour, respectively, are consistent with reported ground-based observations of carbon dioxide flux. Such information, gathered by aircraft, could be used to provide

R. L. Desjardins; E. J. Brach; P. Alvo; P. H. Schuepp

1982-01-01

62

Modelling Sublimation of Carbon Dioxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author reports results in their efforts to model sublimation of carbon dioxide and the associated kinetics order and parameter estimation issues in their model. They have offered the reader two sets of data and several approaches to determine the rate of sublimation of a piece of solid dry ice. They presented several models…

Winkel, Brian

2012-01-01

63

Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes  

SciTech Connect

Global emission of carbon dioxide by subaerial volcanoes is calculated, using CO{sub 2}/SO{sub 2} from volcanic gas analyses and SO{sub 2} flux, to be 34 {plus minus} 24 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from passive degassing and 31 {plus minus} 22 {times} 10{sup 12} g CO{sub 2}/yr from eruptions. Volcanic CO{sub 2} presently represents only 0.22% of anthropogenic emissions but may have contributed to significant greenhouse' effects at times in Earth history. Models of climate response to CO{sub 2} increases may be tested against geological data.

Williams, S.N.; Schaefer, S.J. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States)); Calvache V., M.L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States) Observatorio Vulcanologico de Colombia, Pasto (Colombia)); Lopez, D. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

1992-04-01

64

Magmatic vapor source for sulfur dioxide released during volcanic eruptions: Evidence from Mount Pinatubo  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) released by the explosive eruption of Mount Pinatubo of 15 June 1991 had an impact on climate and stratospheric ozone. The total mass of SO[sub 2] released was much greater than the amount dissolved in the magma before the eruption, and thus an additional source for the excess SO[sub 2] is required. Infrared spectroscopic analyses of dissolved water and carbon dioxide in glass inclusions from quartz phenocrysts demonstrate that before eruption the magma contained a separate, SO[sub 2]-bearing vapor phase. Data for gas emissions from other volcanoes in subduction-related arcs suggest that preeruptive magmatic vapor is a major source of the SO[sub 2] that is released during many volcanic eruptions.

Wallace, P.J. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)); Gerlach, T.M. (Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States))

1994-07-22

65

CARIOCA - monitoring carbon dioxide exchange  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) gas has been identified as a major contributor to global warming as a so-called [open quotes]greenhouse gas[close quotes]. The ocean acts as the largest sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide, but the calculated values of this effect (2.0 [times] 10[sup 15] grams carbon per annum) are subject to huge inaccuracies of the order of 30 percent. There is a need for data on the geographical distribution of the various sinks and sources of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the variation of the extent of exchange over an annual cycle. Equipment is required that is capable of making measurements over a 12-month period in order to monitor annual variations and spread throughout the world's oceans. The CARIOCA project was set up in order to develop a suitably instrumented drifting buoy. It is a pan-European cooperative effort. This paper describes the sensor and buoy development with particular reference to how the sensors were designed. Preliminary trials have been successfully completed and the overall aim of CARIOCA will be to release a buoyed network of 100 to 150 buoys.

Walton, J. (Chelsea Instruments Ltd., Surry (United Kingdom))

1994-10-01

66

Summer Ice and Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent of Antarctic pack ice in the summer, as charted from satellite imagery, decreased by 2.5 million square kilometers between 1973 and 1980. The U.S. Navy and Russian atlases and whaling and research ship reports from the 1930's indicate that summer ice conditions earlier in this century were heavier than the current average. Surface air temperatures along the seasonally shifting belt of melting snow between 55 degrees and 80 degrees N during spring and summer were higher in 1974 to 1978 than in 1934 to 1938. The observed departures in the two hemispheres qualitatively agree with the predicted impact of an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, since it is not known to what extent the changes in snow and ice cover and in temperature can be explained by the natural variability of the climate system or by other processes unrelated to carbon dioxide, a cause-and-effect relation cannot yet be established.

Kukla, G.; Gavin, J.

1981-10-01

67

Summer ice and carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The extent of Antarctic pack ice in the summer, as charted from satellite imagery, decreased by 2.5 million square kilometers between 1973 and 1980. The U.S. Navy and Russian atlases and whaling and reseach ship reports from the 1930's indicate that summer ice conditions earlier in this century were heavier than the current average. Surface air temperatures along the seasonally shifting belt of melting snow between 55/sup o/ and 80/sup o/N during spring and summer were higher in 1974 to 1978 than in 1934 to 1938. The observed departures in the two hemispheres qualitatively agree with the predicted impact of an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, since it is not known to what extent the changes in snow and ice cover and in temperature can be explained by the natural variability of the climate system or by other processes unrelated to carbon dioxide, a cause-and-effect relation cannot yet be established.

Kukla, G.; Gavin, J.

1981-10-30

68

Carbon dioxide absorption by MEA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas generally contains significant quantities of carbon dioxide in addition to methane. A bubbling column reactor operating\\u000a at atmospheric pressure is proposed for cheap separation and a Mettler RC1 reaction calorimeter was used to build a simplified\\u000a empirical model for measuring the molar heat of solubility of CO2 in aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA). Determinations were performed in 12 mass%

N. Palmeri; S. Cavallaro; J. C. J. Bart

2008-01-01

69

Lifetime of Excess Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors explore the effects of a changing terrestrial biosphere on the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide using three simple ocean carbon cycling models and a model of global terrestrial carbon cycling. We find differences in model behavior ...

B. Moore B. H. Braswell

1994-01-01

70

Management practices affects soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural practices contribute about 25% of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. Soil can act both as sink or source of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide fixed in plant biomass through photosynthesis can be stored in soil as organi...

71

Carbon dioxide equilibria and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide, bicarbonate ion, and carbonate ion comprise the most important acid-base system in natural waters, and the equilibria between them regulate the pH of seawater, as well as most rainwater, stream water, river water, and groundwater. Carbon Dioxide Equilibria and Their Applications provides a clear, compact presentation of this topic, which is central to geochemistry and environmental engineering. It

1992-01-01

72

Catalyst Cartridge for Carbon Dioxide Reduction Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A catalyst cartridge is described for use in a system for the reduction of carbon dioxide to water and carbon, utilizing the Bosch catalytic reaction. A mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide gases is compressed, heated to a reaction temperature of 1000 t...

R. F. Holmes

1971-01-01

73

Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an activity measuring the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide in carbonated water at different temperatures. The amount of carbon dioxide is measured by the amount of dilute ammonia solution needed to produce a pH indicator color change. (PR)|

Bush, Pat; And Others

1992-01-01

74

Climate models should include carbon dioxide increases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The specific impacts of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Australian summer were examined. It was found that plant response to increased carbon dioxide influences atmospheric temperatures and the climate in ways that are not currently captured by climate models. The authors suggest that local and global climate models should include a measure of vegetation response to natural and man-made carbon dioxide increases to accurately account for biospheric feedback.

Al., Narisma E.; Agu

75

The contribution of explosive volcanism to global atmospheric sulphur dioxide concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

SULPHUR dioxide from volcanic eruptions may have a significant effect on the Earth's climate and atmospheric chemistry, and it is therefore important to quantify outgassing rates for all types of volcanic activity. Non-explosive volcanoes (for example, Mount Etna) outgas at relatively constant rates, providing an annual flux of about 9 million tons (Mt) SO2 (ref. 1). By contrast, the outgassing

G. J. S. Bluth; C. C. Schnetzler; A. J. Krueger; L. S. Walter

1993-01-01

76

Global energy and carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The literature on energy and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emissions is reviewed and a brief overview of recent work using the IEA/ORAU long-term energy CO/sub 2/ model is given. It was designed to provide forecasts of carbon emissions explicitly based to energy and economic factors. Recent work has focused on developing three emissions scenarios; the extreme scenarios are presented as bracketing the range of likely future emissions rates. Ongoing work will use Monte Carlo techniques to assess uncertainty in future forecasts and attribute uncertainty to uncertainty in model assumptions and parameters. The paper concludes that the model and scenario construction exercises should serve to complement decisionmaking and interaction among scientists and policymakers.

Reilly, J.; Edmonds, J.

1984-08-26

77

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-1 Section 179.102-1...102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must comply with the following...

2011-10-01

78

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-1 Section 179.102-1...102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid. (a) Tank cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid must comply with the following...

2012-10-01

79

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LIVESTOCK Ā§ 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...same principle, are in common use for carbon dioxide anesthesia. They are the...

2009-01-01

80

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...Provisions Ā§ 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial use and monthly thereafter...test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as...

2009-07-01

81

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LIVESTOCK Ā§ 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...same principle, are in common use for carbon dioxide anesthesia. They are the...

2010-01-01

82

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration...Provisions Ā§ 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial use and monthly thereafter...test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as...

2010-07-01

83

21 CFR 868.5300 - Carbon dioxide absorbent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorbent. 868.5300 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices Ā§ 868.5300 Carbon dioxide absorbent. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorbent is a device...

2013-04-01

84

21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. 868.1400 Section...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices Ā§ 868.1400 Carbon dioxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device...

2013-04-01

85

21 CFR 868.5310 - Carbon dioxide absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide absorber. 868.5310 Section...DEVICES Therapeutic Devices Ā§ 868.5310 Carbon dioxide absorber. (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide absorber is a device that is...

2013-04-01

86

46 CFR 108.431 - Carbon dioxide systems: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide systems: General. 108.431...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems Ā§ 108.431 Carbon dioxide systems: General. (a)...

2010-10-01

87

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90...Equipment Provisions Ā§ 90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2013-07-01

88

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89...Equipment Provisions Ā§ 89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...bi-monthly thereafter, the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer shall be...

2013-07-01

89

27 CFR 26.222 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.222 Section 26.222...222 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2013-04-01

90

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91...Equipment Provisions Ā§ 91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. ...certification test, calibrate the NDIR carbon dioxide analyzer as follows:...

2013-07-01

91

27 CFR 26.52 - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 26.52 Section 26.52...52 Still wines containing carbon dioxide. (a) General. Still wines...contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2013-04-01

92

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The major objectives of the project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coal being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals, to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. The specific accomplishments of this project during this reporting period are summarized below in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization. (1) Experimental Work: Our adsorption apparatus was reassembled, and all instruments were tested and calibrated. Having confirmed the viability of the experimental apparatus and procedures used, adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 2%. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on two other coals. (2) Model Development: The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, two-dimensional cubic equations of state, and the local density model. In general, all models performed well for Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). However, for pressures higher than 8.3 MPa (1200 psia), carbon dioxide produced multilayer adsorption behavior similar to Type IV adsorption. Our results to date indicate that the SLD model may be a suitable choice for modeling multilayer coalbed gas adsorption. However, model improvements are required to (a) account for coal heterogeneity and structure complexity, and (b) provide for more accurate density predictions. (3) Coal Characterization: We have identified several well-characterized coals for use in our adsorption studies. The criteria for coal selection has been guided by the need for coals that (a) span the spectrum of properties encountered in coalbed methane production (such as variation in rank), and (b) originate from coalbed methane recovery sites (e.g., San Juan Basin, Black Warrior Basin, etc.). At Pennsylvania State University, we have completed calibrating our instruments using a well-characterized activated carbon. In addition, we have conducted CO{sub 2} and methane uptakes on four samples, including (a) a widely used commercial activated carbon, BPL from Calgon Carbon Corp.; (b) an Illinois No.6 bituminous coal from the Argonne Premium Coal sample bank; (c) a Fruitland Intermediate coal sample; (d) a dry Fruitland sample. The results are as expected, except for a greater sensitivity to the outgassing temperature. ''Standard'' outgassing conditions (e.g., 383.2 K, overnight), which are often used, may not be appropriate for gas storage in coalbeds. Conditions that are more representative of in-situ coal (approximately 313.2 K) may be much more appropriate. In addition, our results highlight the importance of assessing the degree of approach to adsorption equilibrium.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15

93

CARBON DIOXIDE STORAGE IN PENNSYLVANIA PASTURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global warming, caused primarily by the burning of fossil fuels and the resulting increase in atmospheric greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide, is increasingly being recognized as a concern for the wellbeing of the planet. Agricultural practices that increase carbon dioxide storage in soil organ...

94

Carbon dioxide: A substitute for phosgene  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the many goals of the green chemistry movement is to eliminate the use of phosgene (COClā), an extremely hazardous compound used in many syntheses, including the production of carbamates, organic carbonates, and polymers. One of the most interesting options for eliminating this compound is to replace it with COā. In addition to carbon dioxide`s abundance and benign nature,

M. Aresta; E. Quaranta

1997-01-01

95

Carbon Dioxide Reduction and Water Electrolysis System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integrated system for oxygen recovery from carbon dioxide was investigated as a breadboard laboratory model of nominal 1/2-man capacity. System design for carbon dioxide reduction was based on alternate operation of two Bosch reactors with periodic coo...

B. C. Kim E. S. Kolic R. H. Cherry J. E. Clifford

1968-01-01

96

Arterialisation of transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared previously calculated global correction factors for oxygen and carbon dioxide arterial\\/transcutaneous ratios with individual in vivo calibrations from the first arterial sample. In infants beyond the neonatal period and older children in vivo calibration confers little benefit over the use of a global calibration correction factor for transcutaneous carbon dioxide, and may reduce the precision with which arterial

E Broadhurst; P Helms; H Vyas; G Cheriyan

1988-01-01

97

Carbon dioxide in northeastern New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide is known to occur in many parts of northeastern New Mexico. The main producing areas include the Bueyeros field in Harding County, Des Moines field in Union County, and Estancia field in Torrance County. In recent years, production has been limited to the Bueyeros field. Wildcat oil tests also have encountered carbon dioxide in Cofax, Mora, and San

ROY W. FOSTER; JAMES G. JENSEN

1972-01-01

98

CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming is increasing ocean tempera- tures and raising sea levels. New scientific research shows that our oceans are beginning to face yet another threat due to global warm- ing-related emissions - their basic chemistry is changing because of the uptake of carbon dioxide released by human activities. When carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans it reacts with seawater

Richard A. Feely; Christopher L. Sabine; Victoria J. Fabry

99

Energy Prices, Taxes and Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxes levied on the carbon content of fuels (carbon taxes) are being considered in many OECD countries as a possible policy instrument to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This paper first reviews the policy response in Member countries to the threat of global warming. It then discusses the link between carbon emission intensities and current energy prices, touching also on the

Peter Hoeller; Markku Wallin

1991-01-01

100

Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents  

DOEpatents

A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Hoffman, James S. (Library, PA)

2002-05-14

101

Reaction of yttrium polonides with carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proved that heating of yttrium and tantalum in carbon dioxide to 500 and 800Ā°C alters the gas phase composition, causing formation of carbon monoxide and reduction of oxygen content. A study of the thermal stability of yttrium polonides in carbon dioxide showed that yttrium sesqui- and monopolonides decompose at 400-430Ā°C. The temperature dependence of the vapor pressure

A. S. Abakumov; A. D. Khokhlov; N. F. Reznikova

1986-01-01

102

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

During the present reporting period, six complementary tasks involving experimentation, model development, and coal characterization were undertaken to meet our project objectives: (1) A second adsorption apparatus, utilizing equipment donated by BP Amoco, was assembled. Having confirmed the reliability of this additional experimental apparatus and procedures, adsorption isotherms for CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 3%. The addition of this new facility has allowed us to essentially double our rate of data production. (2) Adsorption isotherms for pure CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen on wet Illinois-6 coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia) on our first apparatus. The activated carbon measurements showed good agreement with literature data and with measurements obtained on our second apparatus. The expected uncertainty of the data is about 3%. The Illinois-6 adsorption measurements are a new addition to the existing database. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on DESC-8 coal. (3) Adsorption from binary mixtures of methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} at a series of compositions was also measured on the wet Fruitland coal at 319.3 K (115 F), using our first apparatus. The nominal compositions of these mixtures are 20%/80%, 40%/60%, 60%/40%, and 80%/20%. The experiments were conducted at pressures from 100 psia to 1800 psia. The expected uncertainty for these binary mixture data varies from 2 to 9%. (4) A study was completed to address the previously-reported rise in the CO{sub 2} absolute adsorption on wet Fruitland coal at 115 F and pressures exceeding 1200 psia. Our additional adsorption measurements on Fruitland coal and on activated carbon show that: (a) the Gibbs adsorption isotherm for CO{sub 2} under study exhibits typical adsorption behavior for supercritical gas adsorption, and (b) a slight variation from Type I absolute adsorption may be observed for CO{sub 2}, but the variation is sensitive to the estimates used for adsorbed phase density. (5) The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, a two-dimensional cubic equation of state (EOS), a new two-dimensional (2-D) segment-segment interactions equation of state, and the simplified local density model (SLD). Our model development efforts have focused on developing the 2-D analog to the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) EOS and an improved form of the SLD model. The new PGR EOS offers two advantages: (a) it has a more accurate repulsive term, which is important for reliable adsorption predictions, and (b) it is a segment-segment interactions model, which should more closely describe the gas-coal interactions during the adsorption process. In addition, a slit form of the SLD model was refined to account more precisely for heterogeneity of the coal surface and matrix swelling. In general, all models performed well for the Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). In comparison, the SLD model represented the adsorption behavior of all fluids considered within 5% average deviations, including the near-critical behavior of carbon dioxide beyond 8.3 MPa (1200 psia). Work is in progress to (a) derive and implement the biporous form of the SLD model, which would expand the number of structural geometries used to represent the heterogeneity of coal surface; and (b) extend the SLD model to mixture predictions. (6) Proper reduction of our adsorption data requires accurate gas-phase compressibility (Z) factors for methane, ethane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide and their mixtures to properly analyze our experimental adsorption data. A careful evaluation of t

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15

103

Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Carbon Dioxide Research Progress Report, fiscal year 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the global carbon cycle and the effects of increased carbon dioxide on the global climate system is reported. Environmental and societal effects related to COā and environmental control technology for COā are also discussed. Lists of research projects and reports and publications of the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program are included. An expanded COā monitoring network is

R. C. Dahlman; T. Gross; L. Machta; W. Elliott; M. MacCracken

1980-01-01

104

Water and Carbon Removal from Carbon Dioxide Reduction Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods suitable for use in a weightless environment for removing water and carbon from carbon dioxide reduction process systems were investigated. Water removal studies were conducted using a porous metal, plate-type, condenser-separator to remove the wa...

A. D. Babinsky S. J. Derezinski

1966-01-01

105

End-tidal carbon dioxide as a measure of arterial carbon dioxide during intermittent mandatory ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PetCO2) is a clinically reliable indicator of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) under conditions of heterogeneous tidal volumes and ventilation-perfusion inequality, we examined the expiratory gases of\\u000a 25 postcardiotomy patients being weaned from ventilator support with intermittent mandatory ventilation. Using a computerized\\u000a system that automatically sampled airway flow, pressure, and expired carbon dioxide

Matthew B. Weinger; John E. Britain

1987-01-01

106

LIFETIME OF EXCESS ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

We explore the effects of a changing terrestrial biosphere on the atmospheric residende time of carbon dioxide using three simple ocean carbon cycling models and a model of global terrestrial carbon cycling. e find differences in model behavior associated with the assumption of a...

107

Lake Nyos disaster, Cameroon, 1986: the medical effects of large scale emission of carbon dioxide?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide was blamed for the deaths of around 1700 people in Cameroon, west Africa, in 1986 when a massive release of gas occurred from Lake Nyos, a volcanic crater lake. The clinical findings in 845 survivors seen at or admitted to hospital were compatible with exposure to an asphyxiant gas. Rescuers noted cutaneous erythema and bullae on an unknown

P. J. Baxter; M. Kapila; D. Mfonfu

1989-01-01

108

Role of activated carbon pellets in carbon dioxide removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of carbon dioxide from gas\\/air streams is more often becoming necessary in many industries for different purposes. In cryogenic air separation plant, air has to be free from carbon dioxide before its liquefaction otherwise blockage due to freezing of heat exchange equipment would result. Enrichment of methane in biogas to have fuel of higher calorific value can be

S. C Sarkar; A Bose

1997-01-01

109

Carbon Dioxide Power Plant of Medium Capacity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article considers the prospect of creating highly economical and compact carbon dioxide power plants for average unit capacities and results are cited of the study of basic components of 50 megawatt installation.

B. S. Tishchenko D. P. Gokhshtein E. K. Olesevich E. L. Dekhtyarev V. N. Khalaidzhi

1968-01-01

110

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

William Watson

1994-08-01

111

Carbon dioxide hazards in general aviation.  

PubMed

There are numerous reports of carbon dioxide fire extinguishers or significant loads of dry ice causing actual or potential carbon dioxide intoxication leading to accidents or incidents, both in the military and in the airlines. To evaluate the significance of the problem in general aviation, dry ice sublimation reported in literature and measured sublimation was theoretically applied to general aviation aircraft, and carbon dioxide from fire extinguishers was measured, both in static and flight condition. The results indicate that the use of carbon dioxide fire extinguishers or the transportation under some conditions of dry ice could produce levels which could cause severe anxiety due to respiratory stimulation or actually produce pilot impairment and contribute to or cause accidents. PMID:856155

Gibbons, H L

1977-03-01

112

Magnesian calcite sorbent for carbon dioxide capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesian calcite with controlled properties was synthesized for the removal of carbon dioxide. The results from characterization, reactivity and CO2 capture capacity for different synthesis conditions are reported. The magnesian calcite samples (CaCO3:MgCO3) were synthesized by the coprecipitation of specific amounts of commercially available CaO and MgO by carbon dioxide. Characterization was done with BET, SEM\\/EDS, particle size analysis and

James C. Mabry; Kanchan Mondal

2011-01-01

113

Mineralization strategies for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in three primary research areas--each concerned with sequestering carbon dioxide into mineral matrices. Direct mineral carbonation was pioneered at Albany Research Center. The method treats the reactant, olivine or serpentine in aqueous media with carbon dioxide at high temperature and pressure to form stable mineral carbonates. Recent results are introduced for pretreatment by high-intensity grinding to improve carbonation efficiency. To prove feasibility of the carbonation process, a new reactor was designed and operated to progress from batch tests to continuous operation. The new reactor is a prototype high-temperature, high-pressure flow loop reactor that will furnish information on flow, energy consumption, and wear and corrosion resulting from slurry flow and the carbonation reaction. A promising alternative mineralization approach is also described. New data are presented for long-term exposure of carbon dioxide to Colombia River Basalt to determine the extent of conversion of carbon dioxide to permanent mineral carbonates. Batch autoclave tests were conducted using drill-core samples of basalt and reacted under conditions that simulate in situ injection into basalt-containing geological formations.

Penner, Larry R.; O'Connor, William K.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.

2003-01-01

114

First satellite identification of volcanic carbon monoxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic degassing produces abundant H2O and CO2, as well as SO2, HCl, H2S, S2, H2, HF, CO, and SiF4. Volcanic SO2, HCl, and H2S have been detected from satellites in the past; the remaining species are analyzed in situ or using airborne instruments, with all the consequent limitations in safety and sampling, and at elevated costs. We report identification of high CO concentrations consistent with a volcanic origin (the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2011 Grķmsvötn eruptions in Iceland) in data from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere instrument (MOPITT) onboard EOS/Terra. The high CO values coincide spatially and temporally with ash plumes emanating from the eruptive centers, with elevated SO2 and aerosol optical thickness, as well as with high CO values in data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), onboard MetOp-A. CO has a positive indirect radiative forcing; climate models currently do not account for volcanic CO emissions. Given global volcanic CO2 emissions between 130 and 440 Tg/year and volcanic CO:CO2 ratios from the literature, we estimate that average global volcanic CO emissions may be on the order of ?5.5 Tg/year, equivalent to the CO emissions caused by combined fossil fuel and biofuel combustion in Australia.

Martķnez-Alonso, Sara; Deeter, Merritt N.; Worden, Helen M.; Clerbaux, Cathy; Mao, Debbie; Gille, John C.

2012-11-01

115

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid...cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid...tanks must be made of carbon steel conforming...Charpy V-Notch energy absorption requirements...

2010-10-01

116

49 CFR 179.102-1 - Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...179.102-1 Carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid...cars used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid...tanks must be made of carbon steel conforming...Charpy V-Notch energy absorption requirements...

2009-10-01

117

A Solid Electrolyte Carbon Dioxide Reduction System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of solid electrolyte cells utilizing a 90 mole % ZrO2-10 mole % Y2O3 electrolyte and platinum electrodes for the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen was carried out. At 1000 C, oxygen production efficiency is less th...

H. W. Chandler L. J. Howell

1969-01-01

118

A Solid Electrolyte Carbon Dioxide Reduction System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solid electrolyte cells utilizing a 90 mole percent Zr02(-10) mole percent Y203 electrolyte and platinum electrodes were used for the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and oxygen. Methods of fabricating multicell units were investigated and t...

H. W. Chandler L. J. Howell

1968-01-01

119

Effect of carbon dioxide on nitrification rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lab-scale ideal mixed, aerated reactors were employed to test the influence of carbon dioxide (CO2) on the growth rate of a nitrifier community. The buffer medium used did not contain any carbon sources. Reactors were inoculated alternatively with sludge from a nitrifying membrane assisted bioreactor, reflecting autotrophic material, or with sludge from a plant having denitrification and nitrification steps, which

M. Denecke; T. Liebig

2003-01-01

120

Where in the World is Carbon Dioxide?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This three part activity has students set up experiments to help them better understand the atmospheric portion of the carbon cycle. From this activity, they will be able to explain the concept of sources and sinks as they relate to carbon dioxide, the use of indicator solution bromothymol blue (BTB) to reveal the presence of carbon dioxide, and the qualitative differences between animal and fossil fuel sources of global carbon dioxide. The student guide has an overall description of all three parts of the activity, lists of materials, the procedure and observations and questions. The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.

121

Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2010-02-02

122

Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

2005-05-10

123

Understanding volcanic processes using UV camera measurements of sulfur dioxide and coincident infrasound and seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exsolution of volatiles from magma maintains an important control on volcanic eruption styles. The nucleation, growth, and connectivity of bubbles during magma ascent provide the driving force behind eruptions, and the rate, volume, and ease of gas exsolution can affect eruptive activity. Volcanic plumes are the observable consequence of this magmatic degassing, and remote sensing techniques allow us to quantify changes in gas exsolution. However, until recently the methods used to measure volcanic plumes did not have the capability of detecting rapid changes in degassing on the scale of standard geophysical observations. The advent of the UV camera now makes high sample rate gas measurements possible. This type of dataset can then be compared to other volcanic observations to provide an in depth picture of degassing mechanisms in the shallow conduit. The goals of this research are to develop a robust methodology for UV camera field measurements of volcanic plumes, and utilize this data in conjunction with seismoacoustic records to illuminate degassing processes. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of imaging conditions, vignetting, exposure time, calibration technique, and filter usage on the UV camera sulfur dioxide measurements. Using the best practices determined from these studies, a field campaign was undertaken at Volcan de Pacaya, Guatemala. Coincident plume sulfur dioxide measurements, acoustic recordings, and seismic observations were collected and analyzed jointly. The results provide insight into the small explosive features, variations in degassing rate, and plumbing system of this complex volcanic system. This research provides useful information for determining volcanic hazard at Pacaya, and demonstrates the potential of the UV camera in multiparameter studies.

Dalton, Marika Piirak

124

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project has developed, an important additional objective has been added to the above original list. Namely, we have been encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we have participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, have also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project during the current reporting period are summarized in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2003-03-10

125

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also provided direct synergism with the original goals of our work. Specific accomplishments of this project are summarized below in three broad categories: experimentation, model development, and coal characterization.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

2003-04-30

126

Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in the Global Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is one of the key variables of the ‘Earth system’ — the web of interactions between\\u000a the atmosphere, oceans, soils and living things that determines conditions at the Earth surface. Atmospheric CO2 plays several roles in this system. For example, it is the carbon source for nearly all terrestrial green plants, and the\\u000a source of carbonic

Andrew J. Watson; James C. Orr

127

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10Ā¹āµ and 228 X 10Ā¹āµ grams. Between 1.8 X 10Ā¹āµ and 4.7 X 10Ā¹āµ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly

G. M. Woodwell; J. E. Hobbie; R. A. Houghton; J. M. Melillo; B. Moore; B. J. Peterson; G. R. Shaver

1983-01-01

128

Deep sixing carbon dioxide from power plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The injection and storage of carbon dioxide into the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans was simulated over a 500-year period in order to explore how climate change could alter ocean circulation and the ability of the ocean to store carbon for long periods. It was found that climate change increased the duration that injected carbon remained in the Atlantic, but had no influence in the Pacific and Indian oceans.

Jain, Atul K.; Cao, Long; Agu

129

Enhancing carbon dioxide sorption rates using hygroscopic additives  

SciTech Connect

A carbon dioxide sorbent useful in the removal of carbon dioxide from a gaseous stream is described, comprising: a. a metal oxide; b. an alkali metal carbonate; and c. an alkali fluoride; whereby said sorbent is capable of absorbing carbon dioxide in relative humidities below about 25%.

Nalette, T.A.; Birbara, P.J.

