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1

The petrogenesis of sodic island arc magmas at Savo volcano, Solomon Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Savo, Solomon Islands, is a historically active volcano dominated by sodic, alkaline lavas, and pyroclastic rocks with up to 7.5 wt% Na2O, and high Sr, arc-like trace element chemistry. The suite is dominated by mugearites (plagioclase-clinopyroxene-magnetite ± amphibole ± olivine) and trachytes (plagioclase-amphibole-magnetite ± biotite). The presence of hydrous minerals (amphibole, biotite) indicates relatively wet magmas. In such melts, plagioclase is relatively unstable relative to iron oxides and ferromagnesian silicates; it is the latter minerals (particularly hornblende) that dominate cumulate nodules at Savo and drive the chemical differentiation of the suite, with a limited role for plagioclase. This is potentially occurring in a crustal “hot zone”, with major chemical differentiation occurring at depth. Batches of magma ascend periodically, where they are subject to decompression, water saturation and further cooling, resulting in closed-system crystallisation of plagioclase, and ultimately the production of sodic, crystal and feldspar-rich, high-Sr rocks. The sodic and hydrous nature of the parental magmas is interpreted to be the result of partial melting of metasomatised mantle, but radiogenic isotope data (Pb, Sr, Nd) cannot uniquely identify the source of the metasomatic agent.

Smith, D. J.; Petterson, M. G.; Saunders, A. D.; Millar, I. L.; Jenkin, G. R. T.; Toba, T.; Naden, J.; Cook, J. M.

2009-12-01

2

Intervention in Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the late 1990s Solomon Islands had been moving towards the status of a ‘failed state’. Corruption was widespread and there was considerable resentment expressed by Guadalcanal people towards immigrants from the neighbouring island of Malaita, because of the perceived economic gains made by the latter at the former's expense. Conflict over this issue led to the coup of 5

Derek McDougall

2004-01-01

3

The role of slab melting in the petrogenesis of high-Mg andesites: evidence from Simbo Volcano, Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petrogenesis of high-Mg andesites (HMA) in subduction zones involves shallow melting of refractory mantle sources or, alternatively, the interaction of ascending slab-derived melts with mantle peridotite. To unravel the petrogenesis of HMA, we report major, trace element and Sr–Nd–Hf–Pb isotope data for a newly found occurrence of HMA in the New Georgia group, Solomon Islands, SW-Pacific. Volcanism in the

S. König; S. Schuth; C. Münker; C. Qopoto

2007-01-01

4

Reunion Island Volcano Erupts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

5

Solomon Islands: reaching street children in Honiara.  

PubMed

The situation of homeless children in Honiara, Solomon Islands had attracted the attention of Sister Doreen of the Angelican Sisters of the Church. One discovery was that these young people had little knowledge of sexuality but were often sexually active. This article discusses the workshop developed by the Angelican Sisters of the Church that addresses the needs of the youth, particularly on the topics of adolescent sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). About 34 young people attended the 4-day seminar, which aimed to empower the kids into making the right decision and changing their behavior. Among the activities during the program were the use of games, information and practical sessions, which included a condom demonstration in the form of a bingo game. The workshop was a success, with kids started teaching their peers and parents and more requests for such workshops indicated that young people in Honoria are hungry for information on sex, sexuality, HIV/AIDS and STDs. PMID:12295868

Gatu, R

2000-01-01

6

Aid for Education in Post-Conflict Solomon Islands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between 1998 and 2003, conflict, violent crime, and a severe economic downturn pushed the Solomon Islands state to the brink of failure, exacerbating the problems of an already struggling education sector. Most schools on Guadalcanal were seriously disrupted; some were burned down or vandalized, others closed as teachers and students fled…

Whalan, Jeni

2011-01-01

7

Accounting and culture : The case of Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper sets out to review research on the compatibility between values underlying western accounting systems and traditional Solomon Islands cultural values. The research takes a sociological view of accounting to better understand how imported accounting values and practices fit into, and interact with, local traditions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An interpretive methodology uses in-depth interviews and participant observation. Both

Abraham Hauriasi; Howard Davey

2009-01-01

8

Haemophilus ducreyi Associated with Skin Ulcers among Children, Solomon Islands  

PubMed Central

During a survey of yaws prevalence in the Solomon Islands, we collected samples from skin ulcers of 41 children. Using PCR, we identified Haemophilus ducreyi infection in 13 (32%) children. PCR-positive and PCR-negative ulcers were phenotypically indistinguishable. Emergence of H. ducreyi as a cause of nongenital ulcers may affect the World Health Organization’s yaws eradication program. PMID:25271477

Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Pillay, Allan; Sokana, Oliver; Pavluck, Alex; Mabey, David C.; Chen, Cheng Y.; Solomon, Anthony W.

2014-01-01

9

Comparison of the 2010 and 2007 Solomon Island Tsunamis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3 January 2010 Mw 7.1 earthquake off Rendova and Tetepare Islands, Western Province, Solomon Islands, generated surprisingly large tsunami waves, completely destroying Retavo village at Rendova Island’s south shore, located approximately 15 km from the trench. A reconnaissance team was deployed within a week, measuring local tsunami heights, maximum tsunami runup/inundation, coastal subsidence, co-seismic offset and afterslip, and interviewed eyewitnesses per established methods. This event occurred three years after the 1 April 2007 Mw 8.1 megathrust earthquake that generated a wide-spread tsunami across the Western Province Islands, causing 52 human casualties (Fritz and Kalligeris 2008). Although much smaller in magnitude than the 2007 event (below the assumed tsunamigenic magnitude threshold of ~Mw 7.5), the 2010 event produced a larger localized flow depth, and only moderately smaller runup, reaching a maximum value of 7 m on the southern shore of Rendova Isl. Observations of widespread subsidence on the south coasts of Rendova and Tetepare Islands ruled out the most probable shallow-dipping megathrust model of earthquake rupture. Instead, a high-angle conjugate intraslab thrust within the down going plate is preferred, agreeing with the seismically defined moment tensor, the observed coseismic subsidence, and enhanced tsunami excitation. The two events showed that SI population is very aware of its vulnerability to tsunamis, which we attribute to ancestral tsunami knowledge. Similar observations were made in Chile this year, where residents in most areas self-evacuated, significantly containing human casualties. We will compare the two Solomon Island events, in terms of our field findings, the source deformation models that best fit the observations, and present preliminary tsunami modeling results. Inundation in Tapurai village, Simbo Island in 2007 (left), and in Retavo village, Rendova Island in 2010 (right).

Kalligeris, N.; Fritz, H.; Newman, A. V.; Feng, L.; Lifton, Z. M.; Wei, Y.; Titov, V. V.; Uslu, B. U.

2010-12-01

10

The Education Pacific Islands Children Deserve: The Learn and Play Project in the Solomon Islands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learn and Play Project was initiated by Solomon Islands Football Federation and aimed at educating and providing football skills training for primary school dropouts. The aim of this paper is to report the implementation of the programme in a case study school. Because the project is still being implemented, this paper is not intended to…

Maebuta, Jack

2011-01-01

11

Solomon Islands: Summary Report. Educational Experience Survey: Education, Language and Literacy Experience. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Education Watch initiative is being implemented in the Solomon Islands by the Coalition on Education Solomon Islands (COESI) in partnership with Asian South Pacific Bureau of Adult Education (ASPBAE). COESI aims to generate a reliable body of information that will: (1) Accurately explain how much the national government has done and can do to…

de Guzman, Sylvia

2007-01-01

12

"Engendering" environmental projects: the case of eco-timber production in the Solomon Islands.  

PubMed

This article discusses the case of timber production in the Solomon Islands and links between environmental protection and gender. Many environmental projects are undertaken without regard for gender roles and relations. The Solomon Western Islands Fair Trade (SWIFT) initiative included women in only a peripheral way. This article justifies the involvement of women in environmental projects and then evaluates the operations of SWIFT. A role for women in local environmental projects should be recognized because of women's roles, knowledge, and interests. Use of natural resources is gender-based. In the Solomon Islands, women are identified as having the greater interest in the long-term sustainability of the environment and greater reliance on natural resources to fulfill their roles, but forestry is men's work. The price of tropical woods has tempted Micronesian governments to exploit forests to enhance their foreign exchange earnings. Environmental degradation from logging is particularly severe in the Solomon Islands. The population fulfills many basic needs from forests. Forests can provide cash earnings. The author conducted an evaluation of effectiveness of SWIFT in 1996. The SWIFT project allows rural people to earn cash from sustainable timber extraction without signing with logging companies. Women are affected by SWIFT due to their husbands' appropriation of their earnings, their peripheral role, and lack of representation in senior positions and use of women's forestry expertise. The article offers a model for genderizing eco-projects. Men need to be encouraged to work more as partners with women. PMID:12321992

Scheyvens, R

1998-11-01

13

Influence of Schools on Economically Disadvantageous Attitudes: A Solomon Islands Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the economically detrimental attitude of regionalism in a Solomon Islands secondary school and measures changes in regionalism with exposure to school experience that stressed regional integration. Significant decreases in regionalism were recorded. (Available from Plenum Publishing Corporation, 227 West 17 Street, New York, NY…

MacBeth, Alastair M.

1976-01-01

14

Pijin at School in Solomon Islands: Language Ideologies and the Nation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I analyze the reasons that have excluded Pijin, the lingua franca of Solomon Islands, South West Pacific, from being used as a medium of instruction, and why this may now become possible. Following a short sociolinguistic sketch, I present the colonial and post-colonial linguistic ideologies that shaped sociolinguistic…

Jourdan, Christine

2013-01-01

15

Building on Living Traditions: Early Childhood Education and Culture in Solomon Islands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Solomon Islands, a small developing nation in the South Pacific, demonstrates an emerging community-based kindergarten model with the potential to promote context and culture relevant early learning and development, despite deeply embedded foundations in colonial legacies. Based on the Kahua region of Makira-Ulawa Province, this collaborative,…

Burton, Lindsay J.

2012-01-01

16

"We can move forward": challenging historical inequity in public health research in Solomon Islands  

PubMed Central

Background In resource-poor countries, such as Solomon Islands, the research agenda on health is often dominated by researchers from resource-rich countries. New strategies are needed to empower local researchers to set directions for health research. This paper presents a process which seeks to enable a local and potentially more equitable research agenda at a remote hospital in Solomon Islands. Methods In preparation for a health research capacity-building workshop at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Malaita, Solomon Islands, a computer-based search was conducted of Solomon Islands public health literature. Using a levels-of-agreement approach publications were categorised as: a) original research, b) reviews, c) program descriptions and d) commentaries or discussion. Original research publications were further sub-categorised as: i) measurement, ii) descriptive research and iii) intervention studies. Results were reviewed with Solomon Islander health professionals in a focus group discussion during the health research workshop. Focus group participants were invited to discuss reactions to literature search results and how results might assist current or future local researchers to identify gaps in the published research literature and possible research opportunities at the hospital and surrounding communities. Focus group data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results Of the 218 publications meeting inclusion criteria, 144 (66%) were categorised as 'original research', 42 (19%) as 'commentaries/discussion', 28 (13%) as 'descriptions of programs' and 4 (2%) as 'reviews'. Agreement between three authors' (MRM, DM, AC) independent categorisation was 'excellent' (0.8 Solomon Islands (largely non-Solomon Islanders); ii) when the research was done (research needs to keep up to date); iii) amount of published research (there should be more); iv) types of research (lack of intervention and operational research); v) value of published research (important); vi) gaps in published literature (need more research about nursing); vii) opportunities for research action (start small); viii) support required to undertake research at the hospital and in surrounding communities (mentoring and partnering with experienced researchers). Conclusions A search and collaborative review of public health literature for Solomon Islands at a health research capacity building workshop has uncovered and challenged historical inequity in the conduct and access to public health research. Emerging Solomon Islander researchers at a remote hospital are now working to set priorities and strengthen local research efforts. These efforts have highlighted the importance of collaboration and mentoring for Solomon Islanders to instigate and implement public health research to improve the health of individuals and communities served by this remote hospital. PMID:21050492

2010-01-01

17

The petrology of the Las Canadas volcanoes, Tenerife, Canary islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tenerife is the largest of the seven Tertiary to Recent volcanic islands that make up the Canary Archipelago. The island is composed of volcanics belonging to the basanitetrachyte-phonolite assemblage that characterises many Atlantic islands. The most voluminous development of intermediate and salic volcanics has been in the centre of the island where the Las Canadas volcanoes arose upon a basement

William Ian Ridley

1970-01-01

18

Molecular analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in the Solomon Islands  

SciTech Connect

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most prevalent genetic disorders, and >100 million people are considered to have mutant genes. G6PD deficiency is frequent in the area where plasmodium falciparum infection is endemic, probably because the G6PD-deficient subjects are resistant to the parasite. Falciparum and vivax malarias have been highly endemic in the Solomon Islands, and a high frequency of G6PD deficiency has also been expected. A recent investigation showed that the frequency of G6PD deficiency in the Solomon Islands was 8.4%-14.4%. Although >80 G6PD variants from various populations have been molecularly analyzed, little is known about those in Melanesians. G6PD Maewo, which was originally found in Vanuatu, has so far been the only Melanesian variant whose structural abnormality was determined. 14 refs., 1 fig.

Hirono, A.; Ishii, A.; Hirono, K.; Miwa, S. [National Institute of Health, Tokyo (Japan); Kere, N. [Medical Research and Training Institute, Honiara (Japan); Fujii, H. [Tokyo Women`s Medical College, Tokyo (Japan)

1995-05-01

19

Characteristics of occult hepatitis B virus infection in the Solomon Islands.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic in the Solomon Islands. However, little is known about the status of occult HBV infection in the Solomon Islands. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of occult HBV infection and its clinical and virological features in the community of Solomon Islands. Blood samples were collected from a total of 564 asymptomatic individuals aged over 18 years in the Western province. The samples used in the present study consisted of 200 samples from 108 males and 92 females (mean age, 37.4 years; range, 18-71 years) that were randomly selected among the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative samples from all the participants enrolled in this study. HBV-DNA was detected by real-time PCR in 25 (12.5%) of the 200 HBsAg-negative samples. Most of the HBV-DNA-positive individuals were infected with wild-type HBV, and only 3 strains demonstrated specific amino acid substitutions (P121X, T123N, C138S, P142S and D144E) in the ? determinant region. In conclusion, occult HBV infection was documented in 12.5% of individuals that demonstrated serologic evidence of resolved HBV infection in this study. The prevalence of occult infection was also influenced by ethnicity; it was more prevalent in Melanesians than Micronesians. In addition, occult HBV infection demonstrated a weak association with the S-variants. PMID:21455562

Utsumi, Takako; Yano, Yoshihiko; Truong, Bui Xuan; Kawabata, Masato; Hayashi, Yoshitake

2011-06-01

20

Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Solomon Islands and a new survey of Makira Island  

PubMed Central

Abstract The intent of this paper is to facilitate future research of the Solomon Islands ant fauna by providing the first comprehensively researched species inventory in over 75 years. The species list presented here includes the names of all ant species recorded from the islands that are available in the literature together with specimen records from several museum collections and new records from our 2008 Makira field expedition. All the names of described species presented are valid in accordance with the most recent Formicidae classification. In total, the checklist is composed of 237 species and subspecies (including 30 morphospecies) in 59 genera representing nine subfamilies. We report that the recent field expedition added 67 new species records to Makira and 28 new species records to the Solomon Islands. Our research recovered species occurrence records for 32 individual islands and five island groups. The five islands with the highest number of recorded species are: Makira (142 spp.), Guadalcanal (107 spp.), Malaita (70 spp.), Santa Isabel (68 spp.), and Rennell (66 spp.). Based on our results, we discuss the taxonomic composition of the archipelago’s ant fauna, which islands are most in need of additional sampling, and the importance of establishing biodiversity baselines before environmental threats such as the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata cause irrevocable harm to the native biodiversity. PMID:23653494

Sarnat, Eli M.; Blanchard, Benjamin; Guénard, Benoit; John Fasi;  Evan P. Economo

2013-01-01

21

Health impacts of climate change in the Solomon Islands: an assessment and adaptation action plan.  

PubMed

The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands' responses to climate change. PMID:25168977

Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

2014-09-01

22

Mapping the epidemiology of yaws in the solomon islands: a cluster randomized survey.  

PubMed

Yaws, a non-venereal treponemal disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 but accurate epidemiological data to guide control programs remain sparse. The Solomon Islands reports the second highest number of cases of yaws worldwide. We conducted a cluster randomized survey of yaws in two provinces of the Solomon Islands. One thousand four hundred and ninety-seven (1,497) children 5-14 years of age were examined. Clinical signs of active yaws were found in 79 children (5.5%), whereas 140 children (9.4%) had evidence of healed yaws lesions. Four hundred and seventy (470) (31.4%) children had a positive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA). Two hundred and eighty-five (285) children (19%) had a positive TPPA and rapid plasma regain assay. Risk of yaws increased with age and was more common in males. The prevalence of yaws at village level was the major risk factor for infection. Our findings suggest the village, not the household, should be the unit of treatment in the World Health Organization (WHO) yaws eradication strategy. PMID:25422395

Marks, Michael; Vahi, Ventis; Sokana, Oliver; Puiahi, Elliot; Pavluck, Alex; Zhang, Zaixing; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Bottomley, Christian; Mabey, David C; Solomon, Anthony W

2015-01-01

23

Living on Active Volcanoes - The Island of Hawaii  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication highlights the volcanic hazards facing the people living on the Island of Hawaii. These hazards include lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, earthquakes and tsunamis. This report discusses these hazards, the volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea, and the work of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory to monitor and issue warnings to the people affected by these hazards.

Heliker, Christina; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley Ii., James

24

Geologic Survey of the 2 April 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake and Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2 April 2007 magnitude 8.1 Solomon Islands earthquake and tsunami caused extensive damage to coral reefs, coastal erosion, and in some locations, 3 meters of uplift, subsidence, and numerous landslides in the Western and Choiseul Provinces. Extensive damage to the coral reefs ranged from shattered branching corals to 4 meter head corals snapped off their bases and toppled over. The fringing reef on the east coast of Ranongga sustained the greatest degree of damage as it was uplifted 3 m above sea level and remains completely exposed. Sediment samples were collected along transects extended from offshore to onshore environments for larger islands, such as Ghizo, where the tsunami did not pass over the entire island. Smaller islands, such as Nusa Aghana, a transect was conducted from the outer barrier reefs, through the lagoon, across the island, and offshore on the opposing side of the island. Offshore data was collected using a side-scan sonar system that records bathymetry and images coral reef morphology. This data was coupled with snorkeling and SCUBA diving to ground truth the offshore lagoon and reef environments. Sediment samples were collected offshore every 5 m and were documented by underwater photos and GPS coordinates. Offshore to onshore sediment transects reveal that sediment was eroded from seaward facing shorelines, deposited a thin veneer of sediment on islands, and transported the majority of the sediment on coral reefs on the lagoon side of islands, essentially burying coral and lagoonal sediment. Coral reef damaged by the earthquake and tsunami represents a major concern for an already threatened ecosystem. Recovery of the fishing and dive tourism economies rely on the healthy reestablishment of the reef.

Rafiau, W. B.; Jackson, K. L.; Billy, D.; Bonte-Grapentin, M.; Kruger, J.; McAdoo, B. G.; Moore, A. L.; Tiano, B.

2007-12-01

25

A survey for plant diseases caused by viruses and virus-like pathogens in the Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Surveys for virus and virus-like plant diseases were conducted on the islands of Guadalcanal, Malaita, Ndende and Temon Neo\\u000a in the Solomon Islands. New plant virus records for the country were those of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) in Citrulus lanatus (watermelon), Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin), Cucumis melo (rockmelon) and Cucumis sativas (cucumber); Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) in Brassica chinensis (Chinese

R. I. Davis; H. Tsatsia

2009-01-01

26

Rift zone reorganization through flank instability in ocean island volcanoes: an example from Tenerife, Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between rift zones and flank instability in ocean island volcanoes is often inferred but rarely documented. Our field data, aerial image analysis, and 40Ar\\/39Ar chronology from Anaga basaltic shield volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands, support a rift zone—flank instability relationship. A single rift zone dominated the early stage of the Anaga edifice (~6–4.5 Ma). Destabilization of the northern sector

T. R. Walter; V. R. Troll; B. Cailleau; A. Belousov; H.-U. Schmincke; F. Amelung; P. v. d. Bogaard

2005-01-01

27

2007 Solomon Islands Tsunami Left Little Sand Onshore, Buried Backshore Reefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many places struck by the 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami, little onshore record of the tsunami's passage remains yet considerable sediment was transported offshore. This sediment represents an ecological hazard in tropical regions because of its potential for burying coral reefs. At Nusa Agana, a 50 m-wide, 2 m-high barrier island ~36 km N of the epicenter, flow depths recorded by debris wrapped around tree trunks did not exceed 50 cm--the sedimentary record on land was similarly small at ~2 cm thick. Nevertheless, the "outer" coastline of the island was stripped of sediment and the "inner" coastline filled with enough sediment to bury coral reefs to an extent that only soft corals at the top of the reef survive. The source of the sediment appears to be a mixture of sand from both the outer and inner beach, suggesting that scour occurred at both these locations. Perhaps because of the island's low relief, Nusa Agana acted less as a barrier to flow and more as a topographic high; sediment cover thinned over the high and selectively infilled the topographic low of the lagoon. At Tapurai, ~55 km ENE of the epicenter, the tsunami left a layer of coral rubble 20-30 cm thick and moved basalt boulders up to 1 m in diameter more than 100 m inland. The tsunami here reached flow depths of more than 8 m and swept N-SW across fan-shaped Tapurai, piling coral rubble mixed from offshore reefs and the modern beach onto farm fields before striking a basalt cliff behind the town and deflecting SW, carrying basalt debris with it before exiting through the town's harbor. The sediment leaves a vivid account of the passage of the wave, progressing from a solely coral rubble deposit to a mixed basalt-coral deposit and thinning downflow as sediment supply waned. Where the tsunami washed completely over islands, the side facing the waves is typically stripped of sediment, whereas the lee side shows a well developed scarp, suggesting that at least some tsunami scarps are formed during backflow and not during initial tsunami attack. At Nusa Agana, no scarp was visible one month after the event on the outer coast, but a 40 cm high scarp remained visible on the inner coast. Similarly, at Tapurai no scarp was visible on the coast first struck by the tsunami, but a well-developed scarp 50 cm high remained where the tsunami flowed offshore. Although relatively small, the 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami provides an unusual test for ideas about how tsunamis affect coastlines, and demonstrates that in at least some cases most of the sediment deposition (and ecological damage) are offshore.

Moore, A. L.; Jackson, K. L.; Kruger, J.; McAdoo, B. G.; Rafiau, W. B.; Tiano, B.; Woodward, S. M.

2007-12-01

28

The Solomon Islands Tsunami of 6 February 2013 in the Santa Cruz Islands: Field Survey and Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were observed on volcanic Tinakula Island and on Ndendo Island. Observations from the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami are compared against the 2007 and 2010 Solomon Islands tsunamis. The field observations in the Santa Cruz Islands present an important dataset to assess tsunami impact in the near-source region. The tsunami was also recorded at deep-ocean tsunameters and tide gauges throughout the Pacific. These observations allow us to further investigate the physics of tsunami generation caused by the seismic process (or other non-seismic mechanisms). We use numerical model MOST to analyze the large runup and complex impact distribution caused by the Santa Cruz tsunami. Source models obtained using seismic data / tsunami data are carried out to initialize the tsunami model. MOST uses two sets of numerical grids to investigate both the near- and far-field aspects of the tsunami. The basin-scale modeling results are computed using a spatial resolution of 4 arc min (approx. 7,200 m) and compared with measurements at deep-ocean tsunameters. The near-field modeling is carried out using a series of telescoped grids up to a grid resolution of tens of meters to compare with the tsunami runup and flooding extent obtained through the field survey in the Solomon Islands. The modeling results emphasize the contrast between the tsunami impact on the exposed coastline and the sheltered Lata Bay stressing the problematic interpretation of a tsunami in progress based solely on near-source tide-gauge measurements. The team also interviewed eyewitnesses and educated residents about the tsunami hazard in numerous ad hoc presentations and discussions. The combination of ancestral knowledge and recent Solomon Islands wide geohazards education programs triggered an immediate spontaneous self-evacuation containing the death toll in the small evacuation window of few minutes between the end of the ground shaking and the onslaught of the tsunami. Fortunately school children were shown a video on the 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands tsunami 3 months prior to the Santa Cruz event and the headmaster of the

Fritz, Hermann M.; Papantoniou, Antonios; Biukoto, Litea; Albert, Gilly; Wei, Yong

2014-05-01

29

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE EARTHQUAKE (MW 8.1) AND TSUNAMI OF APRIL 1, 2007, IN THE SOLOMON ISLANDS, SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN  

E-print Network

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE EARTHQUAKE (MW 8.1) AND TSUNAMI OF APRIL 1, 2007, IN THE SOLOMON, USA ABSTRACT On April 1, 2007, a destructive earthquake (Mw 8.1) and tsunami struck the central Solomon Islands arc in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The earthquake had a thrust-fault focal mechanism

30

Chronic suppurative otitis media in the Solomon Islands: a prospective, microbiological, audiometric and therapeutic survey.  

PubMed

Chronic suppurative otitis media affected 3.8% of 3500 Solomon Island children under 15 years (and 6.1% under 5 years) and was the sole cause of conductive hearing loss recorded in 265 children tested audiometrically. It was characterised by early onset (65% under 18 months) male preponderance and large central tubotympanic perforations. Measles, respiratory infections, swimming and malnutrition were identified as aetiological factors amenable to intervention. Proteus and pseudomonas were the principle aerobes isolated from ear pus and gentamicin the only antibiotic tested to be effective against them. However although a prospective therapeutic trial demonstrated a significantly improved outcome after aural toilet, no additional benefit was imparted by concurrent ototopical boric acid or aminoglycoside solution or oral antianaerobic clindamycin. Parental tuition in aural cleaning, avoidance of ear water entry, nose blowing and breathing will yield a good result in up to 60% of children in half of whom tympanic healing occurred. PMID:3466089

Eason, R J; Harding, E; Nicholson, R; Nicholson, D; Pada, J; Gathercole, J

1986-10-22

31

Depths of Magma Storage Beneath Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fogo is one of the most active oceanic volcanoes of the world in present time and the only island of the Cape Verde archipelago with historic volcanic activity. We have carried out a barometric study of basanitic to tephriphonolitic volcanic rocks of the 1995 eruption of Fogo in order to reconstruct the depths of magma reservoirs and magma pathways prior

E. Hildner; A. Klügel

2008-01-01

32

Establishing an early warning alert and response network following the Solomon Islands tsunami in 2013  

PubMed Central

Abstract Problem On 6 February 2013, an 8.0 magnitude earthquake generated a tsunami that struck the Santa Cruz Islands, Solomon Islands, killing 10 people and displacing over 4700. Approach A post-disaster assessment of the risk of epidemic disease transmission recommended the implementation of an early warning alert and response network (EWARN) to rapidly detect, assess and respond to potential outbreaks in the aftermath of the tsunami. Local setting Almost 40% of the Santa Cruz Islands’ population were displaced by the disaster, and living in cramped temporary camps with poor or absent sanitation facilities and insufficient access to clean water. There was no early warning disease surveillance system. Relevant changes By 25 February, an EWARN was operational in five health facilities that served 90% of the displaced population. Eight priority diseases or syndromes were reported weekly; unexpected health events were reported immediately. Between 25 February and 19 May, 1177 target diseases or syndrome cases were reported. Seven alerts were investigated. No sustained transmission or epidemics were identified. Reporting compliance was 85%. The EWARN was then transitioned to the routine four-syndrome early warning disease surveillance system. Lesson learnt It was necessary to conduct a detailed assessment to evaluate the risk and potential impact of serious infectious disease outbreaks, to assess whether and how enhanced early warning disease surveillance should be implemented. Local capacities and available resources should be considered in planning EWARN implementation. An EWARN can be an opportunity to establish or strengthen early warning disease surveillance capabilities. PMID:25378746

Bilve, Augustine; Nogareda, Francisco; Joshua, Cynthia; Ross, Lester; Betcha, Christopher; Durski, Kara; Fleischl, Juliet

2014-01-01

33

Geodetic Volcano Monitoring Research in Canary Islands: Recent Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Canarian Archipelago is an oceanic island volcanic chain with a long-standing history of volcanic activity (> 40 Ma). It is located off the NW coast of the African continent, lying over a transitional crust of the Atlantic African passive margin. At least 12 eruptions have been occurred on the islands of Lanzarote, Tenerife and La Palma in the last 500 years. Volcanism manifest predominantly as basaltic strombolian monogenetic activity (whole archipelago) and central felsic volcanism (active only in Tenerife Island). We concentrate our studies in the two most active islands, Tenerife and La Palma. In these islands, we tested different methodologies of geodetic monitoring systems. We use a combination of ground- and space-based techniques. At Tenerife Island, a differential interferometric study was performed to detect areas of deformation. DInSAR detected two clear areas of deformation, using this results a survey-based GPS network was designed and optimized to control those deformations and the rest of the island. Finally, using SBAS DInSAR results weak spatial long- wavelength subsidence signals has been detected. At La Palma, the first DInSAR analysis have not shown any clear deformation, so a first time series analysis was performed detecting a clear subsidence signal at Teneguia volcano, as for Tenerife a GPS network was designed and optimized taking into account stable and deforming areas. After several years of activities, geodetic results served to study ground deformations caused by a wide variety of sources, such as changes in groundwater levels, volcanic activity, volcano-tectonics, gravitational loading, etc. These results proof that a combination of ground-based and space-based techniques is suitable tool for geodetic volcano monitoring in Canary Islands. Finally, we would like to strength that those results could have serious implications on the continuous geodetic monitoring system design and implementation for the Canary Islands which is under development nowadays.

Fernandez, J.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Arjona, A.; Camacho, A. G.; Prieto, J. F.; Seco, A.; Tizzani, P.; Manzo, M. R.; Lanari, R.; Blanco, P.; Mallorqui, J. J.

2009-05-01

34

Biocultural interpretations of trauma in two prehistoric Pacific Island populations from Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.  

PubMed

Two Pacific Island skeletal samples originating from the inland site of Nebira, Papua New Guinea (1230-1650) and a coastal site on the small island of Taumako, Solomon Islands (1530-1698) were examined for evidence of skeletal trauma using a biocultural approach. The types of trauma identified were cranial trauma, postcranial fractures, and piercing and sharp force trauma. Both samples exhibit trauma (Nebira, n = 9/28, 32.1%; Taumako, n = 17/133, 12.8%). Postcranial fractures are significantly higher in males from Nebira (Fisher Exact P value = 0.025). The prevalence of cranial trauma (n = 6/28, 21.4%) is significantly higher in Nebira individuals (Fisher Exact P value = 0.007). There is no conclusive evidence of piercing trauma at Nebira unlike Taumako, which has four individuals with evidence of piercing or sharp force trauma. Both samples show evidence of interpersonal violence and warfare. The results suggest the environment may have contributed to the pattern of trauma at these sites. These patterns are discussed within their cultural and environmental contexts. PMID:20091811

Scott, Rachel M; Buckley, Hallie R

2010-08-01

35

Hospital Visits Due to Domestic Violence from 1994 to 2011 in the Solomon Islands: A Descriptive Case Series  

PubMed Central

The Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of domestic violence in the world. This paper is a descriptive case series of all cases of domestic violence presenting to the Solomon Islands National Referral Hospital (NRH) over 18 years. Data were routinely collected from a database of all patients who were treated by NRH general surgery and orthopedic clinicians between 1994 and 2011, inclusive. The total number of cases in the injury database as a result of domestic violence was 387. The average number of cases in the database per year from 1994 to 2011 was 20. There were 6% more female patients (205 of 387; 53%) than male (182 of 387; 47%). Of the cases in which the perpetrator of the violence against a female patient was specified (111 of 205 female cases), 74% (82 of 111) were the patient's husband. Only 5% (5 of 111) of cases in females were inflicted by another female. This analysis provides the best available information on domestic violence cases requiring a visit to a tertiary hospital in a Pacific Island in the specified time period and is undoubtedly an under-estimate of the total cases of domestic violence. Preventing and treating domestic violence in the Solomon Islands and in the Pacific is an important challenge and there is a significant role for secondary and tertiary health services in screening for and preventing domestic violence. PMID:25285254

Negin, Joel; Houasia, Patrick; Munamua, Alex B; Leon, David P; Rimon, Mia; Martiniuk, Alexandra LC

2014-01-01

36

Phonolitic Diatremes within the Dunedin Volcano, South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Port Chalmers Breccia is a vent-filling, clastic volcanic unit exposed within the Miocene Dunedin Volcano of South Island, New Zealand. Clasts (up to in excess of 1m but generally 520cm) are supported in ash and fine lapilli of phonolitic (ne-benmoreite or tephro-phonolite) composition and the dominant clast type (55 to almost 100%) is also phonolitic. Less abundant lithologies include

RICHARD C. PRICE; ALAN F. COOPER; JON D. WOODHEAD; IAN CARTWRIGHT

2003-01-01

37

Changing patterns of hypertension, diabetes, obesity and diet among Melanesians and Micronesians in the Solomon Islands.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey of diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dietary patterns has been conducted in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Three groups--traditional and more urbanized Melanesians and semitraditional Micronesians--were compared. Abnormal glucose tolerance was rare (less than 1% over all) in Melanesians regardless of acculturation, but was present in 9.7% of adult Micronesians in whom it was associated with age; obesity; female sex; and a diet that was high in energy and refined carbohydrates. Hypertension, which was associated with advancing age and obesity, was recorded in 6.0% and 8.3% of traditional and partly urbanized Melanesians, respectively, and in 4.8% of Micronesians. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures correlated significantly with age for all except traditional Melanesian women among whom the association was limited to the systolic blood pressure only. Significant correlation coefficients were recorded between diastolic blood pressure and body mass index for both sexes and all groups, and between systolic blood pressure and body mass index for all women but only for Micronesian men. Dramatic differences in life-style and dietary patterns are described for rural and more urbanized Melanesians among whom the mean daily urinary sodium outputs were 67 and 119 mmol/L, respectively. PMID:3497330

Eason, R J; Pada, J; Wallace, R; Henry, A; Thornton, R

1987-05-01

38

The Contribution of Nearshore Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) to Food Security and Livelihoods in Solomon Islands  

PubMed Central

Fish aggregating devices, or FADs, are used widely in developing countries to concentrate pelagic fish, making them easier to catch. Nearshore FADs anchored close to the coast allow access for rural communities, but despite their popularity among policy makers, there is a dearth of empirical analysis of their contributions to the supply of fish and to fisheries management. In this paper we demonstrate that nearshore FADs increased the supply of fish to four communities in Solomon Islands. Estimated total annual fish catch ranged from 4300 to 12 000 kg across the study villages, with nearshore FADs contributing up to 45% of the catch. While it is clear that FADs increased the supply of fish, FAD catch rates were not consistently higher than other fishing grounds. Villages with limited access to diverse or productive fishing grounds seemingly utilized FADs to better effect. Villagers believed FADs increased household income and nutrition, as well as providing a source of fish for community events. FADs were also perceived to increase intra-household conflict and reduce fishers' participation in community activities. FADs need to be placed within a broader rural development context and treated as another component in the diversified livelihoods of rural people; as with other livelihood options they bring trade-offs and risks. PMID:25513808

Albert, Joelle A.; Beare, Doug; Schwarz, Anne-Maree; Albert, Simon; Warren, Regon; Teri, James; Siota, Faye; Andrew, Neil L.

2014-01-01

39

Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): Recent advances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deception Island (South Shetland Island, Antarctica) is an active volcano with recent eruptions (e.g. 1967, 1969 and 1970). It is also among the Antarctic sites most visited by tourists. Besides, there are currently two scientific bases operating during the austral summers, usually from late November to early March. For these reasons it is necessary to deploy a volcano monitoring system as complete as possible, designed specifically to endure the extreme conditions of the volcanic environment and the Antarctic climate. The Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR) performs seismic monitoring on Deception Island since 1994 during austral summer surveys. The seismicity basically includes volcano-tectonic earthquakes, long-period events and volcanic tremor, among other signals. The level of seismicity is moderate, except for a seismo-volcanic crisis in 1999. The seismic monitoring system has evolved during these years, following the trends of the technological developments and software improvements. Recent advances have been mainly focused on: (1) the improvement of the seismic network introducing broadband stations and 24-bit data acquisition systems; (2) the development of a short-period seismic array, with a 12-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system; (3) the implementation of wireless data transmission from the network stations and also from the seismic array to a recording center, allowing for real-time monitoring; (4) the efficiency of the power supply systems and the monitoring of the battery levels and power consumption; (5) the optimization of data analysis procedures, including database management, automated event recognition tools for the identification and classification of seismo-volcanic signals, and apparent slowness vector estimates using seismic array data; (6) the deployment of permanent seismic stations and the transmission of data during the winter using a satellite connection. A single permanent station is operating at Deception Island since 2008. In the current survey we collaborate with the Spanish Army to add another permanent station that will be able to send to the IAG-UGR seismic information about the activity of the volcano during the winter, using a communications satellite (SPAINSAT). These advances simplify the field work and the data acquisition procedures, and allow us to obtain high-quality seismic data in real-time. These improvements have a very important significance for a better and faster interpretation of the seismo-volcanic activity and assessment of the volcanic hazards at Deception Island volcano.

Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Martín, R.; Cortés, G.; Alguacil, G.; Moreno, J.; Martín, B.; Martos, A.; Serrano, I.; Stich, D.; Ibáñez, J. M.

2012-04-01

40

Population genetics of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax and asymptomatic malaria in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands  

PubMed Central

Background Temotu Province, Solomon Islands is progressing toward malaria elimination. A baseline survey conducted in 2008 showed that most Plasmodium infections in the province were of low parasite density and asymptomatic infections. To better understand mechanisms underlying these malaria transmission characteristics genetic diversity and relationships among Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax populations in the province were examined. Methods Forty-five P. falciparum and 67 P. vivax samples collected in the 2008 baseline survey were successfully genotyped using eight P. falciparum and seven P. vivax microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity, relationships and distribution of both P. falciparum and P. vivax populations were analysed. Results Plasmodium falciparum population exhibited low diversity with 19 haplotypes identified and had closely related clusters indicating clonal expansion. Interestingly, a dominant haplotype was significantly associated with fever and high parasite density. In contrast, the P. vivax population was highly diverse with 58 haplotypes identified that were not closely related. Parasite populations between different islands in the province showed low genetic differentiation. Conclusion The low diversity and clonal population of P. falciparum population may partially account for clinical immunity developed against illness. However, it is possible that importation of a new P. falciparum strain was the major cause of illness. High diversity in P. vivax population and low relatedness between strains suggested clinical immunity to P. vivax may be maintained by different mechanisms. The genetic diversity, population structure and distribution of strains indicate that transmission of P. falciparum was low, but that of P. vivax was still high in 2008. These data will be useful for assessing changes in malaria transmission resulting from interventions. PMID:24261646

2013-01-01

41

Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides general information about volcanoes. It illustrates the growth of a volcano, using Paricutin and Mt. St. Helens as examples of an active volcano and a lava dome. The terms extinct and dormant are also discussed. This site provides an explanation of why and how volcanoes form, zones of subduction, mid-ocean ridges, and hot spots. Deadly dangers associated with eruptions are discussed as is the use of a tiltmeter for prediction. The content center lesson describes a possible connection between the lost continent of Atlantis and the island of Santorini. Dissolved gasses in magma and the creation of a lava dome are both demonstrated in the hands-on section.

Johnson, Scott

42

Ritter Island Volcano-lateral collapse and the tsunami of 1888  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early morning of 1888 March 13, roughly 5 km3 of Ritter Island Volcano fell violently into the sea northeast of New Guinea. This event, the largest lateral collapse of an island volcano to be recorded in historical time, flung devastating tsunami tens of metres high on to adjacent shores. Several hundred kilometres away, observers on New Guinea chronicled

Steven N. Ward; Simon Day

2003-01-01

43

Hydrochemical fluxes from Baransky volcano, Iturup, Kuril Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sernaya River and its tributary the Kipyashaya River are the only rivers that drain all thermal waters coming down the Baransky volcano (Iturup, the Kuril Islands). Hydrological parameters and a chemical composition relating to these rivers and all inflow streams coming from the volcano were measured from August to October 2013. The main aims of this investigation were to develop a data baseline for the catchment of the Sernaya River in order to monitor the Baransky volcano, to estimate total discharge of solute elements and finally to identify thermal groundwater inflow. Since the Kipyashaya River and the Sernaya River receive all water streams coming along the south-west and south flanks of the Baransky volcano within approximately 10 kilometers we can suggest that the whole thermal discharge runs into the Kipyashaya River. Thus a frequent sampling of the rivers presents the best way to monitor the volcano as they comprise a mix of all thermal waters from the Baransky volcano. The Sernaia River, at the end of its course along the flanks of the Baransky volcano, has a total flux of 12 m³/s ± 1%. Multiplication of the discharge by the concentration in main ions of the river at this point yields an aggregate flux of ~130 tons/day ± 10%. This flux performs the dissolution flux as a result of rocks dissolution beneath the active crater and in the aquifer of the Kipyashaya River. Cl total discharge was estimated at ~33 tons/day ± 10%, SO4 ~67 tons/day ± 10%, and total cation discharge ~28 tons/day ± 10%. The Kipyashaya River brings in to the Sernaya River 15 tons/day ± 10% of Cl, ~30 tons/day ± 10% of SO4, and ~3,5 tons/day ± 10% cations average. Several thermal springs with low water discharge are located on the right waterside of the Sernaya River 100 m up and down from the Kipyashaya River influx. These thermal springs with Cl discharge ~ 5g/s have significant concentrations of Ca due to water-rock interaction with basement rocks. The way of sampling streams at the end of their course, just before confluence with the Sernaia River, provides more representative chemical composition of the Baransky volcano waters than a punctual sampling of springs and indicates the existing thermal groundwater inflow. It is argued that a renewal in the activity of the Baransky volcano is a result of the changes in chemical ratios and Cl discharge. Studying the network of the Sernaya River presents one of the best ways of detection such pre-eruptive periods. The work was supported by RFBR grants 13-05-00544A, 14-05-00243, 14-05-00171 and FEB RAS grant 12-III-A-08-161.

Chelnokov, George; Zharkov, Rafael; Bragin, Ivan; Kharitonova, Natalia

2014-05-01

44

First Recorded Eruption of Mount Belinda Volcano, South Sandwich Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MODVOLC satellite monitoring system at the University of Hawaii Manoa has revealed the first recorded eruption of Mount Belinda volcano, on Montagu Island in the remote South Sandwich Islands. Here we present some initial qualitative observations gleaned from the relatively limited amount of satellite imagery available throughout the eruption, including MODIS, Landsat 7 ETM+ and ASTER data. The eruption started some time between September 12 and October 20, 2001, with low-level ash effusion. In January 2002 a Landsat 7 ETM+ image indicated possible collapse structures in the surface of the continuous ice cover within the caldera, suggesting some degree of subglacial volcanism. By May 2002, a broad area of lava or ash was observed close to the subaerial erupting centre, and activity subsequently increased to its highest observed levels in August 2002. Observations in February and March 2003, from a British Antarctic Survey ship and an aircraft of the British Royal Navy, provided the first visual confirmation of the eruption. Minor thermal anomalies continued to be observed in MODIS imagery throughout August 2003, indicating a prolonged low-level eruption or the establishment of a persistent summit lake possibly similar to that believed to occupy the summit crater (Mount Michael) on nearby Saunders Island. A dynamic lava lake on Saunders Island was first reported in 2001 and remains active.

Smellie, J.; Patrick, M.; Harris, A.; Garbeil, H.; Pilger, E.

