These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Kanaga Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These images of the Kanaga Volcano show the symmetrical cone which is characteristic of stratovolcanoes. It is also possible to see how the current volcanic edifice has grown inside an older caldera, the remains of ancient Mount Kanaton. References and links to related sites are included.

2

Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

3

Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

4

The 2008 Eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Reconnaissance Observations and Preliminary Physical Volcanology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The August 7, 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano was the first documented historical eruption of this small (3 x 3 km) island volcano with a 1 km2 lake filled crater in the central Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Reports of previous Kasatochi eruptions are unconfirmed and lacking in detail and little is known about the eruptive history. Three explosively-generated ash plumes

C. F. Waythomas; D. J. Schneider; S. G. Prejean

2008-01-01

5

August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska-resetting an Island Landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kasatochi Island, the subaerial portion of a small volcano in the western Aleutian volcanic arc, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. Pyroclastic flows and surges swept the island repeatedly and buried most of it and the near-shore zone in decimeters to tens of meters of deposits. Several key seabird rookeries in taluses were rendered useless. The eruption lasted for about 24 hours and included two initial explosive pulses and pauses over a 6-hr period that produced ash-poor eruption clouds, a 10-hr period of continuous ash-rich emissions initiated by an explosive pulse and punctuated by two others, and a final 8-hr period of waning ash emissions. The deposits of the eruption include a basal muddy tephra that probably reflects initial eruptions through the shallow crater lake, a sequence of pumiceous and lithic-rich pyroclastic deposits produced by flow, surge, and fall processes during a period of energetic explosive eruption, and a fine-grained upper mantle of pyroclastic-fall and -surge deposits that probably reflects the waning eruptive stage as lake and ground water again gained access to the erupting magma. An eruption with similar impact on the island's environment had not occurred for at least several centuries. Since the 2008 eruption, the volcano has remained quiet other than emission of volcanic gases. Erosion and deposition are rapidly altering slopes and beaches. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

Scott, W.E.; Nye, C.J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Neal, C.A.

2010-01-01

6

The 7-8 August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, central Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kasatochi volcano in the central Aleutian Islands erupted unexpectedly on 7-8 August 2008. Kasatochi has received little study by volcanologists and has had no confirmed historical eruptions. The island is an important nesting area for seabirds and a long-term biological study site of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. After a notably energetic preeruptive earthquake swarm, the volcano erupted violently in a series of explosive events beginning in the early afternoon of 7 August. Each event produced ash-gas plumes that reached 14-18 km above sea level. The volcanic plume contained large amounts of SO2 and was tracked around the globe by satellite observations. The cumulative volcanic cloud interfered with air travel across the North Pacific, causing many flight cancelations that affected thousands of travelers. Visits to the volcano in 2008-2009 indicated that the eruption generated pyroclastic flows and surges that swept all flanks of the island, accumulated several tens of meters of pyroclastic debris, and increased the diameter of the island by about 800 m. Pyroclastic flow deposits contain abundant accidental lithic debris derived from the inner walls of the Kasatochi crater. Juvenile material is crystal-rich silicic andesite that ranges from slightly pumiceous to frothy pumice. Fine-grained pyroclastic surge and fall deposits with accretionary lapilli cover the lithic-rich pyroclastic flow deposits and mark a change in eruptive style from episodic explosive activity to more continuous ash emission with smaller intermittent explosions. Pyroclastic deposits completely cover the island, but wave erosion and gully development on the flanks have begun to modify the surface mantle of volcanic deposits.

Waythomas, Christopher F.; Scott, William E.; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Schneider, David J.; Izbekov, Pavel; Nye, Christopher J.

2010-12-01

7

The 2008 Eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Reconnaissance Observations and Preliminary Physical Volcanology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The August 7, 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano was the first documented historical eruption of this small (3 x 3 km) island volcano with a 1 km2 lake filled crater in the central Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Reports of previous Kasatochi eruptions are unconfirmed and lacking in detail and little is known about the eruptive history. Three explosively-generated ash plumes reaching altitudes of 15 to 20 km were observed in satellite data and were preceded by some of the most intense seismicity yet recorded by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) seismic network. Eruptive products on Kasatochi Island observed on August 22 and 23 consist of pumice-bearing, lithic-rich pyroclastic-flow deposits overlain by a 1-2 m thick sequence of fine- grained pyroclastic-surge, and -fall deposits all exposed at the coastline. These deposits completely blanket Kasatochi Island to a depth of many meters. Pyroclastic flows entered the sea and extended the coastline 300-400 m beyond prominent wave cut cliffs and sea stacks. Tide gauge data from Adak Island, 80 km to the west, indicate a small tsunami with maximum water amplitude of 20 cm, was initiated during the eruption. Kasatochi volcano lacks a real-time seismic monitoring network. Seismic activity was detected by AVO instruments on Great Sitkin Island 40 km to the west, and thus the timing of eruptive events is approximate. The eruption began explosively at 2201 UTC on August 7, and was followed by at least two additional strong eruptive bursts at 0150 UTC and 0435 UTC, August 8. Satellite data show a significant ash cloud associated with the 0435 UTC event followed by at least 14 hours of continuous ash emission. The lack of a strong ash signature in satellite data suggest that the first two plumes were ash poor. Satellite data also show a large emission of SO2 that entered the stratosphere. Correlation of eruptive periods with deposits on the island is not yet possible, but it appears that pyroclastic flows were emplaced during all three explosive events and the surge and fall deposits accumulated during the continuous phase of the third event only. The role of external water is under investigation, and observations on August 22 and 23 indicated several streams flowing from the base of the crater walls into a shallow lake in the bottom of the 1 km2 crater. The surge and fall deposits exposed on Kasatochi Island contain abundant accretionary lapilli indicating water involvement during the emplacement of these deposits. Tephra deposits observed on islands southwest of Kasatochi range in thickness from 6 cm, 30 km from the volcano, to minor amounts on eastern Adak Island, 80 km to the southwest. A fishing boat about 13 km southwest of Kasatochi received about 12 cm of coarse ash to medium lapilli tephra fall. Tephra deposits observed at 5 locations southwest of Kasatochi consist of single beds of normally graded medium to coarse lapilli tephra fall. The lack of recognizable stratigraphic breaks in the tephra deposits suggests that they were the products of a single fall event, likely the third explosion that produced the most ash rich plume.

Waythomas, C. F.; Schneider, D. J.; Prejean, S. G.

2008-12-01

8

SAR-based Estimation of Glacial Extent and Velocity Fields on Isanotski Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global studies show that Earth's glaciers are losing mass at increasing rates, creating a challenge for communities that rely on them as natural resources. Field observation of glacial environments is limited by cost and inaccessibility. Optical remote sensing is often precluded by cloud cover and seasonal darkness. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) overcomes these obstacles by using microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation to provide high resolution information on large spatial scales and in remote, atmospherically obscured environments. SAR is capable of penetrating clouds, operating in darkness, and discriminating between targets with ambiguous spectral signatures. This study evaluated the efficacy of two SAR Earth observation methods on small (< 7 km2) glaciers in rugged topography. The glaciers chosen for this study lie on Isanotski Volcano in Unimak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, USA. The local community on the island, the City of False Pass, relies on glacial melt for drinking water and hydropower. Two methods were used: (1) velocity field estimation based on Repeat Image Feature Tracking (RIFT) and (2) glacial boundary delineation based on interferometric coherence mapping. NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) single-polarized power images and JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band SAR (ALOS PALSAR) single-look complex images were analyzed over the period 2008-2011. UAVSAR image pairs were coregistered to sub-pixel accuracy and processed with the Coregistration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) feature tracking module to derive glacial velocity field estimates. Maximum glacier velocities ranged from 28.9 meters/year to 58.3 meters/year. Glacial boundaries were determined from interferometric coherence of ALOS PALSAR data and subsequently refined with masking operations based on terrain slope and segment size. Accuracy was assessed against hand-digitized outlines from high resolution UAVSAR power images, yielding 83.0% producer's accuracy (errors of omission) and 86.1% user's accuracy (errors of commission). These results represent a refinement of a decades-old entry from the USGS National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). The information gained from this study could strengthen management practices by helping decision makers understand the ecological and economic consequences of glacial change. This procedure could be repeated in similar locations worldwide to provide communities with accurate, quantitative information about their changing glacial resources.

Sousa, D.; Lee, A.; Parker, O. P.; Pressler, Y.; Guo, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Schmidt, C.

2012-12-01

9

Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

10

Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

11

Double Glacier Volcano, a `new' Quaternary volcano in the eastern Aleutian volcanic arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Double Glacier Volcano (DGV) is a small dome complex of porphyritic hornblende andesite and dacite that is part of the Cook Inlet segment of Quaternary volcanoes of the eastern Aleutian arc. Its discovery reduces the previously described large volcano gap in Cook Inlet segment to a distance similar to that between other volcanoes in the area. DGV lavas are medium-K, calcalkaline andesites and dacites with concentrations of major and minor elements similar to the other Quaternary volcanoes of the Cook Inlet segment. Available K-Ar ages indicate that DGV was active 600 900 ka.

Reed, Bruce L.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Miller, Thomas P.

1992-10-01

12

Reunion Island Volcano Erupts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

13

Regional controls on volcano seismicity along the Aleutian arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

identify patterns in volcano seismicity along the Aleutian arc using nearly 10 years of seismic data recorded at 46 volcanoes. The volcanoes in the central portion of the arc—those located from Aniakchak to Okmok—are associated with significantly more seismicity at depths below 15 km. We also examine the median weight percent SiO2 compositions of the seismically monitored volcanoes by compiling published geochemical data. We find that the transition between felsic volcanism in the east to more mafic volcanism in the west occurs in the same region where the depth distribution of volcanic earthquakes changes. Since deep volcanic earthquakes are often thought to be generated by the ascent of magma through the deep crust (i.e., depths > 15 km), our results suggest that magma ascent is more prolific in the central part of the arc compared to the western and eastern regions. This observation is in agreement with the location of the largest and most historically active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc, which are found in same region that generates abundant deep volcano seismicity. We propose two models to explain these apparent variations in magmatic flux: (1) a stress-based model, in which subduction obliquity and the collision of the Yakutat block affect the stress regime in the upper plate, inhibiting the rise of magma in eastern and western regions of the arc and (2) a melt-based model, where more magma is generated in the central region of the arc through increased H2O in the downgoing slab via water-laden sediments and subducting fracture zones.

Buurman, Helena; Nye, Christopher J.; West, Michael E.; Cameron, Cheryl

2014-04-01

14

76 FR 35772 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY: National...Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs. Amendment 34 amends the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program to exempt...

2011-06-20

15

78 FR 6279 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY: National...Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). If approved, these regulations will amend the Bering Sea/ Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program (CR...

2013-01-30

16

75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Emergency Rule...the Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab fishery from the West regional designation...Under the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program, golden king...

2010-02-18

17

75 FR 50716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Emergency Rule...the Western Aleutian Islands golden king crab fishery from the West regional designation. Under the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program, Federal...

2010-08-17

18

76 FR 68358 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY: National...Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). Amendment 30 amends the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program (CR...

2011-11-04

19

76 FR 49423 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY: National...Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). This proposed rule would amend the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program (CR...

2011-08-10

20

78 FR 28523 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY: National...Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP). These regulations amend the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program (CR...

2013-05-15

21

76 FR 17088 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY: National...Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs. Amendment 34 would amend the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program to exempt...

2011-03-28

22

76 FR 13593 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Amendment 34...Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs to NMFS for review. If approved, Amendment...amend the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program to exempt...

2011-03-14

23

46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170...PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK....

2011-10-01

24

46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170...PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK....

2013-10-01

25

46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170...PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK....

2012-10-01

26

46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170...PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK....

2010-10-01

27

75 FR 59687 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Economic Data Reports AGENCY: National...Fisheries Service (NMFS) manages the crab fisheries in the waters off the coast of...Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab. The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery...

2010-09-28

28

76 FR 3090 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Arbitration AGENCY: National Oceanic...a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters,...

2011-01-19

29

50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. 600.1103 Section...Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. (a) Purpose...Pub. L. 107-117, enacted for BSAI crab species. (b) Terms. Unless...

2011-10-01

30

76 FR 3089 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands Crab Permits AGENCY: National Oceanic and...a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters,...

2011-01-19

31

50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. 600.1103 Section...Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. (a) Purpose...Pub. L. 107-117, enacted for BSAI crab species. (b) Terms. Unless...

2012-10-01

32

50 CFR 600.1103 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. 600.1103 Section...Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab species program. (a) Purpose...Pub. L. 107-117, enacted for BSAI crab species. (b) Terms. Unless...

2013-10-01

33

Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

34

A photographic guide to some vascular plants of Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

E-print Network

National Wildlife Refuge, is the second largest island in the Rat Island group of the western Aleutian disturbance, and the introduction of non-native Arctic foxes (introduced 1825, eradicated 1987) and Norway

Jones, Ian L.

35

Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski and Sand Point have allowed for proper wind turbine siting without killing birds, especially endangered species and bald eagles. APIA continues coordinating and looking for funding opportunities for regional renewable energy projects. An important goal for APIA has been, and will continue to be, to involve community members with renewable energy projects and energy conservation efforts.

Bruce A. Wright

2012-03-27

36

Volcanoes as possible indicators of tectonic stress orientation — Aleutians and Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for obtaining from volcanic surface features the orientations of the principal tectonic stresses is applied to Aleutian and Alaskan volcanoes. The underlying concept for this method is that flank eruptions for polygenetic volcanoes can be regarded as the result of a large-scale natural magmafracturing experiment. The method essentially relies on the recognition of the preferred orientation of

Kazuaki Nakamura; Klaus H. Jacob; John N. Davies

1977-01-01

37

Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

2010-01-01

38

Cranial suture biology of the Aleutian Island inhabitants.  

PubMed

Research on cranial suture biology suggests there is biological and taxonomic information to be garnered from the heritable pattern of suture synostosis. Suture synostosis along with brain growth patterns, diet, and biomechanical forces influence phenotypic variability in cranial vault morphology. This study was designed to determine the pattern of ectocranial suture synostosis in skeletal populations from the Aleutian Islands. We address the hypothesis that ectocranial suture synostosis pattern will differ according to cranial vault shape. Ales Hrdlicka identified two phenotypes in remains excavated from the Aleutian Island. The Paleo-Aleutians, exhibiting a dolichocranic phenotype with little prognathism linked to artifacts distinguished from later inhabitants, Aleutians, who exhibited a brachycranic phenotype with a greater amount of prognathism. A total of 212 crania representing Paleo-Aleuts and Aleutian as defined by Hrdlicka were investigated for suture synostosis pattern following standard methodologies. Comparisons were performed using Guttmann analyses. Results revealed similar suture fusion patterns for the Paleo-Aleut and Aleutian, a strong anterior to posterior pattern of suture fusion for the lateral-anterior suture sites, and a pattern of early termination at the sagittal suture sites for the vault. These patterns were found to differ from that reported in the literature. Because these two populations with distinct cranial shapes exhibit similar patterns of suture synostosis it appears pattern is independent of cranial shape in these populations of Homo sapiens. These findings suggest that suture fusion patterns may be population dependent and that a standardized methodology, using suture fusion to determine age-at-death, may not be applicable to all populations. PMID:21328563

Cray, James; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

2011-04-01

39

Geothermal Drilling In The Aleutians Reveals New Insights On Volcanic History Of Akutan Volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2010, two thermal gradient wells were drilled in the Hot Springs Bay Valley geothermal resource area on Akutan Island, Alaska. Well TG-2 was drilled in the region of hot springs occurrence near the mouth of the valley and reached a depth of 253 m (833'). Well TG-4 was drilled near the head of the valley, closer to the current volcano, and reached a depth of 457 m (1500'). The core recovered from these wells represent the only drill core extracted from an Aleutian volcano to date and reveals an important missing piece of the surficial eruptive and erosional history of the volcano that cannot be determined from surface evaluation of recent eruptive deposits laid down on 500 ka bedrock outcrops. No intrusive rocks were encountered, indicating a rich history of surficial activity. The core is dominated (46% of recovered core) by basaltic lava flow deposits (49-52 wt% SiO2), consistent with other observed deposits on the island. These flows are interspersed with andesite lava flows (20% of core, ranging from 53-58 wt% SiO2), abundant mass wasting deposits (27% of core) and a series of ash and ash tuff layers that are some of the most silicic deposits identified at Akutan (up to 66 wt% SiO2). Ash deposits are restricted to the upper 125 m in both wells, are significantly thicker in TG-4, and are difficult to correlate between the two wells. Mass wasting deposits are diverse, including a subset characterized by matrix-supported heterolithologic breccias enclosed in a crystalline basaltic lava host. A shell-rich zone at 273 meters depth indicates that the transition between sub-marine and sub-aerial activity may be recorded in the core.

Stelling, P. L.

2013-12-01

40

78 FR 46577 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program...under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage...

2013-08-01

41

76 FR 44297 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery Resources AGENCY: National Marine...The Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands (BSAI) Crab Rationalization Program (CR Program) allocates BSAI crab resources among harvesters,...

2011-07-25

42

77 FR 44216 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program...under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage...

2012-07-27

43

75 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program...under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage...

2010-07-23

44

76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program...under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage...

2011-07-21

45

75 FR 38940 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Greenland turbot total allowable catch (TAC) in the Aleutian Islands subarea of the...CFR part 679. The 2010 Greenland turbot TAC in the Aleutian Islands subarea of the BSAI...determined that the 2010 Greenland turbot TAC in the Aleutian Islands subarea of the...

2010-07-07

46

2010 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at 12 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2010. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash emissions from long-active Cleveland volcano in the Aleutian Islands. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of an ongoing collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

Neal, Christina A.; Herrick, Julie; Girina, O. A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, Jim

2014-01-01

47

A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.  

PubMed

During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians. PMID:21755641

West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

2003-01-01

48

Observations of deep long-period (DLP) seismic events beneath Aleutian arc volcanoes; 1989-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between October 12, 1989 and December 31, 2002, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) located 162 deep long-period (DLP) events beneath 11 volcanic centers in the Aleutian arc. These events generally occur at mid- to lower-crustal depths (10-45 km) and are characterized by emergent phases, extended codas, and a strong spectral peak between 1.0 and 3.0 Hz. Observed wave velocities and particle motions indicate that the dominant phases are P- and S-waves. DLP epicenters often extend over broad areas (5-20 km) surrounding the active volcanoes. The average reduced displacement of Aleutian DLPs is 26.5 cm2 and the largest event has a reduced displacement of 589 cm2 (or ML 2.5). Aleutian DLP events occur both as solitary events and as sequences of events with several occurring over a period of 1-30 min. Within the sequences, individual DLPs are often separated by lower-amplitude volcanic tremor with a similar spectral character. Occasionally, volcano-tectonic earthquakes that locate at similar depths are contained within the DLP sequences. At most, Aleutian volcanoes DLPs appear to loosely surround the main volcanic vent and occur as part of background seismicity. A likely explanation is that they reflect a relatively steady-state process of magma ascent over broad areas in the lower and middle portions of the crust. At Mount Spurr, DLP seismicity was initiated by the 1992 eruptions and then slowly declined until 1997. At Shishaldin Volcano, a short-lived increase in DLP seismicity occurred about 10 months prior to the April 19, 1999 eruption. These observations suggest a link between eruptive activity and magma flux in the mid- to lower-crust and uppermost mantle.

Power, J. A.; Stihler, S. D.; White, R. A.; Moran, S. C.

2004-01-01

49

Surface Deformation Caused by a Shallow Magmatic Source at Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Okmok Volcano, located on Umnak Island in the eastern Aleutian arc, last erupted in 1997. Okmok consists of a 10 km wide caldera with several cones located inside. Significant surface deformation before, during and after the eruption has been measured using InSAR. However, the area of coherent data has been limited to the northern part of the caldera, with some additional coherent areas along the outer flanks of the volcano. With support from NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan) and the International Arctic Research Center, we carried out GPS campaigns in 2000 and 2001 to supplement the InSAR data with 3D measurements of deformation at well-distributed points. We surveyed 24 sites on and around Okmok in 2000, and 31 sites in 2001. As of this date, no SAR data from suitable passes has been acquired in the summer of 2001; if any are acquired, we will also analyze this data. InSAR data for the period 1997-2000 show what appears to be a radially-symmetric pattern of displacements, consistent with the inflation of a shallow (3-4 km) pressure (Mogi) source located beneath the geoemtric center of the caldera. A deflation source at the same location and depth was inferred from an interferogram spanning the eruption. The 2000-2001 GPS data, on the other hand, show evidence for rapid horizontal extension between sites in center of the caldera. This signal cannot be explained by a Mogi source, and may represent the intrusion of a shallow dike. In addition to this probable dike source, it appears that overall inflation of the volcano continues. The proposed dike extends from roughly the center of the caldera toward the 1997 eruptive vent. In May 2001, a swarm of micro-earthquakes occurred somewhere close to Okmok Volcano (location errors are very large as the closest permanent seismic site is ~100 km from Okmok). It is possible that this small earthquake swarm could have been associated with the intrusion of the shallow dike.

Miyagi, Y.; Freymueller, J. T.; Kimata, F.; Sato, T.; Mann, D.; Kasahara, M.

2001-12-01

50

Non-volcanic tremor in the Aleutian Islands captured by a mini-seismic array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aleutian Islands are an interesting place to study because of the presence of abundant seismicity, both subduction and volcano related. In addition to regular earthquakes, the Islands host both volcanic and non-volcanic tremor. To capture this rich variety of seismicity, we designed and installed a mini-seismic array on Akutan Island in 2012. Akutan is located in the eastern Aleutians just off the tip of the Alaska Peninsula, near the eastern edge of the 1957 Mw8.6 earthquake rupture zone. A mini-seismic array is particularly useful in this logistically challenging environment where land cover is limited. We recorded and analyzed about 2 months of data, and found both volcanic and non-volcanic events. Here we focus on non-volcanic tremor and its characteristics as captured by the Akutan array. Akutan Island and the surrounding area turn out to be prolific producers of tremor. An automatic beam-backprojection algorithm [Ghosh et al., 2009] detects almost daily tremor activity with durations ranging from several minutes to more than 3.5 hours. On average, beam-backprojection detects 1.3 hours of tremor activity per day and in total, it detects about 5 times more duration of tremor activity compared to a visual check for tremor signal using the existing seismic network. We observe tremor sources both west and east of the Akutan array. Western sources are the most active ones and their slowness parameters are consistent with the locations of low-frequency earthquakes detected by Brown et al., 2013. The eastern source area has not been identified previously and appears to be active for only a few times during this study, but shows continuous activity for several hours. In addition, we observe temporal evolution of slowness parameters consistent with steady tremor migration. Moreover, low frequency earthquakes with impulsive body wave phases are identified within the tremor signal. They show S-minus-P times consistent with their being located at the model plate interface [Hayes et al., 2012]. The mini-seismic array combined with a beam-backprojection algorithm is providing an enhanced image of tremor activity in the Aleutian Islands, by greatly improving the level of detection and resolution of locations. This would enable us to perform more intricate analyses of tectonic behavior of slow earthquake and tremor, their possible interaction with regular earthquakes and therefore help better understand the subduction dynamics of the study area. Comparison between tremor duration detected by the beam-backprojection and existing seismic network. On average, beam-backprojection detected ~5 times more duration of tremor activity compared to the detection using existing network.

Ghosh, A.; Prejean, S. G.

2013-12-01

51

76 FR 68161 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Aleutian Islands Pollock Fishery Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of this law allocates the Aleutian Islands (AI) directed pollock fishery to the Aleut Corporation...for activities necessary for conducting the AI directed pollock fishery. Management provisions for the AI directed pollock fishery include:...

2011-11-03

52

A Brown HAwk-owl (NiNox scutulata) from kiskA islAnd, AleutiAn islAnds, AlAskA  

E-print Network

). Finally, the short-eared owls (Asio flammeus flammeus) that occur annually in the western Aleutians and Amchitka islands in the Aleutian chain (Gibson and Byrd 2007), and (probably) the long-eared owl (Asio otus

Jones, Ian L.

53

Modeling potential tsunami sources for deposits near Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In regions with little seismic data and short historical records of earthquakes, we can use preserved tsunami deposits and tsunami modeling to infer if, when and where tsunamigenic earthquakes have occurred. The Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone in the region offshore of Unalaska Island is one such region where the historical and paleo-seismicity is poorly understood. This section of the subduction zone is not thought to have ruptured historically in a large earthquake, leading some to designate the region as a seismic gap. By modeling various historical and synthetic earthquake sources, we investigate whether or not tsunamis that left deposits near Unalaska Island were generated by earthquakes rupturing through Unalaska Gap. Preliminary field investigations near the eastern end of Unalaska Island have identified paleotsunami deposits well above sea level, suggesting that multiple tsunamis in the last 5,000 years have flooded low-lying areas over 1 km inland. Other indicators of tsunami inundation, such as a breached cobble beach berm and driftwood logs stranded far inland, were tentatively attributed to the March 9, 1957 tsunami, which had reported runup of 13 to 22 meters on Umnak and Unimak Islands, to the west and east of Unalaska. In order to determine if tsunami inundation could have reached the runup markers observed on Unalaska, we modeled the 1957 tsunami using GeoCLAW, a numerical model that simulates tsunami generation, propagation, and inundation. The published rupture orientation and slip distribution for the MW 8.6, 1957 earthquake (Johnson et al., 1994) was used as the tsunami source, which delineates a 1200 km long rupture zone along the Aleutian trench from Delarof Island to Unimak Island. Model results indicate that runup and inundation from this particular source are too low to account for the runup markers observed in the field, because slip is concentrated in the western half of the rupture zone, far from Unalaska. To ascertain if any realistic, earthquake-generated tsunami could account for the observed runup, we modeled tsunami inundation from synthetic MW 9.2 earthquakes rupturing along the trench between Atka and Unimak Islands, which indicate that the deposit runup observed on Unalaska is possible from a source of this size and orientation. Further modeling efforts will examine the April 1, 1946 Aleutian tsunami, as well as other synthetic tsunamigenic earthquake sources of varying size and location, which may provide insight into the rupture history of the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone, especially in combination with more data from paleotsunami deposits. Johnson, Jean M., Tanioka, Yuichiro, Ruff, Larry J., Satake, Kenji, Kanamori, Hiroo, Sykes, Lynn R. "The 1957 great Aleutian earthquake." Pure and Applied Geophysics 142.1 (1994): 3-28.

La Selle, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.

2013-12-01

54

Hair methylmercury levels of mummies of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Ancient human hair specimens can shed light on the extent of pre-historic exposures to methylmercury and provide valuable comparison data with current-day exposures, particularly for Indigenous Peoples who continue to rely upon local traditional food resources. Human hair from ancient Aleutian Island Native remains were tested for total and methylmercury (Hg, MeHg) and were radiocarbon dated. The remains were approximately 500 years old (1450 A.D.). For four adults, the mean and median total hair mercury concentration was 5.8 ppm (SD=0.9). In contrast, MeHg concentrations were lower with a mean of 1.2 ppm (SD=1.8) and a median of 0.54 ppm (0.12-3.86). For the five infants, the mean and median MeHg level was 1.2 ppm (SD=1.8) and 0.20 ppm (0.007-4.61), respectively. Segmental analyses showed variations in MeHg concentrations in 1-cm segments, consistent with fluctuations in naturally occurring exposure to mercury through dietary sources. The levels are comparable to or lower than those found in fish and marine mammal-eating populations today who rely far less on subsistence food than pre-historic humans. The findings are, therefore, compatible with increased anthropogenic release of trace metals during the past several centuries.

Egeland, G.M. [Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE), McGill University, 21, 111 Lakeshore Road, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, H9X 3V9 (Canada)], E-mail: grace.egeland@mcgill.ca; Ponce, Rafael [Toxicology, Amgen WA, 1201 Amgen Court West, Seattle, WA 981119 (United States)], E-mail: rponce@amgen.com; Bloom, Nicolas S. [Studio Geochimica, 4744 University Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)], E-mail: nicolasb@nickslab.org; Knecht, Rick [Department of Alaska Native and Rural Development, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 221 E. Northern Lights Boulevard, Suite 213, Anchorage, AK 99508-4143 (United States)], E-mail: Knecht@palaunet.com; Loring, Stephen [Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 37012, Washington, DC 20013-7012 (United States)], E-mail: lorings@si.edu; Middaugh, John P. [Nevada Department of Health and Human Services, 4150 Technology Way, Carson City, NV 89706 (United States)], E-mail: middaugh@SNHDMAIL.ORG

2009-04-15

55

The tsunamigenic earthquake of April 1, 1946, in the Fox Islands (Aleutian island arc)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interpretation of the type, size, and location of the source of the Aleutian earthquake on April 1, 1946, which was characterized by the highest intensity ( I = 4), is proposed. The earthquake source is a subvertical reverse fault striking along the island arc and dipping at an angle of 85° toward the deep-sea trench. The reverse fault is located in the lower part of the island slope, within the eastern termination of the Aleutian terrace. The western end of the reverse fault is located in the area of the Krenitsyn Islands (? ˜ 165°W), where the pattern of isobaths changes, and an abrupt widening of the shelf part of the Fox Islands takes place. Large ( M S ˜ 7) shocks, preceding the 1946 earthquake, occurred here in 1940, 1942, and 1944. Structural inhomogeneities in the island slope in the area of the Sanak Islands (? ˜ 162°W) determine the eastern edge of the source-reverse fault, whose length within the specified boundaries is about 200 km. The mean magnitude of the earthquake corresponding to such a source is ˜8.3. According to the regular relation between the rupture length and the mean movement, the vertical displacement of the ocean floor in the source region could attain 5-6 m. A significant vertical displacement of the ocean floor over its large length (˜200 km) was responsible for the high tsunamigenic ability of this earthquake. A favorable combination in the source area of the topographic and other conditions necessary for the tsunami formation could additionally contribute to an increase in the intensity of the tsunami. The earthquake of April 1, 1946, in the Fox Islands, as well as the tsunamigenic earthquakes of March 9, 1957, in the Andreanof Islands and February 4, 1965, in the Rat Islands, does not belong to the class of “slow” earthquakes.

Balakina, L. M.; Moskvina, A. G.

2010-06-01

56

Volcanic and tectonic deformation on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Arc, Alaska  

E-print Network

Volcanic and tectonic deformation on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Arc, Alaska Do¨rte Mann1 and Jeffrey Freymueller Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA Received 13 April, Alaska, Unimak Island Citation: Mann, D., and J. Freymueller, Volcanic and tectonic deformation on Unimak

Segall, Paul

57

Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands  

E-print Network

Islands Management Area Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review/Initial Regulatory in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact. Fish and Wildlife Service Alaska Department of Fish and Game Abstract: This environmental impact

58

50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system...Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system...meanings for the purpose of this section: Crab rationalization crab means the same...

2013-10-01

59

75 FR 21600 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration RIN 0648-XW07 Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and Tanner Crab Fisheries in the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands; Scallop and Salmon Fisheries Off the Coast of Alaska AGENCY: National...

2010-04-26

60

50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system...Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system...meanings for the purpose of this section: Crab rationalization crab means the same...

2012-10-01

61

77 FR 62482 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Groundfish Retention...Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area by removing certain...requirements mandating minimum levels of groundfish retention...due to the increased level of retention needed...Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the fishery...

2012-10-15

62

77 FR 44172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...to the initial total allowable catch of squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of squid in the BSAI was established as 361...

2012-07-27

63

Seismic Observations of Westdahl volcano and Western Unimak Island Alaska: 1999-2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Westdahl volcano is a large basaltic shield volcano on the western end of Unimak Island Alaska in the Aleutian Island Arc. The volcano is topped by three separate vents, Pogromni Volcano, Faris Peak, and Westdahl Peak. The volcano is frequently active with known eruptions from Westdahl Peak in 1964, 1978, and 1991-92 that produced large basaltic lava flows. InSAR measurements indicate that Westdahl Volcano has been inflating at a slowly declining rate since 1992 (Lu et al., 2003). The Alaska Volcano Observatory has operated a network of six short-period seismometers on Westdahl Peak since 1998. Complementing this network are similar networks centered on Shishaldin and Akutan Volcanoes. Since 1999 more than 300 earthquakes have been located within 20 km of Westdahl Volcano. A volcano specific velocity model was determined for the western half of Uminak Island by simultaneously inverting for the velocity model and hypocentral earthquake locations using the program VELEST. Earthquakes located with the new model reveal five clusters of hypocenters: (a) a shallow cluster beneath Westdahl Peak, that largely occurred during a 24-hour period on January 7, 2004, (b) a concentration of 68 earthquakes with hypocenters ranging in depth from zero to eight km beneath Faris Peak occurring continually since 1999, (c) a diffuse cluster of long-period events northwest of Westdahl and Faris Peaks, (d) a cluster of 12 earthquakes near Pinnacle Rock, 12 km southwest of Westdahl Peak in October 2003, and (e) a cluster of 43 hypocenters near Unimak Bight, 20 km east of Westdahl Peak, that occurred between January and April 2004. Focal mechanisms were derived for four earthquakes in the Faris Peak cluster and four additional earthquakes that locate off the volcanic edifice (the four mechanisms are in the Pinnacle Rock cluster, the Unimak Bight cluster, and 20 km southeast and 30 km northeast of the volcano). Focal mechanisms in the Faris Peak cluster showed normal faulting with nodal planes trending north-south to northwest-southeast. Mechanisms of the off-volcano earthquakes are generally characterized by normal faulting with nodal planes trending southwest-northeast. These events are consistent with a stress field dominated by the Aleutian subduction zone. The Faris Peak mechanisms are not consistent with the presumed regional stress field and may reflect volcanic process. Lu et al., (2003) proposed the observed inflation of Westdahl Volcano resulted from a slowly pressurizing magma source at 6 km depth beneath Westdahl Peak. The observed seismicity is consistent with this model. Lu, Z., T. Masterlark, D. Dzurisin, and R. Rykhus, 2003, Magma supply dynamics at Westdahl volcano, Alaska, modeled from satellite radar interferometry, Alaska, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2354, doi:10.1029/2002JB002311, 2003.

Dixon, J. P.; Power, J. A.; Stihler, S. D.

2005-12-01

64

Enormous Tsunamis in Hawaii from Great Earthquakes in the Aleutians Islands  

E-print Network

Enormous Tsunamis in Hawaii from Great Earthquakes in the Aleutians Islands Rhett Butler Hawaii earthquake of March 11, 2011 was much larger than anticipated, and generated a devastating tsunami along from Mw 8.6 earthquakes in 1946 and 1957. Since Tohoku, my research has focused on determining

Frandsen, Jannette B.

65

Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands  

E-print Network

Revisions to the Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands of the environmental, social, and economic effects of alternatives to the Steller sea lion protection measures and Pacific cod fisheries. The western distinct population segment (WDPS) of Steller sea lion is listed

66

Chemical versus temporal controls on the evolution of tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas at two volcanoes in the Alaska-Aleutian arc  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska-Aleutian island arc is well known for erupting both tholeiitic and calc-alkaline magmas. To investigate the relative roles of chemical and temporal controls in generating these contrasting liquid lines of descent we have undertaken a detailed study of tholeiitic lavas from Akutan volcano in the oceanic A1eutian arc and calc-alkaline products from Aniakchak volcano on the continental A1askan Peninsula. The differences do not appear to be linked to parental magma composition. The Akutan lavas can be explained by closed-system magmatic evolution, whereas curvilinear trace element trends and a large range in 87 Sr/86 Sr isotope ratios in the Aniakchak data appear to require the combined effects of fractional crystallization, assimilation and magma mixing. Both magmatic suites preserve a similar range in 226 Ra-230 Th disequilibria, which suggests that the time scale of crustal residence of magmas beneath both these volcanoes was similar, and of the order of several thousand years. This is consistent with numerical estimates of the time scales for crystallization caused by cooling in convecting crustal magma chambers. During that time interval the tholeiitic Akutan magmas underwent restricted, closed-system, compositional evolution. In contrast, the calc-alkaline magmas beneath Aniakchak volcano underwent significant open-system compositional evolution. Combining these results with data from other studies we suggest that differentiation is faster in calc-alkaline and potassic magma series than in tholeiitic series, owing to a combination of greater extents of assimilation, magma mixing and cooling.

George, R.; Turner, S.; Hawkesworth, C.; Bacon, C.R.; Nye, C.; Stelling, P.; Dreher, S.

2004-01-01

67

Influence of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies on zooplankton distribution south of the western Aleutian Islands during summer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale anticyclonic eddies have been observed south of the Aleutian Islands located between the Bering Sea and the subarctic Pacific. Eddies farther east, in the Gulf of Alaska, are known to transport coastal water and coastal zooplankton to offshore open ocean. The impacts of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies formed south of the western Aleutian Islands (Aleutian eddies) on the zooplankton community are not fully understood. In the present study, we describe zooplankton population structures within an Aleutian eddy and outside the eddy during July 2010. Our field study was conducted at seven stations along 51°15?N from 171°21?E to 174°38?E (western line) and at four stations along 50°40?N from 176°24?E to 178°44?E (eastern line) on 7-8 July 2010. At each station, environmental data (temperature, salinity and fluorescence were measured by CTD/XCTD. Zooplankton samples were collected by vertical tow of 150 m depth to the surface using 100 ?m mesh size plankton net. Based on the sea level anomaly (SLA), the western line crossed an anticyclonic eddy but the eastern line did not cross the eddy (Fig. 1). This Aleutian eddy was formed south of Attu Island (52°54?N, 172°54?E) in mid-February 2010, and it moved southeastward in the next five months. The SLA near the eddy center, representing the strength of the eddy, continuously increased, and the area oscillated at one to two month periods overlain on a general increase from ~7,000 to ~18,000 km2. Large oceanic copepods, Neocalanus cristatus, Eucalanus bungii and Metridia pacifica were more abundant inside the eddy than the outside. Inside the eddy, the life stage distribution of N. cristatus was advanced than that outside, and Neocalanus spp. had accumulated more lipids. These conditions probably reflect the greater primary production in the eddy, production enhanced by nutrients advected into the eddy. Since the Aleutian eddy was formed in offshore waters and/or eddy-eddy interaction occurred after its formation, it contained mostly oceanic copepods. The sufficient food condition in the eddy presumably induced higher growth and survival rates of these oceanic copepods, resulting in the greater abundance, advanced development stages and greater lipid accumulation. Fig. 1. Sea level anomaly along the sampling lines on 7 July 2010 south of the western Aleutian Islands.

Saito, R.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yasuda, I.; Ueno, H.; Ishiyama, H.; Imai, I.

2013-12-01

68

76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands crab fisheries managed under the BSAI Crab Rationalization program. The CIE, operated by Northern Taiga Ventures, Inc., provides independent peer reviews of NMFS's fisheries stock assessments and other science products....

2011-08-04

69

Geology and geochemistry of the Geyser Bight Geothermal Area, Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

The Geyser Bight geothermal area is located on Umnak Island in the central Aleutian Islands. It contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs and fumaroles in Alaska, and is only documented site in Alaska with geysers. The zone of hot springs and fumaroles lies at the head of Geyser Creek, 5 km up a broad, flat, alluvial valley from Geyser Bight. At present central Umnak is remote and undeveloped. This report describes results of a combined program of geologic mapping, K-Ar dating, detailed description of hot springs, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic and plutonic rock units, and chemistry of geothermal fluids. Our mapping documents the presence of plutonic rock much closer to the area of hotsprings and fumaroles than previously known, thus increasing the probability that plutonic rock may host the geothermal system. K-Ar dating of 23 samples provides a time framework for the eruptive history of volcanic rocks as well as a plutonic cooling age.

Nye, C.J. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (USA). Geophysical Inst. Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK (USA). Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Motyka, R.J. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Juneau, AK (USA). Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Turner, D.L. (Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (USA). Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairba

1990-10-01

70

A new population of Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) on Adak Island, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report and describe a new population of the endangered Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) discovered on Mount Reed, Adak Island, Alaska. The new population is located at a lower elevation than the other known populations, placing the species' known elevational range between 338 m and 525 m. The discovery of this population is significant because it increases the total number of known populations and individuals for the species.

Talbot, S.L.; Talbot, S.S.

2002-01-01

71

EarthScope: Activity at Augustine Volcano  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This bulletin provides information on the recent eruptive activity of Augustine Volcano in Alaska. Topics include some history of the volcano, its geologic setting as part of the Aleutian island arc, and earthquake locations as indicators of magma movement. The bulletin is also accompanied by a 360-degree rotation around the volcano and background information on the EarthScope Project.

2011-06-03

72

Geochemically Distinct Lavas from Overlapping Arc Front Volcanoes Drawing from a Common Parent, Eastern Aleutian Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) on the lower Alaska Peninsula is one of the largest and most diverse volcanic centers in the Aleutian Arc. Since the Middle Pleistocene, eruption of ~ 350 cubic kilometers of basalt through rhyolite has produced a 30 km, arc-front chain of nested calderas and overlapping stratovolcanoes. ELVC has experienced as many as five major caldera-forming eruptions, the most recent, at ~ 27 ka, produced ~ 50 cubic kilometers DRE of rhyolitic ignimbrite and ash fall. These violent silicic events were interspersed with less energetic, but prodigious, outpourings of basalt through dacite. Holocene eruptions are mostly basaltic-andesite to andesite. Historically recorded activity includes over 40 eruptions within the last 200 years, all from Pavlof volcano, the most active site in the Aleutian Arc. Geochemical and geophysical observations suggest that although all ELVC eruptions derive from a common clinopyroxene + spinel + plagioclase fractionating high-alumina basalt parent in the lower crust, magma follows one of two closely-spaced, but distinct paths to the surface. Under the eastern part of the chain, magma moves rapidly and cleanly through a relatively young (since ~28 ka), hydraulically connected dike plexus. Steady supply, short magma residence times, and limited interaction with crustal rocks preserve the geochemistry of deep crustal processes. Below the western part of the chain, magma moves haltingly through a long-lived (since ~500 ka) and complex intrusive column in which many generations of basaltic to andesitic melts have mingled and fractionated. Buoyant, silicic melts separate from the lower parts of the column (amphibole-bearing enclaves suggest silicic magma exists at or below ~15 km) to fill ephemeral reservoirs in the shallow crust that are periodically emptied by voluminous eruptions of dacite and rhyolite. Mafic magmas that reach the surface record a complicated passage through refractory cumulates and silicic differentiates as manifested by disequilibrium phenocryst textures, incompatible element enrichments, and decoupling of REEs and HFSEs ratios. Such features are absent in mafic lavas from the younger part of the chain to the east, highlighting the importance of plumbing architecture and longevity in creating petrologic diversity.

Mangan, M.; Miller, T. P.; Waythomas, C. F.; Trusdell, F.; Calvert, A. T.; Layer, P. W.

2009-12-01

73

Microbial consortia of gorgonian corals from the Aleutian islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gorgonians make up the majority of corals in the Aleutian archipelago and provide critical fish habitat in areas of economically important fisheries. The microbial ecology of the deep-sea gorgonian corals Paragorgea arborea, Plumarella superba, and Cryogorgia koolsae was examined with culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based techniques. Six coral colonies (two per species) were collected. Samples from all corals were cultured, and clone libraries were constructed from P. superba and C. koolsae. Cultured bacteria were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, especially Vibrionaceae, with other phyla comprising <6% of the isolates. The clone libraries showed dramatically different bacterial communities between corals of the same species collected at different sites, with no clear pattern of conserved bacterial consortia. Two of the clone libraries (one from each coral species) were dominated by Tenericutes, with Alphaproteobacteria dominating the remaining sequences. The other libraries were more diverse and had a more even distribution of bacterial phyla, showing more similarity between genera than within coral species. Here we report the first microbiological characterization of P. arborea, P. superba, and C. koolsae. FEMS Microbiology Ecology ?? 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

Gray, M. A.; Stone, R. P.; Mclaughlin, M. R.; Kellogg, C. A.

2011-01-01

74

Deep, Carbon Dioxide-Rich Degassing of Pavlof Volcano, Aleutian arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pavlof is the most active volcanic center in the Aleutian arc with more than 40 eruptions in the last 250 years. Lava fountains and strombolian-to-vulcanian activity since the late Pleistocene built a steep-sided basaltic- andesite stratovolcano rising 2733 m a.s.l. Seismic monitoring (in place since the 1970's) shows the tendency of Pavlof to erupt without extensive precursors. Of the 22 monitored eruptions between 1973 and 1996, 18 occurred with < 24 hours of above-background seismicity (McNutt, 1989; Neal and McGimsey, 1997). Upper mantle to lower crustal long-period (LP) earthquakes are a notable geophysical feature of Pavlof (and other Aleutian volcanoes) during repose periods (Power et al, 2004). LP earthquakes, with their emergent onsets, extended codas and narrow frequency spectra (1-3 Hz), are widely attributed to the motions of fluid (melt, gas, or aqueous) in fractures or reservoirs. At Pavlof, LPs are detected as sporadic single events at depths of 18-36 km or as clusters with co-located volcano-tectonic earthquakes (VTs) typical of brittle fracture. Rapid injection (VT) and degassing (LP) of CO2-H2O saturated Pavlof magmas may account for deep LP-VT clusters. We are in the early stages of an experimental study of CO2-rich degassing of Pavlof magma with the aim of quantifying the physiochemical mechanisms of deep, fluid-driven seismicity in active volcanic regions. We use newly developed methods for conducting controlled decompressions (1200 to 400 MPa) of volatile-added silicate melts in piston-cylinder presses. At 1200 MPa and 1125°C, a vapor-saturated Pavlof basaltic- andesite melt with 2 wt% dissolved H2O has 8500 ppm dissolved CO2 (FTIR). Rapid decompression of these mixed-volatile melts to 400 MPa triggers nucleation and growth of bubbles containing nearly pure CO2 vapor. Equilibrium between melt and vapor is re-established after ~ 1 hr at the final pressure with dissolved volatile concentrations of 2 wt% H2O and 2000 ppm CO2, and 5 vol% coexisting bubbles. The experiments are visually compelling with an initially homogeneous bubble suspension (7E6-2E7 bubbles/cm3melt) that rapidly becomes unstable. The instability is two-stage (bubble wave feeds secondary plumes), and results in a foam layer at the top of the capsule. We are struck by the speed at which this process occurs (< 1 hr). The hydrodynamics of bubble wave and secondary plume instabilities was modeled numerically in the context of vesicle layers observed in lava flows (Manga, 1996). It may also have application to the rapid-fire magma injection and gas expulsion scenario needed to explain VT-LP clustering.

Mangan, M.; Sisson, T.; Hankins, B.

2006-12-01

75

Dispersal and behavior of pacific halibut hippoglossus stenolepis in the bering sea and Aleutian islands region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Currently, it is assumed that eastern Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis belong to a single, fully mixed population extending from California through the Bering Sea, in which adult halibut disperse randomly throughout their range during their lifetime. However, we hypothesize that hali but dispersal is more complex than currently assumed and is not spatially random. To test this hypo thesis, we studied the seasonal dispersal and behavior of Pacific halibut in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). Pop-up Archival Transmitting tags attached to halibut (82 to 154 cm fork length) during the summer provided no evidence that individuals moved out of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region into the Gulf of Alaska during the mid-winter spawning season, supporting the concept that this region contains a separate spawning group of adult halibut. There was evidence for geographically localized groups of halibut along the Aleutian Island chain, as all of the individuals tagged there displayed residency, with their movements possibly impeded by tidal currents in the passes between islands. Mid-winter aggregation areas of halibut are assumed to be spawning grounds, of which 2 were previously unidentified and extend the species' presumed spawning range ~1000 km west and ~600 km north of the nearest documented spawning area. If there are indeed independent spawning groups of Pacific halibut in the BSAI, their dynamics may vary sufficiently from those of the Gulf of Alaska, so that specifically accounting for their relative segregation and unique dynamics within the larger population model will be necessary for correctly predicting how these components may respond to fishing pressure and changing environmental conditions.?? Inter-Research 2011.

Seitz, A.C.; Loher, T.; Norcross, B.L.; Nielsen, J.L.

2011-01-01

76

Ecosystem Models of the Aleutian Islands and Southeast Alaska Show that Steller Sea Lions are Impacted by Killer Whale Predation when Sea Lion  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Models of the Aleutian Islands and Southeast Alaska Show that Steller Sea Lions are Impacted by Killer Whale Predation when Sea Lion Numbers are Low Sylvie Guénette1,2 , Sheila J.J. Heymans1 lions since the late 1970s in the central and western Aleutian Islands. We also sought to understand why

77

Bathymetric constraints on the tectonic and volcanic evolution of Deception Island Volcano, South Shetland Islands  

E-print Network

Bathymetric constraints on the tectonic and volcanic evolution of Deception Island Volcano, South Shetland Islands A.H. BARCLAY1 *, W.S.D. WILCOCK2 and J.M. IBA´ N~ EZ3 1 Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory@ldeo.columbia.edu Abstract: Deception Island is the largest volcano in the actively extending Bransfield Basin, a marginal

Wilcock, William

78

50 CFR 600.1105 - Longline catcher processor subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 219 of Public Law 108-447. AI means the Aleutian Islands. Application...transferable, and that is endorsed for BS or AI catcher processor fishing activity, C...record of an LLP License endorsed for BS or AI catcher processor activity,...

2012-10-01

79

50 CFR 600.1105 - Longline catcher processor subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 219 of Public Law 108-447. AI means the Aleutian Islands. Application...transferable, and that is endorsed for BS or AI catcher processor fishing activity, C...record of an LLP License endorsed for BS or AI catcher processor activity,...

2011-10-01

80

76 FR 80782 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Proposed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...B)(1) requires the Aleutian Islands (AI) pollock TAC to be set at 19,000 mt when the AI pollock ABC equals or exceeds 19,000 mt. The...Flathead Sole, Rock Sole, Yellowfin Sole, and AI Pacific Ocean Perch The regulations at...

2011-12-27

81

50 CFR 600.1105 - Longline catcher processor subsector of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) non-pollock...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 219 of Public Law 108-447. AI means the Aleutian Islands. Application...transferable, and that is endorsed for BS or AI catcher processor fishing activity, C...record of an LLP License endorsed for BS or AI catcher processor activity,...