1993-05-25

130

THE RESPIRATORY RESPONSE TO CARBON DIOXIDE  

PubMed Central

1. A technique for determining the respiratory response to carbon dioxide on the Peabody principle is described. 2. The relation between minute volume of total pulmonary ventilation and percentage of carbon dioxide in the inspired air can be expressed by a simple mathematical formula, viz. Y = K + abz, in which Y is the ventilation rate, X is the CO2 content of the inspired air, and K, a, and b are constants characteristic for the individual. 3. The respiratory response to carbon dioxide as expressed by the total pulmonary ventilation is slightly greater at high oxygen percentages (90 per cent ±) than at normal oxygen percentages in the inspired air. 4. Respiratory fatigue may consist of two elements—one nervous, manifesting itself in increased excitability of the center and a more marked response when the demand for pulmonary ventilation is small, the other muscular and involving an inability to respond when the demand for pulmonary ventilation is great.

Davies, H. Whitridge; Brow, George R.; Binger, Carl A. L.

1925-01-01

131

Do Plants Really Use Carbon Dioxide?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment demonstrates that plants use carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. Four Teaching Tanks (commercially available, narrow tanks) are filled with water and bromthymol blue indicator, and Elodea plants are added to two of the tanks. Blowing through a straw into each tank dissolves carbon dioxide into the water and turns the indicator yellow. The tanks are sealed with clay, and a pair of tanksāone tank with Elodea and one withoutāis put in sunlight, while the other pair is put in darkness. After an hour, the tank with Elodea in sunlight will have returned to blue color. Learners can infer that the carbon dioxide in that tank has been used by the Elodea, since the water in "control" tanks remains yellow. Though designed as a demonstration, this activity could be adapted to allow varying degrees of learner hands-on involvement, and higher grade learners could potentially do all the steps without a demonstrator.

Products, American E.

1992-01-01

132

Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Air: Is It An Option?  

SciTech Connect

Controlling the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere without limiting access to fossil energy resources is only possible if carbon dioxide is collected and disposed of away from the atmosphere. While it may be cost-advantageous to collect the carbon dioxide at concentrated sources without ever letting it enter the atmosphere, this approach is not available for the many diffuse sources of carbon dioxide. Similarly, for many older plants a retrofit to collect the carbon dioxide is either impossible or prohibitively expensive. For these cases we investigate the possibility of collecting the carbon dioxide directly from the atmosphere. We conclude that there are no fundamental obstacles to this approach and that it deserves further investigation. Carbon dioxide extraction directly from atmosphere would allow carbon management without the need for a completely changed infrastructure. In addition it eliminates the need for a complex carbon dioxide transportation infrastructure, thus at least in part offsetting the higher cost of the extraction from air.

Klaus Lackner; Hans-Joachim Ziock; Patrick Grimes

1999-02-01

133

Reduction of Atmospheric Radiocarbon Concentration by Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide and the Mean Life of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that the combustion of fossil fuels over the period 1860 to 1954 has produced an amount of carbon dioxide, containing no radiocarbon, that is equal to approximately 13% of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The addition of this 'old' carbon dioxide to the atmosphere has observably disturbed the steady-state distribution of carbon-14 in nature. In

G. J. Fergusson

1958-01-01

134

Synthesis of Fluoropolymers in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluoropolymers are used in many technologically demanding applications because of their balance of high-performance properties. A significant impediment to the synthesis of variants of commercially available amorphous fluoropolymers is their general insolubility in most solvents except chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The environmental concerns about CFCs can be circumvented by preparing these technologically important materials in supercritical fluids. The homogeneous solution polymerization of highly fluorinated acrylic monomers can be achieved in supercritical carbon dioxide by using free radical methods. In addition, detailed decomposition rates and efficiency factors were measured for azobisisobutyronitrile in supercritical carbon dioxide and were compared to those obtained with conventional liquid solvents.

Desimone, J. M.; Guan, Zihibin; Elsbernd, C. S.

1992-08-01

135

Global deforestation: contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A study of effects of terrestrial biota on the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere suggests that the global net release of carbon due to forest clearing between 1960 and 1980 was between 135 X 10/sup 15/ and 228 X 10/sup 15/ grams. Between 1.8 X 10/sup 15/ and 4.7 X 10/sup 15/ grams of carbon were released in 1980, of which nearly 80 percent was due to deforestation, principally in the tropics. The annual release of carbon from the biota and soils exceeded the release from fossil fuels until about 1960. Because the biotic release has been and remains much larger than is commonly assumed, the airborne fraction, usually considered to be about 50 percent of the releases from fossil fuels, was probably between 22 and 43 percent of the total carbon released in 1980. The increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is thought by some to be increasing the storage of carbon in the earth's remaining forests sufficiently to offset the release from deforestation. The interpretation of the evidence presented here suggests no such effect; deforestation appears to be the dominant biotic effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide. If deforestation increases in proportion to population, the biotic release of carbon will reach 9 X 10/sup 15/ grams per year before forests are exhausted early in the next century. The possibilities for limiting the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere through reduction in use of fossil fuels and through management of forests may be greater than is commonly assumed.

Woodwell, G.M.; Hobbie, J.E.; Houghton, R.A.; Melillo, J.M.; Moore, B.; Peterson, B.J.; Shaver, G.R.

1983-12-09

136

Relative permeabilities of plastic films to water and carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

The permeabilities of several types of plastic films to water and to carbon dioxide were measured. No material was found to have a carbon dioxide permeability as great as its water permeability. PMID:16656548

Woolley, J T

1967-05-01

137

21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas mixture to aid in...techniques such as chemical titration, absorption of infrared radiation, gas...

2009-04-01

138

21 CFR 868.1400 - Carbon dioxide gas analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Identification. A carbon dioxide gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas mixture to aid in...techniques such as chemical titration, absorption of infrared radiation, gas...

2010-04-01

139

40 CFR 86.1524 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1524 Section 86.1524 Protection...Procedures Ā§ 86.1524 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) The calibration requirements for the dilute-sample CO2...

2013-07-01

140

Carbon dioxide absorption with aqueous potassium carbonate promoted by piperazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commercial processes for the removal of carbon dioxide from high-pressure gases use aqueous potassium carbonate systems promoted by secondary amines. This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic data for aqueous potassium carbonate promoted by piperazine. Research has been performed at typical absorber conditions for the removal of CO2 from flue gas.Piperazine, used as an additive in 20–30wt% potassium carbonate, was

J. Tim Cullinane; Gary T. Rochelle

2004-01-01

141

Discussion of Refrigeration Cycle Using Carbon Dioxide as Refrigerant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the problem of the environment goes worse, it urges people to research and study new energy-saving and environment-friendly refrigerants, such as carbon dioxide, at present, people do research on carbon dioxide at home and abroad. This paper introduces the property of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant, sums up and analyses carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles, and points out the development and research direction in the future.

Ji, Amin; Sun, Miming; Li, Jie; Yin, Gang; Cheng, Keyong; Zhen, Bing; Sun, Ying

142

Carbon dioxide emission from european estuaries  

PubMed

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in surface waters and related atmospheric exchanges were measured in nine European estuaries. Averaged fluxes over the entire estuaries are usually in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 mole of CO2 per square meter per day. For wide estuaries, net daily fluxes to the atmosphere amount to several hundred tons of carbon (up to 790 tons of carbon per day in the Scheldt estuary). European estuaries emit between 30 and 60 million tons of carbon per year to the atmosphere, representing 5 to 10% of present anthropogenic CO2 emissions for Western Europe. PMID:9774261

Frankignoulle; Abril; Borges; Bourge; Canon; Delille; Libert; Theate

1998-10-16

143

The urgent need for carbon dioxide sequestration  

SciTech Connect

The danger of global warming has put in question the use of fossil fuels which constitute the most abundant and most reliable energy resource. Meeting the ever growing world demand for cheap energy, while simultaneously achieving the required drastic reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions can only be accomplished by actively preventing carbon dioxide generated in the combustion of fuels from accumulating in the atmosphere, i.e. by sequestration. Sequestration is possible and economically viable and is currently the only realistic solution to the dilemma of CO{sub 2} emissions. The authors have developed a very promising approach that disposes of carbon dioxide by chemically combining it in an exothermic reaction with readily available minerals to form carbonates. The resulting carbonates are stable solids that are known to be environmentally benign and to be stable on geological time scales. This stands in contrast to most other methods that do not appear to fully solve the long term problem.

Lackner, K.S.; Butt, D.P.; Jensen, R.; Ziock, H.

1998-09-01

144

Platinum catalyst for forming carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a platinum wire catalytic apparatus for catalyzing the reaction of carbon monoxide and oxygen to form carbon dioxide by directly heating the catalyst to an activation temperature of about 1000{degrees} C. The improvement comprises a layer of platinum black deposited on the surface of the platinum wire to form a coating whereby the wire with the coating is directly heated to an activation temperature within the range of about 150 to 300{degrees} C.

McNeil, J.A.; Cohn, D.B.

1991-05-28

145

27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319 ...WINE Records and Reports Ā§ 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

2010-04-01

146

27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319 ...WINE Records and Reports Ā§ 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

2009-04-01

147

Leucocyte values in rats and mice following carbon dioxide euthanasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leucocyte counts obtained from Wistar rats and CD1 mice following euthanasia with carbon dioxide were compared to leucocyte values obtained using other agents for anaesthesia or euthanasia. In rats, following euthanasia with carbon dioxide, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts in samples taken from the heart were significantly raised compared with sodium barbiturate euthanasia. In mice, following carbon dioxide, total leucocyte counts

G. O. Evans; D. E. C. Smith

1991-01-01

148

Randomized, Controlled Trial of Carbon Dioxide Insufflation During Colonoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Insufflation of air is a cause of discomfort during and after colonoscopy. Although this can be minimized by good technique, the use of carbon dioxide insufflation may provide further benefits. Carbon dioxide is rapidly absorbed and excreted through the lungs. We hypothesized that carbon dioxide would alleviate postcolonoscopy discomfort. METHODS: After they had provided informed consent, patients presenting for

J. Church; C. Delaney

2003-01-01

149

Removal of carbon dioxide in geothermal power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for removing carbon dioxide in geothermal power generating processes employing a geothermal fluid such as geothermal brine containing carbon dioxide, to improve the efficiency of geothermal power generation, comprises introducing an aqueous alkaline solution, preferably an aqueous calcium hydroxide solution, into a vapor stream obtained from the brine during power generation, to remove carbon dioxide from the stream.

Wahl

1982-01-01

150

Carbon Dioxide Enrichment Inhibits Nitrate Assimilation in Wheat and Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere may double by the end of the 21st century. The response of higher plants to a carbon dioxide doubling often includes a decline in their nitrogen status, but the reasons for this decline have been uncertain. We used five independent methods with wheat and Arabidopsis to show that atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment

Arnold J. Bloom; Martin Burger; Jose Salvador Rubio Asensio; Asaph B. Cousins

2010-01-01

151

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three

C A Smith; A J Simon; R D Belles

2011-01-01

152

Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to

David W. Holladay; Gary L. Haag

1979-01-01

153

Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention comprises a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to

D. W. Holladay; G. L. Haag

1979-01-01

154

9 CFR 313.5 - Chemical; carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Chemical; carbon dioxide. 313.5 Section 313.5...LIVESTOCK Ā§ 313.5 Chemical; carbon dioxide. The slaughtering of sheep, calves and swine with the use of carbon dioxide gas and the handling in...

2013-01-01

155

CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION AI NIGHT AFFECTS TRANSLOCATION FROM SOYBEAN LEAVES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies have indicated that the concentration of carbon dioxide during the dark period may influence plant dry matter production. It is often suggested that these effects on growth result from effects of carbon dioxide on rates of respiration, but responses of respiration to carbon dioxide remain c...

156

27 CFR 24.319 - Carbon dioxide record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide record. 24.319 Section 24.319...WINE Records and Reports Ā§ 24.319 Carbon dioxide record. A proprietor who uses carbon dioxide in still wine shall maintain a...

2013-04-01

157

40 CFR 91.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 91.320 Section 91.320 Protection...91.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction...range with carbon dioxide-in-N2 calibration or span gases having nominal...

2012-07-01

158

40 CFR 86.524-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.524-78 Section 86.524-78...524-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction...operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration gases with nominal concentrations...

2013-07-01

159

40 CFR 90.320 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 90.320 Section 90.320 Protection...90.320 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its initial use...range with carbon dioxide-in-N2 calibration or span gases having nominal...

2012-07-01

160

40 CFR 86.1324-84 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.1324-84 Section 86.1324-84...1324-84 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior to its introduction into...spaced, carbon dioxide-in-N2 calibration or span gases (e.g., 15,...

2013-07-01

161

40 CFR 86.124-78 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 86.124-78 Section 86.124-78...124-78 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. Prior to its introduction into...operating range with carbon dioxide in N2 calibration gases with nominal concentrations...

2013-07-01

162

Diffusion of undecane (1); carbon dioxide (2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) undecane; (2) carbon dioxide

Winkelmann, J.

163

Spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor designed for automotive applications. The sensor is based on the well known infrared measurement principle. It includes a new robust infrared gas-detector and a corresponding, newly developed, ASIC. First application studies show its suitability for automatic vehicle ventilation systems and for leak detection in R744 air conditioning systems.

Michael Arndt; Maximilian Sauer

2004-01-01

164

Ocean Acidification: The Other Carbon Dioxide Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NOAA video discusses how the ocean absorbs the increased amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere, thereby changing the pH and buffering action of the ocean. These changes in pH are impacting calcifying organisms, such as corals and shellfish, and related food chains and ecosystems.

Noaa; Administration, National O.

165

Diffusion of air (1); carbon dioxide (2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) air; (2) carbon dioxide

J. Winkelmann

2007-01-01

166

The Emission Spectrum of Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission spectrum of carbon dioxide has been studied by the electron beam excitation method used by Smyth and Arnott. The whole range of the spectrum from 6500 to 1400 has been examined and only the bands reported by Fox, Duffendack and Barker in the region from 2700 to 5000 have been observed. A particular effort was made to get

H. D. Smyth

1931-01-01

167

Infrared Spectrum of Carbon Dioxide Anion Radical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressed alkali halide disks of infrared spectroscopy have been used as matrices to trap and to stabilize the carbon dioxide anion free radical. The radical was generated by exposing disks containing the formate ion in solid solution to gamma rays from a cobalt source. The ESR, the ultraviolet, and the infrared spectra of the radical have been identified. From the

K. O. Hartman; I. C. Hisatsune

1966-01-01

168

Carbon dioxide storage potential of shales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Options for the geologic storage of carbon dioxide vary from saline aquifers and depleted oil and gas reservoirs to unminable coal seams and abandoned coal mines. Important aspects include the sealing integrity of the cap rock and potential changes in this integrity, owing to the interaction with CO2.In this study, diffusive transport and gas sorption experiments on one well characterised

Andreas Busch; Sascha Alles; Yves Gensterblum; Dirk Prinz; David N. Dewhurst; Mark D. Raven; Helge Stanjek; Bernhard M. Krooss

2008-01-01

169

Catalyst Cartridge for Carbon Dioxide Reduction Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A catalyst cartridge, for use in a carbon dioxide reducing apparatus in a life support system for space vehicles, is described. The catalyst cartridge includes an inner perforated metal wall, an outer perforated wall space outwardly from the inner wall, a...

R. F. Holmes

1973-01-01

170

Carbon Dioxide Reduction Aboard the Space Station.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Classification of carbon dioxide reduction processes to be used in CO2 processing systems is considered. The advantages and the problems of realization of the processes are considered. The results obtained in the development of a unit prototype based on t...

L. I. Gavrilov V. A. Naumov A. I. Rjabkin T. N. Pavlova N. M. Samsonov

1991-01-01

171

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded

Efstathios D. Pagourelias; Paraskevi G. Zorou; Miltiadis Tsaligopoulos; Vasilis G. Athyros; Asterios Karagiannis; Georgios K. Efthimiadis

2010-01-01

172

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded

Efstathios D. Pagourelias; Paraskevi G. Zorou; Miltiadis Tsaligopoulos; Vasilis G. Athyros; Asterios Karagiannis; Georgios K. Efthimiadis

2011-01-01

173

Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the

Halil Berberoglu

2008-01-01

174

Carbon dioxide enhances fragility of ice crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice caps and glaciers cover 7% of the Earth, greater than the land area of Europe and North America combined, and play an important role in global climate. The small-scale failure mechanisms of ice fracture, however, remain largely elusive. In particular, little understanding exists about how the presence and concentration of carbon dioxide molecules, a significant component in the atmosphere, affects the propensity of ice to fracture. Here we use atomic simulations with the first-principles based ReaxFF force field capable of describing the details of chemical reactions at the tip of a crack, applied to investigate the effects of the presence of carbon dioxide molecules on ice fracture. Our result shows that increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide molecules significantly decrease the fracture toughness of the ice crystal, making it more fragile. Using enhanced molecular sampling with metadynamics we reconstruct the free energy landscape in varied chemical microenvironments and find that carbon dioxide molecules affect the bonds between water molecules at the crack tip and decrease their strength by altering the dissociation energy of hydrogen bonds. In the context of glacier dynamics our findings may provide a novel viewpoint that could aid in understanding the breakdown and melting of glaciers, suggesting that the chemical composition of the atmosphere can be critical to mediate the large-scale motion of large volumes of ice.

Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

2012-11-01

175

RECYCLED CARBON DIOXIDE - THE VETERAN & VERSATILE PESTICIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a long history of using carbon dioxide (CO2) in the control of stored grain insects. The ancient practice of burying grain and benefiting from the insecticidal effect of the respired CO2 has advanced to other pesticide applications. ? Anon (1917) reported CO2 the \\

R. F. Ryan

176

Diffusion of propylbenzene (1); carbon dioxide (2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) propylbenzene; (2) carbon dioxide

Winkelmann, J.

177

Carbon dioxide emissions and global GDP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A positive relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, the most important greenhouse gas (GHG) implicated in global warming, and GDP is shown in this paper, examining per capita income and CO2 emissions of 137 countries across 21 years. It also appears that as per capita incomes accelerate across countries emissions increases, for the most part, tend to decelerate. It could be

Michael Tucker

1995-01-01

178

Can the carbon dioxide problem be resolved  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of fossil fuels increases atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (COā). This may cause a long-term warming of the atmosphere. Solutions to the COā problem are particularly difficult because adverse effects will be felt by future generations, but remedial action and sacrifices must be made by present generations. Decisions regarding the problem which affect both the immediate and long-range

Lemons

1984-01-01

179

Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

2001-11-13

180

Carbon dioxide embolism treated with hyperbaric oxygen.  

PubMed

We report a case of suspected carbon dioxide embolism occurring during laparoscopy. Among the sequelae was neurological dysfunction felt to be secondary to paradoxical embolization. The patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Hyperbaric oxygen should be considered when confronted with a clinically important gas embolism. PMID:2529050

McGrath, B J; Zimmerman, J E; Williams, J F; Parmet, J

1989-09-01

181

Regulating Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay examines several legal, regulatory and organizational issues that need to be addressed to create an effective regulatory regime for carbon dioxide capture and storage (“CCS”). Legal, regulatory, and organizational issues will need to be resolved for the industrial organization of CO2 transportation and storage, storage safety and integrity issues, and liability. Although there are some gaps in the

M. A. de Figueiredo; H. J. Herzog; P. L. Joskow; K. A. Oye; D. M. Reiner

2007-01-01

182

Biogas, membranes and carbon dioxide capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas, which consists primarily of methane, can be obtained through the biological transformation of a large variety of organic wastes, and has drawn an increased interest within a framework of renewable energy sources. The use of gas permeation membranes for upgrading biogas (i.e., for removing carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from biomethane) has been abundantly investigated and already displays practical

Eric Favre; Roda Bounaceur; Denis Roizard

2009-01-01

183

Carbon dioxide absorption in glucosamine aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper includes studies related to gas\\/liquid mass transfer process of carbon dioxide in aqueous solutions of glucose and glucosamine. These studies have been carried out employing a cylindrical bubble column, where the gas phase was fed through an only orifice. The absorption process has been characterized taken into account the influence of gas flow-rate and the liquid phase

D. Gómez-Dķaz; J. M. Navaza; B. Sanjurjo; L. Vįzquez-Orgeira

2006-01-01

184

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cottonseed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide is a popular technique for oil extraction due to its high extraction efficiency, short extracting time, lower refining requirement and absence of chemical residues or contamination in the extracted oils. In this work, an attempt has been made to extract oil from a local variety of cottonseed using this technique. The effects of

Paramita Bhattacharjee; Rekha S. Singhal; Sudha R. Tiwari

2007-01-01

185

Personal Carbon Dioxide Impact (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been increasing for many decades now, mostly due to the burning of fossil fuels by mankind. In this exercise, students will track their daily activities, and and estimate how much carbon dioxide they are responsible for emitting with the use of an online Personal Greenhouse Gas Calculator developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The calculator sums the carbon dioxide produced by driving, electricity use, and waste disposal, and provides an estimate of annual carbon dioxide emissions. It also allows users to see how changes in lifestyle could reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Links to websites with additional information are also provided.

Pratte, John

186

Lake Nyos disaster, Cameroon, 1986: the medical effects of large scale emission of carbon dioxide?  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide was blamed for the deaths of around 1700 people in Cameroon, west Africa, in 1986 when a massive release of gas occurred from Lake Nyos, a volcanic crater lake. The clinical findings in 845 survivors seen at or admitted to hospital were compatible with exposure to an asphyxiant gas. Rescuers noted cutaneous erythema and bullae on an unknown proportion of corpses and 161 (19%) survivors treated in hospital; though these lesions were initially believed to be burns from acidic gases, further investigation suggested that they were associated with coma states caused by exposure to carbon dioxide in air. The disaster at Lake Nyos and a similar event at Lake Monoun, Cameroon, two years previously provide new information on the possible medical effects of large scale emissions of carbon dioxide, though the presence of other toxic factors in these gas releases cannot be excluded. PMID:2502283

Baxter, P J; Kapila, M; Mfonfu, D

1989-05-27

187

Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid  

SciTech Connect

The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction conditions, have achieved roughly 83% conversion of heat treated serpentine and 84% conversion of olivine to the carbonate in 6 hours. The results from the current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be improved by pretreatment of the mineral, catalysis of the reaction, or some combination of the two. Future tests are intended to examine a broader pressure/temperature regime, various pretreatment options, as well as other mineral groups.

O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

2000-01-01

188

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium based sorbents including sodium carbonate may be used to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas. A relatively concentrated carbon dioxide stream may be recoverable for sequestration when the sorbent is regenerated. Electrobalance tests indicated that sodium carbonate monohydrate was formed in a mixture of helium and water vapor at temperatures below 65 C. Additional compounds may also form, but

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2001-01-01

189

Carbon dioxide capture from fossil fuel power plants using dolomite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research is to develop a simple and cost effective separation method that captures carbon dioxide from power plant flue gas, as a pure stream that can be stored using regenerable dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate) as the sorbent. The developed dolomite sorbent was evaluated for carbon dioxide capture capacity using muti-cycle tests of cyclical carbonation\\/calcination experiments

Drupatie Latchman

2010-01-01

190

Global energy and carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between increasing CO/sub 2/ concentrations in the atmosphere and possible major geophysical and biospheric consequences--the so-called greenhouse issue--has been a question of growing popular and scientific concern. The combustion of fossil fuels is currently the major source term in the atmospheric carbon cycle. This link between energy combustion and carbon concentrations means that most CO/sub 2/ questions of interest to policymakers require the ability to say something about future rates of energy use and the fuel mix. The rapid mixing of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere requires that the energy analysis be global. Finally, the cumulative and, to the large extent, irreversible nature of the problem requires a long-term perspective. As with any projection, there are inherent uncertainties; but the very long-term nature of the CO/sub 2/ issue make uncertainty a dominant consideration.

Reilly, J.; Edmonds, J.

1985-01-01

191

Carbon dioxide and past Antarctic temperature linked  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctic ice core records indicate a strong connection between a rapid rise in temperature and a rapid increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) that occurred during the last ice age. Ahn et al. analyzed the carbon dioxide content of air preserved in Antarctic ice cores covering a time period about 37 to 47 thousand years ago, during which Antarctica went through two warming events in the midst of an ice age. The authors show that approximately half of the CO2 increase that occurred during that period happened very quickly, over less than 200 years. Furthermore, this rapid rise in CO2 occurred nearly simultaneously with a rapid rise in Antarctic temperature. Improved knowledge of the past connection between CO2 and climate can help inform understanding of the feedback relationship between CO2 and climate today. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2012GL053018, 2012)

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-11-01

192

Hydrates of carbon dioxide and methane mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on three-phase equilibrium conditions of hydrates (water-rich liquid, hydrate, and vapor) of carbon dioxide and methane binary mixtures that were investigated in the temperature range of 273-288 K and the pressure range of 1.2-11.0 MPa. The vapor-phase concentrations were measured by a gas chromatograph. The results obtained were in good agreement with previous measurements done by researchers

Sanggono Adisasmito; Robert J. Frank; E. Dendy Sloan

1991-01-01

193

Carbon dioxide neutral, integrated biofuel facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algae are efficient biocatalysts for both capture and conversion of carbon dioxide in the environment. In earlier work, we have optimized the ability of Chlorella vulgaris to rapidly capture CO2 from man-made emission sources by varying environmental growth conditions and bioreactor design. Here we demonstrate that a coupled biodiesel-bioethanol facility, using yeast to produce ethanol and photosynthetic algae to produce

E. E. Powell; G. A. Hill

2010-01-01

194

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However,\\u000a its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We\\u000a performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded

Efstathios D. Pagourelias; Paraskevi G. Zorou; Miltiadis Tsaligopoulos; Vasilis G. Athyros; Asterios Karagiannis; Georgios K. Efthimiadis

195

Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has been proposed as a key component in technological portfolios for managing anthropogenic climate change,\\u000a since it may provide a faster and cheaper route to significant reductions in atmospheric CO2 concentrations than abating CO2 production. However, CO2 sequestration is not a perfect substitute for CO2 abatement because CO2 may leak back into the atmosphere (thus imposing

Klaus Keller; David McInerney; David F. Bradford

2008-01-01

196

Solubility of triacylglycerols in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of refined corn and sunflower seed oils, babassu (Attalea funifera) and ucuuba (Virola sebifera) fats in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) were measured in a temperature range from 40 to 80°C and pressure between 200 and 350bar. Under working conditions, the values of solubility showed retrograde behavior. Experimental SC-CO2 solubility data were collected from the literature for the following

B. M. C. Soares; F. M. C. Gamarra; L. C. Paviani; L. A. G. Gonēalves; F. A. Cabral

2007-01-01

197

The direct carbon dioxide effect on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide may affect plants by changing the climate, but it can have another more subtle and quite separate influence,\\u000a through its direct effects on plant physiology. Since CO2 is fundamental to photosynthesis, it makes sense that increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will tend to allow plants to photosynthesize faster. This then is one-half of the direct

Jonathan Adams

198

Improved immobilized carbon dioxide capture sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capture of carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas streams has been achieved by using immobilized and aminated-SBA-15 solid sorbents. SBA-15, a mesoporous silica material with a uniform pore size of 21 nm and a surface area of 200?230 m2\\/g. The solid sorbents prepared in this study exhibit similar or improved capacities relative to those already used to control CO2

M. L. Gray; Y. Soong; K. J. Champagne; H. Pennline; J. P. Baltrus; R. W. Stevens Jr.; R. Khatri; S. S. C. Chuang; T. Filburn

2005-01-01

199

Carbon dioxide capture with concentrated, aqueous piperazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrated, aqueous piperazine (PZ) has been investigated as a novel amine solvent for carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption. The CO2 absorption rate of aqueous PZ is more than double that of 7m MEA and the amine volatility at 40°C ranges from 11 to 21ppm. Thermal degradation is negligible in concentrated, aqueous PZ up to a temperature of 150°C, a significant advantage

Stephanie A. Freeman; Ross Dugas; David H. Van Wagener; Thu Nguyen; Gary T. Rochelle

2010-01-01

200

Carbon dioxide absorption kinetics in potassium threonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of carbon dioxide in potassium threonate aqueous solutions is studied at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 3M and temperatures from 293 to 313K. This study includes experimental density, viscosity, solubility of N2O and absorption kinetics of CO2 (using a stirred cell reactor) data obtained for the various potassium threonate solutions. The diffusion coefficients of CO2 and potassium threonate

A. F. Portugal; F. D. Magalhćes; A. Mendes

2008-01-01

201

Solvent selection for carbon dioxide absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide absorption potentials of selected solvents were assessed by absorption at 40 ?C up to 9.5kPa CO2 partial pressure and desorption at 80 ?C down to 1.0 kPa CO2 partial pressure and compared with monoethanolamine (MEA). Results showed that cyclic capacity of MEA in mol CO2\\/molamine decreases with increase in concentration while its CO2 removal per cycle increases with concentration. Sarcosine neutralized with

Ugochukwu E. Aronu; Hallvard F. Svendsen; Karl Anders Hoff; Olav Juliussen

2009-01-01

202

Solubilities of phenols in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Equilibrium solubilities of pure anthracene at 50 C, 1-naphthol at 35, 45, and 55 C, and hydroquinone at 35 and 45 C in supercritical carbon dioxide over a pressure range of about 85--300 bar have been measured using a supercritical fluid extractor coupled with an external high-pressure liquid chromatographer. The solubility results, along with those for other phenols reported in the literature, are correlated with the translated-modified Peng Robinson equation of state.