2003-12-01

45

Genetic diversity in two sibling species of the Anopheles punctulatus group of mosquitoes on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands  

PubMed Central

Background The mosquito Anopheles irenicus, a member of the Anopheles punctulatus group, is geographically restricted to Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. It shows remarkable morphological similarities to one of its sibling species, An. farauti sensu stricto (An. farauti s.s.), but is dissimilar in host and habitat preferences. To infer the genetic variations between these two species, we have analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences from Guadalcanal and from one of its nearest neighbours, Malaita, in the Solomon Islands. Results An. farauti s.s. was collected mostly from brackish water and by the human bait method on both islands, whereas An. irenicus was only collected from fresh water bodies on Guadalcanal Island. An. irenicus is distributed evenly with An. farauti s.s. (?SC = 0.033, 0.38%) and its range overlaps in three of the seven sampling sites. However, there is a significant population genetic structure between the species (?CT = 0.863, P < 0.01; ?ST = 0.865, P < 0.01 and FST = 0.878, P < 0.01). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that An. irenicus is a monophyletic species, not a hybrid, and is closely related to the An. farauti s.s. on Guadalcanal. The time estimator suggests that An. irenicus diverged from the ancestral An. farauti s.s. on Guadalcanal within 29,000 years before present (BP). An. farauti s.s. expanded much earlier on Malaita (texp = 24,600 BP) than the populations on Guadalcanal (texp = 16,800 BP for An. farauti s.s. and 14,000 BP for An. irenicus). Conclusion These findings suggest that An. irenicus and An. farauti s.s. are monophyletic sister species living in sympatry, and their populations on Guadalcanal have recently expanded. Consequently, the findings further suggest that An. irenicus diverged from the ancestral An. farauti s.s. on Guadalcanal. PMID:19025663

2008-01-01

46

Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii: The role of an ‘inaccessible’ shield volcano in the petrology of the Hawaiian islands and plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kahoolawe volcano (?10×17km) forms one of the eight major Hawaiian islands. Access for geologic sampling has long been restricted due to military and preservation policies. However, limited visits to Kahoolawe in the 1980s yielded >200 samples, many of which have since been used to study the volcano within the framework of Hawaiian shield and mantle source geochemistry, petrology, mineralogy, and

R. V. Fodor; G. R. Bauer

2010-01-01

47

Integrating indigenous ecological knowledge and customary sea tenure with marine and social science for conservation of bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Roviana Lagoon, Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Indigenous ecological knowledge and customary sea tenure may be integrated with marine and social science to conserve the bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Roviana Lagoon, Western Solomon Islands. Three aspects of indigenous ecological knowledge in Roviana were identified as most relevant for the management and conservation of bumphead parrotfish, and studied through a combination of marine science and

SHANKAR ASWANI; RICHARD J. HAMILTON

2004-01-01

48

A submarine canyon as the cause of a mud volcano Liuchieuyu Island in Taiwan  

E-print Network

A submarine canyon as the cause of a mud volcano Ð Liuchieuyu Island in Taiwan J. Chowa,*, J, we also discuss the relationship between a nearby submarine canyon (Kaoping Submarine Canyon¯ection; Submarine canyon; Mud volcano 1. Introduction In the early Pliocene, the paleoenvironment of the offshore

Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun

49

First recorded eruption of Mount Belinda volcano (Montagu Island), South Sandwich Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MODVOLC satellite monitoring system has revealed the first recorded eruption of Mount Belinda volcano, on Montagu Island in the remote South Sandwich Islands. Here we present some initial qualitative observations gleaned from a collection of satellite imagery covering the eruption, including MODIS, Landsat 7 ETM+, ASTER, and RADARSAT-1 data. MODVOLC thermal alerts indicate that the eruption started sometime between 12 September and 20 October 2001, with low-intensity subaerial explosive activity from the island’s summit peak, Mount Belinda. By January 2002 a small lava flow had been emplaced near the summit, and activity subsequently increased to some of the highest observed levels in August 2002. Observations from passing ships in February and March 2003 provided the first visual confirmation of the eruption. ASTER images obtained in August 2003 show that the eruption at Mount Belinda entered a new phase around this time, with fresh lava effusion into the surrounding icefield. MODIS radiance trends also suggest that the overall activity level increased significantly after July 2003. Thermal anomalies continued to be observed in MODIS imagery in early 2004, indicating a prolonged low-intensity eruption and the likely establishment of a persistent summit lava lake, similar to that observed on neighboring Saunders Island in 2001. Our new observations also indicate that lava lake activity continues on Saunders Island.

Patrick, Matthew R.; Smellie, John L.; Harris, Andrew J. L.; Wright, Robert; Dean, Ken; Izbekov, Pavel; Garbeil, Harold; Pilger, Eric

2005-06-01

50

August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska-resetting an Island Landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kasatochi Island, the subaerial portion of a small volcano in the western Aleutian volcanic arc, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. Pyroclastic flows and surges swept the island repeatedly and buried most of it and the near-shore zone in decimeters to tens of meters of deposits. Several key seabird rookeries in taluses were rendered useless. The eruption lasted for about 24 hours and included two initial explosive pulses and pauses over a 6-hr period that produced ash-poor eruption clouds, a 10-hr period of continuous ash-rich emissions initiated by an explosive pulse and punctuated by two others, and a final 8-hr period of waning ash emissions. The deposits of the eruption include a basal muddy tephra that probably reflects initial eruptions through the shallow crater lake, a sequence of pumiceous and lithic-rich pyroclastic deposits produced by flow, surge, and fall processes during a period of energetic explosive eruption, and a fine-grained upper mantle of pyroclastic-fall and -surge deposits that probably reflects the waning eruptive stage as lake and ground water again gained access to the erupting magma. An eruption with similar impact on the island's environment had not occurred for at least several centuries. Since the 2008 eruption, the volcano has remained quiet other than emission of volcanic gases. Erosion and deposition are rapidly altering slopes and beaches. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

Scott, W.E.; Nye, C.J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Neal, C.A.

2010-01-01

51

Toothpaste lava from the Barren Island volcano (Andaman Sea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toothpaste lava is a basaltic lava flow type transitional between pahoehoe and aa and has been described from Paricutin, Kilauea and Etna volcanoes. Here we describe a spectacular example of toothpaste lava, forming part of a recent (possibly 1994-95) aa flow on the active volcano of Barren Island (Andaman Sea). This flow of subalkalic basalt shows abundant squeeze-ups of viscous toothpasate lava near its entry into the sea. The squeeze-ups are sheets and slabs, up to several meters across and tens of centimeters thick, extruded from boccas. They are often prominently curved, have striated upper surfaces with close-spaced, en echelon linear ridges and grooves, broad wave-like undulations perpendicular to the striations, and sometimes, clefts. Textural, geochemical, and Sr-Nd isotopic data on the squeeze-ups and the exposed aa flow core indicate very crystal-rich, viscous, and isotopically very homogeneous lava. We envisage that a greatly reduced speed of this viscous flow at the coastline, possibly aided by a shallowing of the basal slope, led to lateral spreading of the flow, which caused tension in its upper parts. This, with continued (albeit dwindling) lava supply at the back, led to widespread tearing of the flow surface and extrusion of the squeeze-ups. The larger slabs, while extruding in a plastic condition, curved under their own weight, whereas their surfaces experienced brittle deformation, forming the en echelon grooves. The extruded, detached, and rotated sheets and slabs were carried forward for some distance atop the very slowly advancing aa core, before the flow solidified.

Sheth, Hetu C.; Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Kumar, Alok; Bhutani, Rajneesh; Awasthi, Neeraj

2011-04-01

52

The First Historical Eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first historical eruption of Anatahan volcano occurred on May 10, 2003. The MARGINS office responded by authorizing helicopter surveillance and ship deployment to visit the volcano. The helicopter flight on May 19 allowed visual observations and identification of the east crater as the source of the eruption. The top of the plume was estimated to be at 10,000 ft - significantly less than the 30,000 ft of the initial blast. No bombs were ejected out of the east crater at this time but were falling back into the crater. The bombs looked irregular in shape, massive and were estimated to be a few m in diameter. Bombs and tephra samples were collected from the eastern side of the island when blasts were occurring at a rate of approx. 1 per 5min. The ship visit followed on May 21 to the western side of the island for collection of samples and SO2 flux measurements, along with maintenance of a previously deployed seismometer. Volcanic samples collected on Anatahan consisted of bombs, ash and scoria from the present eruption and old lavas (age unknown). The ash section on the western shore was 25 cm thick and consisted of the following sequence (bottom to top): 0-5 inversely? graded dark ash with scoria and pumice clasts (1-2 cm), 20-25 cm: well sorted clast-supported scoria (max 2 cm) with some fine ash. The maximum total thickness measured at a site 6 km from the east crater was approximately 45 cm. The sequence is interpreted as 1) initial blast 2) interaction of magma with water (from pre-existing hydrothermal system) as evidenced by accretionary lapilli 3) magmatic phase of the eruption producing juvenile material. Electron microprobe analyses of the pumice and scoria show uniform compositions of ~ 60wt% SiO2 in the glass; zoned plagioclase with average composition of 61% An, 37.7% Ab, 1.2% Or; pyroxenes (19.4% Wo, 53.4% En, 26.7% Fs) and Fe-Ti oxides. Sulfur and Cl contents are approx. 100 and 1500 ppm, respectively. Water content of the glass may be several wt% based on analytical totals. Volatile emissions from the volcano were measured by traversing under the plume with a ship-based COSPEC. Using wind speed data from NOAA (10-15 knots on May 21), we estimate the daily SO2 flux to be 3000 - 4500 tons. Our observations are consistent with the idea that the initial phreatic eruption evolved rapidly into a magmatic phase producing juvenile (and vesicular) material accompanied by a high SO2 flux. Details on the eruption products, chemical analyses, seismic measurements, and current monitoring efforts can be found in accompanying posters.

Fischer, T. P.; Hilton, D. R.; Demoor, J.; Jaffe, L.; Spilde, M. N.; Counce, D.; Camacho, J. T.

2003-12-01

53

APRIL 2009 FERNANDINA VOLCANO ERUPTION, GALAPAGOS ISLANDS, ECUADOR: THERMAL MAPPING OF THE LAVA FLOWS EMITTED  

E-print Network

B APRIL 2009 FERNANDINA VOLCANO ERUPTION, GALAPAGOS ISLANDS, ECUADOR: THERMAL MAPPING OF THE LAVA Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN), Quito, Ecuador 2. Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Clermont, no earthquakes were associated with this eruption. Fernandina Island is about 32 km in diameter,a maximum

Geist, Dennis

54

Surface Pressure Gradient and Carbon Dioxide Degassing Survey at Cumbre Vieja Volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Palma (730 Km2) is one of the youngest island of the Canarian archipelago. Recent volcanic activity is concentrated on the southern part of the island, where Cumbre Vieja volcano (220 Km2) has been constructed during the last 1 Ma reaching an elevation of 1,898 m above sea level. Six historical eruptions had occurred at Cumbre Vieja, and the most

A. Alfaya; F. López; E. Padron; P. A. Hernández; J. M. Salazar; N. M. Pérez

2002-01-01

55

Supporting Pacific Island Countries to Strengthen Their Resistance to Tobacco Industry Interference in Tobacco Control: A Case Study of Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands  

PubMed Central

Tobacco use is the biggest single preventable cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Western Pacific region. Currently, 14 Pacific Island countries have ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and, in having done so, are committed to implementing tobacco control measures aligned with the FCTC. Progressing strong and effective tobacco control legislation is essential to achieving long term gains in public health in small island countries. However, survey evidence suggests that pervasive tobacco industry interference serves to undermine tobacco control and public policy in several Pacific countries. An initiative was developed to provide dedicated, in-country technical support for developing legislation and policy to support implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. This paper examines the factors that have assisted the two Pacific countries to make progress in implementing Article 5.3 and what this might mean for supporting progress in other Pacific settings. A document analysis was undertaken to identify the process and outcome of the intervention. Two significant outputs from the project including having identified and documented specific examples of TII and the development of draft legislation for Article 5.3 and other key resources for public servants both within and outside the health sector. Key determinants of progress included a motivated and engaged Ministry of Health, active civil society group or champion and access to media to prepare tobacco industry related material to stimulate public and policy sector debate. PMID:23924884

McCool, Judith; McKenzie, Jeanie; Lyman, Annabel; Allen, Matthew

2013-01-01

56

Depths of Magma Storage Beneath Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fogo is one of the most active oceanic volcanoes of the world in present time and the only island of the Cape Verde archipelago with historic volcanic activity. We have carried out a barometric study of basanitic to tephriphonolitic volcanic rocks of the 1995 eruption of Fogo in order to reconstruct the depths of magma reservoirs and magma pathways prior to eruption. The pyroclastic rocks and lavas studied span the whole temporal and compositional range of this eruption. Clinopyroxene-melt thermobarometry of 75 clinopyroxenes in 9 samples yields a well-defined pressure range of 500-630 MPa (average 550 MPa). This pressure range is interpreted to reflect a major fractionation level at ca. 17-22 km depth, within the uppermost mantle, where melt and phenocrysts last equilibrated. Microthermometry of CO2-rich fluid inclusions in clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts indicates a broader pressure range with two apparent frequency maxima. The higher pressure range, between 430 and 510 MPa (average 480 MPa), partly overlaps with the clinopyroxene-melt barometry data. The lower pressure range, between 250 and 430 MPa (average 375 MPa), is within the lower crust to Moho and may reflect short-term stagnation of magma at 9-16 km depth prior to eruption. Our data suggest that the 1995 magmas ascended from mantle depth to the surface with residence times at shallow levels probably being restricted to less than a day. This conclusion is in accordance with the absence of plagioclase phenocrysts and microphenocrysts in the 1995 and most other recent lavas.

Hildner, E.; Klügel, A.

2008-12-01

57

Malaria elimination in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands: establishing a surveillance-response system to prevent introduction and reintroduction of malaria  

PubMed Central

Background The Solomon Islands National Malaria Programme is currently focused on intensified control and progressive elimination. Recent control efforts in Isabel Province have reduced their malaria incidence to 2.6/1,000 population in 2009 [1] whereas most neighbouring provinces have much higher incidences. A malaria surveillance-response system that involves testing all travellers entering Isabel Province using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) to prevent cases being imported had been proposed by local health authorities. This study provides information on the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a new approach of surveillance and response in the context of low levels of indigenous malaria transmission in Isabel Province. Methods A total of 13 focus group discussions (FGD) and 22 key informant interviews (KII) were conducted in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. Key topics included: the travel patterns of people to, from and within Isabel Province; the acceptability, community perceptions, attitudes and suggestions towards the proposed surveillance programme; and management of suspected malaria cases. This information was triangulated with data obtained from port authorities, airlines and passenger ships travelling to and from Isabel Province in the preceding two years. Results Travel within Isabel Province and to and from other provinces is common with marked seasonality. The majority of inter-provincial travel is done on scheduled public transport; namely passenger ships and aircrafts. In Isabel Province there is a healthy community spirit as well as high concern regarding malaria and its importation and there is currently effective malaria passive case detection and management. Conducting malaria screening at ports and airports would be acceptable to the community. Conclusion A robust surveillance-response system is essential when moving towards malaria elimination. Many factors contribute positively towards the feasibility of an RDT based malaria surveillance system in Isabel Province. Due to financial and logistical restraints local health authorities have concluded that a system of community-based vigilance to identify new arrivals in villages and direct them to have malaria testing is more feasible than formal screening at ports and airports. A surveillance response system to prevent introduction of malaria into Isabel Province can be integrated into the National Malaria Control Programme provided the operational steps are carefully planned with regards to human and financial resources. PMID:21834995

2011-01-01

58

Monitoring the evolution of Deception Island volcano from magnetic anomaly data (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deception Island is a young and active volcano located in the south-western part of Bransfield back-arc basin. During the last twenty years the Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy has carried out geophysical surveys in the area. In addition, an unmanned aerial vehicle flight was conducted in 2011 at 800 m height on the northern half of Deception Island. Analysing and comparing magnetic grids obtained in different periods and tie point readings allow us to detect temporal changes and isolate signals of volcanic origin. Magnetic survey cruises performed in Deception Island's inner bay (1988, 1999 and 2008), and the study of its outer area's magnetic anomaly changes, point to a period of high variations concentrated between December 1989 and December 1999 that may be related to the two main recent periods of seismic activity (1992 and January 1999). From December 1999 to December 2008, there were no significant changes in seismic activity; nevertheless, our data show some magnetic alterations, which might signal the slow progress of a volcanic environment towards equilibrium. Interpreting these magnetic changes called for the construction of several forward models. Additionally, we put forth this kind of study as a suitable, economical and easy method for monitoring an active volcanic system whenever it is possible to measure the magnetic field with accurate positioning, and if the external field components are removed correctly.

Catalán, Manuel; Martos, Yasmina M.; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Funaki, Minoru

2014-12-01

59

Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).  

PubMed

This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

2014-01-01

60

Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica)  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

2014-01-01

61

A submarine canyon as the cause of a mud volcano — Liuchieuyu Island in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, based on 3.5kHz, UNIBOOM and conventional seismic data, we propose a model for the creation of Liuchieuyu Island, a near-shore mud volcano off the southwestern coast of Taiwan. In support of this model, we also discuss the relationship between a nearby submarine canyon (Kaoping Submarine Canyon) and the mud diapirs and mud volcanoes in the region. Seismic

J. Chow; J. S. Lee; C. S. Liu; B. D. Lee; J. S. Watkins

2001-01-01

62

Ritter Island Volcano-lateral collapse and the tsunami of 1888  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early morning of 1888 March 13, roughly 5 km3 of Ritter Island Volcano fell violently into the sea northeast of New Guinea. This event, the largest lateral collapse of an island volcano to be recorded in historical time, flung devastating tsunami tens of metres high on to adjacent shores. Several hundred kilometres away, observers on New Guinea chronicled 3 min period waves up to 8 m high, that lasted for as long as 3 h. These accounts represent the best available first-hand information on tsunami generated by a major volcano lateral collapse. In this article, we simulate the Ritter Island landslide as constrained by a 1985 sonar survey of its debris field and compare predicted tsunami with historical observations. The best agreement occurs for landslides travelling at 40 m s-1, but velocities up to 80 m s-1 cannot be excluded. The Ritter Island debris dropped little more than 800 m vertically and moved slowly compared with landslides that descend into deeper water. Basal friction block models predict that slides with shorter falls should attain lower peak velocities and that 40+ m s-1 is perfectly compatible with the geometry and runout extent of the Ritter Island landslide. The consensus between theory and observation for the Ritter Island waves increases our confidence in the existence of mega-tsunami produced by oceanic volcano collapses two to three orders of magnitude larger in scale.

Ward, Steven N.; Day, Simon

2003-09-01

63

From 'what' to 'how' -- capacity building in health promotion for HIV/AIDS prevention in the Solomon Islands.  

PubMed

This paper describes a capacity building process undertaken within the HIV/AIDS prevention project of the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) in the Solomon Islands. ADRA HIV/AIDS has recently reoriented its project structure, moving beyond its awareness raising approach to incorporate health promotion frameworks, theories, strategies and assumptions. These have been used to inform project practice in project planning, delivery and evaluation. This paper shares what has worked and not worked in the capacity building process, including a project evaluation of the initial HIV/AIDS awareness raising project and the application of a number of capacity building strategies, including utilising a volunteer Australian Youth Ambassador for Development (AYAD) funded by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID). Existing and new projects are outlined. The underlying theme is that any capacity building exercise must include structural support (e.g. management, national frameworks) to ensure the incorporation of new initiatives and approaches. With time this enables ownership by counterparts and external partnerships to develop. The presence of an AYAD volunteer has been an effective strategy to achieve this. Reflections from the evaluators, the AYAD volunteer and the HIV/AIDS team are included. PMID:19588619

McPhail-Bell, Karen; MacLaren, David; Isihanua, Angela; MacLaren, Michelle

2007-09-01

64

Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Create a poster about volcanoes Directions: Make a poster about volcanoes. (20 points) Include at least (1) large picture (15 points) on your poster complete with labels of every part (10 points). (15 points) Include at least three (3) facts about volcanoes. (5 points each) (15 points) Write at least a three sentence summary of your poster and volcanoes. (5 points) Use at ...

Mrs. Walls

2011-01-30

65

Cumbre Vieja Volcano-Potential collapse and tsunami at La Palma, Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological evidence suggests that during a future eruption, Cumbre Vieja Volcano on the Island of La Palma may experience a catastrophic failure of its west flank, dropping 150 to 500 km3 of rock into the sea. Using a geologically reasonable estimate of landslide motion, we model tsunami waves produced by such a collapse. Waves generated by the run-out of a

Steven N. Ward; Simon Day

2001-01-01

66

A marked decline in the incidence of malaria in a remote region of Malaita, Solomon Islands, 2008 to 2013  

PubMed Central

Setting Atoifi Adventist Hospital (AAH), Solomon Islands, the only hospital in the East Kwaio region. Objective To use routine surveillance data to assess the trends in malaria from 2008 to 2013. Design Descriptive study of records from (1) AAH laboratory malaria records; (2) admissions to AAH for malaria; and (3) malaria treatments from outpatient records. Results AAH examined 35 608 blood films and diagnosed malaria in 4443 samples comprised of 2667 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and 1776 Plasmodium vivax (Pv). Between 2008 and 2013 the total number of malaria cases detected annually decreased by 86.5%, Pf by 96.7% and Pv by 65.3%. The ratio of Pf to Pv reversed in 2010 from 2.06 in 2008 to 0.19 in 2013. For 2013, Pf showed a seasonal pattern with no cases diagnosed in four months. From 2008 to 2013 admissions in AAH for malaria declined by 90.8%, and malaria mortality fell from 54 per 100 000 to zero. The annual parasite index (API) for 2008 and 2013 was 195 and 24, respectively. Village API has identified a group of villages with higher malaria incidence rates. Conclusion The decline in malaria cases in the AAH catchment area has been spectacular, particularly for Pf. This was supported by three sources of hospital surveillance data (laboratory, admissions and treatment records). The decline was associated with the use of artemisinin-based combined therapy and improved vertical social capital between the AAH and the local communities. Calculating village-specific API has highlighted which villages need to be targeted by the AAH malaria control team. PMID:25320674

Oloifana-Polosovai, Hellen; Gwala, John; Harrington, Humpress; Massey, Peter D; Ribeyro, Elmer; Flores, Angelica; Speare, Christopher; McBride, Edwin; MacLaren, David

2014-01-01

67

Volcanoes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the forces responsible for the eruptions of volcanoes and gives the physical and chemical parameters governing the type of eruption. Explains the structure of the earth in relation to volcanoes and explains the location of volcanic regions. (GS)

Kunar, L. N. S.

1975-01-01

68

Volcanoes  

SciTech Connect

This book describes volcanoes although the authors say they are more to be experienced than described. This book poses more question than answers. The public has developed interest and awareness in volcanism since the first edition eight years ago, maybe because since the time 120 volcanoes have erupted. Of those, the more lethal eruptions were from volcanoes not included in the first edition's World's 101 Most Notorious Volcanoes.

Decker, R.W.; Decker, B.

1989-01-01

69

Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students investigate the processes that build volcanoes, the types of rocks they create, the factors that influence different eruption types, and the threats volcanoes pose to their surrounding environments. They will also create a notebook of volcano characteristics and use what they have learned to identify physical features and eruption types in some real-life documented volcanic episodes.

2005-01-01

70

Volcanoes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, this booklet provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of volcanoes. Separate sections examine the nature and workings of volcanoes, types of volcanoes, volcanic geological structures such as plugs and maars, types of eruptions, volcanic-related activity such as geysers…

Tilling, Robert I.

71

Preliminary analysis of the earthquake (MW 8.1) and tsunami of April 1, 2007, in the Solomon Islands, southwestern Pacific Ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On April 1, 2007, a destructive earthquake (Mw 8.1) and tsunami struck the central Solomon Islands arc in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The earthquake had a thrust-fault focal mechanism and occurred at shallow depth (between 15 km and 25 km) beneath the island arc. The combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami caused dozens of fatalities and thousands remain without shelter. We present a preliminary analysis of the Mw-8.1 earthquake and resulting tsunami. Multichannel seismic-reflection data collected during 1984 show the geologic structure of the arc's frontal prism within the earthquake's rupture zone. Modeling tsunami-wave propagation indicates that some of the islands are so close to the earthquake epicenter that they were hard hit by tsunami waves as soon as 5 min. after shaking began, allowing people scant time to react.

Fisher, Michael A.; Geist, Eric L.; Sliter, Ray; Wong, Florence L.; Reiss, Carol; Mann, Dennis M.

2007-01-01

72

Origin of the oceanic basalt basement of the Solomon Islands arc and its relationship to the Ontong Java Plateau-insights from Cenozoic plate motion models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cenozoic global plate motion models based on a hotspot reference frame may provide a useful framework for analyzing the tectonic evolution of the Solomon Islands convergent margin. A postulated late Miocene collision of the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) with a NE-facing arc is consistent with the predicted path of the OJP across the Pacific Basin and its Miocene arrival at the trench. Late-stage igneous activity (65-30 Ma) predicted for the OJP as it rode over the Samoan hotspot occurred in correlative stratigraphic sections on Malaita, the supposed accreted flake of OJP in the Solomon Islands arc. Convergence similar to the present velocities between Australia and the Pacific plates was characteristic of the last 43 million years. Prior to 43 Ma Pacific-Australia plate motions were divergent, seemingly at odds with geologic evidence for early Tertiary convergence, particularly in Papua New Guinea. A postulated South Pacific plate may have existed between Australia and the Pacific plate and would have allowed implied northward subduction along the northeastern Australia plate boundary that lasted into the early Eocene. Subsequent reorganization of plate motions in the middle Eocene correlates with middle Eocene marginal basin formation along ridges oblique to the main plate boundary. Cessation of spreading on the Pacific-South Pacific Ridge and its subsequent subduction beneath Asia followed the change in Pacific plate motion at 43 Ma. A trapped remnant of the extinct, NW-trending ridge may still lie beneath the western Philippine Sea. The terminal deformation, metamorphism and ophiolite obduction in the Eocene orogen of the southwest Pacific also correlates with the major change in Pacific plate motion at 43 Ma and the subsequent compression of the dying Eocene arc against outlying continental and oceanic crustal blocks of the Australian plate. The Solomon Islands oceanic basement may represent juxtaposition of oceanic plateaus of the Australian plate beneath overthrust, dismembered ophiolite derived from adjacent marginal basin crust. ?? 1989.

Wells, R.E.

1989-01-01

73

2010 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at 12 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2010. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash emissions from long-active Cleveland volcano in the Aleutian Islands. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of an ongoing collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

Neal, Christina A.; Herrick, Julie; Girina, O.A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, Jim

2014-01-01

74

Continuous Monitoring of Diffuse Gas Emission From Teide Volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teide volcano (3,717 m a.s.l.) is located in the central part of Tenerife island, at the intersection of three major volcanic rift-zones. Low temperature fumaroles (81-85°C) occur in the summit cone, where significant amounts of diffuse CO2 degassing have been measured about 400 of tons per day (Hernandez et al., 1998; Gonzalez et al., 2001). Chemical and isotopic composition of

J. Salazar; R. Lima; G. Melian; I. Galindo; E. Padron; P. Hernandez; N. Perez

2002-01-01

75

Identifying rift zones on volcanoes: an example from La Réunion island, Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a methodology for identifying complex rift zones on recent or active volcanoes, where structures hidden by recent\\u000a deposits and logistical conditions might prevent carrying out detailed fieldwork. La Réunion island was chosen as a test-site.\\u000a We used georeferenced topographic maps, aerial photos and digital terrain models to perform a statistical analysis of several\\u000a morphometric parameters of pyroclastic cones.

Fabio Luca Bonali; Claudia Corazzato; Alessandro Tibaldi

2011-01-01

76

Evidence for two shield volcanoes exposed on the island of Kauai, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The island of Kauai has always been interpreted as a single shield volcano, but lavas of previously correlated reversed-to-normal magnetic-polarity transitions on opposite sides of the island differ significantly in isotopic composition. Samples from west Kauai have 87Sr/86Sr 18.25; samples from east Kauai have 87Sr/86Sr > 0.7037, ??Nd ??? 6.14, and 206Pb/204Pb < 18.25. Available data suggest that a younger eastern shield grew on the collapsed flank of an older western one.

Holcomb, R.T.; Reiners, P.W.; Nelson, B.K.; Sawyer, N.-L.E.

1997-01-01

77

VOLInSAR-PF, the InSAR Volcano Observatory Service at Piton de la Fournaise Volcano (La Reunion Island).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2003, we carry out a systematic InSAR survey of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano, Reunion Island, in the framework of an AO-ENVISAT project. Since 2005 this activity gets the status of Observatory Service of the Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermont-Ferrand (OPGC). From 375 ASAR images acquired between 2003 and 2010, we have produced more than 2100 interferograms that allowed us to map the deformations related to 21 eruptions and thus to better understand the internal processes acting during each eruption. In the same time, we have developed an automatic procedure to provide full resolution interferograms, trough a dedicated WEB site, to the Volcano Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF), and our other partners, within a few hours after receiving the ASAR images. In this way, our work is a first step toward an operational system of InSAR monitoring of volcanic activity. Since the beginning of 2010, the VOLInSAR-PF database is also open to the entire community, trough an anonymous login that gives access to slightly reduced resolution interferograms. We will present the VOLInSAR-PF database, the main results it provides concerning the way Piton de la Fournaise is deforming, and the main perspectives for monitoring provided by the new InSAR data (PALSAR-ALOS, TerraSAR-X, RADARSAT-2, COSMO-Skymed) we are beginning to integrate in the database.

Froger, Jean-Luc; Cayol, Valérie; Augier, Aurélien; Souriot, Thierry

2010-05-01

78

Bathymetric constraints on the tectonic and volcanic evolution of Deception Island Volcano, South Shetland Islands  

E-print Network

basin situated behind the extinct South Shetland Islands arc. Deception Island has been well studied but its submerged flanks have not. A multibeam bathymetry survey was conducted around the island in 2005 Shetland island arc or of simple shear between the Scotia and Antarctic plates (Lawver et al. 1996, Barker

Wilcock, William

79

Pyroxenite is a possible cause of enriched magmas in island arc settings: Gorely volcano (Kamchatka)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kamchatka peninsula (Russia) is an island-arc with a complex geological history and structure. It has three distinct volcanic fronts, whose origins are still debated. Moreover, a junction with the Aleutian Arc (at ~56oN) complicates the understanding of geodynamics at the region. The process of magma generation in Kamchatka involves several components: N-MORB mantle wedge (variably depleted), slab fluids and melts, and enriched mantle [Churikova et al. 2001, 2007; Yogodzinsky et al. 2001; Volynets et al. 2010]. Two of these end members (mantle wedge, slab fluids) are well studied [Portnyagin et al. 2007; Duggen et al. 2007]. However, the nature/genesis of the enriched magmas is unclear. In the standard model of arc volcanism depleted mantle peridotite in the mantle wedge partially melts to form parental basalts. However, evidence for pyroxenite melting in the arc environment was reported for the Mexican Volcanic Belt [Straub et al, 2008; Straub et al, 2013] and for Kamchatka [Portnyagin, 2009; Portnyagin, 2011; Bryant et al., 2011; Gavrilenko, 2012]. High precision Ni, Ca, and Mn contents of olivines from Gorely volcano confirm the existence of pyroxenite source in the mantle wedge [Gavrilenko, 2013]. Our forward modeling using Arc Basalt Simulator 4.0 (ABS) by [Kimura et al. 2011]) shows that we have primitive mantle as a source for Gorely volcano, a mantle more enriched than the DMM in the standard model for arc magmatism) REE inverse modeling [after Feigenson et al, 1983] agrees with the ABS forward model, returning the same REE pattern for the source. In contrast, ABS modeling for Mutnovsky volcano (next to Gorely, but closer to the trench) shows standard DMM as the source for the volcano. We conclude that DMM is the composition for the mantle wedge rocks beneath Gorely volcano, but the enrichment of the parental melts at Gorely volcano is caused by reaction of DMM peridotite with slab melts/fluids to produce pyroxenite.

Gavrilenko, M.; Carr, M. J.; Herzberg, C. T.; Ozerov, A.

2013-12-01

80

High CO2 Levels in Boreholes at El Teide Volcano Complex (Tenerife, Canary Islands): Implications for Volcanic  

E-print Network

High CO2 Levels in Boreholes at El Teide Volcano Complex (Tenerife, Canary Islands): Implications emissions at numerous water prospection drillings in the volcanic island of Tenerife. Large concentrations Consejo Insular de Aguas (CIA) , Cabildo de Tenerife, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain. 6 Servicio Electro

Long, Bernard

81

Interaction between forest biodiversity and people’s use of forest resources in Roviana, Solomon Islands: implications for biocultural conservation under socioeconomic changes  

PubMed Central

Background In Solomon Islands, forests have provided people with ecological services while being affected by human use and protection. This study used a quantitative ethnobotanical analysis to explore the society–forest interaction and its transformation in Roviana, Solomon Islands. We compared local plant and land uses between a rural village and urbanized village. Special attention was paid to how local people depend on biodiversity and how traditional human modifications of forest contribute to biodiversity conservation. Methods After defining locally recognized land-use classes, vegetation surveys were conducted in seven forest classes. For detailed observations of daily plant uses, 15 and 17 households were randomly selected in the rural and urban villages, respectively. We quantitatively documented the plant species that were used as food, medicine, building materials, and tools. Results The vegetation survey revealed that each local forest class represented a different vegetative community with relatively low similarity between communities. Although commercial logging operations and agriculture were both prohibited in the customary nature reserve, local people were allowed to cut down trees for their personal use and to take several types of non-timber forest products. Useful trees were found at high frequencies in the barrier island’s primary forest (68.4%) and the main island’s reserve (68.3%). Various useful tree species were found only in the reserve forest and seldom available in the urban village. In the rural village, customary governance and control over the use of forest resources by the local people still functioned. Conclusions Human modifications of the forest created unique vegetation communities, thus increasing biodiversity overall. Each type of forest had different species that varied in their levels of importance to the local subsistence lifestyle, and the villagers’ behaviors, such as respect for forest reserves and the semidomestication of some species, contributed to conserving diversity. Urbanization threatened this human–forest interaction. Although the status of biodiversity in human-modified landscapes is not fully understood, this study suggested that traditional human modifications can positively affect biodiversity and that conservation programs should incorporate traditional uses of landscapes to be successful. PMID:24468329

2014-01-01

82

Hydrogeochemical, Stable Isotopes and Hydrology of Fogo Volcano Perched Aquifers: São Miguel Island, Azores (Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fogo Volcano is located at central part of São Miguel Island and corresponds to a polygenetic volcano with a caldera made by an intercalated accumulation of volcaniclastic deposits and lava flows. São Miguel Island is one of the nine volcanic islands that form the Azores Archipelago. The volcano is 950 meters high, with a caldera diameter of 3.2 Km, which holds a lake inside. The last eruption occurred in 1563-1564, as one of a group of seven traquitic eruptions occurring within the last 5000 years. The volcanic activity is related to hydrothermal activity in a geothermal field located in the volcanoes North flank. The hydrology of Fogo Volcano is characterized by a series of perched-water bodies drained by a large number of springs grouped at different altitudes on the volcano flanks. It is possible to identify three types of water (1) Fresh water, cold temperature (12 - 17 C) with low dissolved solids contents (average conductivity of 179 ?S/cm), pH range between 6.60 and 7.82, dominated by the major ions Na, K, HCO3, and Cl, and correspond mainly to sodium bicarbonate type water. (2) Mineral water, cold temperature (12.5 - 19.4 C) with low dissolved solids contents (average conductivity of 261 ?S/cm), acid pH range between 4.62 and 6.79, and correspond mainly to sodium bicarbonate type water. (3) Thermal water, with temperature of 32 C, high dissolved solids content (4.62 mS/cm), with a pH around 4.50 and belongs to sodium sulfate type water. South Fogo volcano have only fresh water springs and at high elevation, springs drained from pumice fall deposits near 700 m of altitude. Water dissolved solids contents increased slightly with springs at lower altitude due to water-rock interaction. Springs sampled around 700 m high have a conductivity average of 85 ?S/cm, at 520 m an average of 129 ?S/cm, at 430 m an average of 182 ?S/cm, at 200 m an average of 192 ?S/cm and at 12 m high sea level and average of 472 ?S/cm. This trend is observed at North Fogo volcano flank for fresh water springs. Mineral and thermal waters show an influence of magmatic input, a natural water pollution source in areas with volcanic activity. Rainwater isotopic composition showed elevation effect variation with lighter ?18O and ?D values and recharge appear to be at highest altitudes with influence of sea salt from atmospheric contamination. Evaporation is clearly associated with mineral and thermal waters. Hydrogeochemistry differentiates the low altitude springs at South volcano flank where they are separated by ultramafic intrusions supporting the existence of dike impounded aquifers as Peterson (1972) proposed with the Hawaiian conceptual model for volcanic islands.

Antunes, P. C.; Boutt, D. F.; Martini, A. M.; Ferstad, J.; Rodrigues, F. C.

2012-12-01

83

Active Volcanoes of the Kurile Islands: A Reference Guide for Aviation Users  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction: The many volcanoes of the remote and mostly uninhabited Kurile Island arc (fig. 1; table 1) pose a serious hazard for air traffic in the North Pacific. Ash clouds from Kurile eruptions can impact some of the busiest air travel routes in the world and drift quickly into airspace managed by three countries: Russia, Japan, and the United States. Prevailing westerly winds throughout the region will most commonly send ash from any Kurile eruption directly across the parallel North Pacific airways between North America and Asia (Kristine A. Nelson, National Weather Service, oral commun., 2006; fig. 1). This report presents maps showing locations of the 36 most active Kurile volcanoes plotted on Operational Navigational Charts published by the Defense Mapping Agency (map sheets ONC F-10, F-11, and E-10; figs. 1, 2, 3, 4). These maps are intended to assist aviation and other users in the identification of restless Kurile volcanoes. A regional map is followed by three subsections of the Kurile volcanic arc (North, Central, South). Volcanoes and selected primary geographic features are labeled. All maps contain schematic versions of the principal air routes and selected air navigational fixes in this region.

Neal, Christina A.; Rybin, Alexander; Chibisova, Marina; Miller, Edward

2008-01-01

84

Discovery of an Active Submarine Mud Volcano Along the Nootka Fault West of Vancouver Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine mud volcanoes are a common feature in margin environments, but few of them have been documented in the Northeast Pacific. However, during a Hydrosweep bathymetric survey in July, 2001, and a follow-on sub-surface seismic survey in August two mud volcanoes were imaged along the Nootka Fault, 16-18 km west of Vancouver Island at a water depth of 2500 m. The southern volcano, called Maquinna, lies directly along the southern expression of the left lateral, strike slip Nootka Fault. It is 1.5 km across, has a breached caldera and two small summit craters, and it stands about 30 m above the seafloor. The base is bounded by a narrow moat, partially filled by Holocene sediments that are flat lying; older, underlying sediments show steep downwarping towards the sides of the volcano. Subsurface imaging shows a dramatic loss of reflectivity beneath the volcano mound, which may indicate significant mobilization of material. However, a very bright reflector is seen at about 400 m depth below the volcano. This reflector is too deep for stability of methane clathrate, and is interpreted as a zone of high fluid content. A CTD vertical cast above the summit of the volcano showed strong, co-registered thermal, particulate, and oxygen anomalies that extend 50 m up into the overlying water column. These data indicate that the volcano is actively venting warm hydrothermal fluids. The fluids are depleted in CO2, contain background concentrations of CH4, but show elevated H2 concentrations above ocean background water. Microscopic examination of the Nootka hydrothermal samples shows that they contain dense and morphologically diverse microbial communities in comparison to background seawater with cell densities of 106 cells/ml. Enrichment culturing indicates that these communities include both anaerobic and aerobic organisms, some of which are thermophilic with optimal growth temperatures in excess of 50 deg C. Some of these cultures can use methane oxidation as an energy source. Additional culturing experiments and analysis of preserved samples are underway to further characterize the microbes. To further understand the biogeochemical cycles at these sites, samples recently taken from piston cores and CTD casts in this region, are being surveyed for stable and radio carbon isotope signatures of CH4, dissolved inorganic carbon, organic carbon and phospholipid bacterial biomarkers. A second volcano lies ~ 8 km to the northwest of the Maquinna that has a less well defined seafloor expression. However, like Maquinna, seismic reflectivity is lost nearly completely beneath the mound, except for a very bright reflector at about 800 m depth. It is not yet known if this volcano is hydrothermally active. It is likely that high sediment accumulation and lateral tectonic compression associated with accretionary prism formation along the west coast of Vancouver Island support overpressuring of fluids at depth along the Nootka Fault zone, resulting in growth of the two volcanoes.

Riedel, M.; Riedel, M.; Kelly, D. S.; Delaney, J. R.; Spence, G. D.; Hyndman, R. D.; Hyndman, R. D.; Mayer, L.; Calder, B.; Lilley, M. D.; Olson, E. O.; Schrenk, M. O.; Coffin, R.

2001-12-01

85

Space imaging of a 300 years old cooling magma chamber: Timanfaya volcano (Lanzarote, Canary Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multitemporal space radar interferometry analysis between 1992 and 2000 revealed significantly deforming areas with a magnitude of 4-6 mm/yr of lengthening in the radar line of sight at Timanfaya volcano (Lanzarote, Canary Island). Timanfaya volcano erupted almost 300 years ago (1730-1736), along a 15 km-long fissure-feeding magmatic system, resulting in the longest and largest historical eruption of the Canarian archipelago to date, with >1 km3 of erupted basaltic lavas covering 200 km2. High surficial temperature (600 degrees-C at 13 m) and high heat flux measurements (150 mW/m2) suggest that the remnants of the magmatic chamber that fed the 1730-1736 are still partly molten. Here, we present preliminary models of the subsidence taking into account all available data, including geophysical data (heat flux, seismic, magnetotelluric and gravity), the geochemistry of freshly erupted lavas, upper mantle and crustal xenoliths, and structural geology.

Gonzalez, P. J.; Tiampo, K. F.

2010-12-01

86

Long-distance lateral magma transport from intra-oceanic island arc volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-distance lateral magma transport in oceanic island arc volcanoes is emerging as a common phenomenon where the regional stress regime is favorable. It should also be recognized as an important factor in the construction and growth of island arcs. In this contribution, we report on recent investigations into the magma plumbing of Izu-Oshima volcano: an active basaltic volcano with an extensive fissure system. Geophysical observations in the Izu-Bonin intra-oceanic island arc indicate that magma is transported long distances laterally from the main basaltic composite volcano. When Miyakejima erupted in 2000, seismic activity migrated about 30km northwestward from the volcanic centre (Geshi et al., 2002). This event is interpreted to reflect northwestward dike injection and propagation from Miyakejima, transporting magma at a depth range between 12 and 20km (Kodaira et al., 2002). We demonstrated that long-distance lateral magma transport also occurred at the Nishiyama volcano on Hachijojima Island using petrological, geochemical and structural studies of satellite vents (Ishizuka et al., 2008). Nishiyama provided evidence for two types of magma transport. In the first type, primitive magma moved laterally NNW for at least 20km in the middle to lower crust (10-20km deep). The other type is characterized by magmas that have experienced differentiation in a shallow magma chamber beneath Nishiyama and have been transported short distances (<5km). The long-distance magma transport seems to be controlled by a regional extensional stress regime, while short distance transport may be controlled by local stress regime affected by the load generated by the main volcanic edifice. Izu-Oshima volcano comprises numerous, subparallel NW-SE trending submarine ridges extending up to 22 km to the NW and SE from the summit of Izu-Oshima. A recent diving survey has revealed that: 1) NW-SE trending ridges are fissures which erupted basaltic spatter and lava flows. 2) Basaltic effusives are petrographically similar among each ridge, while there are noticeable differences between ridges. 3) The ridges are petrographically distinct from interspersed seamounts. These seamounts are identical to the Higashi-Izu-Oki monogenetic volcanoes (HIMV) found across this area of the rear-arc. Geochemically there is a close similarity between the submarine ridges and the corresponding subaerial chains, implying that each chain represents an episode of magma transport away from the main Izu-Oshima edifice. This scenario also explains the overlapping distribution of the HIMV and NW-SE chains which have clearly distinct magma sources. HIMV appear to be fed by an "in-situ" source, while the NW-SE chains are fed by lateral magma transport from the Izu-Oshima plumbing system. Unlike the Nishiyama volcano, Izu-Oshima does not show a compositional variation along the length of the volcanic chains, and has no evidence of any primitive magmas. Hence, the magma transport from Izu-Oshima seems to occur from a shallow crustal magma chamber where extensive crystal fractionation and plagioclase accumulation has taken place.