2013-10-01

82

77 FR 72791 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2013 and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...B)(1) requires the Aleutian Islands (AI) pollock TAC to be set at 19,000 mt when the AI pollock ABC equals or exceeds 19,000 mt. The...Flathead Sole, Rock Sole, Yellowfin Sole, and AI Pacific Ocean Perch Section...

2012-12-06

83

78 FR 56837 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; “Other Rockfish” in the Aleutian Island...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...because the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of ``other rockfish'' in the BSAI...part 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2013 TAC ``other rockfish'' in the Aleutian Islands...Administrator), has determined that the 2013 TAC of ``other rockfish'' in the...

2013-09-16

84

Geochemically Distinct Lavas from Overlapping Arc Front Volcanoes Drawing from a Common Parent, Eastern Aleutian Arc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) on the lower Alaska Peninsula is one of the largest and most diverse volcanic centers in the Aleutian Arc. Since the Middle Pleistocene, eruption of ~ 350 cubic kilometers of basalt through rhyolite has produced a 30 km, arc-front chain of nested calderas and overlapping stratovolcanoes. ELVC has experienced as many as five major caldera-forming

M. Mangan; T. P. Miller; C. F. Waythomas; F. Trusdell; A. T. Calvert; P. W. Layer

2009-01-01

85

Status, behavior and demography of Whiskered Auklets (Aethia pygmaea) at Egg Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

E-print Network

representative Whiskered Auklet breeding habitat present. These were: Area A (53º 51.920' N 166º 03.288' W), Area B (53º 51.924' N 166º 03.217' W), Area C (53º 51.929' N 166º 03.324' W), and Area D (53º 51.924' N). Whiskered Auklet colonies in the Unimak pass area of the eastern Aleutians represent the eastern edge

Jones, Ian L.

86

The May 2003 eruption of Anatahan volcano, Mariana Islands: Geochemical evolution of a silicic island-arc volcano  

E-print Network

island-arc volcano Jennifer A. Wadea,T, Terry Planka , Robert J. Sternb , Darren L. Tollstrupc , James B, USA b Geosciences Department, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083, USA c Department

Stern, Robert J.

87

Mafic basement xenoliths from Kanaga Island and their implications for Aleutian arc initiation and evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We currently have an understanding of the origin and evolution of the Izu Bonin-Mariana intra-oceanic arc system as decades of work have revealed the timing and compositional evolution of magmatism and provided an arc initiation model, which also serves as an analog for the Tonga Kermadec system. However, it is unclear that this model is applicable to the Central Aleutian arc where mid- to lower-crustal velocities are higher (6.5-7.3 km/s) and the crust is more continental-like. As part of understanding the evolution of the Central Aleutian arc lower crust, we have studied and dated gabbroic xenoliths from our collection of ~200 samples from two Kanaga Island localities, which are interpreted as lower crustal cumulates of basaltic to mafic andesitic arc magmas. The variable textures, mineral chemistries and isotopic ratios in these xenoliths show they experienced a complex history before being incorporated into the ~7 Ma Mg-rich arc basalt host lava. Overall, the suite includes amphibole-free, plagioclase-clinopyroxene ×orthopyroxene-titanomagnetite-bearing xenoliths with rare olivine that variously are gabbros with adcumulate textures, mafic 1 or 2 pyroxene granulites with granoblastic textures that yield temperatures of ~800-1050°C, and K and Ba enriched recrystallized and deformed granulites that yield temperatures up to 1150°C. All are characterized by cumulate REE patterns with positive Eu anomalies, arc-like Hf/La ratios, and Sr (0.7033-0.7035) and Nd (Epsilon Nd = 6.9-9) isotopic ratios that are close to those in central Aleutian plutonic rocks. Salitic clinopyroxene compositions suggest they crystallized from magmas with water contents similar to other Aleutian magmas. Extremely challenging 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating experiments due to small volume Ar releases per heating step (5-20 times above background) from low K2O (0.07 to 0.23 wt.%) plagioclases in two xenoliths provide new age constraints for their evolution. In detail, a plagioclase from a two pyroxene granulite gives a complicated Ar/Ar spectrum allowing an age of 48×4 Ma that could reflect the time of metamorphic and deformation related recrystallization of pre-existing cumulates as later mafic arc magmas intruded the lower crust. A plagioclase age near 20 Ma from another xenolith with secondary recrystallization is considered to reflect the age of high temperature recrystallization of pyroxene along fractures, deformation and partial recrystallization of plagioclase, and lowering of K/Ba ratios through interaction with hydrothermal fluids from dewatering oceanic cumulates trapped in the Aleutian crust. The absence of similar recrystallization and deformation features in all xenoliths is consistent with these events predating the incorporation of the xenoliths into the ~ 7 Ma host basalts. Overall, the features of these xenoliths support their crystallization from central Aleutian arc magmas that do not resemble Marianas-like low K arc tholeiites, boninites or depleted backarc magmas.

Kay, S. M.; Romick, J.; Jicha, B. R.; Kay, R. W.

2013-12-01

88

Little late Holocene strain accumulation and release on the Aleutian megathrust below the Shumagin Islands, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

a predominantly creeping segment of a subduction zone generate a great (M > 8) earthquake? Despite Russian accounts of strong shaking and high tsunamis in 1788, geodetic observations above the Aleutian megathrust indicate creeping subduction across the Shumagin Islands segment, a well-known seismic gap. Seeking evidence for prehistoric great earthquakes, we investigated Simeonof Island, the archipelago's easternmost island, and found no evidence for uplifted marine terraces or subsided shorelines. Instead, we found freshwater peat blanketing lowlands, and organic-rich silt and tephra draping higher glacially smoothed bedrock. Basal peat ages place glacier retreat prior to 10.4 ka and imply slowly rising (<0.2 m/ka) relative sea level since ~3.4 ka. Storms rather than tsunamis probably deposited thin, discontinuous deposits in coastal sites. If rupture of the megathrust beneath Simeonof Island produced great earthquakes in the late Holocene, then coseismic uplift or subsidence was too small (?0.3 m) to perturb the onshore geologic record.

Witter, Robert C.; Briggs, Richard W.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Koehler, Richard D.; Barnhart, William D.

2014-04-01

89

Isotopic and incompatible element constraints on the genesis of island arc volcanics from Cold Bay and Amak Island, Aleutians, and implications for mantle structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold Bay and Amak Island, two Quaternary volcanic centers in the eastern Aleutians, are orthogonal relative to the trench and separated by ~50 km. Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of the calc-alkaline andesite magmas show no sign of contamination from continental crust (average 87 Sr \\/ 86 Sr = 0.70323, 143 Nd \\/ 144 Nd = 0.51301, 206 Pb

J. D. Morris; S. R. Hart

1983-01-01

90

Late Holocene coastal stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island reveals Aleutian-Alaska megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis southwest of Kodiak Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty in earthquake and tsunami prehistory of the Aleutian-Alaska megathrust westward of central Kodiak Island limit assessments of southern Alaska's earthquake hazard and forecasts of potentially damaging tsunamis along much of North America's west coast. Sitkinak Island, one of the Trinity Islands off the southwest tip of Kodiak Island, lies at the western end of the rupture zone of the 1964 Mw9.2 earthquake. Plafker reports that a rancher on the north coast of Sitkinak Island observed ~0.6 m of shoreline uplift immediately following the 1964 earthquake, and the island is now subsiding at about 3 mm/yr (PBO GPS). Although a high tsunami in 1788 caused the relocation of the first Russian settlement on southwestern Kodiak Island, the eastern extent of the megathrust rupture accompanying the tsunami is uncertain. Interpretation of GPS observations from the Shumagin Islands, 380 km southwest of Kodiak Island, suggests an entirely to partially creeping megathrust in that region. Here we report the first stratigraphic evidence of tsunami inundation and land-level change during prehistoric earthquakes west of central Kodiak Island. Beneath tidal and freshwater marshes around a lagoon on the south coast of Sitkinak Island, 27 cores and tidal outcrops reveal the deposits of four to six tsunamis in 2200 years and two to four abrupt changes in lithology that may correspond with coseismic uplift and subsidence over the past millennia. A 2- to 45-mm-thick bed of clean to peaty sand in sequences of tidal sediment and freshwater peat, identified in more than one-half the cores as far inland as 1.5 km, was probably deposited by the 1788 tsunami. A 14C age on Scirpus seeds, double 137Cs peaks at 2 cm and 7 cm depths (Chernobyl and 1963?), a consistent decline in 210Pb values, and our assumption of an exponential compaction rate for freshwater peat, point to a late 18th century age for the sand bed. Initial 14C ages suggest that two similar extensive sandy beds, identified in eight cores at higher tidal and freshwater sites, date from about 1.5 ka and 2.0 ka, respectively. A younger silty sand bed, <10 cm beneath the now-eroding low marsh around the lagoon, may record the 1964 tsunami. Correlations of two to three other sandy beds are too uncertain to infer their deposition by tsunamis. Stratigraphic contacts found only in cores and outcrops of the <0.8- to 1-ka tidal section fringing the lagoon may mark coseismic uplift (peat over tidal mud, sometimes with intervening sand) or subsidence (tidal mud over peat, sometimes with intervening sand). We collected samples of modern tidal foraminifera along three elevational transects for the baseline dataset needed to use fossil assemblages to measure the amount of uplift or subsidence recorded by contacts. Foraminiferal assemblages above and below one contact confirm rapid uplift a few hundred years before the 1788 tsunami, but cores are too few to correlate this contact with any of the sandy beds that we infer were deposited by tsunamis farther inland. These initial results demonstrate the promise of this previously unexplored island and similar sites for using stratigraphic evidence of sudden land-level changes and high tsunamis to map prehistoric ruptures of the Aleutian-Alaskan megathrust.

Nelson, A. R.; Briggs, R. W.; Kemp, A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Engelhart, S. E.; Dura, T.; Angster, S. J.; Bradley, L.

2012-12-01

91

2011 volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near three separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2011. The year was highlighted by the unrest and eruption of Cleveland Volcano in the central Aleutian Islands. AVO annual summaries no longer report on activity at Russian volcanoes.

McGimsey, Robert G.; Maharrey, J. Zebulon; Neal, Christina A.

2014-01-01

92

Living on Active Volcanoes - The Island of Hawaii  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication highlights the volcanic hazards facing the people living on the Island of Hawaii. These hazards include lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, earthquakes and tsunamis. This report discusses these hazards, the volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea, and the work of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory to monitor and issue warnings to the people affected by these hazards.

Heliker, Christina; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley Ii., James

93

75 FR 5541 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2009...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

On February 17, 2009, NMFS published the final 2009 and 2010 harvest specifications for groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area. Table 8c of that document contained the final 2009 and 2010 prohibited species bycatch allowances for the BSAI trawl limited access sector and non-trawl fisheries of the BSAI management area. That table contained an error that is......

2010-02-03

94

Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area Pollock Seasons, 1991-2013 Updated 4/10/14  

E-print Network

Page 1 Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area Pollock Seasons, 1991-2013 Updated 4/10/14 Area and 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Sector Season Open Close Days Open Close Days Open Close Days Open Close Days Open Close Days Inshore BS A Season 20-Jan 6-Mar 46 20-Jan 24-Mar 63 20-Jan 2-Mar 41 20-Jan 1

95

Science, policy, and stakeholders: developing a consensus science plan for Amchitka Island, Aleutians, Alaska.  

PubMed

With the ending of the Cold War, the US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of radioactive waste and disposal of land no longer needed for nuclear material production or related national security missions. The task of characterizing the hazards and risks from radionuclides is necessary for assuring the protection of health of humans and the environment. This is a particularly daunting task for those sites that had underground testing of nuclear weapons, where the radioactive contamination is currently inaccessible. Herein we report on the development of a Science Plan to characterize the physical and biological marine environment around Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska, where three underground nuclear tests were conducted (1965-1971). Information on the ecology, geology, and current radionuclide levels in biota, water, and sediment is necessary for evaluating possible current contamination and to serve as a baseline for developing a plan to ensure human and ecosystem health in perpetuity. Other information required includes identifying the location of the salt water/fresh water interface where migration to the ocean might occur in the future and determining groundwater recharge balances, as well as assessing other physical/geological features of Amchitka near the test sites. The Science Plan is needed to address the confusing and conflicting information available to the public about radionuclide risks from underground nuclear blasts in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as well as the potential for volcanic or seismic activity to disrupt shot cavities or accelerate migration of radionuclides into the sea. Developing a Science Plan involved agreement among regulators and other stakeholders, assignment of the task to the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and development of a consensus Science Plan that dealt with contentious scientific issues. Involvement of the regulators (State of Alaska), resource trustees (U S Fish and Wildlife Service), representatives of the Aleut and Pribilof Island communities, and other stakeholders was essential for plan development and approval, although this created tensions because of the different objectives of each group. The complicated process of developing a Science Plan involved iterations and interactions with multiple agencies and organizations, scientists in several disciplines, regulators, and the participation of Aleut people in their home communities, as well as the general public. The importance of including all parties in all phases of the development of the Science Plan was critical to its acceptance by a broad range of regulators, agencies, resource trustees, Aleutian/Pribilof communities, and other stakeholders. PMID:15886955

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry; Eichelberger, John; Barnes, David; Duffy, Lawrence K; Jewett, Stephen C; Volz, Conrad D

2005-05-01

96

Stable isotope chemistry, population histories and Late Prehistoric subsistence change in the Aleutian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aleut population history has been a topic of debate since the earliest archaeological investigations in the region. In this paper, we use stable isotope chemistry to evaluate the hypothesis that two distinct groups of people, Paleo- and Neo-Aleut, occupied the eastern Aleutians after 1000BP. This study focuses on 80 sets of directly dated eastern Aleutian burial assemblages from Chaluka midden,

David A. Byers; David R. Yesner; Jack M. Broughton; Joan Brenner Coltrain

2011-01-01

97

The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory Akutan Alaskan Volcano Network Installation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During June and July of 2005, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) installed eight permanent GPS stations on Akutan Volcano, in the central Aleutian Islands of Alaska. PBO worked closely with the Alaska Volcano Observatory and the Magmatic Systems Site Selection working group to install stations with a spatial distribution to monitor and detect both short and long term volcanic deformation

B. Pauk; M. Jackson; D. Mencin; J. Power; W. Gallaher; A. Basset; K. Kore; Z. Hargraves; T. Peterson

2005-01-01

98

Detection and location of earthquakes in the central Aleutian subduction zone using island and ocean bottom seismograph stations  

SciTech Connect

A network of eight University of Texas ocean bottom seismographs (OBS) operated for 6 weeks in 1978 about 50 km offshore of Adak Island, Alaska, and nearly islands. In 1979 a similar network of nine instruments was deployed for 7 weeks farther offshore within and up to 100 km seaward of the Aleutian trench. For shallow earthquakes on the outer trench slope, for shallow earthquakes in the thrust zone, and for intermediate-depth events we have analyzed the OBS and island-based network data and evaluated the island network's capabilities for earthquake detection and location and for focal mechanism determination. Our three major conclusions are presented. The first concerns shallow earthquakes on the outer trench slope. In 1979 about 30 earthquakes occurred within the Aleutian trench and up to 60 km seaward of the trench axis. The island network located none of these events and detected P phases for only three of them. Ray tracing shows that the islands lie in a geometric shadow zone for events on the outer trench slope. The best located events are shallower than 20 km and exhibit first motions consistent with normal faulting. Several authors have suggested that these events are caused by bending of the oceanic lithosphere at the outer rise prior to subduction. If so, then the event locations reported here show that the bending stresses exceed the strength of lithosphere only in a narrow zone extending about 10 km landward and 60 km seaward of the trench axis. The second conclusion concerns shallow earthquakes in the thrust zone. Epicenters determined by island stations alone are virtually identical to epicenters determined using data from both island and OBS stations. The third conclusion concerns earthquakes deeper than 70 km. Epicenters determined using island network stations alone lie 10 to 80 km south of those determined using OBS and island stations, with the differences between epicenters depending both on event depth and on the velocity model used.

Frohlich, C.; Billington, S.; Engdahl, E.R.; Malahoff, A.

1982-08-10

99

Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

Kaler, Robb S. A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

2014-01-01

100

Adakitic volcanism in the eastern Aleutian arc: Petrology and geochemistry of Hayes volcano, Cook Inlet, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Located in south-central Alaska, 135 km northwest of Anchorage, Hayes volcano is responsible for the most widespread tephra fall deposit in the regional Holocene record (~3,500 BP). Hayes is bounded to the west by the Cook Inlet volcanoes (CIV; Mt. Spurr, Redoubt, Iliamna, and Augustine) and separated from the nearest volcanism to the east, Mount Drum of the Wrangell Volcanic Field (WVF), by a 400 km-wide volcanic gap. We report initial results of the first systematic geochemical and petrologic study of Hayes volcano. Hayes eruptive products are calc-alkaline dacites and rhyolites that have anomalous characteristics within the region. Major and trace element analyses reveal that the Hayes rhyolites are more silicic (~74 wt. % SiO2) than compositions observed in other CIV, and its dacitic products possess the distinctive geochemical signatures of adakitic magmas. Key aspects of the Hayes dacite geochemistry include: 16.03 - 17.54 wt. % Al2O3, 0.97 - 2.25 wt. % MgO, Sr/Y = 60 - 78, Yb = 0.9 - 1.2 ppm, Ba/La = 31 - 79. Such signatures are consistent with melting of a metamorphosed basaltic source that leaves behind a residue of garnet ± amphibole ± pyroxene via processes such as melting of a subducting oceanic slab or underplated mafic lower crust, rather than flux melting of the mantle wedge by dehydration of the down-going slab. Additionally, Hayes tephras display a distinctive mineralogy of biotite with amphibole in greater abundance than pyroxene, a characteristic not observed at other CIV. Furthermore, Hayes rhyolites and dacites exhibit little isotopic heterogeneity (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70384 - 0.70395, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.866 - 18.889) suggesting these lavas originate from the same source. Hayes volcano is approximately situated above the western margin of the subducting Yakutat terrane and where the dip of the Pacific slab beneath Cook Inlet shallows northward. Due to its position along the margin of the subducting Yakutat terrane, it is plausible that Hayes magmas are the result of partial melting of this slab where thermal erosion and weakening of the crust occurs along the Pacific plate-Yakutat terrane transition. Additionally, flat slab subduction may be responsible for producing adakitic magmas by equilibration of the hydrous slab with ambient mantle temperatures. In contrast, it is possible that the adakitic signature at Hayes is from underplated mafic lower crust that melted as the result of pooling mantle melt at depth. Two volcanoes within the WVF, Mt. Drum and Mt. Churchill, are adakitic with an abundance of biotite and amphibole similar to Hayes volcano and have been suggested to have slab melt origins. Mt. Drum lavas have less radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr but overlapping 206Pb/204Pb signatures while Mt. Churchill, which approximately overlies the eastern edge of the Yakutat terrane, has similar 87Sr/86Sr compositions, but more radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb than Hayes. Mt. Spurr, the nearest CIV to Hayes volcano (90 km south), does not share its adakitic signature but exhibits overlapping, more heterogeneous isotopic compositions. Thus, understanding the petrogenetic history of Hayes volcano is essential not only to explain the development of an adakitic volcanic system but how this relates to regional, arc-wide volcanism.

McHugh, K.; Hart, W. K.; Coombs, M. L.

2012-12-01

101

High prevalence of Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink on a remote Danish island.  

PubMed

Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes severe disease in farmed mink (Neovison vison) worldwide. In Denmark, AMDV in farmed mink has been confined to the northern part of the mainland since 2002. From 1998 to 2009, samples from 396 free-ranging mink were collected from mainland Denmark, and a low AMDV antibody prevalence (3% of 296) was found using countercurrent immune electrophoresis. However, on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, a high prevalence (45% of 142 mink) was detected in the free-ranging mink. Aleutian mink disease virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32 of 49 antibody-positive free-ranging mink on Bornholm, but not in mink collected from other parts of Denmark. Sequence analysis of 370 base pairs of the nonstructural gene of the AMDV of 17 samples revealed two clusters with closest similarity to Swedish AMDV strains. PMID:22493130

Jensen, Trine H; Christensen, Laurids S; Chriél, Mariann; Harslund, Jakob; Salomonsen, Charlotte M; Hammer, Anne Sofie

2012-04-01

102

Diverse lavas from closely spaced volcanoes drawing from a common parent: Emmons Lake Volcanic Center, Eastern Aleutian Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) on the lower Alaskan Peninsula is one of the largest and most diverse volcanic centers in the Aleutian Arc. Since the Middle Pleistocene, eruption of ~ 350 km 3 of basalt through rhyolite has produced a 30 km, arc front chain of nested calderas and overlapping stratovolcanoes. ELVC has experienced as many as five major caldera-forming eruptions, the most recent, at ~ 27 ka, produced ~ 50 km 3 of rhyolitic ignimbrite and ash fall. These violent silicic events were interspersed with less energetic, but prodigious, outpourings of basalt through dacite. Holocene eruptions are mostly basaltic andesite to andesite and historically recorded activity includes over 40 eruptions within the last 200 yr, all from Pavlof volcano, the most active site in the Aleutian Arc. Geochemical and geophysical observations suggest that although all ELVC eruptions derive from a common clinopyroxene + spinel + plagioclase fractionating high-aluminum basalt parent in the lower crust, magma follows one of two closely spaced, but distinct paths to the surface. Under the eastern end of the chain, magma moves rapidly and cleanly through a relatively young (~ 28 ka), hydraulically connected dike plexus. Steady supply, short magma residence times, and limited interaction with crustal rocks preserve the geochemistry of deep crustal processes. Below the western part of the chain, magma moves haltingly through a long-lived (~ 500 ka) and complex intrusive column in which many generations of basaltic to andesitic melts have mingled and fractionated. Buoyant, silicic melts periodically separate from the lower parts of the column to feed voluminous eruptions of dacite and rhyolite. Mafic lavas record a complicated passage through cumulate zones and hydrous silicic residues as manifested by disequilibrium phenocryst textures, incompatible element enrichments, and decoupling of REEs and HFSEs ratios. Such features are absent in mafic lavas from the younger part of the chain, highlighting the importance of plumbing architecture and longevity in creating petrologic diversity. Supplemental Data include 156 major element (XRF) and 128 trace element (ICP-MS) whole-rock analyses, 23 new 40Ar/ 39Ar ages, a generalized geologic map with associated unit descriptions and field photographs, and photomicrographs of key petrographic features.

Mangan, Margaret; Miller, Thomas; Waythomas, Christopher; Trusdell, Frank; Calvert, Andrew; Layer, Paul

2009-10-01

103

Diverse lavas from closely spaced volcanoes drawing from a common parent: Emmons Lake Volcanic Center, Eastern Aleutian Arc  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) on the lower Alaskan Peninsula is one of the largest and most diverse volcanic centers in the Aleutian Arc. Since the Middle Pleistocene, eruption of ~ 350 km3 of basalt through rhyolite has produced a 30 km, arc front chain of nested calderas and overlapping stratovolcanoes. ELVC has experienced as many as five major caldera-forming eruptions, the most recent, at ~ 27 ka, produced ~ 50 km3 of rhyolitic ignimbrite and ash fall. These violent silicic events were interspersed with less energetic, but prodigious, outpourings of basalt through dacite. Holocene eruptions are mostly basaltic andesite to andesite and historically recorded activity includes over 40 eruptions within the last 200 yr, all from Pavlof volcano, the most active site in the Aleutian Arc. Geochemical and geophysical observations suggest that although all ELVC eruptions derive from a common clinopyroxene + spinel + plagioclase fractionating high-aluminum basalt parent in the lower crust, magma follows one of two closely spaced, but distinct paths to the surface. Under the eastern end of the chain, magma moves rapidly and cleanly through a relatively young (~ 28 ka), hydraulically connected dike plexus. Steady supply, short magma residence times, and limited interaction with crustal rocks preserve the geochemistry of deep crustal processes. Below the western part of the chain, magma moves haltingly through a long-lived (~ 500 ka) and complex intrusive column in which many generations of basaltic to andesitic melts have mingled and fractionated. Buoyant, silicic melts periodically separate from the lower parts of the column to feed voluminous eruptions of dacite and rhyolite. Mafic lavas record a complicated passage through cumulate zones and hydrous silicic residues as manifested by disequilibrium phenocryst textures, incompatible element enrichments, and decoupling of REEs and HFSEs ratios. Such features are absent in mafic lavas from the younger part of the chain, highlighting the importance of plumbing architecture and longevity in creating petrologic diversity. Supplemental Data include 156 major element (XRF) and 128 trace element (ICP-MS) whole-rock analyses, 23 new 40Ar/39Ar ages, a generalized geologic map with associated unit descriptions and field photographs, and photomicrographs of key petrographic features.

Mangan, M.; Miller, T.; Waythomas, C.; Trusdell, F.; Calvert, A.; Layer, P.

2009-01-01

104

Characterization of the seismogenic process in the Aleutian island arc: I. Source relations of the large earthquakes of 1957, 1986, and 1996 in the Andreanof Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interpretation of the type, size, and interrelations of sources is proposed for the three large Aleutian earthquakes of March 9, 1957, May 7, 1986, and June 10, 1996, which occurred in structures of the Andreanof Islands. According to our interpretation, the earthquakes were caused by steep reverse faults confined to different structural units of the southern slope of the Andreanof Islands and oriented along the strike of these structures. An E-W reverse fault that generated the largest earthquake of 1957 is located within the Aleutian Terrace and genetically appears to be associated with the development of the submarine Hawley Ridge. The western and eastern boundaries of this source are structurally well expressed by the Adak Canyon in the west (˜177°W) and an abrupt change in isobaths in the east (˜173°W). The character of the boundaries is reflected in the focal mechanisms. The source of the earthquake of 1957 extends for about 300 km, which agrees well with modern estimates of its magnitude ( M w = 8.6). Because the earthquake of 1957 caused, due to its high strength, seismic activation of adjacent areas of the Aleutian island arc, its aftershock zone appreciably exceeded in size the earthquake source. Reverse faults that activated the seismic sources of the earthquakes of 1986 and 1996 were located within the southern slope of the Andreanof Islands, higher than the Aleutian Terrace, outside the seismic source of the 1957 earthquake. The boundaries of these sources are also well expressed in structures and focal mechanisms. According to our estimate, the length of the 1986 earthquake source does not exceed 130 140 km, which does not contradict its magnitude ( M w = 8). The length of the 1996 earthquake source is ˜100 km, which also agrees with the magnitude of the earthquake ( M w = 7.8).

Balakina, L. M.; Moskvina, A. G.

2008-08-01

105

Surname distributions and Y-chromosome markers in the Aleutian Islands  

E-print Network

We examine surname distribution, origin, and association with Y-chromosome haplogroups in native communities from the Aleutian archipelago. The underlying hypothesis is that surnames and Y-chromosome haplogroups should be associated because both...

Graf, Orion Mark; Zlojutro, Mark; Rubicz, Rohina C.; Crawford, Michael H.

2010-01-01

106

A preliminary seismic study of Taal Volcano, Luzon Island Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The very active Taal Volcano lies in the southern part of Luzon Island only 60 km from Manila, the capital of the Philippines. In March 2008 we deployed a temporary seismic network around Taal that consisted of 8 three-component short period seismometers. This network recorded during the period from March to November 2008 about 1050 local events. In the early data processing stages, unexpected linear drifting of clock time was clearly identified for a number of stations. The drifting rates of each problematic station were determined and the errors were corrected before further processing. Initial location of each event was derived by manually picked P-/S-phases arrival times using HYPO71 and a general velocity model based on AK135. Since the velocity structure beneath Taal is essentially unknown, we used travel times of 338 well-located events in order to derive a minimum 1D velocity model using VELEST. The resulting locations show that most events occurred at the shallow depth beneath the Taal Volcano, and two major earthquake groups were noticed, with one lying underneath the western shore of Taal lake and the other one spread around the eastern flank of the Taal Volcano. Since there is no reported volcano activities during the operation period of our seismic array, we are still not confident to interpret these findings in terms of other natures of volcano at the current stage. However, our work represents an important pioneer step towards other more advanced seismic studies in Taal Volcano.

You, S.-H.; Gung, Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Chang, T.-M.; Chang, E. T. Y.; Solidum, R.

2013-03-01

107

New glass sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) from deep waters of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska.  

PubMed

Hexactinellida from deep-water communities of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, are described. They were mostly collected by the remotely operated vehicle 'Jason II' from 494–2311 m depths during a 2004 RV 'Roger Revelle' expedition, but one shallow-water species collected with a shrimp trawl from 155 m in the same area is included. The excellent condition of the ROV-collected specimens enabled valuable redescription of some species previously known only from badly damaged specimens. New taxa include one new genus and eight new species in five families. Farreidae consist of two new species, Farrea aleutiana and F. aspondyla. Euretidae consists of only Pinulasma fistulosum n. gen., n. sp. Tretodictyidae include only Tretodictyum amchitkensis n. sp. Euplectellidae consists of only the widespread species Regadrella okinoseana Ijima, reported here over 3,700 km from its closest previously known occurrence. The most diverse family, Rossellidae, consists of Aulosaccus ijimai (Schulze), Aulosaccus schulzei Ijima, Bathydorus sp. (young stage not determinable to species), Caulophacus (Caulophacus) adakensis n. sp., Acanthascus koltuni n. sp., Staurocalyptus psilosus n. sp., Staurocalyptus tylotus n. sp. and Rhabdocalyptus mirabilis Schulze. We present argument for reinstatement of the abolished rossellid subfamily Acanthascinae and return of the subgenera ?Staurocalyptus Ijima and Rhabdocalyptus Schulze to their previous generic status. These fauna provides important complexity to the hard substrate communities that likely serve as nursery areas for the young stages of commercially important fish and crab species, refuge from predation for both young and adult stages, and also as a focal source of prey for juvenile and adult stages of those same species. PMID:25325089

Reiswig, Henry M; Stone, Robert P

2013-01-01

108

Characterization of the seismogenic process in the Aleutian island arc: III. Earthquakes at the western and eastern margins of the arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parameters of the focal mechanisms of earthquakes, as well as their relations to the characteristics of seismicity and geological structure are analyzed in the regions of the Komandorskie Islands in the west of the Aleutian arc, the Fox Islands, and the Alaska Peninsula coast in the east of the arc. Different types of ruptures are revealed in the western and eastern parts of the Aleutian arc. The leading type of ruptures at the southern slope of the Komandorskie Islands is steep reverse faults crossing the arc at azimuths from submeridional to northeastern. A similar type of rupture occurs in abundance on the Rat Islands and is predominant on the Near Islands. Steep strike-slips with small components of the normal or reverse fault manifest themselves at the northern side of the block uplift of the Komandorskie Islands. Seismogenic ruptures in the region of the Komandorskie Islands do not contradict geological data on the rupture tectonics on Medny and Bering islands. At the southern slope of the Fox Islands, as well as in the Andreanof Islands, steep reverse faults striking longitudinally (along the arc) with the dip toward the deep-sea trench are the predominant type of seismogenic ruptures. This type of seismogenic ruptures is the leading type for the structures of island arcs with present-day volcanism; an example is the Kurile-Kamchatka island. Different types of predominant seismogenic ruptures in the western and eastern parts of the Aleutian island arc probably reflect different stages of the tectonic development of these regions of the arc. Possible positions and sizes of sources of the largest historical earthquakes in the eastern part of the Aleutian island arc are considered

Balakina, L. M.; Moskvina, A. G.

2010-04-01

109

Volcaniclastic sedimentation on the submarine slopes of a basaltic hotspot volcano: Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Runion Island, Indian Ocean)  

E-print Network

1 Volcaniclastic sedimentation on the submarine slopes of a basaltic hotspot volcano: Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean) Francky Saint-Ange a,b,d,*, Patrick Bachèlery c hotspot volcanoes as exemplified by the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion Island). The facies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

Holocene Geology and Geochemistry, and Ongoing Seismicity of Aniakchak Caldera Volcano, Aleutian Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oldest recognized postglacial eruption of Aniakchak volcano, Aniakchak I, produced distinctly incompatible-element-rich andesitic ignimbrite ca. 9500-7500 14C yr B.P., and may have resulted in collapse of a small caldera. Subsequently, a vent NE of the summit issued dacitic-rhyodacitic magma as lava, plinian Black Nose pumice falls, and intraplinian welded ignimbrite that probably differentiated from an Aniakchak I andesitic parent. Tephra ~40 km SE (7,350×50 14C yr B.P., VanderHoek and Myron, 2004) may be Black Nose pumice. Following Aniakchak I and Black Nose eruptions, at least 20 Holocene tephras fell before the ca. 3430 14C yr B.P. Aniakchak II eruption and collapse of its 10-km-diameter caldera. Aniakchak II produced rhyodacitic plinian fall followed by rhyodacitic and andesitic ignimbrite extending ?50 km to the Bering Sea and Pacific coasts. The rhyodacite (~70% SiO2) is the most evolved and only hornblende-phyric magma erupted from Aniakchak. The recharge Aniakchak II andesite (57.2-60.4% SiO2) has low V and high Na2O, Y, TiO2, and, especially, P2O5. Because Aniakchak I and II andesites have geochemical analogs at Veniaminof volcano ~100 km SW, their compositions reflect common processes and not local anomalies. Postcaldera vents are mainly on the ring-fracture system. The earliest extruded small dacite (64.2-67.5% SiO2) domes into a deep caldera lake and a NW flank lava flow. Three basaltic andesite-andesite tuff cones were constructed on the E caldera floor after catastrophic draining of the lake by ~200 m, including the most primitive postglacial magma (52.3% SiO2). Dacitic-andesitic magmas, from crystallization differentiation of several batches, issued from Vent Mountain and Half Cone starting as much as ~1000 yr ago. Plinian eruption at Half Cone ~400 14C yr B.P. yielded ~1 km3 of widespread dacitic Pink and overlying andesitic Brown pumice fall deposits, as well as intracaldera pyroclastic flows. Strombolian eruption of basaltic andesite (~52.4% SiO2) built Blocky cone after Half Cone and most Vent Mountain activity. The most recent eruption, 1931 C.E., yielded a total of 0.9 km3 of dacite-rhyodacite tephra followed by relatively voluminous andesite tephra, ending with minor basaltic andesite, spanning ~67 to 56% SiO2. Current indications of an active magmatic system include high 3He/4He of CO2-rich gas at intracaldera Surprise Lake, InSAR pattern of caldera floor subsidence, and episodic seismicity. The majority of earthquakes located by Alaska Volcano Observatory are long-period (LP) events. Epicenters for 135 (2009-2012; ML ?2.1) define a bow-tie pattern elongated parallel to plate convergence, centered between Half Cone and Vent Mountain. Hypocenters are in a laterally extensive region with events14-28 km bsl, few events 7-14 km bsl beneath the caldera, and events <10 km bsl concentrated under Vent Mountain. Recent seismicity is consistent with long-lived mush in the quiet zone, from which magma escapes to be stored ephemerally to within ~2.5 km bsl. LP events cluster in time through substantial depth ranges and may reflect ascent of magma from depth, transient pressure increases in the mush column, and fluid pressure pulses in the brittle upper crust.

Bacon, C. R.; Neal, C. A.; Miller, T. P.; McGimsey, R. G.; Nye, C. J.

2013-12-01

111

An Overview of Geodetic Volcano Research in the Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canary Islands are mostly characterized by diffuse and scattered volcanism affecting a large area, with only one active stratovolcano, the Teide-Pico Viejo complex (Tenerife). More than 2 million people live and work in the 7,447 km2 of the archipelago, resulting in an average population density three times greater than the rest of Spain. This fact, together with the growth of exposure during the past 40 years, increases volcanic risk with respect previous eruptions, as witnessed during the recent 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption. Therefore, in addition to purely scientific reasons there are economic and population-security reasons for developing and maintaining an efficient volcano monitoring system. In this scenario geodetic monitoring represents an important part of the monitoring system. We describe volcano geodetic monitoring research carried out in the Canary Islands and the results obtained. We consider for each epoch the two main existing constraints: the level of volcanic activity in the archipelago, and the limitations of the techniques available at the time. Theoretical and observational aspects are considered, as well as the implications for operational volcano surveillance. Current challenges of and future perspectives in geodetic volcano monitoring in the Canaries are also presented.

Fernández, José; González, Pablo J.; Camacho, Antonio G.; Prieto, Juan F.; Brú, Guadalupe

2014-08-01

112

Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): Recent advances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deception Island (South Shetland Island, Antarctica) is an active volcano with recent eruptions (e.g. 1967, 1969 and 1970). It is also among the Antarctic sites most visited by tourists. Besides, there are currently two scientific bases operating during the austral summers, usually from late November to early March. For these reasons it is necessary to deploy a volcano monitoring system as complete as possible, designed specifically to endure the extreme conditions of the volcanic environment and the Antarctic climate. The Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR) performs seismic monitoring on Deception Island since 1994 during austral summer surveys. The seismicity basically includes volcano-tectonic earthquakes, long-period events and volcanic tremor, among other signals. The level of seismicity is moderate, except for a seismo-volcanic crisis in 1999. The seismic monitoring system has evolved during these years, following the trends of the technological developments and software improvements. Recent advances have been mainly focused on: (1) the improvement of the seismic network introducing broadband stations and 24-bit data acquisition systems; (2) the development of a short-period seismic array, with a 12-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system; (3) the implementation of wireless data transmission from the network stations and also from the seismic array to a recording center, allowing for real-time monitoring; (4) the efficiency of the power supply systems and the monitoring of the battery levels and power consumption; (5) the optimization of data analysis procedures, including database management, automated event recognition tools for the identification and classification of seismo-volcanic signals, and apparent slowness vector estimates using seismic array data; (6) the deployment of permanent seismic stations and the transmission of data during the winter using a satellite connection. A single permanent station is operating at Deception Island since 2008. In the current survey we collaborate with the Spanish Army to add another permanent station that will be able to send to the IAG-UGR seismic information about the activity of the volcano during the winter, using a communications satellite (SPAINSAT). These advances simplify the field work and the data acquisition procedures, and allow us to obtain high-quality seismic data in real-time. These improvements have a very important significance for a better and faster interpretation of the seismo-volcanic activity and assessment of the volcanic hazards at Deception Island volcano.

Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Martín, R.; Cortés, G.; Alguacil, G.; Moreno, J.; Martín, B.; Martos, A.; Serrano, I.; Stich, D.; Ibáñez, J. M.

2012-04-01

113

Geologic Map and Eruptive History of Veniaminof Volcano Record Aleutian Arc Processing of Mantle-Derived Melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mount Veniaminof, one of the largest volcanoes in the Aleutian arc, has a basal diameter of ~40 km, a volume of ~350 km3, an 8-km-diameter ice-filled caldera, and an active intracaldera cone. The geology of this tholeiitic basalt-to-dacite volcano has been mapped at 1:50,000 scale. Over 100 Quaternary volcanic map units are characterized by 600 chemical analyses of rocks and nearly 100 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar ages. Throughout its history, lava flows from Veniaminof recorded alternately ice/melt-water chilling or ice-free conditions that are consistent with independent paleoclimatic records. Exposures from deep glacial valleys to the caldera rim reveal a long history dominated by basalt and basaltic andesite from ?260 ka to 150 ka that includes compositions as primitive as 9.4% MgO and 130 ppm Ni at 50% SiO2. Basaltic andesite, common throughout Veniaminof's history, has low compatible-element contents that indicate an origin by fractionation of basaltic magma. Repeated eruption of more differentiated melts from a shallow intrusive complex, represented by granodiorite (crystallized dacitic magma) and cumulate gabbro and diorite xenoliths in pyroclastic deposits, has featured virtually aphyric andesite since 150 ka and dacite (to 69.5% SiO2) beginning ~110 ka. These variably differentiated liquids segregated from crystal mush, possibly by gas-driven filter pressing, and commonly vented but also solidified at depth. A large composite cone was present at least as early as 200 ka. Although asymmetric edifice morphology hints at early sector collapse to the southeast, coeval vents on northwest and southeast flanks and the distribution of extensive lava units indicate that a large cone (again) was present by 120 ka. Flank eruption of a wide variety of Veniaminof magmas was common from plate-convergence-parallel northwest-trending fissures from at least as early as ca. 80 ka. At 56 ka and at 46 ka, voluminous dacite lava erupted on both northwest and southeast flanks. A dacitic pyroclastic-flow deposit on the northwest flank, sandwiched between 46±1-ka dacite and 28±4-ka andesite lava flows, may record early caldera collapse as also evidenced by thick 33±6-ka ice-chilled dacite lava that must have banked against ice in a depression spatially coincident with the northwest part of the present caldera. The modern caldera formed, or was enlarged, during two voluminous Holocene explosive eruptions of crystal-poor andesite ~3700 14C yr BP and >4700 14C yr BP (Miller et al., 2002 Fall AGU, V11A-1376) that emplaced pyroclastic-flow deposits on Veniaminof's flanks and in surrounding valleys. Frequent eruption from shallow reservoirs may suppress accumulation of more than a few km3 of dacitic magma at Veniaminof.

Bacon, C. R.; Sisson, T. W.; Calvert, A. T.; Nye, C. J.

2009-12-01

114

Shifting ground: archaeological surveys of upland Adak Island, the Aleutian Islands, Alaska and changing assumptions of Unangan land use patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeological site surveys in the Aleutian archipelago of western Alaska understandably focused along the shoreline, based on an assumption that land resources were a minor contribution to Unangan life. This view was the dominant but not unanimous view from the 1960s through the 1990s. There were occasional reports of upland sites. In 2007 through 2009, a concerted effort was made

Diane K. Hanson; Debra G. Corbett

2010-01-01

115

Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides general information about volcanoes. It illustrates the growth of a volcano, using Paricutin and Mt. St. Helens as examples of an active volcano and a lava dome. The terms extinct and dormant are also discussed. This site provides an explanation of why and how volcanoes form, zones of subduction, mid-ocean ridges, and hot spots. Deadly dangers associated with eruptions are discussed as is the use of a tiltmeter for prediction. The content center lesson describes a possible connection between the lost continent of Atlantis and the island of Santorini. Dissolved gasses in magma and the creation of a lava dome are both demonstrated in the hands-on section.

Johnson, Scott

116

Seismicity at Great Sitkin Volcano, Andreanof Islands, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1999, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) installed 6 telemetered, short-period seismic stations around Great Sitkin (GS) volcano as part of a 14-station volcano-monitoring network in the Andreanof Islands of Alaska. Since that time, AVO has located over 890 earthquakes within 10 km of GS, the third-highest seismicity rate of the 23 volcanoes monitored by AVO over the period 1999-present. GS has arguably the most diverse background seismicity of all 23 volcanoes. Recorded seismicity includes several minutes-to-hour-long tremor episodes, shallow and deep (> 10 km) long-period events, swarms of distal volcano-tectonic earthquakes, and two of the largest earthquakes (ML 4.3) ever recorded by AVO near a monitored volcano. The rate and character of seismicity suggests that magma may be moving in the GS system. Of particular interest are two earthquake swarms that occurred in March-April and May-July of 2002. The first began March 17, consisted of more than 320 events located 15-20 km west of GS at depths of 10-25 km, and lasted for over 5 weeks. The mainshock (ML 4.3) occurred ~20 hours after the swarm's onset. The second swarm began May 28, consisted of over 460 events located 5-8 km southeast of GS at depths of 5-15 km, and lasted for over two months. The mainshock (also ML 4.3) occurred ~9 hours after the swarm's onset. This second swarm was preceded by two tremor episodes on May 27, one lasting for 20 minutes, the second lasting for an hour. Although the spatial relationship between the tremor episodes and the second swarm is unclear, the close temporal relationship suggests a common seismogenic process that could be magmatic in origin. We use cross-correlation and relative relocation techniques to more precisely determine the location and depth extent of the swarms, and calculate Coulomb stress changes to investigate whether static stress adjustments associated with magma intrusion beneath GS could have caused the two swarms.

Moran, S. C.; Stihler, S. D.; Power, J. A.; Lockhart, A. B.; Plucinski, T. A.; Paskievitch, J. F.; Dixon, J. P.

2002-12-01

117

The formation and rupturing of continents: Seismic studies of the Aleutian island arc and the Newfoundland nonvolcanic rifted margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Island arcs and rifted margins embody the creation and destruction of continental and oceanic crust. Subduction zones consume downgoing oceanic crust, and island arcs are the manifestation of the associated magmatism. At the other end of the spectrum, rifted margins record continental breakup and the inception of seafloor spreading in the resulting new ocean basins. Although island arc magmatism constitutes a source of significant magmatic addition and might serve as a primary continental-crustal building block, debate continues regarding the composition of the middle and lower crust of island arcs and their relationship to the compositions of lavas erupted at the surface. Crustal velocity structure along the central Aleutian island arc suggests that the middle crust is composed of plutons with andesitic to basaltic compositions, and the lower crust is composed of ultramafic-mafic cumulates. The bulk composition of this island arc estimated from velocity is significantly more mafic than average continental crust, thus requiring modifications to be a suitable building block for continental crust. Additionally, variations in crustal velocity show a first-order correspondence to trends in the major element geochemistry of lavas in the central Aleutians. Nonvolcanic rifted margins form by continental breakup accompanied by little synrift magmatism and thus are ideal places to image rifting structures that would otherwise be obscured by synrift magmatism. On many nonvolcanic margins, crust of uncertain affinity has been observed between unambiguous continental and oceanic crust. On the Iberia margin, "transitional" crust is denuded, subcontinental mantle, exposed during the final stages of rifting. Delineating crustal structure of Iberia's conjugate margin, Newfoundland, can allow us to determine margin symmetry, which can be used to understand continental rupture and initial seafloor spreading. Pretack depth migrations of multichannel seismic reflection data on the Newfoundland margin, together with the work of Van Avendonk et al. [2003] and Nunes [2002], suggest that "transitional" crust on the Newfoundland margin is oceanic, which implies significant margin asymmetry and a complicated period of seafloor spreading following continental rupture. The "featureless" appearance of "transitional" crust on Newfoundland might be due to poor signal penetration beneath postrift sills encountered during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 210.

Shillington, Donna J.

118

Lower-Crustal and Upper-Mantle Seismicity beneath Aleutian Arc Volcanoes: A Temporal Link for Magmatic Processes between the Lower-Crust and the Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1989 the Alaska Volcano Observatory has identified more than 1,200 seismic events at upper-mantle to mid-crustal depths beneath 27 active Aleutian arc volcanic centers. Epicenters typically scatter broadly around the volcanoes at distances of as much as 25 km from the closest volcanic vent. Hypocenters for these events range typically from 15 to 45 km and the average depth is 25.1 km (?1 = 8.1 km). Magnitudes of located events range from -0.25 to 2.9 and the average magnitude is 1.22 (?1 = 0.5). Seismicity at these depths is unusual as it is generally considered below the brittle-ductile transition and suggests the involvement of pressurized fluids. These events provide some of the only direct evidence of the time history of magmatic processes in the lower-crust and upper-mantle, a portion of the magma pathway that is traditionally difficult to observe. The waveforms of these events exhibit the full range in frequency content typically seen in volcanic environments from broad spectrum (1 to 15 Hz) brittle failure, volcano-tectonic earthquakes, to peaked spectra (1 to 4 Hz), fluid resonance or long-period events. Most of the events are long-period or low-frequency in character and often have extended codas. These events occur both as solitary events and in sequences lasting from 2 to 30 minutes containing 3 to 10 individual events. Within the sequences individual events are often separated by volcanic tremor that shares the same spectral character as the seismic events themselves. All Aleutian arc volcanoes with suitable instrumentation and long-term monitoring exhibit some level of mid-crustal to upper-mantle seismicity. Spurr, Westdahl, Aniakchak and Akutan have the highest rates of upper-mantle to mid-crustal seismicity. Recent eruptions at Redoubt (2009) and Shishaldin (1999) were preceded by increases in lower-crustal seismicity as were episodes of unrest at Mount Spurr (2005), Trident (2008) and Little Sitkin (2012). The 1992 eruption of Mount Spurr initiated an increase in mid- to lower-crustal seismicity that continued until 1997. The time history of these sequences suggests a link between upper-crustal volcanic unrest and magmatic processes in upper-mantle or lower-crust that occurs at time scales of weeks to months. Tracking seismicity in the mid- to lower-crust and upper mantle may provide a means to extend forecasts of hazardous volcanic activity to an earlier stage in the eruption cycle.

Power, J. A.; Stihler, S. D.; Ketner, D. M.; Haney, M. M.; Prejean, S. G.; Parker, T. J.

2013-12-01

119

Diverse lavas from closely spaced volcanoes drawing from a common parent: Emmons Lake Volcanic Center, Eastern Aleutian Arc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) on the lower Alaskan Peninsula is one of the largest and most diverse volcanic centers in the Aleutian Arc. Since the Middle Pleistocene, eruption of ~350km3 of basalt through rhyolite has produced a 30km, arc front chain of nested calderas and overlapping stratovolcanoes. ELVC has experienced as many as five major caldera-forming eruptions, the most

Margaret Mangan; Thomas Miller; Christopher Waythomas; Frank Trusdell; Andrew Calvert; Paul Layer

2009-01-01

120

Remote sensing for active volcano monitoring in Barren Island, India  

SciTech Connect

The Barren Island Volcano, situated in the Andaman Sea of the Bay of Bengal, erupted recently (March, 1991) after a prolonged period of quiescence of about 188 years. This resumed activity coincides with similar outbreaks in the Philippines and Japan, which are located in an identical tectonic environment. This study addresses (1) remote sensing temporal monitoring of the volcanic activity, (2) detecting hot lava and measuring its pixel-integrated and subpixel temperatures, and (3) the importance of SWIR bands for high temperature volcanic feature detection. Seven sets of TM data acquired continuously from 3 March 1991 to 8 July 1991 have been analyzed. It is concluded that detectable pre-eruption warming took place around 25 March 1991 and volcanic activity started on 1 April 1991. It is observed that high temperature features, such as an erupting volcano, can register emitted thermal radiance in SWIR bands. Calculation of pixel-integrated and sub-pixel temperatures related to volcanic vents has been made, using the dual-band method. 6 refs.