Coutsikos, P.; Magoulas, K.; Tassios, D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

1995-07-01

203

Single-Breath Continuous Carbon Dioxide Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEASUREMENTS of inequalities in alveolar ventilation and of physiological dead space give an estimate of the under-ventilated and under-perfused volumes of diseased lungs. Comroe and Fowler1 described the use of a nitrogen meter to detect uneven alveolar ventilation during a single expiration. Dubois et al.2 showed how the physiological dead space could be assessed by measuring the carbon dioxide content

L. Feinmann; G. L. LEATHART; G. B. PENDLENTON

1955-01-01

204

Reduction of carbon dioxide on modified glassy carbon electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere gives an important contribution to environmental pollution due to the progressive increase of its production everywhere from many sources. It is believed now that the capacity of the biosphere, due to absorption and transformation of CO{sub 2}, has been considerably exceeded and many attempts to overcome this problem by different ways, have been successful. Electrochemical reduction seems to be an appropriate route for carbon dioxide consumption and its transformation to useful compounds. Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide on glassy carbon (GC) was studied by applying different potential regimes and monitoring the effect of the electrode surface conditioning, as well as the nature of supporting electrolyte, upon the nature of the reaction. In the case of constant potential electrolyses, a rapid decay of the cathodic current was observed, while application of a suitable pulse program to the working electrode, in addition to the ultrasonic cleaning of the surface, allowed completion of the reaction without premature current downfall. Modification of the electrode surface, by applying potential pulses, caused a decrease of the reduction potential of CO{sub 2} on glassy carbon. High yields in carbon monoxide and methanol were obtained in these media, with the highest value obtained for methanol in sodium chloride and carbon monoxide in ammonium oxalate.

Hernandez, R.M.; Marquez, J.; Marquez, O.P.; Choy, M.; Ovalles, C.; Garcia, J.J.; Scharifker, B.

1999-11-01

205

Toward Carbon Dioxide Vapor-Pressure Thermometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Temperature Group Laboratory of the National Metrology Institute of Turkey (TUBITAK UME) has realized the scale in the range from the argon triple point (83.8058 K) to the copper freezing point (1357.77 K) and also constructed the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) defining fixed points (Preston-Thomas, Metrologia 27, 3 (1990)). The scale is realized in the low-temperature sub-range by interpolation between the triple points of water, mercury, and argon. The calibration of thermometers below the temperature of the triple point of mercury requires the realization of the argon triple point. Since calibration laboratories are asking for references down to -60 °C, a triple point of carbon dioxide (CO2) gives this opportunity to be used as a secondary fixed point. Another aim of this work is to study the ability of CO2 vapor pressure to realize a vapor-pressure thermometer for covering the range from 216 K up to room temperature. This realization is intended to provide an approximation of the international temperature scale in this temperature range. The vapor-pressure thermometer is intended to be assessed by using the triple point of carbon dioxide and by measuring the pressure values at the temperatures of the triple points of mercury and water. Realization of the triple-point temperature of carbon dioxide and the development of the vapor-pressure thermometer will be investigated and presented in this article.

Dogan, A. Kartal; Bonnier, G.; Uytun, A.; Kocas, I.; Durgut, Y.

2011-12-01

206

Extraction of pharmaceuticals using pressurised carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the applications of super- and sub-critical carbon dioxide for the extraction of pharmaceuticals from various matrices. The matrices covered are divided into the following types: animal feed, formulations, biological and miscellaneous, with various sub-divisions as appropriate. The polar nature of most pharmaceuticals often precludes the use of carbon dioxide only, so it is common to find the addition of a more polar solvent, as modifier. As the majority of sample types covered are solid, little if any pre-treatment is required, with the exception of grinding, prior to insertion in the sample extraction cell. For liquid-type matrices, sample pre-treatment is the normal. Often this may involve adsorption on an inert support e.g. Celite or diatomaceous earth, or immobilisation on a functionalised silica surface, e.g. C18. The later may take the form of a solid phase extraction cartridge or disk. An attempt has also been made to sample from liquid matrices directly using a modified extraction cell. The variety of sample types, matrices and analyte polarity places stringent requirements on the use of pressurised carbon dioxide. Its potential for effective recovery is examined in this review. PMID:9160253

Dean, J R; Khundker, S

1997-04-01

207

Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions  

SciTech Connect

A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

Gosink, T.A.; Kelley, J.J.

1981-03-01

208

Fluid Mechanical Modelling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow of supercritical carbon dioxide against an impermeable caprock will be considered from a theoretical and experimental point of view. A series of fundamental problems will be presented, along with some laboratory simulations. It will be shown that in the simplest case, when the caprock is totally impermeable and horizontal, with viscosity differences between the supercritical carbon dioxide and the fluid into which it is intruding neglected, the radius of the spreading of carbon dioxide increases like the square root of time. We will then consider the influence of a sloping caprock, where for time short compared to some critical time, ?c, the spreading pool is close to axisymmetric, while for times very much greater than ?c it is approximately three times larger in the upslope than cross-slope direction. For typical geological conditions, ?c can vary from between days and years, and hence the observed shape will depend on details at the injection site. A discussion of the effects of different viscosities of the intruding and intruded fluid will be presented and the important non- dimensional physical parameters outlined. The talk will conclude with a discussion of very recent research on the effects of heterogeneous porosity in the ambient and an application of the results to the analysis of the observations at Sleipner. The talk will be illustrated by colour movie sequences of experiments and a real desk- top experiment.

Huppert, H. E.

2007-12-01

209

Bench-to-bedside review: Carbon dioxide  

PubMed Central

Carbon dioxide is a waste product of aerobic cellular respiration in all aerobic life forms. PaCO2 represents the balance between the carbon dioxide produced and that eliminated. Hypocapnia remains a common - and generally underappreciated - component of many disease states, including early asthma, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and acute lung injury. Induction of hypocapnia remains a common, if controversial, practice in both adults and children with acute brain injury. In contrast, hypercapnia has traditionally been avoided in order to keep parameters normal. More recently, advances in our understanding of the role of excessive tidal volume has prompted clinicians to use ventilation strategies that result in hypercapnia. Consequently, hypercapnia has become increasingly prevalent in the critically ill patient. Hypercapnia may play a beneficial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation and tissue injury, but may hinder the host response to sepsis and reduce repair. In contrast, hypocapnia may be a pathogenic entity in the setting of critical illness. The present paper reviews the current clinical status of low and high PaCO2 in the critically ill patient, discusses the insights gained to date from studies of carbon dioxide, identifies key concerns regarding hypocapnia and hypercapnia, and considers the potential clinical implications for the management of patients with acute lung injury.

2010-01-01

210

Carbon dioxide equilibria and their applications  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide, bicarbonate ion, and carbonate ion comprise the most important acid-base system in natural waters, and the equilibria between them regulate the pH of seawater, as well as most rainwater, stream water, river water, and groundwater. Carbon Dioxide Equilibria and Their Applications provides a clear, compact presentation of this topic, which is central to geochemistry and environmental engineering. It emphasizes a rigorous mathematical and thermodynamic basis for calculations and their application to realistic problems. The book's first four chapters present the basic equations, mathematical techniques for visualizing and manipulating them, and data on equilibrium constants and activity coefficients. These are presented in the general context of acid-base titration and solubility of CaCO[sub 3]. The remaining chapters show how these concepts and techniques are applied to geochemistry and oceanography, in addition to their applications to water conditioning. Specific topics discussed include acid rain, freshwater, seawater, carbonate sediments in the deep oceans, the effects of increased atmospheric CO[sub 2] on the oceans, estuarine waters, brines, hydrothermal CO[sub 2] on the oceans, estuarine waters, brines, hydrothermal solutions, pH adjustment, prediction of calcium carbonate saturation, corrosion inhibition, and water softening.

Butler, J.M. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1992-01-01

211

Method of immobilizing carbon dioxide from gas streams  

DOEpatents

This invention is a method for rapidly and continuously immobilizing carbon dioxide contained in various industrial off-gas streams, the carbon dioxide being immobilized as dry, stable, and substantially water-insoluble particulates. Briefly, the method comprises passing the gas stream through a fixed or fluidized bed of hydrated barium hydroxide to remove and immobilize the carbon dioxide by converting the bed to barium carbonate. The method has several important advantages: it can be conducted effectively at ambient temperature; it provides a very rapid reaction rate over a wide range of carbon dioxide concentrations; it provides high decontamination factors; and it has a high capacity for carbon dioxide. The invention is especially well suited for the removal of radioactive carbon dioxide from off-gases generated by nuclear-fuel reprocessing facilities and nuclear power plants.

Holladay, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Haag, Gary L. (Oliver Springs, TN)

1979-01-01

212

The fate of carbon in grasslands under carbon dioxide enrichment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Earth's atmosphere is rising rapidly, with the potential to alter many ecosystem processes. Elevated CO2 often stimulates photosynthesis, creating the possibility that the terrestrial biosphere will sequester carbon in response to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, partly offsetting emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, cement manufacture, and deforestation,. However, the responses of intact ecosystems to

Bruce A. Hungate; Elisabeth A. Holland; Robert B. Jackson; F. Stuart Chapin; Harold A. Mooney; Christopher B. Field

1997-01-01

213

Master Index for the Carbon Dioxide Research State-of-the-ART Report Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four State of the Art (SOA) reports, ''Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Global Carbon Cycle,'' ''Direct Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation,'' ''Detecting the Climatic Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide,'' and ''Projecting the Climatic ...

M. P. Farrell

1987-01-01

214

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

Sodium based sorbents including sodium carbonate may be used to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas. A relatively concentrated carbon dioxide stream may be recoverable for sequestration when the sorbent is regenerated. Electrobalance tests indicated that sodium carbonate monohydrate was formed in a mixture of helium and water vapor at temperatures below 65 C. Additional compounds may also form, but this could not be confirmed. In the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor, both the initial reaction rate of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water and the sorbent capacity decreased with increasing temperature, consistent with the results from the previous quarter. Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration at constant temperature and water vapor concentration produced a measurable increase in rate, as did increasing the water vapor concentration at constant carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Runs conducted with a flatter TGA pan resulted in a higher initial reaction rate, presumably due to improved gas-solid contact, but after a short time, there was no significant difference in the rates measured with the different pans. Analyses of kinetic data suggest that the surface of the sodium carbonate particles may be much hotter than the bulk gas due to the highly exothermic reaction with carbon dioxide and water, and that the rate of heat removal from the particle may control the reaction rate. A material and energy balance was developed for a cyclic carbonation/calcination process which captures about 26 percent of the carbon dioxide present in flue gas available at 250 C.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2001-07-01

215

Inverse Estimates of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide From Ocean Interior Carbon Measurements and Ocean General Circulation Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocean is an important sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide, and the exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and ocean plays a critical role in determining the spatial distribution of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, there is still a great deal of uncertainty in both magnitude and regional patterns of anthropogenic uptake associated with estimates of oceanic carbon fluxes. Using

S. E. Mikaloff Fletcher; N. P. Gruber; A. R. Jacobson; K. Caldeira; S. C. Doney; M. Gloor; M. Follows; K. Lindsay; R. Matear; D. Menemenlis; A. Mouchet; J. L. Sarmiento

2003-01-01

216

Carbon dioxide: A substitute for phosgene  

SciTech Connect

One of the many goals of the green chemistry movement is to eliminate the use of phosgene (COCl{sub 2}), an extremely hazardous compound used in many syntheses, including the production of carbamates, organic carbonates, and polymers. One of the most interesting options for eliminating this compound is to replace it with CO{sub 2}. In addition to carbon dioxide`s abundance and benign nature, it has the benefits of recycling carbon and of reducing the amount of CO{sub 2} released into the atmosphere when its use is linked with other processes that emit CO{sub 2}. Several synthetic strategies that do not use phosgene are under development. The authors briefly review the most interesting ones and then expand on the use of CO{sub 2} as a potential building block for organic carbamates, carbonates, and isocyanates. One of these routes, polycarbonate synthesis, is already in industrial-scale operation: PAC Polymers Inc. currently produces CO{sub 2}-epoxide copolymers. The synthesis of carbamates and substituted ureas has been developed, and this process awaits industrial exploitation.

Aresta, M.; Quaranta, E. [Univ. of Bari (Italy)

1997-03-01

217

The CNG process: Acid gas removal with liquid carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The CNG acid gas removal process has two unique features: the absorption of sulfur-containing compounds and other trace contaminants with liquid carbon dioxide, and the regeneration of pure liquid carbon dioxide by triple-point crystallization. The process is especially suitable for treating gases which contain large amounts of carbon dioxide and much smaller amounts (relative to carbon dioxide) of hydrogen sulfide. Capital and energy costs are lower than conventional solvent processes. Further, products of the CNG process meet stringent purity specifications without undue cost penalties. A process demonstration unit has been constructed and operated to demonstrate the two key steps of the CNG process. Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide removal from gas streams with liquid carbon dioxide absorbent to sub-ppm concentrations has been demonstrated. The production of highly purified liquid carbon dioxide (less than 0.1 ppm total contaminant) by triple-point crystallization also has been demonstrated.

Liu, Y.C.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.

1987-01-01

218

Amperometric sensor for carbon dioxide: design, characteristics, and perforance  

SciTech Connect

A new sensor for atmospheric carbon dioxide is described. It is an amperometric device based on a porous electrode in a three-electrode cell and the electrolyte is a copper diamine complex in aqueous potassium chloride. The platinum cathode, held at constant potential, is used to detect the formation of Cu{sup 2+} following the change in the pH of the solution when the sensor is exposed to an atmosphere containing carbon dioxide. The sensor described is designed to monitor carbon dioxide concentrations in the range 0-5%, although with some modifications, other ranges would be possible. The response to a change in the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere is rapid (about 10s) while the monitored current is strongly (but nonlinearly) dependent on carbon dioxide concentration. Unlike other amperometric devices for carbon dioxide, there is no interference from oxygen although other acid gases would lead to an interfering response.

Evans, J.; Pletcher, D.; Warburton, P.R.G. (The University, Southampton (Enland)); Gibbs, T.K. (Neotronics, Ltd., Herts (England))

1989-03-15

219

Carbon Dioxide Separation Using Thermally Optimized Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this project is to develop polymeric-metallic membranes for carbon dioxide separations that operate under a broad range of industrially relevant conditions not accessible with present membrane units. The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the use of polymer membranes as an effective, economic and flexible tool for many commercial gas separations including air separation, the recovery of hydrogen from nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane mixtures, and the removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas. In each of these applications, high fluxes and excellent selectivities have relied on glassy polymer membranes which separate gases based on both size and solubility differences. To date, however, this technology has focused on optimizing materials for near ambient conditions. The development of polymeric materials that achieve the important combination of high selectivity, high permeability, and mechanical stability at temperatures significantly above 25oC and pressures above 10 bar, respectively, has been largely ignored. Consequently, there is a compelling rationale for the exploration of a new realm of polymer membrane separations. Indeed, the development of high temperature polymeric-metallic composite membranes for carbon dioxide separation at temperatures of 100-450 oC and pressures of 10-150 bar would provide a pivotal contribution with both economic and environmental benefits. Progress to date includes the first ever fabrication of a polymeric-metallic membrane that is selective from room temperature to 370oC. This achievement represents the highest demonstrated operating temperature at which a polymeric based membrane has successfully functioned. Additionally, we have generated the first polybenzamidizole silicate molecular composites. Finally, we have developed a technique that has enabled the first-ever simultaneous measurements of gas permeation and membrane compaction at elevated temperatures. This technique provides a unique approach to the optimization of long-term membrane performance under challenging operating conditions.

Young, J. S.; Jorgensen, B. S.; Espinoza, B. F.; Weimer, M. W.; Jarvinen, G. D.; Greenberg, A.; Khare, V.; Orme, C. J.; Wertsching, A. K.; Peterson, E. S.; Hopkins, S. D.; Acquaviva, J.

2002-05-01

220

Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect: A Problem Evaluation Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes exercises to examine the global carbon cycle. Students are asked to predict consequences of increased carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and to suggest ways to mitigate problems associated with these higher levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. A comparison modeling exercise examines some of the variables related to the…

Brewer, Carol A.; Beiswenger, Jane M.

1993-01-01

221

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system,

David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

2005-01-01

222

Carbonate Mineralization of Volcanic Province Basalts  

SciTech Connect

Flood basalts are receiving increasing attention as possible host formations for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2, with studies underway in the United States, India, Iceland, and Canada. As an extension of our previous experiments with Columbia River basalt, basalts from the eastern United States, India, and South Africa were reacted with aqueous dissolved CO2 and aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S mixtures under supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditions to study the geochemical reactions resulting from injection of CO2 in such formations. The results of these studies are consistent with cation release behavior measured in our previous experiments (in press) for basalt samples tested in single pass flow through dissolution experiments under dilute solution and mildly acidic conditions. Despite the basalt samples having similar bulk chemistry, mineralogy and apparent dissolution kinetics, long-term static experiments show significant differences in rates of mineralization as well as compositions and morphologies of precipitates that form when the basalts are reacted with CO2-saturated water. For example, basalt from the Newark Basin in the United States was by far the most reactive of any basalt tested to date. Carbonate reaction products for the Newark Basin basalt were globular in form and contained significantly more Fe than the secondary carbonates that precipitated on the other basalt samples. In comparison, the post-reacted samples associated with the Columbia River basalts from the United States contained calcite grains with classic dogtooth spar morphology and trace cation substitution (Mg and Mn). Carbonation of the other basalts produced precipitates with compositions that varied chemically throughout the entire testing period. Examination of polished cross sections of the reacted grains by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy show precipitate overgrowths with varying chemical compositions. Compositional differences in the precipitates suggest changes in fluid chemistry unique to the dissolution behavior of each basalt sample reacted with CO2-saturated water. The Karoo basalt from South Africa appeared the least reactive, with very limited mineralization occurring during the testing with CO2-saturated water. The relative reactivity of different basalt samples were unexpectedly different in the experiments conducted using aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S mixtures versus those reacted with aqueous dissolved CO2 mixtures. For example, the Karoo basalt was highly reactive in the presence of aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S, as evident by small nodules of carbonate coating the basalt grains after 181 days of testing. However the most reactive basalt in CO2-H2O, Newark Basin, formed limited amounts of carbonate precipitates in the presence of aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S mixture. Basalt reactivity in CO2-H2O mixtures appears to be controlled by the composition of the glassy mesostasis, which is the most reactive component in the basalt rock. With the addition of H2S to the CO2-H2O system, basalt reactivity appears to be controlled by precipitation of coatings of insoluble Fe sulfides.

Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Owen, Antionette T.

2010-03-31

223

Impact of Siberian Trap volcanism on the end-Permian and Early Triassic carbon cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Siberian Traps are the largest of the large igneous provinces, covering approximately 5 million km2. The timing of this volcanic episode is indistinguishable from the end-Permian mass extinction, and the event likely both directly and indirectly impacted marine ecosystems, leading to the largest extinction of Earth history. Recent studies suggest record volumes of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases were released from both lava degassing and degassing due to heating of Tunguska Basin sediments. In this study, we use Genie-1, an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (http://wwww.genie.ac.uk), to examine the impact of volcanic volatile release on the sedimentary carbon isotope record and end-Permian carbonate system under a wide range of volumes, rates, and isotope compositions of CO2 input. These model experiments place quantitative constraints on the magnitude and rates of CO2 addition that can account for the sedimentary and C isotope records of the end-Permian and Early Triassic.

Meyer, K. M.; Kump, L.; Cui, Y.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Payne, J.

2011-12-01

224

Integrating TOMS and TOVS retrievals of sulfur dioxide in volcanic clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet backscatter data from the series of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments have been used to construct a time series of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions covering the past ~24 years, except for an 18-month data gap in 1995-96. Recently a new technique for retrieving SO2 from infrared data collected by the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS) on the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) platform has been developed, based on a strong SO2 absorption band centered around 7.3 ?m. The TOVS data are global, cover almost 22 years, have a spatial resolution of 18 km at nadir (compared to 25-50 km for TOMS) and can be used by day or night (TOMS requires sunlight), and therefore provide a unique opportunity to independently cross-validate and evaluate the TOMS SO2 retrievals. The nighttime capability of TOVS and the uninterrupted dataset also permit extension of the TOMS volcanic SO2 record (e.g. to include eruptions at high latitudes in the winter months) and coverage of the TOMS data gap in 1995-96. As a case study of the relative merits of the UV TOMS and IR TOVS methods, we will present retrievals of SO2 in the stratospheric volcanic cloud produced by the August 1980 eruption of Hekla volcano, Iceland. This was a relatively modest eruption, producing ~470 kilotons of SO2 (measured by TOMS), but the resulting volcanic cloud was unusually long-lived and could be tracked by TOMS and TOVS for ~5 days as it circumnavigated the North Pole. Detailed intercomparison of SO2 retrievals from TOMS and TOVS, taking into account the different sensitivities and biases of the two methods, allows a thorough examination of the evolution of this SO2 cloud. Merging of the TOMS and TOVS datasets may also provide sufficient information on the movement of the volcanic cloud to permit validation of trajectory models (e.g. CANERM, HYSPLIT).

Carn, S. A.; Prata, F. J.; Karlsdottir, S.; Krueger, A. J.

2002-12-01

225

Carbon dioxide utilization in the chemical industry  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide as a raw material for the Chemical Industry is receiving growing attention because: (i) if recovery of CO{sub 2} from flue gases will be implemented, huge amounts of CO{sub 2} will be available; (ii) environmental issues urge to develop new processes/products, avoiding toxic materials. Several uses of CO{sub 2} appear to be responding to both (i) and (ii), i.e. use as a solvent (supplanting organic solvents) use as a building block for carboxylates/carbonates (supplanting phosgene); use as carbon-source in the synthesis of fuels (supplanting CO or coal/hydrocarbons). These options will be evaluated and their potentiality discussed.

Aresta, M.; Quaranta, E.; Tommasi, I. [Univ. of Bari (Italy)

1996-12-31

226

An IBR System to Quantify the Ocean's Carbon Dioxide Budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The interaction of the atmosphere and the ocean has a profound effect on climate, while the uptake by the oceans of a major\\u000a fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide has a moderating influence. By improving accuracy in the quantification of the ocean’s\\u000a carbon dioxide budget, a more precise estimation can be made of the terrestrial fraction of global carbon dioxide budget

Juan M. Corchado; Emilio S. Corchado; Jim Aiken

2004-01-01

227

Caffeine solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide\\/co-solvent mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the effect of co-solvents on the solubility of caffeine in supercritical carbon dioxide, experimental solubility of caffeine in supercritical ethanol–carbon dioxide and isopropanol–carbon dioxide mixed solvents was obtained using a high-pressure semi-continuous flow apparatus. Caffeine solubilities in 5% ethanol\\/95% CO2, 10% ethanol\\/90% CO2 and 5% isopropanol\\/95% CO2 mixed solvents were determined at 323.2 and 343.2K and

Uiram Kopcak; Rahoma Sadeg Mohamed

2005-01-01

228

Carbon dioxide exchange and early old-field succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Old-field succession is a widespread process active in shaping landscapes in the eastern United States, contributing significantly to the terrestrial sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide, particularly at midlatitudes. However, few studies document ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide exchange during the early years of old-field succession, particularly during the temporal transition from cultivation to abandonment. Rates of carbon dioxide exchange were measured for

Ryan E. Emanuel; John D. Albertson; Howard E. Epstein; Christopher A. Williams

2006-01-01

229

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and ECBM in the Powder River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal seams are both a source of coal bed methane (CBM) and a potential carbon dioxide sink. For sub-bituminous coals like those in the Powder River Basin (PRB), the CO2\\/CH4 adsorption ratio is approximately 10:1, which indicates the significant potential for sequestering carbon dioxide. In addition, injected carbon dioxide would also enhance the production of methane from the coal seam

L. B. Colmenares; M. D. Zoback

2003-01-01

230

Optical Sensors for Carbon Dioxide and Their Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few analytes in the world as significant as carbon dioxide, the basic chemical feedstock of life. Through green\\u000a plant photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is converted to the fuel and food necessary for the continued existence of most known\\u000a forms of life. In addition carbon dioxide is an indicator of the existence of life and a measure of health via

Andrew Mills

231

Carbon dioxide capture under ambient conditions using 2-chloroethylamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first case applying 2-haloethylamine to CO2 capture. The prospect of global warming and the urgent need to reduce atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has prompted\\u000a actions at many levels. The conventional capture of carbon dioxide is predominantly based on chemical absorption using ethanolamine.\\u000a Recent developments of carbon dioxide capture focus on new materials, such as ionic liquids,

Junhua WangXiqin; Xiqin Zhang; Yun Zhou

232

Carbon dioxide exhalation temporarily increases during electroconvulsive therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroconvulsive therapy induces hypermetabolism and elevates oxygen and energy demands, while more carbon dioxide is produced\\u000a than usual. The purpose of the present study was to determine the elevated carbon dioxide exhalation and the adequate ventilation\\u000a volume during electroconvulsive threrapy. Carbon dioxide exhalation during an electrically induced seizure was continuously\\u000a monitored by capnography and spirography in 15 patients with endogenous

Shinobu Sakurazawa; Shigeru Saito; Makiko Yamada; Fumio Nishihara; Fumio Goto

2006-01-01

233

A tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Callisto.  

PubMed

An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo near-infrared mapping spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the carbon dioxide nu3 band was observed up to 100 kilometers above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10(-12) bar and a temperature of about 150 kelvin, close to the surface temperature. A lifetime on the order of 4 years is suggested, based on photoionization and magnetospheric sweeping. Either the atmosphere is transient and was formed recently or some process is currently supplying carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. PMID:9933159

Carlson, R W

1999-02-01

234

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria of two binary systems: Carbon dioxide + cyclohexanol and carbon dioxide + cyclohexanone  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-liquid equilibria for carbon dioxide + cyclohexanol and carbon dioxide + cyclohexanone were measured using an apparatus based on a static-analytic method with in situ samplings. P, T, x, y measurements were made at pressures up to 22 MPa. The carbon dioxide + cyclohexanol system was studied at 433 and 473 K, and carbon dioxide + cyclohexanone, at 433 and 473 K. The results are correlated by the Redlich-Kwong-Soave and Peng and Robinson equations and several mixing rules. The best fittings are obtained with the Peng-Robinson equation of state and a two-parameter mixing rule, i.e., within 1.1% for both pressures and vapor mole fractions on the carbon dioxide + cyclohexanone system and within 1.9% for pressures and 2.9% for vapor mole fractions on the carbon dioxide + cyclohexanol system. More recent equations by Patel and Teja and Salim and Trebble show no significant advantages.

Laugier, S. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie et Physique de Bordeaux, Talence (France); Richon, D. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, Fontainebleau (France)

1997-01-01

235

Ocean Surface Carbon Dioxide Fugacity from Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a methodology to estimate ocean surface carbon dioxide (CO2) fugacity (partial pressure) using a combination for spacebased parameters, sea surface temperature (AMSR-E), dynamic topography (JASON and OSTM), productivity (MODIS), and salinity (possibly Aquarius) over global oceans. The ocean as the source and sink of CO2 is governed by the ocean-atmosphere exchange of this greenhouse gas. The exchange depends on the difference in fugacity (partial pressure) of carbon dioxide between sea and air, and a transfer velocity. Fugacity in sea is measured largely on ships; they are not sufficient to characterize spatial and temporal variability. Attempts have been made in the past to relate the fugacity in sea to parameters that could be measured from space. These relations are found to be valid only in limited regions and in specific seasons. We have developed a statistical model to estimate the fugacity over global ocean for all seasons from NASA space measurements using the state-of-art statistical techniques. We have produced the fugacity data over global ocean using salinity climatology but will replace the climatology with Aquarius data when they become available. We are evaluating the accuracy of the fugacity data and its application on carbon cycle and will explore proper remedies of any deficiency.

Xie, X.; Liu, W.

2011-12-01

236

Passive colorimetric dosimeter tubes for ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Colorimetric, stain length, personal dosimeters operating by gas diffusion have been developed to determine worker exposure for up to an 8-h period for several inorganic airborne contaminants in the range of their threshold limit values. Length of stain, colorimetric dosimeters have been made for the detection of ammonia (NH/sub 3/), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) in air. For each gas detection system, the sampler depends on the transfer of the gas by diffusion into a glass tube containing a colorimetric length of stain indicator. The stain length developed in a given period of time is compared to a calibration chart to determine, on the spot, the average gas concentration to which the dosimeter has been exposed. These dosimeters are known by the trade name Vapor Gard.

McKee, E.S.; Pritts, I.M.

1981-08-01

237

Passive colorimetric dosimeter tubes for ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Colorimetric, stain length, personal dosimeters operating by gas diffusion have been developed to determine worker exposure for up to an eight-hour period for several inorganic airborne contaminants in the range of their Threshold Limit Values. Length of stain, colorimetric dosimeters have been made for the detection of ammonia (NH/sub 3/), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) in air. For each gas detection system, the sampler depends on the transfer of the gas by diffusion into a glass tube containing a colorimetric length of stain indicator. The stain length developed in a given period of time is compared to a calibration chart to determine, on the spot, the average gas concentration to which the dosimeter has been exposed. These dosimeters are known by the trade name Vapor Gard.