Ishizuka, O.; Geshi, N.; Kawanabe, Y.; Ogitsu, I.; Tuzino, T.; Nakano, S.; Arai, K.; Sakamoto, I.; Taylor, R. N.; Sano, K.; Yamamoto, T.

2011-12-01

87

Soil gas geochemistry in relation to eruptive fissures on Timanfaya volcano, Lanzarote Island (Canary Islands, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report herein the first results of an extensive soil gas survey performed on Timanfaya volcano on May 2011. Soil gas composition at Timanfaya volcano indicates a main atmospheric source, slightly enriched in CO2 and He. Soil CO2 concentration showed a very slight deep contribution of the Timanfaya volcanic system, with no clear relation to the main eruptive fissures of the studied area. The existence of soil helium enrichments in Timanfaya indicates a shallow degassing of crustal helium and other possible deeper sources probably form cooling magma bodies at depth. The main soil helium enrichments were observed in good agreement with the main eruptive fissures of the 1730-36 eruption, with the highest values located at those areas with a higher density of recent eruptive centers, indicating an important structural control for the leakage of helium at Timanfaya volcano. Atmospheric air slightly polluted by deep-seated helium emissions, CO2 degassed from a cooling magma body, and biogenic CO2, might be the most plausible explanation for the existence of soil gas. Helium is a deep-seated gas, exhibiting important emission rates along the main eruptive fissure of the 1730-36 eruption of Timanfaya volcano.

Padrón, Eleazar; Padilla, Germán; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Calvo, David; Nolasco, Dácil; Barrancos, José; Melián, Gladys V.; Dionis, Samara; Rodríguez, Fátima

2013-01-01

88

What drives centuries-long polygenetic scoria cone activity at Barren Island volcano?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barren Island in the Andaman Sea is an active mafic stratovolcano, which had explosive and effusive eruptions, followed by caldera formation, in prehistoric time (poorly dated). A scoria cone within the caldera, marking volcanic resurgence, was active periodically from 1787 to 1832 (the historic eruptions). Since 1991, the same scoria cone has produced six eruptions, commonly including lava flows. Links between Barren Island's eruptions and giant earthquakes (such as the 26 December 2004 Great Sumatra megathrust earthquake) have been suggested, though there is no general correlation between them. The ? 227-year-long activity of the scoria cone, named here Shanku ("cone"), is normally driven by purely magmatic processes. I present a "source to surface" model for Barren Island and Shanku, including the source region, deeper and shallow magma chambers, volcanotectonics, dyking from magma chambers, and eruptions and eruptive style as controlled by crustal stresses, composition and volatile content. Calculations show that dykes ~ 0.5 m thick and a few hundred meters long, originating from shallow-level magma chambers (~ 5 km deep), are suitable feeders of the Shanku eruptions. Shanku, a polygenetic scoria cone (at least 13 eruptions since 1787), has three excellent analogues, namely Anak Krakatau (40 eruptions since 1927), Cerro Negro (23 eruptions since 1850), and Yasur (persistent activity for the past hundreds of years). This is an important category of volcanoes, gradational between small "monogenetic" scoria cones and larger "polygenetic" volcanoes.

Sheth, Hetu

2014-12-01

89

Man against volcano: The eruption on Heimaey, Vestmann Islands, Iceland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey carries out scientific studies in the geological, hydrological, and cartographic sciences generally within the 50 states, but also in cooperation with scientific organizations in many foreign countries for the investigation of unusual earth science phenomena throughout the world. The following material discusses the impact of the 1973 volcanic eruption of Eldfell on the fishing port of Vestmannaeyjar on the island of Heimaey, Iceland. Before the eruption was over, approximately one-third of the town of Vestmannaeyjar had been obliterated but, more importantly, the potential damage had been reduced markedly by the spraying of seawater onto the advancing lava flows, causing them to be slowed, stopped, or diverted from the undamaged portion of the town. The Survey's interest and involvement in the Heimaey eruption in Iceland was occasioned by the possibility that the procedures used to control the course of the flowing lava and to reduce the damage in a modern town may some day be needed in Hawaii and possibly even in the continental United States. This publication is based on the observations of two USGS geologists, Richard S. Williams, Jr. and James G. Moore, as well as on information from the Icelandic Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Icelandic scientists' reports through the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, and other published scientific reports. A number of Icelandic scientists studied the scientific aspects of the eruption and the engineering aspects of the control of lava flows, in particular, Professors Thorbjb'rn Sigurgeirsson and Sigurdur Thorarinsson of the University of Iceland Science Institute. Also, Icelandic governmental officials provided logistical and other support, in particular, Mr. Steingnmur Hermannsson, Director, Icelandic National Research Council and Professor Magnus Magnusson, Director, University of Iceland Science Institute.

Williams, R.S., Jr.; Moore, J.G.

1976-01-01

90

Hydrothermal history of Piton des Neiges volcano (Reunion Island, Indian Ocean)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Piton des Neiges volcano on Reunion Island represents a unique example of an oceanic volcano where the extreme development of amphitheatre-headed valley erosion has led to the formation of three large cirques. They are so large that the island's volcano-structural and petrological history can be traced from its emergence to the latest stages of its sub-aerial evolution (> 2.1 m.y. to 22,000 years ago). The various magmatic series of the Piton des Neiges are, moreover, abundantly invaded by hydrothermal mineralization. It is this post-magmatic feature, represented by the hydrothermal alteration of the series, which is examined here. Mineralogical studies (X-ray, microprobe, scanning electron microscope) reveal a large number of hydrothermal species. Of these, zeolites are the most common and five are described here for the first time in Reunion (gonnardite, levynite, erionite, garronite, herschelite). Six hydrothermal facies characteristic of weak metamorphism are defined: chabazitephillipsite, natrolite-thomsonite, analcime-thomsonite, laumontite-thomsonite, albiteprehnite and prehnite-pumpellyite. The paleo-temperatures covered by these facies range from 0 to 380°C. On the basis of these data and supporting field observations, three main hydrothermal phases were determined and fitted into the known chronostratigraphy. These three phases have succeeded one another over the last two million years in the Piton des Neiges massif. The extent and mineralogical facies of each phase can be related to the volcanotectonic structures. This sequence has been directly linked to the geological evolution of the massif. The progressive restriction with time of the hydrothermal manifestations to the present Piton des Neiges occurred alongside the focusing of volcanism centralized on this same relief. An attempt is made to reconstruct the island's hydrothermal history.

Rançon, J. Ph.

1985-12-01

91

Eruption of soufriere volcano on st. Vincent island, 1971-1972.  

PubMed

The Soufrière volcano in St. Vincent erupted from October 1971 to March 1972, as 80 x 10(6) m(3) of basaltic andesite lava was quietly extruded inside the mile-wide crater. The eruption was largely subaqueous, taking place in the 180-m-deep crater lake, and resulted in the emergence of a steep-sided island. The mild character of the eruption and the absence of seismic activity stand in direct contrast to the highly explosive character of the eruption of 1902 to 1903. PMID:17746610

Aspinall, W P; Sigurdsson, H; Shepherd, J B

1973-07-13

92

Surface Pressure Gradient and Carbon Dioxide Degassing Survey at Cumbre Vieja Volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La Palma (730 Km2) is one of the youngest island of the Canarian archipelago. Recent volcanic activity is concentrated on the southern part of the island, where Cumbre Vieja volcano (220 Km2) has been constructed during the last 1 Ma reaching an elevation of 1,898 m above sea level. Six historical eruptions had occurred at Cumbre Vieja, and the most recent event took place in the southern part of the volcano (Teneguía volcano, 1971). The main structural features are three major volcanic rift-zones of N-S, NE, and NW orientations. Since fumarolic activity is absent at Cumbre Vieja, coupled surface pressure gradient and carbon dioxide degassing monitoring could be potential geophysical and geochemical tools for its volcanic surveillance. Surface pressure gradient and carbon dioxide degassing survey of 619 observation sites was carried out from July 19 to August 13, 2002, at Cumbre Vieja volcano. Pressure gradient measurements were performed by means of a Setra 239 Model pressure transducer, and soil CO2 efflux measurements were performed by means of a portable NDIR sensor according to the accumulation chamber method. At each sampling site, soil gas samples were collected at 40 cm deep using a metallic probe and analyzed for CO2 contents by means of a Omnistar QMS within 24 hours. Surface pressure gradient ranged from -36 to 90 Pam-1. Soil CO2 efflux ranged from negligible values to 1,300 gm-2d-1, and soil gas CO2 content ranged from 0.03 to 1.1 %V. Statistical graphical analysis showed two different populations for the CO2 efflux data and their mean values are 1.4 and 52 gm-2d-1, respectively. For this 2002 survey, the total output of diffuse CO2 emission was estimated about 1,340 td-1, which lies within the range of previous surveys (1,250-2,500 td-1). Spatial distribution of the data showed an excellent agreement between surface pressure gradient and CO2 degassing at Cumbre Vieja, where the highest observed values were detected in and around the volcanic vent related to the most recent eruption at Cumbre Vieja volcano.

Alfaya, A.; López, F.; Padron, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Salazar, J. M.; Pérez, N. M.

2002-12-01

93

Shield volcanoes of Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctic rift: oceanic island similarities, continental signature, and tectonic controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Marie Byrd Land volcanic province is largely defined by 18 large (up to ~1,800 km3) alkaline shield volcanoes, each surmounted by a summit section of varied felsic rocks dominated by trachytic flows. They are distributed over a 500 × 800-km block-faulted dome within the West Antarctic rift. The basement contact of volcanic sections is ~500 masl at one site and 3,000 mbsl at another, 70 km away, which illustrates the scale of block faulting but complicates an understanding of volcanic structure. Furthermore, the continental ice sheet buries 16 volcanoes to progressively greater heights inland. However, five are sufficiently exposed to allow meaningful comparisons with alkaline oceanic island volcanoes; these comparisons are used as a guide to estimate the structure of Marie Byrd Land volcanoes. The type example for this study is Mt. Murphy, the most completely exposed volcano. It consists of a 1,400-m section of alkaline basalt overlain by trachyte and benmoreite flows that make up ~7-13 % of the volcano volume. In gross structure and composition, Mt. Murphy is similar to Gran Canaria volcano, Canary Islands, but the percent of felsic rock may be three times that of Gran Canaria, if the estimate is approximately correct. Departures from the oceanic island example are believed to represent the imprint of the Marie Byrd Land lithosphere and tectonic environment on volcano evolution. These include a lack of order in the sequence of felsic rock types, lack of progression toward more silica undersaturated compositions with time, absence of a highly undersaturated mafic resurgent stage, and perhaps, a relatively large volume of felsic rock.

LeMasurier, Wesley

2013-06-01

94

Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module include four problem-based learning scenarios related to volcanoes and emphasize different kinds of volcanic hazards and geologic processes. The four scenarios are: whether to build a new high school in the shadow of a restless volcanic giant, Mt. Rainier; Kilauea in Hawaii shows signs of activity. What are the prospects for the nearby population?; Mt. Hood is starting to act like Mt. St. Helens did in 1980, but Mt. Hood is just 40 miles from the metropalitan area. How might an eruption impact this populated area?; and America's largest volcano in Yellowstone National Park is stirring. Are we facing an eruption as devastating as a nuclear attack? This module is from Exploring the Environment.

2012-08-03

95

Dynamics of diffuse helium degassing from Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La Palma island (730 km2) is the northwestern most island of the Canarian archipelago. Cumbre Vieja volcano (220 km2) is the result of the volcanic activity in the southern part of the island during the last 1 Ma. Six historical eruptions had occurred at Cumbre Vieja, and the most recent one took place at the extreme south of this volcano in 1971. Three major volcanic rift-zones trending N-S, NW-SE and NE-SW constitute Cumbre Vieja\\'{ }s major structural features. The aim of this study is evaluate the use of diffuse helium degassing for monitoring Cumbre Vieja volcano since (1) diffuse degassing studies seems to become a powerful geochemical tool for volcano surveillance (Hernández et al., 2001), and (2) helium is an ideal geochemical gas tracer because it is chemically inert, physically stable, sparingly soluble in water under ambient conditions. Since 1997 diffuse degassing surveys are regularly performed at Cumbre Vieja. During the last 2 years these surveys have investigated helium in the soil atmosphere. Soil gas samples were collected at 40 cm deep using a metallic probe and stored in vacutainers by means of water displacement technique. Soil gas samples were analyzed for 4He and CO2 contents by means of a QMS within 24 hours. CO2 efflux measurements were also performed by means of a portable NDIR sensor according to the accumulation chamber method. ? He contour maps (? He = He{soil atmosphere}-Heair) were constructed using kriging as interpolation method. Both surveys showed a good spatial agreement for ? He, and their peak values (> 1,800 ppbV) were mainly observed at the summit area of Cumbre Vieja along the N-S rift-zone, suggesting a deep origin for the degassing through this major structure. The total output for diffuse 4He emission rate at Cumbre Vieja was estimated by multiplying CO2 efflux times ? He /? CO2 ratio at each sampling site. The results showed an increase on the diffuse 4He emission rate from 67 to 167 kg d-1. Monitoring these results could be useful for the volcanic surveillance.

Alfaya, A.; Robles, J.; Padron, E.; Salazar, J.; Hernandez, P.; Perez, N.

2003-12-01

96

Diffuse Helium Degassing at Cumbre Vieja Volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La Palma (730 Km2) is the northwestern most island of the Canarian archipelago. Cumbre Vieja (<1 Ma) is situated in the southern part of La Palma, and is the most active basaltic volcano in the Canaries where the most recent eruption occurred in 1971, Teneguía volcano. The main structural features of Cumbre Vieja (220 Km2) are three major volcanic rift-zones of N-S, NE, and NW orientations. Diffuse CO2 degassing studies is becoming a useful geochemical tool for volcano monitoring (Hernández et al., 2001). Since (1) helium is an ideal geochemical indicator because it is chemically inert, physically stable, sparingly soluble in water under ambient conditions and almost non-adsorbable, and (2) helium-3 is the best fingerprint for magmatic activity and reach levels up to 9.6 Ra at La Palma (Pérez et al., 1994), the goal of this study is evaluate the use of diffuse helium emission for volcano monitoring of Cumbre Vieja. Diffuse degassing survey of 619 sampling sites was carried out from July 19 to August 13, 2002, at Cumbre Vieja volcano. Soil CO2 efflux measurements were performed by means of a portable NDIR sensor and according to the accumulation chamber method. At each sampling site, soil gas samples were collected at 40 cm deep using a metallic probe and analyzed for 4He and CO2 contents by means of a Omnistar QMS within 24 hours. Spatial distribution of soil gas helium expressed as ?He (?He = He{soil atmosphere} - Heair) showed that relatively high ?He values (> 1,800 ppb) occurred in the summit zone of Cumbre Vieja along the N-S rift-zone, suggesting a deep origin for the degassing through this major structure. Soil He efflux was estimated by multiplying soil CO2 efflux times ?He/?CO2 ratio at each sampling site. Taking into consideration the spatial distribution of estimated soil He efflux and the volcanic area, the total output of diffuse He emission is estimated about 59 Kg/d for Cumbre Vieja volcano. Monitoring these results could be useful for the volcanic surveillance.

Padron, E.; Fuentes, L.; Salazar, J. M.; Hernandez, P. A.; Perez, N. M.

2002-12-01

97

Magma Genesis of Sakurajima, the Quaternary post- Aira caldera volcano, southern Kyushu Island, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sakurajima volcano is the Quaternary post-caldera volcano of Aira caldera, which was caused by the eruption of huge amount of silicic pyroclastics, situated on Ryukyu arc, southern Kyushu Island, Japan. This volcano is quite active, so it can be considered that the preparation of next caldera-forming eruption with huge amount of silicic magma is proceeding. It is, therefore, expected that the investigation of magma genesis of Sakurajima volcano give us information for the mechanism generating huge amount of silicic magma, which cause the caldera formation. We analyzed major and trace elements with Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of volcanic rocks from Sakurajima volcano. We sampled (ol) - opx - cpx - pl andesite and dacite from almost all the volcanic units defined by Fukuyama and Ono (1981). In addition to Sakurajima samples, we also studied basaltic rocks erupted at pre-caldera stage of the Aira caldera to estimate the primary magma of Sakurajima volcano. Major and trace element variations generally show linear trends on the Harker diagrams, with the exception of P2O5 and TiO2. Based on the trend of P2O5 vs.SiO2, we divided studied samples low-P (P2O5 < 0.15 wt. %) and high-P (P2O5 > 0.15 wt. %) groups and these groups also display two distinct trends on TiO2-SiO2 diagram. The composition of trace elements shows typical island arc character as depletion of Nb and enrichments of Rb, K and Pb, suggesting addition of aqueous fluids to the mantle wedge. The Zr and Nb concentrations make a liner trend (Zr/Nb = 27) and this trend across from tend of MORB (Zr/Nb = 35) to that of crustal materials (Zr/Nb=17). The Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions broadly plot to on the mixing curve connecting MORB-type mantle and sediments of the Philippine Sea Plate, indicating that the primary magma was generated by partial melting of MORB-type mantle wedge, which was hydrated with fluids derived from the subducted Philippine Sea sediments. But we found that our data plot apart from the mixing curve to the direction of being more radiogenic when we observe in more detail. This observation supports our conclusion that the crustal materials contribute the magma genesis of Sakurajima volcano emphasized from Zr/Nb ratios. Low-P and high-P groups show different trends of SiO2, P2O5, TiO2 concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr ratios relative to plagioclase modal abundances. The high-P group samples show continuous trends, and their 87Sr/86Sr ratios increase with decreasing plagioclase, representing simple AFC process. The SiO2 content of low-P group rapidly increases from 63 to 66 wt. % at the modal abundance of pl is nearly 20 vol. %. The Sr isotope ratios of low-P group with < 20 vol. % of pl are obviously high (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70556 to 0.70569) compared to those of high-P group (87Sr/86Sr = 0.705136 to 0.705285). From these observations, we conclude that the rapid increase of SiO2 with high 87Sr/87Sr ratio infer involvement of crustal materials to the magma chamber, in which the ACF process is proceeding.

Shibata, T.; Suzuki, J.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Miki, D.; Takemura, K.

2012-12-01

98

Hazard communication by the Alaska Volcano Observatory Concerning the 2008 Eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant explosive eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi volcanoes in 2008 tested the hazard communication systems at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) including a rigorous test of the new format for written notices of volcanic activity. AVO's Anchorage-based Operations facility (Ops) at the USGS Alaska Science Center serves as the hub of AVO's eruption response. From July 12 through August

J. N. Adleman; C. E. Cameron; T. A. Neal; J. S. Shipman

2008-01-01

99

Secular and Spatial Variations of Diffuse CO2 Degassing From Cumbre Vieja Volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Palma (730 Km2) is the northwestmost island of the Canarian archipielago and rises 6.5 Km from the oceanic basement. Constructive and destructive geological processes are responsible for the actual geomorphology of La Palma (Navarro, 1992; Ancochea et al., 1994). Recent volcanic activity is mainly concentrated at Cumbre Vieja volcano, in the southern part of La Palma. The most recent

L. Fuentes; A. Mena; A. Alfaya; E. Padron; G. Melian; J. Salazar; P. Hernandez; N. Perez

2001-01-01

100

ASTER-SRTM Perspective of Mount Oyama Volcano, Miyake-Jima Island, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mount Oyama is a 820-meter-high (2,700 feet) volcano on the island of Miyake-Jima, Japan. In late June 2000, a series of earthquakes alerted scientists to possible volcanic activity. On June 27, authorities evacuated 2,600 people, and on July 8 the volcano began erupting and erupted five times over that week. The dark gray blanket covering green vegetation in the image is the ash deposited by prevailing northeasterly winds between July 8 and 17. This island is about 180 kilometers (110 miles) south of Tokyo and is part of the Izu chain of volcanic islands that runs south from the main Japanese island of Honshu. Miyake-Jima is home to 3,800 people. The previous major eruptions of Mount Oyama occurred in 1983 and 1962, when lava flows destroyed hundreds of houses. An earlier eruption in 1940 killed 11 people.

This image is a perspective view created by combining image data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) aboard NASA's Terra satellite with an elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Vertical relief is exaggerated, and the image includes cosmetic adjustments to clouds and image color to enhance clarity of terrain features.

The ASTER instrument is a cooperative project between NASA, JPL, and the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

Size: Island is approximately 8 kilometers (5 miles) in diameter Location: 34.1 deg. North lat., 139.5 deg. East lon. Orientation: View toward the west-southwest. Image Data: ASTER visible and near infrared Date Acquired: February 20, 2000 (SRTM), July 17, 2000 (ASTER)

2000-01-01

101

Active submarine volcano sampled  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On June 4, 1982, two full dredge hauls of fresh olivine basalt were recovered from the upper flanks of Kavachi submarine volcano, Solomon Islands, from water depths of 400 and 900 m. The shallower dredge site was within one-half mile of the active submarine vent evidenced at the surface by an area of slick water, probably caused by gas emissions. Kavachi is a composite stratovolcano located on the ‘trench-slope break’ or ‘outer-arc high’ of the New Georgia Group, approximately 35 km seaward of the main volcanic line and only 30 km landward of the base of the trench inner wall. The volcano has been observed to erupt every year or two for at least the last 30 years (see cover photographs). An island formed in 1952, 1961, 1965, and 1978, but in each case it rapidly eroded below sea level. The latest eruption was observed by Solair pilots during the several weeks up to and including May 18, 1982.

Taylor, Brian

102

Effect of Diel Activity Patterns and Harvesting Pressure on the Diversity and Biomass of Sea Cucumbers in Marovo Lagoon, Solomon Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A marked decline in the contribution by Marovo Lagoon to the annual total bêche-de-mer production of the Solomon Islands from 58% in 1989 to 17% in 2003 prompted investigation of their current biomass and diversity. We also assessed changes to critical ecological services and the prospects for population recovery following a fisheries closure. Day time and nocturnal transects revealed a mean abundance of 32.4 (SD = 5.3) low value species per ha (e.g. Holothuria atra, H. edulis, H. coluber and Thelenota anax) and 15.2 (SD = 2.7) high value species per ha (e.g. H. fuscogilva, Actinopyga lecanora, Stichopus hermanni and Thelenota ananas). Following a 17 month closure of the fishery (2005-2007), the abundance of bêche-de-mer was reported by local fisherman to have increased; however, no scientific studies were conducted that can substantiate this community held belief. The current study aimed to document the impact of re-opening the fishery in 2007 and documented a decline in high value species of 9% over a 5 month period following the opening of the fishery, while low value species continued to increase in abundance by 11%, over the same period based on nocturnal surveys. Continued observation of the recovery, post closure, and any subsequent harvest in Marovo will be required to properly understand population dynamics and provide a sustainable harvest plan for bêche-de-mer in the future.

Buckius, Christine; Albert, Simon; Tibbetts, Ian; Udy, James

2010-05-01

103

Morphology of Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano (La Réunion Island): Characterization and implication in the volcano evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topography of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (PdF) differs from the classic view of basaltic shield volcanoes as it is characterized by (1) several steep slope zones on its flanks and (2) a large U-shaped caldera, the Enclos-Grand Brûlé structure (EGBS). Most of these structures were previously interpreted as the scars of lateral landslides, the deposits of which cover

Laurent Michon; Francky Saint-Ange

2008-01-01

104

CO2 budget from active volcanoes of central Mediterranean: preliminary estimate for Ischia Island (Italy).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ischia Island (46 km2) is an active volcano located a few kilometres northwest of the bay of Naples (Central Italy). It last erupted in 1302 A.D. and its activity is currently characterised only by low-temperature (T° max. = 100° C) gas emissions, such as fumaroles and anomalous soil degassing. A geothermal reservoir (estimated reservoir temperature near 280° C; Inguaggiato et al., 2000) is also present in the island. The emitted gases are mostly water vapour and CO2. Also H2 is present in appreciable amounts (up to 2.5 % v/v of dry gas), together with minor concentrations of CH4 He and CO. Based on helium and carbon isotopic ratios (R/Ra ˜ 3.6; ? 13C(CO2) ˜ -2 \\permil), a magmatic source can be inferred for these gases. The present study was mainly aimed at carrying out a preliminary estimate of the total output of magmatic CO2 from Ischia, considering all types of fluids emitted there. Soil CO2 fluxes (measured with the accumulation chamber) gave a value of about 2.5 Mt a-1, that is much lower than the amount estimated at Mt. Etna (13 to 25 Mt a-1; Allard et al., 1991; D'Alessandro et al., 1997), but more than an order of magnitude higher than that estimated at Pantelleria Island and at Vulcano (Favara et al., 2001). The amount of CO2 dissolved into ground water as carbonatic species is only 0.025 Mt a-1, considering an annual volume of infiltrated water of about 8 x 106 m3. The overall output of CO2 from Ischia indicates that this island is site of active volcanic degassing and deserves a more careful volcanological monitoring.

Pecoraino, G.; Brusca, L.; D'Alessandro, W.; Giammanco, S.; Inguaggiato, S.; Longo, M.

2003-12-01

105

Geology and 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology of Akutan Volcano, Eastern Aleutian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

40Ar/39Ar dating and new whole-rock geochemical analyses are used to establish an eruptive chronology for Akutan volcano, Akutan Island, in the eastern Aleutian island arc. Akutan Island (166° W, 54.1° N) is the site of long-lived volcanism and the entire island comprises volcanic rocks as old as 3.3 Ma (Richter et al., 1998, USGS Open-File 98-135). Our current focus is on the 225 km2 western half of the island, which is home to the Holocene active cone, Holocene to latest Pleistocene satellite vents, and underlying middle Pleistocene volcanic basement rocks. Eruptive products span the tholeiitic-calc-alkaline boundary, are medium-K, and range from basalt to dacite. Furnace incremental heating experiments on groundmass separates of 38 samples resulted in 29 40Ar/39Ar ages. The remainder did not yield radiogenic 40Ar contents and are likely Holocene in age. The oldest ages (1251×10 and 1385×12 ka) are from a wedge of flat-lying dissected lavas north of the Holocene cone; these likely represent the upper part of the volcanic basement that underlies the entire island. Above a major unconformity lie basaltic andesite to dacite lavas that range from 765× 4 to 522×8 ka. The eroded remnants of the source volcano for these flows appears to crop out as a series of variably hydrothermally altered breccias and domes 5 km east-northeast of the current summit. A 625 m-tall eroded basaltic center, Lava Peak, sits 6 km northwest of the summit; its deeply incised western flank exposes lava flows and a plug. Two flows are dated at 598×16 and 602×15 ka. A high ridge 1.5 km south of the summit is made of oxidized, mostly andesitic lavas 284-249 ka old; these are presumably the remnants of an eruptive center located near the current cone. Flat Top Peak, 3.5 km southwest of the summit, produced almost exclusively basalts and six dated lavas range from 155×8 to 98×18 ka. Lavas from Flat Top (1065 m asl) are deeply eroded suggesting extensive ice cover during marine isotope stages 4-2. Cascade Bight, an eruptive center 4.5 km southeast of the caldera, has apparently been active in the Holocene as two experiments on basaltic andesite lavas yielded no radiogenic argon. Holocene lavas are also exposed along the upper walls of the ~1,600 yr old summit caldera (Waythomas, 1999, Bull Volc, v. 61, p. 141-161), including dissected 1296 m-tall Akutan Peak (the current summit), as well as low on the north and west flanks of the Akutan edifice. Holocene lavas, including those from Cascade Bight as well as Lava Point satellite vent on the NW coast, all fall along a single tholeiitic, basalt-to-dacite evolutionary trend that has lower K than Pleistocene lavas. Our results show that the focus of volcanism has shifted within the western half of Akutan Island over the last ~600 ka, and that on occasion multiple volcanic centers have been active over the same time period, including within the Holocene.

Coombs, M. L.; Jicha, B. R.

2013-12-01

106

Volcanic-ash hazard to aviation during the 2003–2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Anatahan is one of nine active subaerial volcanoes that pose hazards to major air-traffic routes from airborne volcanic ash. The 2003–2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano affected the region's aviation operations for 3 days in May 2003. On the first day of the eruption (10 May 2003), two international flights from

Marianne Guffanti; John W. Ewert; Gregory M. Gallina; Gregg J. S. Bluth; Grace L. Swanson

2005-01-01

107

Volcanic-ash hazard to aviation during the 2003 2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Anatahan is one of nine active subaerial volcanoes that pose hazards to major air-traffic routes from airborne volcanic ash. The 2003 2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano affected the region's aviation operations for 3 days in May 2003. On the first day of the eruption (10 May 2003), two international flights

Marianne Guffanti; John W. Ewert; Gregory M. Gallina; Gregg J. S. Bluth; Grace L. Swanson

2005-01-01

108

Construction and destruction rates of volcanoes within tropical environment: Examples from the Basse-Terre Island (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to better constrain the construction and the erosion rate affecting the volcanic island of Basse-Terre Island (Guadeloupe, F.W.I.), an enlarged K-Ar age dataset has been combined with reconstruction of the paleo-topography. Two different methods of interpolation of the present topography have been cross-checked to better support the erosion rates obtained and their associated uncertainties. The present study focusses on the Monts-Caraïbes volcanoes and on the main geomorphic feature of the Piton de Bouillante volcano, the Beaugendre Valley. The Monts-Caraïbes volcanoes were constructed in 83 kyr at a rate of 0.12 ± 0.04 km3/kyr. During the last 450 kyr, they have experienced an erosion rate of 610 ± 550 t/km2/yr. In the Piton de Bouillante volcano eleven new K-Ar ages have been obtained, constraining the duration of its volcanic activity between 880 ± 14 and 712 ± 12 ka, and involving a construction rate of 0.70 ± 0.20 km3/kyr. For this volcano, an erosion rate of 1220 ± 700 t/km2/yr has been obtained for the last 700 kyr. Our study also shows, based on the contemporaneity of the ages in the entire Beaugendre Valley added to the mean erosion rate of 1350 ± 550 t/km2/yr, that the flank collapse hypothesis cannot explain the formation of this valley. Finally, the similarity of the erosion rates computed for different locations of the Basse-Terre Island shows that the time-integrated erosion appears independent to the trade wind effect and suggests that the barrier effect due to the relief is not present here.

Ricci, Julia; Lahitte, Pierre; Quidelleur, Xavier

2015-01-01

109

Two Decades of Degassing at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i: Perspectives on Island Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ongoing eruption of Kilauea provides an opportunity to examine how volcanic emissions impact the natural and human environment of the island of Hawai`i. Kilauea has released ˜ 13 megatons of SO2 gas into the troposphere since the current eruption began in 1983, more than any single anthropogenic source in the U.S. During prevailing trade wind conditions, measurements of SO2 gas, aerosol mass, and aerosol acidity downwind of Kilauea document the conversion of SO2 to acid aerosol as the plume propagates to the leeward side of the island. Lidar measurements suggest a gas-to-particle conversion rate (t1/2) of 6 hours. When trade winds are disrupted, ambient SO2 and particle measurements in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park have shown episodes of particle concentrations of ˜ 100 ? g/m3 and SO2 concentrations in excess of 4000 ppb. Federal health standards and WHO guidelines for SO2 have been exceeded repeatedly at this near-source location. Documented effects from volcanic emissions on the island of Hawai`i include the rapid corrosion of metal objects, degradation of domestic water quality, agricultural crop damage, and adverse impacts on human respiratory and pulmonary function. Other impacts may include decreases in local rainfall and increased mortality of asthmatics. For the period 1986 to 1993, after the eruption became continuous, deaths from asthma on the island of Hawai`i increased by a factor of ten. Three current health studies seek to investigate the relationship between exposure to volcanic pollution and health effects. In addition to measuring gas and particle exposures, these studies examine lung development in children around the island, disease prevalence in adults residing in communities downwind of volcanic degassing sources, and acute effects in asthmatic children and healthy children and adults. In the absence of conclusive evidence linking exposure and health effects, the USGS, in collaboration with the National Park Service, has developed a real-time advisory for heavily visited park areas known to exceed U.S. Air Quality Standards. This color-coded system informs and advises park visitors and employees when ambient SO2 concentrations exceed predetermined levels.

Elias, T.; Sutton, A. J.

2003-12-01

110

2005 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity at or near 16 volcanoes in Alaska during 2005, including the high profile precursory activity associated with the 2005?06 eruption of Augustine Volcano. AVO continues to participate in distributing information about eruptive activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and in the Kurile Islands of the Russian Far East, in conjunction with the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), respectively. In 2005, AVO helped broadcast alerts about activity at 8 Russian volcanoes. The most serious hazard posed from volcanic eruptions in Alaska, Kamchatka, or the Kurile Islands is the placement of ash into the atmosphere at altitudes traversed by jet aircraft along the North Pacific and Russian Trans East air routes. AVO, KVERT, and SVERT work collaboratively with the National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers to provide timely warnings of volcanic eruptions and the production and movement of ash clouds.

McGimsey, R.G.; Neal, C.A.; Dixon, J.P.; Ushakov, Sergey

2008-01-01

111

Electric and magnetic phenomena observed before the volcano-seismic activity in 2000 in the Izu Island Region, Japan  

PubMed Central

Significant anomalous changes in the ultra low frequency range (?0.01 Hz) were observed in both geoelectric and geomagnetic fields before the major volcano-seismic activity in the Izu Island region, Japan. The spectral intensity of the geoelectric potential difference between some electrodes on Niijima Island and the third principal component of geomagnetic field variations at an array network in Izu Peninsula started to increase from a few months before the onset of the volcano-seismic activity, culminating immediately before nearby magnitude 6 class earthquakes. Appearance of similar changes in two different measurements conducted at two far apart sites seems to provide information supporting the reality of preseismic electromagnetic signals. PMID:12032286

Uyeda, S.; Hayakawa, M.; Nagao, T.; Molchanov, O.; Hattori, K.; Orihara, Y.; Gotoh, K.; Akinaga, Y.; Tanaka, H.

2002-01-01

112

A review of historical lahars, floods, and landslides in the Prcheur river catchment (Montagne Pele volcano, Martinique island, Lesser Antilles)  

E-print Network

to the Montagne Pelée volcano massif located in the north of Martinique island, in the Lesser Antilles arc Martinique, dans l'arc des Petites Antilles. Les 19 et 20 juin 2010, deux lahars de forts débits ont débordé capable d'endommager partiellement ou de submerger le pont se produisent tous les 10,3 ans en moyenne

Clouard, Valerie

113

On the time-scales of magmatism at island-arc volcanoes.  

PubMed

Precise information on time-scales and rates of change is fundamental to an understanding of natural processes and the development of quantitative physical models in the Earth sciences. U-series isotope studies are revolutionizing this field by providing time information in the range 10(2)-10(4) years, which is similar to that of many modern Earth processes. I review how the application of U-series isotopes has been used to constrain the time-scales of magma formation, ascent and storage beneath island-arc volcanoes. Different elements are distilled-off the subducting plate at different times and in different places. Contributions from subducted sediments to island-arc lava sources appear to occur some 350 kyr to 4 Myr prior to eruption. Fluid release from the subducting oceanic crust into the mantle wedge may be a multi-stage process and occurs over a period ranging from a few hundred kyr to less than one kyr prior to eruption. This implies that dehydration commences prior to the initiation of partial melting within the mantle wedge, which is consistent with recent evidence that the onset of melting is controlled by an isotherm and thus the thermal structure within the wedge. U-Pa disequilibria appear to require a component of decompression melting, possibly due to the development of gravitational instabilities. The preservation of large (226)Ra disequilibria permits only a short period of time between fluid addition and eruption. This requires rapid melt segregation, magma ascent by channelled flow and minimal residence time within the lithosphere. The evolution from basalt to basaltic andesite probably occurs rapidly during ascent or in magma reservoirs inferred from some geophysical data to lie within the lithospheric mantle. The flux across the Moho is broadly andesitic, and some magmas subsequently stall in more shallow crustal-level magma chambers, where they evolve to more differentiated compositions on time-scales of a few thousand years or less. PMID:12626270

Turner, S P

2002-12-15

114

Secular and Spatial Variations of Diffuse CO2 Degassing From Cumbre Vieja Volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La Palma (730 Km2) is the northwestmost island of the Canarian archipielago and rises 6.5 Km from the oceanic basement. Constructive and destructive geological processes are responsible for the actual geomorphology of La Palma (Navarro, 1992; Ancochea et al., 1994). Recent volcanic activity is mainly concentrated at Cumbre Vieja volcano, in the southern part of La Palma. The most recent eruption occurred in the southernmost part of Cumbre Vieja volcano along its N-S rift zone in October 1971, and lasted for 32 days. Since fumarolic degassing is not present at Cumbre Vieja volcano, diffuse degassing studies are useful geochemical tools for monitoring magma movement and seismicity changes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of diffuse CO2 degassing rates at Cumbre Vieja volcano. Soil CO2 efflux surveys of approximately 600 observation sites were carried out during the 2000 and 2001 summer periods. Soil CO2 efflux measurements were performed with the accumulation chamber method by using a portable NDIR sensor and a PC. Statistical-graphical analysis showed three overlapping geochemical populations for both surveys. CO2 efflux peak populations, the geometric means were 271 and 58.6 gm-2d-1 for the 2000 and 2001 surveys, respectively. Most of Cumbre Vieja volcano showed background diffuse CO2 degassing rates. Anomalous CO2 efflux values are spatially related to the volcanic rift-zones. Carbon isotopic signatures showed a mixing of deep and shallow seated CO2. Diffuse CO2 emission rates from Cumbre Vieja volcano were 2,925 and 1,165 td-1 for the 2000 and 2001 surveys, respectively. These results are useful for Cumbre Vieja seismic-volcanic monitoring.

Fuentes, L.; Mena, A.; Alfaya, A.; Padron, E.; Melian, G.; Salazar, J.; Hernandez, P.; Perez, N.

2001-12-01

115

Role of the structural inheritance of the oceanic lithosphere in the magmato-tectonic evolution of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion Island)  

Microsoft Academic Search

La Réunion Island is located east of Madagascar, on the eastern rim of the tectonically inactive Mascarene Basin. This island is composed of three shield volcanoes of which only Piton de la Fournaise is currently active. Although the magmatic activity is restricted to Piton de la Fournaise, a scattered seismicity occurs on the whole 200 km wide volcanic edifice and

Laurent Michon; Francky Saint-Ange; Patrick Bachelery; Nicolas Villeneuve; Thomas Staudacher

2007-01-01

116

Hazard communication by the Alaska Volcano Observatory Concerning the 2008 Eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The significant explosive eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi volcanoes in 2008 tested the hazard communication systems at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) including a rigorous test of the new format for written notices of volcanic activity. AVO's Anchorage-based Operations facility (Ops) at the USGS Alaska Science Center serves as the hub of AVO's eruption response. From July 12 through August 28, 2008 Ops was staffed around the clock (24/7). Among other duties, Ops staff engaged in communicating with the public, media, and other responding federal and state agencies and issued Volcanic Activity Notices (VAN) and Volcano Observatory Notifications for Aviation (VONA), recently established and standardized products to announce eruptions, significant activity, and alert level and color code changes. In addition to routine phone communications with local, national and international media, on July 22, AVO held a local press conference in Ops to share observations and distribute video footage collected by AVO staff on board a U.S. Coast Guard flight over Okmok. On July 27, AVO staff gave a public presentation on the Okmok eruption in Unalaska, AK, 65 miles northeast of Okmok volcano and also spoke with local public safety and industry officials, observers and volunteer ash collectors. AVO's activity statements, photographs, and selected data streams were posted in near real time on the AVO public website. Over the six-week 24/7 period, AVO staff logged and answered approximately 300 phone calls in Ops and approximately 120 emails to the webmaster. Roughly half the logged calls were received from interagency cooperators including NOAA National Weather Service's Alaska Aviation Weather Unit and the Center Weather Service Unit, both in Anchorage. A significant number of the public contacts were from mariners reporting near real-time observations and photos of both eruptions, as well as the eruption of nearby Cleveland Volcano on July 21. As during the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska, the number of calls to Ops, emails to the webmaster, and the amount of data served via the AVO website greatly increased during elevated volcanic activity designated by the USGS aviation color code and volcano alert level. Lessons learned include, Ops staffing requirements during periods of high call volume, the need for ash fall hazard information in multiple languages, and the value of real-time observations of remote Aleutian eruptions made by local mariners. An important theme of public inquiries concerned the amount and potential climate impacts of the significant sulfur dioxide gas and ash plumes emitted by Okmok and Kasatochi, including specific questions on the amount of sulfur dioxide discharged during each eruption. The significant plumes produced at the onset of the Okmok and Kasatochi eruptions also had lengthy national and international aviation impacts and yet-to-be resolved hemispherical or possible global, climactic effects.

Adleman, J. N.; Cameron, C. E.; Neal, T. A.; Shipman, J. S.

2008-12-01

117

Zn isotope compositions of the thermal spring waters of La Soufrière volcano, Guadeloupe Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To trace the sources and pathways of Zn in hydrothermal systems, the Zn isotope compositions of seventeen water samples from eight thermal springs and six gas samples from two fumaroles from La Soufrière, an active volcano on Guadeloupe Island (French West Indies, FWI), were analyzed using a method adapted for purifying Zn from Fe- and SO4-enriched thermal solutions. The fumaroles are enriched in Zn 100 to 8000 times compared to the local bedrock and have isotopic compositions (?66Zn values from +0.21‰ to +0.35‰) similar to or slightly higher than fresh andesite (+0.21‰). The enrichment of Zn in the thermal springs compared with the surface waters shows that Zn behaves as a soluble element during hydrothermal alteration but is significantly less mobile than Na. The ?66Zn values of most of the spring waters are relatively constant (approximately 0.70‰), indicating that the thermal springs from La Soufrière are enriched in heavy isotopes (i.e., 66Zn) compared to the host rocks (from -0.14‰ to +0.42‰). Only three thermal springs have lower ?66Zn values (as low as -0.43%). While the Zn in the fumaroles is essentially derived from magma degassing, which is consistent with a previous study on Merapi volcano (Toutain et al., 2008), we show that the Zn in the thermal springs is mainly derived from water-rock interactions. The 66Zn-enriched isotopic signature in most of the spring waters can be explained qualitatively by the precipitation at depth of sulfide minerals that preferentially incorporate the light isotopes. This agrees with the isotopic fractionation that was recently calculated for aqueous complexes of Zn. The few thermal springs with lower ?66Zn values also have low Zn concentrations, indicating the preferential scavenging of heavy Zn isotopes in the hydrothermal conduits. This study shows that unlike chemical weathering under surface conditions, hydrothermal alteration at high temperatures significantly fractionates Zn isotopes and enriches thermal waters in heavy Zn isotopes (e.g., 66Zn). Continental hydrothermal systems therefore constitute a source of heavy Zn isotopes to the oceans; this should be taken into account in the global oceanic budget of Zn.