Bhattacharya, A.; Reddy, C.S.S.; Srivastav, S.K. (National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad (India))

1993-08-01

121

Estimating abundance of killer whales in the nearshore waters of the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands using line-transect sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Killer whale (Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758) abundance in the North Pacific is known only for a few populations for which extensive longitudinal data\\u000a are available, with little quantitative data from more remote regions. Line-transect ship surveys were conducted in July and\\u000a August of 2001–2003 in coastal waters of the western Gulf of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. Conventional and Multiple

Alexandre N. Zerbini; Janice M. Waite; John W. Durban; Rick LeDuc; Marilyn E. Dahlheim; Paul R. Wade

2007-01-01

122

Transient self-potential anomalies associated with recent lava flows at Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Runion Island, Indian Ocean)  

E-print Network

be used to diagnose the cooling of recent lava flow on shield volcanoes. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights volcano (Réunion Island, Indian Ocean) S. Barde-Cabusson a, ,1 , G. Levieux a,b , J.-F. Lénat a , A Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island, Indian Ocean). Repeated self-potential measurements are used to determine

Duputel, Zacharie

123

Economic and engineering considerations for geothermal development in the Makushin Volcano Region of Unalaska Island, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Large vapor-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs are suspected to exist in the region marked by fumarole fields on the southeast flank of Makushin Volcano on Unalaska Island, Alaska. In this paper, economic and engineering considerations with respect to potential hydrothermal development in the Makushin Volcano region are presented.

Reeder, J.W.; Economides, M.J.; Markle, D.R.

1982-10-01

124

Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands  

E-print Network

Islands Management Area Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review/Initial Regulatory Islands Management Area Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review/Initial Regulatory Department of Fish and Game Abstract: This environmental impact statement/regulatory impact review

125

Evolution and geochemistry of the Tertiary calc-alkaline plutons in the Adak Island region of the central Aleutian oceanic island arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calc-alkaline plutons are major crustal building blocks of continental margin mountain belts like the Mesozoic to Tertiary Andes and the Sierra Nevada, but are rare in oceanic island arcs. Some of the most calc-alkaline I-type island arc plutons are in the Central Aleutians with the most extreme signatures, as indicated by FeO/MgO ratios of < ~2 at 48-70% wt. % SiO2, in the ~10 km wide Oligocene Hidden Bay pluton on southern Adak Island and the 10 km wide Miocene Kagalaska pluton to the north on eastern Adak and the adjacent Kagalaska Island. Although small compared to most continental plutons, similarities in intrusive units, mineralogy and chemistry suggest common formation processes. The Aleutian calc-alkaline plutonic rocks mainly differ from continental plutons in having more oceanic like isotopic (87Sr/86Sr = 0.703-0.7033; Epsilon Nd = 9-7.8) and LIL (e.g., higher K/Rb) ratios. The Adak region plutons differ from Tertiary plutons on Unalaska Island further east in being more K-rich and in having a more oxidized and lower-temperature mineralogy. From a regional perspective, the Adak area plutons intrude Eocene/Oligocene Finger Bay Formation mafic volcanic and sedimentary rocks and postdate the small ~38 Ma tholeiitic Finger Bay pluton. The chemistry of these older magmatic rocks is basically similar to that of young Central Aleutian magmatic rocks with boninites and arc tholeiitic magmas seemingly being absent. The formation of the calc-alkaline plutons seems to require a sufficient crustal thickness, fluid concentration and contractional stress such that magma chambers can stabilize significant amounts of pargasitic hornblende. Seismic receiver function analyses (Janiszewski et al., 2013) indicate the modern Adak crust is ~ 37 km thick. Existing and new hornblende, plagioclase and biotite Ar/Ar ages from 16 Hidden Bay pluton and Gannet Lake stock gabbro, porphyritic diorite, diorite, granodiorite, leucogranodiorite and aplite samples range from 34.6 to 30.9 Ma and indicate an ~ 4 Ma intrusion history. Biotite Ar/Ar ages for Kagalaska gabbro and granodiorite samples range from 14.7 to 13.9 Ma. The new ages are consistent with the plutons being related to several eruptive centers and forming during the waning stages of volcanism as the magmatic arc front was displaced to the north, possibly in response to accelerated periods of forearc subduction erosion. The gabbroic to leucogranodioritic units evolved in the lower to mid-crust with more silicic magmas rising buoyantly to higher levels where final crystallization and segregation of aplites occurred. Most gabbro and all mafic diorite units are largely crystal cumulates; one gabbro approaches the melt composition of a high Al basalt. The volumetrically dominant silicic diorites and granodiorites (58-63% SiO2) show the most zoning in their mineral phases and approach melt compositions. The leucogranodiorite (67-70% SiO2)unit was the last to crystallize. The silicic units are considered to be deep-crustal differentiates of high-Al basalt magmas, although partial melting of older magmatic rocks may play a role. Mafic dikes in the pluton represent the basic magmas under the dying arc front as the front moved northward.

Kay, Suzanne; Citron, Gary P.; Kay, Robert W.; Jicha, Brian; Tibbetts, Ashley

2014-05-01

126

Final Report: Weatherization and Energy Conservation Education and Home Energy and Safety Review in the Aleutian Islands  

SciTech Connect

Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, Inc. (APIA) hired three part-time local community members that desire to be Energy Technicians. The energy technicians were trained in methods of weatherization assistance, energy conservation and home safety. They developed a listing of homes in the region that required weatherization, and conducted on-site weatherization and energy conservation education and a home energy and safety reviews in the communities of Akutan, False Pass, King Cove and Nelson Lagoon. Priority was given to these smaller communities as they tend to have the residences most in need of weatherization and energy conservation measures. Local residents were trained to provide all three aspects of the project: weatherization, energy conservation education and a home energy and safety review. If the total energy saved by installing these products is a 25% reduction (electrical and heating, both of which are usually produced by combustion of diesel fuel), and the average Alaska home produces 32,000 pounds of CO2 each year, so we have saved about: 66 homes x 16 tons of CO2 each year x .25 = 264 tons of CO2 each year.

Bruce Wright

2011-08-30

127

Toothpaste lava from the Barren Island volcano (Andaman Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toothpaste lava is a basaltic lava flow type transitional between pahoehoe and aa and has been described from Paricutin, Kilauea and Etna volcanoes. Here we describe a spectacular example of toothpaste lava, forming part of a recent (possibly 1994-95) aa flow on the active volcano of Barren Island (Andaman Sea). This flow of subalkalic basalt shows abundant squeeze-ups of viscous toothpasate lava near its entry into the sea. The squeeze-ups are sheets and slabs, up to several meters across and tens of centimeters thick, extruded from boccas. They are often prominently curved, have striated upper surfaces with close-spaced, en echelon linear ridges and grooves, broad wave-like undulations perpendicular to the striations, and sometimes, clefts. Textural, geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic data on the squeeze-ups and the exposed aa flow core indicate very crystal-rich, viscous, and isotopically very homogeneous lava. We envisage that a greatly reduced speed of this viscous flow at the coastline, possibly aided by a shallowing of the basal slope, led to lateral spreading of the flow, which caused tension in its upper parts. This, with continued (albeit dwindling) lava supply at the back, led to widespread tearing of the flow surface and extrusion of the squeeze-ups. The larger slabs, while extruding in a plastic condition, curved under their own weight, whereas their surfaces experienced brittle deformation, forming the en echelon grooves. The extruded, detached, and rotated sheets and slabs were carried forward for some distance atop the very slowly advancing aa core, before the flow solidified.

Sheth, Hetu C.; Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Kumar, Alok; Bhutani, Rajneesh; Awasthi, Neeraj

2011-04-01

128

The petrogenesis of sodic island arc magmas at Savo volcano, Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savo, Solomon Islands, is a historically active volcano dominated by sodic, alkaline lavas, and pyroclastic rocks with up\\u000a to 7.5 wt% Na2O, and high Sr, arc-like trace element chemistry. The suite is dominated by mugearites (plagioclase–clinopyroxene–magnetite ± amphibole ± olivine)\\u000a and trachytes (plagioclase–amphibole–magnetite ± biotite). The presence of hydrous minerals (amphibole, biotite) indicates\\u000a relatively wet magmas. In such melts, plagioclase is relatively unstable relative to iron oxides

D. J. Smith; M. G. Petterson; A. D. Saunders; I. L. Millar; G. R. T. Jenkin; T. Toba; J. Naden; J. M. Cook

2009-01-01

129

Volcanic Tsunami Generation in the Aleutian Arc of Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the worlds active volcanoes are situated on or near coastlines, and during eruptions the transfer of mass from volcano to sea is a potential source mechanism for tsunamis. Flows of granular material off of volcanoes, such as pyroclastic flow, debris avalanche, and lahar, often deliver large volumes of unconsolidated debris to the ocean that have a large potential tsunami hazard. The deposits of both hot and cold volcanic grain flows produced by eruptions of Aleutian arc volcanoes are exposed at many locations along the coastlines of the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean, and Cook Inlet indicating that the flows entered the sea and in some cases may have initiated tsunamis. We evaluate the process of tsunami generation by granular subaerial volcanic flows using examples from Aniakchak volcano in southwestern Alaska, and Augustine volcano in southern Cook Inlet. Evidence for far-field tsunami inundation coincident with a major caldera-forming eruption of Aniakchak volcano ca. 3.5 ka has been described and is the basis for one of our case studies. We perform a numerical simulation of the tsunami using a large volume pyroclastic flow as the source mechanism and compare our results to field measurements of tsunami deposits preserved along the north shore of Bristol Bay. Several attributes of the tsunami simulation, such as water flux and wave amplitude, are reasonable predictors of tsunami deposit thickness and generally agree with the field evidence for tsunami inundation. At Augustine volcano, geological investigations suggest that as many as 14 large volcanic-rock avalanches have reached the sea in the last 2000 years, and a debris avalanche emplaced during the 1883 eruption may have initiated a tsunami observed about 80 km east of the volcano at the village of English Bay (Nanwalek) on the coast of the southern Kenai Peninsula. By analogy with the 1883 event, previous studies concluded that tsunamis could have been generated many times in the past. If so, geological evidence of tsunamis, such as tsunami deposits on land, should be found in the area around Augustine Island. Paradoxically, unequivocal evidence for tsunami inundation has been found. Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in the Cook Inlet region and a future tsunami from the volcano would have devastating consequences to villages, towns, oil-production facilities, and the fishing industry, especially if it occurred at high tide (the tidal range in this area is about 5 m). Numerical simulation experiments of tsunami generation, propagation and inundation using a subaerial debris avalanche source at Augustine volcano indicate only modest wave generation because of the shallow water surrounding the volcano (maximum water depth about 25 m). Lahar flows produced during eruptions at snow and ice clad volcanoes in the Aleutian arc also deliver copious amounts of sediment to the sea. These flows only rarely transform to subaqueous debris flows that may become tsunamigenic. However, the accumulation of loose, unconsolidated sediment on the continental shelf may lead to subaqueous debris flows and landslides if these deposits become mobilized by large earthquakes. Tsunamis produced by this mechanism could potentially reach coastlines all along the Pacific Rim. Finally, recent work in the western Aleutian Islands indicates that many of the island volcanoes in this area have experienced large-scale flank collapse. Because these volcanoes are surrounded by deep water, the tsunami hazard associated with a future sector collapse could be significant.

Waythomas, C. F.; Watts, P.

2003-12-01

130

Modeling volcano growth on the Island of Hawaii: deep-water perspectives  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent ocean-bottom geophysical surveys, dredging, and dives, which complement surface data and scientific drilling at the Island of Hawaii, document that evolutionary stages during volcano growth are more diverse than previously described. Based on combining available composition, isotopic age, and geologically constrained volume data for each of the component volcanoes, this overview provides the first integrated models for overall growth of any Hawaiian island. In contrast to prior morphologic models for volcano evolution (preshield, shield, postshield), growth increasingly can be tracked by age and volume (magma supply), defining waxing alkalic, sustained tholeiitic, and waning alkalic stages. Data and estimates for individual volcanoes are used to model changing magma supply during successive compositional stages, to place limits on volcano life spans, and to interpret composite assembly of the island. Volcano volumes vary by an order of magnitude; peak magma supply also varies sizably among edifices but is challenging to quantify because of uncertainty about volcano life spans. Three alternative models are compared: (1) near-constant volcano propagation, (2) near-equal volcano durations, (3) high peak-tholeiite magma supply. These models define inconsistencies with prior geodynamic models, indicate that composite growth at Hawaii peaked ca. 800–400 ka, and demonstrate a lower current rate. Recent age determinations for Kilauea and Kohala define a volcano propagation rate of 8.6 cm/yr that yields plausible inception ages for other volcanoes of the Kea trend. In contrast, a similar propagation rate for the less-constrained Loa trend would require inception of Loihi Seamount in the future and ages that become implausibly large for the older volcanoes. An alternative rate of 10.6 cm/yr for Loa-trend volcanoes is reasonably consistent with ages and volcano spacing, but younger Loa volcanoes are offset from the Kea trend in age-distance plots. Variable magma flux at the Island of Hawaii, and longer-term growth of the Hawaiian chain as discrete islands rather than a continuous ridge, may record pulsed magma flow in the hotspot/plume source.

Lipman, Peter W.; Calvert, Andrew T.

2013-01-01

131

Isotopic and incompatible element constraints on the genesis of island arc volcanics from Cold Bay and Amak Island, Aleutians, and implications for mantle structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cold Bay and Amak Island, two Quaternary volcanic centers in the eastern Aleutians, are orthogonal relative to the trench and separated by ~50 km. Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of the calc-alkaline andesite magmas show no sign of contamination from continental crust (average 87Sr /86Sr = 0.70323 , 143Nd /144Nd = 0.51301 , 206Pb /204Pb = 18.82 , 207Pb /204Pb = 15.571 ). These samples plot within the mantle arrays for Sr-Nd and for Pb and are similar to arcs such as the Marianas and New Britain (Sr-Nd) and Marianas and Tonga (Pb). Incompatible element ratios for the Aleutian andesites (K/Rb ~ 332, K/Cs ~ 10,600, K/Sr ~ 22.4, K/Ba ~ 18.3, Ba/La ~ 60) are within the range reported for arc basalts, despite the difference in degree of fractionation. Average K content, K/Rb, K/Ba and K/Sr are approximately the same for basalts from arcs and from oceanic islands (OIB); K/Cs is a factor of 4 lower and Ba/La almost 3 times higher in arcs. Abundance ratio correlations indicate that arcs are enriched in Cs and depleted in La relative to OIB, with other incompatible element abundances very similar. Histograms of Sr and Nd isotopic compositions for MORB, OIB, and intraoceanic arcs show remarkably similar peaks and distribution patterns for intraoceanic arcs and OIB. A "plum pudding" model for the upper mantle best accommodates a) geochemical coherence of OIB and IAV, b) the existence of mantle plumes at some oceanic islands, and c) the presence of a MORB-type source at back arc spreading centers. In this model, OIB plums are imbedded in a MORB matrix; small degrees of melting generate OIB-type magmas while larger degrees of melting dilute the OIB magma with MORB matrix melts. OIB plums are merely less robust lower mantle plumes ( i.e., blobs) which are distributed throughout the upper mantle by convection. The existence of at least two types of OIB, as indicated by Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes, suggests that nuggets of recycled oceanic lithosphère may coexist with lower-mantle plums and that both may be tapped in arcs and intraplate environments.

Morris, J. D.; Hart, S. R.

1983-11-01

132

The First Historical Eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first historical eruption of Anatahan volcano occurred on May 10, 2003. The MARGINS office responded by authorizing helicopter surveillance and ship deployment to visit the volcano. The helicopter flight on May 19 allowed visual observations and identification of the east crater as the source of the eruption. The top of the plume was estimated to be at 10,000 ft - significantly less than the 30,000 ft of the initial blast. No bombs were ejected out of the east crater at this time but were falling back into the crater. The bombs looked irregular in shape, massive and were estimated to be a few m in diameter. Bombs and tephra samples were collected from the eastern side of the island when blasts were occurring at a rate of approx. 1 per 5min. The ship visit followed on May 21 to the western side of the island for collection of samples and SO2 flux measurements, along with maintenance of a previously deployed seismometer. Volcanic samples collected on Anatahan consisted of bombs, ash and scoria from the present eruption and old lavas (age unknown). The ash section on the western shore was 25 cm thick and consisted of the following sequence (bottom to top): 0-5 inversely? graded dark ash with scoria and pumice clasts (1-2 cm), 20-25 cm: well sorted clast-supported scoria (max 2 cm) with some fine ash. The maximum total thickness measured at a site 6 km from the east crater was approximately 45 cm. The sequence is interpreted as 1) initial blast 2) interaction of magma with water (from pre-existing hydrothermal system) as evidenced by accretionary lapilli 3) magmatic phase of the eruption producing juvenile material. Electron microprobe analyses of the pumice and scoria show uniform compositions of ~ 60wt% SiO2 in the glass; zoned plagioclase with average composition of 61% An, 37.7% Ab, 1.2% Or; pyroxenes (19.4% Wo, 53.4% En, 26.7% Fs) and Fe-Ti oxides. Sulfur and Cl contents are approx. 100 and 1500 ppm, respectively. Water content of the glass may be several wt% based on analytical totals. Volatile emissions from the volcano were measured by traversing under the plume with a ship-based COSPEC. Using wind speed data from NOAA (10-15 knots on May 21), we estimate the daily SO2 flux to be 3000 - 4500 tons. Our observations are consistent with the idea that the initial phreatic eruption evolved rapidly into a magmatic phase producing juvenile (and vesicular) material accompanied by a high SO2 flux. Details on the eruption products, chemical analyses, seismic measurements, and current monitoring efforts can be found in accompanying posters.

Fischer, T. P.; Hilton, D. R.; Demoor, J.; Jaffe, L.; Spilde, M. N.; Counce, D.; Camacho, J. T.

2003-12-01

133

The May 2003 eruption of Anatahan volcano, Mariana Islands: Geochemical evolution of a silicic island-arc volcano  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The first historical eruption of Anatahan volcano began on May 10, 2003. Samples of tephra from early in the eruption were analyzed for major and trace elements, and Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf, and O isotopic compositions. The compositions of these tephras are compared with those of prehistoric samples of basalt and andesite, also newly reported here. The May 2003 eruptives are medium-K andesites with 59-63 wt.% SiO2, and are otherwise homogeneous (varying less than 3% 2?? about the mean for 45 elements). Small, but systematic, chemical differences exist between dark (scoria) and light (pumice) fragments, which indicate fewer mafic and oxide phenocrysts in, and less degassing for, the pumice than scoria. The May 2003 magmas are nearly identical to other prehistoric eruptives from Anatahan. Nonetheless, Anatahan has erupted a wide range of compositions in the past, from basalt to dacite (49-66 wt.% SiO2). The large proportion of lavas with silicic compositions at Anatahan (> 59 wt.% SiO2) is unique within the active Mariana Islands, which otherwise erupt a narrow range of basalts and basaltic andesites. The silicic compositions raise the question of whether they formed via crystal fractionation or crustal assimilation. The lack of 87Sr/86Sr variation with silica content, the MORB-like ??18O, and the incompatible behavior of Zr rule out assimilation of old crust, altered crust, or zircon-saturated crustal melts, respectively. Instead, the constancy of isotopic and trace element ratios, and the systematic variations in REE patterns are consistent with evolution by crystal fractionation of similar parental magmas. Thus, Anatahan is a type example of an island-arc volcano that erupts comagmatic basalts to dacites, with no evidence for crustal assimilation. The parental magmas to Anatahan lie at the low 143Nd/144Nd, Ba/La, and Sm/La end of the spectrum of magmas erupted in the Marianas arc, consistent with 1-3 wt.% addition of subducted sediment to the mantle source, or roughly one third of the sedimentary column. The high Th/La in Anatahan magmas is consistent with shallow loss of the top 50 m of the sedimentary column during subduction. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wade, J. A.; Plank, T.; Stern, R. J.; Tollstrup, D. L.; Gill, J. B.; O'Leary, J. C.; Eiler, J. M.; Moore, R. B.; Woodhead, J. D.; Trusdell, F.; Fischer, T. P.; Hilton, D. R.

2005-01-01

134

Volcanoes!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webquest provides a information and links explaining the different types of volcanoes, lava flow, volcano locations, and volcano damage. There are links for students to research their own questions and a vocabulary list. A teacher page contains associated lesson plan criteria. There are links to building volcano models, virtual volcano field trips, and a volcano quiz.

1998-09-01

135

Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands  

E-print Network

Islands Management Area Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review/Initial Regulatory Area Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Regulatory Impact Review/Initial Regulatory Flexibility of Fish and Game Abstract: This environmental impact statement/regulatory impact review/initial regulatory

136

78 FR 24362 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the closure of Greenland turbot in the Aleutian...2013. James P. Burgess, Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR...

2013-04-25

137

A model for selecting bioindicators to monitor radionuclide concentrations using Amchitka Island in the Aleutians as a case study.  

PubMed

World War II and the Cold War have left the Unites States, and other Nations, with massive cleanup and remediation tasks for radioactive and other legacy hazardous wastes. While some sites can be cleaned up to acceptable residential risk levels, others will continue to hold hazardous wastes, which must be contained and monitored to protect human health and the environment. While media (soil, sediment, groundwater) monitoring is the usual norm at many radiological waste sites, for some situations (both biological and societal), biomonitoring may provide the necessary information to assure greater peace of mind for local and regional residents, and to protect ecologically valuable buffer lands or waters. In most cases, indicators are selected using scientific expertise and a literature review, but not all selected indicators will seem relevant to stakeholders. In this paper, I provide a model for the inclusion of stakeholders in the development of bioindicators for assessing radionuclide levels of biota in the marine environment around Amchitka Island, in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Amchitka was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. The process was stakeholder-initiated, stakeholder-driven, and included stakeholders during each phase. Phases included conceptualization, initial selection of biota and radionuclides, refinement of biota and radionuclide target lists, collection of biota, selection of biota and radionuclides for analysis, and selection of biota, tissues, and radionuclides for bioindicators. The process produced site-specific information on biota availability and on radionuclide levels that led to selection of site-appropriate bioindicators. I suggest that the lengthy, iterative, stakeholder-driven process described in this paper results in selection of bioindicators that are accepted by biologists, public health personnel, public-policy makers, resource agencies, regulatory agencies, subsistence hunters/fishers, and a wide range of other stakeholders. The process is applicable to other sites with ecologically important buffer lands or waters, or where contamination issues are contentious. PMID:17698056

Burger, Joanna

2007-11-01

138

Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Three Organochlorine Pesticides in Fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska  

PubMed Central

Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate. Methods and Findings This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p?-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight), while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight). Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight). Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p?-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight). The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits. Conclusion The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health and cultural benefits from eating fish. PMID:20811633

Hardell, Sara; Tilander, Hanna; Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Burger, Joanna; Carpenter, David O.

2010-01-01

139

On the absence of InSAR-detected volcano deformation spanning the 1995–1996 and 1999 eruptions of Shishaldin Volcano, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shishaldin Volcano, a large, frequently active basaltic-andesite volcano located on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Arc of Alaska, had a minor eruption in 1995–1996 and a VEI 3 sub-Plinian basaltic eruption in 1999. We used 21 synthetic aperture radar images acquired by ERS-1, ERS-2, JERS-1, and RADARSAT-1 satellites to construct 12 coherent interferograms that span most of the 1993–2003 time

S. C. Moran; O. Kwoun; T. Masterlark; Z. Lu

2006-01-01

140

Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica)  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Garcia, Alicia; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Ortiz, Ramon

2014-01-01

141

Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).  

PubMed

This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

2014-01-01

142

Specification of Tectonic Tsunami Sources Along the Eastern Aleutian Island Arc and Alaska Peninsula for Inundation Mapping and Hazard Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center conducts tsunami inundation mapping for coastal communities in Alaska along several segments of the Aleutian Megathrust, each having a unique seismic history and tsunami generation potential. Accurate identification and characterization of potential tsunami sources is a critical component of our project. As demonstrated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami, correct estimation of the maximum size event for a given segment of the subduction zone is particularly important. In that event, unexpectedly large slip occurred approximately updip of the epicenter of the main shock, based on seafloor GPS and seafloor pressure gage observations, generating a much larger tsunami than anticipated. This emphasizes the importance of the detailed knowledge of the region-specific subduction processes, and using the most up-to-date geophysical data and research models that define the magnitude range of possible future tsunami events. Our study area extends from the eastern half of the 1957 rupture zone to Kodiak Island, covering the 1946 and 1938 rupture areas, the Shumagin gap, and the western part of the 1964 rupture area. We propose a strategy for generating worst-case credible tsunami scenarios for locations that have a short or nonexistent paleoseismic/paleotsunami record, and in some cases lack modern seismic and GPS data. The potential tsunami scenarios are built based on a discretized plate interface model fit to the Slab 1.0 model geometry. We employ estimates of slip deficit along the Aleutian Megathrust from GPS campaign surveys, the Slab 1.0 interface surface, empirical magnitude-slip relationships, and a numerical code that distributes slip among the subfault elements, calculates coseismic deformations and solves the shallow water equations of tsunami propagation and runup. We define hypothetical asperities along the megathrust and in down-dip direction, and perform a set of sensitivity model runs to identify coseismic deformation patterns resulting in highest runup at a given community. Because of the extra fine discretization of the interface, we can prescribe variable slip patterns, using simple parameters to describe slip variations in the along-strike and down-dip directions. Since it was demonstrated by studies of the 1964 tsunami that changes in slip distribution result in significant variations in the local tsunami wave field, we expect that the near-field tsunami runup in target communities will be highly sensitive to variability of slip along the rupture area. We perform simulations for each source scenario using AEIC's numerical model of tsunami propagation and runup, which is validated through a set of analytical benchmarks and tested against laboratory and field data. Results of numerical modeling combined with historical observations are compiled on inundation maps and used for site-specific tsunami hazard assessment by local emergency planners.

Suleimani, E.; Nicolsky, D.; Freymueller, J. T.; Koehler, R.

2013-12-01

143

Volcanoes!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

5th grade students will be able to explain what makes a volcano erupt. 5th grade students will be able to list the effects that volcanoes have on the environment and people. Read through the page to gather more knowledge about volcanoes. After reading this, you should be able to explain what makes a volcano erupt Volcano Facts View a model of a volcano erupting Visual Model of a volcano erupting Use the web tool to make your own volcano erupt. Adjust the gas level and size to make ...

Fucaloro, Kailey

2009-09-15

144

49 CFR 71.12 - Hawaii-Aleutian zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BOUNDARIES § 71.12 Hawaii-Aleutian zone. The seventh zone, the Hawaii-Aleutian standard time zone, includes the entire State of Hawaii and, in the State of Alaska, that part of the Aleutian Islands that is west of 169 degrees...

2010-10-01

145

Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Create a poster about volcanoes Directions: Make a poster about volcanoes. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about volcanoes. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster and volcanoes. (5 points) Use at ...

Walls, Mrs.

2011-01-30

146

Colonization of an island volcano, Long Island, Papua New Guinea, and an emergent island,  

E-print Network

of seed dispersing birds and mammals, and the Ficus fruit characters in¯uencing mode of colonization observed fruiting. Thirty-six vertebrate species occurring on Long Island are identi®ed as potential seed and fruit bats with generally smaller, red ®gs produced throughout the vertical structure of the forest

147

Deformation of Cerro Azul Volcano, Isabela Island, Galapagos With Radar Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galapagos Islands are a volcanic island chain located off the coast of Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean. The islands have a recent eruptive history with 3 eruptions occurring within the last 15 years, including the 1998 eruption of Cerro Azul located on the southern end of Isabela Island. Analysis of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data covering Cerro Azul volcano reveals the volcano has been inflating prior to and after the 1998 eruption. Radarsat 1, ERS 1-2, and ENVISAT data spanning1992-2006 were used to compile interferograms showing the time dependence of deformation taking place. The results show continuous inflation of Cerro Azul over the time span with the exception of the 1998 eruption where there was a brief period of deflation during the eruption. Modeling was done with the data to help constrain the location of the inflation source and to determine the overall amount of deformation.

Baker, S.; Amelung, F.

2006-12-01

148

Causation or coincidence? The correlations in time and space of the 2008 eruptions of Cleveland, Kasatochi, and Okmok Volcanoes, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mid-summer 2008, three significant volcanic eruptions occurred in the Andreanof Islands of the Aleutian Arc, Alaska. Okmok volcano began erupting on July 12, followed by Cleveland on July 21, and then by Kasatochi on August 7. In addition to this temporal correlation, there is also a geographic correlation: the eruptions occurred in a 525 km region representing only about

P. F. Cervelli; C. E. Cameron

2008-01-01

149

From birth to death of arc magmatism: The igneous evolution of Komandorsky Islands recorded tectonic changes during 50 Ma of westernmost Aleutian history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Komandorsky Islands form the westernmost end of the Aleutian Island Arc. Four igneous complexes, spanning almost 50 Ma of magmatism, have previously been identified (Ivaschenko et al., 1984: Far East Scientific Centre, Vladivostok, 192 pp.). The petrogenesis of this protracted magmatic record and accurate absolute ages of events, however, remain poorly constrained. Our study investigates the relationship between magma composition and tectonic setting. The Komandorsky igneous basement formed in subduction zone setting. It hosts some of the oldest igneous rocks of the entire Aleutian Arc with the onset of magmatism occurring at 47 Ma. This early stage was characterized by classic fluid-dominated arc volcanism, which produced two coeval but likely genetically unrelated magmatic series of tholeiitic mafic and tholeiitic to calc-alkaline felsic rocks. To date, no boninites have been found and therefore arc initiation is different at the Aleutians than at Izu-Bonin-Marianas or the oldest rocks in the Aleutians have yet to be discovered. The prolonged production of the contrasting basalt-rhyolite association on Komandorsky Islands had lasted ~25 Ma and ceased around the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Concurrently to this long-lasting activity, a gradual transition to a different mode of arc magmatism took place reflected by newly discovered Sr-enriched, HREE-depleted calc-alkaline basaltic andesitic lavas of mid-upper Eocene age spanning a time of at least ~7 Ma. This so-called Transition Series displays a moderate garnet signature marking the increased contribution of a slab-melt component to the magma sources of the Komandorsky Islands. Slab-melt contribution increased with decreasing age leading to strongly adakitic magmatism as early as ~33 Ma (Lower Oligocene), reflected by eruption of high-Sr (up to 2,500 ppm), highly HREE-depleted Adak-type magnesian basaltic andesites and andesites. These remarkable magmas became predominant during the Lower Miocene. They were followed at ~17 Ma by extremely HREE-depleted calc-alkaline intrusives. Over time there is a clear decrease in Pb isotopic ratios from radiogenic sediment-affected Central Aleutian to unradiogenic Pacific MORB-type compositions similar to Miocene Komandorsky Basin basalt. The geochemical evolution reflects a dramatic change in convergence direction from roughly orthogonal to highly oblique (Duncan and Keller, 2004: G-cubed, v. 5, Q08L03). Increasing oblique subduction led to intense stripping of sediment and enhanced heating of the flat-plunging Pacific lithosphere. This facilitated partial slab melting. However, a significantly increasing amount of slab melt in mid-late Miocene times required an additional heat source, which was probably provided by a slab tear or even slab break-off (Levin et al., 2005: Geology, v. 33, p. 253-256).

Höfig, T. W.; Portnyagin, M.; Hoernle, K.; Hauff, F. F.; van den Bogaard, P.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C.

2013-12-01

150

Craniometric Variation in the Aleutians: Integrating Morphological, Molecular, Spatial, and Temporal Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several hypotheses have been put forward about the origins and evolution of the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. Both Hrdli?ka [The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants (Philadelphia: Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1945)] and Laughlin [“The Alaska gateway viewed from the Aleutian Islands,” in Papers on the Physical Anthropology of the American Indian, W. S. Laughlin, ed.

Stephen D. Ousley; Erica B. Jones

2010-01-01

151

Evidence for two shield volcanoes exposed on the island of Kauai, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The island of Kauai has always been interpreted as a single shield volcano, but lavas of previously correlated reversed-to-normal magnetic-polarity transitions on opposite sides of the island differ significantly in isotopic composition. Samples from west Kauai have 87Sr\\/86Sr < 0.7037, ?Nd >= 6.14, and 206Pb\\/204Pb > 18.25; samples from east Kauai have 87Sr\\/86Sr > 0.7037, ?Nd <= 6.14, and 206Pb\\/204Pb

Robin T. Holcomb; Peter W. Reiners; Bruce K. Nelson; Nuni-Lyn E. Sawyer

1997-01-01

152

Spatial variation of seismic b-values beneath Makushin Volcano, Unalaska Island, Alaska  

E-print Network

. Bridges , Stephen S. Gao Department of Geology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA Received beneath Makushin Volcano, Unalaska Island, Alaska using an earthquake catalog of 491 events that occurred of seismic stations, and filled circles are the epicenters of the earthquakes used in the study. The blue

Gao, Stephen Shangxing

153

Stress fields associated with the growth of a large shield volcano (La Palma, Canary Islands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of dyke orientations and fault slip data have been taken in 39 stations located in the northern part of the island of La Palma (Canary Archipelago). These structures affect the materials belonging to the submarine growth stage and to the lower units of the subaerial shield volcano stage. Four sets of dykes have been distinguished (Groups I, II, III-1,

Carlos Fernández; Julio de la Nuez; Ramón Casillas; Encarnación García Navarro

2002-01-01

154

Dismantling processes of basaltic shield volcanoes - origin of the Piton des Neiges breccias - Reunion Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reunion Island is mainly composed by two volcanic massifs: the active Piton de la Fournaise to the southeast and the Piton des Neiges to the northwest that has been inactive for about 12000 years. The latter corresponds to a dismantled volcanic massif, deeply cut by valleys and by three vast depressions, called ``cirques'' around the centre of the volcano. They

A. Arnaud; B. Bachèlery; C. Cruchet

2003-01-01

155

Volcanic Structure of the Basaltic Shield Volcano of Socorro Island, Mathematician Ridge, Pacific Plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socorro Island is a pantellerite and perialkaline shield volcano built at the northern segment of the Mathematician ridge in the Pacific plate. Active spreading along the ridge terminated following major plate boundary re-organization and ridge jumping eastwards to the East Pacific Rise. Cessation of spreading and ridge jumping are recorded in the marine magnetic anomaly pattern that preserve a record

M. Escorza-Reyes; J. A. Pavon-Moreno; L. Perez-Cruz; J. U. Fucugauchi

2009-01-01

156

The petrogenesis of sodic island arc magmas at Savo volcano, Solomon Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Savo, Solomon Islands, is a historically active volcano dominated by sodic, alkaline lavas, and pyroclastic rocks with up to 7.5 wt% Na2O, and high Sr, arc-like trace element chemistry. The suite is dominated by mugearites (plagioclase-clinopyroxene-magnetite ± amphibole ± olivine) and trachytes (plagioclase-amphibole-magnetite ± biotite). The presence of hydrous minerals (amphibole, biotite) indicates relatively wet magmas. In such melts, plagioclase is relatively unstable relative to iron oxides and ferromagnesian silicates; it is the latter minerals (particularly hornblende) that dominate cumulate nodules at Savo and drive the chemical differentiation of the suite, with a limited role for plagioclase. This is potentially occurring in a crustal “hot zone”, with major chemical differentiation occurring at depth. Batches of magma ascend periodically, where they are subject to decompression, water saturation and further cooling, resulting in closed-system crystallisation of plagioclase, and ultimately the production of sodic, crystal and feldspar-rich, high-Sr rocks. The sodic and hydrous nature of the parental magmas is interpreted to be the result of partial melting of metasomatised mantle, but radiogenic isotope data (Pb, Sr, Nd) cannot uniquely identify the source of the metasomatic agent.

Smith, D. J.; Petterson, M. G.; Saunders, A. D.; Millar, I. L.; Jenkin, G. R. T.; Toba, T.; Naden, J.; Cook, J. M.

2009-12-01

157

Volcanoes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the forces responsible for the eruptions of volcanoes and gives the physical and chemical parameters governing the type of eruption. Explains the structure of the earth in relation to volcanoes and explains the location of volcanic regions. (GS)

Kunar, L. N. S.

1975-01-01

158

Geochemical and Petrologic attributes of the PX1 Miocene pyroxenitic layered intrusion, root-zone of an ocean-island volcano, Fuerteventura (Canary Islands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuerteventura is the easternmost island of the Canary archipelago, lying about 100 Km west of the Moroccan coast. This island allows direct observation of the hypabyssal root zone of an ocean island volcano, which is best illustrated in its uplifted Basal Complex Unit. This complex is composed of oceanic sediments of Mesozoic and Cenozoic age and records a remarkable magmatic

J. Allibon; F. Bussy; E. Lewin; H. Lapierre; M. Chiaradia

159

Volcanoes  

SciTech Connect

This book describes volcanoes although the authors say they are more to be experienced than described. This book poses more question than answers. The public has developed interest and awareness in volcanism since the first edition eight years ago, maybe because since the time 120 volcanoes have erupted. Of those, the more lethal eruptions were from volcanoes not included in the first edition's World's 101 Most Notorious Volcanoes.

Decker, R.W.; Decker, B.

1989-01-01

160

Volcanoes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, this booklet provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of volcanoes. Separate sections examine the nature and workings of volcanoes, types of volcanoes, volcanic geological structures such as plugs and maars, types of eruptions, volcanic-related activity such as geysers…

Tilling, Robert I.

161

Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students investigate the processes that build volcanoes, the types of rocks they create, the factors that influence different eruption types, and the threats volcanoes pose to their surrounding environments. They will also create a notebook of volcano characteristics and use what they have learned to identify physical features and eruption types in some real-life documented volcanic episodes.

2005-01-01

162

A Newly Recognized Shield Volcano Southwest of Oahu Island, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 2001 Hawaiian cruise of the JAMSTEC research ship Kairei (with ROV-Kaiko; P.I.: E. Takahashi, Co P.I.: T. Kanamatsu), Seabeam mapping revealed a previously unidentified volcanic edifice (submarine shield) located about 100 km southwest of Oahu. The volcano (centered at 21\\\\deg35'N, 158\\\\deg45'W) is approximately 100 km in diameter and 0.5 km high with its summit at 4200 m depth.

E. Takahashi; J. G. Moore; H. Yokose; D. A. Clague; M. Nakagawa; T. Kani; M. Coombs; G. Moore; Y. Harada; T. Kunikiyo; J. Robinson

2001-01-01

163

Numerical modeling of tsunami waves generated by the flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (La Palma, Canary Islands)  

E-print Network

Palma, Canary Islands): Tsunami source and near field effects S. M. Abadie,1 J. C. Harris,2 S. T. Grilli of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano (CVV; La Palma, Canary Island, Spain) through numerical simulations performed in two to further simulate propagation to the nearby islands. Unlike in earlier work on CVV, besides a similar

Kirby, James T.

164

Measuring deformation associated with magmatic processes at Cerro Azul Volcano, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador with InSAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galapagos Islands are an active volcanic island chain in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Ecuador. Cerro Azul volcano is located on the southern tip of Isabella Island and experienced two eruptions in 10 years. The eruptions started on September 15, 1998 and May 29, 2008 and lasted 51 days and 20 days respectively. Using radar

S. Baker; F. Amelung

2009-01-01

165

Deep low-frequency earthquakes in tectonic tremor along the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We characterize and locate tremor not associated with volcanoes along the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone using continuous seismic data recorded by the Alaska Volcano Observatory and the Alaska Earthquake Information Center from 2005 to present. Visual inspection of waveform spectra and time series reveal dozens of 10 to 20 min bursts of tremor along the length of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone. We use autocorrelation to demonstrate that these tremor signals are composed of hundreds of repeating low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs). The tremor activity we characterize is localized in four segments, from east to west: Kodiak Island, Shumagin Gap, Unalaska, and Andreanof Islands. Although the geometry, age, thermal structure, frictional, and other relevant properties of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone are poorly known, these characteristics are likely to differ systematically from east to west. Locations near Kodiak Island are the most reliable because station coverage is more complete. LFE hypocenters in this region are located on the plate interface near the down-dip limit of the 1964 Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake rupture area. LFE hypocenters in the remaining areas along the arc are also located down-dip of the most recent Mw 8+ megathrust earthquakes. Although these locations are less well constrained, our results support the hypothesis that tremor activity marks the down-dip rupture limit for great megathrust earthquakes in this subduction zone. Lastly, there is no correlation between the presence of tremor and particular aspects of over-riding or subducting plate geology or coupling. It appears that LFEs are a fundamental characteristic of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone.

Brown, Justin R.; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Beroza, Gregory C.; Gomberg, Joan S.; Haeussler, Peter J.

2013-03-01

166

3-D velocity model beneath Taal Volcano, Luzon Island Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive a three dimensional velocity model of seismic waves beneath Taal Volcano, Philippines, from about 2300 local earthquakes recorded by the Taal Volcano seismic network during the time period from March 2008 to March 2010. In the early data processing stage, with the cross-correlation functions of continuous record of station pairs, unexpected linear drifting of clock time was clearly identified. The drifting rates of each problematic station were determined and the errors were corrected before further processing. With the corrected data, we first determined initial locations by using the program HYPO71 and the reference 1-D global model ak135. 749 well-located events with 3381 P-wave and 2896 S-wave arrivals were used to derive the 'minimum 1-D velocity model' with the program VELEST developed by Kissling to further improve the 1-D velocity model and event locations. With the robust 1-D velocity model and improved event locations, we inverted a high-resolution 3-D velocity model by using the program LOTOS-10 developed by Koulakov. We present the derived 3-D model and discuss its tectonic implications.

You, S.; Konstantinou, K. I.; Gung, Y.; Lin, C.

2011-12-01

167

Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volcanoes is part of an online series of modules entitled Exploring the Environment. Emphasizing an integrated approach to environmental Earth Science education through problem based-learning, this module asks students to look at four different situations involving volcanoes, research the situations, and make decisions about them. Information about the three volcanic areas under exploration (Mt. Hood, Kilauea, and Yellowstone) is given through maps, movies, and videos. Additional information covers plate tectonics, locations of volcanoes, volcano monitoring and hazards, how to deal with volcano threats, lavas, eruption types, and risk analysis. Once students have gone through the information, they make real-life decisions about building near volcanoes, and the possibility of eruptions in the near future. There are teacher resources, a reference for problem-based learning, and links for more information.

168

Estimate of sulfate emitted from Sakurajima volcano to the Japanese Islands  

SciTech Connect

Concentration of sulfate increased in a summer night over the wide area of the Kanto plain. Since the effect of long range transport of particulate sulfurs was suggested, Lagrangian dispersion-advection analysis of particles was carried out using global scale weather analytical data. Results show that the concentration observed at the Kanto plain coupled be increased by the effect of the volcanic gas which had been emitted from an active volcano {open_quotes}Sakurajima{close_quotes}, located in the distance of about 1,00 km at south-west of the Kanto area, before 3 days. This phenomenon suggests that sulfate emitted from the active volcano Sakurajima might affect acid deposition of all over the Japanese Islands. This report shows estimated concentration of deposition of sulfate from Sakurajima to the Japan Islands using the same model applied to the Kanto area.

Mizuno, Tateki; Maeda, Takahisa [National Institute for Environment and Resources, Ibaraki (Japan); Tanaka, Chie; Takeuchi, Kiyohide

1996-12-31

169

Geochemical Composition of Volcanic Rocks from the May 2003 Eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first historical eruption of Anatahan volcano began on May 10, 2003, from the easternmost of the island's two craters. Samples of tephra, scoria, and bombs, collected in May by a MARGINS-supported rapid-response team, were analyzed for 34 trace elements by solution ICP-MS at Boston University and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic composition at the University of Texas-Dallas. The new eruptive materials can

J. A. Wade; T. Plank; R. Stern; D. Hilton; T. P. Fischer; R. Moore; F. Trusdell; M. Sako

2003-01-01

170

Identifying rift zones on volcanoes: an example from La Réunion island, Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a methodology for identifying complex rift zones on recent or active volcanoes, where structures hidden by recent\\u000a deposits and logistical conditions might prevent carrying out detailed fieldwork. La Réunion island was chosen as a test-site.\\u000a We used georeferenced topographic maps, aerial photos and digital terrain models to perform a statistical analysis of several\\u000a morphometric parameters of pyroclastic cones.

Fabio Luca Bonali; Claudia Corazzato; Alessandro Tibaldi

2011-01-01

171

Geology, geochronology and geochemistry of a basanitic volcano, White Island, Ross Sea, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

White Island, Ross Sea, Antarctica is a Plio-Pleistocene basanite to tephriphonolite shield volcano, forming part of the Erebus Province, McMurdo Volcanic Group. Four new 40Ar\\/39Ar dates extend the age of surface volcanism from a previously determined 0.17 Ma to 5.05±0.31 Ma. A U\\/Pb age on zircon in an anorthoclasite nodule extends White Island magmatism back to 7.65±0.69 Ma.Volcanism was predominantly subaerial with eruption

Alan F. Cooper; Lotte J. Adam; Roseanne F. Coulter; G. Nelson Eby; William C. McIntosh

2007-01-01

172

Volcanoes!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a summary of current volcanic eruptions and images and videos of volcanoes on Earth. Discussions of the characteristics of volcanism on other worlds in our solar system are also presented and are accompanied by maps and imagery. Links to volcano observatories, parks, and monuments around the world are also included.

173

Central Aleutian tundra: ecological manifestations of maritime tundra landscapes in the Central Aleution Islands (Amchitka, Adak) Alaska. Final report, 1 April 1971-15 November 1985  

SciTech Connect

Measured and inferred ecological characteristics and holocoenotic factors which affect the dynamics and manifestations of central Aleutian maritime tundra and beach-dune vegetational expressions of Adak and Amchitka Islands are discussed. The known vascular flora is enumerated and predominant taxa are grouped into communities and topoedaphic units. Stability of community composition and structure is elaborated and the absence of ecological succession demonstrated. Perturbations occasioned by human activities which impinge on these remote islands are detailed. The testing and monitoring of subsequent passive and managed recovery of stable vegetation on disturbed areas is described. Selection, preparation and utilization of transplants of Elymus mollis Trin. is documented. Transplants of rhizomes of E. mollis are successful in the reestablishment of vegetative cover in disturbed habitats which are topoedaphically suitable for graminoid success. The responses of plant population stands to environmental processes and habitat insults are reported. The relatively limited but stable biota and the lethargic ecological response as defined by extant vegetational expressions provide field test potentials which mandate further basic and applied research.

Amundsen, C.C.

1985-01-01

174

Volcanoes  

MedlinePLUS

... They have been known to knock down entire forests. Volcanic eruptions can be accompanied by other natural hazards, including earthquakes , mudflows and flash floods , rock falls and landslides , acid rain, fire , and (under special conditions) tsunamis . Active volcanoes in ...

175

Temporal source evolution and crustal contamination at Lopevi Volcano, Vanuatu Island Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a new geochemical study of Lopevi volcano, one the most active volcanoes in the Vanuatu island arc. We focus on the temporally well-defined sequence of lava flows emitted since 1960, and for the first time, on pre-1960 volcanic products, including high-MgO basalts and felsic andesites, the most evolved lavas sampled so far on this island. This work reports the first Pb and Hf isotopic study of lavas from Lopevi island. These lavas display correlations between differentiation indexes such as SiO2 content and isotopic ratios. The felsic andesites extend the known correlations with both the least (Sr-Pb) and the most (Nd-Hf) radiogenic isotopic compositions on the island. Our results confirm that the rising magma interacted with the sub-arc crust. Assimilation-Fractional Crystallization (AFC) quantitative modeling of trace element ratios and isotopic compositions requires 1% and 10% of assimilated partial melts of a mafic oceanic crust to account for the pre- and post-1960 lavas, respectively. The post-1960 lavas differ from the former lavas emitted ~ 20 years earlier by enrichments in fluid mobile elements (K, Ba, Rb…), Th, and Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE). We ascribe these features to slight variations in the metasomatic agent added to the sub-arc mantle and ultimately derived from the subducted lithosphere. However, the contrasting time scales involved in subducted lithosphere dehydration and magma genesis, relative to the time elapsed between eruptions of the two lava series, suggest that two different portions of mantle which have undergone slightly different metasomatism, gave birth to the Lopevi lavas. These distinct magmas are still present beneath the volcano.

Beaumais, Aurélien; Chazot, Gilles; Dosso, Laure; Bertrand, Hervé

2013-08-01

176

Evidence for Deep Tectonic Tremor in the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We search for, characterize, and locate tremor not associated with volcanoes along the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone using continuous seismic data recorded by the Alaska Volcano Observatory and Alaska Earthquake Information Center from 2005 to the present. Visual inspection of waveform spectra and time series reveal dozens of 10 to 20-minute bursts of tremor throughout the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone (Peterson, 2009). Using autocorrelation methods, we show that these tremor signals are composed of hundreds of repeating low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) as has been found in other circum-Pacific subduction zones. We infer deep sources based on phase arrival move-out times of less than 4 seconds across multiple monitoring networks (max. inter-station distances of 50 km), which are designed to monitor individual volcanoes. We find tremor activity is localized in 7 segments: Cook Inlet, Shelikof Strait, Alaska Peninsula, King Cove, Unalaska-Dutch Harbor, Andreanof Islands, and the Rat Islands. Locations along the Cook Inlet, Shelikof Straight and Alaska Peninsula are well constrained due to adequate station coverage. LFE hypocenters in these regions are located on the plate interface and form a sharp edge near the down-dip limit of the 1964 M 9.2 rupture area. Although the geometry, age, thermal structure, frictional and other relevant properties of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction are poorly known, it is likely these characteristics differ along its entire length, and also differ from other subduction zones where tremor has been found. LFE hypocenters in the remaining areas are also located down-dip of the most recent M 8+ megathrust earthquakes, between 60-75 km depth and almost directly under the volcanic arc. Although these locations are less well constrained, our preliminary results suggest LFE/tremor activity marks the down-dip rupture limit for megathrust earthquakes in this subduction zone. Also, we cannot rule out the possibility that our observations could be related deep magmatic processes.