McConnaughey, P.W.; McKee, E.S.; Pritts, I.M.

1985-07-01

238

The fate of carbon in grasslands under carbon dioxide enrichment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Earth's atmosphere is rising rapidly, with the potential to alter many ecosystem processes. Elevated CO2 often stimulates photosynthesis, creating the possibility that the terrestrial biosphere will sequester carbon in response to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, partly offsetting emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, cement manufacture, and deforestation,. However, the responses of intact ecosystems to elevated CO2 concentration, particularly the below-ground responses, are not well understood. Here we present an annual budget focusing on below-ground carbon cycling for two grassland ecosystems exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations. Three years of experimental CO2 doubling increased ecosystem carbon uptake, but greatly increased carbon partitioning to rapidly cycling carbon pools below ground. This provides an explanation for the imbalance observed in numerous CO2 experiments, where the carbon increment from increased photosynthesis is greater than the increments in ecosystem carbon stocks. The shift in ecosystem carbon partitioning suggests that elevated CO2 concentration causes a greater increase in carbon cycling than in carbon storage in grasslands.

Hungate, Bruce A.; Holland, Elisabeth A.; Jackson, Robert B.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Mooney, Harold A.; Field, Christopher B.

1997-08-01

239

Searching for clues to ancient carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Something on Earth just won't stop fiddling with the thermostat. In the past 500 million years, the planet has shivered through ice ages lasting millions of years and sweltered through episodes of global warmth. Climatologists, eager to know what keeps jiggling the planet's temperature setting, have focused their suspicions on carbon dioxide, the same heat-trapping gas expected to drive up temperatures in coming decades. Catching this suspect in the act has been difficult, however; the atmospheres of millions of years ago are gone with the wind.

Appenzeller, T.

1993-02-12

240

Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum prevents mortality from sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum has been shown to attenuate the inflammatory response after laparoscopy. This study tested the hypothesis\\u000a that abdominal insufflation with CO2 improves survival in an animal model of sepsis and investigated the associated mechanism.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The effect of CO2, helium, and air pneumoperitoneum on mortality was studied by inducing sepsis in 143 rats via intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide

E. J. Hanly; J. M. Fuentes; A. R. Aurora; S. L. Bachman; A. De Maio; M. R. Marohn; M. A. Talamini

2006-01-01

241

A Vortex Contactor for Carbon Dioxide Separations  

SciTech Connect

Many analysts identify carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and separation as a major roadblock in efforts to cost effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions via sequestration. An assessment 4 conducted by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Programme cited separation costs from $35 to $264 per tonne of CO2 avoided for a conventional coal fired power plant utilizing existing capture technologies. Because these costs equate to a greater than 40% increase in current power generation rates, it appears obvious that a significant improvement in CO2 separation technology is required if a negative impact on the world economy is to be avoided.

Raterman, Kevin Thomas; Mc Kellar, Michael George; Turner, Terry Donald; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Stacey, Douglas Edwin; Stokes, B.; Vranicar, J.

2001-05-01

242

Controls on the Time Scale of Carbonate Neutralization of Carbon Dioxide Released to the Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once released to the atmosphere, carbon dioxide is removed on a range of time scales. On the time scale of years to centuries, carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere is dominated by transport processes within the ocean. On the time scale of hundreds of thousands of years, carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere is dominated by processes related to the

K. Caldeira; L. Cao

2007-01-01

243

Carbon dioxide research plan. A summary  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is the lead federal agency for research related to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Its responsibility is to sponsor a program of relevant research, and to coordinate this research with that of others. As part of its responsibilities, the Department of Energy has prepared a research plan. The plan documented in this Summary delineated the logic, objectives, organization, background and current status of the research activities. The Summary Plan is based on research subplans in four specific areas: global carbon cycle, climate effects, vegetative response and indirect effects. These subplans have emanated from a series of national and international workshops, conferences, and from technical reports. The plans have been peer reviewed by experts in the relevant scientific fields. Their execution is being coordinated between the responsible federal and international government agencies and the involved scientific community.

Not Available

1983-11-01

244

Six-fold coordinated carbon dioxide VI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent, whereas silicon dioxide (SiO2) is a covalent solid, and one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO2 transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO2 tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of an extended-solid phase of CO2: a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO2-II (refs 1,2) above 50GPa at 530-650K. Together with the previously reported CO2-V (refs 3-5) and a-carbonia, this extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO2 (a prototypical molecular solid) and SiO2 (one of Earth's fundamental building blocks). We present a phase diagram with a limited stability domain for molecular CO2-I, and suggest that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50GPa occurs via intermediate phases II (refs 1,2), III (refs 7,8) and IV (refs 9,10). The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the c axis in stishovite-like P42/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp3 hybridization.

Iota, Valentin; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Klepeis, Jae-Hyun; Jenei, Zsolt; Evans, William; Cynn, Hyunchae

2007-01-01

245

The Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse: Is It Effective?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows students to compare the thermal properties of carbon dioxide with those of air, and can be extended to compare water vapor as well. Students discover that the gas which absorbs the most heat (infrared radiation) is the most effective greenhouse gas because in the atmosphere it would absorb more infrared coming from the surface of the Earth. This activity could be used as either a demonstration or a laboratory activity depending on the availability of equipment. Either a data logger is used to record the changing temperature of air and of carbon dioxide in plastic bottles as they are heated using electric lamps, and then allowed to cool, or if a data logger is not available, then thermometers can be used instead and monitored by students. The site contains teacher notes and instructions with a list of materials and a photograph showing the setup. It also has an introduction for the students and questions for them to answer along with a glossary.

246

21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer. 868...Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer. (a...indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2 analyzer is a...

2010-04-01

247

21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer. 868...Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer. (a...indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2 analyzer is a...

2009-04-01

248

40 CFR 180.1049 - Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement...From Tolerances Ā§ 180.1049 Carbon dioxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The insecticide carbon dioxide is exempted from the...

2013-07-01

249

21 CFR 884.1300 - Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Devices Ā§ 884.1300 Uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and accessories...Identification. A uterotubal carbon dioxide insufflator and...

2013-04-01

250

21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

2013-04-01

251

21 CFR 201.161 - Carbon dioxide and certain other gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. 201.161...LABELING Other Exemptions Ā§ 201.161 Carbon dioxide and certain other gases. (a) Carbon dioxide, cyclopropane, ethylene,...

2013-04-01

252

27 CFR 27.42a - Still wines containing carbon dioxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Still wines containing carbon dioxide. 27.42a Section 27.42a...42a Still wines containing carbon dioxide. Still wines may contain not more than 0.392 gram of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters of...

2013-04-01

253

Titrimetric Determination of Carbon Dioxide in a Heterogeneous Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

A traditional exercise in quantitative analysis is the titration of mixtures of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, and sodium bicarbonate. Often, consumer products are studied. A procedure to analyze the total volume of carbon dioxide bubbles in the candy \\

Craig M. Davis; Matthew C. Mauck

2003-01-01

254

Carbon dioxide sequestration by ex-situ mineral carbonation  

SciTech Connect

The process developed for carbon dioxide sequestration utilizes a slurry of water mixed with olivine- forsterite end member (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), which is reacted with supercritical CO{sub 2} to produce magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). Carbon dioxide is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid, which likely dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. The H{sup +} hydrolyzes the silicate mineral, freeing the cation (Mg{sup 2+}), which reacts with the HCO{sub 3}{sup -} to form the solid carbonate. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural mineral, have demonstrated that the kinetics of the reaction are slow at ambient temperature (22 degrees C) and subcritical CO{sub 2} pressures (below 7.4 MPa). However, at elevated temperature and pressure, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant conversion to the carbonate occurs. Extent of reaction is roughly 90% within 24 h, at 185 degrees C and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (P{sub CO{sub 2}}) of 11.6 MPa. Current studies suggest that reaction kinetics can be improved by pretreatment of the mineral, catalysis of the reaction, and/or solution modification. Subsequent tests are intended to examine these options, as well as other mineral groups.

O'Connor, W.K.; Dahlin, D.C.; Turner, P.C.; and Walters, R.P.

2000-01-01

255

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Embodied in International Trade of Goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts such as the Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions that may be linked to climate change focus on six greenhouse gases (GHG). Carbon dioxide is by far the largest of these by volume, representing about 80% of the total emissions of these six gases. Almost all carbon dioxide is emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels and OECD countries account

Nadim Ahmad; Andrew Wyckoff

2003-01-01

256

A Tenuous Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere on Jupiter's Moon Callisto  

Microsoft Academic Search

An off-limb scan of Callisto was conducted by the Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer to search for a carbon dioxide atmosphere. Airglow in the CO, v,, band was observed up to 100 km above the surface and indicates the presence of a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with surface pressure of 7.5 x 10\\

Robert W. Carlson

1999-01-01

257

Flexible substrates as basis for photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photocatalytic system for converting carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide was designed and constructed. The system relies on thin films of the photocatalyst prepared at low temperature using spray coating. We formulated inks based on the well-known photocatalyst titanium dioxide and characterized the performance in this setting. Glass substrates were used for model studies with an active area of 100cm2

Jacob Jensen; Mette Mikkelsen; Frederik C. Krebs

2011-01-01

258

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations throughout the Earth's history is important for a reconstruction of the links between climate and radiative forcing of the Earth's surface temperatures. Although atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in the early Cenozoic era (about 60Myr ago) are widely believed to have been higher than at present, there is disagreement regarding the exact

Paul N. Pearson; Martin R. Palmer

2000-01-01

259

The Origin of Some Natural Carbon Dioxide Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural carbon dioxide gas issues from vents and springs in sedimentary rocks. Exploratory wells drilled for oil have produced large volumes of carbon dioxide in subsurface. Where these gases are found in quantity, limestones and igneous rocks are in close association and the origin of the gases is thus suggested. Until the advent of the mass spectrometer there was no

Walter B. Lang

1959-01-01

260

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's \\\\State of Fear  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his recent novel, State of Fear (HarperCollins, 2004), Michael Crichton ques- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out that for 1940-1970, temperatures were de- creasing while atmospheric carbon dioxide was increasing. A reason for this contradiction was given at Interface 2003 (12) where the temperature time series was well modelled by a

Bert W. Rust

261

Combined reactions and separations using ionic liquids and carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and general type of process for the chemical industry is presented using ionic liquids and supercritical carbon dioxide as combined reaction and separation media. In this process, the carbon dioxide pressure controls the miscibility of reactants, products, catalyst and ionic liquid, enabling fast atom-efficient reactions in a homogenous phase as well as instantaneous product recovery in a biphasic

M. C. Kroon

2006-01-01

262

Hepatic injury induced by carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in experimental rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To observe the hepatic injury induced by carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in rats and to explore its potential mechanism. METHODS: Thirty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (n = 10), 0 h experimental group (n = 10) and 1 h experimental group (n = 10) after sham operation with carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum. Histological changes in liver

Gui-Sen Xu; He-Nian Liu; Jun Li; Xiao-Ling Wu; Xue-Mei Dai; Ying-Hai Liu

2009-01-01

263

Entrainment process of carbon dioxide in the atmospheric boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft and surface measurements of turbulent thermodynamic variables and carbon dioxide (CO2) were taken above a grassland in a convective atmospheric boundary layer. The observations were analyzed to assess the importance of the entrainment process for the distribution and evolution of carbon dioxide in the boundary layer. From the observations we were able to estimate the vertical profiles of the

Jordi Vilą-Guerau de Arellano; Beniamino Gioli; Franco Miglietta; Harm J. J. Jonker; Henk Klein Baltink; Ronald W. A. Hutjes; Albert A. M. Holtslag

2004-01-01

264

Promising flame retardant textile in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since carbon dioxide is non-toxic, non-flammable and cost-effective, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is widely used in textile dyeing applications. Due to its environmentally benign character, scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. O...

265

Open Nanoporous Morphologies from Polymeric Blends by Carbon Dioxide Foaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the formation of open nanoporous polymer films composed of homogeneous polysulfone\\/polyimide blends. Porosity is introduced by expansion of carbon dioxide-saturated films at elevated temperatures. To interpret details of the porous morphologies in terms of the experimental conditions during expansion, the glass transition temperature and carbon dioxide solubility of the dense film were examined at various blend compositions. We

B. Krause; K. Diekmann; N. F. A. van der Vegt; M. Wessling

2002-01-01

266

The Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water at Low Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system carbon dioxide-water is of great scientific and technological importance. Thus, it has been studied often. The literature for the solubility of carbon dioxide in water is vast and interdisciplinary. An exhaustive survey was conducted and approximately 100 experimental investigations were found that reported equilibrium data at pressures below 1 MPa. A model based on Henry’s law was used

John J. Carroll; John D. Slupsky; Alan E. Mather

1991-01-01

267

Herbivore responses to plants grown in enriched carbon dioxide atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our initial study of sagebrush and grasshopper responses to elevated and historical carbon dioxide atmospheres is complete and has been accepted for publication. The study on Biomass Allocation Patterns of Defoliated Sagebrush Grown Under Two Levels of Carbon Dioxide has completed and the manuscript has been submitted for publication. We have completed the study of plant growth under two nutrient

Lincoln

1990-01-01

268

Options for the collection and disposal of carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

If society should ever decide that unacceptable changes in climate are imminent because of the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from the use of fossil fuels, it may be necessary to collect and dispose of carbon dioxide. At present it appears that such disposal would consume a large fraction of the energy derived from the fossil fuel. To

C. F. Jr. Baes; S. E. Beall; D. W. Lee; G. Marland

1980-01-01

269

Investigating Diffusion and Entropy with Carbon Dioxide-Filled Balloons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fill an ordinary latex balloon with helium gas and you know what to expect. Over the next day or two the volume will decrease noticeably as helium escapes from the balloon. So what happens when a latex balloon is filled with carbon dioxide gas? Surprisingly, carbon dioxide balloons deflate at rates as much as an order of magnitude faster than…

Jadrich, James; Bruxvoort, Crystal

2010-01-01

270

A monitoring and diagnostic expert system for carbon dioxide capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research objective is to design and construct a knowledge-based decision support system for monitoring, control and diagnosis of the carbon dioxide capture process, which is a complicated task involving manipulation of sixteen components and their operating parameters. Since manipulation of critical parameter values directly impacts performance of the plant and carbon dioxide capture efficiency, it is important to effectively

Q. Zhou; C. W. Chan; P. Tontiwachiwuthikul

2009-01-01

271

RETROPERITONEOSCOPIC SURGERY IS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePrevious studies have suggested that retroperitoneal laparoscopy is associated with greater carbon dioxide absorption and related postoperative morbidity, such as subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax. We prospectively compared the effects of carbon dioxide absorption during transperitoneal and retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal and adrenal surgery at our institution.

CHRISTOPHER S. NG; INDERBIR S. GILL; GYUNG TAK SUNG; DAVID G. WHALLEY; RUFFIN GRAHAM; DANA SCHWEIZER

1999-01-01

272

Ocean Acidification Consequences of Stabilization of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate ocean chemistry changes that would result from the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at different levels. To determine the fate of ocean chemistry after atmospheric carbon dioxide is stabilized, we perform a suite of simulations using the UVic Earth system model in which atmospheric CO2 is stabilized at levels ranging from 280 ppm to 5000 ppm. Atmospheric

L. Cao; K. Caldeira

2007-01-01

273

Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The severity of damaging human-induced climate change depends not only on the magnitude of the change but also on the potential for irreversibility. This paper shows that the climate change that takes place due to increases in carbon dioxide concentration is largely irreversible for 1,000 years after emissions stop. Following cessation of emissions, removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases radiative

Susan Solomon; Gian-Kasper Plattner; Reto Knutti; Pierre Friedlingstein

2009-01-01

274

40 CFR 89.322 - Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. 89.322 Section 89.322 Protection...89.322 Carbon dioxide analyzer calibration. (a) Prior to its introduction...after any maintenance which could alter calibration, and bi-monthly thereafter,...

2012-07-01

275

Use of Carbon Dioxide in Enhanced Oil Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of oil will remain in U.S. oil reservoirs when standard recovery methods have been completed. Supercritical carbon dioxide can be used to recover part of that remaining oil. If carbon dioxide is dense enough, it extracts hydrocarbons from the oil to make a mixture miscible with crude oil. Such a mixture can recover 95 percent of the oil

F. M. Jr. Orr; J. J. Taber

1984-01-01

276

MODELING MODELING MODELING MODELING CARBON CARBON CARBON CARBON DIOXIDE DIOXIDE DIOXIDE DIOXIDE EMISSIONS EMISSIONS EMISSIONS EMISSIONS WITH WITH WITH WITHA A A A SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM OF OF OF OF DIFFENTIAL DIFFENTIAL DIFFENTIAL DIFFENTIAL EQUATIONS EQUATIONS EQUATIONS EQUATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT The object of the present study is to model carbon dioxide emissions data with a system of differential equations. Carbon dioxide emissions, CO2, are one of the key attributable variables in GLOBAL WARMING along with atmospheric temperature. We develop a differential equation for each of six attributable variables that constitute CO2 emissions and a differential system of

Chris P. Tsokos

277

Carbon dioxide stripping in aquaculture. part 1: terminology and reporting  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The removal of carbon dioxide gas in aquacultural systems is much more complex than for oxygen or nitrogen gas because of liquid reactions of carbon dioxide and their kinetics. Almost all published carbon dioxide removal information for aquaculture is based on the apparent removal value after the CO2(aq) + HOH ? H2CO3 reaction has reached equilibrium. The true carbon dioxide removal is larger than the apparent value, especially for high alkalinities and seawater. For low alkalinity freshwaters (<2000 ?eq/kg), the difference between the true and apparent removal is small and can be ignored for many applications. Analytical and reporting standards are recommended to improve our understanding of carbon dioxide removal.

Colt, John; Watten, Barnaby; Pfeiffer, Tim

2012-01-01

278

Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same  

DOEpatents

In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O' Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

2011-10-04

279

OMI Measurements of Sulfur Dioxide Abundances and Altitudes of the Volcanic Plumes from Eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi in 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) injected into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions is soon converted into sulfate aerosols, which promote ozone depletion and affect Earth's radiation balance and climate. The impact of an eruption depends on the amount of sulfate aerosols it produces, their spatial distribution and lifetime in the atmosphere. The sulfate aerosol amount is determined by the amount of SO2

K. Yang; N. A. Krotkov; A. J. Krueger; S. A. Carn; P. K. Bhartia

2008-01-01

280

Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of irradiance and CO2 concentration. Kinetic models were successfully developed based on the Monod model and on a novel scaling analysis employing the CO2 consumption half-time as the time scale. Finally, the growth and hydrogen production of Anabaena variabilis have been compared in a flat panel photobioreactor using three different nutrient media under otherwise similar conditions. Light to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency for Allen-Arnon medium was superior by a factor of 5.5 to both BG-11 and BG-11o media. This was attributed to the presence of vanadium and larger heterocyst frequency observed in the Allen-Arnon medium.

Berberoglu, Halil

281

Gaseous Polymer Solutions: Solubilities of Polydimethylsiloxane and Polypropylene in Carbon Dioxide and Viscosities of Polydimethylsiloxane in Carbon Dioxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polydimethylsiloxane is soluble in carbon dioxide in the weight fraction PMDS approx. 0.026 to approx. 0.33, pressure approx. 80 to approx. 450 atm, and 35 to 80C temperature region. Polypropylene is soluble in carbon dioxide in the weight fraction PP app...

J. L. Lundberg M. E. Sikorski

1983-01-01

282

Altitude controls carbon dioxide in boreal lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter present in lakes, derived either from land-based sources—such as plants, soil, and sediments—or from in situ processes—such as degrading detritus in the water—could be important in the global carbon cycle, and possibly a significant source of the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) budget. The partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters (pCO2) drives the escape of CO2 to the atmosphere. Hence, scientists have long suspected that the relationship between pCO2 and the dissolved organic matter (DOC) in lake waters refects the relative contribution of the environment and in situ processes to the high-latitude carbon budget. Combining measurements of DOC and pCO2 from nearly 200 lakes across Quebec, Canada, with an additional 13 lake-based studies from temperate regions across the northern hemisphere, Lapierre and del Giorgio suggest that on a regional scale the A variety of lakes dominate the boreal landscape of Quebec, Canada. elevation of lakes is one of the strongest controls on the relationship between DOC and pCO2 in boreal lakes.

Bhattacharya, Atreyee

2012-09-01

283

Evaluation of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Cretaceous  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (pCO2) regulating temperature during the Cretaceous is important to understand the evolution of the Cretaceous climate. However, the pCO2 variation during the Cretaceous remains uncertain. Here we present a new paleo-pCO2 variation record spanning the Barremian to Maastrichtian time. The new paleo-pCO2 calculations are based on analyses of pedogenic carbonate from the Gyeongsang Basin, Korea and data from the literature on pedogenic carbonates. Our results show that the mid-Cretaceous pCO2 levels were higher than those observed during the Early and the Late Cretaceous, and that the highest pCO2 was achieved between the Cenomanian and the Turonian. This pCO2 trend is in agreement with the paleotemperature records. Our results also show that three intervals of low pCO2 (< 400 ppmV) in the Early and the Late Cretaceous seem to be associated with climatic changes suggestive of glacial episodes. These results suggest that the Cretaceous climatic change was associated with pCO2 variations. Variations in the rate of outgassing caused by variations of oceanic crust production rate have been known as a major cause of the mid-Cretaceous warmth. However, our results show the discrepancy in the timing between the highest rate of oceanic crust production and the highest pCO2 levels during the mid-Cretaceous. We interpret that large subaerial volcanisms in the Caribbean and Madagascar Large Igneous Provinces were instrumental for providing additional CO2 to the atmosphere, resulting in the warmest mid-Cretaceous.

Hong, Sung Kyung; Lee, Yong Il

2012-04-01

284

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate COā as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates, through reaction with carbon dioxide and

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2002-01-01

285

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate COā as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates through reaction with carbon dioxide and

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

2002-01-01

286

Assessing Effects of Rising Carbon Dioxide Levels on Ocean Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon Productivity Responses to Increased Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Concentrations in Surface Ocean: Exploring the Feasibility of an in Situ Mesoscale Carbon Addition Experiment; Palisades, New York, 23-24 March 2009; To assess the effects of future elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on ocean biogeochemistry and ecosystems, it is desirable to mimic such an environment in nature. A workshop to explore an

Veronica P. Lance

2009-01-01

287

Master index for the carbon dioxide research state-of-the-art report series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four State of the Art (SOA) reports, ''Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Global Carbon Cycle,'' ''Direct Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation,'' ''Detecting the Climatic Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide,'' and ''Projecting the Climatic Effects of Increasing Carbon Dioxide,'' and two companion reports, ''Characterization of Information Requirements for Studies of COā Effects: Water Resources, Agriculture, Fisheries, Forests and Human

1987-01-01

288

Colorimetric and refractometric measurements of carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a polymeric sensitive layer based on the acid-base equilibrium of phenol and of its derivative p-nitro-phenol is presented for carbon dioxide measurements. Thin films casted on glass slides were tested, using a LED source (?c at 410 nm) and an Ocean Optics USB4000 spectrometer, in the 0% to 15.25% CO2 concentrations range, showing a 40% maximum transmittance variation with a 51s response time and a 0.15% resolution. Preliminary results indicate that CO2also induces refractive index changes in the sensitive layer. Using a fiber based interferometric setup, a CO2 dependent refractive index change of ~0.045 RIU was observed, in the 0%-90% CO2 concentration range.

Jesus Gouveia, C.; Markovics, A.; Baptista, J. M.; Kovįcs, B.; Jorge, P. A. S.

2011-05-01

289

A weekly cycle in atmospheric carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new statistic called the ``Mean Symmetrized Residual'' (MSR) for detection and quantification of a weekly cycle in measured daily atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). At the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, we conclude that CO2 concentrations, on average, are significantly lower (0.022 parts per million by volume, ppmv) on weekends (Saturday-Sunday) than during the rest of the week. Over the past twenty-five years, the variation of the mean values of MSR (as a function of day of the week) has been relatively stable. We speculate that the observed weekday/weekend variation in CO2 at Mauna Loa is the result of anthropogenic emissions on Hawaii and nearby sources. We do not detect a weekly cycle in daily CO2 concentration measured at South Pole, Antarctica. This methodology has applicability to a variety of datasets.

Cerveny, Randall S.; Coakley, Kevin J.

2002-01-01

290

Thermodynamical effects during carbon dioxide release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pruess [1] investigated the risk of carbon dioxide leakage from shallow storage sites by modeling scenarios. Such a fluid release is associated with mechanical work performed by formation fluid against expansion without taking heat from ambient environment. Understanding of heat related to mechanical work is essential to predict the temperature at the leak. According to the first law of thermodynamics, internal energy of working fluid decreases with an amount which is equivalent to this work hence, working fluid lost its own heat. Such kind of heat loss depends strongly on whether the expansion process is adiabatic or isothermal. Isothermal expansion allows the working fluid to interact thermally with the solid matrix. Adiabatic expansion is an isenthalpic process that takes heat from the working fluid and the ambient environment remains unchanged. This work is part of the CLEAN research project [6]. In this study, thermodynamic effects of mechanical work during eventual carbon dioxide leakage are investigated numerically. In particular, we are interested to detect the temperature at leakage scenarios and its deviation with different thermodynamic processes. Finite element simulation is conducted with a two-dimensional rectangular geometry representing a shallow storage site which bottom was located at -300m below the land surface. A fully saturated porous medium is assumed where the pore space is filled completely with carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide accumulated in the secondary trap at 30 Bar and 24 °C is allowed to leak from top right point of rectangle with atmospheric pressure. With (i) adiabatic and (ii) isothermal compressibility factors, temperature around leakage area has been calculated which show a significant difference. With some simplification, this study detects leak temperature which is very close with [1]. Temporal evaluation at the leaky area shows that the working fluid temperature can be reduced to -20 °C when the leakage scenario is performed under isothermal expansion. Under adiabatic expansion, further reduction in the working fluid temperature can be expected. The governing equations from mass and energy balance laws of porous media mechanics are used for problem description. Pressure and fluid phase temperature are chosen as the primary variables. Extended ideal gas law is used with super compressibility factor (SCF) to predict real gas density for large range of pressure and temperature [2]. Cubic equation based on Peng-Robinson equation of state was solved analytically for SCF [3]. Real fluid properties, such as dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity used in this study are density and temperature dependent. Analytical expression for the derivatives of SCF with respect to temperature and pressure are used. Subsequently, these derivatives are utilized to define isothermal compressibility, adiabatic compressibility and thermal expansion coefficient for the real gas. These parameters can influence heat loss due to thermodynamic effects significantly. The governing equations are discretized spatially within the Galerkin approach, whereas for the temporal discretization, we adopt generalized single step method [5]. The coupled system of governing equations is solved in a monolithic way with variable time stepping. The numerical module has been implemented within the open source object-oriented finite element code OpenGeoSys [4].

Singh, A. K.; Böttcher, N.; Görke, U.-J.; Kolditz, O.

2012-04-01

291

Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions.  

PubMed

Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO(2)) have been studied from different perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic influences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels are affected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanisation, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO(2) emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanisation have less than proportional but statistically significant effects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial effects on global emissions of CO(2) several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanisation can have important effects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefits. PMID:22784534

O'Neill, Brian C; Liddle, Brant; Jiang, Leiwen; Smith, Kirk R; Pachauri, Shonali; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina

2012-07-10

292

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Coal Formations  

SciTech Connect

BP Corporation North America, Inc. (BP) currently operates a nitrogen enhanced recovery project for coal bed methane at the Tiffany Field in the San Juan Basin, Colorado. The project is the largest and most significant of its kind wherein gas is injected into a coal seam to recover methane by competitive adsorption and stripping. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and BP both recognize that this process also holds significant promise for the sequestration of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, while economically enhancing the recovery of methane from coal. BP proposes to conduct a CO2 injection pilot at the tiffany Field to assess CO2 sequestration potential in coal. For its part the INEEL will analyze information from this pilot with the intent to define the Co2 sequestration capacity of coal and its ultimate role in ameliorating the adverse effects of global warming on the nation and the world.