Chen, Jiu-Bin; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Dessert, Céline; Villemant, Benoit; Louvat, Pascale; Crispi, Olivier; Birck, Jean-Louis; Wang, Yi-Na

2014-02-01

118

Chemical and U-Pb dating investigation of zircons from alnöites on Malaita, Solomon Islands: evidence for prolonged kimberlite-type magmatic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solomon Islands chain is located in an area dominated by the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP). The island of Malaita formed at the obducted leading edge of the OJP and is geologically distinct from the islands to the west. Occurrences of pipe-like bodies of alnöite outcrop within limestones and mudstones in northern Malaita and have been seismically imaged offshore within the OJP. The Malaita alnöite is silica-undersaturated and contains a rich and varied suite of peridotite xenoliths and megacrysts (clinopyroxene, garnet, ilmenite, phlogopite, and minor zircon). The alnöite and associated megacrysts have been the focus of detailed chemical and radiogenic isotope investigations but the exact age of alnöite emplacement remains debatable. Previously reported ages for minerals associated with the Malaita alnöites include an Ar-Ar date of 34 Ma for phlogopite from a mantle xenolith, and a single 206Pb/238U date of 33.9 Ma obtained from a single zircon megacryst. Here we report on a detailed chemical (major and trace element) and U-Pb age investigation of zircon crystals recovered from rivers in the Aluta, Kwainale, and Faufaumela regions of central Malaita. The major element (SiO2, ZrO2, and HfO2) composition and back scattered electron (BSE) imaging of mm- to cm-sized zircons from the three locations were conducted by electron microprobe analysis. The data reveal a variation in the Zr/Hf ratio (45 to 57) for zircons from the Aluta area, whereas this ratio is relatively uniform in most zircons from Kwainale (Zr/Hf 45 to 48). Of importance, the BSE imaging reveals the homogeneous nature of the grains and the lack of inherited components. Trace element compositions of the zircon crystals were obtained by laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS and these reveal similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns at variable enrichment levels for all grains analyzed; these patterns along with the U, Th, and Pb contents are similar to those documented for mantle-derived zircons formed within alkaline, silica-undersaturated melts (e.g. carbonatites, kimberlites). In-situ U-Pb dating conducted by LA-ICP-MS analysis of 18 zircon crystals (n= 94 total analyses) investigated here indicate a range in weighted mean (WM) 206Pb/238U ages between ~35 and ~52 Ma. The zircons from the Aluta region define a range of WM 206Pb/238U ages between 34.9 ± 1.7 Ma and 45.1 ± 2.7 Ma (2?), and correlate negatively with Zr/Hf ratios and total REE content. In contrast, the zircons from Kwainale define a uniform WM 206Pb/238U age spectrum yielding an age of 36.9 ± 0.6 Ma. The zircons from Faufaumela yield a range of WM 206Pb/238U dates from 38.1 ± 1.5 Ma to 51.9 ± 2.6 Ma, with the latter containing the lowest total REE content. The trace element compositions of the zircon crystals investigated here clearly indicate and support their mantle-derived origin, and their correlations with the age determinations (i.e. Aluta, Faufaumela zircons) suggest their progressive formation within an evolving mantle source region over a ~20 Ma interval. It is concluded that alnöite magmatism within the Ontong Java Plateau occurred over a prolonged period rather than a single event as previously suggested.

Simonetti, A.; Neal, C. R.

2009-12-01

119

Long term volcano monitoring by using advanced Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry technique: A case study at Unimak Island, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unimak Island, the largest island in the eastern Aleutians of Alaska, is home to three major active volcanoes: Shishaldin, Fisher, and Westdahl. Shishaldin and Westdahl erupted within the past 2 decades and Fisher has shown persistent hydrothermal activity (Mann and Freymueller, 2003). Therefore, Unimak Island is of particular interest to geoscientists. Surface deformation on Unimak Island has been studied in several previous efforts. Lu et al. (2000, 2003) applied conventional InSAR techniques to study surface inflation at Westdahl during 1991 and 2000. Mann and Freymueller (2003) used GPS measurements to analyze inflation at Westdahl and subsidence at Fisher during 1998-2001. Moran et al., ( 2006) reported that Shishaldin, the most active volcano in the island , experienced no significant deformation during the 1993 to 2003 period bracketing two eruptions. In this paper, we present deformation measurements at Unimak Islank during 2003-2010 using advanced persistent scatterer InSAR (PSI). Due to the non-urban setting in a subarctic environment and the limited data acquisition, the number of images usable for PSI processing is limited to about 1-3 acquisitions per year. The relatively smaller image stack and the irregular acquisition distribution in time pose challenges in the PSI time-series processing. Therefore, we have developed a modified PSI technique that integrates external atmospheric information from numerical weather predication models to assist in the removal of atmospheric artifacts [1]. Deformation modeling based on PSI results will be also presented. Our new results will be combined with previous findings to address the magma plumbing system at Unimak Island. 1) W. Gong, F. J. Meyer (2012): Optimized filter design for irregular acquired data stack in Persistent Scatterers Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry, Proceeding of Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2012 IEEE International, Munich, Germany.

Gong, W.; Meyer, F. J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Lu, Z.

2012-12-01

120

Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): the 2010-2011 survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an example of the recent advances introduced in seismic monitoring of Deception Island volcano (Antarctica) during recent years, we describe the instrumental network deployed during the 2010-2011 survey by the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR). The period of operation extended from December 19, 2010 to March 5, 2011. We deployed a wireless seismic network composed by four three-component seismic stations. These stations are based on 24-bit SL04 SARA dataloggers sampling at 100 sps. They use a PC with embedded linux and SEISLOG data acquisition software. We use two types of three-component seismometers: short-period Mark L4C with natural frequency of 1 Hz and medium-period Lennartz3D/5s with natural frequency of 0.2 Hz. The network was designed for an optimum spatial coverage of the northern half of Deception, where a magma chamber has been reported. Station locations include the vicinity of the Spanish base "Gabriel de Castilla" (GdC), Obsidianas Beach, a zone near the craters from the 1970 eruptions, and the Chilean Shelter located south of Pendulum Cove. Continuous data from the local seismic network are received in real-time in the base by wifi transmission. We used Ubiquiti Networks Nanostation2 antennas with 2.4 GHz, dual-polarity, 10 dBi gain, and 54 Mbps transmission rate. They have shown a great robustness and speed for real-time applications. To prioritize data acquisition when the battery level is low, we have designed a circuit that allows independent power management for the seismic station and wireless transmission system. The reception antenna located at GdC is connected to a computer running SEISCOMP. This software supports several transmission protocols and manages the visualization and recording of seismic data, including the generation of summary plots to show the seismic activity. These twelve data channels are stored in miniseed format and displayed in real time, which allows for a rapid evaluation of the seismic activity and an efficient seismo-volcanic surveillance. The data are processed and analyzed using the SEISAN database management software. In addition to the seismic network, we deployed a small-aperture seismic array south of Fumarole Bay. It is composed by 9 vertical and 1 three-component short-period stations. The 24-bit data acquisition system samples these 12 channels at 100 sps. There is also a permanent seismic station operating since 2008 and located near GdC, that is very useful for the preliminary evaluation of the seismicity at the start of the survey. This station is composed by a 16-s electrolytic seismometer (Eentec SP400) and a 24-bit datalogger (Eentec DR4000) sampling at 100 sps. During the 2010-2011 survey we identified 33 regional earthquakes, 80 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, and 929 long-period (LP) events. The volcanic alert system has remained green (the lowest level) at all times. The seismic activity has been similar to previous surveys and remained within limits that are normal for the island.

Martín, R.; Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Serrano, I.; Villaseñor, A.; Galeano, J.

2012-04-01

121

Species-Area Relation for Birds of the Solomon Archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate values of number of breeding bird species have been obtained for 50 islands of the Solomon Archipelago. From information about species altitudinal distributions on each island, the values are apportioned into number of montane species (Smt) and of species present at sea-level (Slow). Slow increases linearly with the logarithm of island area A over a million-fold range of areas

Jared M. Diamond; Ernst Mayr

1976-01-01

122

SAR-based Estimation of Glacial Extent and Velocity Fields on Isanotski Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global studies show that Earth's glaciers are losing mass at increasing rates, creating a challenge for communities that rely on them as natural resources. Field observation of glacial environments is limited by cost and inaccessibility. Optical remote sensing is often precluded by cloud cover and seasonal darkness. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) overcomes these obstacles by using microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation to provide high resolution information on large spatial scales and in remote, atmospherically obscured environments. SAR is capable of penetrating clouds, operating in darkness, and discriminating between targets with ambiguous spectral signatures. This study evaluated the efficacy of two SAR Earth observation methods on small (< 7 km2) glaciers in rugged topography. The glaciers chosen for this study lie on Isanotski Volcano in Unimak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, USA. The local community on the island, the City of False Pass, relies on glacial melt for drinking water and hydropower. Two methods were used: (1) velocity field estimation based on Repeat Image Feature Tracking (RIFT) and (2) glacial boundary delineation based on interferometric coherence mapping. NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) single-polarized power images and JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band SAR (ALOS PALSAR) single-look complex images were analyzed over the period 2008-2011. UAVSAR image pairs were coregistered to sub-pixel accuracy and processed with the Coregistration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) feature tracking module to derive glacial velocity field estimates. Maximum glacier velocities ranged from 28.9 meters/year to 58.3 meters/year. Glacial boundaries were determined from interferometric coherence of ALOS PALSAR data and subsequently refined with masking operations based on terrain slope and segment size. Accuracy was assessed against hand-digitized outlines from high resolution UAVSAR power images, yielding 83.0% producer's accuracy (errors of omission) and 86.1% user's accuracy (errors of commission). These results represent a refinement of a decades-old entry from the USGS National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). The information gained from this study could strengthen management practices by helping decision makers understand the ecological and economic consequences of glacial change. This procedure could be repeated in similar locations worldwide to provide communities with accurate, quantitative information about their changing glacial resources.

Sousa, D.; Lee, A.; Parker, O. P.; Pressler, Y.; Guo, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Schmidt, C.

2012-12-01

123

InSAR observations of the 1995 Fogo, Cape Verde, eruption: Implications for the effects of collapse events upon island volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fogo volcano, Cape Verde Islands, erupted in April 1995 after 43 years of dormancy. About 46 106 m3 of lava erupted during 7.5 weeks from vents on the SW flank of Pico do Fogo into Cha das Caldeiras. Interferograms obtained from 1993–1998 ERS SAR data show ground deformation due to the feeder dike but lack evidence for any volcano-wide deformation

Falk Amelung; Simon Day

2002-01-01

124

InSAR observations of the 1995 Fogo, Cape Verde, eruption: Implications for the effects of collapse events upon island volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fogo volcano, Cape Verde Islands, erupted in April 1995 after 43 years of dormancy. About 46 106 m3 of lava erupted during 7.5 weeks from vents on the SW flank of Pico do Fogo into Cha das Caldeiras. Interferograms obtained from 1993-1998 ERS SAR data show ground deformation due to the feeder dike but lack evidence for any volcano-wide deformation

Falk Amelung; Simon Day

2002-01-01

125

Incipient subduction of the Ontong Java Plateau along the North Solomon trench  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) in the western central Pacific is the largest and thickest oceanic plateau and one of a few oceanic plateaus converging on an island arc (Solomon island arc—SIA). To better understand the evolution of the North Solomon trench (NST), active oblique convergence between the OJP and SIA, and late Neogene development of Malaita accretionary prism (MAP),

A. Taira; P. Mann; R. Rahardiawan

2004-01-01

126

The 1998-1999 Seismic Series At Deception Island Volcano, Antarctica.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1998-1999 Antarctic summer, the pattern of seismic activity at Deception Island volcano suffered a significant change with respect to the previous years. This change was characterized by the occurrence of an intense swarm of local earthquakes. More than 2000 local earthquakes with S-P time smaller than 4 s were recorded in the period January-February 1999. Pure volcanic events have been also detected, spe- cially long period (LP) events and volcanic tremor, and some hybrid events. Seismic monitoring was performed using two short-period small-aperture arrays, among other instruments. We selected for the analysis 863 local earthquakes, 350 LP events and tremor episodes, and 9 hybrid events, based on their signal-to-noise ratios. Propaga- tion parameters (apparent slowness and back-azimuth) for all events were estimated using the zero lag cross-correlation (ZLCC) array technique. Combining this infor- mation with measures of S-P times and other indirect evidences, two different source regions have been identified. LP seismicity is located southwestward from the Fuma- role array site at distances smaller than 1-1.5 km. In this region we find the presence of glaciers, important fractures, and thermal anomalies, which supports the hypothesis of a hydrothermal origin. Local earthquakes and hybrid events are located in a region beneath Port Foster, the inner Bay of Deception Island. This region extends from the array site to the Northeast, between depths of 0.3 and 10 km. The epicentral distances range between 0.5 and 12 km. Most hypocenters are clustered in a small volume of around 8 km3 centered at 1.5 km depth and 1.5 km Northeast of the Fumarole ar- ray. The sources of the LP seismicity and the local earthquakes are spatially distinct, which indicates that they are not produced by the same mechanisms. Moment mag- nitude analyses of the local earthquakes show an energetic uniformity in the seismic series, with average magnitude of 0.5 and very low average stress drop, around 1 bar. The study of the spatial distribution of the first motion of the P-waves suggests that dif- ferent source mechanisms acted in a very small volume. The complexity of the source region is also evidenced by the identification of distinct families of events with the same waveforms inside the main source region. The occurrence of repeatable fracture processes with low stress drop and small fault dimensions can be explained by the lu- brication of pre-existing zones of weakness by pressurized fluids. Three mechanisms could be invoked to explain the generation of the recorded seismic series at Decep- 1 tion Island: 1) a classical tectonic seismic swarm caused by a regional stress field; 2) a seismic swarm produced directly by the actual movement of magma through the source region; and 3) a seismic series caused by the stress generated by the uplift of the source area due to a magmatic injection in depth. We favor the last hypothesis since it is compatible with the majority of the characteristics of the seismicicty and explains the spatial and temporal behavior of the series. 2

Ibáñez, J. M.; Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Saccorotti, G.; del Pezzo, E.; Abril, M.; Ortiz, R.; Martínez-Arévalo, C.

127

The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response  

PubMed Central

On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. PMID:22768379

Fraile-Nuez, E.; González-Dávila, M.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Arístegui, J.; Alonso-González, I. J.; Hernández-León, S.; Blanco, M. J.; Rodríguez-Santana, A.; Hernández-Guerra, A.; Gelado-Caballero, M. D.; Eugenio, F.; Marcello, J.; de Armas, D.; Domínguez-Yanes, J. F.; Montero, M. F.; Laetsch, D. R.; Vélez-Belchí, P.; Ramos, A.; Ariza, A. V.; Comas-Rodríguez, I.; Benítez-Barrios, V. M.

2012-01-01

128

Argon geochronology of late Pleistocene to Holocene Westdahl volcano, Unimak Island, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-precision 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of selected lavas from Westdahl Volcano places time constraints on several key prehistoric eruptive phases of this large active volcano. A dike cutting old pyroclastic-flow and associated lahar deposits from a precursor volcano yields an age of 1,654+/-11 k.y., dating this precursor volcano as older than early Pleistocene. A total of 11 geographically distributed lavas with ages ranging from 47+/-14 to 127+/-2 k.y. date construction of the Westdahl volcanic center. Lava flows cut by an apparent caldera-rim structure yielded ages of 81+/-5 and 121+/-8 k.y., placing a maximum date of 81 ka on caldera formation. Late Pleistocene and Holocene lavas fill the caldera, but most of them are obscured by the large summit icecap.

Calvert, Andrew T.; Moore, Richard B.; McGimsey, Robert G.

2005-01-01

129

Magnetic structure of Loihi Seamount, an active hotspot volcano in the Hawaiian Island chain  

E-print Network

them difficult to investigate. Because undersea volcanoes are made up of highly magnetic basaltic rock, it is possible to use variations in the magnetic field to explore the internal structure of such edifices. This study combines magnetic survey data...

Lamarche, Amy J.

2004-09-30

130

Controlled-source seismic investigations of the crustal structure beneath Erebus volcano and Ross Island, Antarctica: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 2008-09 Austral summer field season we undertook a controlled-source seismic experiment (Tomo-Erebus, TE) to examine the shallow magmatic system beneath the active Erebus volcano (TE-3D) and the crustal structure beneath Ross Island. Here we report on the TE-2D component, which was designed to produce a two-dimensional P-wave velocity model along an east-west profile across Ross Island. Marine geophysical observations near Ross Island have identified the north-south trending Terror Rift within the older and broader Victoria Land Basin, which are a component of the intraplate West Antarctic Rift System. Mount Erebus and Ross Island are circumstantially associated with the Terror Rift and its thin (~20 km) crust. The nature, extent and role of the Terror Rift in controlling the evolution of Ross Island volcanism and the on-going eruptive activity of Erebus volcano are unknown. In TE-2D, we deployed 21 seismic recorders (Ref Tek 130) with three-component 4.5 Hz geophones (Sercel L-28-3D) along a 90-km east-west line between Capes Royds and Crozier. These were supplemented by 79 similar instruments deployed for the high-resolution TE-3D experiment within a 3 x 3 km grid around the summit crater of Erebus, an array of 8 permanent short period and broadband sensors used to monitor the activity of Erebus and 23 three-component sensors (Guralp CMG-40T, 30s-100 Hz) positioned around the flanks and summit of Erebus. Fifteen chemical sources were loaded in holes drilled about 15 m deep in the snow and ice. The size of these shots ranged from 75 to 600 kg of ANFO with the largest shots at the ends of the profile. An additional shot was detonated in the sea (McMurdo Sound) using 200 kg of dynamite. Due to the rugged terrain, short field seasons and large area to be covered, the seismometer spacing along the TE-2D profile is quite large (~ 5 km spacing), resulting in poor near-surface data resolution. However, the data have a high signal to noise ratio with clear first arrivals and wide-angle reflections across the array. We will present a preliminary P-wave velocity model of the TE-2D data to constrain the middle to lower crust and upper mantle beneath Ross Island.

Maraj, S.; Kyle, P. R.; Zandomeneghi, D.; Knox, H. A.; Aster, R. C.; Snelson, C. M.; Miller, P. E.; Kaip, G. M.

2009-12-01

131

InSAR observations of the 1995 Fogo, Cape Verde, eruption: Implications for the effects of collapse events upon island volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fogo volcano, Cape Verde Islands, erupted in April 1995 after 43 years of dormancy. About 46 106 m3 of lava erupted during 7.5 weeks from vents on the SW flank of Pico do Fogo into Cha das Caldeiras. Interferograms obtained from 1993-1998 ERS SAR data show ground deformation due to the feeder dike but lack evidence for any volcano-wide deformation related to volume changes of a shallow magma reservoir. This suggests that Fogo is fed from a relatively deep, mantle-lithospheric source (>16.5 km depth), consistent with petrological data. This supports the concept that Cha das Caldeiras is the fill of a collapse scar created by a giant landslide, and not a collapse caldera overlying a central, shallow magma chamber. The disturbance of the magmatic system by giant landslides may explain why some oceanic island volcanoes with high magma supply rates currently lack well-developed shallow reservoirs.

Amelung, Falk; Day, Simon

2002-06-01

132

Improvement in TDEM sounding interpretation in presence of induced polarization. A case study in resistive rocks of the Fogo volcano, Cape Verde Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) survey was carried out in and around the caldera of the Fogo volcano, Cape Verde Islands, to detect the low resistive structures that could be related to groundwater. A sign reversal in the sounding curves was encountered in central-loop measurements for the soundings located in the centre of the caldera along three main radial profiles.

Marc Descloitres; Roger Guérin; Yves Albouy; Alain Tabbagh; Michel Ritz

2000-01-01

133

Unravelling the Geometry of Unstable Flanks of Submarine Volcanoes by Magnetic Investigation: the Case of the "sciara del Fuoco" Scar (stromboli Volcano, Aeolian Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stromboli is the easternmost island of the Aeolian Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea) and one of the most active Mediterranean volcanoes. The volcanic edifice rises over 3000 m above the surrounding seafloor, from a depth of about 2000 m b.s.l. to 924 m a.s.l. The north-western flank of volcano is deeply scarred by a destructive collapse event occurred ca. 5000 years ago, and forming a big horseshoe-shaped depression, known as "Sciara del Fuoco" (SdF). This depression, 3 Km long and 2 Km wide, is supposed to extend into the sea down to 700 m b.s.l., while further basinward it turns into a fan-shaped mounted deposit down to about 2600 m b.s.l., where it merges the so-called "Stromboli Canyon". Since its formation, emerged and submerged portions of the SdF have been progressively filled by the volcanic products of the persistent activity of the Stromboli Volcano. In the last 10 years, two paroxysmal eruptions occurred in the Stromboli Volcano, during 2002-2003 and February-April 2007. During both events, the SdF has been partially covered by lava flows and affected by slope failures, also causing (for the 2002-2003 event) a local tsunami. Since the 1990's, and especially after the last two paroxysms, the submerged extension of the SdF has been intensively investigated by using swath bathymetry data. We focused principally on the magnetic anomaly pattern of the submerged SdF since the chaotic depositional system virtually cancels magnetic remanence (which at Stromboli can reach 5-10 A/m values), thus lowering magnetic residual intensity. On July 2012 we acquired new detailed sea-surface magnetic data of the SdF from the shoreline to about 7 km offshore, where the depth is more than 1800 m b.s.l. We collected data thanks to the Italian Navy ship "Nave Aretusa" and by using the Marine Magnetics SeaSPY magnetometer. At the same time, new bathymetric data were acquired in the same area by using a Kongsberg Marine multibeam systems. Although the morphologic features of the submarine prosecution of the SdF system were already studied and unveiled, the complete description of the in-depth extension of the system and the overall volume estimation is still poorly known. This has important implications for the hazard assessment of the landslide structure and most generally of the entire volcanic edifice. The application of a classical geomagnetic prospection to describe a landslide feature is an uncommon procedure yet it can be considered as innovative approach, having the advantages of effectiveness, low cost and expedition typical of the geomagnetic survey. Here we present the interpretation of the newly acquired high-resolution magnetic dataset, thanks to susceptibility and magnetic remanence values gathered from on-land rock samples at Stromboli. A 3D inverse model is here proposed, allowing a full definition of the submerged SdF structure geometry.

Muccini, F.; Cocchi, L.; Carmisciano, C.; Speranza, F.; Marziani, F.

2012-12-01

134

Tsunami deposits in Santiago Island (Cape Verde archipelago) as possible evidence of a massive flank failure of Fogos volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive flank failures of volcanic edifices generate tsunami waves. These low-frequency but high magnitude hazards remain poorly documented because of the scarcity of observations. Offshore deposits are studied only by geophysical surveys and the failure rheologies are poorly constrained. Marine conglomerates found at unusually high elevations in Hawaii and in the Canary Islands were previously interpreted as being the result of giant tsunami waves generated by massive flank failures. This study focuses on the search for, and interpretation of, sedimentary evidence of a tsunami around the coastline of Santiago Island, which is located 55 km east of the active Fogo volcano. The Bordeira caldera in Fogo Island, which opens to the east, was formed by the Monte Amarelo flank collapse, and the active edifice is now nested in the failure's scar. The only evidence of a tsunami was found north of Tarrafal Bay. The deposits display many similarities with the tsunami conglomerate described in Hawaii and the Canary Islands: erosive contact with the substratum; rip-up clasts of paleo-soil; marine bioclasts never found in growth or live position; internal organisation into different facies with distinct characteristics of clast-size (up to boulders), sorting (from moderately to very poorly sorted) and clast-fabrics (landward or seaward orientations). This organisation suggests that the tsunami consisted of two main waves. The absence of tsunami deposits elsewhere on Santiago Island, coupled with the relatively low elevation of the conglomerate in Tarrafal (< 15 m), indicate retrogressive failures, rather than a single massive failure. The marine fauna in the tsunami conglomerate is not typical of warm fauna such as the Senegalese fauna (interglacial stages). The age of the tsunami is bracketed by the ages of a coral branch in the conglomerate (123.6 ± 3.9 ka U-Th age) and a post-collapse lava along the Bordeira caldera in Fogo (86 ± 3 ka K-Ar age).

Paris, Raphaël; Giachetti, Thomas; Chevalier, Joël; Guillou, Hervé; Frank, Norbert

2011-08-01

135

The submarine volcano eruption at the island of El Hierro: physical-chemical perturbation and biological response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 10 2011 an underwater eruption gave rise to a novel shallow submarine volcano south of the island of El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain. During the eruption large quantities of mantle-derived gases, solutes and heat were released into the surrounding waters. In order to monitor the impact of the eruption on the marine ecosystem, periodic multidisciplinary cruises were carried out. Here, we present an initial report of the extreme physical-chemical perturbations caused by this event, comprising thermal changes, water acidification, deoxygenation and metal-enrichment, which resulted in significant alterations to the activity and composition of local plankton communities. Our findings highlight the potential role of this eruptive process as a natural ecosystem-scale experiment for the study of extreme effects of global change stressors on marine environments. (A) Natural color composite from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument aboard ENVISAT Satellite (European Space Agency), (November 9, 2011 at 14:45 UTC). Remote sensing data have been used to monitor the evolution of the volcanic emissions, playing a fundamental role during field cruises in guiding the Spanish government oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. The inset map shows the position of Canary Islands west of Africa and the study area (solid white box). (B) Location of the stations carried out from November 2011 to February 2012 at El Hierro. Black lines denote transects A-B and C-D.

Fraile-Nuez, E.; Santana-Casiano, J.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.

2013-12-01

136

Volcano-structural evolution of Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands): field data constraints.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teide is the only active stratovolcano in the Canaries. Its outstanding morphology strongly departs from a typical stratovolcano, having two prominent NE and NW flank bulges, and a flat summit area. Different hypotheses of Teide evolution disagree on the role of deformation processes in controlling volcano morphology. We present field structural and stratigraphic data, as well as analogue models, to test the hypothesis on the volcano's structural evolution. On the NE bulge the oldest lava flows have clear morphological evidence that they are younger than the slope break. We have found several tumuli on these lava flows and discard their previously proposed origin as dome eruptive vents, one of the main alleged evidences for an origin of the NE bulge as a covered flank vent. On the N flank the same "tumuli-forming" lava flows unit crop out below other lava flows cut by the northern summit scarp. These stratigraphic relationships point to a younger age for the summit scarp than for the NE bulge, which argues against both structures being genetically related by flank spreading. However, our analogue models of volcano deformation over a weak core indicate that summit faulting still occurs in the late deformation stages when lateral bulge has fully developed. "Tumuli-forming" lava flows could be contemporaneous to NE flank spreading and could have covered the flank bulge, only to be later faulted by summit structures. On the NW bulge the morphology of flank covering block-and-ash flow deposits and inter-bedded lava flows (Las Calvas unit) indicate their emplacement on a steep slope, post-dating the bulge formation. Moreover, we find penetrative fractures affecting these volcanoclastic and lava flow deposits. The extensional nature of this radial and tangential fracturing could be caused by bulging of the deposits, indicating long-lived progressive bulging of this flank. On the flat summit area we have found structural evidence of bulging due to a cryptodome intrusion that could also have contributed to the formation of the bounding scarps. There is other field evidence of dome intrusions at different altitudes along the volcano eastern flank in the same ENE-WSW structural direction of the Teide-Pico Viejo alignment and of the dykes at the Pico Viejo crater walls. Our field data provide some new constraints for the debate of the structural evolution of Teide volcano, and seem to point to a prominent role for flank spreading and dome intrusion. However, radiometric dating of selected units and further analogue modelling are necessary to integrate our field observations in a coherent model of Teide volcano structural evolution.

Marquez, Alvaro; Herrera, Raquel; Granja Bruña, Jose Luis; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Llanes, Pilar; Rincón, Marta

2014-05-01

137

Vertical Movements of Ocean Island Volcanoes: Insights from a Stationary Plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The origin of hotspot swells is still controversial and their development is at present poorly constrained and strongly model-dependent.\\u000a However, since islands are built on top of these structures, the role of swell development in island uplift\\/subsidence should\\u000a be assessed.

Ricardo Alexandre dos Santos Ramalho

138

GPS and Gravity Surveying at Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde Islands, 1998-2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fogo Island, in the Cape verde archipelago (North Atlantic), is a roughly conical volcanic edifice with 25 Km of base diameter and a summit that reaches an altitude of about 3000 m. Volcanic eruptions in the island are reported since the settlement in the 16th century, at average intervals of about 20 years. In the 20th century the activity subsided,

J. N. Lima; C. Lazaro; S. I. Heleno; J. F. Fonseca; I. Barros; J. Matos; M. Baio; J. Osorio

2001-01-01

139

O-saturated island arc low-K tholeiite magmas: a case study of the Izu-Oshima volcano in the Izu arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Island arc low-K tholeiites are basaltic magmas erupting from frontal arc volcanoes of juvenile arcs associated with the subduction of old and cold plates. We investigated the origins of geochemical variation in volcanic rocks having multiple phase saturated liquid compositions from the Izu-Oshima volcano in the northern Izu arc. The geochemical variations in the liquids fall between two endmember trends, namely higher- and lower-Al/Si trends. Polybaric differentiation of H2O-saturated melts between a 4-km-deep magma chamber and degassed melts near the surface should be responsible for the observed variation in the liquids.

Hamada, Morihisa; Okayama, Yuko; Kaneko, Takayuki; Yasuda, Atsushi; Fujii, Toshitsugu

2014-12-01

140

Movement of shallow magmatic sources inferred from volcano-tectonic faults: An example from Shinjima Island nearby Sakurajima volcano, Kyushu, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uplift and subsidence due to magma movement involve complex fault system at the surface of a volcano. Conversely, mapping volcano-tectonic faults and surface deformation allows us to infer the feeding system of magma and eruption process in the past. Here we represent a case study of such deformation and a complex fault system associated with prehistoric and historic volcanic uplifts

Y. Yoshinaga; T. Haraguchi; S. Toda; D. Miki; R. Imura

2006-01-01

141

Enhancement of sub-daily positioning solutions for surface deformation surveillance at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El Hierro Island in the Canary Archipelago recently experienced a submerged eruption a few kilometers off its southern shore, detected 2011 October 10 on the island's south-rift alignment. The seismic activity suddenly increased around mid 2011 July, and ground deformation was then detected on the only geodetic benchmark that is continuously observed by global navigation satellite systems techniques and provides public data access. Based on that information, several other global navigation satellite system signal receivers were deployed on the island to provide continuous observation. For data collected by these receivers, a processing strategy was applied to achieve millimeter-level half-hourly positioning solutions. Position updates every 24 h are satisfactory to determine tectonic-plates' velocities. Updates near 1 s or less are required to characterize seismic waves. In between, minute-level updates are well suited for monitoring active volcano's inflation or deflation, providing an optimal time resolution of the local ground deformation. In half-hourly positioning solutions, the heterogeneous satellites' distribution in their orbital planes gives different constraints during satellite-constellation revolution, which can bias the solutions. Also, several geophysical influences can bias the solutions, including those related to gravitational movements. These influences have mostly semi-diurnal periodicities and may be considered Gaussian colored noise on the position's time series. Daily solutions that average out these influences can be applied in active volcanoes, but they can impose some limitations because they average the daily deformation, and the update waiting time is not suitable when near real-time surveillance is mandatory. These semi-diurnal biases do need to be removed or minimized to achieve millimeter-level sub-daily positioning solutions, however, and to do so, a discrete Kalman filter was applied to enhance the half-hourly positioning solutions required during El Hierro's 2011-2012 unrest and eruption. Throughout El Hierro's volcanic activity, there were correlations between ground deformation and seismic activity. Many times the deformation preceded the earthquakes, though at other times the seismic activity was followed by the ground deformation response. This correlation is the outcome of ground deformation taking place as the result of energy accommodation, whereas seismic events correspond to energy release. Hence, those observed correlations indicate that the Kalman filter-enhanced half-hourly positioning solutions measured local ground deformation accurately; they were not a mathematical "trick" producing a spurious precision.

Prates, G.; García, A.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Marrero, J. M.; Ortiz, R.; Berrocoso, M.

2013-06-01

142

The Submarine Volcano Eruption off El Hierro Island: Effects on the Scattering Migrant Biota and the Evolution of the Pelagic Communities  

PubMed Central

The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. PMID:25047077

Ariza, Alejandro; Kaartvedt, Stein; Røstad, Anders; Garijo, Juan Carlos; Arístegui, Javier; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Hernández-León, Santiago

2014-01-01

143

The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island: effects on the scattering migrant biota and the evolution of the pelagic communities.  

PubMed

The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. PMID:25047077

Ariza, Alejandro; Kaartvedt, Stein; Røstad, Anders; Garijo, Juan Carlos; Arístegui, Javier; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Hernández-León, Santiago

2014-01-01

144

Volcano-stratigraphic and structural evolution of Brava Island (Cape Verde) based on 40Ar\\/ 39Ar, U–Th and field constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three volcano-stratigraphic units were identified at Brava Island in the Cape Verde Archipelago on the basis of field relationships, geologic mapping and 40Ar\\/39Ar and U–Th ages. The Lower Unit comprises a 2-to-3Ma-old submarine volcanic sequence that represents the seamount stage. It is composed of nephelinitic\\/ankaramitic hyaloclastites and pillow lavas, which are cut by abundant co-genetic dikes. Plutonic rocks of an

José Madeira; João Mata; Cyntia Mourão; António Brum da Silveira; Sofia Martins; Ricardo Ramalho; Dirk L. Hoffmann

2010-01-01

145

Middle Archean island arc volcano-hydrothermal sequence: 3.2-Ga Dixon Island Formation, coastal Pilbara terrane, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3.2-Ga Dixon Island Formation in the Cleaverville Group of the coastal Pilbara terrane, Australia, is one of the most complete and best-preserved examples of middle Archean oceanic stratigraphy. Field observations and geochemical evidence suggest that this formation contains a low-temperature hydrothermal-vent system with a biogenic microbial colony from the Archean ocean. The Dixon Island Formation is approximately 350 m thick and consists of the Rhyolite Tuff, Black Chert and Varicolored Chert members, in ascending order. The Rhyolite Tuff Member contains many vein swarms, such as fine quartz vein and two black-chert veins with in highly altered rhyolite tuff layers. This vein rich and highly altered vein zones are identified as an underground bypass zone for circulating hydrothermal fluid. The Black Chert Member, which is 10 - 15 m thick, is composed of massive black chert, laminated black chert, dark greenish siliceous shale, stromatolite-like biomat bed and tuffaceous laminated chert. The absence of detrital sediment of continental origin and the many vein injections imply that this sedimentary facies represents a pelagic hydrothermal environment at about 500 - 2000 m in paleodepth, and may have been on the slope of an immature island arc. More then 500 samples of detail chemical anarysis from black chert veins and black chert bed suggest that the total organic carbon (TOC) value of massive black chert in the lower part of the Black Chert Member is higher (TOC=0.15-0.45%) than that of the overlying laminated chert section (TOC=0.02-0.15%) and the black chert vein (TOC=0.1-0.13). The carbon isotope (delta13C) values of this lithology (-33 - -27 per mil) are also lighter than for the black-chert veins (-29--26 per mill) and the laminated black chert in the upper part of the Black Chert Member and the Vari-colored Chert Member (-27 - -13 per mil). Especially, -40 per mill carbon isotope identified near the biomat beds. These evidences suggest that the carbonaceous grains bearing massive black chert in the lower part of the Black Chert Member is identified as directory from the black chert vein. On the other hand, biogenic materials, biomat bed and very low carbon isotope suggest the biogenic activity formed above a low-temperature hydrothermal vent. The microbial colony may have been rapidly fossilized by silicification related to hydrothermal activity. Laminated black chert in the upper part of the Black Chert and the Varicolored Chert members may have formed by cyanobacterial sedimentation from the ocean surface.

Kiyokawa, S.; Katagami, A.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Kitajima, F.

2005-12-01

146

Deployment of a seismic array for volcano monitoring during the ongoing submarine eruption at El Hierro, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 17 July 2011 there was an important increase of the seismic activity at El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain). This increase was detected by the Volcano Monitoring Network (Spanish national seismic network) run by the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). As a consequence, the IGN immediately deployed a dense, complete monitoring network that included seismometers, GPS stations, geochemical equipment, magnetometers, and gravity meters. During the first three months of activity, the seismic network recorded over ten thousand volcano-tectonic earthquakes, with a maximum magnitude of 4.6. On 10 October 2011 an intense volcanic tremor started. It was a monochromatic signal, with variable amplitude and frequency content centered at about 1-2 Hz. The tremor onset was correlated with the initial stages of the submarine eruption that occurred from a vent located south of El Hierro island, near the village of La Restinga. At that point the IGN, in collaboration with the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica, deployed a seismic array intended for volcanic tremor monitoring and analysis. The seismic array is located about 7 km NW of the submarine vent. It has a 12-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system sampling each channel at 100 sps. The array is composed by 1 three-component and 9 vertical-component seismometers, distributed in a flat area with an aperture of 360 m. The data provided by the seismic array are going to be processed using two different approaches: (1) near-real-time, to produce information that can be useful in the management of the volcanic crisis; and (2) detailed investigations, to study the volcanic tremor characteristics and relate them to the eruption dynamics. At this stage we are mostly dedicated to produce fast, near-real-time estimates. Preliminary results have been obtained using the maximum average cross-correlation method. They indicate that the tremor wavefronts are highly coherent among array stations and propagate across the seismic array with an apparent slowness of ~0.8 s/km and a back-azimuth of 135°N. These estimates have remained approximately constant since the onset of volcanic tremor, indicating a unique source and thus a single, continuing eruptive center.

Abella, R.; Almendros, J.; Carmona, E.; Martin, R.

2012-04-01

147

Reed-Solomon Encoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents mathematical principles of Berlekamp bit serial multiplier algorithm and its application to design of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) encoders for Reed-Solomon error-correcting codes. Structure made readily on single chip of negatively doped channel metal oxide semiconductor.

Troung, T. K.; Reed, I. S.; Deutsch, L. J.; Hsu, I. S.; Wang, K.; Yeh, C. S.

1985-01-01

148

Solomon's Sea and [Pi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a whimsical survey of the various explanations which might account for the biblical passage in I Kings 7:23 that describes a round object--a bronze basin called Solomon's Sea--as having diameter ten cubits and circumference thirty cubits. Can the biblical pi be any number other than 3? We offer seven different perspectives on this…

Simoson, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

149

Edifice growth, deformation and rift zone development in basaltic setting: Insights from Piton de la Fournaise shield volcano (Réunion Island)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall morphology of basaltic volcanoes mainly depends on their eruptive activity (effusive vs. explosive), the geometry of the rift zones and the characteristics of both endogenous and exogenous growth processes. The origin of the steep geometry of the central cone of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, which is unusual for a basaltic effusive volcano, and its deformation are examined

Laurent Michon; Valérie Cayol; Ludovic Letourneur; Aline Peltier; Nicolas Villeneuve; Thomas Staudacher

2009-01-01

150

Tilt recorded by a portable broadband seismograph: The 2003 eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The horizontal components of broadband seismographs are highly sensitive to tilt, suggesting that commonly deployed portable broadband seismic sensors may record important tilt information associated with volcanic eruptions. We report on a tilt episode that coincides with the first historical eruption of Anatahan volcano on May 10, 2003. The tilt was recorded by a Strekheisen STS-2 seismograph deployed in an underground insulated chamber 7 km west of the active vent. An ultra-long period signal with a dominant period of several hours was recorded on the E-W component beginning at 06:20 GMT on May 10, which coincides with the onset of continuous volcano-tectonic (VT) seismicity and is one hour prior to the eruption time estimated by the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center. The signal is much smaller on the N-S component and absent on the vertical component, suggesting it results from tilt that is approximately radial with respect to the active vent. An estimate of tilt as a function of time is recovered by deconvolving the record to acceleration and dividing by the acceleration of gravity. The record indicates an initial episode of tilt downward away from the volcanic center from 06:20-09:30 GMT, which we interpret as inflation of the shallow volcanic source. The tilt reverses, recording deflation, from 09:30 until 17:50, after which the tilt signal becomes insignificant. The inflation corresponds to a period of numerous VT events, whereas fewer events were recorded during the deflation episode, and the VT events subsequently resumed after the end of the deflationary tilt. The maximum tilt of 2 microradians can be used to estimate the volume of the source inflation (???2 million in m3), assuming a simple Mogi source model. These calculations are consistent with other estimates of source volume if reasonable source depths are assumed. Examination of broadband records of other eruptions may disclose further previously unrecognized tilt signals. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

Wiens, D.A.; Pozgay, S.H.; Shore, P.J.; Sauter, A.W.; White, R.A.

2005-01-01

151

Long- and short-term temporal variations of the diffuse CO2 emission from Timanfaya volcano, Lanzarote, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lanzarote Island is an emergent part of the East Canary Ridge and it is situated approximately 100 km from the NW coast of Morocco, covering an area of about 795km2. The largest historical eruption of the Canary Islands, Timanfaya, took place during 1730-36 in this island when long-term eruptions from a NE-SW-trending fissure formed the Montañas del Fuego. The last eruption at Lanzarote Island occurred during 1824, Tinguaton volcano, and produced a much smaller lava flow that reached the SW coast. At present, one of the most prominent phenomena at Timanfaya volcanic field is the high maintained superficial temperatures occurring in the area since the 1730 volcanic eruption. The maximum temperatures recorded in this zone are 605°C, taken in a slightly inclined well 13 m deep. Since fumarolic activity is absent at the surface environment of Lanzarote, to study the diffuse CO2 emission becomes an ideal geochemical tool for monitoring its volcanic activity. Soil CO2 efflux surveys were conducted throughout Timanfaya volcanic field and surrounding areas during the summer periods of 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, fall period of 2010 and winter, spring and summer periods of 2011 to investigate long and short-term temporal variations of the diffuse CO2 emission from Timanfaya volcano. Soil CO2 efflux surveys were undertaken at Timanfaya volcanic field always under stable weather conditions to minimize effects of meteorological conditions on the CO2 at the soil atmosphere. Approximately 370-430 sampling sites were selected at the surface environment of Timanfaya to obtain an even distribution of the sampling points over the study area. The accumulation chamber method (Parkinson et al., 1981) was used to perform soil CO2 efflux measurements in-situ by means of a portable non dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO2 analyzer, which was interfaced to a hand size computer that runs data acquisition software. At each sampling site, soil temperature at 15 and 40cm depth was also measured by means of a thermocouple together with soil gas samples collected during the campaign of 2010 to evaluate the chemical and isotopic composition of soil gases. Diffuse CO2 emission values have ranged between non detectable values to 34 g m-2 d-1, and most of the study area have shown relatively low values, around the detection limit of the instrument (~0,5 g m-2 d-1). Higher soil CO2 diffuse emission values were observed where thermal anomalies occur, indicating a convective mechanism transport of gas from depth at these areas. Total CO2 outputs of the study area have been estimated in the range 41-518 t d-1 during the study period. Long-term temporal variation on total CO2 diffuse emission shows a peak recorded on winter 2011, suggesting a seasonal control on the CO2 emission. As part of the volcanic surveillance program and to understand the dynamics of CO2 diffuse emission at Timanfaya volcanic zone, an automatic geochemical station was installed in July 2010 to monitor the CO2 emission and investigate the short-term temporal variation. Time series of soil CO2 efflux shows also a close relationship with seasonal changes mainly due to rainfall.

Hernández, P. A.; Padilla, G.; Calvo, D.; Padrón, E.; Melian, G.; Dionis, S.; Nolasco, D.; Barrancos, J.; Rodríguez, F.; Pérez, N.