Brown, J. R.; Prejean, S. G.; Beroza, G. C.; Gomberg, J. S.; Haeussler, P. J.

2010-12-01

177

Space imaging of a 300 years old cooling magma chamber: Timanfaya volcano (Lanzarote, Canary Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multitemporal space radar interferometry analysis between 1992 and 2000 revealed significantly deforming areas with a magnitude of 4-6 mm/yr of lengthening in the radar line of sight at Timanfaya volcano (Lanzarote, Canary Island). Timanfaya volcano erupted almost 300 years ago (1730-1736), along a 15 km-long fissure-feeding magmatic system, resulting in the longest and largest historical eruption of the Canarian archipelago to date, with >1 km3 of erupted basaltic lavas covering 200 km2. High surficial temperature (600 degrees-C at 13 m) and high heat flux measurements (150 mW/m2) suggest that the remnants of the magmatic chamber that fed the 1730-1736 are still partly molten. Here, we present preliminary models of the subsidence taking into account all available data, including geophysical data (heat flux, seismic, magnetotelluric and gravity), the geochemistry of freshly erupted lavas, upper mantle and crustal xenoliths, and structural geology.

Gonzalez, P. J.; Tiampo, K. F.

2010-12-01

178

Investigation of the Influence of the Amlia Fracture Zone on the Islands of Four Mountains Region of the Aleutian Arc, AK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional isotopic and trace element investigations of the magmatic source characteristics of the Aleutian arc have attributed regional patterns to variations in the contribution of eclogite through slab melting, to increased proportions of sediment melts, and to variation in the amount of fluid derived by progressive metamorphism of the downgoing slab. Currently the Amlia Fracture Zone (AFZ) is located between the islands of Atka and Seguam and marks a prominent boundary between subduction of large quantities of trench sediments to the east versus sediment impoverished subduction to the west of the AFZ. This boundary is not stationary through time. Instead oblique subduction of the Pacific plate moves the AFZ westward along the arc front, causing sequential subduction beneath the islands of Chuginadak, Yunaska and Seguam circa 5, 2.5 and 1 million years ago, respectively. Lavas from Atka Island, which has not yet received the sediment and fluid spike from the AFZ, act as reference compositions. Comparison of bulk rock trace element ratios and Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotopic compositions for lavas from these islands relative to Atka show that contributions from melted subducted sediment are important in the genesis of Holocene and Pleistocene lavas erupted in the Islands of Four Mountains region of the arc. Sr and Pb isotopic compositions for Yunaska and Chuginadak lavas are as high or higher than Seguam values and trend in the direction of sediment values. La/Nb ratios similarly indicate sediment melting is important for all these lavas. Comparison of values for Holocene relative to Pleistocene values indicate that once sediments are introduced to the magma source, they persist in affecting magma compositions. Comparison of higher Mg# lavas (molar Mg#>50) shows that a group of the oldest sampled lavas on Chuginadak have much lower 208Pb/204Pb, 206Pb/204Pb, and 87Sr/86Sr and higher 143Nd/144Nd, Zr/Y and Zn/Mn relative to all sampled Holocene and Pleistocene lavas from Seguam and Yunaska, suggesting that the earliest period of volcanism on Chuginadak occurred prior to the subduction of the AFZ.

Nicolaysen, K. P.; Myers, J. D.; Weis, D.

2013-12-01

179

75 FR 7403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Trawl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Islands Trawl Limited Access Fishery in the C. opilio Bycatch Limitation Zone of the Bering...pelagic trawl gear for walleye pollock, in the C. opilio bycatch limitation zone (COBLZ...exceeding the 2010 COBLZ bycatch allowance of C. opilio specified for the BSAI trawl...

2010-02-19

180

Geothermal resource assessment in the Aleutian Islands and Alaska peninsula: Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 30, 1989  

SciTech Connect

In this report the authors have now completed dating work on 20 rock samples. Analytical results for the dated samples are given in the enclosed table. The results are generally in good agreement with observed stratigraphic relationships and provide a well-constrained time framework for the eruptive history of this volcanic area. The argon extraction and potassium analyses are completed and the argon sample is awaiting mass spectrometry. In addition to documenting the eruptive history of Umnak volcanoes, the K-Ar ages will provide a time framework for the chemical evolution of the magmatic system, when combined with the rock chemistry analyses presently in progress at U.C., Santa Cruz. 1 tab.

Turner, D.L.; Nye, C.J.

1989-03-30

181

1994 Volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1994, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, or false alarms at nine volcanic centers-- Mount Sanford, Iliamna, the Katmai group, Kupreanof, Mount Veniaminof, Shishaldin, Makushin, Mount Cleveland and Kanaga (table 1). Of these volcanoes, AVO has a real time, continuously recording seismic network only at Iliamna, which is located in the Cook Inlet area of south-central Alaska (fig. 1). AVO has dial-up access to seismic data from a 5-station network in the general region of the Katmai group of volcanoes. The remaining unmonitored volcanoes are located in sparsely populated areas of the Wrangell Mountains, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands (fig. 1). For these volcanoes, the AVO monitoring program relies chiefly on receipt of pilot reports, observations of local residents and analysis of satellite imagery.

Neal, Christina A.; Doukas, Michael P.; McGimsey, Robert G.

1995-01-01

182

Physical volcanology and structural development of Cerro Azul Volcano, Isabela Island, Galápagos: implications for the development of Galápagos-type shield volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerro Azul is an active basaltic shield volcano forming the southwestern end of Isabela Island in the western Galápagos Archipelago. Ten eruptions have been witnessed between 1932 and 1998, an average of one eruption every 6.6years. Although Cerro Azul has been constructed primarily by effusive Hawaiian-style eruptions, explosive hydrovolcanic eruptions have occurred intermittently from vents on the caldera floor and

Terry Naumann; Dennis Geist

2000-01-01

183

The eruption of Mount Pagan volcano, Mariana Islands, 15 May 1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A major explosive eruption occurred 15 May 1981 at Mount Pagan Volcano, the larger of two historic eruptive centers on Pagan Island, Mariana Islands. The eruption was preceded by increased numbers of locally felt earthquakes beginning in late March or early April and by new ground cracks, new sublimates, and increased gas emissions. A swarm of felt earthquakes began at 0745h (local time = UCT+10 hours) 15 May, and at 0915 h, closely following a loud sonic boom, a strong plinian column issued from the volcano. The high-altitude ash cloud (at least 13.5 km) travelled south-southeast, but ash and scoria deposits were thickest (> 2 m) in the NW sector of the island because of the prevailing low-altitude southeasterly winds. The early activity of 15 May probably involved magmatic eruption along a fissure system oriented about N10??E. However, the eruption became hydromagmatic, possibly within minutes, and was largely restricted to three long-lived vents. The northernmost of these built a substantial new scoria-ash cinder cone. Flows and air-fall deposits, consisting almost entirely of juvenile material, exceeded 105 ?? 106 m3 in volume (75 ?? 106 m3 of magma) on land and at least 70-100 ?? 606 m3 at sea. An unknown volume was carried away by stratospheric winds. Lithic blocks and juvenile bombs as large as 1 m in diameter were thrown more than 2 km from the summit, and evidence for base-surge was observed in restricted corridors as low as 200 m elevation on the north and south slopes of the volcano. Neither of these events resulted in serious injuries to the 54 residents of the island, nor did the eruption produce serious chemical hazards in their water supply. Weak eruptions occurred during the ensuing month, and some of these were monitored by ground observations, seismic monitoring, and deformation studies. Precursory seismicity and possibly deformation occurred with some of the observed eruptions. More vigorous eruptions were reported by visiting residents in late 1981 and early 1982, but these were of lesser magnitude than the 15 May 1981 event. The 15 May lava is predominantly aa and ranges from 3 to > 30 m in thickness. In composition, it is a high-alumina basalt with small (< 1 mm long) phenocrysts of plagioclase and clinopyroxene (7%) that is more or less typical of basalt of the northern Marianas volcanoes. It contains slightly more SiO2 (52%), K2O, TiO2, and less Al2O3 and CaO than does the basalt of the last eruptive event of Mount Pagan Volcano in 1925. Gas analyses indicate that a large portion of air was introduced into the vent system through the porous volcanic edifice and that the carbon gases were not in equilibrium with the magma or each other. ?? 1984.

Banks, N. G.; Koyanagi, R. Y.; Sinton, J. M.; Honma, K. T.

1984-01-01

184

Changes in eruptive magma compositions as precursors to ocean island volcano collapse? Supervisors: H Downes (BBK), S Day (UCL)  

E-print Network

, by investigating compositional changes in magmas that are associated with pre-collapse structural change. The project will investigate hypotheses that relate the magmatic changes to mechanisms by which incipientChanges in eruptive magma compositions as precursors to ocean island volcano collapse? Supervisors

Crawford, Ian

185

New geological and hydrogeological implications of the resistivity distribution inferred from audiomagnetotellurics over La Fournaise young shield volcano (Reunion Island)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An audiomagnetotelluric survey has been performed along an inactive flank of La Fournaise volcano massif in Reunion island, to study the subsurface resistivity structure. One-dimensional modelling of the AMT data at each site revealed an extensive low-resistivity (less than 10 ? m) zone at a few hundred meters below the surface. The significance of this unexpected conductive substratum is discussed

M. Courteaud; M. Ritz; B. Robineau; J. L. Join; J. Coudray

1997-01-01

186

Geochemical Composition of Volcanic Rocks from the May 2003 Eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first historical eruption of Anatahan volcano began on May 10, 2003, from the easternmost of the island's two craters. Samples of tephra, scoria, and bombs, collected in May by a MARGINS-supported rapid-response team, were analyzed for 34 trace elements by solution ICP-MS at Boston University and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic composition at the University of Texas-Dallas. The new eruptive materials can be compared with an extensive suite of pre-existing volcanics (basalts through dacites) from Anatahan sampled by the USGS in 1990 and 1992, and analyzed by XRF and INAA. While most Mariana volcanoes erupt basalts and basaltic andesites, Anatahan is unusual for erupting a wide range of compositions, from basalt to dacite, and thus provides the best opportunity for addressing questions of magma evolution in this classic island arc. The newly erupted scoria and pumice are andesites and dacites that are among the most silicic materials erupted in the northern Mariana islands. The recent eruptives are highly homogeneous; 13 samples vary by only 3-5% relative standard deviation for incompatible trace elements. Isotopic compositions (0.703450 +/- 2 87Sr/86Sr and 18.806 +/- 5 206Pb/204Pb) are within the range of previously measured samples from Anatahan and other volcanic centers in the Marianas. The combined dataset for Anatahan defines virtually a single liquid line of descent. This is consistent with nearly-parallel REE patterns, and small variations in the ratios of the most incompatible trace elements (e.g., Th/Rb varies by <10% over the entire fractionation trend). Low values of Th/La and Th/Zr in Anatahan volcanics provide evidence against partial melting of crustal material as a source of the silicic magmas, as these ratios are highly senstive to apatite- and zircon- saturated crustal melts. Instead, the basalts, andesites and dacites of Anatahan appear to be related predominantly by crystal fractionation with little evidence for assimilation of crustal melts. The new data can also be used to make new inferences as to the source characteristics of Anatahan magma. Trace element ratios Th/La and Sm/La distinguish island-to-island differences in the subducted sediment components incorporated into the Mariana arc magmas. Most Mariana volcanics plot on a mixing line between depleted mantle and the bulk subducting sediment Th/La (0.14). Anatahan, however, mixes to slightly higher Th/La (0.16), which could be caused by the shallow loss of the top 50 m of the sedimentary column (pelagic clay) during subduction.

Wade, J. A.; Plank, T.; Stern, R.; Hilton, D.; Fischer, T. P.; Moore, R.; Trusdell, F.; Sako, M.

2003-12-01

187

Environmental impact of the acid fumarolic plume of a passively degassing volcano (Vulcano Island, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the role played by the fumarolic plume of a passive degassing volcano in the genesis of rock coatings (RC) and in the introduction and re-distribution of metals and trace elements in the surficial environment. At La Fossa active volcano (Vulcano Island) and in the surrounding environment RC develop owing to exposure of the ground surface to the volcanic acid plume produced by the passive degassing of La Fossa. Significant positive anomalies of a wide variety of metals and trace elements (including Bi, Ag, Se, Te, Sb, Pb, As, Cu, Tl and Cd) were observed either in distal and proximal RC. Most of these anomalies are interpreted to be the result of the transport and subsequent deposition of trace elements, likely to form volatile compounds, in the fumarolic plume. Two main processes seem to control the geochemistry of RC: one is represented by the leaching and subsequent deposition of elements from the proximal toward the distal RC; the other is the direct input of trace elements carried by the emitted volcanic aerosol. The fact that most of the trace elements (particularly Pb, As, Tl, Bi, Te, Se, Cd) enriched in the RC of Vulcano are highly toxic and potentially dangerous to health in high concentration, indicates that the atmospheric metal injection by the quiescently degassing La Fossa volcano together with the subsequent deposition and remobilization by means of surficial waters may represent an environmental hazard that should be taken into account in evaluating the potential impact of volcanic air pollution on human health.

Fulignati, P.; Sbrana, A.; Clocchiatti, R.; Luperini, W.

2006-04-01

188

Pyroclastic density currents at Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy): a case study of the 1930 eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyroclastic density currents (PDC) related to paroxysmal eruptions have caused a large number of casualties in the recent history of Stromboli. We combine here a critical review of historical chronicles with detailed stratigraphic, textural, and petrographic analyses of PDC deposits emplaced at Stromboli over the last century to unravel the origin of currents, their flow mechanism and the depositional dynamics. We focus on the 1930 PDC as they are well described in historical accounts and because the 1930 eruption stands as the most voluminous and destructive paroxysm of the last 13 centuries. Stromboli PDC deposits are recognizable from their architecture and the great abundance of fresh, well-preserved juvenile material. General deposit features indicate that Stromboli PDC formed due to the syn-eruptive gravitational collapse of hot pyroclasts rapidly accumulated over steep slopes. Flow channelization within the several small valleys cut on the flanks of the volcano can enhance the mobility of PDC, as well as the production of fine particles by abrasion and comminution of hot juvenile fragments, thereby increasing the degree of fluidization. Textural analyses and historical accounts also indicate that PDC can be fast (15-20 m/s) and relatively hot (360-700 °C). PDC can thus flow right down the slopes of the volcano, representing a major hazard. For this reason, they must be adequately taken into account when compiling risk maps and evaluating volcanic hazard on the Island of Stromboli.

Di Roberto, A.; Bertagnini, A.; Pompilio, M.; Bisson, M.

2014-06-01

189

Volcanic emissions from soils at the base of La Fossa volcano, Vulcano island, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A top-sealed plastic tube with a diameter of ca. 15 cm had been buried vertically at the base of La Fossa volcano, Volcano island, Italy, next to the front of the obsidian flow. The tube had been filled with quartz wool to condense vapors emanating from the soil. At ca. 75 cm below the surface the sample had been exposed to vapors from Sept. 2005 to April 2006. The leached sample had not been in touch with the ground. Another glass wool cushion (ca. 3 cm thick) had been underneath to minimize capillary effects. Leaching of the quartz wool and ICP-MS analysis documented positive values for: Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb. Leaching with nitric acid documented also V and Fe. Acid leaching produced higher values for all elements, except K and Sn, than leaching with deionized water. Negative values had been obtained for As, Se, Mo. Influence from soil breathing can be excluded as the active fumaroles contain As and Se. This experiment documents for the first time an unknown element transport by vapors/gases through a volcanic edifice interacting with hydrothermal and magmatic gases. It remains unknown if elements detected are entering the atmosphere or are getting adsorbed onto the volcanic ash soil particles derived from reworked surge beds. This question is very important as soils might be an unknown filter medium to filter volcanically polluted air in case of major volcanic crises. Data can be obtained from the authors.

Obenholzner, J. H.; Parks, J. L.

2006-12-01

190

Radionuclides in marine fishes and birds from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline.  

PubMed

Amchitka Island (51degrees N lat, 179 degrees E long) was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965-1971. There have been no substantive studies of radionuclides in marine fishes and birds in the area since the mid-1970's. In this study, levels of 60Co, 52Eu, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I, 137Cs, and the actinides (241Am, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U) were studied in ten marine fish species (including Pacific Cod Gadus macrocephalus and Pacific Halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis) and five marine bird species (including Glaucous-winged Gulls Larus glaucescens, Tufted Puffins Fratercula cirrhata, and Common Eider Ducks Somateria mollissima) from Amchitka. The same species were collected at a reference site, Kiska Island (52 degrees N lat; 177 degrees E long), about 130 km west of Amchitka. Each sample was a composite of edible muscle from five or more individual fish or birds of similar size (+/-15%) from the same sampling station. The null hypotheses of no differences among species or between Amchitka and Kiska were tested. Most analytic results were below the minimum detectable activity (MDA), even when 1,000 g sizes and 72 h counting times were used. The only radionuclides detected above the MDA were 137Cs, 241Am, 239,240Pu, 234U, 235U, and 238U. There were significant differences in 137Cs as a function of species, but not location, for top predatory fishes. Of the fishes, eight of ten species had 137Cs values above the MDA for some samples; only one bird, Glaucous-winged Gull, had 137Cs values above the MDA. The highest concentrations of 137Cs were in Dolly Varden [Salvelinus malma, 0.780 (Bq kg(-1) wet weight)] and Pacific Cod (0.602 Bq kg(-1)). In aggregate for any actinides, 73 of 234 (31%) composites for fish were above the MDA, compared to only 3 of 98 (3%) for birds. 234U and 238U, radionuclides that are primarily natural in origin, were routinely detected in these biological samples, but there were no significant differences in mean concentrations between Amchitka and Kiska. The concentrations of all radionuclides examined at Amchitka are similar to those of other uncontaminated Northern Hemisphere sites, and are lower than those reported for fishes and birds from the Irish Sea in the vicinity of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing facility, an area with known contamination. PMID:17293699

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry; Stabin, Michael; Favret, Derek; Jewett, Stephen; Snigaroff, Daniel; Snigaroff, Ronald; Stamm, Tim; Weston, James; Jeitner, Christian; Volz, Conrad

2007-03-01

191

Morphology of Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano (La Réunion Island): Characterization and implication in the volcano evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topography of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (PdF) differs from the classic view of basaltic shield volcanoes as it is characterized by (1) several steep slope zones on its flanks and (2) a large U-shaped caldera, the Enclos-Grand Brûlé structure (EGBS). Most of these structures were previously interpreted as the scars of lateral landslides, the deposits of which cover

Laurent Michon; Francky Saint-Ange

2008-01-01

192

Temporal variation of seismic anisotropy at Okmok Volcano (Alaska) from regional earthquake sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanic eruptions in the Aleutian region provide a hazard potential due to tsunamis and high eruption clouds. Okmok volcano is historically the most active volcano in the Aleutians. We use shear wave splitting to examine variations in seismic properties prior to and after the 2008 eruption of Okmok. Magma movement beneath a volcano can influence the state of stress in

S. K. Kufner; J. H. Johnson; M. K. Savage

2010-01-01

193

Problems in Using Underground Water Temperatures in Volcanic Surveillance: the Case of Volcano Island (Eolian Islands, Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring underground water temperatures in a network of wells, together with many other geochemical and geophysical data, is a useful tool in medium-long term surveillance of active volcanic areas. The study case here presented deals with Volcano Island (Eolian Islands, Sicily, Italy). About 20 years of observations are presented; they have been acquired either during spot campaigns, every 1-3 months, either by continuous monitoring (sampling period of 2 hours). Although the interested active volcanic area has an extension of few square kilometers, data analysis pointed out a surprising variability in space and time of the information acquired, and in particular: a) Monthly temperature variations show a frequency related to the hydrological cycle, except some wells located in a piezometric high (Camping Sicilia well) or in distal positions respect to the La Fossa Crater (EAS and Discarica wells). b) Some wells subjected to continuous monitoring, affected (Le Calette) or not (Camping Sicilia) by seasonal variations, show high frequency (from few hours to few days) pulsation of several Celsius degrees. The above mentioned variations are sometimes related to seismic events (Gulf of Patti earthquakes, April 2002). c) Water table elevations from sea level, measured at the same time of temperature, highlight the presence of some wells (EAS, Casamento) where the piezometric surface is normally below the sea, despite they are very near to the coast line. The elements above discussed point out the presence of a complex multi-layered aquifer, with very different interactions between fresh, sea and volcanic waters, that are reflected in space and time variations of measured B.H.T. values. The implementation of an accurate hydrogeological model is then to be considered as preventive and fundamental in order to correctly design a surveillance activity based on underground fluids monitoring in this area.

Madonia, P.; Capasso, G.; Favara, R.

2002-12-01

194

Satellite and ground observations of the June 2009 eruption of Sarychev Peak volcano, Matua Island, Central Kuriles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After 33 years of repose, one of the most active volcanoes of the Kurile island arc—Sarychev Peak on Matua Island in the Central Kuriles—erupted violently on June 11, 2009. The eruption lasted 9 days and stands among the largest of recent historical eruptions in the Kurile Island chain. Satellite monitoring of the eruption, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, Meteorological Agency Multifunctional Transport Satellite, and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data, indicated at least 23 separate explosions between 11 and 16 June 2009. Eruptive clouds reached altitudes of generally 8-16 km above sea level (ASL) and in some cases up to 21 km asl. Clouds of volcanic ash and gas stretched to the north and northwest up to 1,500 km and to the southeast for more than 3,000 km. For the first time in recorded history, ash fall occurred on Sakhalin Island and in the northeast sector of the Khabarovsky Region, Russia. Based on satellite image analysis and reconnaissance field studies in the summer of 2009, the eruption produced explosive tephra deposits with an estimated bulk volume of 0.4 km3. The eruption is considered to have a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 4. Because the volcano is remote, there was minimal risk to people or infrastructure on the ground. Aviation transport, however, was significantly disrupted because of the proximity of air routes to the volcano.

Rybin, Alexander; Chibisova, Marina; Webley, Peter; Steensen, Torge; Izbekov, Pavel; Neal, Christina; Realmuto, Vince

2011-11-01

195

The eruptive history of Morne Jacob volcano (Martinique Island, French West Indies): Geochronology, geomorphology and geochemistry of the earliest volcanism in the recent Lesser Antilles arc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Martinique is the Lesser Antilles Island where the most complete volcanic history of the arc can be found from the Oligocene to the present time. In this study, we focused on the construction of Morne Jacob shield volcano in Martinique, which is the largest volcano of the Lesser Antilles. We have dated twenty representative samples from the Morne Jacob, by

Aurélie Germa; Xavier Quidelleur; Shasa Labanieh; Pierre Lahitte; Catherine Chauvel

2010-01-01

196

Volcano-tectonic implications of 3-D velocity structures derived from joint active and passive source tomography of the island of Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a velocity model of the onshore and offshore regions around the southern part of the island of Hawaii, including southern Mauna Kea, southeastern Hualalai, and the active volcanoes of Mauna Loa, and Kilauea, and Loihi seamount. The velocity model was inverted from about 200,000 first-arrival traveltime picks of earthquakes and air gun shots recorded at the Hawaiian Volcano

Jaewoo Park; Julia K. Morgan; Colin A. Zelt; Paul G. Okubo

2009-01-01

197

Trace element and isotopic variations in a zoned pluton and associated volcanic rocks, Unalaska Island, Alaska: A model for fractionation in the Aleutian calcalkaline suite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace elements, including rare earth elements (REE), exhibit systematic variations in plutonic rocks from the Captains Bay pluton which is zoned from a narrow gabbroic rim to a core of quartz monzodiorite and granodiorite. The chemical variations parallel those in the associated Aleutian calcalkaline volcanic suite. Concentrations of Rb, Y, Zr and Ba increase as Sr and Ti decrease with

Michael R. Perfit; Hannes Brueckner; James R. Lawrence; Robert W. Kay

1980-01-01

198

Petrologic observations and multiphase dynamics in highly-crystalline magmatic mushes sourcing Galápagos Island volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inability to directly observe magma chambers makes it difficult to understand their dynamics. Yet conditions within the chamber determines whether an eruption will occur, or if the magma is allowed to cool to complete crystallization. Eruption styles are also conditioned by these dynamics, as the amount of overpressure within the chamber regulates effusive or explosive eruptions. Plutons and volcanoes appear to share similar states: magma reservoirs that are temporally and spatially dominated by crystal-rich states, known as magmatic mushes. To explore the dynamics of mushes, we turn to the relatively simple ocean island end-member of magmatic systems. Ocean island porphyritic basalt flows provide a snapshot of the mush conditions prior to eruption. The Galápagos Islands are a system of ocean islands displaying spatial and temporal variation in their eruption styles and deposits. We have collected porphyritic basalt samples from Rábida Island of the Galápagos Archipelago which contains deposits ranging in ages from 0.7-1.0 Ma. Chemical zoning within phenocrysts indicates intermittent efficient mixing occurs within the mush, despite high viscosities and corresponding low-Reynolds number conditions. To further explore the dynamics of mixing, we present preliminary Eulerian-Lagrangian multiphase models using the fluids modeling software MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges). This computational fluid dynamics-discrete element method (CFD-DEM) allows for individual crystal tracking within the system and monitors interactions between the fluid and solid phases. Of special interest is the open-system dynamical response of a mush to a reintrusion event. Unlike high-Reynolds number flows, such as air or water systems, magmatic mushes have high viscosities, indicating that turbulent motion is not the primary mixing mechanism. Instead, mixing appears to be caused by mechanical unlocking from an increase in pore pressure as additional magma is injected. The crystal pile inflates and the injected melt creates crystal-poor fingers through the mush. These regions are unstable and eventually lead to mush collapse. Repetition of this cycle can drive efficient mixing of the magma chamber. We quantify the ability of the mush to mix using the Lacey statistical mixing index. We compare this value for the results of various open-system reintrusion events within the mush as a means to explore the dynamics that occur.

Schleicher, J.; Bergantz, G. W.; Geist, D.

2013-12-01

199

Petroleum potential of volcanogenic and volcano-sedimentary rocks in ancient and recent island arcs: Caucasus, Komandorskie, and Kuril islands, eastern Kamchatka  

SciTech Connect

In the Late Cretaceous-Eocene, subduction of the Tethys oceanic plate under the island arc of the lesser Caucasus contributed to the appearance of the special conditions favorable for petroleum occurrence: (1) tectono-magmatic destruction of the crust of the Transcaucasus median massif and formation of hydrocarbon traps of different types and origins, and (2) high heat flow lasting until the recent epoch. These led flow-intensive generation of hydrocarbons in the shallow-water sediments of the paleoshelf of the Transcaucasus massif and accumulation of hydrocarbons not only in the sedimentary but also in the volcanogenic and volcano-sedimentary reservoirs (Samgori-Patardzeuli, Muradhanly fields, etc.). At the end of the Oligocene, the geodynamic setting in the northwestern margins of the Pacific Ocean was mainly similar to that within the Transcaucasus median massif. At the end of Oligocene-Miocene, such conditions determined the tectono-magmatic destruction of the continental crust and formation of the series of interarc rifts. The main fields of Japan, with accumulations in the volcanogenic and volcano-sedimentary rocks, are concentrated here. Its analog is the rift located in the southern part of a single east Kuril basin, where petroleum occurrence is only inferred. In the separate troughs, the thickness of the volcano-sedimentary cover is 4-6 km. The stratigraphic section of the cover contains the volcanic and volcano-sedimentary sediments of the Neogene-Pleistocene. The studies of the sections of the Komandorskie islands, eastern Kamchatka, Kuril Islands, and western Sakhalin indicate that distribution of reservoirs depends on the stage of evolution of the rifts and adjacent island arcs.

Levin, L.E. (VNIIZarubezhgeologia, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

200

2005 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity at or near 16 volcanoes in Alaska during 2005, including the high profile precursory activity associated with the 2005?06 eruption of Augustine Volcano. AVO continues to participate in distributing information about eruptive activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and in the Kurile Islands of the Russian Far East, in conjunction with the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), respectively. In 2005, AVO helped broadcast alerts about activity at 8 Russian volcanoes. The most serious hazard posed from volcanic eruptions in Alaska, Kamchatka, or the Kurile Islands is the placement of ash into the atmosphere at altitudes traversed by jet aircraft along the North Pacific and Russian Trans East air routes. AVO, KVERT, and SVERT work collaboratively with the National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers to provide timely warnings of volcanic eruptions and the production and movement of ash clouds.

McGimsey, R. G.; Neal, C. A.; Dixon, J. P.; Ushakov, Sergey

2008-01-01

201

Are There Spatial or Temporal Patterns to Holocene Explosive Eruptions in the Aleutian Archipelago? A Work in Progress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By examining the existing geological and archeological record of radiocarbon dated Aleutian tephras of the last 12,000 years, this study sought to determine whether there were spatial or temporal patterns of explosive eruptive activity. The Holocene tephra record has important implications because two episodes of migration and colonization by humans of distinct cultures established the Unangan/Aleut peoples of the Aleutian Islands concurrently with the volcanic activity. From Aniakchak Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula to the Andreanof Islands (158 to 178° W longitude), 55 distinct tephras represent significant explosive eruptions of the last 12,000 years. Initial results suggest that the Andreanof and Fox Island regions of the archipelago have had frequent explosive eruptions whereas the Islands of Four Mountains, Rat, and Near Island regions have apparently had little or no eruptive activity. However, one clear result of the investigation is that sampling bias strongly influences the apparent spatial patterns. For example field reconnaissance in the Islands of Four Mountains documents two Holocene calderas and a minimum of 20 undated tephras in addition to the large ignimbrites. Only the lack of significant explosive activity in the Near Islands seems a valid spatial result as archeological excavations and geologic reports failed to document Holocene tephras there. An intriguing preliminary temporal pattern is the apparent absence of large explosive eruptions across the archipelago from ca. 4,800 to 6,000 yBP. To test the validity of apparent patterns, a statistical treatment of the compiled data grappled with the sampling bias by considering three confounding variables: larger island size allows more opportunity for geologic preservation of tephras; larger magnitude eruption promotes tephra preservation by creating thicker and more widespread deposits; the comprehensiveness of the tephra sampling of each volcano and island varies widely because of logistical and financial limitations. This initial statistical investigation proposes variables to mitigate the effects of sampling bias and makes recommendations for sampling strategies to enable statistically valid examination of research questions. Further, though caldera-forming eruptions occurred throughout the Holocene - and several remain undated - four of six dated eruptions occurred throughout the archipelago between 8,000-9,100 yBP, a period coinciding with some of the earliest human occupation (Early Anangula Phase) of the eastern Aleutians.

Martin, C.; Nicolaysen, K. P.; McConville, K.; Hatfield, V.; West, D.

2013-12-01

202

Magnetic structure of Loihi Seamount, an active hotspot volcano in the Hawaiian Island chain  

E-print Network

The use of geophysical techniques to image the interiors of active volcanoes can provide a better understanding of their structure and plumbing. The need for such information is especially critical for undersea volcanoes, whose environment makes...

Lamarche, Amy J.

2004-09-30

203

The 1976 1982 Strombolian and phreatomagmatic eruptions of White Island, New Zealand: eruptive and depositional mechanisms at a `wet' volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

White Island is an active andesitic-dacitic composite volcano surrounded by sea, yet isolated from sea water by chemically sealed zones that confine a long-lived acidic hydrothermal system, within a thick sequence of fine-grained volcaniclastic sediment and ash. The rise of at least 106 m3 of basic andesite magma to shallow levels and its interaction with the hydrothermal system resulted in

B. F. Houghton; I. A. Nairn

1991-01-01

204

Measuring deformation associated with magmatic processes at Cerro Azul Volcano, Galapagos Islands, Ecuador with InSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galapagos Islands are an active volcanic island chain in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Ecuador. Cerro Azul volcano is located on the southern tip of Isabella Island and experienced two eruptions in 10 years. The eruptions started on September 15, 1998 and May 29, 2008 and lasted 51 days and 20 days respectively. Using radar data from Radarsat-1 and Envisat satellites, the deformation before, during, and after these eruptions was measured using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Radarsat-1 data cover the 1998 eruption and Envisat data is available in 2008. Compared to the 2008 data, the time coverage for the 1998 eruption is not as frequent, but still allows for measuring the deformation during the eruption. Continuous radar data coverage between the eruptions allows us to see the state of the volcano leading up to the 2008 eruption. Using data from 8 different Envisat tracks in 2008, we measured the deformation associated with two separate eruptive phases of the volcano. Acquisitions on May 30 and 31, and June 2, 3, 5 and 6 show the deformation associated with the intrusion of magma responsible for fissures on the SE flank ceased by June 5, 2008. Using these data, it is possible to measure the amount of deformation during each of the eruptive phases and model the source processes at those times.

Baker, S.; Amelung, F.

2009-12-01

205

Application of emulsion imaging system for cosmic-ray muon radiography to explore the internal structure of Teide and Cumbre Vieja volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal structure of volcanoes, especially in their up per part, is product of past eruptions. Therefore, the knowledge of the internal structure of a volcano is of great importance for understanding its behaviour and to forecast the nature and style of the next eruptions. For these reasons, during past years scientists have made a big effort to investigate the internal structure of the volcanoes with different geophysical techniques, including deep drilling, passive and active seismic tomography, geoelectrics and magnetotellurics and gravimetry. One of the limits of conventional geophysical methods is the spatial resolution, which typically ranges between some tens of meters up to 1 km. In this sense, the radiography of active volcanoes based on natural muons, even if limited to the external part of the volcano, represents an important tool for investigating the internal structure of a volcano at higher spatial resolution (Macedonio and Martini, 2009). Moreover, muon radiography is able to resolve density contrasts of the order of 1-3%, significantly greater than the resolution obtained with conventional methods. As example, the experiment of muon radiography carried out at Mt. Asama volcano by Tanaka et al., 2007, allowed the reconstruction of the density map of the cone and detection of a dense region that corresponds to the position and shape of a lava deposit created during the last eruption in 2004. In the framework of a research project financed by the Canary Agency of Research, Innovation and Information Society, we will implement muon measurements at Teide volcano in Tenerife Island and Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma Island, Canary Islands, to radiographically image the subsurface structure of these two volcanic edifices. The data analysis will involve the study both of the shallow structure of both volcanoes and of the requirements for the implementation of the muon detectors. Both Cumbre Vieja and Teide are two active volcanoes that arouse great interest in the scientific community and society due to their volcanic features and specific hazards associated with volcanic activity.

Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Tanaka, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Perez, N.; Barrancos, J.; Padron, E.; Hernandez, I.

2012-12-01

206

Application of emulsion imaging system for cosmic-ray muon radiography to explore the internal structure of Teide and Cumbre Vieja volcanoes in the Canary Islands, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal structure of volcanoes, especially in their up per part, is product of past eruptions. Therefore, the knowledge of the internal structure of a volcano is of great importance for understanding its behaviour and to forecast the nature and style of the next eruptions. For these reasons, during past years scientists have made a big effort to investigate the internal structure of the volcanoes with different geophysical techniques, including deep drilling, passive and active seismic tomography, geoelectrics and magnetotellurics and gravimetry. One of the limits of conventional geophysical methods is the spatial resolution, which typically ranges between some tens of meters up to 1 km. In this sense, the radiography of active volcanoes based on natural muons, even if limited to the external part of the volcano, represents an important tool for investigating the internal structure of a volcano at higher spatial resolution (Macedonio and Martini, 2009). Moreover, muon radiography is able to resolve density contrasts of the order of 1-3%, significantly greater than the resolution obtained with conventional methods. As example, the experiment of muon radiography carried out at Mt. Asama volcano by Tanaka et al., 2007, allowed the reconstruction of the density map of the cone and detection of a dense region that corresponds to the position and shape of a lava deposit created during the last eruption in 2004. In the framework of a research project financed by the Canary Agency of Research, Innovation and Information Society, we will implement muon measurements at Teide volcano in Tenerife Island and Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma Island, Canary Islands, to radiographically image the subsurface structure of these two volcanic edifices. The data analysis will involve the study both of the shallow structure of both volcanoes and of the requirements for the implementation of the muon detectors. Both Cumbre Vieja and Teide are two active volcanoes that arouse great interest in the scientific community and society due to their volcanic features and specific hazards associated with volcanic activity.

Hernández, Iñigo; Hernández, Pedro; Pérez, Nemesio; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Seygo; Barrancos, José; Padrón, Eleazar

2013-04-01

207

The 2003 phreatomagmatic eruptions of Anatahan volcano---textural and petrologic features of deposits at an emergent island volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratigraphic and field data are used in conjunction with textural and chemical evidence (including data from scanning electron microscope, electron microprobe, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and instrumental neutron activation analysis) to establish that the 2003 eruption of Anatahan volcano was mainly phreatomagmatic, dominated by explosive interaction of homogeneous composition low-viscosity crystal-poor andesite magma with water. The hydromagmatic mode of eruption

John S. Pallister; Frank A. Trusdell; Isabelle K. Brownfield; David F. Siems; James R. Budahn; Steven F. Sutley

2005-01-01

208

The 2003 phreatomagmatic eruptions of Anatahan volcano—textural and petrologic features of deposits at an emergent island volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratigraphic and field data are used in conjunction with textural and chemical evidence (including data from scanning electron microscope, electron microprobe, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and instrumental neutron activation analysis) to establish that the 2003 eruption of Anatahan volcano was mainly phreatomagmatic, dominated by explosive interaction of homogeneous composition low-viscosity crystal-poor andesite magma with water. The hydromagmatic mode of eruption

John S. Pallister; Frank A. Trusdell; Isabelle K. Brownfield; David F. Siems; James R. Budahn; Steven F. Sutley

2005-01-01

209

Evidence for a Great Aleutian Paleotsunami on Kaua`i  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Islands location amid the Pacific Ocean is threatened by tsunamis from great earthquakes in nearly all directions. Historical great earthquakes Mw>8.5 in the last 100 years have produced large inundations and loss of life in the Islands, but have not accounted for a substantial (>100 m^3) paleotsunami deposit in the Makauwahi sinkhole at Maha`ulepu on the Island of Kaua`i. High-resolution, digital elevation models of bathymetry and topography have been used in conjunction with a non-linear, hydrostatic tsunami model to simulate inundations from giant earthquakes in the Aleutian Islands and elsewhere to estimate the extent of tsunami threats to the State of Hawaii. We model the inundation of the sinkhole by an earthquake with a minimum moment-magnitude of Mw 9.2 located within the eastern Aleutians, where the tsunami energy is focused toward Hawaii. An alternative hypothesis wherein the deposit entered through a small cave entrance is not consistent with fine speleothems, intact in the cave, that pre-date the deposit. The results indicate that a giant earthquake in the eastern Aleutian Islands circa 1425-1665 AD, located between the source regions of the 1946 and 1957 great tsunamigenic earthquakes, generated a tsunami in Hawaii much larger than the historical record. A tsunami deposit in the Aleutians dated circa ~1550 AD is consistent with this eastern Aleutian source region.

Butler, R.; Bai, Y.; Burney, D. A.; Cheung, K.; Yamazaki, Y.

2013-12-01

210

Characteristics of Offshore Hawai';i Island Seismicity and Velocity Structure, including Lo';ihi Submarine Volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Island of Hawai';i is home to the most active volcanoes in the Hawaiian Islands. The island's isolated nature, combined with the lack of permanent offshore seismometers, creates difficulties in recording small magnitude earthquakes with accuracy. This background offshore seismicity is crucial in understanding the structure of the lithosphere around the island chain, the stresses on the lithosphere generated by the weight of the islands, and how the volcanoes interact with each other offshore. This study uses the data collected from a 9-month deployment of a temporary ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) network fully surrounding Lo';ihi volcano. This allowed us to widen the aperture of earthquake detection around the Big Island, lower the magnitude detection threshold, and better constrain the hypocentral depths of offshore seismicity that occurs between the OBS network and the Hawaii Volcano Observatory's land based network. Although this study occurred during a time of volcanic quiescence for Lo';ihi, it establishes a basis for background seismicity of the volcano. More than 480 earthquakes were located using the OBS network, incorporating data from the HVO network where possible. Here we present relocated hypocenters using the double-difference earthquake location algorithm HypoDD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000), as well as tomographic images for a 30 km square area around the summit of Lo';ihi. Illuminated by using the double-difference earthquake location algorithm HypoDD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000), offshore seismicity during this study is punctuated by events locating in the mantle fault zone 30-50km deep. These events reflect rupture on preexisting faults in the lower lithosphere caused by stresses induced by volcano loading and flexure of the Pacific Plate (Wolfe et al., 2004; Pritchard et al., 2007). Tomography was performed using the double-difference seismic tomography method TomoDD (Zhang & Thurber, 2003) and showed overall velocities to be slower than the regional velocity model (HG50; Klein, 1989) in the shallow lithosphere above 16 km depth. This is likely a result of thick deposits of volcaniclastic sediments and fractured pillow basalts that blanket the southern submarine flank of Mauna Loa, upon which Lo';ihi is currently superimposing (Morgan et al., 2003). A broad, low-velocity anomaly was observed from 20-40 km deep beneath the area of Pahala, and is indicative of the central plume conduit that supplies magma to the active volcanoes. A localized high-velocity body is observed 4-6 km deep beneath Lo';ihi's summit, extending 10 km to the North and South. Oriented approximately parallel to Lo';ihi's active rift zones, this high-velocity body is suggestive of intrusion in the upper crust, similar to Kilauea's high-velocity rift zones.

Merz, D. K.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; Thurber, C. H.

2013-12-01

211

Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): the 2010-2011 survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an example of the recent advances introduced in seismic monitoring of Deception Island volcano (Antarctica) during recent years, we describe the instrumental network deployed during the 2010-2011 survey by the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR). The period of operation extended from December 19, 2010 to March 5, 2011. We deployed a wireless seismic network composed by four three-component seismic stations. These stations are based on 24-bit SL04 SARA dataloggers sampling at 100 sps. They use a PC with embedded linux and SEISLOG data acquisition software. We use two types of three-component seismometers: short-period Mark L4C with natural frequency of 1 Hz and medium-period Lennartz3D/5s with natural frequency of 0.2 Hz. The network was designed for an optimum spatial coverage of the northern half of Deception, where a magma chamber has been reported. Station locations include the vicinity of the Spanish base "Gabriel de Castilla" (GdC), Obsidianas Beach, a zone near the craters from the 1970 eruptions, and the Chilean Shelter located south of Pendulum Cove. Continuous data from the local seismic network are received in real-time in the base by wifi transmission. We used Ubiquiti Networks Nanostation2 antennas with 2.4 GHz, dual-polarity, 10 dBi gain, and 54 Mbps transmission rate. They have shown a great robustness and speed for real-time applications. To prioritize data acquisition when the battery level is low, we have designed a circuit that allows independent power management for the seismic station and wireless transmission system. The reception antenna located at GdC is connected to a computer running SEISCOMP. This software supports several transmission protocols and manages the visualization and recording of seismic data, including the generation of summary plots to show the seismic activity. These twelve data channels are stored in miniseed format and displayed in real time, which allows for a rapid evaluation of the seismic activity and an efficient seismo-volcanic surveillance. The data are processed and analyzed using the SEISAN database management software. In addition to the seismic network, we deployed a small-aperture seismic array south of Fumarole Bay. It is composed by 9 vertical and 1 three-component short-period stations. The 24-bit data acquisition system samples these 12 channels at 100 sps. There is also a permanent seismic station operating since 2008 and located near GdC, that is very useful for the preliminary evaluation of the seismicity at the start of the survey. This station is composed by a 16-s electrolytic seismometer (Eentec SP400) and a 24-bit datalogger (Eentec DR4000) sampling at 100 sps. During the 2010-2011 survey we identified 33 regional earthquakes, 80 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, and 929 long-period (LP) events. The volcanic alert system has remained green (the lowest level) at all times. The seismic activity has been similar to previous surveys and remained within limits that are normal for the island.

Martín, R.; Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Serrano, I.; Villaseñor, A.; Galeano, J.

2012-04-01

212

The submarine flanks of Anatahan Volcano, commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands  

E-print Network

that 67% of the volcano's submarine flanks are covered with volcaniclastic debris and 26% is lava flows volcanoes may be characterized by sediment flows of unconsolidated volcaniclastic debris instead of mass and the spring of 2004. This was part of the Submarine Ring of Fire project, which is a multi-year study

Chadwick, Bill

213

Crustal recycling and the aleutian arc  

SciTech Connect

Two types of crustal recycling transfer continental crust back into its mantle source. The first of these, upper crustal recycling, involves elements that have been fractionated by the hydrosphere-sediment system, and are subducted as a part of the oceanic crust. The subduction process (S-process) then fractionates these elements, and those not removed at shallow tectonic levels and as excess components of arc magmas are returned to the mantle. Newly determined trace element composition of Pacific oceanic sedimants are variable and mixing is necessary during the S-process, if sediment is to provide excess element in the ratios observed in Aleutian arc magmas. Only a small fraction of the total sediment subducted at the Aleutian trench is required to furnish the excess elements in Aleutian arc magmas. Ba and {sub 10}Be data indicate that this small fraction includes a contribution from the youngest subducted sediment. The second type of recycling, lower crustal recycling, involves crystal cumulates of both arc and oceanic crustal origin, and residues from crustal melting within arc crust. Unlike the silicic sediments, recycled lower crust is mafic to ultramafic in composition. Trace element analyses of xenoliths representing Aleutian arc lower crust are presented. Recycling by delamination of lower crust and attached mantle lithosphere may occur following basalt eclogite phase transformations that are facilitated by terrane suturing events that weld oceanic island arcs to the continents. The relative importance of upper and lower crustal recycling exerts a primary control on continental crustal composition.

Kay, R.W.; Kay, S.M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1988-06-01

214

Enhancement of sub-daily positioning solutions for surface deformation monitoring at Deception volcano (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deception Island is one of the most visited places in Antarctica. There are biological, geological, and archeological features that are major attractions within Port Foster, its horse shoe-shaped natural inner bay, and two scientific bases that are occupied during austral summers. Deception Island is an active volcano, however, and needs to be monitored in order to reduce risk to people on the island. Surface deformation in response to fluid pressure is one of the main volcanic activities to observe. Automated data acquisition and processing using the global navigation satellite systems allow measurements of surface deformation in near real time. Nevertheless, the positioning repeatability in sub-daily solutions is affected by geophysical influences such as ocean tidal loading, among others. Such periodic influences must be accurately modeled to achieve similar repeatability as daily solutions that average them. However, a single solution each 24 h will average out the deformation suffered during that period, and the position update waiting time can be a limitation for near real-time purposes. Throughout the last five austral summer campaigns in Deception, using simultaneous wireless communications between benchmarks, a processing strategy was developed to achieve millimeter-level half-hourly positioning solutions that have similar repeatability as those given by 24-h solutions. For these half-hourly solutions, a tidal analysis was performed to assess any mismodeling of ocean tide loading, and a discrete Kalman filter was designed and implemented to enhance the sub-daily positioning repeatability. With these solutions, the volcano-dynamic activity resulting in localized surface deformation for the last five austral summer campaigns is addressed. Although based on only three carefully located benchmarks, it is shown that Deception has been shortening and subsiding during these last 4 years. The method's accuracy in baselines up to a few hundred kilometers assures its applicability to other volcanoes worldwide.

Prates, G.; Berrocoso, M.; Fernández-Ros, A.; García, A.

2013-02-01

215

Nd and Sr-isotopic compositions of lavas from the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs: implications for the origin of island arc melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nd- and Sr-isotopic data are reported for lavas from 23 submarine and 3 subaerial volcanoes in the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs. Values of eNd range from +2.4 to +9.5 whereas 87Sr\\/86Sr ranges from 0.70319 to 0.70392; these vary systematically between and sometimes within arc segments. The Nd-and Sr-isotopic compositions fall in the field of ocean island basalt (OIB)

P. N. Lin; R. J. Stern; J. Morris; S. H. Bloomer

1990-01-01

216

Nd and Sr-isotopic compositions of lavas from the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs: implications for the origin of island arc melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nd- and Sr-isotopic data are reported for lavas from 23 submarine and 3 subaerial volcanoes in the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs. Values of ?Nd range from +2.4 to +9.5 whereas 87Sr\\/86Sr ranges from 0.70319 to 0.70392; these vary systematically between and sometimes within arc segments. The Nd-and Sr-isotopic compositions fall in the field of ocean island basalt (OIB)

P. N. Lin; R. J. Stern; J. Morris; S. H. Bloomer

1990-01-01

217

76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached....

2011-09-28

218

78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached....

2013-09-17

219

Unusual Signals Recorded by Ocean Bottom Seismometers in the Caldera of Deception Island Volcano: Biological Activity or Hydrothermally Generated Seismicity?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an active source land-sea tomography experiment, ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) were deployed at Deception Island Volcano, Antarctica, in January 2005. Following the tomography study, three OBSs were left for a month inside the flooded caldera and ten on the outer slopes of the volcano to record seismo-volcanic signals. The OBS sensor package included three-orthogonal 1-Hz geophones but no hydrophone. The OBSs were deployed in water depths of 125 to 143 m inside the caldera and at depths of 119 to 475 m on the volcano's flanks. Only two volcano-tectonic earthquakes and three long period events were recorded by the network. However, the OBSs inside the caldera recorded over 4,500 unusual seismic events. These were detected by only one station at a time and were completely absent from OBSs on the flank of the volcano and from land stations deployed on the island. The signals had a dominant frequency of 5 Hz and were one to ten seconds long. Event activity in the caldera was variable with the number of events per hour ranging from 0 up to 60 and the level of activity decreasing slightly over the study period. We categorize the signals into three types based on waveform characteristics. Type 1 events have an impulsive onset and last 1 to 2 s with characteristics that are consistent with the impulse response of a poorly coupled OBS. Type 2 events typically last 2 to 4 s and comprise a low amplitude initial arrival followed less than a second later by a more energetic second phase that looks a Type 1 event. Type 3 events last up to 10 s and have more complex waveforms that appear to comprise several arrivals of varying amplitudes. Type 1 events are similar to the 'fish-bump' signals reported from previous studies that attributed them to biological activity. The consistent timing and relative amplitudes of the two arrivals for Type 2 events are difficult to explain by animals randomly touching the OBSs. Type 3 events are quite similar in frequency, duration, and signal characteristics to long-period seismic events recorded by an onshore seismic array deployed in an earlier study at Deception Island. Particle motions suggest that Type 3 events may be surface waves while the particle motions for Type 1 and Type 2 events are ambiguous and unlike any signals recorded by land arrays at the volcano. Binomial tests of the event distribution show no significant changes in the rate of events with time of day that would be indicative of a biological source. Since the events are entirely absent in biologically productive waters outside the caldera, we postulate that they may be volcanic signals related to hydrothermal flow across the seafloor in the flooded caldera of Deception Island. Future OBS deployments at Deception Island should include a hydrophone to discriminate unambiguously between biological and volcanic signals.