None

2001-09-30

293

The Relationship between End Tidal Carbon Dioxide and Arterial Carbon Dioxide during Controlled Hypotensive Anaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To prospectively assess the magnitude of changes in the arterial-to-end tidal carbon dioxide gradient [P(a-ET)CO2] as well as in the ratio of physiological dead space to tidal volume (Vdphys\\/Vt) during controlled hypotensive anaesthesia, and to evaluate whether or not ventilatory requirements remain unaltered during this procedure. Subjects and Methods: Twelve adult patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists’ physical status

Syed Shujat Ali; Alexander Dubikaitis; Abdul Raheem Al Qattan

2002-01-01

294

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

2005-01-01

295

Nonequilibrium dynamic modeling of carbon dioxide absorption by partially carbonated ammonia solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, a nonequilibrium dynamic stage model has been developed for reactive absorption of carbon dioxide by carbonated ammonia solutions. The model considers mass transfer between gas and liquid phases in both directions employing dynamic film model theory. Experimental data of carbon dioxide reactive absorption by partially carbonated ammonia solution has been used to validate the model. The data

Ahad Ghaemi; Shahrokh Shahhosseini; Mohammad Ghanadi Maragheh

2009-01-01

296

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01

297

Herbivore responses to plants grown in enriched carbon dioxide atmospheres  

SciTech Connect

Our initial study of sagebrush and grasshopper responses to elevated and historical carbon dioxide atmospheres is complete and has been accepted for publication. The study on Biomass Allocation Patterns of Defoliated Sagebrush Grown Under Two Levels of Carbon Dioxide has completed and the manuscript has been submitted for publication. We have completed the study of plant growth under two nutrient and carbon dioxide regimes and grasshopper feeding responses. The study of a specialist feeding caterpillar, the cabbage butterfly, and a mustard hostplant has recently been completed. We were able to identify the principal allelochemicals of the mustard plants, butenyl and pentenyl isothiocyanates, by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Measurement of these chemicals has been a critical component of this study since these compounds contain nitrogen and sulphur and act as a feeding stimulant to the caterpillar. This insect responds to elevated carbon dioxide by consuming more leaves and we can now say that this is not due to a change in the feeding stimulants. Reduced leaf protein content is a critical factor for even specialist feeding insect herbivores under elevated carbon dioxide conditions. The study on Grasshopper Population Responses to Enriched Carbon Dioxide Concentration is currently in progress at the Duke University Phytotron. We have changed hostplant species in order to complement the investigations of carbon dioxide effects on tallgrass prairie. Specifically, we are using big bluestem, Andropogon geradii, as the host plant to feed to the grasshoppers. This experiment will be completed in July 1990.

Lincoln, D.E.

1990-05-01

298

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

2005-07-01

299

Interdisciplinary Study of Magmatic Carbon Dioxide at Mammoth Mountain, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique opportunity for studying carbon exchange between the deep earth and the surface exists at Mammoth Mountain in eastern California, where mantle-derived carbon dioxide has leaked through soils, springs, and fumaroles for decades, if not centuries. An estimated 3.5 × 10E9 kg of CO2 has escaped in the past 20 years. A long-term program of geochemical monitoring of gas at numerous sites reveals a consistent chemical and isotopic signature indicative of a large, well-mixed, CO2-rich gas reservoir residing within a few kilometers of the surface. Leakage of CO2 increases when the low-permeability seal capping the gas reservoir fails due to critical build-up of fluid-pressure, magma intrusion, and/or tectonic earthquakes. The high CO2 efflux at Mammoth Mountain has caused human fatalities, ecosystem disturbance, acidification of local water supplies, and raises the specter of CO2-rich gas explosions. The USGS Volcano Hazards Program recently launched an integrated geochemical, geophysical, hydrologic, and biologic research project aimed at holistic understanding of the origin, transport, and impact of magmatic carbon dioxide, with Mammoth Mountain as a natural, outdoor laboratory. Key elements of the project include: (I) Lithosphere Studies: Experimental investigation of deep, CO2-rich degassing of basaltic magmas, spatial-temporal analysis of fluid-driven earthquakes, and modeling of dynamic permeability provide insight into the origin and transport of CO2-rich fluids. (II) Hydrosphere/Atmosphere Studies: Tracking the concentration and geochemistry of surface exhalations through fumarole and spring sampling, soil efflux measurements, and 14C depletion in tree cores provide characteristics of the shallow gas reservoir and a time-series record of total CO2 efflux. (III) Biosphere Studies: Field-based studies and greenhouse experiments investigate the effect of elevated CO2 on biogeochemical cycles, soil nutrient levels, and changes in vegetation and microbial communities. We expect discipline-specific results from (I, II) to advance our understanding of the dynamics of restless volcanoes and deep crustal magma systems, and from (II, III) to help predict ecosystem stress induced by global climate change, CO2 sequestration, and enhanced geothermal production. Ultimately, results from (III) may circle back into advances in (I) whereby past episodes of magma intrusion and volcanic gas release are recognized by ecosystem disturbance, independent of traditional monitoring data.

Mangan, M.; Evans, W. C.; Farrar, C. D.; Hill, D. P.; Ingebritsen, S.; Klinger, R.; McFarland, J.; Schulz, M. S.; Shelly, D. R.; Stonestrom, D. A.; Waldrop, M. P.

2011-12-01

300

Moisture swing sorbent for carbon dioxide capture from ambient air.  

PubMed

An amine-based anion exchange resin dispersed in a flat sheet of polypropylene was prepared in alkaline forms so that it would capture carbon dioxide from air. The resin, with quaternary ammonium cations attached to the polymer structure and hydroxide or carbonate groups as mobile counterions, absorbs carbon dioxide when dry and releases it when wet. In ambient air, the moist resin dries spontaneously and subsequently absorbs carbon dioxide. This constitutes a moisture induced cycle, which stands in contrast to thermal pressure swing based cycles. This paper aims to determine the isothermal performance of the sorbent during such a moisture swing. Equilibrium experiments show that the absorption and desorption process can be described well by a Langmuir isothermal model. The equilibrium partial pressure of carbon dioxide over the resin at a given loading state can be increased by 2 orders of magnitude by wetting the resin. PMID:21688825

Wang, Tao; Lackner, Klaus S; Wright, Allen

2011-07-06

301

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2005 and March 31, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Engineered sorbents composed of sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were tested in a laboratory fluidized bed reactor system and found to be capable of essentially complete removal of carbon dioxide at 60 C in a short residence time. Upon breakthrough the sorbents can be thermally regenerated to recover essentially all of the absorbed carbon dioxide. An optimized supported sorbent tested in a pilot-scale entrained bed absorber retained its reactivity in multicycle tests and experienced no attrition. Removal of >90% of carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas was achieved in an entrained bed reactor.

David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta

2005-04-01

302

Surface plasmon resonance sensor for dissolved and gaseous carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

We describe a novel kind of sensor for carbon dioxide. It is based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and a polymer blend that is capable of fully reversibly binding carbon dioxide. The interaction results in a change in the polarity and refractive index that can be detected via SPR. The sensor responds with high specificity. The method is simple and, unlike previous ones, enables continuous sensing over extended periods of time. It can be applied to sense both dissolved and gaseous carbon dioxide. The limits if detection of gaseous CO(2) is as low as 10 ppm. PMID:23043622

Lang, Thomas; Hirsch, Thomas; Fenzl, Christoph; Brandl, Fabian; Wolfbeis, Otto S

2012-10-18

303

High temperature carbon dioxide separation membrane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High temperature membranes for CO2 separation can potentially lead to more efficient energy conversion systems and more effective means of CO2 capture in power plants. A novel technology has been successfully demonstrated for the separation of carbon dioxide, CO2, in the temperature range of 600-900°C. The transport of CO2 is accomplished with a dual-ion transport mechanism between carbonate ions in a molten carbonate phase and oxide ions in an oxide conducting ceramic coupled with a surface reaction converting CO2 to CO32- with O2- from an oxide crystal lattice. The transport of such a system was modeled, and an analytical expression was derived for the flux of CO2 in a bulk diffusion limited system. Dual-phase membranes were fabricated by first creating a porous solid oxide structure using tape casting techniques. The structure was engineered to immobilize the molten carbonate phase in the pore space. Membranes comprised of either 8-mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or 10-mol% gadolinia doped ceria (CGO) and a tertiary mixture of alkali metal carbonates (Li2CO 3,Na2CO3,K2CO3) were able to selectively permeate CO2 at temperatures over 600°C. The flux of CO2 across these membranes increased exponentially with temperature, reaching permeabilities of 1.0 x 10-11 mol m -1 s-1 Pa-1 (or permeance of 3.6 x 10 -8 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1) with YSZ based membranes and 7.0 x 10-12 mol m-1 s-1 Pa-1 (or permeance of 2.3 x 10-8 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1) with CGO based membranes at 850°C. It was also discovered that alumina, Al2O3, a non-oxide conducting ceramic, was unable to selectively permeate CO2, providing support for the role of an oxide conducting phase in the transport mechanism. Finally, the chemical reactivity between YSZ and CGO with various mixtures of alkali metal carbonates was examined with thermogravimetric (TGA) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis in order to understand the chemical reactivity and how it relates to the performance of these materials as composite, CO 2 selective membranes. It was revealed that a lack of reactivity between electrolyte pairs does not preclude these materials from functional separation membranes, yet irreversible chemistry can negatively impact long-term CO 2 permeance.

Wade, Jennifer Lynn

304

Low Energy, Low Emissions: Sulfur Dioxide; Nitrogen Oxides, and Carbon Dioxide in Western Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Links proposed low-energy scenarios for different Western European countries with the amount of pollutants that may result from these scenarios. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for the 10 countries for which low-energy scenarios are available, resulting in reductions of 54%, 37%, and 40%, respectively.…

Alcamo, Joseph; De Vries, Bert

1992-01-01

305

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures  

SciTech Connect

A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

2010-11-09

306

Carbon dioxide reduction at a metal phthalocyanine catalyzed carbon electrode  

SciTech Connect

Metal phthalocyanines (metal = Co, Ni) deposited on carbon electrodes have been found to catalyze the electroreduction of carbon dioxide to formic acid in acid solutions (pH = 3-7). The overpotential for CO/sub 2/ reduction on cobalt phthalocyanine is approximately 200 mV lower than on the best metal cathodes at currents up to 10 mA/cm/sup 2/. The main reaction product in long-term electrolysis is the formate ion at pH>5. Methanol is also produced at lower pH values. The phthalocyanine becomes inactive in the less acid solutions once a fairly negative potential is imposed, probably due to an irreversible reduction of the catalyst.

Kapusta, S.; Hackerman, N.

1984-07-01

307

Carbon dioxide euthanasia in rats: oxygen supplementation minimizes signs of agitation and asphyxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper records the effects of carbon dioxide when used for euthanasia, on behaviour, electrical brain activity and heart rate in rats. Four different methods were used. Animals were placed in a box (a) that was completely filled with carbon dioxide; (b) into which carbon dioxide was streamed at a high flow rate; leiinto which carbon dioxide was streamed

A. M. L. Coenen; W. H. I. M. Drinkenburgl; R. Hoenderken; E. L. J. M. van Luijtelaar

1995-01-01

308

Microporous metal-organic framework with potential for carbon dioxide capture at ambient conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide capture and separation are important industrial processes that allow the use of carbon dioxide for the production of a range of chemical products and materials, and to minimize the effects of carbon dioxide emission. Porous metal-organic frameworks are promising materials to achieve such separations and to replace current technologies, which use aqueous solvents to chemically absorb carbon dioxide.

S. C. Xiang; Y. He; Z. Zhang; H. Wu; W. Zhou; R. Krishna; B. Chen

2012-01-01

309

Responses of Tree Seedlings to a Changing Atmosphere: Effects of Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activities have caused changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere: the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) have increased and are expected to continue increasing in the future. These gases have the potential to alter plant physiological processes, change growth rates, C:N, and carbon storage potential. The responses of tree seedlings to these

A. S. Eller; J. P. Sparks

2008-01-01

310

Glacial\\/interglacial variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty years ago, measurements on ice cores showed that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was lower during ice ages than it is today. As yet, there is no broadly accepted explanation for this difference. Current investigations focus on the ocean's ‘biological pump’, the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior by the rain of organic carbon out

Edward A. Boyle; Daniel M. Sigman

2000-01-01

311

Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide  

DOEpatents

Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung (Rexford, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Ramaswamy, Vidya (Niskayuna, NY); Willson, Patrick Daniel (Latham, NY); Gao, Yan (Niskayuna, NY)

2011-03-01

312

Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures  

DOEpatents

A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

2013-01-29

313

Decorating catalytic palladium nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen reduction of a Pd(II)-b-diketone precursor in supercritical carbon dioxide produces palladium nanoparticles on multi-walled carbon nanotubes that exhibit promising catalytic properties for hydrogenation of olefins in carbon dioxide as well as electro-reduction of oxygen in fuel cell applications.

Ye, Xiang-Rong; Lin, Yuehe; Wai, C M.

2003-02-25

314

An in Situ Infrared Study of Dimethyl Carbonate Synthesis from Carbon Dioxide and Methanol over Zirconia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) synthesis from methanol and carbon dioxide over monoclinic zirconia has been investigated using in situ infrared spectroscopy. The dissociative adsorption of methanol occurs more slowly than the adsorption of carbon dioxide, but the species formed from methanol are bound more strongly. On adsorption, the oxygen atom of methanol binds to coordinately unsaturated Zr4+ cations

Kyeong Taek Jung; Alexis T. Bell

2001-01-01

315

Partitioning Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Fluxes Using Correlation Analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Partitioning of eddy covariance flux measurements is routinely done to quantify the contributions of separate processes to the overall fluxes. Measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes represent the difference between gross ecosystem photosynthesis and total respiration, while measurements of water vapo...

316

Plants Can't Do without Carbon Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment to induce carbon dioxide deficiency to demonstrate its effects on plant growth. Suggests further studies to examine respiration by soil microbes and the effects of relative humidity, other gases, and air pollution on plant growth. (MDH)

Hershey, David R.

1992-01-01

317

46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide...or made inaccessible in the event of a fire in any of the spaces protected...designed to preclude an anticipated ambient temperature in excess of 130 degrees F....

2011-10-01

318

46 CFR 95.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide...or made inaccessible in the event of a fire in any of the spaces protected...designed to preclude an anticipated ambient temperature in excess of 130 degrees F....

2012-10-01

319

46 CFR 76.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide...or made inaccessible in the event of a fire in any of the spaces protected...designed to preclude an anticipated ambient temperature in excess of 130 degrees F....

2012-10-01

320

Hiilidioksiditoimikunnan mietintoe. (Report of the carbon dioxide commission).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commission was entrusted with investigating alternative strategies and measures for limiting and reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. It was to study both technical and structural means of reducing these emissions. The ...

J. Routti

1991-01-01

321

Are Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rising More Rapidly Than Expected.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At least one recent report and numerous news articles suggest that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are rising more rapidly than expected. This contention is often made by comparing recent emissions estimates with the greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios publishe...

J. Logan J. A. Leggett

2008-01-01

322

Plants Can't Do without Carbon Dioxide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an experiment to induce carbon dioxide deficiency to demonstrate its effects on plant growth. Suggests further studies to examine respiration by soil microbes and the effects of relative humidity, other gases, and air pollution on plant growth. (MDH)|

Hershey, David R.

1992-01-01

323

THE CHLOROPHYLL-CARBON DIOXIDE RATIO DURING PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

PubMed Central

Using a rapid spectrographic method of carbon dioxide measurement previously described by McAlister (1937) further studies on the time course of photosynthesis in the higher plant, wheat, variety Marquis, are herein reported. Of major importance in this work is the discovery of a pick-up of carbon dioxide in darkness immediately following a high rate of photosynthesis (see Figs. 3 and 4). This pick-up is believed to be due to the action of a carbon dioxide-combining intermediate; i.e., the "acceptor molecule" for carbon dioxide in photosynthesis. The conditions under which this phenomenon has so far been observed indicate that the intermediate is formed in relatively large quantities during the actual process of photosynthesis and not before. That the intermediate is chlorophyllous in nature is suggested by a simple stoichiometry of the order of unity that is found to exist between the number of carbon dioxide molecules taken up and the total number of chlorophyll molecules present in the plant. This is in opposition to the idea of a large photosynthetic unit of some 2000 chlorophyll molecules operating together in the reduction of 1 carbon dioxide molecule. Further studies of the induction phase under various conditions of previous dark rest and of carbon dioxide and light limitation are herein described. Employing the simple hypothesis that the number of carbon dioxide molecules not reduced during the induction period (induction loss) gives a measure of the number of elementary photosynthetic cycles unoperative or compensated for during induction together with the experimental fact that this induction loss is of the order of the total number of chlorophyll molecules present, these latter studies also indicate, in a less direct manner, that chlorophyll participates in photosynthesis as an individual molecule and not as part of a very large multimolecular chlorophyll unit. The fast dark reaction lasting about 1 minute (Fig. 7) required to reproduce both (a) the phenomena of induction in carbon dioxide assimilation and (b) the recovery of fluorescence of chlorophyll in leaves in darkness as observed by Franck and Wood (1936), demonstrates a close relationship between the fluorescence of chlorophyll and induction in photosynthesis. The rate of respiration (carbon dioxide production) of the higher plant, wheat, was measured under intense illumination and in the absence of carbon dioxide (to suppress assimilation). This value was found to be identical with the dark respirational rate measured before and after the light period, indicating very positively the absence of any direct effect of light on respiration.

McAlister, E. D.

1939-01-01

324

THE CHLOROPHYLL-CARBON DIOXIDE RATIO DURING PHOTOSYNTHESIS.  

PubMed

Using a rapid spectrographic method of carbon dioxide measurement previously described by McAlister (1937) further studies on the time course of photosynthesis in the higher plant, wheat, variety Marquis, are herein reported. Of major importance in this work is the discovery of a pick-up of carbon dioxide in darkness immediately following a high rate of photosynthesis (see Figs. 3 and 4). This pick-up is believed to be due to the action of a carbon dioxide-combining intermediate; i.e., the "acceptor molecule" for carbon dioxide in photosynthesis. The conditions under which this phenomenon has so far been observed indicate that the intermediate is formed in relatively large quantities during the actual process of photosynthesis and not before. That the intermediate is chlorophyllous in nature is suggested by a simple stoichiometry of the order of unity that is found to exist between the number of carbon dioxide molecules taken up and the total number of chlorophyll molecules present in the plant. This is in opposition to the idea of a large photosynthetic unit of some 2000 chlorophyll molecules operating together in the reduction of 1 carbon dioxide molecule. Further studies of the induction phase under various conditions of previous dark rest and of carbon dioxide and light limitation are herein described. Employing the simple hypothesis that the number of carbon dioxide molecules not reduced during the induction period (induction loss) gives a measure of the number of elementary photosynthetic cycles unoperative or compensated for during induction together with the experimental fact that this induction loss is of the order of the total number of chlorophyll molecules present, these latter studies also indicate, in a less direct manner, that chlorophyll participates in photosynthesis as an individual molecule and not as part of a very large multimolecular chlorophyll unit. The fast dark reaction lasting about 1 minute (Fig. 7) required to reproduce both (a) the phenomena of induction in carbon dioxide assimilation and (b) the recovery of fluorescence of chlorophyll in leaves in darkness as observed by Franck and Wood (1936), demonstrates a close relationship between the fluorescence of chlorophyll and induction in photosynthesis. The rate of respiration (carbon dioxide production) of the higher plant, wheat, was measured under intense illumination and in the absence of carbon dioxide (to suppress assimilation). This value was found to be identical with the dark respirational rate measured before and after the light period, indicating very positively the absence of any direct effect of light on respiration. PMID:19873123

McAlister, E D

1939-05-20

325

Isothermal vapor--liquid equilibrium data for binary systems at high pressures; Carbon dioxide-methanol, carbon dioxide-ethanol, carbon dioxide1-propanol, methaneethanol, methane1-propanol, ethaneethanol, and ethane1-propanol systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an experiment conducted on isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium data for binary systems at high pressure. Carbon dioxide-methanol, carbon dioxide-ethanol, carbon dioxide-1-propanol, methane-ethanol, methane-1-propanol, ethane-ethanol, and ethane-1-propanol were measured by a new static phase equilibrium apparatus at 313.4 and 333,4 K.

Kazuhiko Suzuki; Haruhusa Sue; Masahiro Itou; Richard L. Smith; Hiroshi Inomata; K. Aria; Shozaburo Saito

1990-01-01

326

Carbon dioxide sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since the Industrial Revolution has caused concerns about global warming. Fossil-fuel-fired power plants contribute approximately one third of the total human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide. Increased efficiency of these power plants will have a large impact on carbon dioxide emissions, but additional measures will be needed to slow or stop the projected increase

Stephen J. Gerdemann; David C. Dahlin; William K. OConnor; Larry R. Penner

2003-01-01

327

The Carbamate Reaction of Carbon Dioxide with GlycylGlycine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbamate equilibrium between carbon dioxide and glycyl-glycine is believed to form a model for the similar, but more complex, equilibria of carbon dioxide with the terminal alpha -NH2 groups of the haemoglobin molecule. In the case of glycyl-glycine the carbamate equilibrium constant, Kc, has been estimated from the fall, after one second, in the concentration of dissolved CO2 when

F. J. W. Roughton; L. Rossi-Bernardi

1966-01-01

328

Mariner 6: Origin of Mars Ionized Carbon Dioxide Ultraviolet Spectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predicted intensities of the ionized carbon dioxide (CO2{}+) emission feature at 2890 angstroms and the Fox-Duffendack-Barker bands are 5.2 and 19.9 kilorayleighs, respectively, for a vertical column. Direct photoionization of carbon dioxide by solar radiation contributes 3.5 and 4.1 kilorayleighs, respectively, and fluorescent scattering by CO2{}+, 1.6 and 15.3 kilorayleighs, respectively. Photoelectron impacts are less important.

A. Dalgarno; T. C. Degges; A. I. Stewart

1970-01-01

329

Mariner 6: origin of Mars ionized carbon dioxide ultraviolet spectrum.  

PubMed

The predicted intensities of the ionized carbon dioxide (CO(2)+) emission feature at 2890 angstroms and the Fox-Duffendack-Barker bands are 5.2 and 19.9 kilorayleighs, respectively, for a vertical column. Direct photoionization of carbon dioxide by solar radiation contributes 3.5 and 4.1 kilorayleighs, respectively, and fluorescent scattering by C0(2)+, 1.6 and 15.3 kilorayleighs, respectively. Photoelectron impacts are less important. PMID:17750345

Dalgarno, A; Degges, T C; Stewart, A I

1970-03-13

330

Detection of aerosolized cells during carbon dioxide laparoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laparoscopic surgery for malignancy has been complicated by port-site recurrences. The exact mechanism has yet to be defined.\\u000a In vitro studies suggest that carbon dioxide-induced tumor cell aerosolization may play a role. We have attempted to document\\u000a this in a human model. Patients scheduled for elective laparoscopy underwent port placement and abdominal insufflation with\\u000a carbon dioxide. A suction trap was

Sayeed Ikramuddin; Joel Lucas; E. Christopher Ellison; William J. Schirmer; W. Scott Melvin

1998-01-01

331

Continuous supercritical carbon dioxide processing of palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude palm oil was processed by continuous supercritical carbon dioxide. The process reduces the contents of free fatty acids,\\u000a monoglycerides and diglycerides, certain triglycerides, and some carotenes. The refined palm oil from the process has less\\u000a than 0.1% free fatty acids, higher carotene content, and low diglycerides. Solubility of palm oil in supercritical carbon\\u000a dioxide increased with pressure. A co-solvent

C. K. Ooi; A. Bhaskar; M. S. Yener; D. Q. Tuan; J. Hsu; S. S. H. Rizvi

1996-01-01

332

Carbon dioxide in the ocean surface: The homogeneous buffer factor  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The amount of carbon dioxide that can be dissolved in surface seawater depends at least partially on the homogeneous buffer factor, which is a mathematical function of the chemical equilibrium conditions among the various dissolved inorganic species. Because these equilibria are well known, the homogeneous buffer factor is well known. Natural spatial variations depend very systematically on sea surface temperatures, and do not contribute significantly to uncertainties in the present or future carbon dioxide budget. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

Sundquist, E. T.; Plummer, L. N.; Wigley, T. M. L.

1979-01-01

333

Decreased hydraulic conductance in plants at elevated carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work indicated that long-term exposure to ele- vated carbon dioxide levels can reduce hydraulic conduc- tance in some species, but the basis of the response was not determined. In this study, hydraulic conductance was measured at concentrations of both 350 and 700 cm3 nT3 carbon dioxide for plants grown at both concentrations, to determine the reversibility of the response.

J. A. Bunce; L. H. Ziska

1998-01-01

334

Sagebrush and grasshopper responses to atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Seed- and clonally-propagated plants of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata var.tridentata) were grown under atmospheric carbon dioxide regimes of 270, 350 and 650 ?l l?1 and fed toMelanoplus differentialis andM. sanguinipes grasshoppers. Total shrub biomass significantly increased as carbon dioxide levels increased, as did the weight and area\\u000a of individual leaves. Plants grown from seed collected in a single population exhibited

R. H. Johnson; D. E. Lincoln

1990-01-01

335

Investigation of amine amino acid salts for carbon dioxide absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbon dioxide capture potential of amine amino acid salts (AAAS), formed by mixing equinormal amounts of amino acids; e.g. glycine, ?-alanine and sarcosine, with an organic base; 3-(methylamino)propylamine (MAPA), was assessed by comparison with monoethanolamine (MEA), and with amino acid salt (AAS) from amino acid neutralized with an inorganic base; potassium hydroxide (KOH). Carbon dioxide absorption and desorption experiments

Ugochukwu E. Aronu; Hallvard F. Svendsen; Karl Anders Hoff

2010-01-01

336

Treatment of condylomata acuminata with carbon dioxide laser.  

PubMed

Ten patients with condyloma acuminatum were treated successfully with carbon dioxide laser photocoagulation. There are no side effects, damage to the surrounding tissue is minimal, and, in our experience, the lesions have not recurred. It is particularly useful for lesions which are recalcitrant to other types of therapy. We now initially treat patients who have lesions in the urethral meatus with the carbon dioxide laser. PMID:7189071

Fuselier, H A; McBurney, E I; Brannan, W; Randrup, E R

1980-03-01

337

Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct aqueous mineral carbonation  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide sequestration by an ex-situ, direct aqueous mineral carbonation process has been investigated over the past two years. This process was conceived to minimize the steps in the conversion of gaseous CO2 to a stable solid. This meant combining two separate reactions, mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation, into a single unit operation. It was recognized that the conditions favorable for one of these reactions could be detrimental to the other. However, the benefits for a combined aqueous process, in process efficiency and ultimately economics, justified the investigation. The process utilizes a slurry of water, dissolved CO2, and a magnesium silicate mineral, such as olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. These minerals were selected as the reactants of choice for two reasons: (1) significant abundance in nature; and (2) high molar ratio of the alkaline earth oxides (CaO, MgO) within the minerals. Because it is the alkaline earth oxide that combines with CO2 to form the solid carbonate, those minerals with the highest ratio of these oxides are most favored. Optimum results have been achieved using heat pretreated serpentine feed material, sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride additions to the solution, and high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2). Specific conditions include: 155?C; PCO2=185 atm; 15% solids. Under these conditions, 78% conversion of the silicate to the carbonate was achieved in 30 minutes. Future studies are intended to investigate various mineral pretreatment options, the carbonation solution characteristics, alternative reactants, scale-up to a continuous process, geochemical modeling, and process economics.

O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

2000-01-01

338

Oxygen Isotope Composition of Stratospheric Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the stratosphere, carbon dioxide gradually obtains an anomalous oxygen isotope enrichment, which generally increases with altitude. This enrichment has been related to transfer of anomalously fractionated oxygen from ozone to CO2 via a short-lived CO3* complex, which CO2 forms with O(1D) produced in the photolysis of ozone, al- though the precise transfer mechanism is still being debated. We present CO2 and O3 isotope measurements from 8 stratospheric balloon flights at two latitudes that provide now a complete oxygen isotope analysis of both gases. The results show an unambigu- ous, very tight correlation between 17O and 18O in CO2, which passes through the tropospheric values at the tropopause. The large ratio 17O/18O of 1.7 shows a faster transfer of 17 O than of 18 O into CO2 and establishes a standard throughout the lower and middle stratosphere. Ozone isotope transfer can now be treated in models with re- liable atmospheric data. Additional laboratory exchange experiments are being carried out to investigate the oxygen transfer process in detail.

Röckmann, T.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Assonov, S. S.; Lämmerzahl, P.; Krankowsky, D.; Mauersberger, K.

339

Laser surgery: using the carbon dioxide laser.  

PubMed Central

In 1917 Einstein theorized tha through an atomic process a unique kind of electromagnetic radiation could be produced by stimulated emission. When such radiation is in the optical or infrared spectrum it is termed laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) light. A laser, a high-intensity light source, emits a nearly parallel electromagnetic beam of energy at a given wavelength that can be captured by a lens and concentrated in the focal spot. The wavelength determines how the laser will be used. The carbon dioxide laser is now successfully employed for some surgical procedures in gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, neurosurgery, and plastic and general surgery. The CO2 laser beam is directed through the viewing system of an operating microscope or through a hand-held laser component. Its basic action in tissue is thermal vaporization; it causes minimal damage to adjacent tissues. Surgeons require special training in the basic methods and techniques of laser surgery, as well as in the safety standards that must be observed. Images FIG. 5

Wright, V. C.

1982-01-01

340

Development of Carbon Dioxide Hermitic Compressor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of global environmental problems, the existing refrigerants are to be replaced with natural refrigerants. CO2 is one of the natural refrigerants and environmentally safe, inflammable and non-toxic refrigerant. Therefore high efficiency compressor that can operate with natural refrigerants, especially CO2, needs to be developed. We developed a prototype CO2 hermetic compressor, which is able to use in carbon dioxide refrigerating systems for practical use. The compressor has two rolling pistons, and it leads to low vibrations, low noise. In additions, two-stage compression with two cylinders is adopted, because pressure difference is too large to compress in one stage. And inner pressure of the shell case is intermediate pressure to minimize gas leakage between compressing rooms and inner space of shell case. Intermediate pressure design enabled to make the compressor smaller in size and lighter in weight. As a result, the compressor achieved high efficiency and high reliability by these technology. We plan to study heat pump water heater, cup vending machine and various applications with CO2 compressor.