2012-04-01

152

Relationships between tectonism, volcano-tectonism and volcanism: the Ischia island (Italy) case.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resurgent calderas of Ischia, Campi Flegrei and Pantelleria are characterized by differentially displaced blocks, and distribution of later eruption vents in a well defined sector of the resurgent area. These features suggest a simple shearing block resurgence mechanism. Moreover, the studies carried out on Ischia and Campi Flegrei evidenced a very complex structural pattern due to deformation related to the local stress regime induced by magmatism and volcanism and also to reactivation of regional structures. In order to better define the relationships among tectonic, volcano-tectonic and caldera resurgence mechanism, a structural study has been carried out at Ischia, where the Mt. Epomeo has been uplifted of about 900 m in the past 30 ka. The measures taken on 1,400 planar surfaces (faults, joints and fracture cleavages) show that the resurgent area is composed of differentially displaced blocks whose uplifting is maximum for the Mt. Epomeo and decreases southeastward. The resurgent area has a poligonal shape resulting from the reactivation of regional faults and by the activation of faults directly related to volcano-tectonism. The limit of the resurgent area is not defined towards the north, as beach deposits displaced at variable elevation by E-W and NW-SE trending faults, are exposed along the coastline. The western sector is bordered by inward-dipping, high-angle reverse faults, whose directions vary from N40E to NS and N50W from NW to SW of the block, testifying a compressional stress regime active in this area. These features are cut by late outward-dipping normal faults due to gravitational readjustment of the slopes. Vertical faults border the block at NE ad SW with right transtensive and left transpressive movements, respectively. The area located to the east of the most uplifted block, characterized by a tensile stress regime, has been deformed by N-S, N40-70E and N15W trending normal faults, with maximum elongation direction along N50W. The results of our study and the volcanological data of the past 3 ka, suggest that the eastern part of the resurgent block is the area with highest probability of vent opening in case of renewal of volcanism. Occurrence of landslides just before and after eruptions, suggest that resurgence occurs through discontinuous vertical movements which likely trigger the volcanic activity.

Marotta, E.; de Vita, S.; Orsi, G.; Sansivero, F.

2005-12-01

153

Observations on basaltic lava streams in tubes from Kilauea Volcano, island of Hawai'i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1986 to 1997, the Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption of Kilauea produced a vast pahoehoe flow field fed by lava tubes that extended 10-12 km from vents on the volcano's east rift zone to the ocean. Within a kilometer of the vent, tubes were as much as 20 m high and 10-25 m wide. On steep slopes (4-10??) a little farther away from the vent, some tubes formed by roofing over of lava channels. Lava streams were typically 1-2 m deep flowing within a tube that here was typically 5 m high and 3 m wide. On the coastal plain (<1??), tubes within inflated sheet flows were completely filled, typically 1-2 m high, and several tens of meters wide. Tubes develop as a flow's crust grows on the top, bottom, and sides of the tubes, restricting the size of the fluid core. The tubes start out with nearly elliptical cross-sectional shapes, many times wider than high. Broad, flat sheet flows evolve into elongate tumuli with an axial crack as the flanks of the original flow were progressively buried by breakouts. Temperature measurements and the presence of stalactites in active tubes confirmed that the tube walls were above the solidus and subject to melting. Sometimes, the tubes began downcutting. Progressive downcutting was frequently observed through skylights; a rate of 10 cm/d was measured at one skylight for nearly 2 months.

Kauahikaua, J.; Cashman, K.V.; Mattox, T.N.; Christina, Heliker C.; Hon, K.A.; Mangan, M.T.; Thornber, C.R.

1998-01-01

154

GPS and Gravity Surveying at Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde Islands, 1998-2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fogo Island, in the Cape verde archipelago (North Atlantic), is a roughly conical volcanic edifice with 25 Km of base diameter and a summit that reaches an altitude of about 3000 m. Volcanic eruptions in the island are reported since the settlement in the 16th century, at average intervals of about 20 years. In the 20th century the activity subsided, with only two eruptions in 1951 and 1995. Fogo comprises 33000 inhabitants, of which 800 live inside the 9km-wide ancient collapse caldera, which is open towards the East. A joint effort has been made to implement basic monitoring capabilities in Fogo. A permanent network for real-time monitoring of seismicity and tilt was installed in 1999 (Faria et al., this conference). This presentation describes the repeated GPS and microgravity surveys carried out in Fogo island between 1998 and 2001. Until present, five GPS and three microgravity surveys were made, with a repeat period of about 7 months. A network composed of 23 geodetic monuments, with stable reinforced concrete foundations, was previously implemented for this purpose, covering the entire island with basis lengths between 2 and 8 Kms. For the GPS surveys, seven GPS Trimble 4000 SSE receivers were used, and the observations were processed with Bernese 4.2 software. Two LaCoste & Romberg G gravimeters were used together with the GPS observations for three of the five campaigns. The results from the GPS surveys show significant vertical and horizontal deformation. The clearest observations are as follows: 1. between Sep 98 and Apr 99, uplit (up to 5 cm) of the points inside the collapse caldera; 2. between Apr 99 and Nov 99, dislocation towards the East of the monuments inside the caldera and on the East coast; 3. between Nov 99 and Jun 00, movement towards the West of the points inside the caldera and on the East coast. The microgravity survey carried out between Nov 99 and Jun 00 points to density increase coupled with surface uplift. Different mechanisms to explain the observations are discussed, namely subsurface magma movements, gravitic instability of the volcanic edifice and variations of the water-table geometry.

Lima, J. N.; Lazaro, C.; Heleno, S. I.; Fonseca, J. F.; Barros, I.; Matos, J.; Baio, M.; Osorio, J.; Osorio, J.

2001-12-01

155

Spatio-temporal evolution of a dispersed magmatic system and its implications for volcano growth, Jeju Island Volcanic Field, Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jeju Island is the emergent portion of a basaltic volcanic field developed over the last c. 1.8 Ma on continental crust. Initial volcanism comprised dispersed, small-volume (< 0.01 km3) alkali basaltic eruptions that incrementally constructed a tuff pile. Lavas and scoria from continuing small-scaled monogenetic volcanism capped this foundation. From c. 0.4 Ma large-volume (> 1 km3) eruptions began, with lavas building a composite shield. Three magma suites can be recognized: Early Pleistocene high-Al alkali (HAA), and Late Pleistocene to Holocene low-Al alkali (LAA) and subalkali (SA). The chemical similarity between small-volume and primitive large-volume eruptions suggests analogous parent magmas and fractionation histories that are independent of erupted volumes. The large-volume magmas evolved to trachyte, which erupted in two distinct episodes: the HAA Sanbangsan suite at c. 750 ka and the LAA Hallasan suite at c. 25 ka. Sr and Nd isotopes indicate that the early trachytes were contaminated by upper crustal material, whereas the later magmas were not. Both suites bear a Nd isotope signature indicative of lower crustal interaction. Sub-suites transitional between HAA and LAA, and between LAA and SA, indicate that melting occurred in discrete, but adjacent, mantle domains. Throughout the evolution of this volcano, each magma batch erupted separately, and a centralized plumbing system was never created. The Island's central peak (Mt. Halla 1950 m a.s.l.) is therefore not a sensu stricto stratovolcano, but marks the point of peak magma output in a distributed magmatic system. Jeju's shape and topography thus represent the spatial variation of fertility of the mantle below it. An increase in melt production in the Late Pleistocene was related to a deepening of the melting zone due to regional tectonic rearrangements. Temporal coincidences between magmatic pulses on Jeju and large-scale caldera eruptive events along the nearest subduction system in Kyushu, Japan, suggest that tectonic extension and changing strain rates may drive volcanism on a regional basis, influencing the intraplate volcanism of Jeju Island.

Brenna, Marco; Cronin, Shane J.; Smith, Ian E. M.; Sohn, Young Kwan; Maas, Roland

2012-09-01

156

GPS monitoring of Hawaiian Volcanoes  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory uses a variety of ground- and satellite-based techniques to monitor Hawai‘i’s active volcanoes.  Here, an HVO scientist sets up a portable GPS receiver to track surface changes during an island-wide survey of Hawai‘i’s volcanoes. &n...

157

Volcanoes in the Infrared  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video adapted from KUAC-TV and the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, satellite imagery and infrared cameras are used to study and predict eruptions of volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

2008-11-04

158

2009 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest, and reports of unusual activity at or near eight separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2009. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Redoubt Volcano, one of three active volcanoes on the western side of Cook Inlet and near south-central Alaska's population and commerce centers, which comprise about 62 percent of the State's population of 710,213 (2010 census). AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at ten volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Girina, Olga A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander

2014-01-01

159

The September 1988 intracaldera avalanche and eruption at Fernandina volcano, Galapagos Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 14-16 September 1988, a large intracaldera avalanche and an eruption of basaltic tephra and lava at Fernandina volcano, Galapagos, produced the most profound changes within the caldera since its collapse in 1968. A swarm of eight earthquakes (mb 4.7-5.5) occurred in a 14 h period on 24 February 1988 at Fernandina, and two more earthquakes of this size followed on 15 April and 20 May, respectively. On 14 September 1988, another earthquake (mb 4.6) preceded a complex series of events. A debris avalanche was generated by the failure of a fault-bounded segment of the east caldera wall, approximately 2 km long and 300 m wide. The avalanche deposit is up to 250 m thick and has an approximate volume of 0.9 km3. The avalanche rapidly displaced a preexisting lake from the southeast end of the caldera floor to the northwest end, where the water washed up against the lower part of the caldera wall, then gradually seeped into the avalanche deposit and was completely gone by mid-January 1989. An eruption began in the caldera within about 1-2 h of the earthquake, producing a vigorous tephra plume for about 12 h, then lava flows during the next two days. The eruption ended late on 16 September. Most of the eruptive activity was from vents on the caldera floor near the base of the new avalanche scar. Unequivocal relative timing of events is difficult to determine, but seismic records suggest that the avalanche may have occurred 1.6 h after the earthquake, and field relations show that lava was clearly erupted after the avalanche was emplaced. The most likely sequence of events seems to be that the 1988 feeder dike intruded upward into the east caldera wall, dislocated the unstable wall block, and triggered the avalanche. The avalanche immediately exposed the newly emplaced dike and initiated the eruption. The exact cause of the earthquakes is unknown. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

Chadwick, W.W., Jr.; De Roy, T.; Carrasco, A.

1991-01-01

160

Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde Islands: seismicity-derived constraints on the mechanism of the 1995 eruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic data recorded in the vicinity of the active vent of the 1995 Fogo eruption [Global Volcanism Network Bulletin, 1995, 20(3) 2-4.] is used to constrain the associated stress field and deformation. Using the frequency content of the seismograms to distinguish between brittle fracture of cold host rock and deformation in the vicinity of the intruding magma, a sub-vertical dyke with 060° strike is identified as the feeder of the eruption, and delineated down to a depth of about 4 km. The local stress field during the eruption is estimated from composite focal mechanisms. Besides the expected ?3 direction normal to the dyke, a group of focal solutions point to a stress field with nearly dyke-parallel ?3, which is interpreted as a re-adjustment of the edifice following the eruption, maybe partially controlled by gravity. This effect may have increased the instability of the steep eastern flank of the island, since the deformation detected during the magma drainback is compatible with predominantly dip-slip motion on east-dipping surfaces.

Heleno da Silva, S. I. N.; Day, S. J.; Fonseca, J. F. B. D.

1999-12-01

161

2007 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2007. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Pavlof, one of Alaska's most frequently active volcanoes. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the autumn of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of steam and volcanic gas into 2007. Redoubt Volcano showed the first signs of the unrest that would unfold in 2008-09. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Dixon, James P.; Malik, Nataliya; Chibisova, Marina

2011-01-01

162

2008 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at seven separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2008. Significant explosive eruptions at Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes in July and August dominated Observatory operations in the summer and autumn. AVO maintained 24-hour staffing at the Anchorage facility from July 12 through August 28. Minor eruptive activity continued at Veniaminof and Cleveland Volcanoes. Observed volcanic unrest at Cook Inlet's Redoubt Volcano presaged a significant eruption in the spring of 2009. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at nine volcanoes in Russia as part of a collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Nuzhdaev, Anton A.; Chibisova, Marina

2011-01-01

163

Flow-By-Flow Mapping on Fogo, Cape Verde Islands, Reveals Long Term Variations in Eruption Distributions and Volcanic Edifice Structure at a Shield-Stage Oceanic Island Volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most maps of large oceanic island shield volcanoes show the lava flows and scoria cones of individual historic and subhistoric eruptions as individual units but then resort to grouping older rocks into larger stratigraphic units. This grouping makes it difficult to characterize long-term progressive trends in volumes of individual eruptions and distributions of eruptive vents, but is commonly made necessary by poor exposure, limited compositional variation between individual eruptions, and burial of older by younger volcanic rocks. In contrast, work on Fogo, Cape Verde Islands has involved flow-by-flow mapping of rocks erupted over an extended period of tens of thousands of years, as part of the process of mapping the island and producing a 1:25 000 scale geological map for research and hazard management purposes. Around three-quarters of the island is characterized by low rainfall and limited vegetation cover, with erosion restricted to narrow gullies. Only in small areas on the windward side of the island do higher rainfall, thick vegetation and deeper erosion combine to prevent flow-by-flow mapping. The map of the island is accompanied by a rigorous representation of direct and inferred age relationships between lavas and scoria cones of different eruptions using a novel type of age correlation diagram. The time period covered by the flow-by-flow mapping includes both the final stages of growth of an older shield volcano (Monte Amarelo volcano) prior to its collapse and the subsequent growth of a new volcano (Cha das Caldeiras volcano). The latter forms a thick infill and summit cone within the Monte Amarelo collapse scar together with partial covering of the outer flanks of the Monte Amarelo volcano with a veneer of younger lavas and scoria cones. The erupted rocks are compositionally varied (ankaramitic nephelinites, basanites, tephrites) and often highly porphyritic. Petrographic criteria were therefore used to aid field mapping, define lithostratigraphic units and demonstrate systematic changes in compositions of erupted magmas through time. Some of these changes, particularly eruptions of ankaramitic magmas, coincide with similar sequences of volcano-structural changes that have occurred prior to the Monte Amarelo collapse and again during the Holocene (beginning around 11 000 years before present; Foeken et al, 2009). The flow-by-flow mapping approach has allowed reconstruction and comparison of the sequences of these structural changes, and thus provides insights into the inferred progressive destabilization of the eastern flank of Fogo during the Holocene, as well as into wide variations in eruption and resurfacing rates that have occurred on decade to century timescales in more recent times. Foeken, J.P.T., Day, S.J. & Stuart, F.M. (2009) Cosmogenic 3He exposure dating of the Quaternary basalts from Fogo, Cape Verdes: Implications for rift zone and magmatic reorganization. Quaternary Geology 4 (2009) 37 - 49.

Day, S. J.

2011-12-01

164

Magma mixing revealed by bulk-rock, phenocryst and microlite compositions in basaltic andesite samples from the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Island volcano, central Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 7-8 August, 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, located in the central Aleutians Islands, Alaska, produced compositionally heterogeneous basaltic andesite (52-55 wt% SiO2). Bulk compositions of basaltic andesite samples lie along linear trends in element-element variation diagrams, while plagioclase, titanomagnetite and amphibole phenocrysts from the basaltic andesite are compositionally bimodal. Titanomagnetite phenocrysts are divided compositionally into low-Ti (~5 wt. % TiO2) and high-Ti (~8-10 wt. % TiO2) groups, while amphibole phenocrysts are divided into low-Al (~10-12 wt. % Al2O3) and high-Al (~14-16 wt. % Al2O3) populations. The first plagioclase population (Group 1), which is volumetrically dominant, consists of oscillatory-zoned phenocrysts that trend towards comparatively low-Ca rims (An55-65). These phenocrysts are normally zoned, with discrete spikes up to ~An90. The second population (Group 2) is more calcic with most rims up to ~An90, yet a subpopulation exists where rims sharply decrease in calcium content, reaching as low as ~An60, but are otherwise texturally and compositionally homogeneous (~An90). In addition to phenocryst compositions, plagioclase microlites are normally zoned, > 50% have rim compositions > An80, and they are typically more calcic than Group 1 rims. The most likely explanation for the compositional diversity in the bulk and phenocrysts is mixing between mafic and silicic end members, leading to linear mixing trends in the basaltic andesite bulk compositions. Group 1 plagioclase phenocrysts, low-Al amphibole and high-Ti titanomagnetite likely derived from the silicic mixing end member, while the mafic mixing end member contributed the Group 2 plagioclase phenocrysts, high-Al amphibole and low-Ti titanomagnetite. Plagioclase-liquid thermometry indicates that the mafic end member was likely hotter (900-1050 °C) than the silicic end member (800-950 °C). Microlites are frequently assumed to form due to decompression and magmatic degassing during ascent and eruption. However, in the case of Kasatochi, the mixing of these two magmas prior to eruption, and the temperature difference between them, led to undercooling of the mafic end member, and the nucleation of the anomalously high-An microlites in the mafic end member's more calcic liquids.

Neill, O. K.; Larsen, J. F.; Izbekov, P. E.; Nye, C. J.

2013-12-01

165

2006 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2006. A significant explosive eruption at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet marked the first eruption within several hundred kilometers of principal population centers in Alaska since 1992. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the fall of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of volcanic gas into 2007. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Manevich, Alexander; Rybin, Alexander

2008-01-01

166

Lab7: Volcanoes I. --Their Geographic Distribution Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Lab7: Volcanoes I. -- Their Geographic Distribution Introduction Active volcanoes present in understanding these hazards is to realize where active volcanoes actually occur on the Earth's surface. Pacuritin Volcano, Mexico Active Volcanoes of the World South Sandwich Islands. Also known as the Scotia arc

Chen, Po

167

Volcanic Unrest of Fogo Volcano in 2011-2012, S.Miguel Island, Azores, Observed by Continuous and Campaign GPS Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions can occur after long time of dormancy as has been seen from the recent examples: Mount St. Helens 1980, Pinatubo 1991, Unzen 1991, Soufrière Hills volcano 1995, Chaitén 2008, and Eyjafjallajökull 2010. By utilizing space geodesy techniques, namely GNSS and InSAR, it has been reported that the inflation-deflation processes exist at several dormant volcanoes in the world, but the mechanism responsible for this phenomena is still controversial. Fundamental questions such as magma vs. hydrothermal fluids and volcanic vs. tectonic process remain unanswered in many cases. In this study, we analyze both continuous and campaign GPS data from Fogo volcano, S. Miguel Island, Azores. Although no geochemical and hydrothermal evidences for a magmatic intrusion were reported during the past seismic swarm episodes (1989, 2003-2006, and 2011-2012), geophysical data, both seismic and ground deformation, indicate possible volcanic sources. GPS time series spanned 2008-2013 period characterize tectonic plate divergence between Eurasian and Nubian, and reveal two different types of ground deformation associated with the 2011-2012 volcanic unrest of Fogo. One is the permanent edifice-scale inflation centered at NE summit which corresponds to the increase of volcano-tectonic events. Another is the subsequent minor-scale inflation-deflation reversals between Congro, a trachyte maar, east of Fogo and Furnas volcano. Calculated strain rates and GPS campaign results indicate that the 2011-2012 deformation is one order smaller than the previous unrest episode. A strong similarity exists to Matsushiro earthquake swarm (1965-1966) and Campi Flegrei volcanic unrests (1969-1972 and 1982-1984), which is the coexistence of an edifice-scale main inflation associated with intense volcano-tectonic earthquakes with inflation to deflation reversal that coincided with a sharp drop of seismicity. High recovery rate of inflation-deflation may be an indicator for the existence of hydrothermal fluids in the highly heterogeneous/porous media. We propose the following hypothesis for the 2011-2012 volcanic unrest of Fogo - (1) a minor magmatic intrusion beneath Fogo which acts as a heat source encourages lateral diffusion of fluids, (2) the fluids are transported through the existing cracks/fissures which are sustained by regional extension due to plate divergence, (3) influx of fluids increases pressure in cracks/fissures and generates lower-frequency earthquakes, and (4) discharge of fluids causes sudden pressure decrease and dilatancy recovery which leads seismic quiescence. Fogo volcano represents 450 years of dormancy since 1563-1564 when the last eruptions took place at the summit caldera. However, we show that the volcano has been experiencing intermittent magma ascents (i.e. repeating "failed eruptions") even its dormant period. Further researches are needed in order to understand the eruption triggering conditions. Nevertheless, we have a continuous GPS network that can detect small changes in the volcano roots and provide important contribution to evaluate future unrest episodes at Azores.

Okada, Jun; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Ofeigsson, Benedikt; Ferreira, Teresa; Gaspar, Joao; Lorenzo, Maria; Araujo, Joao; Rodriques, Rita

2014-05-01

168

Earth's Active Volcanoes by Geographic Region  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes active volcanoes from around the world by using the volcano links from the Michigan Technological University and the homepages of observatories at active volcanoes. Each volcano section contains photo images, maps, and reference text. Some sections contain bibliographies, volcano reports, and video clips of lahars. The volcanoes are organized by the following geographic regions: Africa and surrounding islands; the Southwest Pacific, Southeast Asia, and India; East Asia including Japan and Kamchatka; Antarctica; the North Atlantic and Iceland; the Mediterranean; South America and surrounding islands; Central Pacific, South Pacific and New Zealand; Alaska and the Northern Pacific Region; North America; and Central America.

169

Insights from geophysical monitoring into the volcano structure and magma supply systems at three very different oceanic islands in the Cape Verde archipelago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three oceanic volcano islands in the west of the Cape Verde archipelago are considered to have the highest levels of volcanic hazard in the archipelago: Fogo, Brava, and Santo Antao. Fogo has had frequent mainly effusive eruptions in historic time, the most recent in 1995, whilst Brava and Santo Antao have ongoing geothermal activity and felt earthquakes, and have experienced geologically recent violent explosive eruptions. Therefore, these three islands have been the focus of recent efforts to set up seismic networks to monitor their activity. Here we present the first results from these networks, and propose interpretations of the monitored seismic activity in terms of subsurface volcano structures, near-surface intrusive activity and seasonal controls on geothermal activity. In Fogo, most recorded seismic events are hydrothermal events. These show a strong seasonal variation, increasing during the summer rain season and decreasing afterwards. Rare volcano-tectonic (VT) events (0.1island due to the 1995 eruption. Brava experiences frequent swarms of VT events. These are located mostly offshore, with a small proportion of on-shore events. The positions of offshore events are strongly correlated with seamounts and hence are interpreted as due to submarine volcanic processes. Onshore events (0.7island that has been indicated by previous geological studies, and may be due to inflation of a magma reservoir in the edifice. S. Antão is characterized by frequent seismic swarms composed of VT earthquakes (0.1volcanoes on Santo Antao, which are most probably also the sources of the associated MF events and harmonic tremor as well. These onshore swarms likely record dike intrusions into the volcanic rift zones. In conclusion, we note that each island has its own distinctive pattern of seismic activity, perhaps reflecting its different stage of evolution. Full understanding of the seismic activity and how it can be interpreted in mechanistic terms, as a basis for future volcanic hazard models and eruption forecasts, will therefore require more detailed geological and geophysical investigations of each island, with different priorities in each case.

Faria, B. V.; Day, S.; Fonseca, J. F.

2013-12-01

170

Internal structure of the western flank of the Cumbre Vieja volcano, La Palma, Canary Islands, from land  

E-print Network

in the future [Day et al., 1999a, 1999b]. In the particular cases of La Palma (Canary Islands) and Fogo (Cape lithosphere (such as Hawaii and Reunion Island) and those formed on slow moving litho- sphere (such as Cape Verde and the Canary Islands). A number of mechanical explanations exists for this contrast in behavior

Jones, Alan G.

171

Adventive hydrothermal circulation on Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) revealed by geophysical and geochemical approaches: Implications for general fluid flow models on volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On March 15th 2007 a paroxysmal explosion occurred at the Stromboli volcano. This event generated a large amount of products, mostly lithic blocks, some of which impacted the ground as far as down to 200 m a.s.l., about 1.5 km far away from the active vents. Two days after the explosion, a new vapour emission was discovered on the north-eastern flank of the volcanic edifice, at 560 m a.s.l., just above the area called "Nel Cannestrà". This new vapour emission was due to a block impact. In order to investigate the block impact area to understand the appearance of the vapour emission, we conducted on May 2008 a multidisciplinary study involving Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Self-Potential (SP), CO 2 soil diffuse degassing and soil temperature surveys. This complementary data set revealed the presence of an anomalous conductive body, probably related to a shallow hydrothermal level, at about 10-15 m depth, more or less parallel to the topography. It is the first time that such a hydrothermal fluid flow, with a temperature close to the water boiling point (76 °C) has been evidenced at Stromboli at this low elevation on the flank of the edifice. The ERT results suggest a possible link between (1) the main central hydrothermal system of Stromboli, located just above the plumbing system feeding the active vents, with a maximum of subsurface soil temperature close to 90 °C and limited by the NeoStromboli summit crater boundary and (2) the investigated area of Nel Cannestrà, at ~ 500 m a.s.l., a buried eruptive fissure active 9 ka ago. In parallel, SP and CO 2 soil diffuse degassing measurements suggest in this sector at slightly lower elevation from the block impact crater a magmatic and hydrothermal fluid rising system along the N41° regional fault. A complementary ERT profile, on May 2009, carried out from the NeoStromboli crater boundary down to the block impact crater displayed a flank fluid flow apparently connected to a deeper system. The concept of shallow hydrothermal level have been compared to similar ERT results recently obtained on Mount Etna and La Fossa cone of Vulcano. This information needs to be taken into account in general fluid flow models on volcanoes. In particular, peripheral thermal waters (as those bordering the north-eastern coast of Stromboli) could be contaminated by hydrothermal and magmatic fluids coming from regional faults but also from the summit.

Finizola, A.; Ricci, T.; Deiana, R.; Cabusson, S. Barde; Rossi, M.; Praticelli, N.; Giocoli, A.; Romano, G.; Delcher, E.; Suski, B.; Revil, A.; Menny, P.; Di Gangi, F.; Letort, J.; Peltier, A.; Villasante-Marcos, V.; Douillet, G.; Avard, G.; Lelli, M.

2010-09-01

172

Coeval giant landslides in the Canary Islands: Implications for global, regional and local triggers of giant flank collapses on oceanic volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Giant landslides are an important part of the evolution of most intra-plate volcanic islands. They often proceed in catastrophic events, likely to generate voluminous debris avalanches and eventually trigger destructive tsunamis. Although knowledge of the timing of their recurrence is a key factor regarding the hazard assessment in coastal environments, only a few of them have been well dated. In this contribution, we focus on the La Orotava event on Tenerife, which we date with the unspiked K-Ar technique, between 534 and 523 ka. Such narrow temporal interval is compatible, within uncertainties, with the age of the Cumbre Nueva collapse on the neighboring island of La Palma. We thus examine here the possible common triggering mechanisms at the global, regional and local scales. Both events occurred shortly after the climax of the oxygen isotopic stage 14, during the rapid transition towards the interglacial stage 13, reinforcing the hypothesis of a control from global paleoclimatic changes on the destabilization of oceanic islands. Intense volcanic pulses at the regional scale also lead to the synchronous overgrowth of several volcanic islands in the archipelago, but coeval destabilization on Tenerife and La Palma appears significantly controlled by the intrinsic morphology of the edifices, with contrasted instability thresholds for shield volcanoes and volcanic ridges respectively. Finally, we propose that the two events may be genetically linked. Dynamic transfer of voluminous debris avalanches during a giant landslide episode can induce isostatic readjustments, generate significant ground acceleration and finally produce a large tsunami, three processes which can concur to trigger large scale flank collapse on a neighboring mature unstable volcanic island.

Boulesteix, Thomas; Hildenbrand, Anthony; Soler, Vicente; Quidelleur, Xavier; Gillot, Pierre-Yves

2013-05-01

173

A new model for the growth of basaltic shields based on deformation of Fernandina volcano, Galápagos Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Space-geodetic measurements of surface deformation produced by the most recent eruptions at Fernandina – the most frequently erupting volcano in the Galápagos Archipelago – reveal that all have initiated with the intrusion of subhorizontal sills from a shallow magma reservoir. This includes eruptions from fissures that are oriented both radially and circumferentially with respect to the summit caldera. A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image acquired 1–2 h before the start of a radial fissure eruption in 2009 captures one of these sills in the midst of its propagation toward the surface. Galápagos eruptive fissures of all orientations have previously been presumed to be fed by vertical dikes, and this assumption has guided models of the origin of the eruptive fissure geometry and overall development of the volcanoes. Our findings allow us to reinterpret the internal structure and evolution of Galápagos volcanoes and of similar basaltic shields. Furthermore, we note that stress changes generated by the emplacement of subhorizontal sills feeding one type of eruption may control the geometry of subsequent eruptive fissures. Specifically, circumferential fissures tend to open within areas uplifted by sill intrusions that initiated previous radial fissure eruptions. This mechanism provides a possible explanation for the pattern of eruptive fissures that characterizes all the western Galápagos volcanoes, as well as the alternation between radial and circumferential fissure eruptions at Fernandina. The same model suggests that the next eruption of Fernandina will be from a circumferential fissure in the area uplifted by the 2009 sill intrusion, just southwest of the caldera rim.

Bagnardi, Marco; Amelung, Falk; Poland, Michael P.

2013-01-01

174

GPS Application to the Study of Ground Deformation in the Volcano Tectonic System of the Graciosa Island (Azores)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Azores archipelago is located in North Atlantic Ocean, in the junction of Eurasian, American and African plates, which reflect the existence of a complex system of fractures, namely the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the Eastern Azorean fracture zone, the Terceira Rift and the Gloria Fault. The Azores are, therefore, an excellent place for the application and development of various volcano tectonic

R. Rodrigues; T. Ferreira; J. L. Gaspar

2009-01-01

175

INFORMAL LEARNING STRATEGIES IN SOLOMON ISLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preface The kinds of research on which this article is based, exemplified particularly by the work of Harris (1984) and Christie (1985), have come under substantial criticism in recent years. It is therefore appropriate, at the time of the reprinting of this article, to review some of this criticism as a means of creating a framework for evaluating the usefulness

P. M. Ninnes

176

Volcanic-ash hazard to aviation during the 2003 2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Anatahan is one of nine active subaerial volcanoes that pose hazards to major air-traffic routes from airborne volcanic ash. The 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano affected the region's aviation operations for 3 days in May 2003. On the first day of the eruption (10 May 2003), two international flights from Saipan to Japan were cancelled, and several flights implemented ash-avoidance procedures. On 13 May 2003, a high-altitude flight through volcanic gas was reported, with no perceptible damage to the aircraft. TOMS and MODIS analysis of satellite data strongly suggests that no significant ash and only minor amounts of SO 2 were involved in the incident, consistent with crew observations. On 23 May 2003, airport operations were disrupted when tropical-cyclone winds dispersed ash to the south, dusting Saipan with light ashfall and causing flight cancellations there and at Guam 320 km south of the volcano. Operational (near-real-time) monitoring of ash clouds produced by Anatahan has been conducted since the first day of the eruption on 10 May 2003 by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). The VAAC was among the first groups outside of the immediate area of the volcano to detect and report on the unexpected eruption of Anatahan. After being contacted about an unusual cloud by National Weather Service forecasters in Guam at 1235 UTC on 10 May 2003, the VAAC analyzed GOES 9 images, confirming Anatahan as the likely source of an ash cloud and estimating that the eruption began at about 0730 UTC. The VAAC issued its first Volcanic Ash Advisory for Anatahan at 1300 UTC on 10 May 2003 more than 5 h after the start of the eruption, the delay reflecting the difficulty of detecting and confirming a surprise eruption at a remote volcano with no in situ real-time geophysical monitoring. The initial eruption plume reached 10.7-13.4 km (35,000-44,000 ft), well into jet cruise altitudes; thereafter, the maximum plume height decreased and during the rest of the eruption usually did not exceed ˜5 km (˜17,000 ft), which lessened the potential hazard to aircraft at higher cruise altitudes. Drifting ash clouds commonly extended hundreds of kilometers from the volcano, occasionally as far west as the Philippines. Over the course of the eruptive activity in 2003-2004, the VAAC issued 323 advisories (168 with graphical depictions of ash clouds) for Anatahan, serving as a reliable source of ash-cloud information for aviation-related meteorological offices and air carriers. With a record of frequent eruptions in the CNMI, continued satellite and in situ real-time geophysical monitoring is needed at Anatahan and other Marianas volcanoes so that potential hazards to aviation from any future eruptive activity can be quickly and correctly assessed.

Guffanti, Marianne; Ewert, John W.; Gallina, Gregory M.; Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Swanson, Grace L.

2005-08-01

177

Man Against Volcano: The Eruption on Heimaey,  

E-print Network

Man Against Volcano: The Eruption on Heimaey, Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland This booklet was originally published in 1976 under the title "Man Against Volcano:The Eruption on Heimaey, Vestmann Islands, Iceland:Town of Vestmannaeyjar with Helgafell in the right back- ground (photo courtesy of Sólarfilma). #12;Man Against Volcano

Ingólfsson, �lafur

178

Calderas, landslides and paleo-canyons on Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based upon a re-interpretation of previous data and a new field campaign, a structural evolution is proposed for the early history of Piton de la Fournaise volcano from 500,000 to 50,000years. Conceptually, it is shown that the formation of a caldera in which lava flows are contained inside the caldera depression, gives time for erosion to excavate deep canyons on

Olivier Merle; Philippe Mairine; Laurent Michon; Patrick Bachèlery; Magali Smietana

2010-01-01

179

Nicaraguan Volcanoes  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Nicaraguan Volcanoes     View Larger Image Nicaraguan volcanoes, February 26, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... February 26, 2000 - Plumes from the San Cristobal and Masaya volcanoes. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

2013-04-18

180

Fast Reed-Solomon Decoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-speed decoder intended for use with Reed-Solomon (RS) codes of long code length and high error-correcting capability. Design based on algorithm that includes high-radix Fermat transform procedure, which is most efficient for high speeds. RS code in question has code-word length of 256 symbols, of which 224 are information symbols and 32 are redundant.

Liu, K. Y.

1986-01-01

181

Solomon Schechter Day School. Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By 1969 32 Solomon Schechter Day Schools existed to provide students with elementary and secondary education in the context of Conservative Judaism. These day schools are designed to extend the options for religious education already available in the afternoon congregational schools operating in many synagogues. This document outlines the…

Schindler, Pesach; Siegel, Morton

182

Volcano-stratigraphic and structural evolution of Brava Island (Cape Verde) based on 40Ar/ 39Ar, U-Th and field constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three volcano-stratigraphic units were identified at Brava Island in the Cape Verde Archipelago on the basis of field relationships, geologic mapping and 40Ar/ 39Ar and U-Th ages. The Lower Unit comprises a 2-to-3 Ma-old submarine volcanic sequence that represents the seamount stage. It is composed of nephelinitic/ankaramitic hyaloclastites and pillow lavas, which are cut by abundant co-genetic dikes. Plutonic rocks of an alkaline-carbonatite complex, which intruded the submarine sequence 1.8 to 1.3 Ma ago, constitute the Middle Unit. A major erosional surface developed between 1.3 and ~ 0.25 Ma. The post-erosional volcanism recorded in the Upper Unit started 0.25 Ma ago and is dominated by phonolitic magmatism. This phase is characterised by explosive phreato-magmatic and magmatic activity that produced block and ash flow, surge, and pyroclastic fall deposits and numerous phreato-magmatic craters. Effusive events are represented by lava domes and coulées. One peculiarity of Brava is the occurrence of carbonatites in both the plutonic complex and the post-erosional phase as extrusive volcanics. The intrusive carbonatites are younger than those occurring on Fogo, Santiago and Maio islands. Young (Upper Pleistocene to Holocene) extrusive carbonatites occurring in the late stages of volcanism are unknown in other Cape Verde islands. The occurrence of pillow lavas and hyaloclastites above the present sea level (up to 400 m) and raised Upper Pleistocene beaches indicates continuous uplift of Brava since the seamount stage. By dating raised marine markers, uplift rates were estimated at between 0.2 and 0.4 mm/a. The evolution of Brava was controlled by faults with directions similar to those described for Fogo, suggesting a common stress field. A detailed geological map (1/25,000) of Brava is presented.

Madeira, José; Mata, João; Mourão, Cyntia; Brum da Silveira, António; Martins, Sofia; Ramalho, Ricardo; Hoffmann, Dirk L.

2010-10-01

183

Distribution of bivalve mollusks Macoma golikovi Scarlato and Kafanov, 1988 and Macoma calcarea (Gmelin, 1791) in the shallow-water hydrothermal ecosystem of Kraternaya Bight (Yankich Island, Kuril Islands): connection with feeding type and hydrothermal activity of Ushishir Volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kraternaya Bight (Yankich Island, the Kuril Islands) is a submerged crater of the active Ushishir Volcano characterized by terrestrial and underwater gasohydrothermal activity. The gasohydrothermal activity of the volcano produces a great influence on the physico-chemical characteristics of water column, as well as planktonic and bottom communities of marine organisms of the bight. The bivalve mollusks Macoma golikovi and Macoma calcarea are dominant macrobenthos species of Kraternaya Bight, which inhabit all the zones of underwater volcanic activity. Macoma golikovi occurs at a depth of 1-45 m. This species forms the densest aggregations (with an average biomass of 500-800 g m -2 and a population density of 500-700 ind. m -2) at a depth of 3-15 m, on steep underwater crater slopes (40-45°), on slightly silted gravel. The majority of gasohydrothermal vents are located at that depth. Macoma calcarea occurs at a depth of 5-55 m. In contrast to Macoma golikovi, this species is dominant at a depth of 25-40 m, on gentle slopes of the crater (to 20°), on silt and silty sand. That depth is less subjected to the influence of volcanic products. Its average biomass is 450-750 g m -2 with a population density of 200-450 ind. m -2 there. It is assumed that the differences in the distribution are due the fact that Macoma golikovi is mainly a suspension-feeder in Kraternaya Bight, and Macoma calcarea is a deposit-feeder. The studies conducted between 1987 and 1997 on the quantitative distribution of Macoma golikovi and Macoma calcarea in four areas of the bight, which had different intensity, temperature and chemical composition of gasohydrothermal vents and volcanic water seeping showed that both species formed settlements with lesser density in the area of the gasohydrothermal vents containing hydrogen sulfide. Beyond the area of volcanic activity, these species were most abundant. In 1993 and 1995, the mortality of the populations of the bivalve mollusks was observed in the areas of hydrogen sulfide gasohydrothermal vents and volcanic water seeping. In other areas of the bight, their abundance decreased sharply suggesting a relationship to the gasohydrothermal activity of the volcano in those years. Circumstantial evidence for this suggestion was that in 1993, the maximal concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cd, and Mn were observed in the tissues of both species. Macoma golikovi accumulated 5-10 times more Zn than Macoma calcarea. The concentration of Zn in the tissues of Macoma golikovi reached 2000 ?g g -1.

Kamenev, G. M.; Kavun, V. Ya; Tarasov, V. G.; Fadeev, V. I.

2004-01-01

184

The growth of Ritter Island volcano, Papua New Guinea, and the lateral collapse landslide and tsunami of 1888: new insights from eyewitness accounts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a case study of the 1888 edifice lateral collapse landslide and tsunami event at Ritter Island volcano, using a more complete set of primary and secondary eyewitness accounts than has been used in previous studies. The collapse, early in the morning of March 13th, 1888, removed most of the island and its western submarine flank down to the base of the edifice some 900 m below sea level. The resulting tsunami is believed to have eradicated entire coastal communities on the surrounding islands and was recorded by German colonists in several locations around the Bismarck Sea and on adjacent coasts. Our analysis, based in particular upon new and complete translation of the German accounts, considers the evolution of the island over the previous two centuries and the events of March 1888, with the aim of clarifying the constraints that exist upon the cause, kinematics and mechanisms of the lateral collapse. Our analysis indicates that the pre-collapse Ritter edifice produced frequent strombolian eruptions and steam emissions, building an approximately 1700 m wide, notably steep-sided edifice with a N-S elongated oval shape in plan, by the late 1800s. Most activity was concentrated at a group of summit craters some 800 m above sea level, possibly also in a north-south line, with lesser flank fissure activity. The accounts of the tsunami indicate that the 1888 collapse involved a single large-scale catastrophic landslide, but descriptions of the island in the following days indicate a period in which there were many small landslides from the newly formed and unstable collapse scar. There is no evidence for a sequence of large landslides during this event and there is no clear evidence for a coincident or causal magmatic explosive eruption. One report suggests that there was activity (perhaps phreatic or phreatomagmatic explosions?) prior to the collapse that lead some of the resident local communities to seek higher ground, but evidence for precursory flank movements or changes in eruptive style have not been found in the historical accounts.

Ray, Melanie Jane; Day, Simon; Downes, Hilary

2014-05-01

185

How changes in pore pressure affect fluid circulation in volcanoes: three examples from Vulcano Island, Mt. Etna and Mt Vesuvius (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluids circulating in volcanic edifices are attracting increasing interest from scientists, mostly because their role in triggering flank instability, phreatic explosions, and eruptions has been documented in several cases worldwide [Newhall et al. 2001, Thomas et al. 2004]. Fluid pore pressure can change as an effect of either external (meteoric recharge, variation of the stress field), or endogenous causes (e.g. internal pressurization of magmatic volatiles and hydrothermal systems). The reciprocal roles of tectonics and magmatic/hydrothermal activity are still under investigation [Gottsman et al. 2007, Roeloffs et al. 2003]. We discuss the results of decennial data records collected in the aquifers of Mt Etna, Vulcano Island and Mt Vesuvius, and get insights on the role of tectonics and volcanic activity on the observed variations of water level and chemical composition. In Vulcano Island, the shallow thermal aquifer is deeply concerned by deep volcanic fluids. The most significant variations were observed during the 1988-96 crisis, due to the large input of steam and acidic gases from depth. In addition, the record of the water table elevation provided remarkable insights on the pressure of the volcano-hydrothermal system, which can be envisaged as the cause for the onset of the phase of higher vapor output in the fumarolic field in late 2004. On Mt. Vesuvius, the geochemical behavior of the aquifer appears strictly controlled by the input of volcanic gases and variations in the stress field. These latter, which were responsible for the seismic crisis of 1999, and the almost simultaneous increased input of CO2-rich vapor, significantly affected water chemistry and temperature, until 2006. The recent observations of low salinity, temperature, and dissolved carbon contents in groundwater provide strong evidence for reduced pressure in the volcano-hydrothermal system. The record of water chemistry available on Mt. Etna since 1994 shows coeval changes in almost all monitored sites, ascribed to the variable contribution over time of waters with different temperature and composition. In addition, the dissolved CO2 content is chiefly affected by the input of volcanic CO2. Given the intense dynamics of the volcano, with frequent eruptions and periodic inflation-deflation phases, as well as the uneven deformation of the edifice, changes in water chemistry can be attributed, at least in part, to stress-related changes in pore pressure. Changes of pore pressure and micro-fracturation are controlling fluid movement (water and gases) within the volcano, producing part of the observed geochemical variations. The accurate modeling of the proposed process of fluid pressure increase, fracturing, and drainage of deep fluids will benefit of a multidisciplinary approach, able to clarify the cause-effect relationship and critical conditions. Newhall CG et al. 2001. J. Geol. Soc. Philipp., 56, 69-84. Thomas ME et al. 2004. Terra Nova, 16, 312-317. Gottsmann J. et al. 2007. GRL 34, L07307. Roeloffs E. et al. 2003. JVGR 127, 269-303.

Federico, C.; Madonia, P.; Capasso, G.; D'Alessandro, W.; Bellomo, S.; Brusca, L.; Cusano, P.; Longo, M.; Paonita, A.; Petrosino, S.