Bowman, D. C.; Wilcock, W. S.

2011-12-01

220

Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at midlatitude or high-latitude volcanoes; (c) safety factors during unrest, which can limit where new instrumentation can safely be installed (particularly at near-vent sites that can be critical for precursor detection and eruption forecasting); and (d) the remoteness of many U.S. volcanoes (particularly those in the Aleutians and the Marianas Islands), where access is difficult or impossible most of the year. Given these difficulties, it is reasonable to anticipate that ground-based monitoring of eruptions at U.S. volcanoes will likely be performed primarily with instruments installed before unrest begins. 2. Given a growing awareness of previously undetected 2. phenomena that may occur before an eruption begins, at present the types and (or) density of instruments in use at most U.S. volcanoes is insufficient to provide reliable early warning of volcanic eruptions. As shown by the gap analysis of Ewert and others (2005), a number of U.S. volcanoes lack even rudimentary monitoring. At those volcanic systems with monitoring instrumentation in place, only a few types of phenomena can be tracked in near-real time, principally changes in seismicity, deformation, and large-scale changes in thermal flux (through satellite-based remote sensing). Furthermore, researchers employing technologically advanced instrumentation at volcanoes around the world starting in the 1990s have shown that subtle and previously undetectable phenomena can precede or accompany eruptions. Detection of such phenomena would greatly improve the ability of U.S. volcano observatories to provide accurate early warnings of impending eruptions, and is a critical capability particularly at the very high-threat volcanoes identified by Ewert and others (2005). For these two reasons, change from a reactive to a proactive volcano-monitoring strategy is clearly needed at U.S. volcanoes. Monitoring capabilities need to be expanded at virtually every volcanic center, regardless of its current state of

Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

2008-01-01

221

Methods of InSAR atmosphere correction for volcano activity monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

When a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) signal propagates through the atmosphere on its path to and from the sensor, it is inevitably affected by atmospheric effects. In particular, the applicability and accuracy of Interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques for volcano monitoring is limited by atmospheric path delays. Therefore, atmospheric correction of interferograms is required to improve the performance of InSAR for detecting volcanic activity, especially in order to advance its ability to detect subtle pre-eruptive changes in deformation dynamics. In this paper, we focus on InSAR tropospheric mitigation methods and their performance in volcano deformation monitoring. Our study areas include Okmok volcano and Unimak Island located in the eastern Aleutians, AK. We explore two methods to mitigate atmospheric artifacts, namely the numerical weather model simulation and the atmospheric filtering using Persistent Scatterer processing. We investigate the capability of the proposed methods, and investigate their limitations and advantages when applied to determine volcanic processes. ?? 2011 IEEE.

Gong, W.; Meyer, F.; Webley, P.W.; Lu, Z.

2011-01-01

222

Deformation of Cerro Azul Volcano, Isabela Island, Galapagos With Radar Interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galapagos Islands are a volcanic island chain located off the coast of Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean. The islands have a recent eruptive history with 3 eruptions occurring within the last 15 years, including the 1998 eruption of Cerro Azul located on the southern end of Isabela Island. Analysis of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data covering Cerro Azul

S. Baker; F. Amelung

2006-01-01

223

The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response.  

PubMed

On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. PMID:22768379

Fraile-Nuez, E; González-Dávila, M; Santana-Casiano, J M; Arístegui, J; Alonso-González, I J; Hernández-León, S; Blanco, M J; Rodríguez-Santana, A; Hernández-Guerra, A; Gelado-Caballero, M D; Eugenio, F; Marcello, J; de Armas, D; Domínguez-Yanes, J F; Montero, M F; Laetsch, D R; Vélez-Belchí, P; Ramos, A; Ariza, A V; Comas-Rodríguez, I; Benítez-Barrios, V M

2012-01-01

224

Argon geochronology of late Pleistocene to Holocene Westdahl volcano, Unimak Island, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of selected lavas from Westdahl Volcano places time constraints on several key prehistoric eruptive phases of this large active volcano. A dike cutting old pyroclastic-flow and associated lahar deposits from a precursor volcano yields an age of 1,654+/-11 k.y., dating this precursor volcano as older than early Pleistocene. A total of 11 geographically distributed lavas with ages ranging from 47+/-14 to 127+/-2 k.y. date construction of the Westdahl volcanic center. Lava flows cut by an apparent caldera-rim structure yielded ages of 81+/-5 and 121+/-8 k.y., placing a maximum date of 81 ka on caldera formation. Late Pleistocene and Holocene lavas fill the caldera, but most of them are obscured by the large summit icecap.

Calvert, Andrew T.; Moore, Richard B.; McGimsey, Robert G.

2005-01-01

225

Boron isotopic composition of fumarolic condensates from some volcanoes in Japanese island arcs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron samples from 40 fumarolic condensates from volcanoes in the Ryukyu arc (Satsuma Iwo-jima and Shiratori Iwo-yama) and the North-east Japan arc (Usu-shinzan, Showa-shinzan, Esan and Issaikyo-yama) all have 11 B \\/ 10 B ratios close to 4.07. Higher values, from 4.09 to 4.13, were only observed in condensates from volcanoes in the southernmost end of the North-east Japan arc

Masao Nomura; Tadeo Kanzaki; Takejiro Ozawa; Makoto Okamoto; Hidetake Kakihana

1982-01-01

226

A Comparison of MODIS and DOAS Sulfur Dioxide Measurements of the April 24, 2004 Eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of volcanic SO2 emissions provide insight into the processes working below a volcano, which can presage volcanic events. Being able to measure SO2 in near real-time is invaluable for the planning and response of hazard mitigation teams. Currently, there are several methods used to quantify the SO2 output of degassing volcanoes. Ground and aerial-based measurements using the differential optical absorption spectrometer (mini-DOAS) provide real-time estimates of SO2 output. Satellite-based measurements, which can provide similar estimates in near real-time, have increasingly been used as a tool for volcanic monitoring. Direct Broadcast (DB) real-time processing of remotely sensed data from NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites (MODIS Terra and Aqua) presents volcanologists with a range of spectral bands and processing options for the study of volcanic emissions. While the spatial resolution of MODIS is 1 km in the Very Near Infrared (VNIR) and Thermal Infrared (TIR), a high temporal resolution and a wide range of radiance measurements in 32 channels between VNIR and TIR combine to provide a versatile space borne platform to monitor SO2 emissions from volcanoes. An important question remaining to be answered is how well do MODIS SO2 estimates compare with DOAS estimates? In 2004 ground-based plume measurements were collected on April 24th and 25th at Anatahan volcano in the Mariana Islands using a mini-DOAS (Fischer and Hilton). SO2 measurements for these same dates have also been calculated using MODIS images and SO2 mapping software (Realmuto). A comparison of these different approaches to the measurement of SO2 for the same plume is presented. Differences in these observations are used to better quantify SO2 emissions, to assess the current mismatch between ground based and remotely sensed retrievals, and to develop an approach to continuously and accurately monitor volcanic activity from space in near real-time.

Meier, V. L.; Scuderi, L.; Fischer, T.; Realmuto, V.; Hilton, D.

2006-12-01

227

Detailed gravity study of the offshore structure of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an interpretation of gravity data acquired in 1984 by the French R/V Jean Charcot on the submarine part of the eastern flank of Piton de la Fournaise volcano. We comment on the Bouguer anomaly map and give a quantitative interpretation of three gravity profiles. The main results are that a gravity high over Grand Brûlé, the lower subaerial part of the eastern flank, does not extend far offshore and that an anomalous topographic feature, discovered in 1982 on the submarine eastern flank, is characterized by a large negative anomaly. We propose three hypotheses to explain the origin of this anomaly, i. e., it marks the site of a new volcano, or it is a consequence of lateral volcanism from a volcano older than Piton de la Fournaise, or more probably, it represents a great landslide deposit.

Rousset, Dominique; Bonneville, Alain; Lenat, Jean-François

1987-12-01

228

Imaging spatial and temporal seismic source variations at Sierra Negra Volcano, Galapagos Islands using back-projection methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging spatial and temporal seismic source variations at Sierra Negra Volcano, Galapagos Islands using back-projection methods Cyndi Kelly1, Jesse F. Lawrence1, Cindy Ebinger2 1Stanford University, Department of Geophysics, 397 Panama Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 2University of Rochester, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, 227 Hutchison Hall, Rochester, NY 14627, USA Low-magnitude seismic signals generated by processes that characterize volcanic and hydrothermal systems and their plumbing networks are difficult to observe remotely. Seismic records from these systems tend to be extremely 'noisy', making it difficult to resolve 3D subsurface structures using traditional seismic methods. Easily identifiable high-amplitude bursts within the noise that might be suitable for use with traditional seismic methods (i.e. eruptions) tend to occur relatively infrequently compared to the length of an entire eruptive cycle. Furthermore, while these impulsive events might help constrain the dynamics of a particular eruption, they shed little insight into the mechanisms that occur throughout an entire eruption sequence. It has been shown, however, that the much more abundant low-amplitude seismic 'noise' in these records (i.e. volcanic or geyser 'tremor') actually represents a series of overlapping low-magnitude displacements that can be directly linked to magma, fluid, and volatile movement at depth. This 'noisy' data therefore likely contains valuable information about the processes occurring in the volcanic or hydrothermal system before, during and after eruption events. In this study, we present a new method to comprehensively study how the seismic source distribution of all events - including micro-events - evolves during different phases of the eruption sequence of Sierra Negra Volcano in the Galapagos Islands. We apply a back-projection search algorithm to image sources of seismic 'noise' at Sierra Negra Volcano during a proposed intrusion event. By analyzing coherent seismic energy from all possible events to all available receivers, we generate a movie showing how seismic sources change spatially and temporally during the analysis period. This approach utilizes data from the entire seismic record and could ultimately provide a more complete understanding of how seismic sources change throughout the eruptive sequence rather than during a particular eruption event. This information could help to 1) answer fundamental questions about volcano-tectonic processes and 2) make more accurate assessments of volcanic hazards. Preliminary results from application of the methodology to seismic data collected by a dense array of 3-component geophones at El Tatio Geyser Field in northern Chile during October 2012 will also be introduced.

Kelly, C. L.; Lawrence, J. F.; Ebinger, C. J.

2013-12-01

229

2005 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity at or near 16 volcanoes in Alaska during 2005, including the high profile precursory activity associated with the 2005-06 eruption of Augustine Volcano. AVO...

C. A. Neal, J. P. Dixon, R. G. McGimsey

2007-01-01

230

Potential geologic hazards of North Aleutian shelf, Bristol Bay, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Federal OSC lease sale 92, North Aleutian shelf, Alaska, is scheduled for April 1985. The area, located in the southeastern Bering Sea, has 3 basins with sedimentary thicknesses in excess of 4 km. Six geologic conditions that could cause problems during petroleum development are: (1) seismicity, (2) recent faulting, (3) gas-charged sediment, (4) bed forms and active sediment transport, (5) scours, and (6) volcanism. Since 1953, the region has a history of at least 10 shallow earthquakes, including a 1971 back-arc event with a Richter magnitude of 5.2. The largest event impacting the entire region, a Richter magnitude 8.7 earthquake, occurred in 1938. Normal faults are located along the southern edge of the St. George basin, and on the northeastern edge of the Amak basin. Many exhibit increased offset with depth, surficial sags, and small surficial cracks. Surprising was the absence of any evidence of sea-floor sediment instability. Sonar bright spots, and possible, near-surface gas-charged sediment occur west of Amak Island and north of Unimak Island. An area of megaripples and dunes covers more than 1500 km/sup 2/. Bed forms have spacings of 20-50 m and heights of 1-3 m. Observations suggest that coarse sand may be actively transported. Thousands of scours, many linear and parallel, some greater than 800 m long, 250 m wide, and incised up to 5 m, were identified. Pavlof, an Alaskan Peninsula active volcano, located 45 km northeast of Cold Bay, has a continuous history of steam release and occasional eruption. Lahars, nuee ardentes are unknown. None of the geologic conditions identified precludes petroleum development or production. The potential impact of these factors must, however, be included in planning for future petroleum activities.

Molnia, B.F.; Schwab, W.C.

1985-02-01

231

Unravelling the Geometry of Unstable Flanks of Submarine Volcanoes by Magnetic Investigation: the Case of the "sciara del Fuoco" Scar (stromboli Volcano, Aeolian Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stromboli is the easternmost island of the Aeolian Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea) and one of the most active Mediterranean volcanoes. The volcanic edifice rises over 3000 m above the surrounding seafloor, from a depth of about 2000 m b.s.l. to 924 m a.s.l. The north-western flank of volcano is deeply scarred by a destructive collapse event occurred ca. 5000 years ago, and forming a big horseshoe-shaped depression, known as "Sciara del Fuoco" (SdF). This depression, 3 Km long and 2 Km wide, is supposed to extend into the sea down to 700 m b.s.l., while further basinward it turns into a fan-shaped mounted deposit down to about 2600 m b.s.l., where it merges the so-called "Stromboli Canyon". Since its formation, emerged and submerged portions of the SdF have been progressively filled by the volcanic products of the persistent activity of the Stromboli Volcano. In the last 10 years, two paroxysmal eruptions occurred in the Stromboli Volcano, during 2002-2003 and February-April 2007. During both events, the SdF has been partially covered by lava flows and affected by slope failures, also causing (for the 2002-2003 event) a local tsunami. Since the 1990's, and especially after the last two paroxysms, the submerged extension of the SdF has been intensively investigated by using swath bathymetry data. We focused principally on the magnetic anomaly pattern of the submerged SdF since the chaotic depositional system virtually cancels magnetic remanence (which at Stromboli can reach 5-10 A/m values), thus lowering magnetic residual intensity. On July 2012 we acquired new detailed sea-surface magnetic data of the SdF from the shoreline to about 7 km offshore, where the depth is more than 1800 m b.s.l. We collected data thanks to the Italian Navy ship "Nave Aretusa" and by using the Marine Magnetics SeaSPY magnetometer. At the same time, new bathymetric data were acquired in the same area by using a Kongsberg Marine multibeam systems. Although the morphologic features of the submarine prosecution of the SdF system were already studied and unveiled, the complete description of the in-depth extension of the system and the overall volume estimation is still poorly known. This has important implications for the hazard assessment of the landslide structure and most generally of the entire volcanic edifice. The application of a classical geomagnetic prospection to describe a landslide feature is an uncommon procedure yet it can be considered as innovative approach, having the advantages of effectiveness, low cost and expedition typical of the geomagnetic survey. Here we present the interpretation of the newly acquired high-resolution magnetic dataset, thanks to susceptibility and magnetic remanence values gathered from on-land rock samples at Stromboli. A 3D inverse model is here proposed, allowing a full definition of the submerged SdF structure geometry.

Muccini, F.; Cocchi, L.; Carmisciano, C.; Speranza, F.; Marziani, F.

2012-12-01

232

ACTIVE VOLCANOES OF THE KURILE ISLANDS --A Quick Reference Stratovolcano with summit crater  

E-print Network

the early 20 century, it is likely thatmanyeruptionswentundocumented. The Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption provided by colleagues at the Sakhalin Department of the Geophysical Surveyofthe Sakhalin Is. Km ak achta KEY Number on map - VOLCANO (1 - 6 ­ monitored by KVERT, 7 - 36 ­ monitored

233

Combining CSD and isotopic microanalysis: Magma supply and mixing processes at Stromboli Volcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating isotopic microanalysis with other analytical techniques creates powerful new methodologies for understanding the evolution of rock samples at the sub-grain scale. Here we present Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) data for a 26,000 year old sample from Stromboli Volcano and accompanying isotopic microanalysis of the phenocrysts. A technique, called the ICSD plot, is introduced which given stated assumptions allows the

D. J. Morgan; D. A. Jerram; D. G. Chertkoff; J. P. Davidson; D. G. Pearson; A. Kronz; G. M. Nowell

2007-01-01

234

Variations in Seismic Anisotropy with time on Volcanoes in Kyushu Island, Southern Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a newly developed automatic processing technique, we have calculated shear wave splitting on and near three active volcanoes in Kyushu, southern Japan (Aso, Unzen and Sakurajima). Shear wave splitting is considered to be caused by aligned cracks and microcracks. The polarisation of the first arriving phase, ?, gives a measure of the crack orientation, which is expected to align with the maximum principal stress. The delay time dt between the two phases depends upon the crack density and the path length. High quality measurements include the following: a) over 1700 from local events recorded and located near Aso Volcano between 2001 and 2008; b) over 2000 from local events recorded and located near Unzen volcano between 1988 and 1997 (spanning the most active period of seismic activity related to the large eruption in 1991); c) over 600 from regional events originating in the subducting Phillipine Sea plate recorded near Sakurajima volcano between 2003 and 2005, (during which time numerous small eruptions have occcurred, and GPS measurements have been modeled as caused by inflation of a Mogi source and a near-vertical crack). Most of the stations were located in boreholes or tunnels, providing excellent signals. Common features at all three volcanoes are that stations closest to the craters yield the fewest good measurements, and even those tend to give varying results at closely spaced stations. Scattering from the volcanic edifice may be making the S waves difficult to pick, and the local stresses may be varied. Stations on the volcanic flanks give many good measurements. Some stations yield variations in ? and dt that depend upon the earthquake location. But at each volcano, some stations show changes that are better explained by variations in time than in space. Where GPS measurements are available, the variations sometimes but not always correlate with previously-modeled inflation or deflation events. The temporal variations in ? are large, ranging from 30° at some stations to 90 ° at other stations. These results will allow us to test models of stress changes with time on the volcanoes.

Savage, M. K.; Ohkura, T.; Umakoshi, K.; Shimizu, H.; Kohno, Y.; Iguchi, M.; Wessel, A.; Mori, J.

2008-12-01

235

The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. (A) Natural color composite from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument aboard ENVISAT Satellite (European Space Agency), (November 9, 2011 at 14:45 UTC). Remote sensing data have been used to monitor the evolution of the volcanic emissions, playing a fundamental role during field cruises in guiding the Spanish government oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. The inset map shows the position of Canary Islands west of Africa and the study area (solid white box). (B) Location of the stations carried out from November 2011 to February 2012 at El Hierro. Black lines denote transects A-B and C-D.

Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.

2013-12-01

236

INVASION NOTE Range expansion of nonindigenous caribou in the Aleutian  

E-print Network

) 2012 Abstract Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are nonin- digenous to all but the eastern-most island are devoid of indigenous land mammals. However, introductions of caribou (Rangifer taran- dusINVASION NOTE Range expansion of nonindigenous caribou in the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska Mark A

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

237

Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and research opportunities for Russian and American students. AVO was a three-way partnership of the federal and state geological surveys and the state university from the start. This was not a flowering of ecumenism but was rather at the insistence of the Alaska congressional delegation. Such shared enterprises are not managerially convenient, but they do bring a diversity of roles, thinking, and expertise that would not otherwise be possible. Through AVO, the USGS performs its federally mandated role in natural hazard mitigation and draws on expertise available from its network of volcano observatories. The Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys performs a similar role at the state level and, in the tradition of state surveys, provides important public communications, state data base, and mapping functions. The University of Alaska Fairbanks brought seismological, remote sensing, geodetic, petrological, and physical volcanological expertise, and uniquely within US academia was able to engage students directly in volcano observatory activities. Although this "model" cannot be adopted in total elsewhere, it has served to point the USGS Volcano Hazards Program in a direction of greater openness and inclusiveness.

Eichelberger, J. C.

2008-12-01

238

A Summary of the History and Achievements of the Alaska Volcano Observatory.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands, Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands present a serious threat to aviation on routes from North America to the Far East. On March 27, 1986, an eruption of Augustine Volcano deposited ash over Anchorage and disrupted air traffic in south-central Alaska. The consequences of the colocation of an active volcano and the largest city in Alaska were clearly evident. That event led to a three-way partnership between the US Geological Survey, the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute and the Alaska State Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys that now maintains a continuous watch through ground instrumentation and satellite imagery providing data from which warnings of eruptions can be issued to airline operators and pilots. The eruption of Redoubt Volcano in December 1989 was AVO's first big test. It spewed volcanic ash to a height of 14,000 m (45,000 feet) and managed to catch KLM 867, a Boeing 747 aircraft in its plume under dark conditions while approaching Anchorage Airport. Further details of the early days of the Alaska Volcano Observatory will be described, along with its recent successes and challenges.

Smith, R. W.

2008-12-01

239

Boron isotopic composition of fumarolic condensates from some volcanoes in Japanese island arcs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boron samples from 40 fumarolic condensates from volcanoes in the Ryukyu arc (Satsuma Iwo-jima and Shiratori Iwo-yama) and the North-east Japan arc (Usu-shinzan, Showa-shinzan, Esan and Issaikyo-yama) all have 11B /10B ratios close to 4.07. Higher values, from 4.09 to 4.13, were only observed in condensates from volcanoes in the southernmost end of the North-east Japan arc (Nasu-dake), the northern part of the Izu-Bonin arc (Hakone), and the North Mariana arc (Ogasawara Iwo-jima). These higher values suggest geological interaction of the magmas with sea-water enriched in 11B.

Nomura, Masao; Kanzaki, Tadao; Ozawa, Takejiro; Okamoto, Makoto; Kakihana, Hidetake

1982-11-01

240

The submarine eruption of the Bombarda volcano, Milos Island, Cyclades, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Milos volcanic field includes a well-exposed volcaniclastic succession which records a long history of submarine explosive\\u000a volcanism. The Bombarda volcano, a rhyolitic monogenetic center, erupted ?1.7 Ma at a depth <200 m below sea level. The aphyric\\u000a products are represented by a volcaniclastic apron (up to 50 m thick) and a lava dome. The apron is composed of pale

M. Rinaldi; M. Campos Venuti

2003-01-01

241

Combining CSD and isotopic microanalysis: Magma supply and mixing processes at Stromboli Volcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating isotopic microanalysis with other analytical techniques creates powerful new methodologies for understanding the evolution of rock samples at the sub-grain scale. Here we present Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) data for a 26,000 year old sample from Stromboli Volcano and accompanying isotopic microanalysis of the phenocrysts. A technique, called the ICSD plot, is introduced which given stated assumptions allows the integration

D. J. Morgan; D. A. Jerram; D. G. Chertkoff; J. P. Davidson; D. G. Pearson; A. Kronz; G. M. Nowell

2007-01-01

242

O-saturated island arc low-K tholeiite magmas: a case study of the Izu-Oshima volcano in the Izu arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Island arc low-K tholeiites are basaltic magmas erupting from frontal arc volcanoes of juvenile arcs associated with the subduction of old and cold plates. We investigated the origins of geochemical variation in volcanic rocks having multiple phase saturated liquid compositions from the Izu-Oshima volcano in the northern Izu arc. The geochemical variations in the liquids fall between two endmember trends, namely higher- and lower-Al/Si trends. Polybaric differentiation of H2O-saturated melts between a 4-km-deep magma chamber and degassed melts near the surface should be responsible for the observed variation in the liquids.

Hamada, Morihisa; Okayama, Yuko; Kaneko, Takayuki; Yasuda, Atsushi; Fujii, Toshitsugu

2014-12-01

243

75 FR 69601 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Central Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in the Central Aleutian District of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI) by vessels participating in the BSAI trawl limited access fishery. This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 allocation of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to vessels participating in the BSAI trawl limited access......

2010-11-15

244

Aleutian goose's rebound a problem  

E-print Network

Aleutian goose's rebound a problem for agriculture Glen Martin, Chronicle Environment Writer Sunday of Aleutian geese, a bird long known as one of America's most endangered species. Mitch Farro and Dave Steiner, and the birds dipped lower. As they cupped their wings and prepared to settle on the pond, Steiner fired

Johnson, Matthew

245

Variations in Melt Generation and Migration along the Aleutian Arc (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation and ascent of mantle melt beneath volcanic arcs sets the course for how magmas differentiate to form the continental crust and erupt explosively from volcanoes. Although the basic framework of melting at subduction zones is understood to involve the convective influx of hot mantle (Tp ? 1300°C) and advective transport of water-rich fluids from the subducting slab, the P-T paths that melts follow during melt generation and migration are still not well known. The Aleutian Arc provides an opportunity to explore the conditions of mantle melting in the context of volcanoes that span an unusually large range in the depth to the slab, from Seguam island, with among the shallowest depths to the slab worldwide (~65 km, [1]) to Bogoslof island, behind the main volcanic front and twice the depth to the slab (~130 km). Here we combine thermal models tuned to Aleutian subduction parameters [after 2] with petrological estimates of the T and P of mantle-melt equilibration, using a major element geothermometer [3] and estimates of H2O and fO2 from olivine-hosted melt inclusion measurements [4] for basaltic magmas from 6 volcanoes in the central Aleutians (Korovin, Seguam, Bogoslof, Pakushin, Akutan, Shishaldin). We find mantle-melt equilibration conditions to vary systematically as a function of the depth to the slab, from 30 km and 1220°C (for Seguam) to 60 km and 1300°C (for Bogoslof). Such shallow depths, which extend up to the Moho, define a region perched well above the hot core of the mantle wedge predicted from thermal models, even considering the shallow depths of slab-mantle coupling (< 60 km) required to supply hot mantle beneath Seguam. Thus, even though the greatest melt production will occur in the hot core of the wedge (50-100 km depth), melts apparently ascend and re-equilibrate in the shallowest mantle. Volcanoes that overlie the greatest depth to the slab, and lie furthest from the wedge corner, stall at greater depths (~60 km), at the base of the conductive upper plate (i.e., lithosphere). The conductive lid and isotherms shallow toward the wedge corner. This leads to shallower depths of melt equilibration at shallower depths to the slab. A second effect is infiltration of melt into the thinning lithosphere, likely due to the increase in strain-rate toward the wedge corner, which favors melt segregation, migration, and shallow equilibration [5]. Such a process is developed most beneath Seguam, where melts collect at the Moho (~ 30km), but are still > 1200°C. Such equilibration depths in the uppermost mantle (30-60 km) and temperatures typical of the base of the conductive lid appear to characterize most modeled primary arc magmas [6], and point to a final re-setting point in the mantle that controls the composition of bulk arc crust. [1] Syracuse & Abers, 2006, G3. [2] Syracuse, van Keken, Abers, (2010) PEPI. [3] Lee, Luffi, Plank, Dalton, Leeman (2009) EPSL. [4] Zimmer et al. (2010) J.Pet. [5] Holzman & Kendall (2010). [6] Ruscitto et al. (2012) G3.

Plank, T. A.; Van Keken, P. E.

2013-12-01

246

IESID: Automatic system for monitoring ground deformation on the Deception Island volcano (Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When establishing the relative distance between two GNSS-GPS stations with sub-centimeter accuracy, it is necessary to have auxiliary data, some of which can only be collected some time after the moment of measurement. However, for monitoring highly-active geodynamic areas, such as volcanoes and landslides, data precision is not as essential as rapid availability, processing of data in real-time, and fast interpretation of the results. This paper describes the development of an integrated automatic system for monitoring volcanic deformation in quasi real-time, applied to the Deception volcano (Antarctica). This experimental system integrates two independent modules that enable researchers to monitor and control the status of the GNSS-GPS stations, and to determine a surface deformation parameter. It comprises three permanent stations, one of which serves as the reference for assessing the relative distance in relation to the other two. The availability of GNSS-GPS data in quasi real-time is achieved by means of a WiFi infrastructure and automated data processing. This system provides, in quasi real-time, a time series of varying distances that tells us the extent to which any ground deformation is taking place.

Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Páez, Raúl; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; de Gil, Amós

2012-11-01

247

Assessment of the exposure of islanders to ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, British West Indies  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: The Soufriere Hills volcano, Montserrat, has been erupting since July 1995 and volcanic ash has fallen on the island throughout most of the eruption. The ash contains substantial quantities of respirable particles and unusually large amounts (15–20%) of the crystalline silica mineral, cristobalite. The purpose of the surveys described here, undertaken between December 1996 and April 2000, was to determine levels of personal exposure of islanders to volcanic ash and cristobalite in order to inform advice on the associated risks to health and the measures required to reduce exposure. Methods: Surveys of personal exposure to respirable dust and cristobalite were undertaken using cyclone samplers. In addition, direct reading instruments (DUSTTRAK) were used to monitor ambient air concentrations of PM10 at fixed sites and also to provide information about exposures to airborne particles associated with selected activities. Results: Environmental concentrations of airborne ash have been greatest in the areas where the most ash has been deposited and during dry weather. Individual exposure to airborne ash was related to occupation, with the highest exposures among gardeners, cleaners, roadworkers, and police at roadside checkpoints. During 1997 many of these individuals were exposed to concentrations of cristobalite that exceeded the ACGIH recommended occupational exposure limit. Since the population became confined to the north of the island in October 1997, even those in relatively dusty occupations have received exposures to cristobalite well below this limit. Conclusions: Most of the 4500 people who have remained on island since the eruption began have not been exposed to sufficiently high concentrations of airborne dust for long enough to be at risk of developing silicosis. However, more than a dozen individuals continued to experience frequent high occupational exposures to volcanic ash, some of whom may have had sufficient exposure to crystalline silica to be at risk of developing mild silicosis. If volcanic activity were to deposit further ash over the occupied areas of the island during the coming years, the risks of silicosis will become more substantial. PMID:12151608

Searl, A; Nicholl, A; Baxter, P

2002-01-01

248

The 1957 great Aleutian earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 9 March 1957 Aleutian earthquake has been estimated as the third largest earthquake this century and has the longest aftershock zone of any earthquake ever recorded—1200 km. However, due to a lack of high-quality seismic data, the actual source parameters for this earthquake have been poorly determined. We have examined all the available waveform data to determine the seismic moment, rupture area, and slip distribution. These data include body, surface and tsunami waves. Using body waves, we have estimated the duration of significant moment release as 4 min. From surface wave analysis, we have determined that significant moment release occurred only in the western half of the aftershock zone and that the best estimate for the seismic moment is 50 100×1020 Nm. Using the tsunami waveforms, we estimated the source area of the 1957 tsunami by backward propagation. The tsunami source area is smaller than the aftershock zone and is about 850 km long. This does not include the Unalaska Island area in the eastern end of the aftershock zone, making this area a possible seismic gap and a possible site of a future large or great earthquake. We also inverted the tsunami waveforms for the slip distribution. Slip on the 1957 rupture zone was highest in the western half near the epicenter. Little slip occurred in the eastern half. The moment is estimated as 88×1020 Nm, or M w =8.6, making it the seventh largest earthquake during the period 1900 to 1993. We also compare the 1957 earthquake to the 1986 Andreanof Islands earthquake, which occurred within a segment of the 1957 rupture area. The 1986 earthquake represents a rerupturing of the major 1957 asperity.

Johnson, Jean M.; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Ruff, Larry J.; Satake, Kenji; Kanamori, Hiroo; Sykes, Lynn R.

1994-03-01

249

Gaseous transport and deposition of gold in magmatic fluid: evidence from the active Kudryavy volcano, Kurile Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of gold in high-temperature fumarole gases of the Kudryavy volcano (Kurile Islands) was measured for gas, gas condensate, natural fumarolic sublimates, and precipitates in silica tubes from vents with outlet temperatures ranging from 380 to 870°C. Gold abundance in condensates ranges from 0.3 to 2.4 ppb, which is significantly lower than the abundances of transition metals. Gold contents in zoned precipitates from silica tubes increase gradually with a decrease in temperature to a maximum of 8 ppm in the oxychloride zone at a temperature of approximately 300°C. Total Au content in moderate-temperature sulfide and oxychloride zones is mainly a result of Au inclusions in the abundant Fe-Cu and Zn sulfide minerals as determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Most Au occurs as a Cu-Au-Ag triple alloy. Single grains of native gold and binary Au-Ag alloys were also identified among sublimates, but aggregates and crystals of Cu-Au-Ag alloy were found in all fumarolic fields, both in silica tube precipitates and in natural fumarolic crusts. Although the Au triple alloy is homogeneous on the scale of microns and has a composition close to (Cu,Ni,Zn)3(Au,Ag)2, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that these alloy solid solutions consist of monocrystal domains of Au-Ag, Au-Cu, and possibly Cu2O. Gold occurs in oxide assemblages due to the decomposition of its halogenide complexes under high-temperature conditions (650-870°C). In lower temperature zones (<650°C), Au behavior is related to sulfur compounds whose evolution is strongly controlled by redox state. Other minerals that formed from gas transport and precipitation at Kudryavy volcano include garnet, aegirine, diopside, magnetite, anhydrite, molybdenite, multivalent molybdenum oxides (molybdite, tugarinovite, and ilsemannite), powellite, scheelite, wolframite, Na-K chlorides, pyrrhotite, wurtzite, greenockite, pyrite, galena, cubanite, rare native metals (including Fe, Cr, Mo, Sn, Ag, and Al), Cu-Zn-Fe-In sulfides, In-bearing Pb-Bi sulfosalts, cannizzarite, rheniite, cadmoindite, and kudriavite. Although most of these minerals are fine-grained, they are strongly idiomorphic with textures such as gas channels and lamellar, banded, skeletal, and dendrite-like crystals, characteristic of precipitation from a gas phase. The identified textures and mineral assemblages at Kudryavy volcano can be used to interpret geochemical origins of both ancient and modern ore deposits, particularly gold-rich porphyry and related epithermal systems.

Yudovskaya, Marina A.; Distler, Vadim V.; Chaplygin, Ilya V.; Mokhov, Andrew V.; Trubkin, Nikolai V.; Gorbacheva, Sonya A.

2006-03-01

250

Magma storage and migration associated with the 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption: Implications for crustal magmatic systems at oceanic island volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in July 2011, anomalous seismicity was observed at El Hierro Island, a young oceanic island volcano. On 12 October 2011, the process led to the beginning of a submarine NW-SE fissural eruption at ~15 km from the initial earthquake loci, indicative of significant lateral magma migration. Here we conduct a multifrequency, multisensor interferometric analysis of spaceborne radar images acquired using three different satellite systems (RADARSAT-2, ENVISAT, and COSMO-SkyMed (Constellation of Small Satellites for Mediterranean Basin Observation)). The data fully captures both the pre-eruptive and coeruptive phases. Elastic modeling of the ground deformation is employed to constrain the dynamics associated with the magmatic activity. This study represents the first geodetically constrained active magmatic plumbing system model for any of the Canary Islands volcanoes, and one of the few examples of submarine volcanic activity to date. Geodetic results reveal two spatially distinct shallow (crustal) magma reservoirs, a deeper central source (9.5 ± 4.0 km), and a shallower magma reservoir at the flank of the southern rift (4.5 ± 2.0 km). The deeper source was recharged, explaining the relatively long basaltic eruption, contributing to the observed island-wide uplift processes, and validating proposed active magma underplating. The shallowest source may be an incipient reservoir that facilitates fractional crystallization as observed at other Canary Islands. Data from this eruption supports a relationship between the depth of the shallow crustal magmatic systems and the long-term magma supply rate and oceanic lithospheric age. Such a relationship implies that a factor controlling the existence/depth of shallow (crustal) magmatic systems in oceanic island volcanoes is the lithosphere thermomechanical behavior.

González, Pablo J.; Samsonov, Sergey V.; Pepe, Susi; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Tizzani, Pietro; Casu, Francesco; Fernández, José; Camacho, Antonio G.; Sansosti, Eugenio

2013-08-01

251

Slope instability induced by volcano-tectonics as an additional source of hazard in active volcanic areas: the case of Ischia island (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ischia is an active volcanic island in the Gulf of Naples whose history has been dominated by a caldera-forming eruption (ca.\\u000a 55 ka) and resurgence phenomena that have affected the caldera floor and generated a net uplift of about 900 m since 33 ka.\\u000a The results of new geomorphological, stratigraphical and textural investigations of the products of gravitational movements\\u000a triggered by volcano-tectonic events

Marta Della Seta; Enrica Marotta; Giovanni Orsi; Sandro de Vita; Fabio Sansivero; Paola Fredi

2011-01-01

252

The 1976–1982 Strombolian and phreatomagmatic eruptions of White Island, New Zealand: eruptive and depositional mechanisms at a ‘wet’ volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

White Island is an active andesitic-dacitic composite volcano surrounded by sea, yet isolated from sea water by chemically sealed zones that confine a long-lived acidic hydrothermal system, within a thick sequence of fine-grained volcaniclastic sediment and ash. The rise of at least 106 m3 of basic andesite magma to shallow levels and its interaction with the hydrothermal system resulted in

B F Houghton; I A Nairn

1991-01-01

253

Volcanogenic fluorine in rainwater around active degassing volcanoes: Mt. Etna and Stromboli Island, Italy.  

PubMed

Many studies have assessed the strong influence of volcanic activity on the surrounding environment. This is particularly true for strong gas emitters such as Mt. Etna and Stromboli volcanoes. Among volcanic gases, fluorine compounds are potentially very harmful. Fluorine cycling through rainwater in the above volcanic areas was studied analysing more than 400 monthly bulk samples. Data indicate that only approximately 1% of fluorine emission through the plume is deposited on the two volcanic areas by meteoric precipitations. Although measured bulk rainwater fluorine fluxes are comparable to and sometimes higher than in heavily polluted areas, their influence on the surrounding vegetation is limited. Only annual crops, in fact, show some damage that could be an effect of fluorine deposition, indicating that long-living endemic plant species or varieties have developed some kind of resistance. PMID:12493195

Bellomo, S; D'Alessandro, W; Longo, M

2003-01-01

254

Edifice growth, deformation and rift zone development in basaltic setting: Insights from Piton de la Fournaise shield volcano (Réunion Island)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall morphology of basaltic volcanoes mainly depends on their eruptive activity (effusive vs. explosive), the geometry of the rift zones and the characteristics of both endogenous and exogenous growth processes. The origin of the steep geometry of the central cone of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, which is unusual for a basaltic effusive volcano, and its deformation are examined

Laurent Michon; Valérie Cayol; Ludovic Letourneur; Aline Peltier; Nicolas Villeneuve; Thomas Staudacher

2009-01-01

255

Geomorphic evolution of the Piton des Neiges volcano (Réunion Island, Indian Ocean): Competition between volcanic construction and erosion since 1.4 Ma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Réunion Island (Indian Ocean) is a volcanic complex whose eruptive history was dominated by the activity of two main edifices: Piton des Neiges (PN) and Piton de la Fournaise (PF) volcanoes. The tropical climate induces erosion processes that permanently compete with volcanic constructional processes. Exposed to the trade winds and associated heavy rainfalls, the northeastern part of the island exhibits the most complex morphological evolution. Geomorphological analysis, performed on a 50 m DEM and associated to new K-Ar ages has clarified the overall history of PN volcano. Each massif is assigned to one of the main building stages of the edifice. In addition, the arrangement of these different massifs reveals that the eruptive phases have led to successive relief inversions and successive excavations of large central depressions in the proximal area. As a result, the younger massifs are always located in more proximal parts of the volcano, the youngest being close to the edifice center. In distal areas, early lava flows were channeled into valleys incised along the massif boundaries, leading to a more complex geochronological organization. Quantitative study of the dissection of PN volcano allows us to propose a minimum eroded volume of 101 ± 44 and 105 ± 41 km 3 for the Mafate and Cilaos "Cirques" (depressions), respectively, during the last 180 kyr and a minimum average long-term erosion rate of 1.2 ± 0.4 km 3/ka. This leads us to estimate the removed volume during the whole history of PN volcano (> 1000 km 3) as equivalent to the volume of the deposits identified on the submarine flanks of Piton des Neiges volcano. Therefore, as regressive erosion appears to be the prevailing geomorphic process during the whole PN history, it questions the presence of major flank collapses younger than 1.4 Ma on this volcano. Erosion processes have largely been neglected in recent models, but our study emphasizes them as a key component of landscape development and a major process in the morphological evolution of Réunion Island that has to be fully integrated in future studies.

Salvany, Tiffany; Lahitte, Pierre; Nativel, Pierre; Gillot, Pierre-Yves

2012-01-01

256

Long- and short-term temporal variations of the diffuse CO2 emission from Timanfaya volcano, Lanzarote, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lanzarote Island is an emergent part of the East Canary Ridge and it is situated approximately 100 km from the NW coast of Morocco, covering an area of about 795km2. The largest historical eruption of the Canary Islands, Timanfaya, took place during 1730-36 in this island when long-term eruptions from a NE-SW-trending fissure formed the Montañas del Fuego. The last eruption at Lanzarote Island occurred during 1824, Tinguaton volcano, and produced a much smaller lava flow that reached the SW coast. At present, one of the most prominent phenomena at Timanfaya volcanic field is the high maintained superficial temperatures occurring in the area since the 1730 volcanic eruption. The maximum temperatures recorded in this zone are 605°C, taken in a slightly inclined well 13 m deep. Since fumarolic activity is absent at the surface environment of Lanzarote, to study the diffuse CO2 emission becomes an ideal geochemical tool for monitoring its volcanic activity. Soil CO2 efflux surveys were conducted throughout Timanfaya volcanic field and surrounding areas during the summer periods of 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, fall period of 2010 and winter, spring and summer periods of 2011 to investigate long and short-term temporal variations of the diffuse CO2 emission from Timanfaya volcano. Soil CO2 efflux surveys were undertaken at Timanfaya volcanic field always under stable weather conditions to minimize effects of meteorological conditions on the CO2 at the soil atmosphere. Approximately 370-430 sampling sites were selected at the surface environment of Timanfaya to obtain an even distribution of the sampling points over the study area. The accumulation chamber method (Parkinson et al., 1981) was used to perform soil CO2 efflux measurements in-situ by means of a portable non dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO2 analyzer, which was interfaced to a hand size computer that runs data acquisition software. At each sampling site, soil temperature at 15 and 40cm depth was also measured by means of a thermocouple together with soil gas samples collected during the campaign of 2010 to evaluate the chemical and isotopic composition of soil gases. Diffuse CO2 emission values have ranged between non detectable values to 34 g m-2 d-1, and most of the study area have shown relatively low values, around the detection limit of the instrument (~0,5 g m-2 d-1). Higher soil CO2 diffuse emission values were observed where thermal anomalies occur, indicating a convective mechanism transport of gas from depth at these areas. Total CO2 outputs of the study area have been estimated in the range 41-518 t d-1 during the study period. Long-term temporal variation on total CO2 diffuse emission shows a peak recorded on winter 2011, suggesting a seasonal control on the CO2 emission. As part of the volcanic surveillance program and to understand the dynamics of CO2 diffuse emission at Timanfaya volcanic zone, an automatic geochemical station was installed in July 2010 to monitor the CO2 emission and investigate the short-term temporal variation. Time series of soil CO2 efflux shows also a close relationship with seasonal changes mainly due to rainfall.

Hernández, P. A.; Padilla, G.; Calvo, D.; Padrón, E.; Melian, G.; Dionis, S.; Nolasco, D.; Barrancos, J.; Rodríguez, F.; Pérez, N.

2012-04-01

257

The role of slab melting in the petrogenesis of high-Mg andesites: evidence from Simbo Volcano, Solomon Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The petrogenesis of high-Mg andesites (HMA) in subduction zones involves shallow melting of refractory mantle sources or, alternatively, the interaction of ascending slab-derived melts with mantle peridotite. To unravel the petrogenesis of HMA, we report major, trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope data for a newly found occurrence of HMA in the New Georgia group, Solomon Islands, SW-Pacific. Volcanism in the Solomon Islands was initiated by subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Indian-Australian plate until a reversal of subduction polarity occurred ca. 10 Ma ago. Currently, the Indian-Australian plate is subducted northeastwards along the San Cristobál trench, forming the younger and still active southwestern Solomon island arc. However, a fossil slab of Pacific crust is still present beneath the arc. The edifice of the active volcano Simbo is located directly in the San Cristobál trench on top of the subducting Indian-Australian plate. Simbo Island lies on top of a strike-slip fault of the adjacent Woodlark spreading centre that is subducted beneath the Pacific plate. Geochemical and petrological compositions of volcanic rocks from Simbo are in marked contrast to those of volcanic rocks from islands north of the trench (mostly arc basalts). Simbo-type rocks are opx-bearing HMA, displaying 60-62 wt% SiO2 but rather primitive Mg-Ni-Cr characteristics with 4-6 wt% MgO, up to 65 ppm Ni, up to 264 ppm Cr and Mg# from 67 to 75. The compositions of the Simbo andesites are explained by a binary mixture of silicic and basaltic melts. Relict olivine phenocrysts with Fo88-90 and reaction-rims of opx also support a mixing model. The basaltic endmember is similar to back-arc basalts from the Woodlark Ridge. A slab melt affinity of the silicic mixing component is indicated by Gd(N)/Yb(N) of up to 2.2 that is higher if compared to MORB and other arc basalts from the Solomon Islands. 87Sr/86Sr, ?Nd and ?Hf values in the analysed rocks range from 0.7035 to 0.7040, +6.4 to +7.9 and +12 to +14.4, respectively. These values reveal the presence of the Indian-Australian mantle domain beneath Simbo (i.e. the Indian-Australian plate) and also beneath all other volcanic islands of the New Georgia group, which are located north of the San Cristobál trench. 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb values (18.43-18.52, 15.49-15.55 and 18.13-18.34, respectively) confirm the presence of slab melts from the subducted Pacific plate beneath southern Simbo where the highest Gd(N)/Yb(N) ratios are reported. A spatial shift towards an Indian-Australian slab signature is observed when approaching the active San Cristobál trench on northern Simbo, reflecting the decreasing influence of slab melts from the old subducted Pacific plate.

König, S.; Schuth, S.; Münker, C.; Qopoto, C.

2007-01-01

258

SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE ILIAMNA VOLCANO, ALASKA, USING ASTER TIR, SRTM DEM, AND AEROMAGNETIC DATA  

E-print Network

SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE ILIAMNA VOLCANO, ALASKA, USING ASTER TIR, SRTM DEM and digital elevation models to create a hazard index that characterizes slope stability on active volcanoes. Introduction Volcano monitoring in the Aleutians is of great importance due to the heavy amount of airplane

259

Extreme Spatial Variability in Microbial Mat Communities from Submarine Hydrothermal Vents Located at Multiple Volcanoes along the Mariana Island Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic arc systems are the most active tectonic feature in the world, but are among the least studied. The Western Pacific contains ~20,000 km of volcanic arcs, of which only ~2% have been systematically surveyed. The lack of comprehensive knowledge of volcanic arcs is compounded by the incredible variability found in relatively short distances. The complex source history of hydrothermal fluids and the variable depths of seamounts found in island arc systems result in highly variable vent chemistries and therefore unique microbial habitats within relatively short distances. The Mariana Island Arc was surveyed in 2003 and areas with suspected hydrothermal activities were identified for targeted remote operating vehicle (ROV) exploration and sampling in 2004. Sixteen microbial mat samples from five seamounts ranging from 145-1742 mbsl and from ambient to 222°C were collected and analyzed with quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), cluster analysis of terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community fingerprints, and by clone library analysis of small subunit ribosomal rDNA genes. The microbial mat communities from the Mariana Island Arc exhibit greater spatial variability within their community structure than microbial mats sampled from mid-ocean ridge or hotspot hydrothermal vents from a comparable scale. Microbial communities from the summit of NW Eifuku Volcano are dominated by putative iron-oxidizing phylotypes at the Yellow Top and Yellow Cone Vent sites, but are dominated by sulfur-oxidizing ?-Proteobacteria at the Champagne Vent site. Mats collected at the Mat City Vent site on E Diamante Seamount contained nearly three times as much biomass as any other mat sample collected, and is dominated by a Planctomyces phylotype. Hydrothermal sediments at the Fish Spa site located on Daikoku Seamount contained the second highest biomass detected and supported a large community of flatfish indicating a direct route for biomass being channeled up the food chain. The microbial community at Fish Spa consists of a highly diverse assemblage of Bacteroidetes, ?-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. While in contrast, the microbial mat at the Iceberg Vent site on NW Rota I is dominated by a single phylotype of ?-Proteobacteria.

Davis, R. E.; Moyer, C. L.

2005-12-01

260

Spatio-temporal evolution of a dispersed magmatic system and its implications for volcano growth, Jeju Island Volcanic Field, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jeju Island is the emergent portion of a basaltic volcanic field developed over the last c. 1.8 Ma on continental crust. Initial volcanism comprised dispersed, small-volume (< 0.01 km3) alkali basaltic eruptions that incrementally constructed a tuff pile. Lavas and scoria from continuing small-scaled monogenetic volcanism capped this foundation. From c. 0.4 Ma large-volume (> 1 km3) eruptions began, with lavas building a composite shield. Three magma suites can be recognized: Early Pleistocene high-Al alkali (HAA), and Late Pleistocene to Holocene low-Al alkali (LAA) and subalkali (SA). The chemical similarity between small-volume and primitive large-volume eruptions suggests analogous parent magmas and fractionation histories that are independent of erupted volumes. The large-volume magmas evolved to trachyte, which erupted in two distinct episodes: the HAA Sanbangsan suite at c. 750 ka and the LAA Hallasan suite at c. 25 ka. Sr and Nd isotopes indicate that the early trachytes were contaminated by upper crustal material, whereas the later magmas were not. Both suites bear a Nd isotope signature indicative of lower crustal interaction. Sub-suites transitional between HAA and LAA, and between LAA and SA, indicate that melting occurred in discrete, but adjacent, mantle domains. Throughout the evolution of this volcano, each magma batch erupted separately, and a centralized plumbing system was never created. The Island's central peak (Mt. Halla 1950 m a.s.l.) is therefore not a sensu stricto stratovolcano, but marks the point of peak magma output in a distributed magmatic system. Jeju's shape and topography thus represent the spatial variation of fertility of the mantle below it. An increase in melt production in the Late Pleistocene was related to a deepening of the melting zone due to regional tectonic rearrangements. Temporal coincidences between magmatic pulses on Jeju and large-scale caldera eruptive events along the nearest subduction system in Kyushu, Japan, suggest that tectonic extension and changing strain rates may drive volcanism on a regional basis, influencing the intraplate volcanism of Jeju Island.