Imai, Satoshi; Oda, Atsushi; Ebara, Toshiyuki

341

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

2011-09-01

342

Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

2010-10-01

343

Rat aversion to isoflurane versus carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Some experts suggest that sedation of laboratory rodents with isoflurane before euthanasia with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is a humane alternative to euthanasia with CO(2) alone, but little research has compared aversion with these agents. Albino rats were tested in a light-dark box where they had the choice between remaining in a dark compartment filling with isoflurane or CO(2), or escaping to a lit compartment. Experiment 1 validated the procedure by confirming that rats responded to agent and light intensity. In experiment 2, 9/16 and 0/16 rats remained in the dark compartment until recumbent when initially exposed to isoflurane and CO(2), respectively. In experiment 3, more rats remained in the dark compartment until recumbent during initial (10/16) versus re-exposure (1/16) to isoflurane. These results indicate that initial exposure to CO(2) is more aversive than isoflurane, and that re-exposure to isoflurane is more aversive than initial exposure. We conclude that sedation with isoflurane is a refinement over euthanasia with CO(2) alone for rats that have not been previously exposed to inhalant anaesthetics. PMID:23256183

Wong, Devina; Makowska, I Joanna; Weary, Daniel M

2012-12-19

344

Acute carbon dioxide avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration by all aerobic organisms and thus serves for many animals as an important indicator of food, mates, and predators. However, whether free-living terrestrial nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans respond to CO2 was unclear. We have demonstrated that adult C. elegans display an acute avoidance response upon exposure to CO2 that is characterized by the cessation of forward movement and the rapid initiation of backward movement. This response is mediated by a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated heteromeric channel TAX-2/TAX-4. CO2 avoidance is modulated by multiple signaling molecules, including the neuropeptide Y receptor NPR-1 and the calcineurin subunits TAX-6 and CNB-1. Nutritional status also modulates CO2 responsiveness via the insulin and TGFbeta signaling pathways. CO2 response is mediated by a neural circuit that includes the BAG neurons, a pair of sensory neurons of previously unknown function. TAX-2/TAX-4 function in the BAG neurons to mediate acute CO2 avoidance. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans senses and responds to CO2 using multiple signaling pathways and a neural network that includes the BAG neurons and that this response is modulated by the physiological state of the worm. PMID:18524955

Hallem, Elissa A; Sternberg, Paul W

2008-06-04

345

An optimized molecular potential for carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

An optimized molecular potential model for carbon dioxide is presented in this paper. Utilizing the established techniques of molecular-dynamics and histogram reweighting grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, this model is demonstrated to show excellent predictability for thermodynamic, transport, and liquid structural properties in a wide temperature-pressure range with remarkable accuracies. The average deviations of this new model from experimental data for the saturated liquid densities, vapor densities, vapor pressures, and heats of vaporization are around 0.1%, 2.3%, 0.7%, and 1.9%, respectively. The calculated critical point is almost pinpointed by the new model. The experimental radial distribution functions ranging from 240.0 to 473.0 K are well reproduced as compared to neutron-diffraction measurements. The predicted self-diffusion coefficients are in good agreement with the nuclear-magnetic-resonance measurements. The previously published potential models for CO2 are also systematically evaluated, and our proposed new model is found to be superior to the previous models in general. PMID:15974754

Zhang, Zhigang; Duan, Zhenhao

2005-06-01

346

Impact of volcanic eruptions on the marine carbon cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of volcanic eruptions on the marine carbon cycle is investigated for the example of the Pinatubo eruption with model simulations of the distribution of the ash cloud and deposition on the ocean surface and the impact of the nutrient addition from ash leachates on the oceanic biological production and hence biological carbon pump. Natural variations of aerosols, especially due to large-magnitude volcanic eruptions, are recognized as a significant climate forcing, altering the Earth's radiation balance and thus tending to cause global temperature changes. While the impact of such events on climate and the terrestrial biosphere is relatively well documented, scientific knowledge of their effects on marine ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere is still very limited. In the deep sea, subaerial eruptive events of global significance are commonly recorded as widespread ash layers, which were often found to be associated with increased abundances of planktic organisms. This has led to the hypothesis that the influx of volcanic ash may provide an external nutrient source for primary production (in particular through iron fertilization) in ocean surface waters. Recent laboratory experiments have demonstrated that pristine volcanic ash indeed releases significant amounts of macronutrients and bioactive trace metals (including phosphate, iron and silica) adsorbed to the surface of the ash particles. The release of these components most likely has its largest impact in ocean regions where their availability is crucial for the growth of oceanic biomass, which are the high-nutrient but low-productivity (low-iron) areas in the Pacific and the Southern Ocean. These in turn are neighbored by most of those subaerially active volcanoes that are capable of ejecting huge amounts of aerosols into the high-velocity stratospheric wind fields. The dispersal and fallout of ash thus has a high potential to induce globally significant, transient net CO2 removal from the upper ocean and hence the atmosphere. Large-magnitude eruptions such as of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 were in fact followed by a slowing-down in the increase of atmospheric CO2 for several years, entailing a weakening of the global warming trend. For Mount Pinatubo it has been argued that the estimated CO2 uptake (1.6 x 1015 g C) could have been caused by rapid iron fertilization of the Southern Ocean with about 6.3 x 1015 g of ash. However, this would approximate the overall amount of the ash generated by the eruption, of which about 80% fell out over the South China Sea (~4.9 x 1015 g). This suggests additional avenues for the removal of CO2, among which the 1991 explosive eruption of Cerro Hudson could have played an important role as more than 2 km3 of the aerosols released by the volcano fell out directly over the Southern Ocean.

Segschneider, Joachim; Ulrike, Niemeier; Martin, Wiesner; Claudia, Timmreck

2010-05-01

347

A 400 million year carbon isotope record of pedogenic carbonate: Implications for paleoatmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 400 record of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels has been estimated by applying a COā paleobarometer to a database of 758 analyses of paleosol (fossil soil) carbonates. This database is a compilation of new data and previously published values from the literature. Many new analyses of Mesozoic paleosols are reported, an era poorly represented in the literature. Results indicate that

D. D. Ekart; T. E. Cerling; I. P. Montanez; N. J. Tabor

1999-01-01

348

Dark fixation of carbon dioxide in an agricultural soil  

SciTech Connect

Dark fixation of carbon dioxide was monitored in an agricultural soil in northeast Georgia from December 1981 through December 1982. Carbon fixation, based on the rate of radiolabeled CO/sub 2/ incorporation, varied from 0.2 to 4.8 mg m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that dark fixation was positively correlated with the rate of carbon dioxide evolution and soil temperature and was inversely correlated with irradiance. Total annual dark fixation of carbon was estimated to be 15 g m/sup -2/.

Shimmel, S.M.

1987-07-01

349

Capture of green-house carbon dioxide in Portland cement  

SciTech Connect

A novel process has been developed to sequester green-house carbon dioxide produced by the cement industry in precast cement products. Typically, 10--24 wt % of CO{sub 2} produced by calcination of calcium carbonate during clinkering of the cement may be captured. The carbonation process also cures the cement paste within minutes into hard bodies. The process maintains high pH conditions during curing, to allow conventional steel reinforcement of concrete. The process will save time and money to the cement industry, and at the same time, help them to comply with the Clean Air Act by sequestering the green-house carbon dioxide.

Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Pullockaran, J.; Knox, L.

1993-12-31

350

Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

Johnson, Richard (Shirley, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY)

1981-01-01

351

Ocean Fertilization for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean is a major sink for both preindustrial and anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Both physically and biogeochemically driven pumps, termed the solubility and biological pump, respectively Fig.5.1) are responsible for the majority of carbon sequestration in the ocean's interior [1]. The solubility pump relies on ocean circulation - specifically the impact of cooling of the upper ocean at high latitudes both enhances the solubility of carbon dioxide and the density of the waters which sink to great depth (the so-called deepwater formation) and thereby sequester carbon in the form of dissolved inorganic carbon (Fig.5.1). The biological pump is driven by the availability of preformed plant macronutrients such as nitrate or phosphate which are taken up by phytoplankton during photosynthetic carbon fixation. A small but significant proportion of this fixed carbon sinks into the ocean's interior in the form of settling particles, and in order to maintain equilibrium carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is transferred across the air-sea interface into the ocean (the so-called carbon drawdown) thereby decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (Fig.5.1).Fig.5.1

Boyd, Philip W.

352

Magmatic carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Carbon dioxide (CO2) of magmatic origin is seeping out of the ground in unusual quantities at several locations around the flanks of Mammoth Mountain, a dormant volcano in Eastern California. The most recent volcanic activity on Mammoth Mountain was steam eruptions about 600 years ago, but seismic swarms and long-period earthquakes over the past decade are evidence of an active magmatic system at depth. The CO2 emission probably began in 1990 but was not recognized until 1994. Seismic swarms and minor ground deformation during 1989, believed to be results of a shallow intrusion of magma beneath Mammoth Mountain, probably triggered the release of CO2, which persists in 1998. The CO2 gas is at ambient temperatures and emanates diffusely from the soil surface rather than flowing from distinct vents. The CO2 has collected in the soil by displacing air in the pore spaces and reaches concentrations of greater than 95 percent by volume in places. The total area affected by high CO2 concentrations and high CO2 flux from the soil surface was estimated at 60 hectares in 1997. Coniferous forest covering about 40 hectares has been killed by high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. In more than 300 soil-gas samples collected from depths of 0.5 to 2 m in 1995, CO2 concentrations ranged from background levels (less than 1 percent) to greater than 95 percent by volume. At 250 locations, CO2 flux was measured using a closed chamber in 1996; values, in grams per square meter per day, ranged from background (less than 25) to more than 30,000. On the basis of these data, the total emission of magmatic CO2 in 1996 is estimated to be about 530 megagrams per day. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards have been measured in pits dug in soil and snow, in poorly ventilated buildings, and in below-ground valve-boxes around Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations greater than 10 percent in poorly ventilated spaces are not uncommon on some parts of Mammoth Mountain. Humans and other animals exposed to CO2 concentrations greater than 10 percent could lose consciousness and die rapidly. With knowledge of the problem and reasonable caution, however, the health hazard to humans can be avoided. As noted earlier, the CO2 emission is related to magmatic activity at depth, but at present (1998) it does not portend an imminent volcanic eruption.

Farrar, Christopher D.; Neil, John M.; Howle, James F.

1999-01-01

353

Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

2011-09-30

354

Relationship between arterial carbon dioxide and end-tidal carbon dioxide when a nasal sampling port is used  

Microsoft Academic Search

End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) values obtained from awake nonintubated patients may prove to be useful in estimating a patient’s ventilatory status. This\\u000a study examined the relationship between arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and ETCO2 during the preoperative period in 20 premedicated patients undergoing various surgical procedures. ETCO2 was sampled from a 16-gauge intravenous catheter pierced through one of the two

Stephen E. McNulty; John Roy; Marc Torjman; Joseph L. Seltzer

1990-01-01

355

Interaction of Surface Modified Carbon Nanotubes with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer nanocomposites are far below than those calculated, mainly due to poor dispersion or interface quality. This is particularly difficult for single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as they tend to form bundles or ropes that are difficult to exfoliate. Supercritical fluid (SCF) assisted processing is one of the methods that can be used to exfoliate/disperse CNTs along with modifiying the interface of the CNTs. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to understand how the surface modifiers behave near SWNT surface with and without the presence of SCF molecules. It is also important to understand the diffusivity of SCF molecules between SWNT bundles and the effect of surface modifiers on diffusion. Octane and n-perflourooctane molecules were used as surface modifiers with varying tethering density and carbon dioxide (CO2) was chosen as the SCF. Results showed that the system with highest number of n-perfluorooctanes presented the highest degree of success in separating the SWNTs in the presence of CO2.

Baysal, Nihat; Unsal, Banu; Ozisik, Rahmi

2006-03-01

356

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

2004-07-01

357

The phase relation between atmospheric carbon dioxide and global temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using data series on atmospheric carbon dioxide and global temperatures we investigate the phase relation (leads/lags) between these for the period January 1980 to December 2011. Ice cores show atmospheric CO2 variations to lag behind atmospheric temperature changes on a century to millennium scale, but modern temperature is expected to lag changes in atmospheric CO2, as the atmospheric temperature increase since about 1975 generally is assumed to be caused by the modern increase in CO2. In our analysis we use eight well-known datasets: 1) globally averaged well-mixed marine boundary layer CO2 data, 2) HadCRUT3 surface air temperature data, 3) GISS surface air temperature data, 4) NCDC surface air temperature data, 5) HadSST2 sea surface data, 6) UAH lower troposphere temperature data series, 7) CDIAC data on release of anthropogene CO2, and 8) GWP data on volcanic eruptions. Annual cycles are present in all datasets except 7) and 8), and to remove the influence of these we analyze 12-month averaged data. We find a high degree of co-variation between all data series except 7) and 8), but with changes in CO2 always lagging changes in temperature. The maximum positive correlation between CO2 and temperature is found for CO2 lagging 11-12 months in relation to global sea surface temperature, 9.5-10 months to global surface air temperature, and about 9 months to global lower troposphere temperature. The correlation between changes in ocean temperatures and atmospheric CO2 is high, but do not explain all observed changes.

Humlum, Ole; Stordahl, Kjell; Solheim, Jan-Erik

2013-01-01

358

Lake Nyos disaster, Cameroon, 1986: the medical effects of large scale emission of carbon dioxide?  

PubMed Central

Carbon dioxide was blamed for the deaths of around 1700 people in Cameroon, west Africa, in 1986 when a massive release of gas occurred from Lake Nyos, a volcanic crater lake. The clinical findings in 845 survivors seen at or admitted to hospital were compatible with exposure to an asphyxiant gas. Rescuers noted cutaneous erythema and bullae on an unknown proportion of corpses and 161 (19%) survivors treated in hospital; though these lesions were initially believed to be burns from acidic gases, further investigation suggested that they were associated with coma states caused by exposure to carbon dioxide in air. The disaster at Lake Nyos and a similar event at Lake Monoun, Cameroon, two years previously provide new information on the possible medical effects of large scale emissions of carbon dioxide, though the presence of other toxic factors in these gas releases cannot be excluded. Images FIG 2 a FIG 2 b FIG 2 c FIG 2 d FIG 2 e FIG 3 FIG 4

Baxter, P. J.; Kapila, M.; Mfonfu, D.

1989-01-01

359

Carbon Dioxide Carbonates in the Earth;s Mantle: Implications to the Deep Carbon Cycle  

SciTech Connect

An increase in the ionic character in C-O bonds at high pressures and temperatures is shown by the chemical/phase transformation diagram of CO{sub 2}. The presence of carbonate carbon dioxide (i-CO{sub 2}) near the Earth's core-mantle boundary condition provides insights into both the deep carbon cycle and the transport of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to anhydrous silicates in the mantle and iron core.

Yoo, Choong-Shik; Sengupta, Amartya; Kim, Minseob (Princeton); (WSU)

2012-05-22

360

Ionic Liquid Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation  

SciTech Connect

Recent scientific studies are rapidly advancing novel technological improvements and engineering developments that demonstrate the ability to minimize, eliminate, or facilitate the removal of various contaminants and green house gas emissions in power generation. The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) shows promise for carbon dioxide mitigation not only because of its higher efficiency as compared to conventional coal firing plants, but also due to a higher driving force in the form of high partial pressure. One of the novel technological concepts currently being developed and investigated is membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation, due to simplicity and ease of scaling. A challenge in using membranes for CO2 capture in IGCC is the possibility of failure at elevated temperatures or pressures. Our earlier research studies examined the use of ionic liquids on various supports for CO2 separation over the temperature range, 37°C-300°C. The ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([hmim][Tf2N]), was chosen for our initial studies with the following supports: polysulfone (PSF), poly(ether sulfone) (PES), and cross-linked nylon. The PSF and PES supports had similar performance at room temperature, but increasing temperature caused the supported membranes to fail. The ionic liquid with the PES support greatly affected the glass transition temperature, while with the PSF, the glass transition temperature was only slightly depressed. The cross-linked nylon support maintained performance without degradation over the temperature range 37-300°C with respect to its permeability and selectivity. However, while the cross-linked nylon support was able to withstand temperatures, the permeability continued to increase and the selectivity decreased with increasing temperature. Our studies indicated that further testing should examine the use of other ionic liquids, including those that form chemical complexes with CO2 based on amine interactions. The hypothesis is that the performance at the elevated temperatures could be improved by allowing a facilitated transport mechanism to become dominant. Several amine-based ionic liquids were tested on the cross-linked nylon support. It was found that using the amine-based ionic liquid did improve selectivity and permeability at higher temperature. The hypothesis was confirmed, and it was determined that the type of amine used also played a role in facilitated transport. Given the appropriate aminated ionic liquid with the cross-linked nylon support, it is possible to have a membrane capable of separating CO2 at IGCC conditions. With this being the case, the research has expanded to include separation of other constituents besides CO2 (CO, H2S, etc.) and if they play a role in membrane poisoning or degradation. This communication will discuss the operation of the recently fabricated ionic liquid membranes and the impact of gaseous components other than CO2 on their performance and stability.

Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-12

361

Urban carbon dioxide in Portland, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are reported for the Portland, Oregon (USA) metropolitan region since late July, 2009. Three stationary locations were established: a downtown location on the campus of Portland State University; a residential site in southeast Portland; and a rural station on Sauvie Island, located ~30km northwest of Portland in the Columbia River Gorge. Continuous measurements of CO2 at the sites average 400-410ppm and show considerable variability due to CO2 sources, sinks and meteorological drivers of ventilation. Within this variability, a marked 20-30ppm diurnal cycle is observed due to photosynthetic activity and variations in the planetary boundary layer. In-city CO2 concentrations are on average enhanced by 5-6ppm over the Sauvie Island site during upgorge wind conditions, a difference which is greatest in the afternoon. Measurements of the 13C/12C ratio of CO2 in downtown Portland are significantly depleted in 13C relative to 12C compared with background air and suggest that regional CO2 is dominated by petroleum sources (70-80%). High degrees of relationship between CO2 variability and primary air pollutants CO and NO (r2=0.70 to 0.80), measured by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality at the Southeast Portland location, corroborate this finding and illustrate the importance of traffic emissions on elevated ambient CO2 concentrations. In addition to CO2 at the fixed sites, measurements of street-level CO2 concentrations were obtained using a mobile instrument mounted in a bike trailer. Results from these field data show relatively homogenous CO2 concentrations throughout residential Portland neighborhoods with significant enhancements in CO2 on busy roadways or near areas of traffic congestion.

Bostrom, G. A.; Brooks, M.; Rice, A. L.

2010-12-01

362

Reactor design considerations in mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

One of the promising approaches to lowering the anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere is mineral sequestration. In this approach, the carbon dioxide reacts with alkaline earth containing silicate minerals forming magnesium and/or calcium carbonates. Mineral carbonation is a multiphase reaction process involving gas, liquid and solid phases. The effective design and scale-up of the slurry reactor for mineral carbonation will require careful delineation of the rate determining step and how it changes with the scale of the reactor. The shrinking core model was used to describe the mineral carbonation reaction. Analysis of laboratory data indicates that the transformations of olivine and serpentine are controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion through an ash layer respectively. Rate parameters for olivine and serpentine carbonation are estimated from the laboratory data.

Ityokumbul, M.T.; Chander, S. (both of Pennsylvania State Univ.); O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

2001-01-01

363

Calcium Carbonate Production by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(sub 2)) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bi...

V. J. Fabry

2004-01-01

364

Calcium Carbonate Production by Coccolithophorid Algae in Long Term, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Predictions of increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(sub 2)) and the specter of global warming have intensified research efforts to identify ways to sequester carbon. A number of novel avenues of research are being considered, including bi...

V. J. Fabry

2003-01-01

365

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Regeneration of Activated Carbon Loaded with Contaminants from Rocky Mountain Arsenal Well Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCF CO2) regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) loaded with DIMP (diisopropyl methylphosphonate) from Rocky Mountain Arsenal Well (NO. 23-120) water was investigated. A laboratory-based adsorption/regen...

R. M. O'Brien R. P. de Filippi C. E. Smith D. G. Hager

1982-01-01

366

Removal of organic impurities from liquid carbon dioxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a high velocity stream of carbon dioxide snowflakes to clean large optics is well known, and has gained widespread acceptance in the astronomical community as a telescope maintenance technique. Ultimately, however, the success of carbon dioxide snow cleaning depends on the availability of high purity carbon dioxide. The higher the purity of the carbon dioxide, the longer will be the time interval between required mirror washings. The highest grades of commercially produced liquid carbon dioxide are often not available in the more remote regions of the world - such as where major astronomical observatories are often located. Furthermore, the purity of even the highest grades of carbon dioxide are only nominal, and wide variations are known to occur from tank to tank. Occasionally, visible deposits of organic impurities are left behind during cleaning with carbon dioxide that is believed to be 99.999% pure. A zeolite molecular sieve based filtration system has proven to be very effective in removing these organic impurities. A zeolite is a complex alumino-silicate. One example has an empirical formula of Na2O(Al2O3)(SiO2)2yH2O, where y=0 to 8. The zeolites have an open crystal structure and are capable of trapping impurities like 8-methylheptadecane (an oil) and 2,6-octadine-1-ol,3,7- dimethyl-,(E)- (a fatty acid). In fact, a zeolite can trap 29.5% of its own weight in SAE 20 lubricant at 25 degree(s)C. After filtration of liquid CO2 through zeolites, the concentration of measured impurities was below the detection limit for state-of-the-art gas chromatography systems.

Zito, Richard R.

2002-09-01

367

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests suggested that higher temperature calcination of trona leds to reduced carbonation activity in subsequent cycles, but that calcination in dry carbon dioxide did not result in decreased activity relative to calcination in helium. Following higher temperature calcination, sodium bicarbonate (SBC) No.3 has greater activity than either coarse or fine grades of trona. Fixed bed testing of calcined SBC No.3 at 70 C confirmed that high rates of carbon dioxide absorption are possible and that the resulting product is a mixture of Wegscheider's salt and sodium carbonate. In fluidized bed testing of supported potassium carbonate, very rapid carbonation rates were observed. Activity of the support material complicated the data analysis. A milled, spherical grade of SBC appeared to be similar in attrition and abrasion characteristics to an unmilled, less regularly shaped SBC. The calcination behavior, at 107 C, for the milled and unmilled materials was also similar.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P.Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

2002-10-01

368

Development of a NASICON-based amperometric carbon dioxide sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alkaline silicate sol–gel approach has been established for the preparation of NASICON (sodium super ionic conductor). The prepared NASICON is characterized and used as the solid electrolyte and the base for an amperometric carbon dioxide sensor. An auxiliary electrolyte, a binary carbonate eutectic, is employed in this development. The fabrication and evaluation results of the sensor prototype are presented.

Yinbao Yang; Chung-Chiun Liu

2000-01-01

369

Paramagnetic properties of carbon-doped titanium dioxide  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the experimental results on paramagnetic properties of carbon-doped titanium dioxide. The electron paramagnetic resonance study of the samples has been carried out both in dark and under illumination. The nature of defects and their dynamics under illumination of carbon-doped TiO2 samples is discussed.

2012-01-01

370

CORN ROOT INFLUENCE ON AUTOMATED MEASUREMENT OF CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) production is a more desirable indicator of soil carbon (C) dynamics than CO2 flux at the soil-air interface, which is significantly influenced by the gas-transport condition of the soil. Production of CO2 can be computed from CO2 concentrations if high-temporal measurements are...

371

Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

2009-01-01

372

Purification Characteristic Research of Carbon Dioxide in Mine Refuge Chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refuge chamber is a kind of rescue equipment that protects trapped miners waiting for rescue in mine accidents. When a refuge chamber is in refuge state, carbon dioxide scrubbing is an important function of the environmental control system in chamber. In this paper, a series of experiments about the power consumption, purification efficiency, bed thickness and other factors of carbon

Jing Li; Long-zhe Jin; Sheng Wang; Shu-ci Liu; Shu Wang

2011-01-01

373

Combined carbon dioxide\\/water solid oxide electrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid oxide electrolysis of a mixture of water and carbon dioxide has many applications in space exploration. It can be implemented in propellant production systems that use Martian resources or in closed-loop life support systems to cleanse the atmosphere of facilities in extraterrestrial bases and of cabin spacecrafts. This work endeavors to quantify the performance of combined water and carbon

Christine Schroeder Iacomini

2004-01-01

374

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

2005-01-01

375

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2003 and June 30, 2003 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for concentration of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Grade 1 sodium bicarbonate performed similarly to grade 5 sodium bicarbonate in fixed bed testing in that activity improved after the first carbonation cycle and did not decline over the course of

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Douglas P. Harrison

2003-01-01

376

Carbon dioxide capture and storage: a status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil fuel combustion is the largest source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As a result of combustion, essentially all of the fuel carbon is emitted to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2), along with small amounts of methane and, in some cases, nitrous oxide. It has been axiomatic that reducing anthropogenic GHG emissions requires reducing fossil-fuel use. However, that

Lenny Bernstein; Arthur Lee; Steven Crookshank

2006-01-01

377

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

2004-01-01

378

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2004 and March 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. RTI has produced laboratory scale batches (approximately 300 grams) of supported sorbents (composed of 20 to 40% sodium carbonate) with high surface area and acceptable activity. Initial rates of weight gain of

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

2004-01-01

379

Distribution of and changes in industrial carbon dioxide production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burning of fossils fuels is believed to be the major source responsible for an observed increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere now measured at many locations around the world. This paper revises earlier published data on the annual amounts of carbon released to the atmosphere during the period 1950--1978 and updates the record through 1980.

Ralph M. Rotty

1983-01-01

380

Capture of green-house carbon dioxide in Portland cement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A novel process has been developed to sequester green-house carbon dioxide produced by the cement industry in precast cement products. Typically, 10--24 wt % of CO(sub 2) produced by calcination of calcium carbonate during clinkering of the cement may be ...

A. S. Wagh D. Singh J. Pullockaran L. Knox

1993-01-01

381

Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. Carbon Dioxide Research Progress Report, fiscal year 1979  

SciTech Connect

Research on the global carbon cycle and the effects of increased carbon dioxide on the global climate system is reported. Environmental and societal effects related to CO/sub 2/ and environmental control technology for CO/sub 2/ are also discussed. Lists of research projects and reports and publications of the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program are included. An expanded CO/sub 2/ monitoring network is providing increased coverage for interpretation of patterns of sources and sinks seasonal variability, and documentation of the global growth of CO/sub 2/. Modeling studies emphasized that knowledge of the transport and mixing of surface ocean waters is important in understanding deep oceanic circulation. Initial studies in the equatorial Pacific are helping quantify estimates of the amount of outgassing CO/sub 2/ from tropical waters. During fiscal year 1979, there was a substantial increase in appreciation of the role of the ocean in controlling not only atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations but also the climatic response to changes in concentration. Model simulations of the effect of doubled CO/sub 2/ concentration carried out with fixed ocean temperatures a situation that is possible during perhaps the next 20 years, showed relatively small summer heating over land areas. On the other hand, simulations in which the oceanic temperatures could come into instantaneous equilibrium with atmospheric conditions continued to show global temperature increases of 3 +- 1.5/sup 0/C, accentuated at high latitudes. To improve understanding of possible regional climate changes, there were increased efforts to reconstruct regional climatic patterns prevailing during past warm periods that might serve as analogs of future climatic conditions. Particular attention was directed to the climates of the United States and other countries bordering the North Atlantic Ocean during the warm period 5000 to 7000 years ago.

Dahlman, R.C.; Gross, T.; Machta, L.; Elliott, W.; MacCracken, M.

1980-04-01

382

The effects of carbon cycle model error in calculating future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical investigations have indicated that projections of future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations of a quality quite adequate for practical questions regarding the environmental threat of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and its relationship to energy use policy could be made with the simple assumption that a constant fraction of these emissions would be retained by the atmosphere. By analysis of the

J. A. Laurmann; J. R. Spreiter

1983-01-01

383

Economic Effects of Using Carbon Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Major OECD Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tax on fossil fuels designed to obtain a 20 percent reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide by the year 2020 would lower output among major OECD nations by 1 to 3 1/2 percent. The tax required to achieve a 20% reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide b...

1992-01-01

384

Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to hydrocarbon using copper-loaded titanium dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide using copper-loaded titanium dioxide powders at ambient temperature has been reported. The Cu-TiO[sub 2] powders suspended in the solution, which was pressurized with CO[sub 2] of 28 kgf\\/cm[sup 2], were illuminated with an Xe lamp. The catalyst, Cu([le]5 wt%)\\/TiO[sub 2], is specific for the products (i.e., the main products were methane and ethylene, and

Kenji Adachi; Kiyohisa Ohta; Takayuki Mizuno

1994-01-01

385

Carbon dioxide, the feedstock for using renewable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extrapolation of world energy consumption between 1990 and 2007 to the future reveals the complete exhaustion of petroleum, natural gas, uranium and coal reserves on Earth in 2040, 2044, 2049 and 2054, respectively. We are proposing global carbon dioxide recycling to use renewable energy so that all people in the whole world can survive. The electricity will be generated by solar cell in deserts and used to produce hydrogen by seawater electrolysis at t nearby desert coasts. Hydrogen, for which no infrastructures of transportation and combustion exist, will be converted to methane at desert coasts by the reaction with carbon dioxide captured by energy consumers. Among systems in global carbon dioxide recycling, seawater electrolysis and carbon dioxide methanation have not been performed industrially. We created energy-saving cathodes for hydrogen production and anodes for oxygen evolution without chlorine formation in seawater electrolysis, and ideal catalysts for methane formation by the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen. Prototype plant and industrial scale pilot plant have been built.