2013-05-01

186

Time variability of low-temperature fumaroles at Stromboli island (Italy) and its application to volcano monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The constant and mild activity of Stromboli volcano (Italy) is occasionally interrupted by effusive events and/or more energetic explosions, referred to as major explosions and paroxysms, which are potentially dangerous for the human community. Although several premonitory signals for effusive phases have been identified, precursors of major explosions and paroxysms still remain poorly understood. With the aim of contributing to the identification of possible precursors of energetic events, this work discusses soil temperature data acquired in low-temperature fumaroles at Stromboli in the period 2006-2010. Data analysis revealed that short-term anomalies recorded in the thermal signal are potentially useful in predicting state changes of the volcano. In particular, sudden changes in fumarole temperatures and their hourly gradients were observed from several days to a few hours prior to fracturing and paroxysmal events, heralded by peculiar waveforms of the recorded signals. The qualitative interpretation is supported by a quantitative, theoretical treatment that uses circuit theory to explain the time dependence of the short-period temperature variations, showing a good agreement between theoretical and observational data.

Madonia, Paolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

2013-12-01

187

Variability of passive gas emissions, seismicity, and deformation during crater lake growth at White Island Volcano, New Zealand, 2002-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report on 4 years of airborne measurements of CO2, SO2, and H2S emission rates during a quiescent period at White Island volcano, New Zealand, beginning in 2003. During this time a significant crater lake emerged, allowing scrubbig processes to be investigated. CO2 emissions varied from a baseline of 250 to >2000 t d-1 and demonstrated clear annual cycling that was consistent with numbers of earthquake detections and annual changes in sea level. The annual variability was found to be most likely related to increases in the strain on the volcano during sea level highs, temporarily causing fractures to reduce in size in the upper conduit. SO2 emissions varied from 0 to >400 t d-1 and were clearly affected by scrubbing processes within the first year of take development. Scrubbing caused increases of SO42- and Cl- in lake waters, and the ratio of carbon to total sulphur suggested that elemental sulphur deposition was also significant in the lake during the first year. Careful measurements of the lake level and chemistry allowed estimates of the rate of H2O(g) and HCl(g) input into the lake and suggested that the molar abundances of major gas species (H2O, CO2, SO2, and HCl) during this quiescent phase were similar to fumarolic ratios observed between earlier eruptive periods. The volume of magma estimated from CO2 emissions (0.0 15-0.04 km3) was validated by Cl- increases in the lake, suggesting that the gas and magma are transported from deep to shallow depths as a closed system and likely become open in the upper conduit region. The absence of surface deformation further leads to a necessity of magma convection to supply and remove magma from the degassing depths. Two models of convection configurations are discussed. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

Werner, C.; Hurst, T.; Scott, B.; Sherburn, S.; Christenson, B.W.; Britten, K.; Cole-Baker, J.; Mullan, B.

2008-01-01

188

Intra-caldera Events: A Look at the Hydrovolcanic Deposit Stratigraphically Located Between two Caldera-Forming Eruptions of Okmok Volcano, Umnak Island, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the 10 km diameter caldera that characterizes Okmok Volcano, a field of post-caldera cones and deposits demonstrate many features associated with water-magma interactions. A unit deposited prior to the formation of the present caldera provides evidence for large explosive hydrovolcanic eruptions in the past as well. This unit is referred to as the Middle Scoria Unit as it is stratigraphically located between the ~9000 BP Okmok I and 2050 BP Okmok II caldera-forming events. Here, we present data on the stratigraphy, geochemistry, and eruptive mechanisms of the Middle Scoria Unit, which averages a thickness of 2.5 meters. The basal layer of the Middle Scoria consists of moderately well sorted, highly inflated juvenile clasts of basaltic composition (53.88 wt.% SiO2) that average 3 to 5 cm in size. Capping the base is a sequence of layers alternating between oxidized reddish lithic fragments and poorly vesicular scoria averaging 1 mm to 3 cm in size. The contacts between the scoria and lithic layers are less discrete in the top section, with a higher proportion of mixing averaging up to 75% for a clast-rich layer. The upper layers of the unit also show reverse grading and contain dense, poorly vesicular scoria fragments and lithic fragments of 2 mm to 1.5 cm in size. The Middle Scoria unit has been found on the neighboring Unalaska Island, approximately 30 km to the East, revealing a wide dispersal. Our results indicate that this eruption began as a highly explosive, purely magmatic and rare basaltic Plinian eruption. With time, the eruptive series evolved to incorporate external water, as demonstrated by the successions of oxidized lithic lapilli and poorly vesicular scoria layers. Our preliminary interpretations of the Middle Scoria indicate that Okmok Volcano may be capable of highly explosive basaltic Plinian and hydrovolcanic eruptions.

Wong, L. J.

2002-12-01

189

Island of Timor, Indonesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This almost totally cloud free, photo of the island of Timor, Indonesia (9.0S, 125.0E) illustrates the volcanic origin of the over 1500 islands of Indonesia. Close examination of the photo reveals several eroded volcanoes on the Island of Timor and several of the adjacent islands. The linear alignment of the volcanoes, as seen from space, indicates the edges of the tectonic plates of the Earth's crust where volcanic activity is most common.

1989-01-01

190

Tsunami deposits in Santiago Island (Cape Verde archipelago) as possible evidence of a massive flank failure of Fogos volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massive flank failures of volcanic edifices generate tsunami waves. These low-frequency but high magnitude hazards remain poorly documented because of the scarcity of observations. Offshore deposits are studied only by geophysical surveys and the failure rheologies are poorly constrained. Marine conglomerates found at unusually high elevations in Hawaii and in the Canary Islands were previously interpreted as being the result

Raphaël Paris; Thomas Giachetti; Joël Chevalier; Hervé Guillou; Norbert Frank

2011-01-01

191

Don Swanson at Ash Outcrop Near Volcano Observatory  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Don Swanson (USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory) shows scientists in the CSAV International class how layers of ash outside of HVO indicate past explosive eruptions of Kilauea. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Hawaii Island, Hawaii...

192

Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift lasting a few hundred thousand years as the island migrates over a broad flexural arch related to isostatic compensation of a nearby active volcano. The arch is located about 190±30 km away from the center of volcanic activity and is also related to the rejuvenated volcanic stage on the islands. Reefs on Oahu that are uplifted several tens of m above sea level are the primary evidence for uplift as the islands over-ride the flexural arch. At the other end of the movement spectrum, both in terms of magnitude and length of response, are the rapid uplift and subsidence that occurs as magma is accumulated within or erupted from active submarine volcanoes. These changes are measured in days to years and are of cm to m variation; they are measured using leveling surveys, tiltmeters, EDM and GPS above sea level and pressure gauges and tiltmeters below sea level. Other acoustic techniques to measure such vertical movement are under development. Elsewhere, evidence for subsidence of volcanoes is also widespread, ranging from shallow water carbonates on drowned Cretaceous guyots, to mapped shoreline features, to the presence of subaerially-erupted (degassed) lavas on now submerged volcanoes. Evidence for uplift is more limited, but includes makatea islands with uplifted coral reefs surrounding low volcanic islands. These are formed due to flexural uplift associated with isostatic loading of nearby islands or seamounts. In sum, oceanic volcanoes display a long history of subsidence, rapid at first and then slow, sometimes punctuated by brief periods of uplift due to lithospheric loading by subsequently formed nearby volcanoes.

Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

2006-12-01

193

Savage Earth: Out of the Inferno - Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, entitled Mountains of Fire, describes the relationship between the types of volcanic activity and plate movement and the connection between types of volcanoes and how they erupt. The article is supported by a video of an erupting volcano, a photograph of an eruption and an animation depicting pyroclastic flow and the formation of a composite volcano. It is also supported by three sidebars, called Volcanoes of North America, Montserrat: An Island Under Siege, and Volcanoes on other Planets. These sidebars also have videos or photographs to enhance their message.

194

Evidence of flank failure deposit reactivation in a shield volcano. A favorable context for deep-seated landslide activation (La Réunion Island)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Giant flank failures are recurrent features of shield volcanoes, and their deposits (i.e. breccia), constitute a significant volume in a volcanic edifice. On La Réunion Island, the growth and development of Piton des Neiges volcano has been punctuated by several flank failure episodes. One of these failures is a deep-seated landslide (>200 Mm3) occurring nowadays in Grand Ilet, a plateau inhabited by 1 000 people in the cirque of Salazie, on the northern flank of Piton des Neiges. Here we present the results of a multidisciplinary study (structural geology and field mapping, GNSS monitoring, borehole logging) performed to characterize the geological structure the Grand Ilet landslide, and identify the instability factors that control this category of destabilization. Basic breccia deposits, up to 160 meters thick, constitute the main geological formation of the unstable mass. This breccia are cut by the headwall scar of the landslide, and covered by lava flows, indicating a minimum age of 200 kyr for the destabilization that produced the deposits. The breccia is consolidated out of the landslide area. The NE toe of the landslide is evidenced by an important compressional deformation of the base of the breccia, and striated surfaces in this deformed volume indicate a NE-direction of transport. In this deformed bulge, a clay-rich layer at the base of the breccia has been identified as the main slip plane. Using a video inspection of drill casings on three exploration boreholes, we reconstructed the 3D geometry of the slip plane at the base of the breccia. This reconstruction shows that the landslide plane has an average dip of 6° toward the NE. The displacement monitoring network shows that the unstable mass has a 5.5 km2 extension, with a variable azimuth of movement direction (N140° for the SW sector, and N45° for the NE sector). The planimetric displacements velocities range between 2 cm/year in the inner part of the unstable mass to 52 cm/year at the landslide toe. The dip of displacement vectors vary from 34° ± 9 uphill to 7° ± 2 downhill near the landslide toe. This displacement field, the topography and the drill casings inspection show that secondary shear zones are located inside the landslide mass, characterized by a lower deformation rate than the basal shear zone. However heterogeneous is the deformation, it more important at the base of the breccia (locally in the clay layer). Ultimately, our study suggests that the main slip plane has localized at the base of the breccia despite its induration. Thus we conclude that the Grand Ilet landslide is in fact a present-day reactivation of an old destabilization.

Belle, Pierre; Aunay, Bertrand; Famin, Vincent; Join, Jean-Lambert

2014-05-01

195

Under the volcano: phylogeography and evolution of the cave-dwelling Palmorchestia hypogaea (Amphipoda, Crustacea) at La Palma (Canary Islands)  

PubMed Central

Background The amphipod crustacean Palmorchestia hypogaea occurs only in La Palma (Canary Islands) and is one of the few terrestrial amphipods in the world that have adapted to a strictly troglobitic life in volcanic cave habitats. A surface-dwelling closely related species (Palmorchestia epigaea) lives in the humid laurel forest on the same island. Previous studies have suggested that an ancestral littoral Orchestia species colonized the humid forests of La Palma and that subsequent drought episodes in the Canaries reduced the distribution of P. epigaea favouring the colonization of lava tubes through an adaptive shift. This was followed by dispersal via the hypogean crevicular system. Results P. hypogaea and P. epigaea did not form reciprocally monophyletic mitochondrial DNA clades. They showed geographically highly structured and genetically divergent populations with current gene flow limited to geographically close surface locations. Coalescence times using Bayesian estimations assuming a non-correlated relaxed clock with a normal prior distribution of the age of La Palma, together with the lack of association of habitat type with ancestral and recent haplotypes, suggest that their adaptation to cave life is relatively ancient. Conclusion The data gathered here provide evidence for multiple invasions of the volcanic cave systems that have acted as refuges. A re-evaluation of the taxonomic status of the extant species of Palmorchestia is needed, as the division of the two species by habitat and ecology is unnatural. The information obtained here, and that from previous studies on hypogean fauna, shows the importance of factors such as the uncoupling of morphological and genetic evolution, the role of climatic change and regressive evolution as key processes in leading to subterranean biodiversity. PMID:18234125

Villacorta, Carlos; Jaume, Damià; Oromí, Pedro; Juan, Carlos

2008-01-01

196

Decade Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the 1990s, the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior started the Decade Volcano Project. As part of their work, they designated sixteen volcanoes particularly worthy of study "because of their explosive histories and close proximity to human populations." The group recently teamed up with National Geographic to create a guide to these volcanoes via this interactive map. Navigating through the map, visitors can learn about Mount Rainier, Colima, Galeras, Santorini, and other prominent volcanoes. For each volcano, there's a brief sketch that gives the date of its last eruption, its elevation, nearby population centers, and a photograph.

197

Improvement in TDEM sounding interpretation in presence of induced polarization. A case study in resistive rocks of the Fogo volcano, Cape Verde Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) survey was carried out in and around the caldera of the Fogo volcano, Cape Verde Islands, to detect the low resistive structures that could be related to groundwater. A sign reversal in the sounding curves was encountered in central-loop measurements for the soundings located in the centre of the caldera along three main radial profiles. The negative transients are recorded in the early channels between 6.8 and 37 ?s. Negative values in an early time transient is an unusual field observation, and consequently the first step was to check the data to ascertain their accuracy and quality. In the second step, three-dimensional (3D) effects are evaluated and ruled out in this zone, while an Induced Polarization (IP) phenomenon is observed using Direct Current (DC) sounding measurements. In the third step, the IP effect is called upon to explain the TDEM distortions; a Cole-Cole dispersive conductivity is found to be adequate to fit the field data. However, the more relevant one-dimensional (1D) model is recovered when both central-loop and offset-loop data are jointly taken into account, thus indicating that an effect of dispersive conductivity is necessary to explain the field data. The 1D electrical structure exhibits four layers, with decreasing resistivity with depth. Only the first layer is polarizable and its Cole-Cole parameters are m=0.85, c=0.8 and ?=0.02 ms for chargeability, frequency dependence and time constant, respectively. However, the Cole-Cole parameters deduced from TDEM forward modelling remain different from those deduced from DC/IP sounding. In this volcanic setting, this IP effect may be caused by the presence of small grains of magnetite and/or by the granularity of effusive products (lapillis). As a conclusion, it is shown that a modelling using different TDEM data sets is essential to recover the electrical structure of this area.

Descloitres, Marc; Guérin, Roger; Albouy, Yves; Tabbagh, Alain; Ritz, Michel

2000-08-01

198

Mingling processes at Panarea Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy): results from M73/2 cruise drilled cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last Meteor 73/2 cruise drilled several lava cores in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, close to Panarea Island and surrounding islets (Aeolian archipelago, Italy), at depths comprised between 50 and 70 m bsl. These rocks - unconformably covered by unconsolidated lapilli tuffs - revealed different lithologies and mineralogical assemblages corresponding to different compositions (hereafter A & B), as then evidenced by ICP-MS analyses (major and trace elements) performed on selected rock-samples. The cores also displayed several, cm-sized, rounded enclaves of the A-type dispersed in the B-type. The petrographic study on textures and microprobe analyses on glass shards and mineral phases finally concurred in identifying two magmas with different history and quite complex interaction. Rock A is a holocrystalline shoshonite (SHO) - showing plagioclase (pl - An%=62-74) and clinopyroxene (cpx) as main phases, plus subordinate amphibole and biotite phenocrysts, rare and small olivines (Fo?89%) - which represents the first magma, usually in form of enclaves. Notably, the SHO shows intersertal vesicularity and scarce glass. Rock B is a porphyritic rhyodacite (RD) characterized by pl (An%=32-52), and biotite phenocrysts, with minor cpx phenocrysts and microphenocrysts. Pl and cpx show both alternate and normal zoning, and the former have frequent K-rich reaction rims. Similar mineral phases and frequent sanidine microlites characterize the alkali-trachyte glassy groundmass of rock B. This rock hosts the SHO and represent the most voluminous magma. Overall, these features indicate a quite complex history of magma interaction(s) as well as a polybaric crystallization, which lead the volatiles abundance and behaviour. From the study of the highly irregular edges observed along their contacts, we argue intrusive and visco-plastic relationships between A and B. Moreover, the presence of irregular vesicles and vugs bounded by pl microlites suggest an emplacement at shallow level where cooling favoured both slow degassing and pervasive crystallization. Textural and compositional data concur in indicating that the two magmas mingled at depth. Noteworthy, enclaves of a third rock type - very limited in volume - is present along some of the collected cores. It is a reddish low-porphyritic lava similar to the RD lava in terms of mineralogical composition, but showing a higher amount of microlites with smaller size if compared to the main RD host-rock. This could indicate that at some extent also mixing occurred. The multiple similarities of our rocks with lavas of the Panarea islets or other acid volcanics containing mafic-intermediate enclaves and outcropping on other Aeolian Islands, suggest that mafic magma uprising "within" resident magma with subsequent mingling is a recurrent process in these volcanic systems and may be the trigger for the eruption of acid melts.

De Benedetti, A. A.; De Astis, G.; Raffaele, V.; Esposito, A.; Giordano, G.; Petersen, S.; Monecke, T.

2012-04-01

199

Plant Diversity Changes during the Postglacial in East Asia: Insights from Forest Refugia on Halla Volcano, Jeju Island  

PubMed Central

Understanding how past climate changes affected biodiversity is a key issue in contemporary ecology and conservation biology. These diversity changes are, however, difficult to reconstruct from paleoecological sources alone, because macrofossil and pollen records do not provide complete information about species assemblages. Ecologists therefore use information from modern analogues of past communities in order to get a better understanding of past diversity changes. Here we compare plant diversity, species traits and environment between late-glacial Abies, early-Holocene Quercus, and mid-Holocene warm-temperate Carpinus forest refugia on Jeju Island, Korea in order to provide insights into postglacial changes associated with their replacement. Based on detailed study of relict communities, we propose that the late-glacial open-canopy conifer forests in southern part of Korean Peninsula were rich in vascular plants, in particular of heliophilous herbs, whose dramatic decline was caused by the early Holocene invasion of dwarf bamboo into the understory of Quercus forests, followed by mid-Holocene expansion of strongly shading trees such as maple and hornbeam. This diversity loss was partly compensated in the Carpinus forests by an increase in shade-tolerant evergreen trees, shrubs and lianas. However, the pool of these species is much smaller than that of light-demanding herbs, and hence the total species richness is lower, both locally and in the whole area of the Carpinus and Quercus forests. The strongly shading tree species dominating in the hornbeam forests have higher leaf tissue N and P concentrations and smaller leaf dry matter content, which enhances litter decomposition and nutrient cycling and in turn favored the selection of highly competitive species in the shrub layer. This further reduced available light and caused almost complete disappearance of understory herbs, including dwarf bamboo. PMID:22438890

Dolezal, Jiri; Altman, Jan; Kopecky, Martin; Cerny, Tomas; Janecek, Stepan; Bartos, Michael; Petrik, Petr; Srutek, Miroslav; Leps, Jan; Song, Jong-Suk

2012-01-01

200

Volcano watch Monitoring risk on Auckland's volcanic field  

E-print Network

Volcano watch Monitoring risk on Auckland's volcanic field Lest we forget Our Memory Lab@auckland.ac.nz Volcano watchThe recent eruptions at Mt Tongariro and White Island are a timely reminder for Auckland (pictured with Lucy McGee, who has recently completed her doctorate) is dating the city's 50 volcanoes

Auckland, University of

201

Living with Volcanoes: Year Eleven Teaching Resource Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a unit on volcanoes and experiences with volcanoes that helps students develop geography skills. Focuses on four volcanoes: (1) Rangitoto Island; (2) Lake Pupuke; (3) Mount Smart; and (4) One Tree Hill. Includes an answer sheet and resources to use with the unit. (CMK)

Le Heron, Kiri; Andrews, Jill; Hooks, Stacey; Larnder, Michele; Le Heron, Richard

2000-01-01

202

Hawaii's volcanoes revealed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hawaiian volcanoes typically evolve in four stages as volcanism waxes and wanes: (1) early alkalic, when volcanism originates on the deep sea floor; (2) shield, when roughly 95 percent of a volcano's volume is emplaced; (3) post-shield alkalic, when small-volume eruptions build scattered cones that thinly cap the shield-stage lavas; and (4) rejuvenated, when lavas of distinct chemistry erupt following a lengthy period of erosion and volcanic quiescence. During the early alkalic and shield stages, two or more elongate rift zones may develop as flanks of the volcano separate. Mantle-derived magma rises through a vertical conduit and is temporarily stored in a shallow summit reservoir from which magma may erupt within the summit region or be injected laterally into the rift zones. The ongoing activity at Kilauea's Pu?u ?O?o cone that began in January 1983 is one such rift-zone eruption. The rift zones commonly extend deep underwater, producing submarine eruptions of bulbous pillow lava. Once a volcano has grown above sea level, subaerial eruptions produce lava flows of jagged, clinkery ?a?a or smooth, ropy pahoehoe. If the flows reach the ocean they are rapidly quenched by seawater and shatter, producing a steep blanket of unstable volcanic sediment that mantles the upper submarine slopes. Above sea level then, the volcanoes develop the classic shield profile of gentle lava-flow slopes, whereas below sea level slopes are substantially steeper. While the volcanoes grow rapidly during the shield stage, they may also collapse catastrophically, generating giant landslides and tsunami, or fail more gradually, forming slumps. Deformation and seismicity along Kilauea's south flank indicate that slumping is occurring there today. Loading of the underlying Pacific Plate by the growing volcanic edifices causes subsidence, forming deep basins at the base of the volcanoes. Once volcanism wanes and lava flows no longer reach the ocean, the volcano continues to submerge, while erosion incises deep river valleys, such as those on the Island of Kaua?i. The edges of the submarine terraces that ring the islands, thus, mark paleocoastlines that are now as much as 2,000 m underwater, many of which are capped by drowned coral reefs.

Eakins, Barry W.; Robinson, Joel E.; Kanamatsu, Toshiya; Naka, Jiro; Smith, John R.; Takahashi, Eiichi; Clague, David A.

2003-01-01

203

How Are Islands Formed?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides students with information about how islands are formed, including a basic knowledge of plate tectonics. Using the islands of Hawaii as an example, students learn about the earth processes that cause the formation of islands over time, including volcanoes and hot spots.

2001-01-01

204

VLSI Reed-Solomon decoder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a VLSI architecture for Reed-Solomon (RS) decoder based on the Berlekamp algorithm is proposed. The proposed decoder provides both erasure and error correcting capability. In order to reduce the chip area, we reformulate the Berlekamp algorithm. The proposed algorithm possesses a recursive structure so that the number of cells for computing the errata locator polynomial can be reduced. Moreover, in our approach, only one finite field multiplication per clock cycle is required for implementation, provided an improvement in the decoding speed. And the overall architecture features parallel and pipelined structure, making a real time decoding possible. It is shown that the proposed VLSI architecture is more efficient in terms of VLSI implementation than the architecture based on the recursive Euclid algorithm.

Kim, Yong H.; Chung, Young Mo; Lee, Sang Uk

1992-11-01

205

Solomon V. Shereshevsky: the great Russian mnemonist.  

PubMed

A biographical sketch is given of Solomon V. Shereshevsky, a man gifted with exceptional memory skills who became famous after the publication of Aleksandr R. Luria's book The Mind of a Mnemonist, in 1968. PMID:23871306

Mecacci, Luciano

2013-09-01

206

Reed-Solomon code synchronization revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concatenated coding consisting of an inner (7, 1/2) convolutional code and an outer (255, 223) Reed-Solomon code was recommended by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems for cross-supported space missions. The Reed-Solomon code that was chosen makes use of the Berlekamp encoding algorithm. Some peculiarities of this code that could give rise to synchronization problems are examined. Suggestions are given to alleviate these problems.

Deutsch, L. J.

1985-02-01

207

Reed-solomon Code Synchronization Revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concatenated coding consisting of an inner (7, 1/2) convolutional code and an outer (255, 223) Reed-Solomon code was recommended by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems for cross-supported space missions. The Reed-Solomon code that was chosen makes use of the Berlekamp encoding algorithm. Some peculiarities of this code that could give rise to synchronization problems are examined. Suggestions are given to alleviate these problems.

Deutsch, L. J.

1985-01-01

208

Spacecraft Reed-Solomon downlink module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and method for providing downlink frames to be transmitted from a spacecraft to a ground station. Each downlink frame includes a synchronization pattern and a transfer frame. The apparatus may comprise a monolithic Reed-Solomon downlink (RSDL) encoding chip coupled to data buffers for storing transfer frames. The RSKL chip includes a timing device, a bus interface, a timing and control unit, a synchronization pattern unit, and a Reed-Solomon encoding unit, and a bus arbiter.

Luong, Huy H. (Inventor); Donaldson, James A. (Inventor); Wood, Steven H. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

209

Long magma residence times at an island arc volcano (Soufriere, St. Vincent) in the Lesser Antilles: evidence from 238U- 230Th isochron dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-precision (TIMS) measurements of U and Th isotope concentrations have been determined on whole rocks and mineral separates from Soufriere volcano on St. Vincent in the Lesser Antilles island arc. The whole rocks display relatively constant U/Th ratios (˜0.5), and are characterised by excess 238U relative to 230Th which is attributed to the addition of U-rich fluids from the subducting slab to the mantle source of the magmas. Mineral isochrons for four recently erupted (<4 ka) rocks yield ages of 46-77 ka and the combined data have an age of 58±7 ka with an initial ( 230Th/ 230Th) ratio of 1.05. Mixing of young magmas, or magma-cumulate mixing, are unlikely to be responsible for these isochronous relationships. Contamination of young, phenocrystic magmas with previously crystallised magma could produce the isochrons, in which case the ages provide maximum and minimum ages, respectively, for these two components. However, no lavas with ( 230Th/ 230Th) ratios of 1.054 have been found and there is no petrographic evidence for mixing or phenocryst-magma disequilibrium. Our preferred interpretation is that the isochrons reflect long magma residence times within the arc crust. Following initial crystallisation, due to heat loss to the wall rocks, the magmas were maintained at a temperature close to their liquidus while 230Th-ingrowth occurred in both the magma and the crystals. Maintenance of a relatively constant temperature requires good insulation by cumulate layers and probably heating from below by influxes of fresh magma which either did not mix with the resident magma or else had an essentially indistinguishable composition. Subtraction of the residence times from the ˜90 ka inferred to have elapsed since fluid addition to the mantle wedge leaves ˜30 ka for transfer through the wedge. Long residence times may typify more evolved lavas that develop in thicker arc crust whereas tholeiitic arc lavas are inferred to have trivial crustal residence times but similar transfer times through the mantle wedge.

Heath, E.; Turner, S. P.; Macdonald, R.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; van Calsteren, P.

1998-07-01

210

Volcano Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of Prentice Hall's Planet Diary, this computer activity covers volcanic activity. Students research the most recent volcanic activity and the locations and names of each volcano. They then find out which tectonic plates the volcanoes are located on or if they are hot spots, and if any are part of the Ring of Fire.

211

Redoubt Volcano  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Ascending eruption cloud from Redoubt Volcano as viewed to the west from the Kenai Peninsula. The mushroom-shaped plume rose from avalanches of hot debris (pyroclastic flows) that cascaded down the north flank of the volcano. A smaller, white steam plume rises from the summit crater. ...

212

A magmatic source for fumaroles and diffuse degassing from the summit crater of Teide Volcano (Tenerife, Canary Islands): a geochemical evidence for the 2004-2005 seismic-volcanic crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work reports the results of 15 studies of diffuse CO2 degassing performed at Teide Volcano crater (Canary Island, Spain) and the chemical and isotopic compositions of fluids discharged from a fumarolic field located at the top of the volcano as measured between 1991 and 2010. A higher contribution of magmatic gases accompanied by enhanced total diffuse CO2 emissions were observed in relation with a seismic crisis that occurred in Tenerife Island between 2001 and 2005, with the main peak of seismic activity between April and June 2004. A significant pulse in total diffuse CO2 emission was observed at the crater of Teide (up to 26.3 t day-1) in 2001. In December 2003, the chemical composition of the Teide fumarole changed significantly, including the appearance of SO2, an increase in the HCl and CO concentrations and in the C2H6/C2H4 and C3H8/C3H6 ratios, and a decrease in the H2S, CH4, and C6H6 concentrations and in the gas/steam ratio. A few months after a drastic decrease in seismic activity, the SO2, HCl, and CO concentrations and the C2H6/C2H4 and C3H8/C3H6 ratios strongly decreased, whereas the CH4 and C6H6 concentrations and the gas/steam ratios increased. According to the trends shown by both the geochemical parameters and the seismic signals late in the observation period, the risk of a rejuvenation of volcanic activity at Teide is considered to be low. The associated temporal changes in seismic activity and magmatic degassing indicate that geophysical and fluid geochemistry signals in this system are related. Future monitoring programs aimed at mitigating volcanic hazard on Tenerife Island should involve coupled geophysical and geochemical studies.

Melián, G.; Tassi, F.; Pérez, N.; Hernández, P.; Sortino, F.; Vaselli, O.; Padrón, E.; Nolasco, D.; Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.; Rodríguez, F.; Dionis, S.; Calvo, D.; Notsu, K.; Sumino, H.

2012-08-01

213

Cascade Volcanoes  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The volcanoes from closest to farthest are Mt. Washington, Three Fingered Jack, Mt. Jefferson. This picture is taken from Middle Sister looking north in the Cascade Range, Three Sisters Wilderness Area, Deschutes National Forest, Oregon....

214

Volcano Preparedness  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety Hurricane Landslide Pet Safety Poisoning Power Outage Terrorism Thunderstorm Tornado Tsunami Volcano Water Safety Wildfire Winter ... all windows, doors, and dampers. Put all machinery inside a garage or barn. Bring animals and livestock ...

215

Meta-Analysis and the Solomon Four-Group Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Monte Carlo study considers the use of meta analysis with the Solomon four-group design. Experiment-wise Type I error properties and the relative power properties of Stouffer's Z in the Solomon four-group design are explored. Obstacles to conducting meta analysis in the Solomon design are discussed. (SLD)

Sawilowsky, Shlomo; And Others

1994-01-01

216

Description of Nicrophorus efferens, new species, from Bougainville Island (Coleoptera, Silphidae, Nicrophorinae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species of Nicrophorus in the nepalensis species-group, Nicrophorus efferens Sikes and Mousseau, is described from Bougainville Island in the Solomon Islands archipelago. It is distinguished from the known species of the genus Nicrophorus and its likely closest relative, Nicrophorus reticulatus Sikes and Madge, based on external morphology. A comparison among the four Nicrophorus species known from the Solomon Island archipelago and Papua New Guinea is presented. PMID:23825443

Sikes, Derek S.; Mousseau, Tonya

2013-01-01

217

Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands  

E-print Network

Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

Hall, Hillary

2012-10-19

218

Volcano Baseball  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, learners are volcanoes that must complete several steps to erupt. Starting at home plate, learners draw cards until they have enough points to move to first base. This process repeats for each learner at each base, and each base demonstrates a different process in a volcano's eruption. The first learner to make it back to home plate erupts and is the winner. This is a good introduction to volcanoes. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Smart Attack game after they've completed several activities.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

219

Design Primer for Reed-Solomon Encoders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design and operation of Reed-Solomon (RS) encoders discussed in document prepared as instruction manual for computer designers and others in dataprocessing field. Conventional and Berlekamp architectures compared. Engineers who equip computer memory chips with burst-error and dropout detection and correction find report especially useful.

Perlman, M.; Lee, J. J.

1985-01-01

220

Solomon Yan Google's PageRank Algorithm  

E-print Network

Math 547 Solomon Yan Google's PageRank Algorithm Applications of Linear Algebra Introduction Google; compared to other search engines, Google provides the most relevant results first. As a search engine, Google needs to be able to accomplish two specific tasks. First of all, it needs to access and remember

Marzuola, Jeremy

221

Species-distance relation for birds of the Solomon Archipelago, and the paradox of the great speciators  

PubMed Central

For scattered remote islands and for likely forms of immigration and extinction curves, the equilibrium theory of island biogeography leads to the prediction [unk]2 log S/[unk]A[unk]D > 0, where S is the number of species on an island, A island area, and D island distance from the colonization source. This prediction is confirmed for birds of the Solomon Archipelago. Bird species can be classified into three types according to how distance affects their distributions: non-water-crossers, which are stopped completely (usually for psychological reasons) by water gaps of even 1 mile; short-distance colonists, successful at colonizing close but not remote islands; and long-distance colonists, successful at colonizing remote as well as close islands. Almost all of the “great speciators”, the species for whose inter-island geographic variation the Solomons are famous, prove to be short-distance colonists. Lack's interpretation of the decrease in S with D is shown to rest on incorrect assumptions. PMID:16592328

Diamond, Jared M.; Gilpin, Michael E.; Mayr, Ernst

1976-01-01

222

Klyuchevskaya Volcano  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Klyuchevskaya Volcano on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula continued its ongoing activity by releasing another plume on May 24, 2007. The same day, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image, at 01:00 UTC. In this image, a hotspot marks the volcano's summit. Outlined in red, the hotspot indicates where MODIS detected unusually warm surface temperatures. Blowing southward from the summit is the plume, which casts its shadow on the clouds below. Near the summit, the plume appears gray, and it lightens toward the south. With an altitude of 4,835 meters (15,863 feet), Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) is both the highest and most active volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula. As part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' the peninsula experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Klyuchevskaya is estimated to have experienced more than 100 flank eruptions in the past 3,000 years. Since its formation 6,000 years ago, the volcano has seen few periods of inactivity. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC. The Rapid Response Team provides daily images of this region.

2007-01-01

223

Iceland Volcano  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... of which are so thick that they block the penetration of light from CALIPSO's lidar to the surface. The yellow layer near the surface over France is believed to be primarily air pollution, but could also contain ash from the volcano. Highlighting its ...

2013-04-23

224

Dynamics of Carbon Diffuse Degassing Species (CO2, CO & CH4) From the Summit Cone of Teide Volcano, Tenerife, Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO2 is the predominant carbon component in volcanic gases, and it is the least soluble of the major species in magmatic melts. The two remaining carbon components are CO and CH4. Most of the diffuse emission studies on volcanoes are related to CO2 but significant amounts of other C species in volcanic gases could be emited through the surface environment of volcanoes in a diffuse form. To understand the dynamics of diffuse CO2, CH4 and CO degassing from Teide volcano (3,716 m), soil flux surveys had been performed to evaluate spatial and temporal variations. Diffuse CO2 degassing surveys were yearly performed by means of a portable NDIR sensor since 1999 during the summer term. The observed highest diffuse CO2 emission rates were 3,0 (1999), 12,0 (2000) and 12,6 (2001) Kgm-2d-1. Soil gas samples were also collected at 40 cm depth using a metallic a metallic probe and analyzed within 24 hours by means of VARIAN 2002P and 2003P microGCs. Diffuse CH4 and CO degassing rates were estimated by multiplying CO2 efflux times CH4/CO2 and CO/CO2 ratios at each sampling site, respectively. CH4 efflux showed values of 23 (1999), 123 (2000) and 3,761 (2001) gm-2d-1. For CO efflux, the observed highest values were 1.3 (2000) and 31.4 (2001) gm-2d-1. Diffuse CO2, CH4 and CO degassing spatial distribution seem to be afected by deep processes as well as meteorological fluctuations, specially wind speed. The total output of diffuse CO2 emission for the 2001 survey was 399 td-1 which is relatively higher than previous surveys: 100 (1997), 168 (1999), and 43 (2000) td-1. In the case of CO, diffuse degassing rates from the study area were 7.2 and 136 Kg/d for the 2000 and 2001 surveys, respectively. Diffuse CO/CO2 degassing ratio were similar for both recent surveys: 1.6x10-4 (2000) and 3.4x10-4 (2001). These results are useful for Teide volcano monitoring program.

Gonzalez, P.; Marrero, R.; Melian, G.; Lima, R.; Salazar, J.; Hernandez, P.; Perez, N.

2001-12-01

225

Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The origin of the Hawaiian Islands, recorded eruptions, and eruption patterns are discussed in this United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication. The on-line book also covers volcano monitoring and research, landforms and structures, hazards and benefits, and a discussion of Loihi, Hawaii's newest volcano.

Robert Tilling

226

2011 volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near three separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2011. The year was highlighted by the unrest and eruption of Cleveland Volcano in the central Aleutian Islands. AVO annual summaries no longer report on activity at Russian volcanoes.

McGimsey, Robert G.; Maharrey, J. Zebulon; Neal, Christina A.

2014-01-01

227

Space-geodetic evidence for multiple magma reservoirs and subvolcanic lateral intrusions at Fernandina Volcano,  

E-print Network

at Fernandina Volcano, Galápagos Islands Marco Bagnardi1 and Falk Amelung1 Received 23 May 2012; revised 12 Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements of the surface deformation at Fernandina Volcano, Galápagos (Ecuador magmatic system of the volcano. Through the analysis of spatial and temporal variations of the measured

Amelung, Falk

228

New volcano newsletter planned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the beginning, there was Volcano News, an interdisciplinary forum where volcanophiles of all stripes—4professional and amateur, “hard” and “soft” scientists alike— could exchange information. Unfortunately, Volcano News became extinct when editor-publisher Chuck Wood became involved in editing Volcanoes of North America. Janet Cullen Tanaka, a former contributing associate editor of Volcano News is planning the publication of a new interdisciplinary volcano newsletter to cover all facets of volcano studies, from geophysics to emergency management.

229

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lava from Kilauea volcano flowing through a forest in the Royal Gardens subdivision, Hawai'i, in February 2008. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitors the volcanoes of Hawai'i and is located within Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park. HVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Kilauea and HVO at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov.

Venezky, Dina Y.; Orr, Tim

2008-01-01

230

Systolic VLSI Reed-Solomon Decoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Decoder for digital communications provides high-speed, pipelined ReedSolomon (RS) error-correction decoding of data streams. Principal new feature of proposed decoder is modification of Euclid greatest-common-divisor algorithm to avoid need for time-consuming computations of inverse of certain Galois-field quantities. Decoder architecture suitable for implementation on very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) chips with negative-channel metaloxide/silicon circuitry.

Shao, H. M.; Truong, T. K.; Deutsch, L. J.; Yuen, J. H.

1986-01-01

231

The Solomon Sea eddy activity from a 1/36° regional model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the South West Pacific, the Solomon Sea exhibits the highest levels of eddy kinetic energy but relatively little is known about the eddy activity in this region. This Sea is directly influenced by a monsoonal regime and ENSO variability, and occupies a strategical location as the Western Boundary Currents exiting it are known to feed the warm pool and to be the principal sources of the Equatorial UnderCurrent. During their transit in the Solomon Sea, meso-scale eddies are suspected to notably interact and influence these water masses. The goal of this study is to give an exhaustive description of this eddy activity. A dual approach, based both on altimetric data and high resolution modeling, has then been chosen for this purpose. First, an algorithm is applied on nearly 20 years of 1/3° x 1/3° gridded SLA maps (provided by the AVISO project). This allows eddies to be automatically detected and tracked, thus providing some basic eddy properties. The preliminary results show that two main and distinct types of eddies are detected. Eddies in the north-eastern part shows a variability associated with the mean structure, while those in the southern part are associated with generation/propagation processes. However, the resolution of the AVISO dataset is not very well suited to observe fine structures and to match with the numerous islands bordering the Solomon Sea. For this reason, we will confront these observations with the outputs of a 1/36° resolution realistic model of the Solomon Sea. The high resolution numerical model (1/36°) indeed permits to reproduce very fine scale features, such as eddies and filaments. The model is two-way embedded in a 1/12° regional model which is itself one-way embedded in the DRAKKAR 1/12° global model. The NEMO code is used as well as the AGRIF software for model nestings. Validation is realized by comparison with AVISO observations and available in situ data. In preparing the future wide-swath altimetric SWOT mission that is expected to provide observations of small-scale sea level variability, spectral analysis is performed from the 1/36° resolution realistic model in order to characterize the finer scale signals in the Solomon sea region. The preliminary SSH spectral analysis shows a k-4 slope, in good agreement with the suface quasigeostrophic (SQG) turbulence theory. Keywords: Solomon Sea; meso-scale activity; eddy detection, tracking and properties; wavenumber spectrum.

Djath, Bughsin; Babonneix, Antoine; Gourdeau, Lionel; Marin, Frédéric; Verron, Jacques

2013-04-01

232

Trace-shortened Reed-Solomon codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reed-Solomon (RS) codes have been part of standard NASA telecommunications systems for many years. RS codes are character-oriented error-correcting codes, and their principal use in space applications has been as outer codes in concatenated coding systems. However, for a given character size, say m bits, RS codes are limited to a length of, at most, 2(exp m). It is known in theory that longer character-oriented codes would be superior to RS codes in concatenation applications, but until recently no practical class of 'long' character-oriented codes had been discovered. In 1992, however, Solomon discovered an extensive class of such codes, which are now called trace-shortened Reed-Solomon (TSRS) codes. In this article, we will continue the study of TSRS codes. Our main result is a formula for the dimension of any TSRS code, as a function of its error-correcting power. Using this formula, we will give several examples of TSRS codes, some of which look very promising as candidate outer codes in high-performance coded telecommunications systems.

Mceliece, R. J.; Solomon, G.

1994-01-01

233

The petrogenesis of island arc basalts from Gunung Slamet volcano, Indonesia: Trace element and sup 87 Sr/ sup 86 Sr constraints  

SciTech Connect

Selected major and trace elements, rare earth element (REE) and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr data are presented for arc basalts from Gunung Slamet volcano, Java, Indonesia. On the basis of stratigraphy, trace element content, Zr/Nb, and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios, Slamet basalts can be broadly categorized into high abundance magma (HAM) and low abundance magma (LAM) types. Provided the quantities of immobile trace elements (in aqueous systems) such as Nb, Hf and Zr in the mantle wedge and ensuing magmas are unaffected by additions from subducted lithosphere or overlying arc crust, a model may be developed whereby LAM are generated by higher degrees of melting in the mantle wedge (13%) compared to HAM (7%). Hf/Nb or Zr/Nb ratio systematics indicate that prior to metasomatism by the underlying lithosphere, the Slamet mantle wedge was similar in chemical character to transitional-MORB source mantle.

Vukadinovic, D.; Nicholls, I.A. (Monash Univ., Victoria (Australia))

1989-09-01

234

A spatter-forming, large-scale paroxysm at Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy): insight into magma evolution and eruption dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on a pyroclastic sequence related to a large-scale paroxysm that occurred during the seventeenth century ad and which can be considered one of the most powerful and hazardous explosive events at the volcano in the past few centuries. Paroxysms are energetic, short-lived explosions which sporadically interrupt normal Strombolian activity at Stromboli and commonly erupt a deep-derived, volatile-rich crystal-poor high-potassium basalt ("low porphyricity" (LP)), together with a shallow, degassed crystal-rich high-potassium to shoshonitic basalt ("high porphyricity" (HP)), which feed normal activity at the volcano. The studied deposit, crops out along the flanks of Sciara del Fuoco and, from base to top, consists of: (1) a layer of HP and LP ash and lapilli; (2) an unwelded layer of coarse HP lapilli and flattened dark scoriae; (3) weakly welded spatter made up of dense HP pyroclasts at the base, overlain by strongly vesicular LP clasts. The textural and chemical zoning of minerals and the glass chemistry of the LP products record repeated mafic recharge events, mixing with an old mushy body and episodes of rapid crystallization due to sudden degassing. Collapse of a foam layer originated by deep degassing probably triggered this large-scale, spatter-forming paroxysm. Decompression induced rapid degassing and vesiculation of the deep volatile-rich magma. The rapid ascent of the foamy magma blob pushed the shallow HP magma out and finally produced a fire fountain that emplaced the LP portion of the spatter.

La Felice, Sonia; Landi, Patrizia

2011-11-01

235

The Anatahan volcano-monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A real-time 24\\/7 Anatahan volcano-monitoring and eruption detection system is now operational. There had been no real-time seismic monitoring on Anatahan during the May 10, 2003 eruption because the single telemetered seismic station on Anatahan Island had failed. On May 25, staff from the Emergency Management Office (EMO) of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the U. S.