Brenna, Marco; Cronin, Shane J.; Smith, Ian E. M.; Sohn, Young Kwan; Maas, Roland

2012-09-01

261

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and harlequin ducks (Histronicus histronicus) in the Eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seaducks may be affected by harmful levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at seaports near the Arctic. As an indicator of exposure to PAHs, we measured hepatic enzyme 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) to determine cytochrome P4501A induction in Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and Harlequin ducks (Histronicus histronicus) from Unalaska, Popof, and Unga Islands (AK, USA) in 2002 and 2003. We measured PAHs and organic contaminants in seaduck prey samples and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in seaduck blood plasma to determine any relationship to EROD. Using Akaike's information criterion, species and site differences best explained EROD patterns: Activity was higher in Harlequin ducks than in Steller's eiders and higher at industrial than at nonindustrial sites. Site-specific concentrations of PAHs in blue mussels ([Mytilus trossilus] seaduck prey; PAH concentrations higher at Dutch Harbor, Unalaska, than at other sites) also was important in defining EROD patterns. Organochlorine compounds rarely were detected in prey samples. No relationship was found between polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in avian blood and EROD, which further supported inferences derived from Akaike's information criterion. Congeners were highest in seaducks from a nonindustrial or reference site, contrary to PAH patterns. To assist in interpreting the field study, 15 captive Steller's eiders were dosed with a PAH known to induce cytochrome P4501A. Dosed, captive Steller's eiders had definitive induction, but results indicated that wild Steller's eiders were exposed to PAHs or other inducing compounds at levels greater than those used in laboratory studies. Concentrations of PAHs in blue mussels at or near Dutch Harbor (???1,180-5,980 ng/g) approached those found at highly contaminated sites (???4,100-7,500 ng/g). ?? 2007 SETAC.

Miles, A. K.; Flint, P. L.; Trust, K. A.; Ricca, M. A.; Spring, S. E.; Arrieta, D. E.; Hollmen, T.; Wilson, B. W.

2007-01-01

262

BALD EAGLES AND SEA OTTERS IN THE ALEUTIAN ARCHIPELAGO: INDIRECT EFFECTS OF TROPHIC CASCADES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994

Robert G. Anthony; James A. Estes; Mark A. Ricca; A. Keith Miles; Eric D. Forsman

2008-01-01

263

Egg production rates of the neritic marine copepod Acartia tumida Willey in the Aleutian Archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acartia tumida, a neritic copepod of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, is an unusually large member of its genus, adult females measuring 2.0–2.4 mm in total length. In the summers of 1986 and 1987 we investigated egg production of A. tumida in nearshore habitats of several islands in the Aleutian Island chain. A. tumida was found within

R. Patrick Hassett; David O. Duggins; Charles A. Simenstad

1993-01-01

264

Volcano Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volcano Live contains maps of volcanoes from around the world, a kids' page that provides volcano education links for teachers and students, a volcano glossary, volcano news, links to live video cams of volcanoes, geography and volcano information of countries around the world, and video clips of active volcanoes. There is also information for travelling to volcanoes, a volcano photo section, a section on the destruction of Pompeii, a volcanology section, and volcano safety rules.

Seach, John

265

A biomonitoring plan for assessing potential radionuclide exposure using Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska as a case study.  

PubMed

With the ending of the Cold War, the US and other nations were faced with a legacy of nuclear wastes. For some sites where hazardous nuclear wastes will remain in place, methods must be developed to protect human health and the environment. Biomonitoring is one method of assessing the status and trends of potential radionuclide exposure from nuclear waste sites, and of providing the public with early warning of any potential harmful exposure. Amchitka Island (51 degrees N lat, 179 degrees E long) was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. Following a substantive study of radionuclide levels in biota from the marine environment around Amchitka and a reference site, we developed a suite of bioindicators (with suggested isotopes) that can serve as a model for other sites contaminated with radionuclides. Although the species selection was site-specific, the methods can provide a framework for other sites. We selected bioindicators using five criteria: (1) occurrence at all three test shots (and reference site), (2) receptor groups (subsistence foods, commercial species, and food chain nodes), (3) species groups (plants, invertebrates, fish, and birds), (4) trophic levels, and (5) an accumulator of one or several radionuclides. Our major objective was to identify bioindicators that could serve for both human health and the ecosystem, and were abundant enough to collect adjacent to the three test sites and at the reference site. Site-specific information on both biota availability and isotope levels was essential in the final selection of bioindicators. Actinides bioaccumulated in algae and invertebrates, while radiocesium accumulated in higher trophic level birds and fish. Thus, unlike biomonitoring schemes developed for heavy metals or other contaminants, top-level predators are not sufficient to evaluate potential radionuclide exposure at Amchitka. The process described in this paper resulted in the selection of Fucus, Alaria fistulosa, blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus), dolly varden (Salvelinus malma), black rockfish (Sebastes melanops), Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), and glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) as bioindicators. This combination of species included mainly subsistence foods, commercial fish, and nodes on different food chains. PMID:17683832

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, D S; Powers, Charles W

2007-01-01

266

2009 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest, and reports of unusual activity at or near eight separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2009. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Redoubt Volcano, one of three active volcanoes on the western side of Cook Inlet and near south-central Alaska's population and commerce centers, which comprise about 62 percent of the State's population of 710,213 (2010 census). AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at ten volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Girina, Olga A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander

2014-01-01

267

Lead isotopes behavior in the fumarolic environment of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Réunion Island)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent activity of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano offers a rare opportunity to address the issue of Pb isotope behavior in volcanic fumaroles, as the composition of the degassing source is accurately and precisely known. Gas sublimates formed between 2007 and 2011 at temperature ranging from 400 to ca. 100 °C include Na-K sulfate (aphthitalite), Ca-Cu sulfate (e.g., gypsum), Na sulfate (thenardite), Ca-Mg-Al-Fe fluoride (e.g., ralstonite) and native sulfur. The high-temperature deposits show trace element patterns typical of volcanic gas (with Pb concentration up to 836 ppm) while the low-temperature deposits are depleted in most volatile elements (Pb <1 ppm) with the exception of Pd and Tl (in fluorides) and Se (in native sulfur). Only for low-temperature fluoride samples do Pb isotope compositions plot significantly outside the field of lavas. The isotopic shift is ascribed to leaching ubiquitous unradiogenic phases (e.g., sulfides) by acidic gas condensates. The similarity in Pb isotope signature between lavas and sublimate samples more representative of the gas phase (sulfates) indicates that the net fractionation of Pb isotopes resulting from volatilization and condensation processes is smaller than the precision of Pb isotope measurements (better than 60 ppm/a.m.u.). The absence of net fractionation could result from negligible isotope fractionation during Pb volatilization followed by extensive condensation of gaseous Pb, with possibly significant isotopic fractionation at this stage. Although this scenario has to be refined by more direct measurement of the gas phase, and its general applicability tested, it suggests that a small fraction (<10%) of initially volatilized Pb ultimately escapes to the atmosphere, while the remaining dominant fraction is trapped in sublimates. As sublimates are rapidly dissolved and entrained by runoff, the fumarolic environment appears as a factory efficiently transferring isotopically unfractionated Pb from magmas towards the hydrological system and seawater. Resolving very small isotopic differences between magmas and their gaseous products remains an analytical challenge. High-precision Pb isotope measurements rest not only on instrumental performance but also on high-yield chemistry, as Pb isotopes drastically fractionate (800 ppm/a.m.u.) upon elution on anionic resin. For 50% Pb recovery, the estimated isotopic bias is plus or minus 60-80 ppm/a.m.u., depending on which of the early (isotopically light) or late (isotopically heavy) Pb fraction is lost.

Vlastélic, I.; Staudacher, T.; Deniel, C.; Devidal, J. L.; Devouard, B.; Finizola, A.; Télouk, P.

2013-01-01

268

The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory Akutan Alaskan Volcano Network Installation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During June and July of 2005, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) installed eight permanent GPS stations on Akutan Volcano, in the central Aleutian Islands of Alaska. PBO worked closely with the Alaska Volcano Observatory and the Magmatic Systems Site Selection working group to install stations with a spatial distribution to monitor and detect both short and long term volcanic deformation in response to magmatic intrusions at depth and magma migration through the volcano's conduit system. All eight of the GPS stations were installed by PBO field crews with helicopter support provided by Evergreen Helicopters and logistical support from the Trident Seafood Corporation, the City of Akutan, and the Akutan Corporation. Lack of roads and drivable trails on the remote volcanic island required that all equipment be transported to each site from the village of Akutan by slinging gear beneath the helicopter and internal loads. Each station installed on the volcano consists of a standard short braced GPS monument, two solar panels mounted to an inclined structure, and a six foot high Plaschem enclosure with two solar panels mounted to one of the inclined sides. Each Plaschem houses 24 6 volt batteries that power a Trimble NetRS GPS receiver and one or two Intuicom radios. Data from each GPS receiver is telemetered directly or through a repeater radio to a base station located in the village of Akutan that transmits the data over the internet to the UNAVCO data archive at ftp://data-out.unavco.or/pub/PBO_rinex where it is made freely available to the public.

Pauk, B.; Jackson, M.; Mencin, D.; Power, J.; Gallaher, W.; Basset, A.; Kore, K.; Hargraves, Z.; Peterson, T.

2005-12-01

269

K-Ar analyses of the post-caldera lavas of Bratan volcano in Bali Island, Indonesia — Ar isotope mass fractionation to light isotope enrichment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The post-caldera lavas of Bratan volcano in Bali Island, Indonesia were collected for whole rock chemical analyses and K-Ar analyses. Major and trace element chemistry shows that the lavas are basalts to andesites and typical of subduction-related tectonic setting. The 38Ar/36Ar ratios are 0.1851 ± 3-0.1875 ± 2 and the 40Ar/36Ar, 294.3 ± 0.3-301.6 ± 0.1, which strongly suggest that the mass fractionation to light isotope enrichment took place. The effect of the groundwater on magma is common on the basis of systematic mass fractionation of the atmospheric Ar enriched in lighter isotopes. This case was under the mass fractionation law analyzed numerically, giving the mass fractionation correction ages (14 ± 15, 31 ± 6, 55 ± 22, 66 ± 23, 94 ± 32 and 125 ± 51 ka) consistent with the volcano stratigraphy though the magma composition that changed frequently in time.

Ryu, Sunyoung; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Eizo; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Watanabe, Koichiro

2013-08-01

270

Phreatomagmatism driven by magma withdrawal at ';open system' volcanoes: contrasting cases of Kilauea and White Island (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transitions to phreatomagmatic explosions at persistent open-system volcanoes require special conditions. One trigger can be conduit wall failure possibly accompanying magma withdrawal, promoting bulk interaction between already fragmented wall rock, magmatic volatiles and/or magma. In all cases a prerequisite is the existence of significant subsurface void spaces, on length scales of hundreds of meters, in the upper portions of the conduit. These void spaces are often abandoned conduit segments from previous eruption cycles, loosely blocked near the surface with fragmental debris. We describe here three case studies where: 1) Collapse to depths of c. 200 m did not trigger mixing with magma but temporarily blocked a major flux of magmatic volatiles, causing a impulse transient vent-clearing explosion (Halemaumau crater, Kilauea 19 March 2008), 2) Collapse following Strombolian explosions creating a 330 m by 100 m crater accompanied by significant explosive interaction between failed blocks of unconsolidated wall rock hosting a high temperature geothermal system and the retreating basic andesite magma (White Island February 1978), 3) The subsidence and disappearance of a Kilauea lava lake was followed by wall collapse and deepening of the crater to below the water table, leading to an 17-day interval characterized by approximately 80 short-lived discrete explosions (Halemaumau, May 1924). These events demonstrate the complex influence of external factors such as strength of the wall rocks and hydrology on the form of the explosions and also a clear but often over-looked role for mechanically decoupled magmatic volatiles in otherwise phreatic/phreatomagmatic eruptions.

Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, D. A.; White, J. D.

2013-12-01

271

Nd- and Sr-isotopic compositions of lavas from the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs: implications for the origin of island arc melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nd- and Sr-isotopic data are reported for lavas from 23 submarine and 3 subaerial volcanoes in the northern Mariana and southern Volcano arcs. Values of ?Nd range from +2.4 to +9.5 whereas 87Sr/86Sr ranges from 0.70319 to 0.70392; these vary systematically between and sometimes within arc segments. The Nd-and Sr-isotopic compositions fall in the field of ocean island basalt (OIB) and extend along the mantle array. Lavas from the Volcano arc, Mariana Central Island Province and the southern part of the Northern Seamount Province have ?Nd to +10 and 87Sr/86Sr=0.7032 to 0.7039. These are often slightly displaced toward higher 87Sr/86Sr at similar ?Nd. In contrast, those lavas from the northern part of the Mariana Northern Seamount Province as far north as Iwo Jima show OIB isotopic characteristics, with ?Nd and 87Sr/86Sr=0.7035 to 0.7039. Plots of 87Sr/86Sr and ?Nd versus Ba/La and (La/Yb)n support a model in which melts from the Mariana and Volcano arcs are derived by mixing of OIB-type mantle (or melts therefrom) and a metasomatized MORB-type mantle (or melts therefrom). An alternate interpretation is that anomalous trends on the plots of Nd- and Sr-isotopic composition versus incompatible-element ratios, found in some S-NSP lavas, suggest that the addition of a sedimentary component may be locally superimposed on the two-component mixing of mantle end-members.

Lin, P. N.; Stern, R. J.; Morris, J.; Bloomer, S. H.

1990-09-01

272

Satellite monitoring of remote volcanoes improves study efforts in Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite monitoring of remote volcanoes is greatly benefitting the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), and last year's eruption of the Okmok Volcano in the Aleutian Islands is a good case in point. The facility was able to issue and refine warnings of the eruption and related activity quickly, something that could not have been done using conventional seismic surveillance techniques, since seismometers have not been installed at these locations.AVO monitors about 100 active volcanoes in the North Pacific (NOPAC) region, but only a handful are observed by costly and logistically complex conventional means. The region is remote and vast, about 5000 × 2500 km, extending from Alaska west to the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia (Figure 1). Warnings are transmitted to local communities and airlines that might be endangered by eruptions. More than 70,000 passenger and cargo flights fly over the region annually, and airborne volcanic ash is a threat to them. Many remote eruptions have been detected shortly after the initial magmatic activity using satellite data, and eruption clouds have been tracked across air traffic routes. Within minutes after eruptions are detected, information is relayed to government agencies, private companies, and the general public using telephone, fax, and e-mail. Monitoring of volcanoes using satellite image data involves direct reception, real-time monitoring, and data analysis. Two satellite data receiving stations, located at the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), are capable of receiving data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar orbiting satellites and from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipped satellites.

Dean, K.; Servilla, M.; Roach, A.; Foster, B.; Engle, K.

273

High Resolution, Pb Isotope Variability Within Historic Eruptions of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The range of time-scales over which ocean island basalt (OIB) magmatism taps different mantle heterogeneities is a fundamental dynamic of mantle plumes. The variability of long-lived radiogenic isotopes in OIB magmas erupted on time scales less than 100 years has been addressed primarily for Hawaiian magmas (e.g., Pietruszka et al., 2001). Similar data are relatively sparse for hot spots with low buoyancy fluxes. The Canary Islands have low eruption rates and have been historically active. The Cumbre Vieja volcano in southern La Palma, Canary Islands, has six, well-mapped, historic eruptions spanning the entire southern rift zone. We have investigated Pb isotope compositional variations expressed in magmas erupted in a series of events spanning 500 years (the 1480, 1585, 1677, 1712, 1949, and 1971 eruptions), and sampled in detail two of these events (the 1677 and 1712 eruptions) to document isotopic variability at the month to year time-scale as well as the 100-year time scale. Previous Pb isotope investigations of Cumbre Vieja did not reveal systematic variations (e.g., Marcantonio et al., 1995 and Ovchinnikova et al., 1995). With denser sampling (40 samples) and higher precision MC-ICP-MS analyses, we observe that radiogenic Pb isotope compositions over the 500 year eruptive history decrease systematically with time (206Pb/204Pb =19.669 -- 19.611, 207Pb/ 204Pb = 15.618 -- 15.602, 208Pb/204Pb = 39.530 -- 39.430). Detailed Pb isotope analyses of the 1677 and 1712 eruptions indicate isotopically homogeneous magmas within a single eruptive episode. However, samples from both the 1677 and 1712 eruptions display mineralogic evidence for magma mixing: 1677 samples include isotopically distinct gabbroic xenoliths, and both magmas have reversely- zoned clinopyroxene phenocrysts with corroded cores of Na-rich salite, and zoned overgrowths of Al-rich salite. With time, an increasing proportion of partial melt from a less radiogenic end-member within a heterogeneous plume explains the 500 year trend. Alternatively, higher level mixing of two magmas would require sequential recharge of a single magma chamber that feeds the entire rift zone. A single chamber is structurally unlikely, and not consistent with geochemical and petrographic trends (Klü gel, 1999). From the decompressing plume, batches of melt with homogeneous Pb isotope ratios are extracted periodically. To generate mineralogic disequilibrium, each batch must segregate into a zoned magma chamber or multiple, isolated pockets and differentiate at multiple levels. Prior to eruption, magma from these pockets may remix, producing reversely-zoned clinopyroxene phenocrysts. Isotopic homogeneity is preserved within a given magma batch. In the Canary Islands, the minimum time period for eruptive basalts to reflect resolvable mantle isotope heterogeneity is on the order of 50 - 100 years. A. Klügel, K. A. Hoernle, H.-U. Schmincke, J. D. L. White, J. Geophys. Res. 105(B3), 5997 (2000). F. Marcantonio, A. Zindler, T. R. Elliot, H. Staudigel, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 133, 397 (1995). G. V., Ovchinnikova, B. V., Belyatskii, I. M., Vasil'eva, L. K., Levsky, A. F., Grachev, V., Arana, I. J., Mitjavila, Petrologiya, 3, 195 (1995). A. J. Pietruszka, K. H. Rubin, M. O. Garcia, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 186, 15 (2001).

Locke, J. A.; Peterson, B. T.; Nelson, B. K.

2005-12-01

274

2008 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at seven separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2008. Significant explosive eruptions at Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes in July and August dominated Observatory operations in the summer and autumn. AVO maintained 24-hour staffing at the Anchorage facility from July 12 through August 28. Minor eruptive activity continued at Veniaminof and Cleveland Volcanoes. Observed volcanic unrest at Cook Inlet's Redoubt Volcano presaged a significant eruption in the spring of 2009. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at nine volcanoes in Russia as part of a collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Nuzhdaev, Anton A.; Chibisova, Marina

2011-01-01

275

2007 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2007. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Pavlof, one of Alaska's most frequently active volcanoes. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the autumn of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of steam and volcanic gas into 2007. Redoubt Volcano showed the first signs of the unrest that would unfold in 2008-09. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Dixon, James P.; Malik, Nataliya; Chibisova, Marina

2011-01-01

276

Flow-By-Flow Mapping on Fogo, Cape Verde Islands, Reveals Long Term Variations in Eruption Distributions and Volcanic Edifice Structure at a Shield-Stage Oceanic Island Volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most maps of large oceanic island shield volcanoes show the lava flows and scoria cones of individual historic and subhistoric eruptions as individual units but then resort to grouping older rocks into larger stratigraphic units. This grouping makes it difficult to characterize long-term progressive trends in volumes of individual eruptions and distributions of eruptive vents, but is commonly made necessary by poor exposure, limited compositional variation between individual eruptions, and burial of older by younger volcanic rocks. In contrast, work on Fogo, Cape Verde Islands has involved flow-by-flow mapping of rocks erupted over an extended period of tens of thousands of years, as part of the process of mapping the island and producing a 1:25 000 scale geological map for research and hazard management purposes. Around three-quarters of the island is characterized by low rainfall and limited vegetation cover, with erosion restricted to narrow gullies. Only in small areas on the windward side of the island do higher rainfall, thick vegetation and deeper erosion combine to prevent flow-by-flow mapping. The map of the island is accompanied by a rigorous representation of direct and inferred age relationships between lavas and scoria cones of different eruptions using a novel type of age correlation diagram. The time period covered by the flow-by-flow mapping includes both the final stages of growth of an older shield volcano (Monte Amarelo volcano) prior to its collapse and the subsequent growth of a new volcano (Cha das Caldeiras volcano). The latter forms a thick infill and summit cone within the Monte Amarelo collapse scar together with partial covering of the outer flanks of the Monte Amarelo volcano with a veneer of younger lavas and scoria cones. The erupted rocks are compositionally varied (ankaramitic nephelinites, basanites, tephrites) and often highly porphyritic. Petrographic criteria were therefore used to aid field mapping, define lithostratigraphic units and demonstrate systematic changes in compositions of erupted magmas through time. Some of these changes, particularly eruptions of ankaramitic magmas, coincide with similar sequences of volcano-structural changes that have occurred prior to the Monte Amarelo collapse and again during the Holocene (beginning around 11 000 years before present; Foeken et al, 2009). The flow-by-flow mapping approach has allowed reconstruction and comparison of the sequences of these structural changes, and thus provides insights into the inferred progressive destabilization of the eastern flank of Fogo during the Holocene, as well as into wide variations in eruption and resurfacing rates that have occurred on decade to century timescales in more recent times. Foeken, J.P.T., Day, S.J. & Stuart, F.M. (2009) Cosmogenic 3He exposure dating of the Quaternary basalts from Fogo, Cape Verdes: Implications for rift zone and magmatic reorganization. Quaternary Geology 4 (2009) 37 - 49.

Day, S. J.

2011-12-01

277

Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago.  

PubMed

We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (SigmaPCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (delta13C) or nitrogen (delta15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. PMID:17702538

Anthony, Robert G; Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Estes, James A

2007-09-01

278

Internal structure of the western flank of the Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands, from land  

E-print Network

Palma, Canary Islands, from land magnetotelluric imaging X. Garcia1,2 and A. G. Jones1 Received 9 March wasting is a natural part of the evolution of volcanic islands, where deformation and indications of flank on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands) provides an ideal setting to address fundamental questions about

Jones, Alan G.

279

An investigation of the distribution of eruptive products on the shield volcanoes of the western Galapagos Islands using remotely sensed data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent volcanic activity in the Galapagos Islands is concentrated on the two westernmost islands, Isla Isabela and Isla Fernandina. Difficult access has thus far prevented comprehensive geological field studies, so we examine the potential of remotely sensed data as a means of studying volcanic processes in the region. Volcan Wolf is used as an example of the analysis of SPOT HRV-1 data undertaken for each volcano. Landsat TM data are analyzed in an attempt to construct a relative age sequence for the recent eruptive activity on Isla Fernandina. No systematic variation in the surface reflectance of lava flows as a function of age could be detected with these data. Thus it was not possible to complete a study of the temporal distribution of volcanic activity.

Munro, Duncan C.; Rowland, Scott K.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Wilson, Lionel; Oviedo-Perez, Victor-Hugo

1991-01-01

280

At-sea observations of marine birds and their habitats before and after the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kasatochi volcano, an island volcano in the Aleutian chain, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. The resulting ash and pyroclastic flows blanketed the island, covering terrestrial habitats. We surveyed the marine environment surrounding Kasatochi Island in June and July of 2009 to document changes in abundance or distribution of nutrients, fish, and marine birds near the island when compared to patterns observed on earlier surveys conducted in 1996 and 2003. Analysis of SeaWiFS satellite imagery indicated that a large chlorophyll-a anomaly may have been the result of ash fertilization during the eruption. We found no evidence of continuing marine fertilization from terrestrial runoff 10 months after the eruption. At-sea surveys in June 2009 established that the most common species of seabirds at Kasatochi prior to the eruption, namely crested auklets (Aethia cristatella) and least auklets (Aethia pusilla) had returned to Kasatochi in relatively high numbers. Densities from more extensive surveys in July 2009 were compared with pre-eruption densities around Kasatochi and neighboring Ulak and Koniuji islands, but we found no evidence of an eruption effect. Crested and least auklet populations were not significantly reduced by the initial explosion and they returned to attempt breeding in 2009, even though nesting habitat had been rendered unusable. Maps of pre- and post-eruption seabird distribution anomalies indicated considerable variation, but we found no evidence that observed distributions were affected by the 2008 eruption. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

Drew, G.S.; Dragoo, D.E.; Renner, M.; Piatt, J.F.

2010-01-01

281

2006 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2006. A significant explosive eruption at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet marked the first eruption within several hundred kilometers of principal population centers in Alaska since 1992. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the fall of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of volcanic gas into 2007. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Manevich, Alexander; Rybin, Alexander

2008-01-01

282

Response of the shallow aquifer of the volcano-hydrothermal system during the recent crises at Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shallow thermal aquifer at Vulcano Island is strongly affected by deep volcanic fluids. The most significant variations were observed during the 1989-1996 crisis due to a large input of steam and acidic gases from depth. Besides chemical variations related to the input of deep fluids, the record of the water-table elevation at monitored wells has provided remarkable insights into the pressure conditions of the volcano-hydrothermal system. After the pressure drop due to the extensive vaporization of the hydrothermal aquifer, occurred after 1993, the volcano-hydrothermal system has been re-pressurized since 2001, probably because of the contribution of volatiles from the hydrothermal-magmatic source. The increase in fluid pressure may have caused reopening of fractures (which had self-seated during the previous period of cooling) and the onset of a phase of higher vapor output in the fumarole field later in 2004. The fracture opening would have promoted further vapor separation from the deep fluid reservoir (hypothesized at 0.5-1.5 km depth) and finally the drainage of S-rich fluids into the shallow thermal aquifer (found out at few tens of meters of depth). The monitoring of both the water chemistry and the water-table elevation provides insights into the eventual pressurization of the volcano-hydrothermal system that precedes the fracture opening and the extensive drainage of deep fluids. The findings of this study could represent crucial information about the stability of the volcano edifice, and lead to reliable techniques for determining the risk of or even predicting phreatic explosions.

Capasso, Giorgio; Federico, Cinzia; Madonia, Paolo; Paonita, Antonio

2014-03-01

283

Buldir Depression - A Late Tertiary graben on the Aleutian Ridge, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Buldir Depression is a large, rectilinear basin that lies on the northern edge of the Aleutian Ridge and is aligned with the arcuate chain of active volcanoes on the ridge crest. The depression appears to be a volcanic-tectonic feature, which began to form in Late Tertiary time and which is still forming. It is a graben formed by extensional rifting and accompanied by contemporaneous volcanism on the Aleutian Ridge. Subsidence rates for the depression are estimated at 20-70 cm/1,000 years. Sediments in the depression are 300 m thick and are probably pelagic and turbidite deposits of Pleistocene age. The turbidites were apparently derived from the plateau area of the Aleutian Ridge surrounding the depression. Older sediments on the northern slope of the Aleutian Ridge have a maximum thickness of 550 m and are deformed and slumped toward the Bering Sea. These sediments are postulated to overlie a mid-flank terrace on the northern Aleutian Ridge that titled to the north during the formation of Buldir Depression. ?? 1970.

Marlow, M. S.; Scholl, D. W.; Buffington, E. C.; Boyce, R. E.; Alpha, T. R.; Smith, P. J.; Shipek, C. J.

1970-01-01

284

Non-Volcanic Tremor in the Alaska/Aleutian Subduction Zone and its Relation to Slow-Slip Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fall of 1996, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) recorded an unprecedented increase in seismic and volcanic activity across the eastern Aleutian arc. McNutt and Marzocchi (Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 2004) speculate a widespread deformation pulse or strain transient occurred, and may be the most likely candidate for causing such nearly simultaneous events. A similar increase in activity is recorded in the summer of 2006 in the Rat Island and Andreanof Islands regions. This activity includes four >6.0 magnitude earthquakes, over a dozen >5.0 magnitude earthquakes, swarms of earthquakes at Kliuchef volcano, and several strong non-volcanic tremor episodes. In both cases, one possible explanation for the increase in activity is the occurrence of an aseismic slip event along the seismogenic zone, similar to the slow-slip event that occurred in south central Alaska between 1998 and 2000 (Ohta et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 2006). Testing this hypothesis is difficult because there are no continuous GPS data for these regions during the times of increased activity. However, the occurrence of non-volcanic tremor has been associated with slow slip events in Cascadia and Japan and can be used as a potential indicator for slow slip events when continuous GPS data are unavailable. In order for such a method to be robust the non-volcanic tremor of the area must be well defined. We use a combination of broadband seismic data collected during the 1999-2001 BEAAR Passcal experiment as well as broadband and short period data collected from selected stations in the Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) and AVO seismic networks to identify episodes of non-volcanic tremor. The majority of the seismic signals observed consist of a series of bursts lasting between 10 and 15 minutes with frequencies ranging from 1-6 Hz. Similar signals lasting up to several hours are also observed, but less frequently. Locations of non-volcanic tremor episodes that occurred simultaneously with the 1998-2000 slow- slip event were recorded over a broad area (>100km) roughly centered above the 40-50 km contour of the subducting Pacific plate in south-central Alaska. This study is a first step toward characterizing the non- volcanic tremor observed in the Alaskan/Aleutian subduction zone and its potential link to slow-slip events.

Peterson, C.; Christensen, D.; McNutt, S.; Freymueller, J.

2006-12-01

285

Minkin Aleutian taudin ELISA-testin tuotteistaminen : Insinöörityö.  

E-print Network

??Aleutian tauti on minkin (Mustela vison) plasmasytoosisairaus. Sen aiheuttaa Aleutian mink disease virus, AMDV, joka on parvovirus. AMDV:n käyttäytyminen on kuitenkin epätyypillistä parvoviruksille. Taudin oireita… (more)

Poikulainen, Emmi

2014-01-01

286

Detecting small geothermal features at Northern Pacific volcanoes with ASTER thermal infrared data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) and the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitor the eruptive state of volcanoes throughout the Aleutian, Kamchatkan, and Kurile arcs. This is accomplished in part by analyzing thermal infrared (TIR) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors at least twice per day for major thermal anomalies.

R. Wessels; S. Senyukov; A. Tranbenkova; M. S. Ramsey; D. J. Schneider

2004-01-01

287

A new model for the growth of basaltic shields based on deformation of Fernandina volcano, Galápagos Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Space-geodetic measurements of surface deformation produced by the most recent eruptions at Fernandina – the most frequently erupting volcano in the Galápagos Archipelago – reveal that all have initiated with the intrusion of subhorizontal sills from a shallow magma reservoir. This includes eruptions from fissures that are oriented both radially and circumferentially with respect to the summit caldera. A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image acquired 1–2 h before the start of a radial fissure eruption in 2009 captures one of these sills in the midst of its propagation toward the surface. Galápagos eruptive fissures of all orientations have previously been presumed to be fed by vertical dikes, and this assumption has guided models of the origin of the eruptive fissure geometry and overall development of the volcanoes. Our findings allow us to reinterpret the internal structure and evolution of Galápagos volcanoes and of similar basaltic shields. Furthermore, we note that stress changes generated by the emplacement of subhorizontal sills feeding one type of eruption may control the geometry of subsequent eruptive fissures. Specifically, circumferential fissures tend to open within areas uplifted by sill intrusions that initiated previous radial fissure eruptions. This mechanism provides a possible explanation for the pattern of eruptive fissures that characterizes all the western Galápagos volcanoes, as well as the alternation between radial and circumferential fissure eruptions at Fernandina. The same model suggests that the next eruption of Fernandina will be from a circumferential fissure in the area uplifted by the 2009 sill intrusion, just southwest of the caldera rim.

Bagnardi, Marco; Amelung, Falk; Poland, Michael P.

2013-01-01

288

Researchers Discover Underwater Volcano-within-a-Volcano (PR 05-089)  

NSF Publications Database

... an active underwater volcano near the Samoan Island chain. During a research cruise to study the ... indication that this volcano existed. When sound beams were directed into the crater, they measured ...

289

Volcanic-ash hazard to aviation during the 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Anatahan is one of nine active subaerial volcanoes that pose hazards to major air-traffic routes from airborne volcanic ash. The 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano affected the region's aviation operations for 3 days in May 2003. On the first day of the eruption (10 May 2003), two international flights from Saipan to Japan were cancelled, and several flights implemented ash-avoidance procedures. On 13 May 2003, a high-altitude flight through volcanic gas was reported, with no perceptible damage to the aircraft. TOMS and MODIS analysis of satellite data strongly suggests that no significant ash and only minor amounts of SO2 were involved in the incident, consistent with crew observations. On 23 May 2003, airport operations were disrupted when tropical-cyclone winds dispersed ash to the south, dusting Saipan with light ashfall and causing flight cancellations there and at Guam 320 km south of the volcano. Operational (near-real-time) monitoring of ash clouds produced by Anatahan has been conducted since the first day of the eruption on 10 May 2003 by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). The VAAC was among the first groups outside of the immediate area of the volcano to detect and report on the unexpected eruption of Anatahan. After being contacted about an unusual cloud by National Weather Service forecasters in Guam at 1235 UTC on 10 May 2003, the VAAC analyzed GOES 9 images, confirming Anatahan as the likely source of an ash cloud and estimating that the eruption began at about 0730 UTC. The VAAC issued its first Volcanic Ash Advisory for Anatahan at 1300 UTC on 10 May 2003 more than 5 h after the start of the eruption, the delay reflecting the difficulty of detecting and confirming a surprise eruption at a remote volcano with no in situ real-time geophysical monitoring. The initial eruption plume reached 10.7-13.4 km (35,000-44,000 ft), well into jet cruise altitudes; thereafter, the maximum plume height decreased and during the rest of the eruption usually did not exceed ???5 km (???17,000 ft), which lessened the potential hazard to aircraft at higher cruise altitudes. Drifting ash clouds commonly extended hundreds of kilometers from the volcano, occasionally as far west as the Philippines. Over the course of the eruptive activity in 2003-2004, the VAAC issued 323 advisories (168 with graphical depictions of ash clouds) for Anatahan, serving as a reliable source of ash-cloud information for aviation-related meteorological offices and air carriers. With a record of frequent eruptions in the CNMI, continued satellite and in situ real-time geophysical monitoring is needed at Anatahan and other Marianas volcanoes so that potential hazards to aviation from any future eruptive activity can be quickly and correctly assessed. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Guffanti, M.; Ewert, J. W.; Gallina, G. M.; Bluth, G. J. S.; Swanson, G. L.

2005-01-01

290

Volcanoes Galore!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here, you can check out videos and links to lots of nifty volcano stuff. Have fun! This is completely unrelated...but check it out anywho. sweet periodic table! Alaska Volcano Observatory Earthquakes and Volcanoes Check this one out for info on history\\'s most distructive volcano. Exploring Pompeii and Vesuvius Exploring the Environment: Volcanoes This will give you lots of background on how Volcanoes work, what the major parts are, and how they erupt. How Volcanoes Work A quick video on how to take a lava sample...hot! Lava Sampling on Kilauea Volcano, Hawai i A volcano in antartica? ...

Syracuse, Mr.

2008-06-11

291

Long-term explosion records from two erupting submarine volcanoes in the Mariana and Tonga island-arcs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Records of explosive activity longer than a few weeks are rare for subaerial volcanoes, and nonexistent for submarine volcanoes. From February 2008 to February 2009, we recorded a year long, continuous acoustic and volcanic plume record from NW Rota-1, an erupting submarine volcano located within the Mariana Arc. From December 2008 to May 2009, we also obtained acoustic records of ongoing explosion and tremor activity at West Mata, a submarine volcano in the NE Lau basin near the Tofua volcanic-arc. At NW Rota-1, a hydrophone and turbidity/temperature sensor were moored ~150 m from the volcano’s summit vent (520 m deep). The volcano exhibited frequent degassing explosions lasting 60-120 s, separated by quiet periods of 10-30 s, for the entire 12-months resulting in >284,000 discrete explosion events. The explosions are broadband (1-80 Hz) with typical source levels of 191 dB re ?Pa @ 1m. Harmonic tremor is also present at times in the explosions, typically with <5 Hz fundamentals and extremely high-amplitude overtone peaks near 30 Hz. The fundamentals are likely due to resonance of the entire volcanic edifice, while the peak overtone may represent reverberation of an internal structure, possibly the conduit feeding the summit vent. The hydrophone also documents a 103 decrease in explosion amplitude over the year, marked by a sharp reduction after 6 mos, which may be part of the typical eruption cycle or due to burial of the vent by accumulated ejecta. Explosions at the summit vent produced a steady series of volcanic plumes that carried ash and hydrothermal precipitates into the water column. Hundreds of short-lived turbidity spikes are present, with no long periods of quiescence, indicating changes in explosion intensity did not affect the pattern of volcanic plume creation. Our data are the first to confirm the frequent creation and dispersal of submarine volcanic plumes on a year-long scale. In December 2008 a moored hydrophone (250 Hz) was deployed ~30 km from West Mata, a near-arc boninite volcano discovered actively erupting the month before. An ROV cruise in May 2009 deployed two short-term, high-frequency (1024 Hz) hydrophones within 50 m of the Hades volcanic vent (1208 m deep). Both the long-term and in situ hydrophones detected explosive activity as well as both mono- and polychromatic volcanic tremor throughout their records. ROV video shows the acoustic signals are from violent degassing bursts from within lava extruding at the Hades vent (summit of West Mata). The explosions exhibit both short (10s of sec) and long (2-10 min) duration modes of cyclic activity. Many explosion signals also show harmonic tremor within their codas indicative of resonance from within the volcanic edifice. Frequently the explosion records are overlapped by monochromatic tremor from a narrow band within a range from 20-100 Hz. The source of this resonance is not yet clear (although not man-made) and is possibly from a nearby, unseen vent or magma movement within the volcanic edifice.

Dziak, R. P.; Embley, R. W.; Baker, E. T.; Chadwick, W. W.; Resing, J.; Matsumoto, H.; Walker, S. L.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Klink, H.

2009-12-01

292

New K-Ar ages for calculating end-of-shield extrusion rates at West Maui volcano, Hawaiian island chain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirty-seven new K-Ar ages from West Maui volcano, Hawai'i, are used to define the waning stages of shield growth and a brief episode of postshield volcanism. All but two samples from shield-stage strata have reversed polarity magnetization, so conceivably the exposed shield is not much older than the Olduvai Normal-Polarity subchron, or about 1.8 Ma. The oldest ages obtained are in the range 1.9-2.1 Ma but have large analytical error. Shield volcanism ended about 1.35 Ma, and postshield volcanism followed soon thereafter, persisting until about 1.2 Ma. Exposed shield-stage strata were emplaced at a rate of about 0.001 km3 per year, a rate smaller than historic Hawaiian magmatic rates by a factor of 100. Stratigraphic accumulation rates are similar to those measured previously at Wai'anae volcano (O'ahu) or the upper part of the Mauna Kea shield sequence (Hilo drill core, Hawai'i). These rates diminish sharply during the final 0.3-0.5 m.y. of the shield stage. Hawaiian shield volcanoes begin waning well before their last 0.5 m.y. of life, then end quickly, geologically speaking, if West Maui is representative. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

Sherrod, D. R.; Murai, T.; Tagami, T.

2007-01-01

293

Lab7: Volcanoes I. --Their Geographic Distribution Introduction  

E-print Network

(Tambora, 1815) and the fourth largest (Krakatau, 1883) have occurred in this volcanic region. More than of their remote location, the volcanoes are only poorly known. Aleutian Arc. Curved chain of recent volcanic exclusively of basalt. #12; 2 Aeolian Arc. This volcanic chain is located in the Mediterranean north

Chen, Po

294

Man Against Volcano: The Eruption on Heimaey,  

E-print Network

Man Against Volcano: The Eruption on Heimaey, Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland This booklet was originally published in 1976 under the title "Man Against Volcano:The Eruption on Heimaey, Vestmann Islands, Iceland:Town of Vestmannaeyjar with Helgafell in the right back- ground (photo courtesy of Sólarfilma). #12;Man Against Volcano

Ingólfsson, �lafur

295

Review of Crustal (Non-Volcanic) Seismicity in the Aleutian Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologically, Aleutian Islands are mostly known for its volcanic eruptions, great subduction zone earthquakes, and earthquake-induced local and Pacific-wide tsunamis. Within the past decade expansion of seismic networks in the Aleutians allowed researchers to glimpse into another fascinating aspect of the arc tectonics - crustal seismicity within the overriding North American plate, or as some studies have suggested, within the Bering microplate. It has been suggested that the crust of Aleutian arc consists of a number of blocks that are rotating clock-wise and translating westward along the plate boundary. Boundaries between the blocks are delineated by major arc-parallel and transverse shear zones. North and south boundaries are right-lateral shear zones, and east and west boundaries are left-lateral shear zones. Within the past 5 years a number of moderate-sized crustal earthquakes occurred in the Aleutians, such as the 2006 M6.0-6.4 events in the Rat Islands, the 2008 M6.4-6.6 events in the Andreanof Islands, and the most recent M6.6 earthquake of July 18, 2010 in the Fox Islands. We performed detailed analysis of the aftershock locations and faulting parameters of these earthquakes. One of the challenges in studying these events is that despite recent improvements in the region, seismic station distribution is still relatively sparse and data communication and power systems are often unreliable. We also revisited previously published reports on crustal seismicity in the Aleutians. An interesting observation is that east of Atka Island most of the crustal events are characterized by normal faulting, while west of Atka they are predominantly strike-slip events. Some of these events can be associated with the faulting along the crustal block boundaries. However, most have occurred north of the block boundaries within the unrotated Bering massif. We postulate that the crustal strike-slip events in central Aleutians manifest Riedel fracture process. Additional geodetic and seismic instrumentation for the EarthScope project in Alaska could shed additional light onto the crustal tectonics of the Aleutian arc.

Ruppert, N. A.; Kozyreva, N.; Hansen, R. A.

2010-12-01

296

Hydrogeology of Stromboli volcano, Aeolian Islands (Italy) from the interpretation of resistivity tomograms, self-potential, soil temperature and soil CO2 concentration measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To gain a better insight of the hydrogeology and the location of the main tectonic faults of Stromboli volcano in Italy, we collected electrical resistivity measurements, soil CO2 concentrations, temperature and self-potential measurements along two profiles. These two profiles started at the village of Ginostra in the southwest part of the island. The first profile (4.8 km in length) ended up at the village of Scari in the north east part of the volcano and the second one (3.5 km in length) at Forgia Vecchia beach, in the eastern part of the island. These data were used to provide insights regarding the position of shallow aquifers and the extension of the hydrothermal system. This large-scale study is complemented by two high-resolution studies, one at the Pizzo area (near the active vents) and one at Rina Grande where flank collapse areas can be observed. The Pizzo corresponds to one of the main degassing structure of the hydrothermal system. The main degassing area is localized along a higher permeability area corresponding to the head of the gliding plane of the Rina Grande sector collapse. We found that the self-potential data reveal the position of an aquifer above the villages of Scari and San Vincenzo. We provide an estimate of the depth of this aquifer from these data. The lateral extension of the hydrothermal system (resistivity ˜15-60 ohm m) is broader than anticipated extending in the direction of the villages of Scari and San Vincenzo (in agreement with temperature data recorded in shallow wells). The lateral extension of the hydrothermal system reaches the lower third of the Rina Grande sector collapse area in the eastern part of the island. The hydrothermal body in this area is blocked by an old collapse boundary. This position of the hydrothermal body is consistent with low values of the magnetization (<2.5 A m-1) from previously published work. The presence of the hydrothermal body below Rina Grande raises questions about the mechanical stability of this flank of the edifice.

Revil, A.; Finizola, A.; Ricci, T.; Delcher, E.; Peltier, A.; Barde-Cabusson, S.; Avard, G.; Bailly, T.; Bennati, L.; Byrdina, S.; Colonge, J.; di Gangi, F.; Douillet, G.; Lupi, M.; Letort, J.; Tsang Hin Sun, E.

2011-09-01

297

Space-geodetic evidence for multiple magma reservoirs and subvolcanic lateral intrusions at Fernandina Volcano, Galápagos Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements of the surface deformation at Fernandina Volcano, Galápagos (Ecuador), acquired between January 2003 and September 2010, we study the structure and the dynamics of the shallow magmatic system of the volcano. Through the analysis of spatial and temporal variations of the measured line-of-sight displacement we identify multiple sources of deformation beneath the summit and the southern flank. At least two sources are considered to represent permanent zones of magma storage given their persistent or recurrent activity. Elastic deformation models indicate the presence of a flat-topped magma reservoir at ˜1.1 km below sea level and an oblate-spheroid cavity at ˜4.9 km b.s.l. The two reservoirs are hydraulically connected. This inferred structure of the shallow storage system is in agreement with previous geodetic studies and previous petrological analysis of both subaerial and submarine lavas. The almost eight-year-long observation interval provides for the first time geodetic evidence for two subvolcanic lateral intrusions from the central storage system (in December 2006 and August 2007). Subvolcanic lateral intrusions could provide the explanation for enigmatic volcanic events at Fernandina such as the rapid uplift at Punta Espinoza in 1927 and the 1968 caldera collapse without significant eruption.

Bagnardi, Marco; Amelung, Falk

2012-10-01

298

Time variability of low-temperature fumaroles at Stromboli island (Italy) and its application to volcano monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The constant and mild activity of Stromboli volcano (Italy) is occasionally interrupted by effusive events and/or more energetic explosions, referred to as major explosions and paroxysms, which are potentially dangerous for the human community. Although several premonitory signals for effusive phases have been identified, precursors of major explosions and paroxysms still remain poorly understood. With the aim of contributing to the identification of possible precursors of energetic events, this work discusses soil temperature data acquired in low-temperature fumaroles at Stromboli in the period 2006-2010. Data analysis revealed that short-term anomalies recorded in the thermal signal are potentially useful in predicting state changes of the volcano. In particular, sudden changes in fumarole temperatures and their hourly gradients were observed from several days to a few hours prior to fracturing and paroxysmal events, heralded by peculiar waveforms of the recorded signals. The qualitative interpretation is supported by a quantitative, theoretical treatment that uses circuit theory to explain the time dependence of the short-period temperature variations, showing a good agreement between theoretical and observational data.

Madonia, Paolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

2013-12-01

299

How changes in pore pressure affect fluid circulation in volcanoes: three examples from Vulcano Island, Mt. Etna and Mt Vesuvius (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluids circulating in volcanic edifices are attracting increasing interest from scientists, mostly because their role in triggering flank instability, phreatic explosions, and eruptions has been documented in several cases worldwide [Newhall et al. 2001, Thomas et al. 2004]. Fluid pore pressure can change as an effect of either external (meteoric recharge, variation of the stress field), or endogenous causes (e.g. internal pressurization of magmatic volatiles and hydrothermal systems). The reciprocal roles of tectonics and magmatic/hydrothermal activity are still under investigation [Gottsman et al. 2007, Roeloffs et al. 2003]. We discuss the results of decennial data records collected in the aquifers of Mt Etna, Vulcano Island and Mt Vesuvius, and get insights on the role of tectonics and volcanic activity on the observed variations of water level and chemical composition. In Vulcano Island, the shallow thermal aquifer is deeply concerned by deep volcanic fluids. The most significant variations were observed during the 1988-96 crisis, due to the large input of steam and acidic gases from depth. In addition, the record of the water table elevation provided remarkable insights on the pressure of the volcano-hydrothermal system, which can be envisaged as the cause for the onset of the phase of higher vapor output in the fumarolic field in late 2004. On Mt. Vesuvius, the geochemical behavior of the aquifer appears strictly controlled by the input of volcanic gases and variations in the stress field. These latter, which were responsible for the seismic crisis of 1999, and the almost simultaneous increased input of CO2-rich vapor, significantly affected water chemistry and temperature, until 2006. The recent observations of low salinity, temperature, and dissolved carbon contents in groundwater provide strong evidence for reduced pressure in the volcano-hydrothermal system. The record of water chemistry available on Mt. Etna since 1994 shows coeval changes in almost all monitored sites, ascribed to the variable contribution over time of waters with different temperature and composition. In addition, the dissolved CO2 content is chiefly affected by the input of volcanic CO2. Given the intense dynamics of the volcano, with frequent eruptions and periodic inflation-deflation phases, as well as the uneven deformation of the edifice, changes in water chemistry can be attributed, at least in part, to stress-related changes in pore pressure. Changes of pore pressure and micro-fracturation are controlling fluid movement (water and gases) within the volcano, producing part of the observed geochemical variations. The accurate modeling of the proposed process of fluid pressure increase, fracturing, and drainage of deep fluids will benefit of a multidisciplinary approach, able to clarify the cause-effect relationship and critical conditions. Newhall CG et al. 2001. J. Geol. Soc. Philipp., 56, 69-84. Thomas ME et al. 2004. Terra Nova, 16, 312-317. Gottsmann J. et al. 2007. GRL 34, L07307. Roeloffs E. et al. 2003. JVGR 127, 269-303.

Federico, C.; Madonia, P.; Capasso, G.; D'Alessandro, W.; Bellomo, S.; Brusca, L.; Cusano, P.; Longo, M.; Paonita, A.; Petrosino, S.

2013-05-01

300

Eruption of Alaska volcano breaks historic pattern  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the late morning of 12 July 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) received an unexpected call from the U.S. Coast Guard, reporting an explosive volcanic eruption in the central Aleutians in the vicinity of Okmok volcano, a relatively young (~2000-year-old) caldera. The Coast Guard had received an emergency call requesting assistance from a family living at a cattle ranch on the flanks of the volcano, who reported loud "thunder," lightning, and noontime darkness due to ashfall. AVO staff immediately confirmed the report by observing a strong eruption signal recorded on the Okmok seismic network and the presence of a large dark ash cloud above Okmok in satellite imagery. Within 5 minutes of the call, AVO declared the volcano at aviation code red, signifying that a highly explosive, ash-rich eruption was under way.