Hashimoto, K.; Kumagai, N.; Izumiya, K.; Kato, Z.

2011-03-01

386

[Ocular carbon dioxide reactivity in retinitis pigmentosa. Perimetry results].  

PubMed

Ocular pulse volumes (POV) measured by oculo-oscillo-dynamography were markedly reduced in Retinopathia pigmentosa (R.P.) patients (n = 52) compared to healthy subjects (n = 107). During breathing increased carbon dioxide concentrations (6.5%) POV returned nearly to normal values [15,17]. In an attempt to evaluate the effects of increased inspiratory carbon dioxide concentrations on the visual field in R.P. patients the following study was performed. In 24 patients (24 right eyes, 23 left eyes) suffering from a clinically and electrophysiologically confirmed R.P. kinetic visual field testing was performed. After a standardized kinetic Goldmann-perimetry (V/4; III/4; I/4; I/3; I/2; I/1) during breathing normal air the visual field testing was repeated during breathing increased carbon dioxide concentrations (6.5%). The visual field area was measured with a planimeter (Hewlett Packard 9874 A Digitalizer) separately for each isopter. For a better comparison of the results the change in the visual field was expressed as a percentage value of the initial visual field area of each isopter. During breathing increased carbon dioxide concentrations the visual field area improved, expressed as the median of all isopters, by x = 29% in 24 right eyes and by x = 18% in 23 left eyes. The results presented suggest that breathing of increased carbon dioxide concentrations improve ocular hemodynamics and furthermore have a beneficial effect on the remaining visual field area in R.P. patients. PMID:8219642

Tacke, C M; Pillunat, L E; Lang, G K

1993-10-01

387

Techno-Economic Models for Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage & Correlations for Estimating Carbon Dioxide Density and Viscosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to a heightened interest in technologies to mitigate global climate change, research in the field of carbon capture and storage (CCS) has attracted greater attention in recent years, with the goal of answering the many questions that still remain in this uncertain field. At the top of the list of key issues are CCS costs: costs of carbon dioxide

David L. McCollum; Joan M. Ogden

2006-01-01

388

Carbon dioxide fumigation for controlling bed bugs.  

PubMed

We investigated the potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) fumigation as a method for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. The effect of bed bug developmental stage, temperature, and CO2 concentration on the minimum time to kill 100% of bed bugs was determined. The minimum CO2 concentration lethal to all bed bug stages was approximately 30% with 24 h exposure time at 25 degrees C. The minimum fumigation time required to kill 100% of eggs using 100% CO2 at 20, 25, and 30 degrees C were 3, 7, and 8 h, respectively; the minimum fumigation time to kill 100% of adult males/nymphs were 8, 13, and 14 h, respectively. The minimum time to kill 100% of adult males/nymphs using 50 and 70% CO2 at 25 degrees C were 18 and 16 h, respectively. We found that eggs were not completely killed after 24 h fumigation when the CO2 concentration was lower than 80%. Thus, bed bug eggs were more susceptible to 100% CO2 fumigation than nymphs and adult males but more tolerant than nymphs and adult males with lower CO2 concentration (50-80%). There were no significant differences among nymphs, adult males, and adult females in their susceptibility to 100% CO2 fumigation. A 24 h fumigation in sealed 158 liter (42 gallon) heavy duty garbage bags filled 90% full with fabric materials and/or boxes and 1,350 g dry ice per bag was sufficient to kill all stages of bed bugs hidden in the materials at room temperature (23-24 degrees C). Sealed heavy duty garbage bags maintained > or = 94% CO2 for at least 24 h. Custom-made double zipper plastic bags (122 x 183 cm) were also used to evaluate the effectiveness of CO2 fumigation for controlling bed bugs. Each bag was filled with fabric and boxes to 50-90% full. Bed bugs were hidden in various locations of each bag. CO2 was introduced into the bags through a CO2 cylinder. CO2 fumigation lasting 24-48 h was sufficient to kill all stages of bed bugs at room temperature, depending on the quantity of materials placed in each bag and whether CO2 was introduced one or two times at the onset. CO2 is an effective alternative to conventional fumigants for eliminating bed bugs hiding in infested household items such as clothing, shoes, books, electronics, sofas, and so forth. PMID:23025189

Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Xu, Ming

2012-09-01

389

SCORR - supercritical carbon dioxide resist removal.  

SciTech Connect

SCORR, short for supercritical carbon dioxide resist removal, is a new technology that could continue to enable the technological development of photolithography processes in industry. SCORR is based upon the physical properties of supercritical fluids (SCFs). These special properties enable SCFs to remove coatings, residues, and particles froin high-aspect-ratio structures in integrated circuits (ICs). SCORR also eliminates rinsing and drying steps presently used in IC manufacture, thereby eliminating the generation of millions of gallons of water per fab per day. Fabricating integrated circuits relies heavily on photolithography to define the shape and pattern of individual components. Once a single stage of a silicon wafer's topography has been completed, the hardened resist must be removed. Conventional processes generates more waste than any single step in the IC manufacturing process, and the production of a complete IC can involve many photolithography iterations. The cost associated with the treatment and disposal of this waste, as well as employee health and safety considerations, are driving a search for a1 ternative, environmentally benign, cost-effective solutions. In addition, photoresist stripping is confronting finer architectures and higher aspect ratios, as well as new low-k materials that are highly sensitive to post-etch residue. Low-k dielectrics and low-resistivity conductors such as copper are necessary for meeting industry's need for faster and smaller chips. Further, each low-k choice requires different plasma-etching processes, or chemistries, to etch structures into the low-k material; therefore, the nature of the residues can be different. No one product can meet all copper/low-k applications, and existing chemistries are not tunable - or even desirable - for the new processes. We have developed a new process - known as SCORR - that removes photoresist and post-ash, -etch, and -CMP (particulate) residue from semiconductor wafers. As IC feature sizes become smaller, the need for ensuring particle removal will increase. With feature sizes of less than 0.18{micro}m, it will become imperative that all particles greater than about 0.1 micron be removed from the semiconductor wafer. Existing cleaning technologies (such as liquid or high-pressure jet scrubbing) cannot remove particles on the order of 0.1 micron because of surface boundary layer constraints. Because of the low viscosities of supercritical fluids (SCFs), these constraints are virtually eliminated.

Jacobson, G. B. (Gunilla B.); Williams, L. L. (Laurie L.); Hollis, W. K. (William K.); Barton, Jerome C.; Taylor, C. M. (Craig M.)

2002-01-01

390

Carbon dioxide adsorption in Brazilian coals  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is one of the most important greenhouse gases. In the period between 1980 and 1998, CO{sub 2} emissions increased more than 21% and projections suggest that the emissions will continue to increase globally by 2.2% between 2000 and 2020 and 3.3% in the developed countries. The sequestration of CO{sub 2} in deep unminable coal beds is one of the more promising of several methods of geological sequestration that are currently being investigated. CO{sub 2} can adsorb onto coal, and there are several studies demonstrating that CO{sub 2} dissolves in coals and swells them. At very low pressures (P {lt} 1 bar), CO{sub 2} dissolution does not seem to be a problem; however, high pressures are necessary for CO{sub 2} sequestration (P {gt} 50 bar). In this study, we evaluated the kinetics and equilibrium of sorption of CO{sub 2} on Brazilian coals at low pressures. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm at room temperature (30{sup o}C) was measured through the static method. The results showed that the Freundlich model or the Langmuir model is suitable to describe the equilibrium experimental results. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of Brazilian coals are in the range of 0.089-0.186 mmol CO{sub 2}/g, which are typical values for coals with high ash content. The dynamics of adsorption in a fixed-bed column that contains granular coal (particle sizes of 0.8, 2.4, and 4.8 mm) showed that the adsorption rate is fast and a mathematical model was developed to describe the CO{sub 2} dynamics of the adsorption in a fixed-bed column. The linear driving force (LDF) was used to describe the rate of adsorption and the mass-transfer constants of the LDF model (K{sub s}) are in the range of 1.0-2.0 min{sup -1}. 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Jose Luciano Soares; Andre L.B. Oberziner; Humberto J. Jose; Alirio E. Rodrigues; Regina F.P.M. Moreira [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis SC (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Engenharia de Alimentos

2007-01-15

391

Soil carbon dioxide fluxes in northern semiarid grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high indigenous soil organic carbon content, root biomass, and microbial populations in prairie soils provide a source of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is important in the carbon budget of grasslands. Soil chambers were used to measure soil CO2 flux from a grazed mixed-grass prairie (GP), nongrazed mixed-grass prairie (NGP), and grazed western wheatgrass (WWG) [Pascopyrum smithii (Rybd) Löve] grasslands

A. B Frank; M. A Liebig; J. D Hanson

2002-01-01

392

Introduction to the Economics of Atmospheric Carbon-Dioxide Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to provide an introduction to the economics of controlling the stock of carbon-dioxide in the atmosphere. The paper starts with a brief summary of the arguments against a wait-and-see strategy and in favour of controlling carbon emissions. It then provides a basic analysis of the effect of carbon tax on net-cash flow maximising agents’

Amnon Levy

2011-01-01

393

Concept for the remote sounding measurement of the atmospheric carbon dioxide column from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about the climatic effects of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has resulted in a growing need, both scientifically and politically, to monitor atmospheric carbon dioxide. The development of a satellite instrument which could measure the global distribution of atmospheric carbon dioxide would greatly improve our understanding of the global carbon cycle and provide a means of monitoring regional sources

Boyd T. Tolton; Matt Toohey; Dany Plouffe; Philippe Benoit; Leonid Yurganov

2002-01-01

394

Deriving Algorithms for the Remote Sensing of Carbon Dioxide Fugacity at the Ocean Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

As concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere continue to rise, the capacity of the ocean to act as a carbon dioxide sink is of critical importance as it is the major sink of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Uncertainties in our ability to quantify the role of the oceans in the carbon cycle, especially in computing the gas fluxes between atmosphere

P. J. Minnett; K. Wickramaratna; M. Kubat

2010-01-01

395

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates, through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests conducted at LSU indicated that exposure of sorbent to water vapor prior to contact with carbonation gas does not significantly increase the reaction rate. Calcined fine mesh trona has a greater initial carbonation rate than calcined sodium bicarbonate, but appears to be more susceptible to loss of reactivity under severe calcination conditions. The Davison attrition indices for Grade 5 sodium bicarbonate, commercial grade sodium carbonate and extra fine granular potassium carbonate were, as tested, outside of the range suitable for entrained bed reactor testing. Fluidized bed testing at RTI indicated that in the initial stages of reaction potassium carbonate removed 35% of the carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas, and is reactive at higher temperatures than sodium carbonate. Removals declined to 6% when 54% of the capacity of the sorbent was exhausted. Carbonation data from electrobalance testing was correlated using a shrinking core reaction model. The activation energy of the reaction of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water vapor was determined from nonisothermal thermogravimetry.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2002-04-01

396

Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide cleaning of plutonium parts  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is under investigation in this work for use as a cleaning solvent for the final cleaning of plutonium parts. These parts must be free of organic residue to avoid corrosion in the stockpile. Initial studies on stainless steel and full-scale mock-up parts indicate that the oils of interest are easily and adequately cleaned from the metal surfaces with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. Results from compatibility studies show that undesirable oxidation or other surface reactions are not occurring during exposure of plutonium to the supercritical fluid. Cleaning studies indicate that the oils of interest are removed from the plutonium surface under relatively mild conditions. These studies indicate that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide is a very promising cleaning medium for this application.

Hale, S.J.

1991-12-31

397

Exposures to carbon dioxide in the poultry processing industry.  

PubMed

The use of dry ice has increased dramatically in poultry processing plants because of changes in the fast food industry. Concentrations of carbon dioxide in four such plants were measured and were found to exceed the Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Level (50,000 ppm) inside holding coolers where ventilation is poor. In other areas, where dry ice is delivered to poultry packages, time-weighted average exposures can exceed the threshold limit value of 5000 ppm by substantial margins, even if local exhaust ventilation systems are present. Reports of adverse health effects from carbon dioxide exposure and various control measures are reviewed. Recommendations regarding sampling and analytical techniques also are presented. Operators of poultry plants where dry ice is used need to recognize the occupational hazards of exposure to carbon dioxide. PMID:3145684

Jacobs, D E; Smith, M S

1988-12-01

398

Atmospheric carbon dioxide record from flask measurements at Lampedusa Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Air samples from Lampedusa Island, located south of Sicily in the Mediterranean sea, were collected weekly from May 1992 through December 2000 and analyzed for carbon dioxide content. "On the basis of annual averages calculated from monthly averages, CO2 levels at Lampedusa Island have risen from 360.80 in 1993 to 371.27 in 2000. The data show an average trend of +1.5 ppmv/y." The data from the study, newly available this month from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), include a plot of mean carbon dioxide concentration (ppmv) against time and a text table of the annual mean values. Methods, notes, and references are also provided.

Monteleone, Francesco.; Di Sarra, Alcide.; Ciattaglia, Luigi.; Chamard, Paolo.

2001-01-01

399

Fatal intoxication due to an unexpected presence of carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

A fatal accident which occurred in a tank containing a sludge made of wine and activated charcoal is described. Similar accidents in the wine industry seem to have never been reported before. Initially, the cause of death was not obvious and became clear only after the autopsy confirmed the presence of a very high concentration of carbon dioxide in blood. It is shown in this paper how the concentration of carbon dioxide in the tank could be estimated from its solubility in water, assuming a realistic content of this gas in the wine remaining in the sludge. Moreover the accident was analysed by the fault tree method which revealed that, as well as the deficiencies in risk management of such companies, the unsuspected presence of carbon dioxide played a significant role. PMID:7825935

Guillemin, M P; Horisberger, B

1994-12-01

400

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

2006-09-30

401

CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION BY PHASE ENHANCED GAS-LIQUID ABSORPTION  

SciTech Connect

A new process called phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption has been developed in its early stage. It was found that adding another phase into the absorption system of gas/aqueous phase could enhance the absorption rate. A system with three phases was studied. In the system, gas phase was carbon dioxide. Two liquid phases were used. One was organic phase. Another was aqueous phase. By addition of organic phase into the absorption system of CO{sub 2}-aqueous phase, the absorption rate of CO{sub 2} was increased significantly. CO{sub 2} finally accumulated into aqueous phase. The experimental results proved that (1) Absorption rate of carbon dioxide was enhanced by adding organic phase into gas aqueous phase system; (2) Organic phase played the role of transportation of gas solute (CO{sub 2}). Carbon dioxide finally accumulated into aqueous phase.

Liang Hu; Adeyinka A. Adeyiga

2004-05-01

402

CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION BY PHASE ENHANCED GAS-LIQUID ABSORPTION  

SciTech Connect

A new process called phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption has been developed in its early stage. It was found that adding another phase into the absorption system of gas/aqueous phase could enhance the absorption rate. A system with three phases was studied. In the system, gas phase was carbon dioxide. Two liquid phases were used. One was organic phase. Another was aqueous phase. By addition of organic phase into the absorption system of CO{sub 2}-aqueous phase, the absorption rate of CO{sub 2} was increased significantly. CO{sub 2} finally accumulated into aqueous phase. The experimental results proved that (1) Absorption rate of carbon dioxide was enhanced by adding organic phase into gas aqueous phase system; (2) Organic phase played the role of transportation of gas solute (CO{sub 2}). Carbon dioxide finally accumulated into aqueous phase.

Liang Hu

2004-09-30

403

Carbon Dioxide Budget of Kilauea Volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new CO2 budget for Kilauea volcano based on experiments carried out in 9\\/95, 10\\/98, and 5\\/99. The summit CO2 emission rate was constrained by the SO2 emission rate (by COSPEC) and the average volcanic CO2\\/SO2 (by NDIR CO2 analyzer and CP-FTIR) at ground level along the 5.4-km summit COSPEC traverse. The summit CO2 emission rate is nearly

T. M. Gerlach; K. A. McGee; T. Elias; A. J. Sutton; M. P. Doukas

2002-01-01

404

Electricity Load and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Effects of a Carbon Price in the Short Term  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilizing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at acceptable levels will require a dramatic de-carbonization of the electric generation sector in the U.S. One increasingly discussed way to meet this policy goal is to put an explicit price on carbon emissions, either through a tax or a trading scheme. Increasing demand response has also been discussed as a way to reduce carbon

Adam Newcomer; Seth Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan

2008-01-01

405

Fate of fossil fuel carbon dioxide and the global carbon budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of fossil fuel carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere depends on the exchange rates of carbon between the atmosphere and three major carbon reservoirs, namely, the oceans, shallow-water sediments, and the terrestrial biosphere. Various assumptions and models used to estimate the global carbon budget for the last 20 years are reviewed and evaluated. Several versions of recent atmosphere-ocean

W. S. Broecker; T. Takahashi; H. J. Simpson; T.-H. Peng

1979-01-01

406

Method and apparatus for producing food grade carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed of producing food grade carbon dioxide from an impure carbon dioxide source stream containing contaminants which may include light and heavy hydrocarbons (at least C/sub 1/ to C/sub 3/) and light sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well as heavier sulfur constituents in the nature of mercaptans (RSH) and/or organic mono and disulfides (RSR and RSSR). Nitrogen, water and/or oxygen may also be present in varying amounts in the impure feed stream. The feed gas is first rectified with liquid carbon dioxide condensed from a part of the feed stream to remove heavy hydrocarbons and heavy sulfur compounds, then passed through an absorber to effect removal of the light sulfur compounds, next subjected to an oxidizing atmosphere capable of converting all of the C/sub 2/ hydrocarbons and optionally a part of the methane to carbon oxides and water, chilled to condense the water in the remaining gas stream without formation of hydrates, liquefied for ease of handling and storage and finally stripped to remove residual contaminants such as methane, carbon monoxide and nitrogen to produce the final food grade carbon dioxide product.

Nobles, J.E.; Swenson, L.K.

1984-07-17

407

Investigation of the Effects of Nitrogen and Helium on the Excitation Mechanisms of a Pulsed Carbon Dioxide Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of the effects of helium and nitrogen addition upon average power, peak power, pulse decay time, and pulse delay time was conducted. The excitation mechanisms for mixtures of carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide-nitrogen, carbon dioxide-helium,...

F. A. Figueroa

1969-01-01

408

Reconciling glacial cycle atmospheric radiocarbon and carbon dioxide signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms causing the glacial-interglacial range of ~90ppmv are still not fully understood. The deep Pacific is a potential isolated storage reservoir of respired carbon related to reduced ocean ventilation at this time. During the initial deglaciation (18-14kyr BP), atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increased by ~40ppmv. Corresponding records of atmospheric radiocarbon concentration display a massive decrease of 190‰, which also suggest the sudden release of a large store of carbon that has been isolated from the atmosphere for a significant period of time. In this study we have used an Earth system model of intermediate complexity, GENIE (Grid ENabled Integrated Earth) to investigate the influence of plausible physical changes in ocean circulation on deep Pacific storage of carbon, and the impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide and distribution of carbon isotopes. We perform transient simulations of the last glacial cycle (120kyr) to examine the sensitivity of Pacific carbon storage to prescribed ocean circulations and sea-ice cover, including freshwater hosing to simulate Heinrich events. In particular we present modelled changes in carbon dioxide and radiocarbon, which produce deglacial changes consistent with available palaeo-records in terms of time scale and magnitude.

Felton, Michelle; Singarayer, Joy

2010-05-01

409

Carbon Dioxide Separation with a Two-Dimensional Polymer Membrane.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide gas separation is important for many environmental and energy applications. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize a two-dimensional hydrocarbon polymer, PG-ES1, that uses a combination of surface adsorption and narrow pores to separate carbon dioxide from nitrogen, oxygen, and methane gases. The CO(2) permeance is 3 × 10(5) gas permeation units (GPU). The CO(2)/N(2) selectivity is 60, and the CO(2)/CH(4) selectivity exceeds 500. The combination of high CO(2) permeance and selectivity surpasses all known materials, enabling low-cost postcombustion CO(2) capture, utilization of landfill gas, and horticulture applications. PMID:22734516

Schrier, Joshua

2012-07-01

410

NOVEL CERAMIC MEMBRANE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION  

SciTech Connect

This project is aimed at demonstrating technical feasibility for a lithium zirconate based dense ceramic membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas at high temperature. The research work conducted in this reporting period was focused on several fundamental issues of lithium zirconate important to the development of the dense inorganic membrane. These fundamental issues include material synthesis of lithium zirconate, phases and microstructure of lithium zirconate and structure change of lithium zirconate during sorption/desorption process. The results show difficulty to prepare the dense ceramic membrane from pure lithium zirconate, but indicate a possibility to prepare the dense inorganic membrane for carbon dioxide separation from a composite lithium zirconate.

Jerry Y.S. Lin; Jun-ichi Ida

2001-03-01

411

On-line computer estimation of carbon dioxide response curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anesthesiologists are concerned with the effect of various anesthetics on a patient's central nervous ventilatory control.\\u000a The most widely accepted method of determining the effect of a drug is to compare carbon dioxide response curves (?$$\\\\dot V$$\\u000a e\\/?PetCO2, where$$\\\\dot V$$\\u000a e = minute ventilation [in L\\/min] andPetCO2 = end-tidal carbon dioxide [in mm Hg]) measured before and after administration of

Duane L. Sherrill; George D. Swanson

1986-01-01

412

Aluminium stabilization controls organic carbon levels in Chilean volcanic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chilean volcanic soils are known to contain large amounts of organic matter (OM) and amorphous (e.g., allophanic) clay. Here, we test the hypothesis that Al, rather than clay content and climatic conditions, is the most important factor for OM levels in volcanic soils. This was achieved by compiling a total of 225 pedons from two national-wide datasets of south-Central Chilean

Francisco Matus; Ximena Amigo; Sųren M. Kristiansen

2006-01-01

413

Modelling the climate-carbon cycle response to stratospheric volcanic aerosol radiative forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large volcanic eruptions can have a significant influence on climate, and can indirectly influence the global carbon cycle through climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. As such, major volcanic eruptions offer an opportunity to improve our understanding of both climate responses to radiative forcing and global carbon cycle responses to climate. However, the magnitudes of both the climate and carbon cycle responses to volcanic forcings are difficult to quantify due to the internal variability of the climate system on interannual timescales, and the low temporal resolution of ice core CO2 records. Nevertheless, the tremendous opportunity offered by studying such perturbations and the relevance of the response for future coupled climate-carbon behaviour motivates us to investigate such events using coupled climate-carbon Earth system models (ESMs). In this study, three ESMs (SIMEARTH, CLIMBER VECODE, and CLIMBER LPJ ) are used to simulate the effects of different magnitudes of volcanic eruption on the coupled global climate-carbon cycle system. Simulated volcanic events range in magnitude from Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 4 (e.g. Mount Pelee, 1902) to 8 (e.g. the 1258 ice core event), and include the VEI 6 Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991. All models simulate similar levels of cooling in response to a volcanic event of a given magnitude, but the atmospheric CO2 response is more variable. For example, a VEI 6 eruption results in a modelled temperature decrease of 0.3oC to 0.4oC and atmospheric CO2 decrease of 0.1ppm to 3ppm. Key differences in parameterizations, such as how soil respiration and net primary productivity respond to temperature and atmospheric CO2, have major impacts on the modelled dynamics of atmospheric, land, and ocean carbon. The usefulness of characterising the simulated response of the global carbon cycle to this type of perturbation with metrics used in previous projects (e.g. C4MIP), such as the sensitivity of the global carbon cycle to volcanic aerosol-induced cooling (?) (Friedlingstein et al., 2006), and the total land carbon response to CO2 (?) (Frank et al., 2010), is also investigated. Frank, D.C. et al. (2010), Ensemble reconstruction constraints on the global carbon cycle sensitivity to climate, Nature, 463(7280), 527-530, doi:10.1038/nature08769. Friedlingstein, P. et al. (2006), Climate-Carbon Cycle Feedback Analysis: Results from the C4MIP Model Intercomparison, Journal of Climate, 19(14), 3337-3353, doi:10.1175/JCLI3800.1.

Foley, Aideen; Willeit, Matteo; Friend, Andrew; Feulner, Georg

2013-04-01

414

Experimental Inhibition of Carbonate Mineral Precipitation by Sulfur Dioxide: Implications for Early Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is abundant in terrestrial volcanic emissions and was likely at least as abundant in early martian emissions. Recent photochemical studies indicate that during episodes of vigorous volcanic activity, the atmospheric lifetime of SO2 may have been sufficiently long for it to have helped maintain liquid water on the surface of Mars and perhaps to have regulated the

I. Halevy; D. P. Schrag

2009-01-01

415

Young organic matter as a source of carbon dioxide outgassing from Amazonian rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rivers are generally supersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide, resulting in large gas evasion fluxes that can be a significant component of regional net carbon budgets. Amazonian rivers were recently shown to outgas more than ten times the amount of carbon exported to the ocean in the form of total organic carbon or dissolved inorganic carbon. High carbon dioxide concentrations

Emilio Mayorga; Anthony K. Aufdenkampe; Caroline A. Masiello; Alex V. Krusche; John I. Hedges; Paul D. Quay; Jeffrey E. Richey; Thomas A. Brown

2005-01-01

416

Classroom Demonstration: Combustion of Diamond to Carbon Dioxide Followed by Reduction to Graphite  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An educational demonstration shows the combustion of carbon to carbon dioxide and then the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon. A melee diamond is the source of the carbon and the reaction is carried out in a closed flask. The demonstration helps students to realize that diamonds are made of carbon and that atoms do not change or vanish in…

Miyauchi, Takuya; Kamata, Masahiro

2012-01-01

417

Formation of Quartz-Carbonate Veins: Evidence From Experimental Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Brine-Rock System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz-carbonate veins are common in a variety of moderate temperature hydrothermal systems and ore deposits. Associated fluid inclusions have a wide range of compositions, including liquid carbon dioxide fillings. Examination of chemical and physical conditions which result precipitation of quartz and carbonate in veins raises several key questions about multiphase fluid processes and reaction rates. We have been experimentally investigating physical-chemical reaction processes of mixed brine-carbon dioxide fluids for the shallow crust. Synthetic arkose (microcline + oligoclase + quartz + biotite) plus argillaceous shale were reacted with 5.5 molal NaCl brine. The system was held at 200 C and 200 bars for 32 days to approach steady state, then injected with carbon dioxide and allowed to react for an additional 45 days. In a parallel experiment, the system was allowed to react for 77 days without injection of carbon dioxide. Trace ions initially absent from NaCl brine appeared in solution at mM (K, Ca, and silica) to uM (Mg, Al, Fe and Mn) quantities, reflecting reaction of brine with rock. Without carbon dioxide injection, the silica concentration (2.4 mM) was stable below calculated quartz solubility (3.9 mM). Injection of carbon dioxide resulted in decreased pH and increased silica concentration to a level near calculated chalcedony solubility (5.4 mM). Dissolution of silicate minerals is apparently coupled to the acidity, and concomitant inhibition of the precipitation of quartz (and other silicates). A significant increase in concentration of trace metals is consistent with in-situ pH decrease and increased carbon dioxide dissolved in brine. Multi-phase fluid reaction relationships between supercritical carbon dioxide and brine-rock systems allow formation of carbonate vein precipitates in substantial quantities. Brine and continued rock reactions provide a substantial reservoir for Ca, Mg and Fe components. A separate carbon dioxide liquid allows precipitation from relatively small volumes of total fluid, with coupled increases in pH and mineral stability. The doubling of silica concentration in the experimental system containing acidic brine and supercritical carbon dioxide indicates that precipitation of silica can occur in parallel to carbonate minerals when pH increases. Emplacement of silica super-saturated brine into a rock-dominated reaction system buffered to more neutral pH conditions may enhance precipitation of quartz, chalcedony, or amorphous silica as veins or cements, depending on the permeability structure of the host rock. Phase separation or loss of carbon dioxide with decreasing pressure can substantially shift pH upwards, with potential for creating massive vein or scale formation.

Janecky, D. R.; Kaszuba, J. P.

2003-12-01

418

49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when shipped by itself or when used as a refrigerant for other commodities, may be carried only if the operator has made suitable arrangements based on the aircraft...

2012-10-01

419

49 CFR 175.900 - Handling requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice). Carbon dioxide, solid (dry ice) when shipped by itself or when used as a refrigerant for other commodities, may be carried only if the operator has made suitable arrangements based on the aircraft...

2011-10-01

420

Investigation of an Integrated Carbon Dioxide-Reduction and Water-Electrolysis System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new integrated system for oxygen recovery from carbon dioxide was investigated. Experimental studies indicated that it was feasible to integrate water electrolysis with carbon dioxide hydrogenation in an electrolysis cell using Pd-25Ag hydrogen-diffusio...