J. N. Marso; A. B. Lockhart; R. A. White; S. K. Koyanagi; F. A. Trusdell; J. T. Camacho; R. Chong

2003-01-01

236

Volcano Lovers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Why Files article explores volcanoes and volcanic eruptions. Topics covered include: Alaska's Pavlof and its threat to jet engines; Mexico City's restless neighbor, Popocatepetl (El Popo); underground volcanic processes; modern forecasting of eruptions; various volcanic phenomena and features; large flood basalt areas around the world; California's volcanically active area, Long Valley Caldera and Mammoth Mountain; Indonesia's Krakatau eruption in 1883, which was the world's largest historical eruption; Krakatau's ecological contribution to the study of colonization of sterile lands; and central Mexico's Paricutin which was witnessed emerging from a farmer's field in 1943. Three scientists were interviewed for this article.

Tenenbaum, David

1997-01-02

237

Interactions Between Separated Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japan Meteorological Agency installed and operates a network of borehole strainmeters in south-east Honshu. One of these instruments is on Izu-Oshima, a volcanic island at the northern end of the Izu-Bonin arc. That strainmeter recorded large strain changes associated with the 1986 eruption of Miharayama on the island. Miyake-jima, about 70 km south of Izu-Oshima, erupted in 1983. No deformation monitoring was available on Miyake-jima but several changes occurred in the strain record at Izu-Oshima. There was a clear change in the long-term strain rate 2 days before the Miyake eruption. Frequent short period events recorded by the strainmeter showed a marked change in their character. The Izu-Oshima strainmeter showed that, over the period from 1980 to the 1986 eruption, the amplitude of the solid earth tides increased by almost a factor of two. At the time of the Miyake eruption, the rate of increase of the tidal amplitude also changed. While all of these changes were observed on a single instrument, they are very different types of change. From a number of independent checks, we can be sure that the strainmeter did not experience any change in performance at that time. Thus it recorded a change in deformation behavior in three very different frequency bands: over very long term, at tidal periods ( ~ day) and at very short periods (minutes). It appears that the distant eruption in 1984 had an effect on the magmatic system under Izu-Oshima. More recent tomographic and seismic attenuation work in the Tohoku (northern Honshu) area has show the existence of a low velocity, high attenuation horizontally elongated structure under the volcanic front. If such a structure exists in the similar tectonic setting for these volcanoes, it could provide a mechanism for communication between the volcanoes.

Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.; Kamigaichi, O.

2002-05-01

238

Newberry Volcano—Central Oregon's Sleeping Giant  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hidden in plain sight, Oregon's massive Newberry Volcano is the largest volcano in the Cascades volcanic arc and covers an area the size of Rhode Island. Unlike familiar cone-shaped Cascades volcanoes, Newberry was built into the shape of a broad shield by repeated eruptions over 400,000 years. About 75,000 years ago a major explosion and collapse event created a large volcanic depression (caldera) at its summit. Newberry last erupted about 1,300 years ago, and present-day hot springs and geologically young lava flows indicate that it could reawaken at any time. Because of its proximity to nearby communities, frequency and size of past eruptions, and geologic youthfulness, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are working to better understand volcanic activity at Newberry and closely monitor the volcano for signs of unrest.

Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Stovall, Wendy K.; Ramsey, David W.; Ewert, John W.; Jensen, Robert A.

2011-01-01

239

Appreciating Unity in Diversity: An Interview with Andrew Solomon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theme of the AMS 2014 Annual Conference is "Unity in Diversity," a concept that also describes the work of conference keynote speaker Andrew Solomon. Solomon is a writer and lecturer on psychology and politics; winner of the National Book Award; and an activist for LGBT [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender] rights, mental health,…

Peters, Dane L.

2014-01-01

240

Nyiragonga Volcano  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of the Nyiragonga volcano eruption in the Congo was acquired on January 28, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

Image: A river of molten rock poured from the Nyiragongo volcano in the Congo on January 18, 2002, a day after it erupted, killing dozens, swallowing buildings and forcing hundreds of thousands to flee the town of Goma. The flow continued into Lake Kivu. The lave flows are depicted in red on the image indicating they are still hot. Two of them flowed south form the volcano's summit and went through the town of Goma. Another flow can be seen at the top of the image, flowing towards the northwest. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. Extremely fluid, fast-moving lava flows draining from the summit lava lake in 1977 killed 50 to 100 people, and several villages were destroyed. The image covers an area of 21 x 24 km and combines a thermal band in red, and two infrared bands in green and blue.

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

2001-01-01

241

Soufriere Hills Volcano  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.

This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.

Size: 40.5 x 40.5 km (25.1 x 25.1 miles) Location: 16.7 deg. North lat., 62.2 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3. Original Data Resolution: 15 m Date Acquired: October 29, 2002

2002-01-01

242

Rifting, recurrent landsliding and Miocene structural reorganization on NW-Tenerife (Canary Islands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied mechanisms of structural destabilization of ocean island flanks by considering the linkage between volcano construction and volcano destruction, exemplified by the composite Teno shield volcano on Tenerife (Canary Islands). During growth, Tenerife episodically experienced giant landslides, genetically associated with rifting and preferentially located between two arms of a three-armed rift system. The deeply eroded late Miocene Teno massif

T. Walter; H.-U. Schmincke

2002-01-01

243

Real-Time Reed-Solomon Decoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generic Reed-Solomon decoder fast enough to correct errors in real time in practical applications designed to be implemented in fewer and smaller very-large-scale integrated, VLSI, circuit chips. Configured to operate in pipelined manner. One outstanding aspect of decoder design is that Euclid multiplier and divider modules contain Galoisfield multipliers configured as combinational-logic cells. Operates at speeds greater than older multipliers. Cellular configuration highly regular and requires little interconnection area, making it ideal for implementation in extraordinarily dense VLSI circuitry. Flight electronics single chip version of this technology implemented and available.

Maki, Gary K.; Cameron, Kelly B.; Owsley, Patrick A.

1994-01-01

244

VLSI Reed-Solomon Encoder With Interleaver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Size, weight, and susceptibility to burst errors reduced. Encoding system built on single very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit chip produces (255,223) Reed-Solomon (RS) code with programmable interleaving up to depth of 5. (225,223) RS encoder includes new remainder-and-interleaver unit providing programmable interleaving of code words. Remainder-and-interleaver unit contains shift registers and modulo-2 adders. Signals on "turn" and "no-turn" lines control depth of interleaving. Based on E. R. Berlekamp's bit-serial multiplication algorithm for (225,223) RS encoder over Galois Field (2 to the 8th power).

Hsu, In-Shek; Deutsch, L. J.; Truong, Trieu-Kie; Reed, I. S.

1990-01-01

245

Comparison of the submarine landslide by the sector collapse of Oshima-Oshima island in the northern part of Japan with the debris avalanche of off Kaimon volcano in the southern part of Japan and several landslide.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oshima-Oshima island is an active volcano located in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea off Hokkaido. Oshima-Oshima consists of Higashi-yama somma, Nishi-yama somma, and the central cone. The latest eruption occurred at the 18th century. In a huge eruption on August 1741 , Nishiyama of western part of Oshima- Oshima collapsed toward the northern submarine slope , and the horseshoe shape caldera was formed. It is proposed by Katsui et al.(1977) , Satake and Kato(2001) that Japan Sea tsunami in 1741 was generated by this collapse. Detailed swath bathymetry surveys have been conducted around Oshima-Oshima by Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan in 1993. As a result, a large area of debris avalanche deposits has been discovered on the northern submarine flanks of Oshima-Oshima island. In addition, sidescan sonar surveys was also conducted by Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of Japan and University of Tokyo in 1995. In 1997, the lower part of the debris avalanche deposit was investigated using submersible 'Shinkai 2000' by JAMSTEC(Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology). It was confirmed that those deposits were Oshima origins (Kato,1997). We compiled and analyzed using these detailed bathymetry data and sidescan data. As a result , we clarified a detailed geographical features of debris avalanche and the limit of their distribution. Scarp of caldera rim continues to approximately 1100m under the sea. Oshima-Oshima has diameter of approximately 16km. Oshima-Oshima has also an estimated total edifice volume (subaerial and submarine) of 127km3 and rises about 2200m from its base in 1500m depth of water. Northern part of Oshima-Oshima, the scarp of caldera rim on the subaerial area consecutively continues up to about 1100m of depth. The scarp has 100m-300m high, and width of landslide valley is about 2km. Hammocky surface starts from 1100m depth of water. Sea mount of like spur is composed of the collapse deposits has almost extended to the whole area in the trough deeper than 1100m. Debris avalanche deposits have been identified up to 2200m depth and 24km from Oshima-Oshima island, H/L is approximately 0.12. Maximum sizes of debris avalanche block is up to 1-2km width and 100m high. We divided the debris avalanche deposits into three areas (Type A-C) by the topography. Type-A is the main sedimentary area in front of the collapse area and the form is like a spur with 100 to 130m height. Type-B has a form like a knoll or block. Type-C shows gradual slope containing a small rise. We compared these feature with debris avalanche of off Kaimon volcano in the southern part of Japan and the other debris avalanche (landslide, submarine landslide).

Kaji, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Kato, Y.

2007-12-01

246

Super Volcano  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Deep beneath the surface of Earth lies one of the most destructive and yet least understood of the natural forces on the planet: the super volcano. This radio broadcast presents discussions with scientists at Yellowstone National Park who are investigating this potentially devastating natural phenomenon. Yellowstone National Park is one of the largest supervolcanoes in the world. It last erupted 640,000 years ago and scientists are now predicting that the next eruption may not be far off. To discover more, a new volcanic observatory has been built in the park to monitor the extreme volcanic activity going on beneath the surface of this much visited destination. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

247

Tsunami deposits related to Fogo flank failure (Cape Verde Islands)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanic shield volcanoes are prone to massive flank failures involving dozens to hundreds of km³. Fogo active volcano (Cape Verde Islands) is nested in a large horseshoe shaped caldera opened to the east. This volcano-tectonic structure could be the result of past failures of the edifice (Day et al., 1999). Debris avalanche deposits were identified offshore (Masson et al., 2008).

Raphael Paris; Joel Chevalier; Franck Lavigne

2010-01-01

248

Instrumentation Recommendations for Volcano Monitoring at U.S. Volcanoes Under the National Volcano Early Warning System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As magma moves toward the surface, it interacts with anything in its path: hydrothermal systems, cooling magma bodies from previous eruptions, and (or) the surrounding 'country rock'. Magma also undergoes significant changes in its physical properties as pressure and temperature conditions change along its path. These interactions and changes lead to a range of geophysical and geochemical phenomena. The goal of volcano monitoring is to detect and correctly interpret such phenomena in order to provide early and accurate warnings of impending eruptions. Given the well-documented hazards posed by volcanoes to both ground-based populations (for example, Blong, 1984; Scott, 1989) and aviation (for example, Neal and others, 1997; Miller and Casadevall, 2000), volcano monitoring is critical for public safety and hazard mitigation. Only with adequate monitoring systems in place can volcano observatories provide accurate and timely forecasts and alerts of possible eruptive activity. At most U.S. volcanoes, observatories traditionally have employed a two-component approach to volcano monitoring: (1) install instrumentation sufficient to detect unrest at volcanic systems likely to erupt in the not-too-distant future; and (2) once unrest is detected, install any instrumentation needed for eruption prediction and monitoring. This reactive approach is problematic, however, for two reasons. 1. At many volcanoes, rapid installation of new ground-1. based instruments is difficult or impossible. Factors that complicate rapid response include (a) eruptions that are preceded by short (hours to days) precursory sequences of geophysical and (or) geochemical activity, as occurred at Mount Redoubt (Alaska) in 1989 (24 hours), Anatahan (Mariana Islands) in 2003 (6 hours), and Mount St. Helens (Washington) in 1980 and 2004 (7 and 8 days, respectively); (b) inclement weather conditions, which may prohibit installation of new equipment for days, weeks, or even months, particularly at midlatitude or high-latitude volcanoes; (c) safety factors during unrest, which can limit where new instrumentation can safely be installed (particularly at near-vent sites that can be critical for precursor detection and eruption forecasting); and (d) the remoteness of many U.S. volcanoes (particularly those in the Aleutians and the Marianas Islands), where access is difficult or impossible most of the year. Given these difficulties, it is reasonable to anticipate that ground-based monitoring of eruptions at U.S. volcanoes will likely be performed primarily with instruments installed before unrest begins. 2. Given a growing awareness of previously undetected 2. phenomena that may occur before an eruption begins, at present the types and (or) density of instruments in use at most U.S. volcanoes is insufficient to provide reliable early warning of volcanic eruptions. As shown by the gap analysis of Ewert and others (2005), a number of U.S. volcanoes lack even rudimentary monitoring. At those volcanic systems with monitoring instrumentation in place, only a few types of phenomena can be tracked in near-real time, principally changes in seismicity, deformation, and large-scale changes in thermal flux (through satellite-based remote sensing). Furthermore, researchers employing technologically advanced instrumentation at volcanoes around the world starting in the 1990s have shown that subtle and previously undetectable phenomena can precede or accompany eruptions. Detection of such phenomena would greatly improve the ability of U.S. volcano observatories to provide accurate early warnings of impending eruptions, and is a critical capability particularly at the very high-threat volcanoes identified by Ewert and others (2005). For these two reasons, change from a reactive to a proactive volcano-monitoring strategy is clearly needed at U.S. volcanoes. Monitoring capabilities need to be expanded at virtually every volcanic center, regardless of its current state of

Moran, Seth C.; Freymueller, Jeff T.; LaHusen, Richard G.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Poland, Michael P.; Power, John A.; Schmidt, David A.; Schneider, David J.; Stephens, George; Werner, Cynthia A.; White, Randall A.

2008-01-01

249

The decoding of Reed-Solomon codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reed-Solomon (RS) codes form an important part of the high-rate downlink telemetry system for the Magellan mission, and the RS decoding function for this project will be done by DSN. Although the basic idea behind all Reed-Solomon decoding algorithms was developed by Berlekamp in 1968, there are dozens of variants of Berlekamp's algorithm in current use. An attempt to restore order is made by presenting a mathematical theory which explains the working of almost all known RS decoding algorithms. The key innovation that makes this possible is the unified approach to the solution of the key equation, which simultaneously describes the Berlekamp, Berlekamp-Massey, Euclid, and continued fractions approaches. Additionally, a detailed analysis is made of what can happen to a generic RS decoding algorithm when the number of errors and erasures exceeds the code's designed correction capability, and it is shown that while most published algorithms do not detect as many of these error-erasure patterns as possible, by making a small change in the algorithms, this problem can be overcome.

Mceliece, R. J.

1988-01-01

250

The decoding of Reed-Solomon codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reed-Solomon (RS) codes form an important part of the high-rate downlink telemetry system for the Magellan mission, and the RS decoding function for this project will be done by DSN. Although the basic idea behind all Reed-Solomon decoding algorithms was developed by Berlekamp in 1968, there are dozens of variants of Berlekamp's algorithm in current use. An attempt to restore order is made by presenting a mathematical theory which explains the working of almost all known RS decoding algorithms. The key innovation that makes this possible is the unified approach to the solution of the key equation, which simultaneously describes the Berlekamp, Berlekamp-Massey, Euclid, and continued fractions approaches. Additionally, a detailed analysis is made of what can happen to a generic RS decoding algorithm when the number of errors and erasures exceeds the code's designed correction capability, and it is shown that while most published algorithms do not detect as many of these error-erasure patterns as possible, by making a small change in the algorithms, this problem can be overcome.

McEliece, R. J.

1988-11-01

251

Types of Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This volcano resource introduces the six-type classification system and points out weaknesses of the classic three-type system. The six types of volcanoes are shield volcanoes, strato volcanoes, rhyolite caldera complexes, monogenetic fields, flood basalts, and mid-ocean ridges. For each type of volcano there is a description of both structure and dynamics along with examples of each. You can account for more than ninty percent of all volcanoes with these six types. Additionally, any system will be more useful if you use modifiers from the other potential classification schemes with the morphological types.

252

MTU Volcanoes Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Michigan Technological University Volcanoes Page, which is sponsored by the Keweenaw Volcano Observatory, aims to provide information about volcanoes to the public and to complement other informational sites on the Web. Visitors will find information on what a volcano is, currently active volcanoes throughout the world, remote sensing of volcanoes, volcanic humor, and much more. The volcano hazard section of the site contains primarily original content that provides a Basic Guide to Volcanic Hazards and details Volcanic Cloud Hazards to Aviation, while offering volcano safety recommendations to the public. Although the site could use an update to its layout and organization, it does do a good job of presenting an interesting mix of unique information.

253

Geography World - Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides links to an extensive list of volcano-related websites for the United States and around the world. Users can access articles, maps, glossaries, webcams, a dictionary of volcanoes, and many other resources.

254

Ol Doinyo Lengai Volcano  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Scientists from the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program team and the Geological Survey of Tanzania take a sample of the most recent ashfall from Ol Doinyo Lengai as the volcano looms in the background....

255

Volcanoes: Annenberg Media Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Volcanoes is an exhibit from the Annenberg Media Project that provides a wealth of information about volcanoes and includes sections such as Melting Rocks, the Dynamic Earth, and Forecasting. Interactive exercises enable the user to learn how rock turns into magma, how to locate volcanoes, and how to decide if building a project near a volcano is safe. Quicktime videos are used for each of the six categories to illustrate the points outlined in the text.

256

Translation, Biopoliticsand Colonial difference Naoki Sakai and Jon Solomon  

E-print Network

Translation, Biopoliticsand Colonial difference Naoki Sakai and Jon Solomon The primary imperative in codification.According to this representational scheme, "translation" names the process ofencoding parlance, "cultural translation" names the ostensibly ethicalrelation to the other founded on mutual

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

257

Monitoring Active Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication discusses the historic and current monitoring of active volcanoes around the globe. Techniques to measure deviations in pressure and stress induced by subterranean magma movement, as well as other technologies, explain the ways in which researchers monitor and predict volcanoes. Case studies of volcanoes such as Mt. St. Helens, El Chichon, Mauna Loa, and others are discussed.

Tilling, Robert

258

A Scientific Excursion: Volcanoes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews an educationally valuable and reasonably well-designed simulation of volcanic activity in an imaginary land. VOLCANOES creates an excellent context for learning information about volcanoes and for developing skills and practicing methods needed to study behavior of volcanoes. (Author/JN)

Olds, Henry, Jr.

1983-01-01

259

Where are the Volcanoes?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This formative assessment item discusses common misconceptions about volcano location around the world. Resources include background and content information as well as alignment to the National Science Education Standards. The probe could easily be modified to be used with a study of earthquakes instead of volcanoes. Teachers can access other resources including facts about volcanoes and lesson ideas.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

260

How Volcanoes Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational resource describes the science behind volcanoes and volcanic processes. Topics include volcanic environments, volcano landforms, eruption dynamics, eruption products, eruption types, historical eruptions, and planetary volcanism. There are two animations, over 250 images, eight interactive tests, and a volcano crossword puzzle.

261

USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is perched on the rim of Kilauea Volcano's summit caldera (next to the Thomas A. Jaggar Museum in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park), providing a spectacular view of the active vent in Halema‘uma‘u Crater....

262

How Volcanoes Work: Historical Eruptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This information about major volcanic eruptions in history covers events from the civilization-destroying explosion at Santorini in about 1630 BC, to the killing cloud of carbon dioxide at Lake Nyos Cameroon in 1986. The site documents the seven deadliest eruptions in history. Other eruptions include Mount Pelee on the island of Martinique in 1902, Mount Saint Helens in Washington State in 1980, Nevado Del Ruiz Columbia in 1985, the Mexican eruption of Paricutin in 1943, and the 1883 explosion that nearly obliterated the island of Krakatau in what is now Indonesia. For each eruption the site offers information about the type of volcano, the type of eruption, the products of the eruption, and the relation to plate tectonics. In addition, historical background is provided when appropriate.

Victor Camp

263

Ice-volcano interactions Eyjafjallajkull volcano, Iceland  

E-print Network

Ice-volcano interactions in Eyjafjallajökull volcano, Iceland Eyjólfur Magnússon1, Magnús Tumi Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland 2. Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland 3. Icelandic Coast Guard SPIRIT workshop 29&30 April 2010, Toulouse Picture by Eyjólfur

Berthier, Etienne

264

Volcano Vents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 5 May 2003

This low-relief shield volcano imaged with the THEMIS visible camera has two large vents which have erupted several individual lava flows. The positions of the origins of many of the flows indicate that it is probable that the vents are secondary structures that formed only after the shield was built up by eruptions from a central caldera.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 17.6, Longitude 243.6 East (116.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2003-01-01

265

Volcanic geology of Furnas Volcano, São Miguel, Azores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Furnas is the easternmost of the three active central volcanoes on the island of São Miguel in the Azores. Unlike the other two central volcanoes, Sete Cidades and Fogo, Furnas does not have a well-developed edifice, but consists of a steep-sided caldera complex 8×5 km across. It is built on the outer flanks of the Povoação\\/Nordeste lava complex that forms

J. E Guest; J. L Gaspar; P. D Cole; G Queiroz; A. M Duncan; N Wallenstein; T Ferreira; J.-M Pacheco

1999-01-01

266

The Anatahan volcano-monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real-time 24/7 Anatahan volcano-monitoring and eruption detection system is now operational. There had been no real-time seismic monitoring on Anatahan during the May 10, 2003 eruption because the single telemetered seismic station on Anatahan Island had failed. On May 25, staff from the Emergency Management Office (EMO) of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a replacement telemetered seismic station on Anatahan whose data were recorded on a drum recorder at the EMO on Saipan, 130 km to the south by June 5. In late June EMO and USGS staff installed a Glowworm seismic data acquisition system (Marso et al, 2003) at EMO and hardened the Anatahan telemetry links. The Glowworm system collects the telemetered seismic data from Anatahan and Saipan, places graphical display products on a webpage, and exports the seismic waveform data in real time to Glowworm systems at Hawaii Volcano Observatory and Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO). In early July, a back-up telemetered seismic station was placed on Sarigan Island 40 km north of Anatahan, transmitting directly to the EMO on Saipan. Because there is currently no population on the island, at this time the principal hazard presented by Anatahan volcano would be air traffic disruption caused by possible erupted ash. The aircraft/ash hazard requires a monitoring program that focuses on eruption detection. The USGS currently provides 24/7 monitoring of Anatahan with a rotational seismic duty officer who carries a Pocket PC-cell phone combination that receives SMS text messages from the CVO Glowworm system when it detects large seismic signals. Upon receiving an SMS text message notification from the CVO Glowworm, the seismic duty officer can use the Pocket PC - cell phone to view a graphic of the seismic traces on the EMO Glowworm's webpage to determine if the seismic signal is eruption related. There have been no further eruptions since the monitoring system was installed, but regional tectonic earthquakes have provided frequent tests of the system. Reliance on a Pocket PC - cell phone requires that the seismic duty officer remain in an area with cell phone coverage. With this monitoring method, the USGS is able to provide rapid notice of an Anatahan eruption to the EMO and the Washington Volcano Ash Advisory Center. Reference Marso, J.N., Murray, T.L., Lockhart, A.B., Bryan, C.J., Glowworm: An extended PC-based Earthworm system for volcano monitoring. Abstracts, Cities On Volcanoes III, Hilo Hawaii, July 2003.

Marso, J. N.; Lockhart, A. B.; White, R. A.; Koyanagi, S. K.; Trusdell, F. A.; Camacho, J. T.; Chong, R.

2003-12-01

267

Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

2008-01-01

268

Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

1983-01-01

269

Active volcanoes guided Tsunamigenic earthquakes from Andaman –  

E-print Network

The Indian Ocean Tsunami of Northern Sumatra Great Earthquake disastrous event (Mw 9.3) on 26th December 2004, had initiated release of trains of aftershocks in different directions. The above events resulted in explosions of series of Volcanoes of Andaman and Indonesian Island Arc Belt. After the tsunamigenic Northern Sumatra Great Earthquake of 2004, consecutive many tsunamigenerations were formed from the following regions viz West

unknown authors

270

Lifetime of an ocean island volcano feeder zone: constraints from U-Pb dating on coexisting zircon and baddeleyite, and 40/39Ar age determinations, Fuerteventura, Canary Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-precision isotope dilution - thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite ages from the PX1 vertically layered mafic intrusion Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, indicate initiation of magma crystallization at 22.10 ± 0.07 Ma. The magmatic activity lasted a minimum of 0.52 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar amphibole dating yielded ages from 21.9 ± 0.6 to 21.8 ± 0.3, identical within errors to the U-Pb ages, despite the expected 1% theoretical bias between 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dates. This overlap could result from (i) rapid cooling of the intrusion (i.e., less than the 0.3 to 0.6 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age uncertainties) from closure temperatures (Tc) of zircon (699-988 °C) to amphibole (500-600 °C); (ii) lead loss affecting the youngest zircons; or (iii) excess argon shifting the plateau ages towards older values. The combination of the 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb datasets implies that the maximum amount of time PX1 intrusion took to cool below amphibole Tc is 0.8 Ma, suggesting PX1 lifetime of 520,000 to 800,000 Ma. Age disparities among coexisting baddeleyite and zircon (22.10 ± 0.07/0.08/0.15 Ma and 21.58 ± 0.15/0.16/0.31 Ma) in a gabbro sample from the pluton margin suggest complex genetic relationships between phases. Baddeleyite is found preserved in plagioclase cores and crystallized early from low silica activity magma. Zircon crystallized later in a higher silica activity environment and is found in secondary scapolite and is found close to calcite veins, in secondary scapolite that recrystallised from plagioclase. close to calcite veins. Oxygen isotope ?18O values of altered plagioclase are high (+7.7), indicating interaction with fluids derived from host-rock carbonatites. The coexistence of baddeleyite and zircon is ascribed to interaction of the PX1 gabbro with CO2-rich carbonatite-derived fluids released during contact metamorphism.

Allibon, James; Ovtcharova, Maria; Bussy, Francois; Cosca, Michael; Schaltegger, Urs; Bussien, Denise; Lewin, Eric

2011-01-01

271

Maximum likelihood decoding of Reed Solomon Codes  

SciTech Connect

We present a randomized algorithm which takes as input n distinct points ((x{sub i}, y{sub i})){sup n}{sub i=1} from F x F (where F is a field) and integer parameters t and d and returns a list of all univariate polynomials f over F in the variable x of degree at most d which agree with the given set of points in at least t places (i.e., y{sub i} = f (x{sub i}) for at least t values of i), provided t = {Omega}({radical}nd). The running time is bounded by a polynomial in n. This immediately provides a maximum likelihood decoding algorithm for Reed Solomon Codes, which works in a setting with a larger number of errors than any previously known algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first efficient (i.e., polynomial time bounded) algorithm which provides some maximum likelihood decoding for any efficient (i.e., constant or even polynomial rate) code.

Sudan, M. [IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

272

Fumarole\\/plume and diffuse CO2 emission from Sierra Negra volcano, Galapagos archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active shield-volcano Sierra Negra is part of the Galapagos hotspot. Sierra Negra is the largest shield volcano of Isabela Island, hosting a 10 km diameter caldera. Ten historic eruptions have occurred and some involved a frequently visited east caldera rim fissure zone called Volcan Chico. The last volcanic event occurred in October 2005 and lasted for about a week,

E. Padron; P. A. Hernandez Perez; N. Perez; T. Theofilos; G. Melian; J. Barrancos; G. Virgil; H. Sumino; K. Notsu

2009-01-01

273

Long term dismantling of a basaltic volcano (Piton des Neiges, La Réunion hotspot)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a structural investigation of destabilization processes at the Piton des Neiges, the extinct volcano of La Reunion Island. We focus on the Cirque of Cilaos (a large erosional depression south of the volcano summit), where the exposed internal structure of Piton des Neiges is made of pahoehoe lava flows of the shield building stage (unknown thickness) and breccias

Marie Chaput; Vincent Famin; Laurent Michon; Thibault Catry

2010-01-01

274

The Ninole Basalt — Implications for the structural evolution of Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lava flows of the Ninole Basalt, the oldest rocks exposed on the south side of the island of Hawaii, provide age and compositional constraints on the evolution of Mauna Loa volcano and the southeastward age progression of Hawaiian volcanism. Although the tholeiitic Ninole Basalt differs from historic lavas of Mauna Loa volcano in most major-element contents (e.g., variably lower K,

Peter W Lipman; J M Rhodes; G Brent Dalrymple

1991-01-01

275

The Volcano Adventure Guide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adventure travels to volcanoes offer chance encounters with danger, excitement, and romance, plus opportunities to experience scientific enlightenment and culture. To witness a violently erupting volcano and its resulting impacts on landscape, climate, and humanity is a powerful personal encounter with gigantic planetary forces. To study volcano processes and products during eruptions is to walk in the footsteps of Pliny himself. To tour the splendors and horrors of 25 preeminent volcanoes might be the experience of a lifetime, for scientists and nonscientists alike. In The Volcano Adventure Guide, we now have the ultimate tourist volume to lead us safely to many of the world's famous volcanoes and to ensure that we will see the important sites at each one.

Goff, Fraser

2005-05-01

276

Pb, Hf and Nd isotope compositions of the two Runion volcanoes (Indian Ocean): A tale of two small-scale mantle "blobs"?  

E-print Network

Pb, Hf and Nd isotope compositions of the two Réunion volcanoes (Indian Ocean): A tale of two small of basaltic lavas from the two Réunion Island volcanoes are reported in order to examine the origin of the sources feeding these volcanoes and to detect possible changes through time. Samples, chosen to cover

Demouchy, Sylvie

277

Hazardous Phenomena at Volcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanoes generate a wide variety of phenomena that can alter the Earth's surface and atmosphere and endanger people and property. While most of the natural hazards illustrated and described in this fact sheet are associated with eruptions, some, like landslides, can occur even when a volcano is quiet. Small events may pose a hazard only within a few miles of a volcano, while large events can directly or indirectly endanger people and property tens to hundreds of miles away.

Myers, Bobbie M.; Brantley, Steven R.

1995-01-01

278

Volcanoes: On-Line Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the on-line version of a general interest publication prepared by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). It provides a general introduction to volcanoes and volcanology. Topics include types of volcanoes; types of eruptions; submarine volcanoes; and features associated with volcanic terrains (geysers, hot springs, etc.). There is also discussion of volcanoes and their association to plate tectonics, extraterrestrial volcanoes, monitoring and research efforts, and the impacts of volcanoes on human populations. A text-only version is also available.

279

Yellowstone Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo.

Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob

2008-01-01

280

VLSI single-chip (255,223) Reed-Solomon encoder with interleaver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention relates to a concatenated Reed-Solomon/convolutional encoding system consisting of a Reed-Solomon outer code and a convolutional inner code for downlink telemetry in space missions, and more particularly to a Reed-Solomon encoder with programmable interleaving of the information symbols and code correction symbols to combat error bursts in the Viterbi decoder.

Hsu, In-Shek (inventor); Deutsch, Leslie J. (inventor); Truong, Trieu-Kie (inventor); Reed, Irving S. (inventor)

1990-01-01

281

Obituary: Philip M. Solomon, 1939-2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Philip Solomon, one of the pioneers and leading researchers in molecular astrophysics, died on 30 April 2008 at his apartment on the upper west side of Manhattan after a battle with cancer. His pioneering research included both theoretical and very extensive observational studies of stellar atmospheres, interstellar molecules, high redshift galaxies, and the Earth's stratosphere. Phil was Distinguished Professor at The State University of New York [SUNY], Stony Brook, where he had been since 1974. Phil was born on 29 March 1939 in Manhattan, New York City, to Nat and Betty Solomon. Nat Solomon was a labor organizer and a printer. Phil attended the University of Wisconsin, where he received his BS in 1959 and where he met his future wife Sheila who was studying art. His Ph.D., "On the Role of Light Molecules in Astrophysics," was also from the University of Wisconsin under the guidance of Art Code and Bob Bless. After postdoctoral positions at Princeton and lectureships at Columbia and the University of California, San Diego, Phil spent two years as a Professor at the University of Minnesota. After two years at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, he came to SUNY, Stony Brook, as Professor of Astronomy in the Department of Earth and Space Sciences. In 1988 Phil was selected as a Humboldt Senior Distinguished Scientist, and, in 1999, he was honored with the rank of Distinguished Professor at SUNY. Phil took sabbatical and other leaves at Churchill College and the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge; the Institute for Advanced Study; l'Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris; Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris; and the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique [IRAM], France. Phil published more than 160 papers and supervised seven Ph.D. students. He served on numerous review, visiting, and advisory panels. Phil's first theoretical research focused on opacity and abundance of light molecules such as H2, CO, and CN in stellar atmospheres, but then shifted quickly to the formation, excitation, and astrophysics of interstellar molecules, which had just been discovered in the late 1960s. In 1969, Phil and Chandra Wickramasinghe were among the first to suggest that the denser interstellar clouds, which were deficient in atomic hydrogen, were principally molecular hydrogen with the H2 formed on the surface of cold dust grains and protected from dissociating UV by a self-shielding H2 layer at the cloud surface. With L. Lucy, Phil then developed the radiative transfer and mass-loss mechanism operative in hot OB star winds and QSOs--where the radiative momentum is absorbed in resonance lines of ions. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the detection and mapping of interstellar molecules moved rapidly from the early discoveries of maser emission in H2O and OH to the thermal emission lines of simple molecules like CO, CN, CS, and HCN, to more complex species containing up to thirteen atoms. Phil was a major force in pushing these new detections and in using the thermal emission as astrophysical probes. This explosive growth of spectroscopic detections occurred primarily as a result of Phil's collaborations with A. Penzias, K. Jefferts, R. Wilson, and P. Thaddeus, along with other competing groups using the NRAO 36-foot telescope at Kitt Peak. This was a most exciting period with the mm-wave window finally accessible to spectroscopy and each observing run on the telescope typically yielded one or two new detections. Phil was probably the one most responsible for providing the astrophysical motivation to push the technology towards mm-wavelengths. He clearly elucidated the fact that high densities were required for the thermal excitation of the higher dipole moment molecules such CS and HCN--at the same time pointing out, for the first time, the critical role of line photon trapping in the optically thick lines. In collaboration with N. Scoville and D. Sanders, Phil initiated the early surveys of CO emission from the Milky Way molecular gas. They first pointed out that the molecular gas resides largely in self-gravitating clouds (

Scoville, Nick

2009-01-01

282

Alaska Volcano Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Alaska Volcano Observatory, a joint program of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). Users can access current information on volcanic activity in Alaska and the Kamchatka Penninsula, including weekly and daily reports and information releases about significant changes in any particluar volcano. An interactive map also directs users to summaries and activity notifications for selected volcanoes, or through links to webcams and webicorders (recordings of seismic activity). General information on Alaskan volcanoes includes descriptions, images, maps, bibliographies, and eruptive histories. This can be accessed through an interactive map or by clicking on an alphabetic listing of links to individual volcanoes. There is also an online library of references pertinent to Quaternary volcanism in Alaska and an image library.

283

Pyroclastic deposits and volcanic history of Mayor Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergent summit of Mayor Island, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, is a peralkaline rhyolite volcano constructed by: a sequence of lava flows, the Tutaretare Rhyolite Formation (new); and pyroclastic deposits, the Oira Pyroclastite Formation (new). These 2 formations constitute the Mayor Island Group (new). The pyroclastic deposits mantle most of the outer slopes of the island, in places exceeding

M. D. Buck; R. M. Briggs; Campbell S. Nelson

1981-01-01

284

Mauna Loa--history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest volcano  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mauna Loa on the Island Hawai?i is the world’s largest volcano. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active volcano, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawai?i (Island of Hawai?i) is the fastest growing County in the State of Hawaii. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from volcano hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa Volcano to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.

Trusdell, Frank A.

2012-01-01

285

New Perspectives on Ancient Mars Sean C. Solomon,1  

E-print Network

New Perspectives on Ancient Mars Sean C. Solomon,1 * Oded Aharonson,2 Jonathan M. Aurnou,3 W. Bruce. Neumann,13 Roger J. Phillips,6 David E. Smith,7 Maria T. Zuber13 Mars was most active during its first. A magnetic dynamo in a con- vecting fluid core magnetized the crust, and the global field shielded a more

Head III, James William

286

An Interpolation Procedure for List Decoding ReedSolomon Codes  

E-print Network

of Guruswami and Sudan for Reed­Solomon codes. The original interpolation conditions of Guruswami and Sudan algorithm has time complexity O s4 n2 . Index Terms--Guruswami­Sudan interpolation, Key Equation, list. INTRODUCTION IN 1999, Guruswami and Sudan [3]­[5] extended Sudan's original approach [6] by introducing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Fast transform decoding of nonsystematic Reed-Solomon codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Reed-Solomon (RS) code is considered to be a special case of a redundant residue polynomial (RRP) code, and a fast transform decoding algorithm to correct both errors and erasures is presented. This decoding scheme is an improvement of the decoding algorithm for the RRP code suggested by Shiozaki and Nishida, and can be realized readily on very large scale integration chips.

Truong, T. K.; Cheung, K.-M.; Reed, I. S.; Shiozaki, A.

1989-01-01

288

"Leapfrogging the Catastrophe of Our Times" Jon Solomon  

E-print Network

, in Translation, Biopolitics and Colonial Difference, eds. Naoki Sakai and Jon Solomon-In-Security: The Field and the Ban-Opticon," trans. Anne McKnight, in Translation, Biopolitics by the Cold War ideological repression of colonial history, the assumption was, I think

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

Maximum Likelihood Decoding of Reed Solomon Codes Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

Maximum Likelihood Decoding of Reed Solomon Codes Madhu Sudan Abstract We present a randomized.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA. email: madhu@watson.ibm.com. The above problem, and close n, k, and a collection of symbols , an [n, k, ]-code over is a collection C n of n-letter words

Sudan, Madhu

290

"SQUID Susceptometry Imaging of Magnetic Nanoparticles" Solomon Diamond  

E-print Network

"SQUID Susceptometry Imaging of Magnetic Nanoparticles" Solomon Diamond 2010-2011 We have completed for synchronized recording of the SQUID system, encoder, and a fluxgate magnetometer and also developed software for magnetic field simulation and data analysis. We have demonstrated experimentally that the SQUID system can

Shepherd, Simon

291

Dyke and sill injections: what mostly trigger volcano flank collapse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a large number of evidences that the morphostructural evolution of basaltic oceanic volcanoes (e.g. Stromboli, Hawaï and Canary Islands) results of alternating phases of growth and destruction. Among dismantling processes, flank collapses have been largely documented and interpreted as gravitational destabilization triggered by vertical injections of magma (dykes). In most cases, this interpretation has not been sustained by

Thibault Catry; Valérie Cayol; Laurent Michon; Vincent Famin; Claudia Romagnoli; Marie Chaput

2010-01-01

292

A past giant lateral collapse and present-day flank instability of Fogo, Cape Verde Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fogo island is a large and extremely steepsided oceanic island volcano in the Cape Verde archipelago. It has a large (ca. 9 km across) east facing summit collapse structure, the Monte Amarelo collapse, with a probable volume of at least 150–200 km3. For most of its history the Monte Amarelo volcano had a small but productive central vent complex and

S. J. Day; S. I. N. Heleno da Silva; J. F. B. D. Fonseca

1999-01-01

293

Studies Of Volcanoes Of Alaska By Satellite Radar Interferometry  

E-print Network

Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has provided a new imaging geodesy technique to measure the deformation of volcanoes at tens-of-meter horizontal resolution with centimeter to subcentimeter vertical precision. The two-dimensional surface deformation data enables the construction of detailed numerical models allowing the study of magmatic and tectonic processes beneath volcanoes. This paper summarizes our recent InSAR studies over the Alaska-Aleutian volcanoes, which include New Trident, Okmok, Akutan, Augustine, Shishaldin, and Westdahl volcanoes. The first InSAR surface deformation over the Alaska volcanoes was applied to New Trident. Preliminary InSAR study suggested that New Trident volcano experienced several centimeters inflation from 1993 to 1995. Using the InSAR technique, we studied the 1997 eruption of Okmok. We have measured ~1.4 m deflation during the eruption, ~20 cm pre-eruptive inflation during 1992 to 1995, and >10 cm post-eruptive inflation within a year after the eruption, and modeled the deformations using Mogi sources. We imaged the ground surface deformation associated with the 1996 seismic crisis over Akutan volcano. Although seismic swarm did not result in an eruption, we found that the western part of the volcano uplifted ~60 cm while the eastern part of the island subsided. The majority of the complex deformation field at the Akutan volcano was modeled by dike intrusion and Mogi inflation sources. Our InSAR results also indicate that the pyroclastic flows from last the last eruption have been undergoing contraction/subsidence at a rate of about 3 cm per year since 1992. InSAR measured no surface deformation before and during the 1999 eruption of Shishaldin and suggested the eruption may be a type of open system. Finally, we applied...

Zhong Lu; Charles Wicks, Jr.; Daniel Dzurisin; Wayne Thatcher; John Power

294

Shaking up volcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most volcanic eruptions that occur shortly after a large distant earthquake do so by random chance. A few compelling cases for earthquake-triggered eruptions exist, particularly within 200 km of the earthquake, but this phenomenon is rare in part because volcanoes must be poised to erupt in order to be triggered by an earthquake (1). Large earthquakes often perturb volcanoes in more subtle ways by triggering small earthquakes and changes in spring discharge and groundwater levels (1, 2). On page 80 of this issue, Brenguier et al. (3) provide fresh insight into the interaction of large earthquakes and volcanoes by documenting a temporary change in seismic velocity beneath volcanoes in Honshu, Japan, after the devastating Tohoku-Oki earthquake in 2011.

Prejean, Stephanie G.; Haney, Matthew M.

2014-01-01

295

The diversity of mud volcanoes in the landscape of Azerbaijan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the natural phenomenon the mud volcanism (mud volcanoes) of Azerbaijan are known from the ancient times. The historical records describing them are since V century. More detail study of this natural phenomenon had started in the second half of XIX century. The term "mud volcano" (or "mud hill") had been given by academician H.W. Abich (1863), more exactly defining this natural phenomenon. All the previous definitions did not give such clear and capacious explanation of it. In comparison with magmatic volcanoes, globally the mud ones are restricted in distribution; they mainly locate within the Alpine-Himalayan, Pacific and Central Asian mobile belts, in more than 30 countries (Columbia, Trinidad Island, Italy, Romania, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia, etc.). Besides it, the zones of mud volcanoes development are corresponded to zones of marine accretionary prisms' development. For example, the South-Caspian depression, Barbados Island, Cascadia (N.America), Costa-Rica, Panama, Japan trench. Onshore it is Indonesia, Japan, and Trinidad, Taiwan. The mud volcanism with non-accretionary conditions includes the areas of Black Sea, Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana coast), Salton Sea. But new investigations reveal more new mud volcanoes and in places which were not considered earlier as the traditional places of mud volcanoes development (e.g. West Nile Rive delta). Azerbaijan is the classic region of mud volcanoes development. From over 800 world mud volcanoes there are about 400 onshore and within the South-Caspian basin, which includes the territory of East Azerbaijan (the regions of Shemakha-Gobustan and Low-Kura River, Absheron peninsula), adjacent water area of South Caspian (Baku and Absheron archipelagoes) and SW Turkmenistan and represents an area of great downwarping with thick (over 25 km) sedimentary series. Generally, in the modern relief the mud volcanoes represent more or less large uplifts on surface, often of plane-conical shape, rising for 5 to 400 m and more over the country (for example, mud volcano Toragay, 400 m height). The base diameter is from 100 m to 3-4 km and more. Like the magmatic ones, the mud volcanoes are crowned with crater of convex-plane or deeply-seated shape. In Azerbaijan there are all types of mud volcanoes: active, extinct, buried, submarine, island, abundantly oil seeping. According to their morphology they are defined into cone-shaped, dome-shaped, ridge-shaped, plateau-shaped. The crater shapes are also various: conical, convex-plane, shield-shaped, deeply-seated, caldera-like. The most complete morphological classification was given in "Atlas of mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan" (Yakubov et al., 1971). Recently (Aliyev Ad. et al., 2003) it was proposed a quite new morphological classification of mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan. For the first time the mud volcanic manifestations had been defined. Volcanoes are ranged according to morphological signs, crater shape and type of activity.