Larsen, Jessica; Neal, Christina; Webley, Peter; Freymueller, Jeff; Haney, Matthew; McNutt, Stephen; Schneider, David; Prejean, Stephanie; Schaefer, Janet; Wessels, Rick

2009-01-01

301

Explosive activity of the summit cone of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion island): A historical and geological review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summit explosive activity and collapses that form pit craters and calderas represent major volcanic hazards on a dominantly effusive, frequently active volcano like Piton de la Fournaise. Only three summit collapse events (1986, 2002, 2007) have been recorded since the foundation of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano observatory (OVPF) in 1979, and two of them (1986 and 2007) were associated with weak phreatic activity. At Piton de la Fournaise, the normal explosive activity consists of short-lived and mild (< 20 m-high) lava fountains, which quickly evolve into strombolian activity during the eruptions. Based on comprehensive literature review and high-resolution image analysis of surface outcrops and summit caldera walls, we reconstructed the time distribution of recent explosive events (phreatomagmatic; phreatic) and their link with summit collapses and lateral (flank) effusive eruptions. In historical time (post-1640 CE), we recognise two main clusters of explosive events. Frequent and violent phreatomagmatic to phreatic explosions occurred during the oldest cluster (1708-1878) and alternated with long-lasting periods (years to decades) of summit effusive activity. In contrast, scarce, and on average, weak explosions occurred during the youngest cluster (1897-2012), when discrete and short-lived (< 6 months) effusive eruptions represent the main eruptive dynamics. Historical summit collapses (pit craters and caldera), all localised at the top of the summit cone, were related to voluminous lateral eruptions and were followed by a significant decrease in eruptive rate. However, magma draining during lateral eruptions was not systematically associated with summit collapses or explosions. The long-lasting occurrence of magma at very shallow depth below the volcano summit, followed by a rapid lateral drainage, apparently represents a critical condition favouring magma-groundwater interaction to produce explosive activity. The prehistoric growth of the Piton de la Fournaise summit cone results chiefly from long-lasting to continuous activity, centred below its western side (Bory crater containing lava lakes). High lava fountains, long-lasting effusive activity, lava lakes, ash plumes and block ejections were common types of eruptive dynamics in the historical past, between 1640 and 1878. In this perspective, short-lived, small volume eruptions and long pauses, up to six years, during the last century of activity of Piton de la Fournaise can be considered as a lull, despite the high frequency of eruption (1 eruption/9 months on average). Temporal and spatial variations in recurrence rate and eruptive dynamics of basaltic volcanism, such as those recognised at Piton de la Fournaise, should be considered in the formulation of hazard assessments and in the interpretation of precursory patterns.

Michon, Laurent; Di Muro, Andrea; Villeneuve, Nicolas; Saint-Marc, Cécile; Fadda, Pierluigi; Manta, Fabio

2013-08-01

302

The Eruptive Behavior of Klyuchevskoy Volcano, Kamchatka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Klyuchevskoy volcano, one of the most active volcanoes in the northern Pacific, is located on the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia at the junction between the Kurile-Kamchatka and Aleutian Island Arcs. Its remote location and diversity of eruption styles make satellite-based monitoring and characterization of its eruptive activity essential. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor was launched in December 1999 on the NASA Terra satellite and has proven effective for the detection and monitoring of volcanic eruptions and their associated products. The goal of this investigation is to determine how well data from a broad spectral range at spatial resolutions under 100m/pixel can be used to characterize the 2005 and 2007 eruptions of a remote volcano during the harsh northern Pacific winter. The ASTER data presented here are supplemented by hand samples collected from the 2005 basaltic lava flows as well as high-spatial resolution thermal infrared data collected by a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) camera during field campaigns in August 2005 and 2007. Collectively, these data provide details regarding the composition, eruption rate, and eruptive mechanisms. Analysis of the data from all three ASTER subsystems reveals four main eruptive phases: a precursory, explosive, explosive-effusive, and cooling phase. These phases correlate to a gradual increase in maximum brightness temperatures followed by a rapid decrease. Close examination of FLIR data and digital photographs reveal the presence of a breakout point approximately 90 m below the rim of the nested summit crater, indicating a flow had breached the nested crater and traveled down the Krestovsky channel during both eruptions. Laboratory- derived TIR spectral data of the 2005 hand samples indicate good agreement with those obtained by ASTER after being reduced to the same spectral resolution. However, inherent errors of the spectra at longer wavelength indicate the presence of thermally-mixed pixels, which limit quantitative calculation of parameters such as heat flux and chemical/textural information. A TIR deconvolution algorithm has been developed to correct for this limitation, and provides a foundation for similar thermal/compositional monitoring of ongoing eruptions around the world, using ASTER or future instruments with similar characteristics.

Rose, S.; Ramsey, M.

2008-12-01

303

Tsunami deposits related to flank collapse in oceanic volcanoes: The Agaete Valley evidence, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enigmatic marine conglomerates are attached at 41–188 m asl to the walls of the valley of Agaete, on the northwest coast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). They are formed by heterogeneous, angular to rounded heterometric volcanic clasts (roundness and maximal size decreasing with altitude), and fossils (rhodolites and marine shells), never found in growth position and often broken. The deposits

Francisco J. Pérez-Torrado; Raphaël Paris; María C. Cabrera; Jean-Luc Schneider; Patrick Wassmer; Juan-Carlos Carracedo; Ángel Rodríguez-Santana; Francisco Santana

2006-01-01

304

Mount St. Helens and Kilauea volcanoes  

SciTech Connect

Mount St. Helens' eruption has taught geologists invaluable lessons about how volcanoes work. Such information will be crucial in saving lives and property when other dormant volcanoes in the northwestern United States--and around the world--reawaken, as geologists predict they someday will. Since 1912, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory have pioneered the study of volcanoes through work on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. In Vancouver, Wash., scientists at the Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory are studying the after-effects of Mount St. Helens' catalysmic eruption as well as monitoring a number of other now-dormant volcanoes in the western United States. This paper briefly reviews the similarities and differences between the Hawaiian and Washington volcanoes and what these volcanoes are teaching the volcanologists.

Barrat, J. (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-01-01

305

Barren Island Volcano (NE Indian Ocean): Island-Arc High-Alumina Basalts to Andesites Caused by Troctolite Disaggregation and Plagioclase Accumulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barren Island (BI) is a subduction-related volcanic island lying in the northeastern Indian Ocean, about 750 km north of the northern tip of Sumatra along the same subduction zone that carries the Indo-Australian Plate northeastward beneath the southeast corner of the Eurasian Plate. The island has a diameter of only 3 km and rises to 355 m above sea level. Three eruptive episodes are known in historical time. A cinder cone formed near the center of the island in 1787, within remnants of a pre-historical caldera 2 km in diameter and open to the west. Eruptions continued intermittently until 1832. Two other episodes occurred more recently, during March to October 1991 and December 1994 to May 1995. Each eruption included strombolian and fire-fountain activity at the central and flank vents of the cinder cone and the westward flow of block lavas through the caldera breach until they cascaded into the sea. This investigation is based on 28 samples collected from Barren Island by researchers from the Geological Survey of India during expeditions to the island prompted by the eruptions of 1991 and 1994-1995. The samples include 18 lavas, 5 scoriae, and 5 bulk ashes that can be divided into 4 age groups: pre-1787 (n=6), 1787-1832 (n=4), 1991 (n=8), and 1994-1995 (n=10). Whole-rock compositions range from 50.7 to 59.8 wt.% SiO2, and thus span the range from basalt to andesite. All samples contain phenocrysts and microphenocrysts of olivine (plus spinel), plagioclase, and clinopyroxene. A notable textural feature in many samples from all age groups is the presence of abundant (to 40 vol.%), large (to 4 mm) phenocrysts of plagioclase. These have clear tabular cores of homogeneous highly calcic composition at An90-95, surrounded by normally zoned mantles, 10-150 microns thick, that range down to An48. Plagioclase phenocryst abundances vary with whole-rock SiO2 (negatively) and Al2O3 (positively) contents. All samples with >20 vol.% plagioclase phenocrysts have >19 wt.% Al2O3 and <53 wt.% SiO2. Samples rich in plagioclase phenocrysts also have slight positive Eu anomalies. All evidence points to generation of these high-Al basalts by accumulation of calcic plagioclase during dissagregation of troctolitic xenoliths, which are found within historical lavas and scoriae. We suppose that a magmatic mush or plutonic mass of troctolite at depth beneath Barren Island is the source of this contamination. These high-Al basalts, at least, are not magmatic compositions. Six Barren Island samples were also analyzed for Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions, which show a crude trend toward more enriched values with time: overall ranges are 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7038-0.7041, ? Nd = 4.1-6.8, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.20-18.29. Trapped glass inclusions in olivine phenocrysts were analyzed for volatile contents by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and electron microprobe. The highest values for total H2O are 2.6 and 3.1 wt.% from two 1991 inclusions. Carbon species were not detected, as is typical for subduction-zone glasses. Sulfur contents ranged 0.08-0.20 wt.% SO3, and Cl contents ranged 0.14-0.21 wt.%, reflecting the elevated Cl values that characterize subduction-related glasses worldwide, in contrast with those from mid-ocean ridges or hot spots.

Luhr, J. F.; Haldar, D.

2003-12-01

306

Volcano Live  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The volocanologist John Seach provides the latest volcano news and information on volcanoes all across the world. The website provides fun hands-on activities, tutorials in volcano safety and volcanology, and a glossary. Students can discover the geography of many areas of the world and how it impacts the likelihood of volcanic eruptions. Users can find links to numerous volcano cameras and maps. The amazing images of volcanoes from Seach's expeditions are a great addition to this informative site.

307

Investigating Geothermal Activity, Volcanic Systems, and Deep Tectonic Tremor on Akutan Island, Alaska, with Array Seismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to hosting one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc, Akutan Island, Alaska, is the site of a significant geothermal resource within Hot Springs Bay Valley (HSBV). We deployed 15 broadband (30 s to 50 Hz) seismometers in and around HSBV during July 2012 as part of an effort to establish a baseline for background seismic activity in HSBV prior to geothermal production on the island. The stations recorded data on-site and were retrieved in early September 2012. Additional targets for the array include the tracking of deep tectonic tremor known to occur within the Aleutian subduction zone and the characterization of volcano-tectonic (VT) and deep long period (DLP) earthquakes from Akutan Volcano. Because 13 of the stations in the array sit within an area roughly 1.5 km by 1.5 km, we plan to apply methods based on stacking and beamforming to analyze the waveforms of extended signals lacking clear phase arrivals (e.g., tremor). The average spacing of the seismometers, roughly 350 m, provides sensitivity to frequencies between 2-8 Hz. The stacking process also increases the signal-to-noise ratio of small amplitude signals propagating across the array (e.g., naturally occurring geothermal seismicity). As of August 2012, several episodes of tectonic tremor have been detected in the vicinity of Akutan Island during the array deployment based on recordings from nearby permanent stations operated by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). This is the first small-aperture array deployed in the Aleutian Islands and the results should serve as a guide for future array deployments along the Aleutian Arc as part of the upcoming EarthScope and GeoPRISMS push into Alaska. We demonstrate the power of array methods based on stacking at Akutan Volcano using a sequence of DLP earthquakes from June 11, 2012 that were recorded on the permanent AVO stations. We locate and characterize the lowest frequency portion of the signals at 0.5 Hz. At these low frequencies, the traditional "sparse" local network at Akutan effectively becomes a small-aperture array relative to the wavelength. We exploit the coherency among the stations and locate the DLPs by using a novel stacking method. The crux of the method involves scanning over all possible source locations and relative polarity combinations between the local stations to find the one that maximizes the stacked power at a well-defined region in the subsurface. As a result, the method is applicable even in the presence of mixed polarities. We discover that two of the stations at Akutan have DLP waveforms with opposite polarities compared to the other stations. Accounting for this polarity variation gives a DLP source location at 10 km depth, to the west-southwest of the Akutan summit caldera. These results give clear evidence for non-isotropic radiation patterns associated with DLPs and show the promise of array methods based on waveform stacking for providing future insights into the origin of volcanic as well as geothermal and tectonic seismicity.

Haney, M. M.; Prejean, S. G.; Ghosh, A.; Power, J. A.; Thurber, C. H.

2012-12-01

308

The role of slab melting in the petrogenesis of high-Mg andesites: evidence from Simbo Volcano, Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petrogenesis of high-Mg andesites (HMA) in subduction zones involves shallow melting of refractory mantle sources or, alternatively, the interaction of ascending slab-derived melts with mantle peridotite. To unravel the petrogenesis of HMA, we report major, trace element and Sr–Nd–Hf–Pb isotope data for a newly found occurrence of HMA in the New Georgia group, Solomon Islands, SW-Pacific. Volcanism in the

S. König; S. Schuth; C. Münker; C. Qopoto

2007-01-01

309

Eruptive activity of the summit cone of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion island): a historical and geological review.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summit explosive activity and collapses represent major volcanic hazards on a dominantly effusive and frequently active volcano like Piton de la Fournaise. Only three summit collapse events (1986, 2002 and 2007) have been recorded since the foundation of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano observatory (OVPF) in 1979 and two of them (1986 and 2007) were associated with weak phreatic activity. Except during these three events, most eruptions consist in short short-lived (< 3 hours) and mild (< 20 m-high) lava fountains quickly evolving into strombolian activity. Based on a comprehensive literature review and a high-resolution image analysis of surface outcrops and summit caldera walls, we reconstructed the time distribution of recent explosive events and their link with summit collapses and lateral effusive eruptions. In historical times (post-1640 AD), we recognize two main clusters of explosive events. Frequent and violent phreatomagmatic to phreatic explosions occurred during the oldest cluster (1708-1878) characterized by long-lasting summit effusive activity. On the contrary, weak and scarce explosions occurred during the youngest cluster (1897-2012), in which discrete and often short-lived effusive eruptions represent the main eruptive dynamics. Historical summit collapses (pit craters to caldera), all localized at the top of the summit cone, were related to voluminous lateral eruptions and were followed by a significant decrease in eruptive rate. However, many lateral eruptions were not associated with summit collapses or explosions. The long-lasting occurrence of magma at very shallow depth represents thus a critical condition to produce summit explosive activity. The pre-historic building of Piton de la Fournaise summit cone results from a long-lasting to continuous activity centered below its western side (Bory crater/lava lakes). Frequent and large lava fountains and long-lasting lava lakes represented an important dynamics in this recent past. In this perspective, the last century of activity of Piton de la Fournaise can be considered as a lull, in spite of its high frequency (1 eruption / 9 months on average).

Di Muro, Andrea; Michon, Laurent; Villeneuve, Nicolas; Saint-Marc, Cecile

2013-04-01

310

75 FR 792 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

NMFS is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher Pacific cod by catcher/processors using hook-and-line gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary to fully use the 2009 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific cod specified for the...

2010-01-06

311

Flank instability of Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Southern Italy): Integration of GB-InSAR and geomorphological observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stromboli is characterized by frequent explosions of variable energy and periodically interrupted by more energetic blasts emitting large volumes of material. The pressurization of a volatile-poor, high-porphyritic magma column that is gas-recharged by the deep-seated, volatile-rich, low-porphyritic magma precedes such events and produces deformations on the NW flank of the volcano, Sciara del Fuoco. By integrating geomorphological observations with long-term displacements from ground-based interferometric radar since December 2007, we identified two landslides whose movements are strongly related with volcanic activity. Movement patterns obtained through a novel long-term analysis of GB-InSAR data permitted us to hypothesize the type of movement and depth for both landslides. Furthermore their position allowed us to affirm that the effusive vent formed in 2007 at 400 m a.s.l., was the result of the deflection of a feeder dike caused by landslide fractures, thus showing the important role of geomorphological discontinuities in volcanic environments.

Intrieri, Emanuele; Di Traglia, Federico; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Gigli, Giovanni; Mugnai, Francesco; Luzi, Guido; Casagli, Nicola

2013-11-01

312

Observing active deformation of volcanoes in North America: Geodetic data from the Plate Boundary Observatory and associated networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), operated by UNAVCO, records deformation of the geologically diverse North America western plate boundary, with subnetworks of instruments concentrated at selected active and potentially active volcanoes. These sensors record deformation and earthquakes and allow monitoring agencies and researchers to analyze changes in ground motion and seismicity. The intraplate volcanoes at Yellowstone and Long Valley are characterized by uplift/subsidence cycles, high seismicity, and hydrothermal activity but there have been no historic eruptions at either volcano. PBO maintains dense GPS networks of 20-25 stations at each of these volcanoes, with an additional 5 boreholes at Yellowstone containing tensor strainmeters, short-period seismometers, and borehole tiltmeters. Subduction zone volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc have had multiple historic eruptions, and PBO maintains equipment at Augustine (8 GPS), Akutan (8 GPS, 4 tiltmeters), and Unimak Island (14 GPS, 8 tiltmeters). The Unimak stations are at the active Westdahl and Shishaldin edifices and the nearby, inactive Isanotski volcano. In the Cascade Arc, PBO maintains networks at Mount St. Helens (15 GPS, 4 borehole strainmeters and seismometers, 8 borehole tiltmeters), Shasta (7 GPS, 1 borehole strainmeter and seismometer), and Lassen Peak (8 GPS). Data from many of these stations in the Pacific Northwest and California are also provided as realtime streams of raw and processed data. Real-time GPS data, along with high-rate GPS data, will be an important new resource for detecting and studying future rapid volcanic deformation events and earthquakes. UNAVCO works closely with the USGS Volcano Hazards Program, archiving data from USGS GPS stations in Alaska, Cascadia, and Long Valley. The PBO and USGS networks combined provide more comprehensive coverage than PBO alone, particularly of the Cascade Arc, where the USGS maintains a multiple instruments near each volcano. Ground-based instruments are supplemented by remote sensing data sets. UNAVCO supports the acquisition of InSAR and LiDAR imaging data, with archiving and distribution of these data provided by UNAVCO and partner institutions. We provide descriptions and access information for geodetic data from the PBO volcano subnetworks and their applications to monitoring for scientific and public safety objectives. We also present notable examples of activity recorded by these instruments, including the 2004-2010 accelerated uplift episode at the Yellowstone caldera and the 2006 Augustine eruption.

Puskas, C. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Meertens, C. M.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Enders, M.; Feaux, K.; Mencin, D.; Baker, S.; Lisowski, M.; Smith, R. B.

2013-12-01

313

Fumarole-Supported Islands of Biodiversity within a Hyperarid, High-Elevation Landscape on Socompa Volcano, Puna de Atacama, Andes? †  

PubMed Central

Fumarolic activity supports the growth of mat-like photoautotrophic communities near the summit (at 6,051 m) of Socompa Volcano in the arid core of the Andes mountains. These communities are isolated within a barren, high-elevation landscape where sparse vascular plants extend to only 4,600 m. Here, we combine biogeochemical and molecular-phylogenetic approaches to characterize the bacterial and eucaryotic assemblages associated with fumarolic and nonfumarolic grounds on Socompa. Small-subunit rRNA genes were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced from two fumarolic soil samples and two reference soil samples, including the volcanic debris that covers most of the mountain. The nonfumarolic, dry, volcanic soil was similar in nutrient status to the most extreme Antarctic Dry Valley or Atacama Desert soils, hosted relatively limited microbial communities dominated by Actinobacteria and Fungi, and contained no photoautotrophs. In contrast, modest fumarolic inputs were associated with elevated soil moisture and nutrient levels, the presence of chlorophyll a, and 13C-rich soil organic carbon. Moreover, this soil hosted diverse photoautotroph-dominated assemblages that contained novel lineages and exhibited structure and composition comparable to those of a wetland near the base of Socompa (3,661-m elevation). Fumarole-associated eucaryotes were particularly diverse, with an abundance of green algal lineages and a novel clade of microarthropods. Our data suggest that volcanic degassing of water and 13C-rich CO2 sustains fumarole-associated primary producers, leading to a complex microbial ecosystem within this otherwise barren landscape. Finally, we found that human activities have likely impacted the fumarolic soils and that fumarole-supported photoautotrophic communities may be exceptionally sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:19074608

Costello, Elizabeth K.; Halloy, Stephan R. P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Sowell, Preston; Schmidt, Steven K.

2009-01-01

314

Fumarole-supported islands of biodiversity within a hyperarid, high-elevation landscape on Socompa Volcano, Puna de Atacama, Andes.  

PubMed

Fumarolic activity supports the growth of mat-like photoautotrophic communities near the summit (at 6,051 m) of Socompa Volcano in the arid core of the Andes mountains. These communities are isolated within a barren, high-elevation landscape where sparse vascular plants extend to only 4,600 m. Here, we combine biogeochemical and molecular-phylogenetic approaches to characterize the bacterial and eucaryotic assemblages associated with fumarolic and nonfumarolic grounds on Socompa. Small-subunit rRNA genes were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced from two fumarolic soil samples and two reference soil samples, including the volcanic debris that covers most of the mountain. The nonfumarolic, dry, volcanic soil was similar in nutrient status to the most extreme Antarctic Dry Valley or Atacama Desert soils, hosted relatively limited microbial communities dominated by Actinobacteria and Fungi, and contained no photoautotrophs. In contrast, modest fumarolic inputs were associated with elevated soil moisture and nutrient levels, the presence of chlorophyll a, and (13)C-rich soil organic carbon. Moreover, this soil hosted diverse photoautotroph-dominated assemblages that contained novel lineages and exhibited structure and composition comparable to those of a wetland near the base of Socompa (3,661-m elevation). Fumarole-associated eucaryotes were particularly diverse, with an abundance of green algal lineages and a novel clade of microarthropods. Our data suggest that volcanic degassing of water and (13)C-rich CO(2) sustains fumarole-associated primary producers, leading to a complex microbial ecosystem within this otherwise barren landscape. Finally, we found that human activities have likely impacted the fumarolic soils and that fumarole-supported photoautotrophic communities may be exceptionally sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:19074608

Costello, Elizabeth K; Halloy, Stephan R P; Reed, Sasha C; Sowell, Preston; Schmidt, Steven K

2009-02-01

315

Evidence of flank failure deposit reactivation in a shield volcano. A favorable context for deep-seated landslide activation (La Réunion Island)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Giant flank failures are recurrent features of shield volcanoes, and their deposits (i.e. breccia), constitute a significant volume in a volcanic edifice. On La Réunion Island, the growth and development of Piton des Neiges volcano has been punctuated by several flank failure episodes. One of these failures is a deep-seated landslide (>200 Mm3) occurring nowadays in Grand Ilet, a plateau inhabited by 1 000 people in the cirque of Salazie, on the northern flank of Piton des Neiges. Here we present the results of a multidisciplinary study (structural geology and field mapping, GNSS monitoring, borehole logging) performed to characterize the geological structure the Grand Ilet landslide, and identify the instability factors that control this category of destabilization. Basic breccia deposits, up to 160 meters thick, constitute the main geological formation of the unstable mass. This breccia are cut by the headwall scar of the landslide, and covered by lava flows, indicating a minimum age of 200 kyr for the destabilization that produced the deposits. The breccia is consolidated out of the landslide area. The NE toe of the landslide is evidenced by an important compressional deformation of the base of the breccia, and striated surfaces in this deformed volume indicate a NE-direction of transport. In this deformed bulge, a clay-rich layer at the base of the breccia has been identified as the main slip plane. Using a video inspection of drill casings on three exploration boreholes, we reconstructed the 3D geometry of the slip plane at the base of the breccia. This reconstruction shows that the landslide plane has an average dip of 6° toward the NE. The displacement monitoring network shows that the unstable mass has a 5.5 km2 extension, with a variable azimuth of movement direction (N140° for the SW sector, and N45° for the NE sector). The planimetric displacements velocities range between 2 cm/year in the inner part of the unstable mass to 52 cm/year at the landslide toe. The dip of displacement vectors vary from 34° ± 9 uphill to 7° ± 2 downhill near the landslide toe. This displacement field, the topography and the drill casings inspection show that secondary shear zones are located inside the landslide mass, characterized by a lower deformation rate than the basal shear zone. However heterogeneous is the deformation, it more important at the base of the breccia (locally in the clay layer). Ultimately, our study suggests that the main slip plane has localized at the base of the breccia despite its induration. Thus we conclude that the Grand Ilet landslide is in fact a present-day reactivation of an old destabilization.

Belle, Pierre; Aunay, Bertrand; Famin, Vincent; Join, Jean-Lambert

2014-05-01

316

A tectonic earthquake sequence preceding the April-May 1999 eruption of Shishaldin Volcano, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On 4 March 1999, a shallow ML 5.2 earthquake occurred beneath Unimak Island in the Aleutian Arc. This earthquake was located 10-15 km west of Shishaldin Volcano, a large, frequently active basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. A Strombolian eruption began at Shishaldin roughly 1 month after the mainshock, culminating in a large explosive eruption on 19 April. We address the question of whether or not the eruption caused the mainshock by computing the Coulomb stress change caused by an inflating dike on fault planes oriented parallel to the mainshock focal mechanism. We found Coulomb stress increases of ???0.1 MPa in the region of the mainshock, suggesting that magma intrusion prior to the eruption could have caused the mainshock. Satellite and seismic data indicate that magma was moving upwards beneath Shishaldin well before the mainshock. indicating that, in an overall sense, the mainshock cannot be said to have caused the eruption. However, observations of changes at the volcano following the mainshock and several large aftershocks suggest that the earthquakes may, in turn, have influenced the course of the eruption.

Moran, S. C.; Stihler, S. D.; Power, J. A.

2002-01-01

317

Causation or coincidence? The correlations in time and space of the 2008 eruptions of Cleveland, Kasatochi, and Okmok Volcanoes, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In mid-summer 2008, three significant volcanic eruptions occurred in the Andreanof Islands of the Aleutian Arc, Alaska. Okmok volcano began erupting on July 12, followed by Cleveland on July 21, and then by Kasatochi on August 7. In addition to this temporal correlation, there is also a geographic correlation: the eruptions occurred in a 525 km region representing only about 20% of the arc's length. Given these close proximities in space and time, it is natural to speculate about whether an underlying process is at work. Ultimately, the arc exists because of subduction, but the question remains if a more immediate trigger may be responsible for the concurrence. We began our inquiry into whether a link exists among the three eruptions by posing the following question: What is the probability that, by chance alone, Okmok, Kasatochi and Cleveland could simultaneously erupt? Answering this question requires both a statistical model for eruption frequency and empirical data of where and when eruptions have occurred in the past. We assume that eruptions follow a Poisson distribution, and estimate the expected number of eruptions per time interval for each volcano in the arc from the geologic record and observations contained in the Alaska Volcano Observatory's GeoDIVA database. We then perform a Monte Carlo experiment, simulating 10,000 years of eruptive activity at 30 day intervals. The results of the simulation indicate that the phenomenon of three eruptions beginning in a single month happens about once every 90 years. A spatial constraint requiring that the maximum separation among the volcanoes be less than 525 km increases this interval to about once every 900 years. Though these intervals are not so long as to rule out coincidence, they are long enough to warrant further investigation into the possibility of a common origin. Several candidates for a prospective cause are: (1) the Great Aleutian Earthquake of 1957, which includes the region of the three recent eruptions, may have triggered a period of increased volcanic activity that still persists; (2) a slow slip event, with associated non- volcanic tremor, have may have resulted in static stress changes favorable to volcanic eruptions; or (3) nearby volcanoes may interact with one another in such a way as to increase the chance of clustered eruptions. We consider each of these scenarios (as well as other more remote possibilities) and weigh their relative likelihoods against the probability of random correlation. In the end, no definitive answer emerges, though pure coincidence remains a simple and plausible explanation for this remarkable event.

Cervelli, P. F.; Cameron, C. E.

2008-12-01

318

Quantitative analysis of seismic wave propagation anomalies in azimuth and apparent slowness at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica) using seismic arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse shot data recorded by eight seismic arrays during an active-source seismic experiment carried out at Deception Island (Antarctica) in 2005 January. For each source we estimate the apparent slowness and propagation azimuth of the first wave arrival. Since both source and receiver positions are accurately known, we are able to interpret the results in terms of the effect of the heterogeneities of the medium on wave propagation. The results show the presence of significant propagation anomalies. Nearby shots produce large apparent slowness values above 0.6 s km-1, while distant shots produce small values, down to about 0.15-0.20 s km-1. These values are different for each array, which shows the importance of the local structure under the receiver. The spatial distributions of apparent slowness are not radial as we would expect in a flat-layered medium. And again, these distributions are different for each array. The azimuth anomalies defined as the difference between the empirical estimates and the values expected in a 1-D model (i.e. the source-array directions) suggest ubiquitous wave front distortions. We have detected both positive and negative anomalies. For some shot-array geometries, azimuth anomalies are quite large with values up to 60°. The distribution of the anomalies depends on the position of the array. Some of these features can be interpreted in terms of a shallow magma chamber and shallow rigid bodies imaged by high-resolution seismic tomography. However several details remain unexplained. Further work is required, including modelling of synthetic wavefields on realistic models of Deception Island and/or apparent slowness vector tomography.

Yeguas, A. García.; Almendros, J.; Abella, R.; Ibáñez, J. M.

2011-02-01

319

Under the volcano: phylogeography and evolution of the cave-dwelling Palmorchestia hypogaea (Amphipoda, Crustacea) at La Palma (Canary Islands)  

PubMed Central

Background The amphipod crustacean Palmorchestia hypogaea occurs only in La Palma (Canary Islands) and is one of the few terrestrial amphipods in the world that have adapted to a strictly troglobitic life in volcanic cave habitats. A surface-dwelling closely related species (Palmorchestia epigaea) lives in the humid laurel forest on the same island. Previous studies have suggested that an ancestral littoral Orchestia species colonized the humid forests of La Palma and that subsequent drought episodes in the Canaries reduced the distribution of P. epigaea favouring the colonization of lava tubes through an adaptive shift. This was followed by dispersal via the hypogean crevicular system. Results P. hypogaea and P. epigaea did not form reciprocally monophyletic mitochondrial DNA clades. They showed geographically highly structured and genetically divergent populations with current gene flow limited to geographically close surface locations. Coalescence times using Bayesian estimations assuming a non-correlated relaxed clock with a normal prior distribution of the age of La Palma, together with the lack of association of habitat type with ancestral and recent haplotypes, suggest that their adaptation to cave life is relatively ancient. Conclusion The data gathered here provide evidence for multiple invasions of the volcanic cave systems that have acted as refuges. A re-evaluation of the taxonomic status of the extant species of Palmorchestia is needed, as the division of the two species by habitat and ecology is unnatural. The information obtained here, and that from previous studies on hypogean fauna, shows the importance of factors such as the uncoupling of morphological and genetic evolution, the role of climatic change and regressive evolution as key processes in leading to subterranean biodiversity. PMID:18234125

Villacorta, Carlos; Jaume, Damia; Oromi, Pedro; Juan, Carlos

2008-01-01

320

Savage Earth: Out of the Inferno - Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, entitled Mountains of Fire, describes the relationship between the types of volcanic activity and plate movement and the connection between types of volcanoes and how they erupt. The article is supported by a video of an erupting volcano, a photograph of an eruption and an animation depicting pyroclastic flow and the formation of a composite volcano. It is also supported by three sidebars, called Volcanoes of North America, Montserrat: An Island Under Siege, and Volcanoes on other Planets. These sidebars also have videos or photographs to enhance their message.

321

Cascades Volcano Observatory - Learn About Volcanoes: Frequently Asked Volcano Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides the answers to frequently asked questions about volcanoes. It is created by the United States Geological Survey. Topics addressed include: What Is A Volcano? Why Do Volcanoes Occur? How Do Volcanoes Erupt? Where Do Volcanoes Occur? When Will A Volcano Erupt? How Hot Is A Volcano? Can Lava Be Diverted? Do Volcanoes Affect Weather? What Types of Volcanoes are There? Which Eruptions Were The Deadliest? 20th Century Volcanic Eruptions and Their Impact. About 60 additional questions with answers are available under MORE FAQ's -Volcano Questions and Answers, and includes some sections on volcanoes of the western United States. Other links to volcano information are also available.

322

Decade Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the 1990s, the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior started the Decade Volcano Project. As part of their work, they designated sixteen volcanoes particularly worthy of study "because of their explosive histories and close proximity to human populations." The group recently teamed up with National Geographic to create a guide to these volcanoes via this interactive map. Navigating through the map, visitors can learn about Mount Rainier, Colima, Galeras, Santorini, and other prominent volcanoes. For each volcano, there's a brief sketch that gives the date of its last eruption, its elevation, nearby population centers, and a photograph.

323

Erupting Volcano Mount Etna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Expedition Five crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS) captured this overhead look at the smoke and ash regurgitated from the erupting volcano Mt. Etna on the island of Sicily, Italy in October 2002. Triggered by a series of earthquakes on October 27, 2002, this eruption was one of Etna's most vigorous in years. This image shows the ash plume curving out toward the horizon. The lighter-colored plumes down slope and north of the summit seen in this frame are produced by forest fires set by flowing lava. At an elevation of 10,990 feet (3,350 m), the summit of the Mt. Etna volcano, one of the most active and most studied volcanoes in the world, has been active for a half-million years and has erupted hundreds of times in recorded history.

2002-01-01

324

Craniometric variation in the Aleutians: integrating morphological, molecular, spatial, and temporal data.  

PubMed

Several hypotheses have been put forward about the origins and evolution of the inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands. Both Hrdli?ka [The Aleutian and Commander Islands and Their Inhabitants (Philadelphia: Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 1945)] and Laughlin ["The Alaska gateway viewed from the Aleutian Islands," in Papers on the Physical Anthropology of the American Indian, W. S. Laughlin, ed. (New York: Viking Fund, 1951), 98-126] analyzed cranial morphology and came to somewhat different conclusions using a typological approach and limited analytical methods. Subsequent investigations using morphological data have not significantly improved our understanding of Aleut prehistory. More recently, radiocarbon dating and mitochondrial DNA analyses have shed light on Aleut genetic variation and changes over time, but better morphological methods using multivariate statistical analysis have not yet been used. We analyzed craniometric data using multivariate procedures and found that Aleuts demonstrate significant changes in cranial morphology over time, and these changes correspond to Hrdli?ka's observations but may not necessarily reflect in-migration. The morphological changes were concentrated in the very aspects of morphology that are easily observable and that Hrdli?ka most often measured, namely, cranial length, breadth, and height, but they were obscured when craniometric variation as a whole was analyzed. Also, we found that the morphological changes over time were not related to the changes in haplogroup frequencies over time, suggesting that migration into the Aleutians did not play a significant role in producing the morphological changes. However, craniometric variability apparently increases over time, suggesting in-migration, localized selection, and/or greater environmental heterogeneity. Our results contradict Laughlin's observations but may be more in line with his hypothesis of in situ evolutionary changes absent gene flow. In addition to selection, gene flow, and gene drift, however, sociocultural changes must also be considered as a factor in why morphology changed over time. PMID:21417887

Ousley, Stephen D; Jones, Erica B

2010-12-01

325

Distribution, 14C chronology, and paleomagnetism of latest Pleistocene and Holocene lava flows at Haleakala?? volcano, Island of Maui, Hawai'i: A revision of lava flow hazard zones  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New mapping and 60 new radiocarbon ages define the age and distribution of latest Pleistocene and Holocene (past 13,000 years) lava flows at Haleakala?? volcano, Island of Maui. Paleomagnetic directions were determined for 118 sites, of which 89 are in lava flows younger than 13,000 years. The paleomagnetic data, in conjunction with a reference paleosecular variation (PSV) curve for the Hawaiian Islands, are combined with our knowledge of age limitations based on stratigraphic control to refine age estimates for some of the undated lava flows. The resulting volumetric rate calculations indicate that within analytical error, the extrusion rate has remained nearly constant during the past 13,000 years, in the range 0.05-0.15 km3/kyr, only about half the long-term rate required to produce the postshield strata emplaced in the past ???1 Myr. Haleakala??'s eruptive frequency is similar to that of Huall??ai volcano on the Island of Hawai'i, but its lava flows cover substantially less area per unit time. The reduced rates of lava coverage indicate a lower volcanic hazard than in similar zones at Huala??lai.

Sherrod, D.R.; Hagstrum, J.T.; McGeehin, J.P.; Champion, D.E.; Trusdell, F.A.

2006-01-01

326

Plant diversity changes during the postglacial in East Asia: insights from Forest Refugia on Halla Volcano, Jeju Island.  

PubMed

Understanding how past climate changes affected biodiversity is a key issue in contemporary ecology and conservation biology. These diversity changes are, however, difficult to reconstruct from paleoecological sources alone, because macrofossil and pollen records do not provide complete information about species assemblages. Ecologists therefore use information from modern analogues of past communities in order to get a better understanding of past diversity changes. Here we compare plant diversity, species traits and environment between late-glacial Abies, early-Holocene Quercus, and mid-Holocene warm-temperate Carpinus forest refugia on Jeju Island, Korea in order to provide insights into postglacial changes associated with their replacement. Based on detailed study of relict communities, we propose that the late-glacial open-canopy conifer forests in southern part of Korean Peninsula were rich in vascular plants, in particular of heliophilous herbs, whose dramatic decline was caused by the early Holocene invasion of dwarf bamboo into the understory of Quercus forests, followed by mid-Holocene expansion of strongly shading trees such as maple and hornbeam. This diversity loss was partly compensated in the Carpinus forests by an increase in shade-tolerant evergreen trees, shrubs and lianas. However, the pool of these species is much smaller than that of light-demanding herbs, and hence the total species richness is lower, both locally and in the whole area of the Carpinus and Quercus forests. The strongly shading tree species dominating in the hornbeam forests have higher leaf tissue N and P concentrations and smaller leaf dry matter content, which enhances litter decomposition and nutrient cycling and in turn favored the selection of highly competitive species in the shrub layer. This further reduced available light and caused almost complete disappearance of understory herbs, including dwarf bamboo. PMID:22438890

Dolezal, Jiri; Altman, Jan; Kopecky, Martin; Cerny, Tomas; Janecek, Stepan; Bartos, Michael; Petrik, Petr; Srutek, Miroslav; Leps, Jan; Song, Jong-Suk

2012-01-01

327

Sharing Resources for Aleutian Arc Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aleutian arc is arguably the best place on Earth to investigate several fundamental questions about arc magmatism and subduction initiation because the record of arc growth is mostly preserved due to a lack of intra-arc rifting. In December, 94 scientists met in San Francisco, Calif., at a workshop sponsored by the Geodynamic Processes at Rifting and Subduction Margins (GeoPRISMS) program to discuss possibilities for sharing resources for fieldwork in the Aleutian arc so that the cost per project could be reduced.

Jicha, Brian; Yogodzinski, Gene; Kelemen, Peter

2014-03-01

328

Geology and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the medium- to high-K Tanaga volcanic cluster, western Aleutians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used geologic mapping and geochemical data augmented by 40Ar/39Ar dating to establish an eruptive chronology for the Tanaga volcanic cluster in the western Aleutian arc. The Tanaga volcanic cluster is unique in comparison to other central and western Aleutian volcanoes in that it consists of three closely spaced, active, volumetrically significant edifices (Sajaka, Tanaga, and Takawangha), the eruptive products of which have unusually high K2O contents. Thirty-five new 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained in two different laboratories constrain the duration of Pleistocene–Holocene subaerial volcanism to younger than 295 ka. The eruptive activity has been mostly continuous for the last 150 k.y., unlike most other well-characterized arc volcanoes, which tend to grow in discrete pulses. More than half of the analyzed Tanaga volcanic cluster lavas are basalts that have erupted throughout the lifetime of the cluster, although a considerable amount of basaltic andesite and basaltic trachyandesite has also been produced since 200 ka. Major- and trace-element variations suggest that magmas from Sajaka and Tanaga volcanoes are likely to have crystallized pyroxene and/or amphibole at greater depths than the older Takawangha magmas, which experienced a larger percentage of plagioclase-dominated fractionation at shallower depths. Magma output from Takawangha has declined over the last 86 k.y. At ca. 19 ka, the focus of magma flux shifted to the west beneath Tanaga and Sajaka volcanoes, where hotter, more mafic magma erupted.

Jicha, Brian R.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Singer, Brad S.

2012-01-01

329

Eruption Rate Control On Morphology And Structure Of Submarine Monogenetic Volcanoes - Insights From Sumersible Dives Off Maui And Hawaii Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of submersible dives off Hawaii Islands during four research cruises (R/V Kairei-ROV Kaiko 1998 and 2001, R/V Yokosuka-DSV Shinkai 1999 and 2002) by the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center. Morphologies and structures of submarine volcanic edifices were observed during dives on the Hana Ridge, submarine extension of Haleakala rift zone of East Maui and the south rift zone of Loihi Seamount. Three types of volcanic edifices are recognized: 1) Conical seamount with a small summit and steep slopes [Clague et al., 2000]; 2) Flat-topped cone [Clague et al., 2000] or terrace [Smith et al., 2002] with a wide, flat summit compared to the relative height; 3) Lobate terrace with a hemi-circular lobate outline with a smaller areal ratio of the summit to the base than flat-topped cones. These volcanic edifices are morphologically classified into two groups: Group A (flat-topped cones and lobate terraces) shows a positive correlation of an areal ratio of summit/base with slope. Group B (conical seamounts) has a low areal ratio of summit/base and a positive correlation between a volume and slope. ROV Kaiko and DSV Shinkai dives were carried out on 6 conical seamounts, 5 flat-topped cones and 3 lobate terraces. Conical seamounts with moderate slopes have aprons of elongate pillows and a summit crater filled by lobate sheet flows, which gradually change into elongate pahoehoe flows downslope. Steep cones are surrounded by talus slopes of pillow rubble with elongate pillows sporadically exposed between pillow clasts. Embedded pillow lobes are all elongate downslope, indicating that fragmentation took place while pillows were flowing. Under a very low extrusion rate, flowing lava congealed on the steep slope in a short distance from the source and collapsed into rubble that formed the lower part of the cone. Flat-topped cones have elongate pillows on moderate slopes, and pahoehoe and lobate sheet flows interbedded with pillows on gentle slopes. Flat summits are overlain by lobate sheets but do not have any collapse pits. Successive change in flow morphology from lobate sheets on the summit through pahoehoe sheets into elongate pillows downslope indicates that lava quietly spilt over the crater rim flowed as elongate pillows on steep slopes. Because lobate sheets are present interbedded with pillows in the lower slope, several eruptive episodes with higher extrusion rates of lava were repeated to form the flat-topped cones. Lobate terraces have similar constituents as flat-topped cones but collapse pits on the summit. Lava channels are present both on the bottom of the pits and on the aprons of the terraces, through which lava was rapidly expelled. Lobate terraces are more like a single large inflated sheet flow grown on a gentle ridge that broke out channeled lava at the final stage of growth.

Umino, S.

2003-12-01

330

Seismic swarm associated with the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Alaska: Earthquake locations and source parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energetic seismic swarm accompanied an eruption of Kasatochi Volcano in the central Aleutian volcanic arc in August of 2008. In retrospect, the first earthquakes in the swarm were detected about 1 month prior to the eruption onset. Activity in the swarm quickly intensified less than 48 h prior to the first large explosion and subsequently subsided with decline of

Natalia A. Ruppert; Stephanie Prejean; Roger A. Hansen

2011-01-01

331

Living with Volcanoes: Year Eleven Teaching Resource Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a unit on volcanoes and experiences with volcanoes that helps students develop geography skills. Focuses on four volcanoes: (1) Rangitoto Island; (2) Lake Pupuke; (3) Mount Smart; and (4) One Tree Hill. Includes an answer sheet and resources to use with the unit. (CMK)

Le Heron, Kiri; Andrews, Jill; Hooks, Stacey; Larnder, Michele; Le Heron, Richard

2000-01-01

332

How Are Islands Formed?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides students with information about how islands are formed, including a basic knowledge of plate tectonics. Using the islands of Hawaii as an example, students learn about the earth processes that cause the formation of islands over time, including volcanoes and hot spots.

2001-01-01

333

Volcano Types  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site lists the basic types of volcanoes: scoria cone, shield volcano, and stratovolcano. Each is described in terms of shape, composition, and eruption type, and links are available to additional information. Subordinate types listed include fissure eruptions, spatter cones, hornitos, and hydrovolcanic eruptions. The site also explains when a volcano is considered active, dormant, or extinct. In addition, generic features such as vent, central vent, edifice, magma chamber, parasitic cones, and fumaroles are listed and described.

Camp, Victor

334

Seismic cycles along the Aleutian arc: Analysis of seismicity from 1957 through 1991  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We catalog and relocate Aleutian arc seismicity. Between 1957 and 1991, two great earthquakes ruptured the same 250-km-long portion of the central Aleutian arc: the 1957 Aleutian Islands earthquake and the 1986 Andreanof Islands earthquake. Because accurate estimates of the moment distribution of the 1957 earthquake are not available, the spatial distribution of aftershocks for each of these events is compared and tested against models describing the modes of occurrence of great subduction zone earthquakes. Earthquake relocations are based on P wave arrival times published in the International Seismological Summary, the Bureau Central International Seismologique, and the International Seismological Centre bulletins and include corrections for the near-source velocity structure associated with the down-going slab. Magnitude estimates are extracted from bulletins and prior to 1964 are estimated by us from microfilmed records. Our catalog is complete above magnitude 5.5. Aftershocks associated with the 1957 and 1986 earthquakes appear to occur in different areas. East of the main shock epicenters, aftershock locations are anticorrelated. West of the main shock epicenter, aftershocks of the 1986 earthquake tended to concentrate along the updip edge of aftershock clusters associated with the 1957 earthquake. If we assume aftershocks rim the distribution of seismic moment release associated with each event, these observations imply that the moment distribution of the 1986 earthquake was different from that of the 1957 earthquake. This suggests that we should use caution in identifying mechanically strong portions of a fault, asperities, by simply mapping the moment distribution of a single great earthquake. A fundamental tenet of the asperity model, that rupture always occurs on the strongest portions of the fault with weaker portions rupturing either aseismically or dynamically as a result of rupture on a strong fault patch, may in the case of the central Aleutian arc not be correct. Thus observing the moment distribution from a single great earthquake may tell us little about what the distribution of moment release will look like during the next earthquake.

Boyd, Thomas M.; Engdahl, E. Robert; Spence, William

1995-01-01

335

Use of SAR data to study active volcanoes in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data of Westdahl, Veniaminof, and Novarupta volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc of Alaska were analyzed to investigate recent surface volcanic processes. These studies support ongoing monitoring and research by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) in the North Pacific Ocean Region. Landforms and possible crustal deformation before, during, or after eruptions were detected and analyzed using data from the European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS), Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS) and the U. S. Seasat platforms. Field observations collected by scientists from the AVO were used to verify the results from the analysis of SAR data.

Dean, K.G.; Engle, K.; Lu, Z.; Eichelberger, J.; Neal, T.; Doukas, M.

1996-01-01

336

Strain Accumulation and Strain Partitioning in the Western Aleutian Subduction Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2,200-km Aleutian megathrust demonstrates a rapid change in the sense of relative motion of the Pacific and North American plates, from nearly trench normal at Alaska to nearly trench parallel at Kamchatka, where the Aleutian and Kamchatka megathrusts connect making a cusp. This change is accompanied by an increase in the relative plate velocity from 61 to 76 mm/yr (an estimate based on our global GPS solution). Earthquake slip vector azimuths for thrust earthquakes along the arc support an idea of strain partitioning, i.e., the motion in seismic ruptures tends to be less oblique than the plate motion [MacCaffrey, 1992]. The strain partitioning predicts a steady westward motion of slivers of the hanging wall along strike-slip faults, resulting in an active collision of the far western arc with Kamchatka [Geist and Scholl, 1994]. GPS velocities measured on Aleutian islands progressively increase from 12 mm/yr at the eastern end of the arc (Kodiak) to as much as 49 mm/yr at the western end (Bering) with respect to the North American plate, which is 2/3 of the relative plate velocity. We show, using the constrained nonlinear inversion, that the high GPS velocity of Bering Is. can be alternatively explained by elastic strain accumulation resulting from locking at the subduction interface. In this scenario, there is no steady westward drift of arc slivers since the elastic strain is periodically released in earthquakes, with the islands returning to their original positions. Geodetic observations lasting for about a decade (continuous GPS was installed on Bering Is. in 1996) do not allow us to discriminate the periodic elastic strain accumulation from the along arc steady strike-slip motion. Yet there is a good argument in favor of the elastic strain at the interface beneath Bering Is.: small GPS velocities in Kamchatka at the Aleutian-Kamchatka cusp (<14 mm/yr) are easily explained by superposed elastic strains at Kamchatka and Aleutian subduction interfaces. There is simply no evidence in GPS velocities of intense compression near Cape Kamchatka as predicted by the collision scenario. Moreover, specific azimuths and values of GPS velocities in Kamchatka at the cusp can be easily explained by superposed elastic strains. Some amount of slivering in the westernmost Aleutians is clearly evidenced by abundant strike-slip seismic focal mechanisms, yet the rate of motion along fracture zones to the north and to the south of the arc currently is unknown; it can be small with respect to the elastic strain accumulation in an azimuth parallel to the arc. Unless longer time series at larger number of islands are observed, a unique interpretation of GPS velocities on the Aleutians is not possible. Recently, the first epoch of GPS at Medny (Copper) Is. was carried out, in 100 km from Bering and at greater distance from the Aleutian Trench. Comparison of GPS velocities at Bering and Medny should provide evidence on how significant is the strain partitioning. Bürgmann, R., M.G. Kogan, G.M. Steblov, G. Hilley, V.E. Levin, and T. Apel, Interseismic Coupling and Asperity Distribution Along the Kamchatka Subduction Zone, J. Geophys. Res., 110, B07405, doi:10.1029/2005JB003648, 2005.

Steblov, G. M.; Kogan, M. G.