J. E. Clifford E. S. Kolic E. W. Winter R. H. Cherry E. J. Mezey

1967-01-01

421

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM EXHUMED PETROCALCIC HORIZONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The second largest pool of terrestrial carbon is pedogenic CaCO3. In addition to being an important sink of atmospheric CO2, pedogenic carbonate has the potential to be an important source of atmospheric CO2. The cemented form of pedogenic carbonate (the petrocalcic horizon) develops in geomorphical...

422

Carbon dioxide adsorption in graphene sheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control over the CO2 emission via automobiles and industrial exhaust in atmosphere, is one of the major concerns to render environmental friendly milieu. Adsorption can be considered to be one of the more promising methods, offering potential energy savings compared to absorbent systems. Different carbon nanostructures (activated carbon and carbon nanotubes) have attracted attention as CO2 adsorbents due to their

Ashish Kumar Mishra; Sundara Ramaprabhu

2011-01-01

423

Photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to hydrocarbon using copper-loaded titanium dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide using copper-loaded titanium dioxide powders at ambient temperature has been reported. The Cu-TiO[sub 2] powders suspended in the solution, which was pressurized with CO[sub 2] of 28 kgf/cm[sup 2], were illuminated with an Xe lamp. The catalyst, Cu([le]5 wt%)/TiO[sub 2], is specific for the products (i.e., the main products were methane and ethylene, and not methyl alcohol and formaldehyde). By the photochemical reduction, the yields for methane, ethylene, and ethane were 21.8 [mu]l/g, 26.2 [mu]l/g, and 2.7 [mu]l/g, respectively, under optimum conditions. The carbon dioxide reduction system developed might well become of practical interest for photochemical fuel production, storage of solar energy, and production of raw materials for the photochemical industry.

Adachi, Kenji; Ohta, Kiyohisa; Mizuno, Takayuki (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan))

1994-08-01

424

Reduction of soil carbon formation by tropospheric ozone under increased carbon dioxide levels.  

PubMed

In the Northern Hemisphere, ozone levels in the troposphere have increased by 35 per cent over the past century, with detrimental impacts on forest and agricultural productivity, even when forest productivity has been stimulated by increased carbon dioxide levels. In addition to reducing productivity, increased tropospheric ozone levels could alter terrestrial carbon cycling by lowering the quantity and quality of carbon inputs to soils. However, the influence of elevated ozone levels on soil carbon formation and decomposition are unknown. Here we examine the effects of elevated ozone levels on the formation rates of total and decay-resistant acid-insoluble soil carbon under conditions of elevated carbon dioxide levels in experimental aspen (Populus tremuloides) stands and mixed aspen-birch (Betula papyrifera) stands. With ambient concentrations of ozone and carbon dioxide both raised by 50 per cent, we find that the formation rates of total and acid-insoluble soil carbon are reduced by 50 per cent relative to the amounts entering the soil when the forests were exposed to increased carbon dioxide alone. Our results suggest that, in a world with elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, global-scale reductions in plant productivity due to elevated ozone levels will also lower soil carbon formation rates significantly. PMID:14562100

Loya, Wendy M; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Karberg, Noah J; King, John S; Giardina, Christian P

2003-10-16

425

Air-sea carbon dioxide exchange in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: Impplications for the global carbon budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the ocean as a sink for anthropogenic carbon dioxide is a subject of intensive investigation and debate. Interest in this process is driven by the need to predict the rate of future increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and subsequent global climatic change. Although estimates of the magnitude of the oceanic sink for carbon dioxide appear to be

Christopher D. Winn; Fred T. Mackenzie; Christopher J. Carrilo; Christopher L. Sabine; David M. Karl

1994-01-01

426

Air-sea carbon dioxide exchange in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: Implications for the Global Carbon Budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the ocean as a sink for anthropogenic carbon dioxide is a subject of intensive investigation and debate. Interest in this process is driven by the need to predict the rate of future increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and subsequent global climatic change. Although estimates of the magnitude of the oceanic sink for carbon dioxide appear to be

Christopher D. Winn; Fred T. Mackenzie; Christopher J. Carrillo; Christopher L. Sabine; David M. Karl

1994-01-01

427

Volcanic monitoring from space using neural networks approach. Simultaneous ash and sulfur dioxide retrievals using multispectral measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work a Multi Layer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) approach has been used for a simultaneous volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide retrievals considering the MODIS measurements. As test case the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption have been considered. A network was built for each parameter to be retrieved. Additionally, for volcanic ash, a network for the classification of "ash image pixels" was implemented, which was then used to mask the estimates. Several network topologies were compared in terms of their performance. Concerning the training phase and networks testing, a set of MODIS images was selected covering the Eyjafjallajokull May events. The classification NNs were trained with the volcanic ash classification map obtained with the Brightness Temperature Difference algorithm, assumed as benchmark. The neural networks for the quantitative estimation of the parameters associated with volcanic ash, mass, effective radius, aerosol optical depth and SO2, were instead trained with maps obtained using consolidated estimation algorithms based on simulated radiances at the top of the atmosphere, generated in turn applying a radiative transfer model to remote sensing data. The networks proved to be very effective in solving the inversion problem related to the estimation of the parameters of the volcanic cloud, settling the crucial issue related to false alarms in the detection of volcanic ash. Furthermore, once the training phase is complete, NNs provide a faster inversion technique, useful for the applications. From this point of view the technique satisfies the need to respond quickly as a result of disastrous natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions. Future activities include testing the effectiveness of the technique under different lighting conditions (night images) and on other types of multispectral data, such as that provided by high temporal resolution sensors like SEVIRI-MSG, on board the METEOSAT second Generation satellites. The latter would be particularly suitable considering its exceptional quick response characteristics for real-time monitoring of the atmosphere. The use of hyperspectral data, recently used for the estimation of parameters associated with volcanic clouds, is also under consideration for future work.

Piscini, A.; Corradini, S.; Chini, M.; Merucci, L.; Stramondo, S.; Picchiani, M.; Del Frate, F.

2012-04-01

428

Satellite Observations of Elevated Carbon Monoxide in Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic degassing before, during, and after eruptions produces gases such as H2O, CO2, and SO2 (dominant species) as well as H2, H2S, HCl, CO, and S2 (minor species). While dominant volcanic gases have been successfully analyzed from orbit in the past, the minor components are still measured only in situ, with all the consequent limitations in safety and sampling, and at elevated costs. Here we present a case study where (for the first time, to our knowledge) elevated CO values consistent with a volcanic origin (the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland) were identified in satellite data products from MOPITT and IASI (the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere instrument and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, respectively). Remote measurements of volcanic CO would contribute to a better understanding of volcanic degassing and improve atmospheric chemistry models. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption extended over three months, emitting an estimated 150,000 tonnes/day of CO2 and up to 6,800 tonnes/day of SO2. The plume-like positive anomaly we have detected in MOPITT CO retrievals coincides spatially and temporally with positive IASI CO, IASI SO2, and OMI SO2 anomalies, as well as with an optically thick plume emanating from the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, evident in MODIS visible data. Initial MOPITT modeling results show that uncertainties in water vapor content alone could not explain the CO anomaly. We will further discuss the effect of elevated water vapor and aerosols (both abundant during volcanic activity) in the MOPITT CO retrievals. We will also contrast the CO anomaly with the expected amount of volcanic CO emissions, given CO2 and SO2 measurements available for the Eyjafjallajökull eruption and the SO2/CO and CO2/CO ratios documented in the literature for other eruptions in similar tectonic settings.

Martinez-Alonso, S.; Deeter, M. N.; Worden, H. M.; Clerbaux, C.; Mao, D.; Gille, J. C.

2011-12-01

429

Numerically Simulating Carbonate Mineralization of Basalt with Injection of Carbon Dioxide into Deep Saline Formations  

SciTech Connect

The principal mechanisms for the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep saline formations include geological structural trapping, hydrological entrapment of nonwetting fluids, aqueous phase dissolution and ionization, and geochemical sorption and mineralization. In sedimentary saline formations the dominant mechanisms are structural and dissolution trapping, with moderate to weak contributions from hydrological and geochemical trapping; where, hydrological trapping occurs during the imbibition of aqueous solution into pore spaces occupied by gaseous carbon dioxide, and geochemical trapping is controlled by generally slow reaction kinetics. In addition to being globally abundant and vast, deep basaltic lava formations offer mineralization kinetics that make geochemical trapping a dominate mechanism for trapping carbon dioxide in these formations. For several decades the United States Department of Energy has been investigating Columbia River basalt in the Pacific Northwest as part of its environmental programs and options for natural gas storage. Recently this nonpotable and extensively characterized basalt formation is being reconsidered as a potential reservoir for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. The reservoir has an estimated storage capacity of 100 giga tonnes of carbon dioxide and comprises layered basalt flows with sublayering that generally alternates between low permeability massive and high permeability breccia. Chemical analysis of the formation shows 10 wt% Fe, primarily in the +2 valence. The mineralization reaction that makes basalt formations attractive for carbon dioxide sequestration is that of calcium, magnesium, and iron silicates reacting with dissolved carbon dioxide, producing carbonate minerals and amorphous quartz. Preliminary estimates of the kinetics of the silicate-to-carbonate reactions have been determined experimentally and this research is continuing to determine effects of temperature, pressure, rock composition and mineral assemblages on the reaction rates. This study numerically investigates the injection, migration and sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide in deep Columbia River basalt formations using the multifluid subsurface flow and reactive transport simulator STOMP-CO2 with its ECKEChem module. Simulations are executed on high resolution multiple stochastic realizations of the layered basalt systems and demonstrate the migration behavior through layered basalt formations and the mineralization of dissolved carbon dioxide. Reported results include images of the migration behavior, distribution of carbonate formation, quantities of injected and sequestered carbon dioxide, and percentages of the carbon dioxide sequestered by different mechanisms over time.

White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bacon, Diana H.

2006-07-08

430

ARTICLES: Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data of Carbon Dioxide+Methyl Propionate and Carbon Dioxide+Propyl Propionate Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the binary systems of methyl propionate+carbon dioxide and propyl propionate+carbon dioxide were measured at pressure from 1.00 MPa to 12.00 MPa and temperature in the range from 313 K to 373 K. Experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the two-parameter van der Waals mixing rule. At the same time, the Henry's coefficient, partial molar enthalpy change and partial molar entropy change of CO2 during dissolution at different temperature were also calculated.

Xu, Wei; Xie, Chuan-xin; Li, Hong-ling; Tian, Yi-ling

2010-06-01

431

Effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the bioleaching of a pyrite-arsenopyrite ore concentrate  

SciTech Connect

The effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the bacterial leaching of a pyrite-arsenopyrite ore concentrate was studied in continuous-flow reactors. Steady-state operation with two feed slurry densities, 6 wt% and 16wt% solids, were tested for the effect of carbon dioxide concentration. Bacterial growth rates were estimated via the measurement of carbon dioxide consumption rates. Aqueous-phase carbon dioxide concentrations in excess of 10 mg/L were found to be inhibitory to bacterial growth.

Nagpal, S.; Dahlstrom, D. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States)); Oolman, T. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States))

1993-02-20

432

Effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the bioleaching of a pyrite-arsenopyrite ore concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the bacterial leaching of a pyrite-arsenopyrite ore concentrate was studied in continuous-flow reactors. Steady-state operation with two feed slurry densities, 6 wt% and 16wt% solids, were tested for the effect of carbon dioxide concentration. Bacterial growth rates were estimated via the measurement of carbon dioxide consumption rates. Aqueous-phase carbon dioxide concentrations in excess

Soumitro Nagpal; Donald Dahlstrom; Timothy Oolman

1993-01-01

433

Understanding volcanic processes using UV camera measurements of sulfur dioxide and coincident infrasound and seismicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exsolution of volatiles from magma maintains an important control on volcanic eruption styles. The nucleation, growth, and connectivity of bubbles during magma ascent provide the driving force behind eruptions, and the rate, volume, and ease of gas exsolution can affect eruptive activity. Volcanic plumes are the observable consequence of this magmatic degassing, and remote sensing techniques allow us to

Marika Piirak Dalton

2010-01-01

434

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS  

SciTech Connect

Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.

David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

2001-05-01

435

Preparing and characterizing the active carbon produced by steam and carbon dioxide as a heavy oil hydrocracking catalyst support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active carbon was prepared from Yallourn brown coal char using steam and carbon dioxide activation in a laboratory rotary kiln. The activation rate with steam was faster than that with carbon dioxide. The pore structure of the active carbons was characterized using the nitrogen isotherms at 77K. The pore volume and specific surface area of the active carbon increased with

Hidetsugu Fukuyama; Satoshi Terai

2008-01-01

436

The effect of the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on world emissions of a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. We\\u000a use a large unbalanced panel data consisting of 177 countries from 1980 to 2006. The key finding of this paper is that there\\u000a are structural breaks in the data that demonstrate the effects of the international agreement. While carbon

Risa Kumazawa; Michael S. Callaghan

2012-01-01

437

Thermodynamics of the carbon dioxide system in the oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the next ten years, a number of studies on the carbonate system are planned as part of the JGOFS\\/WOCE programs. The carbon dioxide system will be studied by measuring at least two of the controlling parameters; pH, total alkalinity (TA), total inorganic CO2 (TCO2), and the fugacity of CO2 (fCO2). The other parameters can be calculated using thermodynamic relations.

Frank J. Millero

1995-01-01

438

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2006, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. An integrated system composed of a downflow co-current contact absorber and two hollow screw conveyors (regenerator and cooler) was assembled, instrumented, debugged, and calibrated. A new batch of supported sorbent containing 15% sodium carbonate was prepared and subjected to surface area and compact bulk density determination.

David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Raghubir P. Gupta

2006-03-31

439

Real-World Carbon Dioxide Impacts of Traffic Congestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transportation plays a significant role in carbon dioxide (CO2) emis- sions, accounting for approximately a third of the U.S. inventory. To reduce CO2 emissions in the future, transportation policy makers are planning on making vehicles more efficient and increasing the use of carbon-neutral alternative fuels. In addition, CO2 emissions can be low- ered by improving traffic operations, specifically through the

Matthew Barth; Kanok Boriboonsomsin

2008-01-01

440

27 CFR 24.245 - Use of carbon dioxide in still wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Use of carbon dioxide in still wine. 24...Wine Ā§ 24.245 Use of carbon dioxide in still wine. ...exceeds 0.392 grams of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters...variation results from the use of methods or...

2009-04-01

441

27 CFR 24.245 - Use of carbon dioxide in still wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Use of carbon dioxide in still wine. 24...Wine Ā§ 24.245 Use of carbon dioxide in still wine. ...exceeds 0.392 grams of carbon dioxide per 100 milliliters...variation results from the use of methods or...

2010-04-01

442

Responses of cotton and wheat photosynthesis and growth to cyclic variation in carbon dioxide concentration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The carbon dioxide concentration in free air carbon dioxide enrichment systems (FACE) often has rapid fluctuations. In our FACE system, power spectral analysis of carbon dioxide concentrations measured every second with an open path analyzer indicated peaks in variation centered on a wavelength of ...

443

Heat rejection pressure optimization for a carbon dioxide split system: An experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate carbon dioxide (R744) as a valid alternative to classical substances such as HFCs used in vapour compression plants. However a transcritical refrigeration cycle is needed because the critical temperature of carbon dioxide is usually near the ambient temperature. Consequently the carbon dioxide refrigerator performances are significantly influenced by the heat rejection pressure. In this paper an experimental

Ciro Aprea; Angelo Maiorino

2009-01-01

444

CONTINUOUS, LONG-TERM MEASUREMENT OF SOIL CARBON DIOXIDE FLUXES USING POROUS TUBING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A subsurface, gradient approach was developed to continuously monitor soil carbon dioxide fluxes. Carbon dioxide gas concentrations at 2, 10, and 18 cm beneath the soil surface were measured using 7.6 m lengths of expanded Teflon tubing that is porous to carbon dioxide and other soil gases. The tubi...

445

46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hammer test or such other means as may be necessary...annual inspections, all carbon dioxide (CO2 ...quantity in pounds of carbon dioxide required may...in feet. B =the mean breadth of the hold...feet. (2) When a carbon dioxide (CO2 )...

2009-10-01

446

46 CFR 167.45-1 - Steam, carbon dioxide, and halon fire extinguishing systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hammer test or such other means as may be necessary...annual inspections, all carbon dioxide (CO2 ...quantity in pounds of carbon dioxide required may...in feet. B =the mean breadth of the hold...feet. (2) When a carbon dioxide (CO2 )...

2010-10-01

447

Preliminary results from the first aircraft flight of the JPL Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global scale observations of carbon dioxide mixing ratios are desired to define spatial gradients of carbon dioxide, from which sources and sinks can be derived and quantified and separated from the seasonal fluctuation component. There is currently no available remote sensing instrumentation that is capable of providing the high-accuracy carbon dioxide mixing ratio measurements with the vertical and horizontal spatial

G. D. Spiers; S. Geier; R. T. Menzies

2006-01-01

448

Physical variation of water vapor, and the relation with carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the long term NOAA carbon dioxide flask sample records to examine the exchange among the continental Antarctic air mass and other air masses shows a meteorological variation of carbon dioxide concentration. There is an inverse relation between the seasonal variation of carbon dioxide concentration and water vapor at all stations examined. Well established diffusion coefficients indicate an interaction

W. G. Egan; A. W. Hogan; H. Zhu

1991-01-01

449

Estimating the regional surface fluxes of carbon dioxide using the Kalman filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide is a radiatively important trace gas in the atmosphere, whose concentration has been rising since the industrial revolution. Understanding the sources and sinks that regulate carbon dioxide is crucial for scientists to assess future global change effects. Previous estimates of carbon dioxide reveal that a 'missing' sink has been unaccounted for in the northern hemisphere. While various methods

Danielle Elizabeth Haas-Laursen

1997-01-01

450

Microbiological and Mineralogical Characterization of Columbia River Basalts Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep geologic sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide can remove excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere but will cause profound changes to the geochemistry and microorganisms in the deep strata where it is injected. Here we report the original subsurface microbial constituents in basalt aquifers where supercritical carbon dioxide will be injected as part of the DOE Big Sky Regional Partnership

F. S. Colwell; M. R. Fisk; H. Yip; A. Schwartz; B. R. Briggs; F. Spane

2009-01-01

451

SORPTION BEHAVIOUR AND SWELLING OF POLYMERS IN A CARBON DIOXIDE ATMOSPHERE AT TRANSCRITICAL CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the sealing of moving and unmoving components and assemblies in refrigerating plants using carbon dioxide as a refrigerant it is important to know that small carbon dioxide molecules can diffuse into polymers. The carbon dioxide accumulates in the polymer which leads to swelling. Additionally, the seals strained at supercritical pressure can be destroyed by an explosive decompression. The sorption

R. Eggers

452

Response of agronomic and forest species to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on corn, soybeans, loblolly pine, and sweethum were studied in the field during a growing season. The plants were exposed to a range of concentrations of carbon dioxide day and night in open topped, flow-through chambers. At a mean daytime carbon dioxide concentration of 910 parts per million, increases in total biomass ranged form

H. H. Rogers; J. F. Thomas; G. E. Bingham

1983-01-01

453

Response of an insect herbivore to host plants grown in carbon dioxide enriched atmospheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to increase plant productivity, but little evidence is available regarding effects on insect feeding or growth. Larvae of the soybean looper, a noctuid moth, were fed leaves of soybean plants grown under three carbon dioxide regimes (350, 500 and 650 µl·l-1). Larvae fed at increasingly higher rates on plants from elevated carbon dioxide

D. E. Lincoln; D. Couvet; N. Sionit

1986-01-01

454

27 CFR 24.245 - Use of carbon dioxide in still wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of carbon dioxide in still wine. 24.245 Section...and Finishing of Wine Ā§ 24.245 Use of carbon dioxide in still wine. The addition of carbon dioxide to (and retention in) still...

2013-04-01

455

SHRUBS EFFECTS ON CARBON DIOXIDE AND WATER VAPOR FLUXES OVER GRASSLANDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Temperate grasslands are a species rich ecosystem that may be important in mitigating the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. The effect of shrub invasion on carbon dioxide fluxes in Northern Great Plains grasslands is not known. The objectives of this research were to determine carbon dioxide...

456

21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868.2480...Devices Ā§ 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2 ) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2 ) monitor is...

2013-04-01

457

Distribution of carbon dioxide in a naturally ventilated room with high internal heat load  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The paper shows results of measuring the carbon dioxide distribution in a test room with natural ventilation and high occupant density. The test room represented one tier of a classroom with tiltable windows on one side. Dummies emitting heat and carbon dioxide simulated the pupils. The measurements of carbon dioxide were carried out at various places and heights to

Simone Steiger; M. Eng

458

Diffusion of carbon dioxide (1); water (2); potassium nitrate (3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) carbon dioxide; (2) water; (3) potassium nitrate

Winkelmann, J.

459

How Can We Use Carbon Dioxide as a Solvent?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the work being undertaken to make more use of supercritical carbon dioxide as a green solvent. It discusses how the use of surfactants can address the limitations of supercritical CO[subscript 2] in dissolving solutes that are polar and of higher molecular weight. The design of appropriate hydrocarbon CO[subscript 2]-philic…

Mohamed, Azmi; Eastoe, Julian

2011-01-01

460

Condensed Products Formation in Aluminum Combustion in Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental study of condensed phase (c- phase) formation in combustion of aluminium particles (single and collective) in carbon dioxide. Certain attention is paid to correlation between the combustion products morphology and characteristics of Al-droplet and its environment (droplet size, CO2-pressure). The single particle combustion was studied using a modified experimental installation with combustion chamber based on a

I. G. Assovskiy; A. N. Streletskiy; V. I. Kolesnikov-Svinarev; G. P. Kuznetsov

461

Extraction of Amaranth seed oil by supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work studied various aspects of extracting high value lipids from a model seed material (Amaranthcruentus) using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent. Experimentally, it investigated the effects of process temperature, pressure, solvent flow rate, scale of extraction, and sample pre-treatment on the extraction rate and yield. It was found that the rate of extraction was function of the solvent

D. Westerman; R. C. D. Santos; J. A. Bosley; J. S. Rogers; B. Al-Duri

2006-01-01

462

Electricity generation using a carbon-dioxide thermosiphon  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an opportunity to expand the baseload geothermal electricity generation capacity through the development of engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Carbon dioxide (CO2) could be used as an alternative to water to extract heat from these systems considering its advantages of ease of flow through the geothermal reservoir, strong innate buoyancy that permits the use of a thermosiphon rather than

Aleks D. Atrens; Hal Gurgenci; Victor Rudolph

2010-01-01

463

Carbon dioxide system in the ocean. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past five years the Department of Energy (DOE) has supported carbon dioxide studies as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) on cruises made as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The purpose of this research is t...

F. J. Millero

1998-01-01

464

Effect of oxygen and carbon dioxide absorbers on strawberry quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of active modified atmosphere packaging on quality of fresh strawberries. Strawberries were treated with one oxygen and two different carbon dioxide scavengers throughout storage at 4°C for 4 weeks. The effect of active packaging was assessed by comparing gas concentrations, pH, electrical conductivity, total soluble solids, surface color, decay incidence, texture profile analysis, sensory analysis,

Mehmet Seckin Aday; Cengiz Caner; Fatih Rahval?

2011-01-01

465

Diffusion of retinol acetate (1); carbon dioxide (2)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) retinol acetate; (2) carbon dioxide

Winkelmann, J.

466

46 CFR 193.15-20 - Carbon dioxide storage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide...or made inaccessible in the event of a fire in any of the spaces protected...designed to preclude an anticipated ambient temperature in excess of 130 Ā°F. (d)...

2011-10-01

467

A Comparative Study on Carbon Dioxide Miscible Injection Modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an experimental study of comparing different carbon dioxide (CO2) injection mode for a reservoir in Malaysia (Alpha X Reservoir). The main objective is to determine the most technically optimum miscible CO2 injection mode or strategy for this field. Using coreflood equipment, miscible CO2 displacements were conducted on four berea core plugs that have been saturated with crude

F. M. Nasir; B. M. R. Demiral

2012-01-01

468

Depleted Oil Reservoirs: A Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safe, long-term sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is fast becoming a need because of the environmental impact of increased amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. A number of alternatives are currently being studied to permanently remove CO2 from the atmosphere. These can be divided in three main categories, ocean, terrestrial and geologic disposal. Multiple geologic settings can be used

R. J. Pawar; D. Zhang

2001-01-01

469

Soil Carbon Dioxide Flux in Antarctic Dry Valley Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Antarctic dry valleys of southern Victoria Land are extreme desert environments where abiotic factors, such as temperature gradients, parent material, and soil water dynamics, may have a significant influence on soil carbon dioxide (CO 2) flux. Previous measurements of soil respiration have demonstrated very low rates of CO 2 efflux, barely above detection limits. We employed a modified infrared

Andrew N. Parsons; J. E. Barrett; Diana H. Wall; Ross A. Virginia

2004-01-01

470

Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Malaria. Ii. Plasmodium Knowlesi (Monkey Malaria).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plasmodium knowlesi-infected monkey erythrocytes fix more carbon dioxide than normal monkey red blood cells. Malaria-infected cells, incubated in the presence of NaHC14O3, show maximum amounts of radioactivity in aspartate, glutamate, lactate and citrate,...

I. W. Sherman I. P. Ting

1968-01-01

471

Venography with carbon dioxide as a contrast agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and potential role of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a contrast agent for venography. Methods: Consecutive patients with contraindications to iodinated contrast agents or with unsatisfactory iodinated contrast studies underwent CO2 digital subtraction venography. The images were rated by three experienced angiographers. Image quality and complications were assessed. Results:

Kevin L. Sullivan; Joseph Bonn; Marcelle J. Shapiro; Geoffrey A. Gardiner

1995-01-01

472

Novel Ceramic Membrane for High Temperature Carbon Dioxide Separation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Objective of this research program is to develop a dense, non-porous ceramic membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas at high temperatures (400-600 degrees C). The research has been focused on addressing several fundamental issues of li...

J. Ida Z. Yang J. Y. S. Lin

2001-01-01

473

Using the 5E Learning Cycle Sequence with Carbon Dioxide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used the 5E learning cycle (engage, explore, explain, extend, and evaluate) and a pulmonary carbon dioxide mystery to introduce eighth grade students to the study of chemistry. The activity engages students in measurement, data collection, data analysis, media and internet research, research design, and report writing as they search…

Schlenker, Richard M.; Blanke, Regina; Mecca, Peter

2007-01-01

474

Carbon Dioxide and Gadopentetate Dimeglumine Venography to Guide Percutaneous Vertebroplasty  

SciTech Connect

Percutaneous vertebroplasty with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is an effective procedure for relieving pain due to vertebral body compression fractures. The technique employs iodinated contrast venography to exclude needle placement directly within the basivertebral complex. We present two cases in which carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and gadopentetate dimeglumine venography was used to guide percutaneous vertebroplasty in patients with a contraindication to iodinated contrast.

McGraw, J. Kevin; Strnad, Bradley T.; Patzik, Shayle B.; Silber, Jeffrey S.; LaValley, Antoinette L.; Boorstein, Jeffrey M. [Center for Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, St. Vincent Mercy Medical Center, 2213 Cherry Street, Toledo, OH 43608 (United States)

2000-11-15

475

National Assessment of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources: Methodology Implementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-40, 2007), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). Storage of CO2 in subsurface saline form...

M. D. Merrill M. L. Buursink M. S. Blondes P. D. Warwick S. T. Brennan

2013-01-01

476

National Assessment of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources - Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the technically accessible storage resources (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations underlying the onshore and State waters area of the United States. The formations ass...

2013-01-01

477

Global Warming: Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment demonstrates carbon dioxide's role in the greenhouse effect and explains how increasing concentrations of C02 in the atmosphere may be contributing to global warming. Video includes an unusual demonstration of C02's heat-absorbing properties, using infrared film, a researcher's face, and a stream of C02 between them.

Frontline/nova; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

478

Measurements of carbon dioxide on a very tall tower  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a continuous, 2-year long record of carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratio at three altitudes up to 496 m above the ground on a television transmitter tower in the southeastern United States. The data show strong diurnal and seasonal variations, and large vertical gradients. The diurnal cycles are modulated by surface uptake and release by vegetation and soils, emissions

Peter S. Bakwin; Pieter P. Tans; Conglong Zhao; William Ussler III; Everett Quesnell

1995-01-01

479

Recent Results From the JPL Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active optical sensing of atmospheric molecular species relies on measuring the differential absorption between a number of different wavelengths to determine changes in concentration of the species of interest. At JPL we have been developing an aircraft instrument that uses an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) approach in the 2-micron spectral region for high-precision measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide mixing

G. D. Spiers; S. Geier; M. W. Phillips; R. T. Menzies

2007-01-01

480

DIRECT BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF INCREASED ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE LEVELS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report assesses the likely biological nonclimatic, direct effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and on human health. It summarizes the current literature on the direct effects of rising CO2 levels on the biosphere and identifies technical info...

481

Uranous ion oxidation and carbon dioxide fixation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stoichiometric oxidation of uranous-to uranyl-uranium byThiobacllus ferrooxidans is demonstrated. Fixation of14CO2 and the effect of inhibitors demonstrate that energy is conserved during the oxidation and used for energy-dependent “reverse electron flow” and carbon dioxide fixation.

Alan A. DiSpirito; Olli H. Tuovinen

1982-01-01