2005-12-01

337

Seismic potential of the Queen Charlotte-Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone  

SciTech Connect

The 5,000 km long Queen Charlotte-Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone is subdivided into 17 unequally sized segments. The 17 segments are chosen to represent areas likely to be ruptured by characteristic earthquakes. This term usually implies repeated breakage of a plate boundary segment by either a large or great earthquake, whose source dimensions remain consistent from cycle to cycle. Formal computations of the conditional probabilities for future large and great earthquakes in the 17 segments of the Queen Charlotte-Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone are based on the following data sets and findings: (1) recurrence intervals from historic and geologic data; (2) direct recurrence time estimates based on rates of relative plate motion and the size or displacement of the most recent characteristic event in each segment; and (3) the application of a lognormal distribution of recurrence times for large and great earthquakes. Results of these computations indicate seven areas that have high (i.e., {ge} 60%) conditional probabilities for the recurrence of either large or great earthquakes within the next 20 years (1988-2008). These areas include Cape St. James, Yakataga, the Shumagin Islands, Unimak Island, and the Fox, Delarof, and Near Islands segments of the Aleutian arc. When a shorter time interval is considered (1988-1998), those segments more likely to rupture in large (M{sub S} 7-7.7) rather than great earthquakes have a high conditional probability. These areas include the Unimak, Fox, and Delarof Islands segments. The largest uncertainties in these forecasts stem from the short historic record (providing a single recurrence time estimate for some segments, or widely varying estimates for others); from the unknown importance of aseismic slip; and from a vague definition of characteristic earthquake size. In fact, characteristic earthquake size may not be a time-invariant quantity.

Nishenko, S.P. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Jacob, K.H. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States))

1990-03-10

338

Syn and posteruptive hazards of maar–diatreme volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maar–diatreme volcanoes represent the second most common volcano type on continents and islands. This study presents a first review of syn- and posteruptive volcanic and related hazards and intends to stimulate future research in this field. Maar–diatreme volcanoes are phreatomagmatic monogenetic volcanoes. They may erupt explosively for days to 15 years. Above the preeruptive surface a relatively flat tephra ring forms.

Volker Lorenz

2007-01-01

339

Geodetic Measurements and Numerical Modeling of the Deformation Cycle for Okmok Volcano, Alaska: 1993-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Okmok Volcano is an active caldera located on Umnak Island in the Aleutian Island arc. Okmok, having recently erupted in 1997 and 2008, is well suited for multidisciplinary studies of magma migration and storage because it hosts a good seismic network and has been the subject of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images that span the recent eruption cycle. Interferometric SAR can characterize surface deformation in space and time, while data from the seismic network provides important information about the interior processes and structure of the volcano. We conduct a complete time series analysis of deformation of Okmok with images collected by the ERS and Envisat satellites on more than 100 distinct epochs between 1993 and 2008. We look for changes in inter-eruption inflation rates, which may indicate inelastic rheologic effects. For the time series analysis, we analyze the gradient of phase directly, without unwrapping, using the General Inversion of Phase Technique (GIPhT) [Feigl and Thurber, 2009]. This approach accounts for orbital and atmospheric effects and provides realistic estimates of the uncertainties of the model parameters. We consider several models for the source, including the prolate spheroid model and the Mogi model, to explain the observed deformation. Using a medium that is a homogeneous half space, we estimate the source depth to be centered at about 4 km below sea level, consistent with the findings of Masterlark et al. [2010]. As in several other geodetic studies, we find the source to be approximately centered beneath the caldera. To account for rheologic complexity, we next apply the Finite Element Method to simulate a pressurized cavity embedded in a medium with material properties derived from body wave seismic tomography. This approach allows us to address the problem of unreasonably large pressure values implied by a Mogi source with a radius of about 1 km by experimenting with larger sources. We also compare the time dependence of the source to published results that used GPS data.

Ohlendorf, S. J.; Feigl, K.; Thurber, C. H.; Lu, Z.; Masterlark, T.

2011-12-01

340

Soil microbial structure and function post-volcanic eruption on Kasatochi Island and regional controls on microbial heterogeneity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms are abundant and diverse in soil and their integrated activity drives nutrient cycling on the ecosystem scale. Organic matter (OM) inputs from plant production support microbial heterotrophic life, and soil geochemistry constrains microbial activity and diversity. As vegetation and soil develops over time, these factors change, modifying the controls on microbial heterogeneity. Following a volcanic eruption, ash deposition creates new surfaces where both organismal growth and weathering processes are effectively reset. The trajectory of microbial community development following this disturbance depends on both organic matter accumulation and geochemical constraints. Also, dispersal of microbial cells to the sterile ash surface may determine microbial community succession. The Aleutian Islands (Alaska, USA) are a dynamic volcanic region, with active and dormant volcanoes distributed across the volcanic arc. One of these volcanoes, Kasatochi, erupted violently in August 2008, burying a small lush island in pryoclastic flows and fine ash. Since, plants and birds are beginning to re-establish on developing surfaces, including legacy soils exposed by rapid erosion of pyroclastic deposits, suggesting that recovery of microbial life is also proceeding. However, soil microbial diversity and function has not been examined on Kasatochi Island or across the greater Aleutian region. The project goal is to address these questions: How is soil microbial community structure and function developing following the Kasatochi eruption? What is the relative importance of dispersal, soil OM and geochemistry to microbial community heterogeneity across the Aleutians? Surface mineral soil (20-cm depth) samples were collected from Kasatochi Island in summer 2013, five years after the 2008 eruption, and from eight additional Aleutian islands. On Kasatochi, pryoclastic deposits, exposed legacy soils supporting regrowth of remnant dune wild-rye (Leymus mollis) and mesic meadow plant communities, and soils impacted by recovering seabird rookeries were sampled. On the other islands, soils supporting both Leymus and mesic meadow communities (representative of dominant vegetation types on Kasatochi pre-eruption) were sampled. For each soil category and island combination, three transects of soil cores at 10-cm, 50-cm, 1-m, 5-m and 10-m distance were collected; with distances between sites and islands included (up to >700 km), the range of geographic distance examined covers over 7 orders of magnitude. For all samples, data on fundamental geochemical and OM factors, bacterial and fungal biomass, activity and diversity (via QPCR, extracellular enzyme potential assays and T-RFLP) are being collected. Covariance analysis is being used to evaluate the scale of maximum spatial heterogeneity in microbial structure and function, and ordination and matrix correlation analyses are being used to identify the key environmental covariates with heterogeneity. We hypothesize that heterogeneity at small (cm) scales will reflect predominant geochemical controls, at medium (m) scales will reflect predominant OM (vegetation) controls and at large (km) scales will reflect dispersal-related controls on microbial community structure and function.

Zeglin, L. H.; Rainey, F.; Wang, B.; Waythomas, C.; Talbot, S. L.

2013-12-01

341

Volcano spacing and plate rigidity  

SciTech Connect

In-plane stresses, which accompany the flexural deformation of the lithosphere under the load adjacent volcanoes, may govern the spacing of volcanoes in hotspot provinces. Specifically, compressive stresses in the vicinity of a volcano prevent new upwelling in this area, forcing a new volcano to develop at a minimum distance that is equal to the distance in which the radial stresses change from compressional to tensile (the inflection point). If a volcano is modeled as a point load on a thin elastic plate, then the distance to the inflection point is proportional to the thickness of the plate to the power of 3/4. Compilation of volcano spacing in seven volcanic groups in East Africa and seven volcanic groups of oceanic hotspots shows significant correlation with the elastic thickness of the plate and matches the calculated distance to the inflection point. In contrast, volcano spacing in island arcs and over subduction zones is fairly uniform and is much larger than predicted by the distance to the inflection point, reflecting differences in the geometry of the source and the upwelling areas.

Brink, U. (Stanford Univ., California (USA))

1991-04-01

342

Geochemical and temporal relationships between plutonic and volcanic rocks from the Aleutian arc: a pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aleutian arc volcanics are predominantly basaltic while known plutonic rocks are systematically more felsic and have compositions that overlap estimates for the bulk composition of the continental crust. The Aleutian arc is unique among active intra-oceanic arcs in its widespread exposure of Paleogene and Neogene mid-crustal plutonic rocks, as well as the lavas and sediments that these plutons intruded. Thus, understanding the genesis of Aleutian plutonic rocks is a key to understanding continental genesis and evolution via arc magmatism. We have measured major, trace element contents and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope compositions of 26 mafic to intermediate plutonic rocks, ranging in age from ~32-9 Ma, across the Aleutian arc and compared them with spatially associated Quaternary volcanic rocks. The samples cover a large range of Mg# (73 to 35). Most samples do not show substantial Eu anomalies, and they represent primary magmas rather than differentiated cumulates. Compared to associated volcanics, the plutonic rocks show similar to slightly higher SiO2 and K2O contents at a given Mg#. For many trace elements, the plutonic and volcanic rocks are similar (e.g., elemental concentrations and La/Sm, Th/Nd, Lu/Hf, Dy/Yb ratios). However, the plutonic rocks show on average higher Nd and Hf isotope ratios and lower Pb isotope ratios than volcanic rocks from the same island. The difference in isotope compositions between the plutonic rocks and their volcanic neighbors indicates differences in the mantle sources. This could reflect temporal variation of mantle composition under the Aleutians. Based on U-Pb zircon geochronology of representative samples, the data may indicate decreasing Nd (-Hf) isotope ratios of the sub-Aleutians mantle through time in some regions. However, more data is necessary from plutonic rocks to determine if this will hold up. Alternatively, the compositional differences (e.g. higher Si and K) between the plutonics and the volcanics could reflect different modes of magma transport and emplacement, possibly related to the different mantle sources.

Cai, Y.; Rioux, M. E.; Kelemen, P. B.; Goldstein, S. L.

2013-12-01

343

Seismicity, topography, and free-air gravity of the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone, extending 3400 km from the Queen Charlotte Fault to Kamchatka, has been the source of six great megathrust earthquakes in the 20th Century. Four earthquakes have ruptured the 2000-km-long Aleutian segment, where the Cenozoic Aleutian arc overlies the subducting Pacific plate. These include the 1946 M 8.6 earthquake off Unimak Is., the 1957 M 8.6 and 1986 M 8.0 earthquakes off the Andreanoff Is., and the 1965 M 8.7 Rat Is. earthquake. The source regions of these earthquakes inferred from waveform inversions underlie the well-defined Aleutian deep-sea terrace. The deep-sea terrace is about 4 km deep and is underlain by Eocene arc framework rocks, which extend nearly to the trench. It is bounded on its seaward and landward margins by strong topographic and fee-air gravity gradients. The main asperities (areas of largest slip) for the great earthquakes and nearly all of the Aleutian thrust CMT solutions lie beneath the Aleutian terrace, between the maximum gradients. Similar deep-sea terraces are characteristic of non-accretionary convergent margins globally (75% of subduction zones), and, where sampled by drilling (e.g., Japan, Peru, Tonga, Central America), are undergoing sustained subsidence. Sustained subsidence requires removal of arc crust beneath the terrace by basal subduction erosion (BSE). BSE is in part linked to the seismic cycle, as it occurs in the same location as the megathrust earthquakes. Along the eastern 1400 km of the Alaskan subduction zone, the Pacific plate subducts beneath the North American continent. The boundary between the Aleutian segment and the continent is well defined in free-air gravity, and the distinctive deep-sea terrace observed along the Aleutian segment is absent. Instead, the Alaskan margin consists of exhumed, underplated accretionary complexes forming outer arc gravity highs. Superimposed on them are broad topographic highs and lows forming forearc basins (Shumagin, Stevenson) and islands (Kodiak, Shumagin). Two great earthquakes ruptured much of this segment: the 1938 M 8.3 earthquake SW of Kodiak and the 1964 M 9.2 earthquake, which ruptured 800 km of the margin between Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island. Large slip during the 1938 event occurred under the Shumagin and Tugidak basins, but slip in 1964 is thought to have occurred on asperities under Prince William Sound and the outer arc highs off Kodiak. Seismic profiling and industry drilling indicates sustained subsidence has also occurred along the Alaska margin. BSE is probably occurring there, but the terrace structure is buried by the high sedimentation rate. At present, the inherited accretionary structures, the ongoing collision of the Yakutat terrane, and uncertainties in finite fault modeling obscure correlation of slip with topographic and gravity signatures in the 1964 source region.

Wells, R. E.; Blakely, R. J.; Scholl, D. W.; Ryan, H. F.

2011-12-01

344

Evolution of elastic properties and acoustic emission, during uniaxial loading of rocks, from the Fogo Volcano in the island of Sao Miguel, Azores; Preliminary results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Computerized Uniaxial Press working up to 250 kN was installed in the middle 2011 in the Laboratory of Microseismic Monitoring of ISEL. The system is able to record continuous time, pressure and axial strain (1 µm resolution) at 1s sampling rate. The loading platens were designed to integrate acoustic emission (AE) transducers. Signals are acquired and processed through an 8-channel ESG Hyperion Ultrasonic Monitoring System (10 MSPS, 14/16-bit ADC). The first experiments, presented here, were applied to a set of rock samples from the Fogo, an active central volcano in the island of Sao Miguel. Two different volcanic rock types were studied: a fine grained alkali basaltic rock with a porphyritic texture, a porosity of 4.5% and bulk density of 2700 kg m-3 (sample #3); and a benmoreitic rock with a trachytic texture, a porosity of 8.1 %, and bulk density of 2400 kg m-3 (sample #4). Cores from sample #3 were subjected to continuous increasing pressure, until failure. They show a uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) spanning from 60 to 85 MPa and a stress-strain curve with two phases: a first one with relative low Young's Module (YM) followed by a second phase were the YM increases roughly 3 times. The stress transition value occurs broadly in a stress level 50% of the UCS. The AE produced in the process is almost negligible until the YM transition stress level and increases after that. Important pulses of high AE rate occur, (> 100 s-1), associated with the occurrence and propagation of fractures, which are always parallel to the principal stress, showing an evident pattern of tensile fractures. About 20s before the failure, very important deformation rate is observed, the YM strongly decrease, and continuous AE events, with low rate, usually <50 s-1. The failure is accompanied with a sudden rise of AE events with rate > 200 s-1. Cycling stress experiences were also performed showing reversible stress-strain relation for axial pressure below the YM transition level, and important hysteresis for axial pressure above that level. The associated AE events show a characteristic Kaiser effect pattern. Cores from sample #4 undergo the same continuous increasing stress process, but failure is attained at a considerable lower pressure of 20-25 MPa. The stress-strain curves show an almost linear relation, but approaching the stress level of failure, the YM decreases. The AE events are constant but with a reduced rate until the decrease of the YM, when a significant rise in the AE occurs, achieving emission rates greater that 200 s-1. The fracture shows a characteristic shear pattern. Differences in stress-strain behavior, fracture mode and AE rates are associated with the very different structure of the rocks, once the basaltic sample is very fine grained with some very scattered and almost spherical vesicles or voids, while the benmoreitic core shows high values of porosity in a structure with vesicles and voids with very irregular shapes. Work supported by FCT, Portugal, projet FreeRock, PTDC/CTE-GIX/100687/2008

Moreira, M.; Wallenstein, N.

2012-04-01

345

Volcano Preparedness  

MedlinePLUS

... your local emergency officials. Mudflows Mudflows are powerful “rivers” of mud that can move 20 to 40 ... cannot see the volcano during an eruption. Avoid river valleys and low lying areas. Trying to watch ...

346

Dante's Volcano  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video contains two segments: one a 0:01:50 spot and the other a 0:08:21 feature. Dante 2, an eight-legged walking machine, is shown during field trials as it explores the inner depths of an active volcano at Mount Spurr, Alaska. A NASA sponsored team at Carnegie Mellon University built Dante to withstand earth's harshest conditions, to deliver a science payload to the interior of a volcano, and to report on its journey to the floor of a volcano. Remotely controlled from 80-miles away, the robot explored the inner depths of the volcano and information from onboard video cameras and sensors was relayed via satellite to scientists in Anchorage. There, using a computer generated image, controllers tracked the robot's movement. Ultimately the robot team hopes to apply the technology to future planetary missions.

1994-01-01

347

Cascade Volcanoes  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The volcanoes from closest to farthest are Mt. Washington, Three Fingered Jack, Mt. Jefferson. This picture is taken from Middle Sister looking north in the Cascade Range, Three Sisters Wilderness Area, Deschutes National Forest, Oregon....

2009-12-08

348

Assessment of metals in down feathers of female common eiders and their eggs from the Aleutians: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were examined in the down feathers and\\u000a eggs of female common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska to determine whether there were (1) differences between\\u000a levels in feathers and eggs, (2) differences between the two islands, (3) positive correlations between metal levels

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld; Christian Jeitner; Daniel Snigaroff; Ronald Snigaroff; Timothy Stamm; Conrad Volz

2008-01-01

349

Supporting Sound Management of Our Coasts and Seas Kasatochi Volcano Alaska is noteworthy as a region of frequent seismic and  

E-print Network

) Western Region: Kasatochi Volcano Coastal and Ocean Science Fact Sheet 2010­3028 May 2010 Printed. Most notably, Kasatochi supported a colony of about 250,000 least and crested auklets, one of only seven such colonies in the Aleutian chain. The large numbers of seabirds attracted a variety of avian

350

Teleseismically recorded seismicity before and after the May 7, 1986, Andreanof Islands, Alaska, earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The May 7, 1986, Andreanof Islands earthquake (Mw 8.0) is the largest event to have occurred in that section of the Aleutian arc since the March 9, 1957, Aleutian Islands earthquake (Mw 8.6). Teleseismically well-reported earthquakes in the region of the 1986 earthquake are relocated with a plate model and with careful attention to the focal depths. The data set

E. R. Engdahl; S. Billington; C. Kisslinger

1989-01-01

351

Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian volcano  

SciTech Connect

New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of Hawaii, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield volcano. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian volcanoes. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa volcanoes and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona volcano became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of volcanoes forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of volcanoes was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.

Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA)); Kurz, M.D. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA))

1990-11-01

352

An investigation of the distribution of eruptive products on the shield volcanoes of the western Galapagos Islands using remotely sensed data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent volcanic activity in the Galapagos Islands is concentrated on the two westernmost islands, Isla Isabela and Isla Fernandina. Difficult access has thus far prevented comprehensive geological field studies, so we examine the potential of remotely sensed data as a means of studying volcanic processes in the region. Volcan Wolf is used as an example of the analysis of SPOT

Duncan C. Munro; Scott K. Rowland; Peter J. Mouginis-Mark; Lionel Wilson; Victor-Hugo Oviedo-Perez

1991-01-01

353

Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands  

E-print Network

Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

Hall, Hillary

2012-10-19

354

Three New Speciesof Heteroderoidea (Nematoda)from the Aleutian Islands  

E-print Network

- lauds galled roots of a dunegrass, Elymus mollis Trin., which were found to contain females 31 January 1981. 'Associate Professor, Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, University Ecology Program, for gathering soil and plant material while supported in part by a grant from the U

Bernard, Ernest

355

Twenty years of Alaska Volcano Observatory's contributions to seismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys observed its 20th anniversary in 2008. The AVO seismic network, inherited from AVO partners in 1988, consisted of three small-aperture subnetworks on Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano and Augustine Volcano and regional stations for a total of 23 short-period instruments (two with three-components). Twenty years later, the AVO network has expanded to 192 stations (23 three-component short-period, and 15 broadband) on 33 volcanoes spanning 2500 km across the Aleutian arc in one of the most remote and challenging environments in the world. The AVO seismic network provides for a unique data set. Within the seismically active Aleutian Arc, there are instrumented volcanoes which exhibit a variety of chemical compositions and eruptive styles. With each individual volcanic center similarly instrumented and all data analyzed in a consistent manner AVO has produced a data set suitable for making seismic comparisons across a wide suite of volcanoes. In twenty years, the AVO has captured data sets for eruptions at Augustine, Kasatochi, Okmok, Pavlof, Redoubt, Shishaldin, Spurr, and Venianinof. AVO data set also includes several volcanic-tectonic swarms, most notably at Akutan, Iliamna, Mageik, Martin, Shishaldin, and Tanaga. This broad approach to volcano seismology has led to a better understanding of precursory earthquake swarms, variations in background rates, triggered seismicity, the structure of volcanoes, volcanic tremor and deep long period earthquakes, among numerous other topics. The AVO also incorporates data from seismic stations operated by both the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center to help locate some of the 70,000 earthquakes in the AVO catalog. In exchange AVO provides dense seismic data from the Aleutians which are routinely used to locate earthquakes throughout the north Pacific. In addition to seismic data, AVO also collects data from campaign and continuous GPS, web cameras, and pressure sensors.

Dixon, J. P.; McNutt, S. R.; Power, J. A.; West, M.

2008-12-01

356

Cascade Range Volcanoes: North to South  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page lists Cascades Range volcanoes of British Columbia, Washington State, Oregon, and California. The user can click on the volcano name to get information on the volcano and its vicinity including Current Activity; Background and Information; Current Hazards Report; Visit a Volcano; Maps, Graphics, and Images; Items of Interest; and Useful Links. The volcanoes include: Garibaldi Lake Volcano, Meager Mountain, and Mount Garibaldi in British Columbia; Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams in Washington State: Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, Three-Fingered Jack, Mount Washington, Belknap Shield Volcano, Three Sisters (North, Middle, South), Broken Top, Mount Bachelor, Pilot Butte, Lava Butte, Newberry Caldera, Diamond Peak, Mount Bailey, Mount Thielsen, Crater Lake, Mount Mazama, Wizard Island, and Mount McLoughlin in Oregon:, and Lava Beds, Medicine Lake Volcano, Glass Mountain (Medicine Lake, California), Black Butte, Mount Shasta, and Lassen Peak in California. Links are provided to more general pages on volcanoes in the three states and in Canada.

357

Lahar Hazards at Concepción volcano, Nicaragua  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concepción is one of Nicaragua’s highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical cone occupies the northeastern half of a dumbbell shaped island called Isla Ometepa. The dormant volcano, Maderas, occupies the southwest half of the island. A narrow isthmus connects Concepción and Maderas volcanoes. Concepción volcano towers more than 1600 m above Lake Nicaragua and is within 5 to 10 km of several small towns situated on its aprons at or near the shoreline. These towns have a combined population of nearly 5,000. The volcano has frequently produced debris flows (watery flows of mud, rock, and debris—also known as lahars when they occur on a volcano) that could inundate these nearby populated areas. Concepción volcano has erupted more than 25 times in the last 120 years. Its first recorded activity was in AD 1883. Eruptions in the past century, most of which have originated from a small summit crater, comprise moderate explosions, ash that falls out of eruption plumes (called tephra), and occasional lava flows. Near the summit area, there are accumulations of rock that were emplaced hot (pyroclastic deposits), most of which were hot enough to stick together during deposition (a process called welding). These pyroclastic rocks are rather weak, and tend to break apart easily. The loose volcanic rock remobilizes during heavy rain to form lahars. Volcanic explosions have produced blankets of tephra that are distributed downwind, which on Isla Ometepe is mostly to the west. Older deposits at the west end of the island that are up to 1 m thick indicate larger explosive events have happened at Concepción volcano in prehistoric time. Like pyroclastic-flow deposits, loose tephra on the steep slopes of the volcano provides source material that heavy rainstorms and earthquakes can mobilize to trigger debris flow.

Vallance, J.W.; Schilling, S.P.; Devoli, G.; Howell, M.M.

2001-01-01

358

Sustained long-period seismicity at Shishaldin Volcano, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From September 1999 through April 2004, Shishaldin Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, exhibited a continuous and extremely high level of background seismicity. This activity consisted of many hundreds to thousands of long-period (LP; 1-2 Hz) earthquakes per day, recorded by a 6-station monitoring network around Shishaldin. The LP events originate beneath the summit at shallow depths (0-3 km). Volcano tectonic events and tremor have rarely been observed in the summit region. Such a high rate of LP events with no eruption suggests that a steady state process has been occurring ever since Shishaldin last erupted in April-May 1999. Following the eruption, the only other signs of volcanic unrest have been occasional weak thermal anomalies and an omnipresent puffing volcanic plume. The LP waveforms are nearly identical for time spans of days to months, but vary over longer time scales. The observations imply that the spatially close source processes are repeating, stable and non-destructive. Event sizes vary, but the rate of occurrence remains roughly constant. The events range from magnitude ???0.1 to 1.8, with most events having magnitudes <1.0. The observations suggest that the conduit system is open and capable of releasing a large amount of energy, approximately equivalent to at least one magnitude 1.8-2.6 earthquake per day. The rate of observed puffs (1 per minute) in the steam plume is similar to the typical seismic rates, suggesting that the LP events are directly related to degassing processes. However, the source mechanism, capable of producing one LP event about every 0.5-5 min, is still poorly understood. Shishaldin's seismicity is unusual in its sustained high rate of LP events without accompanying eruptive activity. Every indication is that the high rate of seismicity will continue without reflecting a hazardous state. Sealing of the conduit and/or change in gas flux, however, would be expected to change Shishaldin's behavior. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Petersen, T.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.; McNutt, S. R.

2006-01-01

359

Radiocarbon dates for lava flows from northeast rift zone of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hilo 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Island of Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-eight 14C analyses are reported for carbonized roots and other plant material collected from beneath 15 prehistoric lava flows erupted from the northeast rift zone (NERZ) of Mauna Loa Volcano (ML). The new 14C dates establish ages for 13 previously undated lava flows, and correct or add to information previously reported. Limiting ages on other flows that lie either above or below the dated flows are also established. These dates help to unravel the eruptive history of ML's NERZ. -from Authors

Buchanan-Banks, J. M.; Lockwood, J. P.; Rubin, M.

1989-01-01

360

Volcano-Tectonic Deformation at Taal Volcano, Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taal Volcano, located in southern Luzon, Philippines, is an unusual, tholeiitic volcano situated within a calc-alkaline arc. It is one of the most active volcanic centers in the Philippines, with some 33 historic volcanic eruptions over the past four centuries. Volcanism at Taal is at least partly tectonically controlled, suggested by its location at the intersection of regional fault structures and by the location and shape of both Taal's caldera and Volcano Island. The alignment of modern eruption centers, are controlled by regional and local structures. Here, we review geomorphic and geodetic observations that constrain both tectonic and volcanic deformation in the vicinity of Taal volcano. We use GPS measurements from a 52-station GPS network measured from 1996 - 2001 to investigate overall plate interaction and microplate (intra-arc) deformation. The velocity field indicates that the majority of the Philippine Sea - Eurasia plate convergence is taking place west of Luzon, presumably largely by subduction at the Manila trench. A relatively small fraction of the convergence appears to be taking place within Luzon or across the East Luzon trough. The major intra-arc deformation is accommodated by strike-slip motion along the Philippine Fault, ranging from 25-40 mm/yr left-lateral slip. Detailed measurements in southern Luzon also indicate significant intra-arc deformation west of the Philippine Fault. GPS measurements in southwestern Luzon indicate significant motion within the arc, which could be explained by 11-13 mm/yr of left-lateral shear along the "Macolod Corridor", within which Taal Volcano resides. A dense network of continuous single- and dual-frequency GPS receivers at Taal Volcano, Philippines reveals highly time-variable deformation behavior, similar to that observed at other large calderas. While the caldera has been relatively quiescent for the past 2-3 years, previous deformation includes two major phases of intra-caldera deformation, including two phases of inflation and deflation in 1998-2000. The February-November 2000 period of inflation was characterized by approximately 120 mm of uplift of the center of Volcano Island relative to the northern caldera rim, at average rates up to 216 mm/yr. The source of deflation in 1999 was modeled as a contractional Mogi point source centered at 4.2 km depth beneath Volcano Island; the source of inflation in 2000 was modeled as a dilatational Mogi point source centered at 5.2 km depth beneath Volcano Island. The locations of the two sources are indistinguishable within the 95% confidence estimates. Modeling using a running four-month time window from June 1999-March 2001 reveals little evidence for source migration. We find marginal evidence for an elongate source whose long axis is oriented NW-SE, paralleling the caldera-controlling fault system. We suggest that the two periods of inflation observed at Taal represent episodic intrusions of magma into a shallow reservoir centered beneath Volcano Island whose position is controlled at least in part by regional tectonic structures.

Hamburger, M. W.; Galgana, G.; Corpuz, E.; Bartel, B.

2004-12-01

361

Composite tuff ring\\/cone complexes in Jeju Island, Korea: possible consequences of substrate collapse and vent migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydromagmatic volcanoes (tuff rings and tuff cones) in Jeju Island, Korea, are divided into Holocene volcanoes that were constructed upon rigid, plateau-forming lavas and early to middle Pleistocene volcanoes that underlie the lavas and were constructed upon fragile, unconsolidated sediments. The older volcanoes are distinguished from the Holocene volcanoes in that the former have irregular morphologies. The irregular morphologies resulted

Young Kwan Sohn; Ki Hwa Park

2005-01-01

362

Cascades Volcano Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cascades Volcano Observatory of the U.S. Geological Survey has announced a WWW server offering information on volcanically-induced geologic and hydrologic hazards as well as images of volcanoes and volcanic phenomena. Includes links to ther components of the USGS Volcano Hazards Program such as the Alaska and Hawaii Volcano Observatory and the international Volcano Disaster Assistance Program.

363

Internet Geography: Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of GeoNet Internet Geography, a resource for pre-collegiate British geography students and their instructors. This page focuses on various aspects of volcanoes, including the main features of a volcano, types of volcanoes, the Ring of Fire, locations of volcanoes, volcanic flows, and case studies about specific volcanoes.

364

Mapping the magma conduit for the Shinmoe-dake volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near the southern end of Kyushu, the most southerly of Japan's major islands, a complex of more than 20 small volcanoes together form the Kirishima volcanoes. In January 2011, approximately 20 million cubic meters of material spewed from one of the volcanoes, Shinmoe-dake. Before this most recent activity, Shinmoe-dake had previously erupted in 2010, 1991, 1962, and 1959, with the 2011 eruption being the biggest.

Schultz, Colin

2014-05-01

365

Alaska Volcano Observatory Seismic Network Data Availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) established in 1988 as a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, monitors active volcanoes in Alaska. Thirty-three volcanoes are currently monitored by a seismograph network consisting of 193 stations, of which 40 are three-component stations. The current state of AVO’s seismic network, and data processing and availability are summarized in the annual AVO seismological bulletin, Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaska Volcanoes, published as a USGS Data Series (most recent at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/467). Despite a rich seismic data set for 12 VEI 2 or greater eruptions, and over 80,000 located earthquakes in the last 21 years, the volcanic seismicity in the Aleutian Arc remains understudied. Initially, AVO seismic data were only provided via a data supplement as part of the annual bulletin, or upon request. Over the last few years, AVO has made seismic data more available with the objective of increasing volcano seismic research on the Aleutian Arc. The complete AVO earthquake catalog data are now available through the annual AVO bulletin and have been submitted monthly to the on-line Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) composite catalog since 2008. Segmented waveform data for all catalog earthquakes are available upon request and efforts are underway to make this archive web accessible as well. Continuous data were first archived using a tape backup, but the availability of low cost digital storage media made a waveform backup of continuous data a reality. Currently the continuous AVO waveform data can be found in several forms. Since late 2002, AVO has burned all continuous waveform data to DVDs, as well as storing these data in Antelope databases at the Geophysical Institute. Beginning in 2005, data have been available through a Winston Wave Server housed at the USGS in Anchorage. AVO waveform data were added to the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center (IRIS-DMC) beginning in 2008 and now includes continuous waveform data from all available AVO seismograph stations in real time. Data coverage is available through the DMC’s Metadata Aggregator.

Dixon, J. P.; Haney, M. M.; McNutt, S. R.; Power, J. A.; Prejean, S. G.; Searcy, C. K.; Stihler, S. D.; West, M. E.

2009-12-01

366

Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption". Model of buoyancy drive (by Brown, 1990). Brown's basic hypothesis is similar to Ivanov and Guliev and may be summarized briefly as follows: -in situations where rapid sedimentation is occurring mud may be driven to the surface by buoyancy forces due to bulk density contrasts between mud and overlying sediment cover. Such density contrasts may be simply the result of compaction -disequilibrium, but more importantly may be related to gas expansion when fluids are transported to shallower depths with lower pressure and temperature conditions. Synthetic model had been proposed by I.Lerche, E.Bagirov, I.Guliyev (1997). The model includes the following studies: The starting point of the mud volcanoes begins with the formation of a zone of decompaction as a consequence of a high rate of gas generation. The mud body starts to rise under buoyancy. The excess pressure inside the mud intrusion is less than in surrounding formation. As a result, fluid flow toward the body of mud volcanoes. The body of the mud volcanoes then grows, increasing the buoyancy forces, with further drive the mud. If the rate of gas generation more thôn gas flow, causing exsolving of gas to free-phase gas. If there are open faults and fractures which cross the body of mud volcanoes, then gas and mud can penetrate through the faults, and so from gryphons and salses on the surface. A mud volcanoes can be consider as a huge accumulation of gas, where as the oil is concentrated on the flanks of the mud body.

Guliyev, I. S.

2007-12-01

367

The active lava flows of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kilauea volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Ocean, is the world’s most active volcano. Observations of active lava flows\\u000a of Kilauea have a great relevance to studies of older, extinct volcanic systems, such as those found in India.

Hetu Sheth

2003-01-01

368

Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The origin of the Hawaiian Islands, recorded eruptions, and eruption patterns are discussed in this United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication. The on-line book also covers volcano monitoring and research, landforms and structures, hazards and benefits, and a discussion of Loihi, Hawaii's newest volcano.

Tilling, Robert; Wright, Thomas

369

Newberry Volcano--Central Oregon's Sleeping Giant U.S. Department of the Interior  

E-print Network

Newberry Volcano--Central Oregon's Sleeping Giant U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey USGS Fact Sheet 2011-3145 2011 the largest volcano in the Cascades volcanic arc and covers an area the size of Rhode Island. Unlike familiar cone-shaped Cascades volcanoes, Newberry was built into the shape

Torgersen, Christian

370

Space-geodetic evidence for multiple magma reservoirs and subvolcanic lateral intrusions at Fernandina Volcano,  

E-print Network

Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements of the surface deformation at Fernandina Volcano, Gal�pagos (Ecuador at Fernandina Volcano, Gal�pagos Islands Marco Bagnardi1 and Falk Amelung1 Received 23 May 2012; revised 12 magmatic system of the volcano. Through the analysis of spatial and temporal variations of the measured

Amelung, Falk

371

REDUCING THE RISK FROM VOLCANO HAZARDS Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines  

E-print Network

Pinatubo on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, the volcano had been dormant for 500 years, allowingREDUCING THE RISK FROM VOLCANO HAZARDS O Lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines n June 15, 1991 in the Philippines (Clark Air Base), were built on the broad gentle slopes surrounding the volcano. When Pinatubo

Torgersen, Christian

372

What Are Volcano Hazards?  

MedlinePLUS

... Hawaii, California, Oregon, and Washington. Volcanoes produce a wide variety of hazards that can kill people and ... a volcano is not erupting. Volcanoes produce a wide variety of natural hazards that can kill people ...

373

Aquifers and groundwater within active shield volcanoes. Evolution of conceptual models in the Piton de la Fournaise volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncertainty regarding hydrogeological models that have been proposed for describing active volcanoes results from the difficulty of prospecting deep groundwater bodies. In the case of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano located in Reunion Island, recent geophysical exploration using deep electromagnetic (EM) prospecting tools has provided new geostructural and hydrogeological information. This paper introduces yet a new hydrogeological model,

Jean-Lambert Join; Jean-Luc Folio; Bernard Robineau

2005-01-01

374

Deformation Associated with 1995, 2005 and 2009 Eruptions at Fernandina Volcano, Galápagos, Observed by Satellite Radar Interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fernandina Island is part of the Galápagos Islands, a volcanic archipelago located on the Nazca plate about 1000 km west of Ecuador. With a diameter of about 30 km, the island consists of a single volcano with a maximum elevation of 1470 meters and a central caldera nearly 1000 meters deep. Fernandina is considered one of the most active volcanoes

M. Bagnardi; F. Amelung; S. Baker

2009-01-01

375

Fraser Island Lady Elliot Island  

E-print Network

BRISBANE Fraser Island Lady Elliot Island Lady Musgrave Island Wilson Island Heron Island Great Hinchinbrook Island Lizard Island Double Island Green Island Fitzroy Island North and South Stradbroke Islands

Wang, Yan

376

First cross-correlated measurements of magma dynamics and degassing during a dyke eruption at Piton de la Fournaise hot spot volcano, Reunion island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piton de la Fournaise (PdF), in the western Indian Ocean, is a very active hot spot basaltic volcano whose eruptions (1-2 per year on average) are well anticipated by the local seismic-geodetic monitoring network. Here we report on the first cross-correlated measurements of seismic tremor, magmatic gas composition (OP-FTIR absorption spectroscopy and in situ MultiGas analysis plus filter-pack sampling), gas fluxes (DOAS) and magma extrusion rate (space-borne MODIS data) during a 2-weeks long dyke eruption at PDF in October 2010. Precursory seismic signals indicated dyke ascent in a few hours from a reservoir located at ~2.5 km beneath the summit crater. After an initial burst coinciding with eruptive fissure opening, both the tremor amplitude, lava extrusion rate and SO2 flux coherently decreased during the first week of eruption. The co-emitted magmatic gases, whose composition varied slightly over time, were found to have a high water content (95-98 mol %), high SO2/HCl and low CO2/SO2, HCl/HF and Cl/Br ratios, consistent with a hydrous hot spot mantle source. By comparing gas fluxes with the magma co-extrusion rate and available melt inclusion data, we infer an essentially syn-eruptive (closed system) degassing for sulfur, chlorine and fluorine during the first half of the eruption. In contrast, additions of CO2 (previously accumulated or/and bubbling differentially) and H2O (external contribution from the hydrothermal system?) are required to explain the gas composition. Differential CO2 bubbling is supported by high frequency correlations between the CO2/HCl ratio and seismic tremor. The second part of the eruption was marked by a spectacular decoupling between re-increasing seismic tremor and declining lava extrusion, indicating a key control of tremor and eruptive activity by differential (open system) gas bubbling across the feeder dyke. This was associated with an increasing contribution of the low-frequency (1-3 Hz) spectral band to the tremor amplitude. Finally, the end of the eruption was preceded by a new sharp tremor increase, with remarkable anti-correlated variations of the 1-3 Hz and 3-5 Hz spectral signals, which we tentatively attribute to an abrupt geometrical change prior to dyke closure. These results, and future ones, are expected to contribute to better understanding and forecasting of eruption processes at Piton de la Fournaise volcano.

Allard, P.; La Spina, A.; Tamburelllo, G.; Aiuppa, A.; Coquet, A.; Brenguier, F.; Coppola, D.; Di Muro, A.; Burton, M. R.; Staudacher, T.

2011-12-01

377

The off-shore continuation of an active basaltic volcano: Piton de la Fournaise (Réunion Island, Indian Ocean); structural and geomorphological interpretation from sea beam mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1984 a Sea Beam survey of the submarine east flank of Piton de la Fournaise was performed with R/V "Jean Charcot". Three main types of volcanic or volcano-tectonic features have been identified: (1) The subaerial NE and SE volcanic rift zones of Piton de la Fournaise do not extend more than about five kilometers offshore. Unlike typical Hawaiian rift zones, which form narrow (2-4 km) ridges extending tens of kilometers from the summit, the active rift zones of Piton de la Fournaise widen downslope, attaining more than 10 km at their front. (2) The submarine extension of the Grand Brûlé slide is larger than the subaerial portion. The entire slide forms a 7 × 24 km scar bounded by two ramparts to the north and south. The slumped material may have moved as a debris flow, forming a large talus downslope of the slide. However, the submarine counterpart of the south area of the Grand Brûlé seems to be composed by a slumped block whose structure is apparently not disturbed. (3) Another prominent feature is a conspicuous topographic high that occupies nearly all the center of the surveyed zone. This "cast flank submarine plateau" cannot be associated with any active structure of Piton de la Fournaise. Its surface generally dips gently (2-3°), and its northern and southern flanks are extensively cut by landslides. Cones of variable dimensions are observed on the plateau and farther to the east. Three hypotheses are examined to account for the origin of this morphology: (a) remnant flank of an ancestral Fournaise volcano associated with a large buried intrusion found by drilling beneath the Grand Brûlé; (b) distinct volcanic massif or (c) material of a huge and ancient landslide. The geophysical data show that the western part of this submarine plateau is reversely magnetized and associated with a moderate positive gravity anomaly. This confirms that, as suggested by the bathymetric analysis, this part of the plateau is relatively coherent. Conversely, the eastern portion of the plateau appears to be poorly magnetized and composed of low-density material, probably chaotic materials derived from landslides. The reversed magnetization of the western part shows that the whole structure is older than 0.7 Ma. These results show that the volcanic history of Piton de la Fournaise is more complex than previously thought.

Lénat, Jean-François; Vincent, Pierre; Bachélery, Patrick

1989-01-01

378

Serpentinites and low-K island arc meta-volcanic rocks in the Lower Köli Nappe of the central Scandinavian Caledonides: Late Cambrian-early Ordovician serpentinite mud volcanoes in a forearc basin?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late Cambrian to early Ordovician meta-volcanic rocks of the Caledonian Lower Köli Nappe consist mainly of tholeiitic low-K island arc basalts, andesites, and rhyodacites. The dominance of rhyodacites in this meta-volcanic succession raises the question on whether fractional crystallization or partial melting were involved in their origin. Low Mg#, low Cr and Ni contents and compositional trends imply at least two stages of fractional crystallization for the origin of the meta-volcanic rocks. Sedimentary-hosted serpentinites occur stratigraphically below and above the meta-volcanic rocks raising the question on their origin. Geochemical data indicate strongly depleted harzburgitic-dunitic peridotite as precursor rocks of the serpentinites. Unusually high contents of As, Sb, Pb in these serpentinites are not in agreement with a depleted mantle geochemistry, but indicate enrichment by fluids from the subducted slab during serpentinization in the mantle wedge. The massive, detrital, and in places fossiliferous serpentinite bodies within the sedimentary host-rocks point to former serpentinite mud volcanoes within a non-accretionary forearc. Therefore it is suggested that the highly fractionated volcanic rocks were emplaced as lava flows and shallow intrusions in sedimentary forearc successions implying that the Lower Köli Nappe was part of a much larger trench-arc complex involving at least the immediate hanging wall Middle Köli Stikke Nappe.

Grimmer, Jens C.; Greiling, Reinhard O.

2012-05-01

379

Isotopic and trace element geochemistry of lavas from the northern Mariana and southern volcano arcs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples from submarine volcanoes and islands were analyzed for concentrations of K, Rb, Sr, Ba, REE, ⁸⁷Sr\\/⁸⁶Sr and some selected samples for ¹⁴³Nd\\/¹⁴⁴Nd. These data show strong variations along the arc, being relatively depleted in the tholeiitic and low-K calc-alkaline volcanoes of the Volcano Arc (VA) and the Mariana Central Island Province (CIP). All of the Mariana Northern Seamount Province

Lin Pingnan

1989-01-01

380

Volcano Lovers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Why Files article explores volcanoes and volcanic eruptions. Topics covered include: Alaska's Pavlof and its threat to jet engines; Mexico City's restless neighbor, Popocatepetl (El Popo); underground volcanic processes; modern forecasting of eruptions; various volcanic phenomena and features; large flood basalt areas around the world; California's volcanically active area, Long Valley Caldera and Mammoth Mountain; Indonesia's Krakatau eruption in 1883, which was the world's largest historical eruption; Krakatau's ecological contribution to the study of colonization of sterile lands; and central Mexico's Paricutin which was witnessed emerging from a farmer's field in 1943. Three scientists were interviewed for this article.

Tenenbaum, David

1997-01-02

381

Kilauea volcano eruption seen from orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-51 crew had a clear view of the erupting Kilauea volcano during the early morning pass over the Hawaiian islands. Kilauea, on the southwest side of the island of Hawaii, has been erupting almost continuously since January, 1983. Kilauea's summit caldera, with the smaller Halemaumau crater nestled within, is highlighted in the early morning sun (just above the center of the picture). The lava flows which covered roads and subdivisions in 1983-90 can be seen as dark flows to the east (toward the upper right) of the steam plumes on this photo. The summit crater and lava flows of Mauna Loa volcano make up the left side of the photo. Features like the Volcano House and Kilauea Visitor Center on the edge of the caldera, the small subdivisions east of the summit, Ola's Rain Forest north of the summit, and agricultural land along the coast are easily identified.

1993-01-01

382

Comprehensive study of the seismotectonics of the Eastern Aleutian arc and associated volcanic systems. Annual progress report, April 1, 1985-March 31, 1986  

SciTech Connect

In the five-week period between October 9 and November 14, 1985, a sequence of 5 moderate-sized events with magnitudes m/sub b/ = 6.4, 5.0, 5.2, 5.0, and 5.6 occurred in the Shumagin Islands seismic network region of the Eastern Aleutian arc. In addition to this cluster of moderate-sized events the microseismicity rate in the Shumagin region has increased by 35 to 80% for at least a 6-months period beginning in April 1985. While we cannot be sure that these unusual seismicity patterns are part of a precursory activity to a large impending Shumagin earthquake, such a possibility must at least be considered. In addition to these observations of recent seismicity in the Eastern Aleutians, we have thoroughly reviewed the entire historic and instrumental seismicity, the tectonics and seismic hazards for most of the Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone, and have redetermined the probabilities for the occurrence of great earthquakes at this active plate boundary for the twenty year period 1985-2005. The aftershock sequence, amount of slip and magnitude Mwgreater than or equal to8.6) of the great 1957 earthquake in the central Aleutians, have been reanalyzed and its effect on the seismic potential for the Unalaska seismic gap is assessed. We find this questionable gap at present capable to sustain a Mwapprox. =8.6 event. 11 refs., 4 figs.

Jacob, K.H.; Taber, J.; Boyd, T.; McNutt, S.; Beavan, J.; Rosen, S.; Luckman, M.A.; Johnson, D.; Skinta, L.

1986-01-01

383

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the US Geological Survey, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is charged with monitoring and researching volcanoes in Hawaii. The site provides current activity reports, hazard information, and a history of the two main volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. In addition, the site provides information on three other volcanoes that are either active or potentially active. Visitors can also learn about earthquakes in Hawaii and the particular hazards posed by volcanos. Captivating photos help bring the volcanoes to life. Visitors can patronize the Photo Gallery for additional volcano photos. Cross links to additional information and sites are provided on every page.

384

Comparison of the submarine landslide by the sector collapse of Oshima-Oshima island in the northern part of Japan with the debris avalanche of off Kaimon volcano in the southern part of Japan and several landslide.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oshima-Oshima island is an active volcano located in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea off Hokkaido. Oshima-Oshima consists of Higashi-yama somma, Nishi-yama somma, and the central cone. The latest eruption occurred at the 18th century. In a huge eruption on August 1741 , Nishiyama of western part of Oshima- Oshima collapsed toward the northern submarine slope , and the horseshoe shape caldera was formed. It is proposed by Katsui et al.(1977) , Satake and Kato(2001) that Japan Sea tsunami in 1741 was generated by this collapse. Detailed swath bathymetry surveys have been conducted around Oshima-Oshima by Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan in 1993. As a result, a large area of debris avalanche deposits has been discovered on the northern submarine flanks of Oshima-Oshima island. In addition, sidescan sonar surveys was also conducted by Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan and University of Tokyo in 1995. In 1997, the lower part of the debris avalanche deposit was investigated using submersible 'Shinkai 2000' by JAMSTEC(Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology). It was confirmed that those deposits were Oshima origins (Kato,1997). We compiled and analyzed using these detailed bathymetry data and sidescan data. As a result , we clarified a detailed geographical features of debris avalanche and the limit of their distribution. Scarp of caldera rim continues to approximately 1100m under the sea. Oshima-Oshima has diameter of approximately 16km. Oshima-Oshima has also an estimated total edifice volume (subaerial and submarine) of 127km3 and rises about 2200m from its base in 1500m depth of water. Northern part of Oshima-Oshima, the scarp of caldera rim on the subaerial area consecutively continues up to about 1100m of depth. The scarp has 100m-300m high, and width of landslide valley is about 2km. Hammocky surface starts from 1100m depth of water. Sea mount of like spur is composed of the collapse deposits has almost extended to the whole area in the trough deeper than 1100m. Debris avalanche deposits have been identified up to 2200m depth and 24km from Oshima-Oshima island, H/L is approximately 0.12. Maximum sizes of debris avalanche block is up to 1-2km width and 100m high. We divided the debris avalanche deposits into three areas (Type A-C) by the topography. Type-A is the main sedimentary area in front of the collapse area and the form is like a spur with 100 to 130m height. Type-B has a form like a knoll or block. Type-C shows gradual slope containing a small rise. We compared these feature with debris avalanche of off Kaimon volcano in the southern part of Japan and the other debris avalanche (landslide, submarine landslide).

Kaji, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Kato, Y.

2007-12-01

385

Monitoring ground deformations at active Neapolitan volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Neapolitan volcanic area, located in the south sector of the Campanian plain, includes three active volcanoes: Somma-Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei Caldera, and Ischia Islands. Somma-Vesuvio (last eruption occurred in 1944) is characterized by a low level seismic and ground deformation activity; Campi Flegrei Caldera (last eruption occurred in 1538) is characterized by slow deformation and several bradyiseismic events. During the

F. Pingue; C. del Gaudio; G. de Natale; F. Obrizzo; V. Sepe; G. Cecere; P. de Martino; V. Siniscalchi; U. Tammaro

2003-01-01

386

Episodes of Aleutian Ridge explosive volcanism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earlier workers have overlooked deep-sea bentonite beds when unraveling the Cenozoic volcanic history of an area. In the North Pacific, identification of Miocene and older volcanic episodes is possible only if both altered (bentonite) and unaltered ash beds are recognized. Our study, which includes bentonite beds, shows that volcanism on the Aleutian Ridge and Kamchatka Peninsula has been cyclic. Volcanic activity seems to have increased every 2.5 ?? 10 6 years for the past 10 ?? 106 years and every 5.0 ?? 106 ye