Rashidov, Tofig

2014-05-01

296

Remote Telemetered and Time-Lapse Cameras at Augustine Volcano  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Before and during the 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) installed a network of telemetered and nontelemetered cameras in Homer, Alaska, and on Augustine Island. On December 1, 2005, a network camera was installed at the Homer Field Station, a University of Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute (UAF/GI) facility on a bluff near Homer, where telemetered Augustine data are received. The camera placed there provides observations of the volcano from a distance of 126 km (78 miles) in daylight hours during clear sky conditions. On January 9, 2006, a radio-telemetered network camera was installed on the lower eastern flank of the volcano at 'Mound,' 4.4 km (2.7 miles) from the summit. The proximity of this camera provided for near-field images of the volcano. A nontelemetered camera with onsite recording was installed 3.8 km (2.4 miles) north of the volcano's summit near Burr Point on December 17, 2005. This camera recorded high-resolution images at a rate of 4 images per hour through much of the eruptive sequence. A low-light camera was installed on February 8, 2006, at the Homer facility to augment the extreme low-light camera installed by the UAF/GI (Sentman and others, this volume). On September 10, 2006, a second radio-telemetered network camera was installed at Lagoon camp on the west side of Augustine Island, 5.4 km (3.3 miles) west-northwest of the summit. The installation of these camera systems proved valuable for assessing volcanic activity, determining ground hazards and on-island weather for visiting field teams, and deciphering depositional history after the eruption.

Paskievitch, John; Read, Cyrus; Parker, Thomas

2010-01-01

297

Tutorial on Reed-Solomon error correction coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This tutorial attempts to provide a frank, step-by-step approach to Reed-Solomon (RS) error correction coding. RS encoding and RS decoding both with and without erasing code symbols are emphasized. There is no need to present rigorous proofs and extreme mathematical detail. Rather, the simple concepts of groups and fields, specifically Galois fields, are presented with a minimum of complexity. Before RS codes are presented, other block codes are presented as a technical introduction into coding. A primitive (15, 9) RS coding example is then completely developed from start to finish, demonstrating the encoding and decoding calculations and a derivation of the famous error-locator polynomial. The objective is to present practical information about Reed-Solomon coding in a manner such that it can be easily understood.

Geisel, William A.

1990-01-01

298

Investigation of the Dashigil mud volcano (Azerbaijan) using beryllium-10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We collected and analyzed five sediments from three mud volcano (MV) vents and six suspended and bottom sediment samples from the adjoining river near the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan for 10Be. These three MV are found among the 190 onshore and >150 offshore MV in this region which correspond to the western flank of the South Caspian depression. These MVs overlie the faulted and petroleum-bearing anticlines. The 10Be concentrations and 10Be/9Be ratios are comparable to the values reported for mud volcanoes in Trinidad Island. It appears that the stable Be concentrations in Azerbaijan rivers are not perturbed by anthropogenic effects and are comparable to the much older sediments (mud volcano samples). The 10Be and 9Be concentrations in our river sediments are compared to the global data set and show that the 10Be values found for Kura River are among the lowest of any river for which data exist. We attribute this low 10Be concentration to the nature of surface minerals which are affected by the residual hydrocarbon compounds that occur commonly in the study area in particular and Azerbaijan at large. The concentrations of 40K and U-Th-series radionuclides (234Th, 210Pb, 226Ra, and 228Ra) indicate overall homogeneity of the mud volcano samples from the three different sites. Based on the 10Be concentrations of the mud volcano samples, the age of the mud sediments could be at least as old as 4 myr.

Kim, K. J.; Baskaran, M.; Jweda, J.; Feyzullayev, A. A.; Aliyev, C.; Matsuzaki, H.; Jull, A. J. T.

2013-01-01

299

VLSI architecture for a Reed-Solomon decoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A basic single-chip building block for a Reed-Solomon (RS) decoder system is partitioned into a plurality of sections, the first of which consists of a plurality of syndrome subcells each of which contains identical standard-basis finite-field multipliers that are programmable between 10 and 8 bit operation. A desired number of basic building blocks may be assembled to provide a RS decoder of any syndrome subcell size that is programmable between 10 and 8 bit operation.

Hsu, In-Shek (inventor); Truong, Trieu-Kie (inventor)

1992-01-01

300

A VLSI design of a pipeline Reed-Solomon decoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pipeline structure of a transform decoder similar to a systolic array was developed to decode Reed-Solomon (RS) codes. An important ingredient of this design is a modified Euclidean algorithm for computing the error locator polynomial. The computation of inverse field elements is completely avoided in this modification of Euclid's algorithm. The new decoder is regular and simple, and naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

Shao, H. M.; Truong, T. K.; Deutsch, L. J.; Yuen, J. H.; Reed, I. S.

1985-01-01

301

Single-Chip VLSI Reed-Solomon Encoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reed-Solomon (RS) encoder based on Berlekamp bit-serial multiplier algorithm. RS code standard, based on code words of 255 8-bit symbols, of which 223 symbols convey information and remaining 32 are check symbols. This code enables correction of up to 16 erroneous information symbols per word. Berlekamp algorithm based on code-generating polynomial with 32 roots that occur in reciprocal pairs. Choice of algorithm permits compact design.

Truong, T. K.; Deutsch, L. J.; Reed, I. S.

1986-01-01

302

The New York Stem Cell Foundation. Interview with Susan Solomon.  

PubMed

We caught up with Susan Solomon, Co-Founder of The New York Stem Cell Foundation, to discuss the role of the Foundation in facilitating some of the top advances in stem cell science in recent years. Susan L Solomon is Chief Executive Officer and Co-Founder of The New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF), a nonprofit organization established in 2005 to accelerate cures through stem cell research. A longtime healthcare advocate, Susan is a founding member and current President of New Yorkers for the Advancement of Medical Research, is on the Executive Committee for the Alliance for Regenerative Medicine, and she has been a member of the Board of Directors of the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, New York Chapter. Susan was also a member of the Strategic Planning Committee of the Empire State Stem Cell Board. In March 2008, Susan received a New York State Women of Excellence Award from the Governor of New York. In September 2008, she received the Triumph Award from the Brooke Ellison Foundation for her work in establishing NYSCF. Prior to founding NYSCF, Susan, an attorney, spent much of her career building businesses. She established and ran Solomon Partners LLC to provide strategic management consulting to corporations, cultural institutions, foundations and nonprofit organizations. She has also held executive positions at MacAndrews and Forbes Holdings and MMG Patricof and Co. She was the founding Chief Executive Officer of Sothebys.com and was President of Sony Worldwide Networks. PMID:23210823

Solomon, Susan

2012-11-01

303

Holocene Tephra Layers on Adak Island in the West-Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska is covered with Holocene sequences of soil-tephra complexes. Tephra layers are useful for establishing a chronographic framework on the island. Black (1976) thought that the three conspicuous tephra deposits (Main, Intermediate and Sandwich) erupted from Kanaga volcano. Waythomas et al. (2001), however, inferred that a possible source volcano of the tephras was Mount Moffett, Adak Island. We conducted a tephrostratigraphic study on the island to re-evaluate the chronological framework and to determine the sources of the tephras. Chemical compositions of volcanic glass were determined by electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). Radiocarbon dates were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The three tephra layers increase in thickness from south to north. Among them, Intermediate and Sandwich tephras contain fresh lithic fragments. Thickness and maximum diameter of lithic fragments (ML) suggests that their source was Adagdak volcano or a now submerged volcano nearby. The presence of a lava dome and crater rim in the northern part of Adagdak volcano makes it a likely candidate for the source of the tephras. Eruptions of the Intermediate, Sandwich, YBO and Forty Year tephra deposits were dated to approximately 7.2, 4.7, 3.6 and 0.4 cal ka BP, respectively.

Okuno, M.; Wada, K.; Gualtieri, L. M.; Nakamura, T.; Sarata, B.; Torii, M.

2011-12-01

304

Volcanoes: Coming Up from Under.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides specific information about the eruption of Mt. St. Helens in March 1980. Also discusses how volcanoes are formed and how they are monitored. Words associated with volcanoes are listed and defined. (CS)

Science and Children, 1980

1980-01-01

305

Distribution of an allele associated with blond hair color across Northern Island Melanesia.  

PubMed

Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes is a complex trait controlled by multiple genetic loci. Recently a non-synonymous mutation in the pigmentation candidate gene TYRP1 was shown to be significantly associated with a blond-hair phenotype in populations from the Solomon Islands. The distribution of this mutation in the islands of Northern Island Melanesia, where the blondism phenotype is also prevalent, was unknown. Here, we present data describing the distribution of this allele in 550 individuals sampled from across this region, and test for associations between genotype at this locus and quantitatively measured skin and hair pigmentation phenotype. We report that the frequency of the 93C allele is notably lower than observed in the Solomons (0.12 vs. 0.26). The allele exhibits significant geographic heterogeneity across the islands sampled (?(2) ?=?108.4, P?islands of New Ireland and New Hanover, while being almost completely absent from the large island of New Britain. Using linear regression with age, sex, and island as covariates we report that, as in the Solomons, the 93C allele is significantly associated with a decrease in hair pigmentation but not skin pigmentation. We discuss the distribution of the 93C allele across the Southwest Pacific in light of its possible place of origin and dispersal. PMID:24449225

Norton, Heather L; Correa, Elena A; Koki, George; Friedlaender, Jonathan S

2014-04-01

306

GlobVolcano pre-operational services for global monitoring active volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GlobVolcano project (2007-2010) is part of the Data User Element programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The project aims at demonstrating Earth Observation (EO) based integrated services to support the Volcano Observatories and other mandate users (e.g. Civil Protection) in their monitoring activities. The information services are assessed in close cooperation with the user organizations for different types of volcano, from various geographical areas in various climatic zones. In a first phase, a complete information system has been designed, implemented and validated, involving a limited number of test areas and respective user organizations. In the currently on-going second phase, GlobVolcano is delivering pre-operational services over 15 volcanic sites located in three continents and as many user organizations are involved and cooperating with the project team. The set of GlobVolcano offered EO based information products is composed as follows: Deformation Mapping DInSAR (Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) has been used to study a wide range of surface displacements related to different phenomena (e.g. seismic faults, volcanoes, landslides) at a spatial resolution of less than 100 m and cm-level precision. Permanent Scatterers SAR Interferometry method (PSInSARTM) has been introduced by Politecnico of Milano as an advanced InSAR technique capable of measuring millimetre scale displacements of individual radar targets on the ground by using multi-temporal data-sets, estimating and removing the atmospheric components. Other techniques (e.g. CTM) have followed similar strategies and have shown promising results in different scenarios. Different processing approaches have been adopted, according to data availability, characteristic of the area and dynamic characteristics of the volcano. Conventional DInSAR: Colima (Mexico), Nyiragongo (Congo), Pico (Azores), Areanal (Costa Rica) PSInSARTM: Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion Island), Stromboli and Volcano (Italy), Hilo (Hawai), Mt. St. Helens (United States), CTM (Coherent Target Monitoring): Cumbre Vieja (La Palma) To generate products either Envisat ASAR, Radarsat 1or ALOS PALSAR data have been used. Surface Thermal Anomalies Volcanic hot-spots detection, radiant flux and effusion rate (where applicable) calculation of high temperature surface thermal anomalies such as active lava flow, strombolian activity, lava dome, pyroclastic flow and lava lake can be performed through MODIS (Terra / Aqua) MIR and TIR channels, or ASTER (Terra), HRVIR/HRGT (SPOT4/5) and Landsat family SWIR channels analysis. ASTER and Landsat TIR channels allow relative radiant flux calculation of low temperature anomalies such as lava and pyroclastic flow cooling, crater lake and low temperature fumarolic fields. MODIS, ASTER and SPOT data are processed to detect and measure the following volcanic surface phenomena: Effusive activity Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island); Mt Etna (Italy). Lava dome growths, collapses and related pyroclastic flows Soufrière Hills (Montserrat); Arenal - (Costa Rica). Permanent crater lake and ephemeral lava lake Karthala (Comores Islands). Strombolian activity Stromboli (Italy). Low temperature fumarolic fields Nisyros (Greece), Vulcano (Italy), Mauna Loa (Hawaii). Volcanic Emission The Volcanic Emission Service is provided to the users by a link to GSE-PROMOTE - Support to Aviation Control Service (SACS). The aim of the service is to deliver in near-real-time data derived from satellite measurements regarding SO2 emissions (SO2 vertical column density - Dobson Unit [DU]) possibly related to volcanic eruptions and to track the ash injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption. SO2 measurements are derived from different satellite instruments, such as SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOME-2. The tracking of volcanic ash is accomplished by using SEVIRI-MSG data and, in particular, the following channels VIS 0.6 and IR 3.9, and along with IR8.7, IR 10.8 and IR 12.0. The GlobVolcano information system and its current experimentation represent a

Tampellini, Lucia; Ratti, Raffaella; Borgström, Sven; Seifert, Frank Martin; Peltier, Aline; Kaminski, Edouard; Bianchi, Marco; Branson, Wendy; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Hirn, Barbara; van der Voet, Paul; van Geffen, J.

2010-05-01

307

Volcano: Tectonic Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes where volcanoes are found in terms of plate tectonics and explains why they occur at those locations. S map shows that volcanoes are located mainly at plate boundaries. Then there are explanations for plate motion, mantle convection, and magma generation. The three types of plate boundaries are listed as divergent, convergent, and transform. There is also information about the relationship between types of boundaries and types of volcanism and the fact that intraplate volcanism describes volcanic eruptions within tectonic plates. The site features a diagram that depicts each type, with a link for more information about the Earth's internal heat energy and interior structure.

Victor Camp

308

The Worlds Deadliest Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this interactive site the student attempts to rate the eruption of a volcano according to the Volcanic Explosive Index (VEI). After seeing the step by step eruption of an actual volcano, the student is introduced to VEI scale, which includes a description of the eruption, volume of ejected material, plume height, eruption type, duration, total known eruptions with that VEI, and an example. Each factor is linked to a section where it is explained in detail. After evaluating all of the factors and rating them, the student selects a VEI number and clicks for feedback. The correct answer is given with an explanation.

309

A Submarine Perspective on Hawaiian Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Postwar improvements in navigation, sonar-based mapping, and submarine photography enabled the development of bathymetric maps, which revealed submarine morphologic features that could be dredged or explored and sampled with a new generation of manned and unmanned submersibles. The maps revealed debris fields from giant landslides, the great extent of rift zones radiating from volcanic centers, and two previously unknown submarine volcanoes named Mahukona and Loihi, the youngest Hawaiian volcano. About 70 major landslides cover half the flanks of the Hawaiian Ridge out to Midway Island. Some of the landslides attain lengths of 200 km and have volumes exceeding 5,000 km3. More recent higher resolution bathymetry and sidescan data reveal that many submarine eruptions construct circular, flat-topped, monogenetic cones; that large fields of young strongly alkalic lava flows, such as the North Arch and South Arch lava fields, erupt on the seafloor within several hundred km of the islands; and that alkalic lavas erupt during the shield stage on Kilauea and Mauna Loa. The North Arch flow field covers about 24,000 km2, has an estimated volume between about 1000 and 1250 km3, has flows as long as 108 km, and erupted from over 100 vents. The source and melting mechanisms for their production is still debated. The maps also displayed stair-step terraces, mostly constructed of drowned coral reefs, which form during early rapid subsidence of the volcanoes during periods of oscillating sea level. The combination of scuba and underwater photography facilitated the first motion pictures of the mechanism of formation of pillow lava in shallow water offshore Kilauea. The age progression known from the main islands was extended westward along the Hawaiian Ridge past Midway Island, around a bend in the chain and northward along the Emperor Seamounts. Radiometric dating of dredged samples from these submarine volcanoes show that the magma source that built the chain has been active for over 80 Ma and established the remarkable linearity of the age-progression along the chain. Glass rinds on submarine lava quenched at depth contain initial magmatic volatiles and yield data on the juvenile water, sulfur, CO2, and rare gas contents of basaltic magmas, and continue to reveal nuances of the volatile contents of lava. Rock sampling at Loihi Seamount led to the discovery of the pre-shield alkalic phase of Hawaiian volcanism, which mirrors the well-known post-shield alkalic phase. Lava compositions from the Hawaiian Ridge and Emperor Seamounts have clear affinities to present-day Hawaiian lavas, but subtle source differences as well. The progression from small to large and back to small degrees of melting at individual volcanoes and the compositional changes along the chain constrain the melting processes and source compositions of Hawaiian volcanism. Coupling the age of lavas with that of submerged coral reefs has provided data on the growth and subsidence of volcanic centers. This information has meshed nicely with the age, composition, and morphology of lavas from the 3.2-km-deep Hawaiian Scientific Drill Hole. Submarine studies have taught us much about the workings of Hawaiian Volcanoes, and in the process have stimulated new work and concepts on marine volcanism worldwide.

Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

2011-12-01

310

Influence of fortnightly earth tides at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of 52 historic eruptions confirms the premise that fortnightly earth tides play a significant role in triggering activity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Since January 1832, nearly twice as many eruptions have occurred nearer fortnightly tidal maximum than tidal minimum (34 vs. 18). A straightforward significance test indicates that the likelihood of a fortnightly tidal influence on Kilauea eruptions is roughly 90%. This is not the case for Mauna Loa Volcano, where 37 historic eruptions have been distributed randomly with respect to the fortnightly tide. At Kilauea, stresses induced by fortnightly earth tides presumably act in concert with volcanic and tectonic stresses to trigger shallow magma movements along preexisting zones of weakness. Differences in structure or internal plumbing may limit the effectiveness of this mechanism at Mauna Loa. Tidal effects seem to be less marked at shields than at some island-arc volcanoes, possibly because higher average volcanic stress rates in Hawaii more often override the effects of tidal stresses.-Author

Dzurisin, D.

1980-01-01

311

Diverse deformation patterns of Aleutian volcanoes from InSAR  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is capable of measuring ground-surface deformation with centimeter-to-subcentimeter precision at a spatial resolution of tens of meters over an area of hundreds to thousands of square kilometers. With its global coverage and all-weather imaging capability, InSAR has become an increasingly important measurement technique for constraining magma dynamics of volcanoes over remote regions such as the Aleutian Islands. The spatial pattern of surface deformation data derived from InSAR images enables the construction of detailed mechanical models to enhance the study of magmatic processes. This paper summarizes the diverse deformation patterns of the Aleutian volcanoes observed with InSAR and demonstrates that deformation patterns and associated magma supply mechanisms in the Aleutians are diverse and vary between volcanoes. These findings provide a basis for improved models and better understanding of magmatic plumbing systems.

Lu, Z.; Dzurisin, D.; Wicks, C., Jr.; Power, J.

2008-01-01

312

Shallow S wave attenuation and actively degassing magma beneath Taal Volcano, Philippines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcano, Philippines, is one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes given its history of explosive eruptions and its close proximity to populated areas. A real-time broadband seismic network was recently deployed and has detected volcano-tectonic events beneath Taal. Our source location analysis of these volcano-tectonic events, using onset arrival times and high-frequency seismic amplitudes, points to the existence of a region of strong attenuation near the ground surface beneath the east flank of Volcano Island in Taal Lake. This region is beneath the active fumarolic area and above sources of pressure contributing inflation and deflation, and it coincides with a region of high electrical conductivity. The high-attenuation region matches that inferred from an active-seismic survey conducted at Taal in 1993. These features strongly suggest that the high-attenuation region represents an actively degassing magma body near the surface that has existed for more than 20 years.

Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Lacson, Rudy; Maeda, Yuta; Figueroa, Melquiades S.; Yamashina, Tadashi

2014-10-01

313

Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between January 1 and December 31, 2007, AVO located 6,664 earthquakes of which 5,660 occurred within 20 kilometers of the 33 volcanoes monitored by the Alaska Volcano Observatory. Monitoring highlights in 2007 include: the eruption of Pavlof Volcano, volcanic-tectonic earthquake swarms at the Augustine, Illiamna, and Little Sitkin volcanic centers, and the cessation of episodes of unrest at Fourpeaked Mountain, Mount Veniaminof and the northern Atka Island volcanoes (Mount Kliuchef and Korovin Volcano). This catalog includes descriptions of : (1) locations of seismic instrumentation deployed during 2007; (2) earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2007; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, location quality statistics, daily station usage statistics, and all files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2007.

Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.

2008-01-01

314

1994 Volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1994, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, or false alarms at nine volcanic centers-- Mount Sanford, Iliamna, the Katmai group, Kupreanof, Mount Veniaminof, Shishaldin, Makushin, Mount Cleveland and Kanaga (table 1). Of these volcanoes, AVO has a real time, continuously recording seismic network only at Iliamna, which is located in the Cook Inlet area of south-central Alaska (fig. 1). AVO has dial-up access to seismic data from a 5-station network in the general region of the Katmai group of volcanoes. The remaining unmonitored volcanoes are located in sparsely populated areas of the Wrangell Mountains, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands (fig. 1). For these volcanoes, the AVO monitoring program relies chiefly on receipt of pilot reports, observations of local residents and analysis of satellite imagery.

Neal, Christina A.; Doukas, Michael P.; McGimsey, Robert G.

1995-01-01

315

Numerical simulation of tsunami generation by pryoclastic flow at Aniakchak Volcano, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pyroclastic flows entering the sea are plausible mechanisms for tsunami generation at volcanic island arcs worldwide. We evaluate tsunami generation by pyroclastic flow using an example from Aniakchak volcano in Alaska where evidence for tsunami inundation coincident with a major, caldera-forming eruption of the volcano ca. 3.5 ka has been described. Using a numerical model, we simulate the tsunami and compare the results to field estimates of tsunami run up.

Waythomas, C.F.; Watts, P.

2003-01-01

316

Decoding ReedSolomon Codes up to the Sudan Radius with the Euclidean Algorithm  

E-print Network

Decoding Reed­Solomon Codes up to the Sudan Radius with the Euclidean Algorithm Alexander Zeh Reed­Solomon (RS) codes up to the Sudan radius. The basic steps are the virtual extension specifically a virtual extension to an IRS code that has an equivalent error­correcting capability as Sudan

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

Improved decoding of Reed-Solomon and algebraic-geometry codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given an error-correcting code over strings of length and an arbitrary input string also of length , the list decoding problem is that of finding all codewords within a specified Hamming distance from the input string. We present an improved list decoding algorithm for decoding Reed-Solomon codes. The list decoding problem for Reed-Solomon codes reduces to the following \\

Venkatesan Guruswami; Madhu Sudan

1999-01-01

318

Improved Decoding of Reed-Solomon and Algebraic-Geometric Codes Venkatesan Guruswami Madhu Sudan  

E-print Network

Improved Decoding of Reed-Solomon and Algebraic-Geometric Codes Venkatesan Guruswami Madhu Sudan-decision decoding algorithms for Reed-Solomon codes. 1 Introduction An error correcting code C of block length n space) to n (the codeword space) such that any pair of strings in the range of C differ in at least

Sudan, Madhu

319

Tech trek: Viewing volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Help students make real-world connections to Earth science concepts such as volcanoes with the help of modern technology. This article enumerates several websites where students can explore these forces of nature in a variety of ways - all from a safe distance!

Christmann, Edwin P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Lucking, Robert A.

2005-03-01

320

The Super Volcano Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How would you handle a volcano diasater? In this game, you've just been appointed chief of the Emergency Management Agency for Bluebear County. Everyone is counting on you to handle the eruption of Mount Spur. Download this game to find out. Before you play, make sure Flash is installed on your computer.

British Broadcasting Corporation

321

Volcano evolution on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diversity of volcanic activity on Mars throughout geologic time was one of the major factors that has controlled the spatial distribution of surface mineralogies. The traditional view of Martian volcanism is one in which effusive activity has dominated the entire preserved geologic history of the planet, with the minor exception of phreatomagnetic activity and associated volcano ground-ice interactions. However, two lines of evidence have caused reconsidering of this view, and have led to the possible role of explosive volcanism on Mars. First, detailed analysis of high resolution Viking Orbiter images has provided good evidence for explosive activity on Hecates Tholus and Alba Patera. Secondly, the problems believed to exist in associating explosive volcanism with silicic magmas on Mars, and the consequent unusual magmatic evolutionary trend for Martian volcanoes from silica-rich to silica-poor, may now be circumvented by the consideration of basatic plinian activity similar in kind to terrestrial eruptions such as the 1886 Tarawera eruption. The morphologic evidence for an early phase of explosive activity on Mars is briefly reviewed, and a model is presented for the emplacement of ash-flow deposits on Martian volcanoes. The volcanoes Alba Patera and Olympus Mons are considered in this context, along with some of the older Martian tholi and paterae

Mouginis-Mark, Pete; Wilson, Lionel

1987-01-01

322

The Three Little Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this worksheet students identify and label the characteristic features of shield, cinder cone and composite volcanoes. The resource is part of the teacher's guide accompanying the video, NASA Why Files: The Case of the Mysterious Red Light. Lesson objectives supported by the video, additional resources, teaching tips and an answer sheet are included in the teacher's guide.

323

Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this volcano can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, Volcano World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to

2002-01-01

324

Nyamuragira Volcano Erupts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country's border with Rwanda. Nyamuragira is the smaller, more violent sibling of Nyiragongo volcano, which devastated the town of Goma with its massive eruption in January 2002. Nyamuragira is situated just 40 km (24 miles) northeast of Goma. This pair of images was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on July 26. The image on the left shows the scene in true color. The small purple box in the upper righthand corner marks the location of Nyamuragira's hot summit. The false-color image on the right shows the plume from the volcano streaming southwestward. This image was made using MODIS' channels sensitive at wavelengths from 8.5 to 11 microns. Red pixels indicate high concentrations of sulphur dioxide. Image courtesy Liam Gumley, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison

2002-01-01

325

Nyamuragira Volcano Erupts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. The 3,053-meter (10,013-foot) volcano is located in eastern Congo, very near that country's border with Rwanda. Nyamuragira is the smaller, more violent sibling of Nyiragongo volcano, which devastated the town of Goma with its massive eruption in January 2002. Nyamuragira is situated just 40 km (24 miles) northeast of Goma. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on July 28, 2002. Nyamuragira is situated roughly in the center of this scene, roughly 100 km south of Lake Edward and just north of Lake Kivu (which is mostly obscured by the haze from the erupting volcano and the numerous fires burning in the surrounding countryside). Due south of Lake Kivu is the long, narrow Lake Tanganyika running south and off the bottom center of this scene.

2002-01-01

326

Bimodal geochemical evolution at Sheveluch stratovolcano, Kamchatka, Russia: Consequence of a complex subduction at the junction of the Kuril Kamchatka and Aleutian island arcs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adak-type andesites erupted as domes at Sheveluch volcano (Kamchatka Russia) have been associated with partial melting of the Pacific plate subducting under Kamchatka. The heat for melting at the plate edge has been proposed to be provided by an asthenosphere upwelling north of the junction of Kuril Kamchatka and Aleutian island arcs. However, Sheveluch volcano is composed of two volcano-stratigraphic

Carmelo Ferlito

2011-01-01

327

Long-term eruptive activity at a submarine arc volcano  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three-quarters of the Earth's volcanic activity is submarine, located mostly along the mid-ocean ridges, with the remainder along intraoceanic arcs and hotspots at depths varying from greater than 4,000 m to near the sea surface. Most observations and sampling of submarine eruptions have been indirect, made from surface vessels or made after the fact. We describe here direct observations and sampling of an eruption at a submarine arc volcano named NW Rota-1, located 60 km northwest of the island of Rota (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands). We observed a pulsating plume permeated with droplets of molten sulphur disgorging volcanic ash and lapilli from a 15-m diameter pit in March 2004 and again in October 2005 near the summit of the volcano at a water depth of 555 m (depth in 2004). A turbid layer found on the flanks of the volcano (in 2004) at depths from 700 m to more than 1,400 m was probably formed by mass-wasting events related to the eruption. Long-term eruptive activity has produced an unusual chemical environment and a very unstable benthic habitat exploited by only a few mobile decapod species. Such conditions are perhaps distinctive of active arc and hotspot volcanoes. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

Embley, R.W.; Chadwick, W.W., Jr.; Baker, E.T.; Butterfield, D.A.; Resing, J.A.; De Ronde, C. E. J.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Lupton, J.E.; Juniper, S.K.; Rubin, K.H.; Stern, R.J.; Lebon, G.T.; Nakamura, K.-I.; Merle, S.G.; Hein, J.R.; Wiens, D.A.; Tamura, Y.

2006-01-01

328

The Reed-Solomon encoders: Conventional versus Berlekamp's architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concatenated coding was adopted for interplanetary space missions. Concatenated coding was employed with a convolutional inner code and a Reed-Solomon (RS) outer code for spacecraft telemetry. Conventional RS encoders are compared with those that incorporate two architectural features which approximately halve the number of multiplications of a set of fixed arguments by any RS codeword symbol. The fixed arguments and the RS symbols are taken from a nonbinary finite field. Each set of multiplications is bit-serially performed and completed during one (bit-serial) symbol shift. All firmware employed by conventional RS encoders is eliminated.

Perlman, M.; Lee, J. J.

1982-01-01

329

Architecture for VLSI design of Reed-Solomon encoders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The logic structure of a universal VLSI chip called the symbol-slice Reed-Solomon (RS) encoder chip is discussed. An RS encoder can be constructed by cascading and properly interconnecting a group of such VLSI chips. As a design example, it is shown that a (255,223) RD encoder requiring around 40 discrete CMOS ICs may be replaced by an RS encoder consisting of four identical interconnected VLSI RS encoder chips. Besides the size advantage, the VLSI RS encoder also has the potential advantages of requiring less power and having a higher reliability.

Liu, K. Y.

1981-01-01

330

Space Radar Image of Sakura-Jima Volcano, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The active volcano Sakura-Jima on the island of Kyushu, Japan is shown in the center of this radar image. The volcano occupies the peninsula in the center of Kagoshima Bay, which was formed by the explosion and collapse of an ancient predecessor of today's volcano. The volcano has been in near continuous eruption since 1955. Its explosions of ash and gas are closely monitored by local authorities due to the proximity of the city of Kagoshima across a narrow strait from the volcano's center, shown below and to the left of the central peninsula in this image. City residents have grown accustomed to clearing ash deposits from sidewalks, cars and buildings following Sakura-jima's eruptions. The volcano is one of 15 identified by scientists as potentially hazardous to local populations, as part of the international 'Decade Volcano' program. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 9, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 31.6 degrees North latitude and 130.6 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper left. The area shown measures 37.5 kilometers by 46.5 kilometers (23.3 miles by 28.8 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is the average of L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received and C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received.

1994-01-01

331

Composite volcano on the Manihiki Plateau: Lava or mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite volcano was discovered on the northeastern edge of the Manihiki Plateau (10°20'S, 161°31'W) during the February 1987 CCOP\\/SOPAC cruise of the RV MOANA WAVE in the territorial waters of the Cook Islands. The sedimentary sequence on the plateau is about 1 km thick and it is known from DSDP 317. Individual cones each appear as accoustically transparent piercements

W. T. Coulbourn; P. J. Hill

1990-01-01

332

Catalog of earthquake hypocenters at Alaskan volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988. The primary objectives of this program are the near real time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents the calculated earthquake hypocenter and phase arrival data, and changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2003. The AVO seismograph network was used to monitor the seismic activity at twenty-seven volcanoes within Alaska in 2003. These include Mount Wrangell, Mount Spurr, Redoubt Volcano, Iliamna Volcano, Augustine Volcano, Katmai volcanic cluster (Snowy Mountain, Mount Griggs, Mount Katmai, Novarupta, Trident Volcano, Mount Mageik, Mount Martin), Aniakchak Crater, Mount Veniaminof, Pavlof Volcano, Mount Dutton, Isanotski Peaks, Shishaldin Volcano, Fisher Caldera, Westdahl Peak, Akutan Peak, Makushin Volcano, Okmok Caldera, Great Sitkin Volcano, Kanaga Volcano, Tanaga Volcano, and Mount Gareloi. Monitoring highlights in 2003 include: continuing elevated seismicity at Mount Veniaminof in January-April (volcanic unrest began in August 2002), volcanogenic seismic swarms at Shishaldin Volcano throughout the year, and low-level tremor at Okmok Caldera throughout the year. Instrumentation and data acquisition highlights in 2003 were the installation of subnetworks on Tanaga and Gareloi Islands, the installation of broadband installations on Akutan Volcano and Okmok Caldera, and the establishment of telemetry for the Okmok Caldera subnetwork. AVO located 3911 earthquakes in 2003. This catalog includes: (1) a description of instruments deployed in the field and their locations; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2003; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2003.

Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Moran, Seth C.; Sanchez, John J.; McNutt, Stephen R.; Estes, Steve; Paskievitch, John

2004-01-01

333

Gelatin Volcanoes: Student Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Student Page of an activity that teaches students how and why magma moves inside volcanoes by injecting colored water into a clear gelatin cast. The Student Page contains the activity preparation instructions and materials list, key words, and a photograph of the experimental setup. There is also an extension activity question that has students predict what will happen when the experiment is run using an elongated model. This activity is part of Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Volcanology section.

334

Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A distance of about 80 kilometers (50 miles) separates Shiveluch and Klyuchevskaya Volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. Despite this distance, however, the two acted in unison on April 26, 2007, when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite caught them both erupting simultaneously. ASTER 'sees' a slightly different portion of the light spectrum than human eyes. Besides a portion of visible light, ASTER detects thermal energy, meaning it can detect volcanic activity invisible to human eyes. Inset in each image above is a thermal infrared picture of the volcano's summit. In these insets, dark red shows where temperatures are coolest, and yellowish-white shows where temperatures are hottest, heated by molten lava. Both insets show activity at the crater. In the case of Klyuchevskaya, some activity at the crater is also visible in the larger image. In the larger images, the landscapes around the volcanoes appear in varying shades of blue-gray. Dark areas on the snow surface are likely stains left over from previous eruptions of volcanic ash. Overhead, clouds dot the sky, casting their shadows on the snow, especially southeast of Shiveluch and northeast of Klyuchevskaya. To the northwest of Klyuchevskaya is a large bank of clouds, appearing as a brighter white than the snow surface. Shiveluch (sometimes spelled Sheveluch) and Klyuchevskaya (sometimes spelled Klyuchevskoy or Kliuchevskoi) are both stratovolcanoes composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and rocks from earlier eruptions. Both volcanoes rank among Kamchatka's most active. Because Kamchatka is part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire,' the peninsula experiences regular seismic activity as the Pacific Plate slides below other tectonic plates in the Earth's crust. Large-scale plate tectonic activity causing simultaneous volcanic eruptions in Kamchatka is not uncommon.

2007-01-01

335

Yellowstone Volcano Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Yellowstone Volcano Observatory. It features news articles, monitoring information, status reports and information releases, and information on the volcanic history of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field. Users can access monthly updates with alert levels and aviation warning codes and real-time data on ground deformation, earthquakes, and hydrology. There is also a list of online products and publications, and an image gallery

336

Earthquakes and Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides an introduction for younger students on earthquakes, volcanoes, and how they are related. Topics include evidence of continental drift, types of plate boundaries, types of seismic waves, and how to calculate the distance to the epicenter of an earthquake. There is also information on how earthquake magnitude and intensity are measured, and how seismic waves can reveal the Earth's internal structure. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

337

Tectonic Plates, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to theory of plate tectonics, Earth is an active planet -- its surface is composed of many individual plates that move and interact, constantly changing and reshaping Earth's outer layer. Volcanoes and earthquakes both result from the movement of tectonic plates. This interactive feature shows the relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes and the boundaries of tectonic plates. By clicking on a map, viewers can superimpose the locations of plate boundaries, volcanoes and earthquakes.

338

Volcanoes generate devastating waves  

SciTech Connect

Although volcanic eruptions can cause many frightening phenomena, it is often the power of the sea that causes many volcano-related deaths. This destruction comes from tsunamis (huge volcano-generated waves). Roughly one-fourth of the deaths occurring during volcanic eruptions have been the result of tsunamis. Moreover, a tsunami can transmit the volcano's energy to areas well outside the reach of the eruption itself. Some historic records are reviewed. Refined historical data are increasingly useful in predicting future events. The U.S. National Geophysical Data Center/World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics has developed data bases to further tsunami research. These sets of data include marigrams (tide gage records), a wave-damage slide set, digital source data, descriptive material, and a tsunami wall map. A digital file contains information on methods of tsunami generation, location, and magnitude of generating earthquakes, tsunami size, event validity, and references. The data can be used to describe areas mot likely to generate tsunamis and the locations along shores that experience amplified effects from tsunamis.

Lockridge, P. (National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO (USA))

1988-01-01

339

Constructing a reference tephrochronology for Augustine Volcano, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in Alaska's populous Cook Inlet region. Past on-island work on pre-historic tephra deposits mainly focused on using tephra layers as markers to help distinguish among prevalent debris-avalanche deposits on the island (Waitt and Beget, 2009, USGS Prof Paper 1762), or as source material for petrogenetic studies. No comprehensive reference study of tephra fall from Augustine Volcano previously existed. Numerous workers have identified Holocene-age tephra layers in the region surrounding Augustine Island, but without well-characterized reference deposits, correlation back to the source volcano is difficult. The purpose of this detailed tephra study is to provide a record of eruption frequency and magnitude, as well as to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics for use as reference standards for comparison with regionally distributed Augustine tephra layers. Whole rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, deposit componentry, and field context are used to correlate tephra units on the island where deposits are coarse grained. Major-element glass geochemistry was collected for use in correlating to unknown regional tephra. Due to the small size of the volcanic island (9 by 11 km in diameter) and frequent eruptive activity, on-island exposures of tephra deposits older than a couple thousand years are sparse, and the lettered Tephras B, M, C, H, I, and G of Waitt and Beget (2009) range in age from 370-2200 yrs B.P. There are, however, a few exposures on the south side of the volcano, within about 2 km of the vent, where stratigraphic sections that extend back to the late Pleistocene glaciation include coarse pumice-fall deposits. We have linked the letter-named tephras from the coast to these higher exposures on the south side using physical and chemical characteristics of the deposits. In addition, these exposures preserve at least 5 older major post-glacial eruptions of Augustine. These ultra-proximal sites, along with an off-island section 20 km to the west, provide the first continuous tephrochronology for Augustine that extends from the earliest to latest Holocene. Because examined pumice-fall exposures are limited to a narrow azimuth on the south side of the volcano, the on-island record is likely an incomplete catalog of major eruptions. It is possible however, that the coarse-grained near vent exposures (within 2 km) represent large eruptions that blanketed the entire island in tephra and are representative of the entire Holocene record. The major Holocene tephra units exposed on-island are composed of coarse-grained (cm-scale) pumice ranging in color from white to cream (variably oxidized), and light to medium gray as well as banded varieties. Accidental lithic assembles are highly variable and often unique for individual eruptions. Pumices range from 60-66 wt % SiO2 in whole-rock composition and are distinguishable using trace and minor element abundances and field context. Glass geochemistry is often distinguishable between tephras, but more overlap exists among deposits and presents challenges for correlating to regional tephras.

Wallace, K.; Coombs, M. L.

2013-12-01

340

Constructing a reference tephrochronology for Augustine Volcano, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Augustine Volcano is the most historically active volcano in Alaska's populous Cook Inlet region. Past on-island work on pre-historic tephra deposits mainly focused on using tephra layers as markers to help distinguish among prevalent debris-avalanche deposits on the island (Waitt and Beget, 2009, USGS Prof Paper 1762), or as source material for petrogenetic studies. No comprehensive reference study of tephra fall from Augustine Volcano previously existed. Numerous workers have identified Holocene-age tephra layers in the region surrounding Augustine Island, but without well-characterized reference deposits, correlation back to the source volcano is difficult. The purpose of this detailed tephra study is to provide a record of eruption frequency and magnitude, as well as to elucidate physical and chemical characteristics for use as reference standards for comparison with regionally distributed Augustine tephra layers. Whole rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, deposit componentry, and field context are used to correlate tephra units on the island where deposits are coarse grained. Major-element glass geochemistry was collected for use in correlating to unknown regional tephra. Due to the small size of the volcanic island (9 by 11 km in diameter) and frequent eruptive activity, on-island exposures of tephra deposits older than a couple thousand years are sparse, and the lettered Tephras B, M, C, H, I, and G of Waitt and Beget (2009) range in age from 370-2200 yrs B.P. There are, however, a few exposures on the south side of the volcano, within about 2 km of the vent, where stratigraphic sections that extend back to the late Pleistocene glaciation include coarse pumice-fall deposits. We have linked the letter-named tephras from the coast to these higher exposures on the south side using physical and chemical characteristics of the deposits. In addition, these exposures preserve at least 5 older major post-glacial eruptions of Augustine. These ultra-proximal sites, along with an off-island section 20 km to the west, provide the first continuous tephrochronology for Augustine that extends from the earliest to latest Holocene. Because examined pumice-fall exposures are limited to a narrow azimuth on the south side of the volcano, the on-island record is likely an incomplete catalog of major eruptions. It is possible however, that the coarse-grained near vent exposures (within 2 km) represent large eruptions that blanketed the entire island in tephra and are representative of the entire Holocene record. The major Holocene tephra units exposed on-island are composed of coarse-grained (cm-scale) pumice ranging in color from white to cream (variably oxidized), and light to medium gray as well as banded varieties. Accidental lithic assembles are highly variable and often unique for individual eruptions. Pumices range from 60-66 wt % SiO2 in whole-rock composition and are distinguishable using trace and minor element abundances and field context. Glass geochemistry is often distinguishable between tephras, but more overlap exists among deposits and presents challenges for correlating to regional tephras.

Wallace, Kristi; Coombs, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

341

Bulk rock composition and geochemistry of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Grey Porri Tuff and selected lavas of the Monte dei Porri volcano, Salina, Aeolian Islands, southern Italy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Aeolian Islands are an arcuate chain of submarine seamounts and volcanic islands, lying just north of Sicily in southern Italy. The second largest of the islands, Salina, exhibits a wide range of compositional variation in its erupted products, from basaltic lavas to rhyolitic pumice. The Monte dei Porri eruptions occurred between 60 ka and 30 ka, following a period of approximately 60,000 years of repose. The bulk rock composition of the Monte dei Porri products range from basaltic-andesite scoria to andesitic pumice in the Grey Porri Tuff (GPT), with the Monte dei Porri lavas having basaltic-andesite compositions. The typical mineral assemblage of the GPT is calcic plagioclase, clinopyroxene (augite), olivine (Fo72?84) and orthopyroxene (enstatite) ± amphibole and Ti-Fe oxides. The lava units show a similar mineral assemblage, but contain lower Fo olivines (Fo57?78). The lava units also contain numerous glomerocrysts, including an unusual variety that contains quartz, K-feldspar and mica. Melt inclusions (MI) are ubiquitous in all mineral phases from all units of the Monte dei Porri eruptions; however, only data from olivine-hosted MI in the GPT are reported here. Compositions of MI in the GPT are typically basaltic (average SiO2 of 49.8 wt %) in the pumices and basaltic-andesite (average SiO2 of 55.6 wt %) in the scoriae and show a bimodal distribution in most compositional discrimination plots. The compositions of most of the MI in the scoriae overlap with bulk rock compositions of the lavas. Petrological and geochemical evidence suggest that mixing of one or more magmas and/or crustal assimilation played a role in the evolution of the Monte dei Porri magmatic system, especially the GPT. Analyses of the more evolved mineral phases are required to better constrain the evolution of the magma.

Doherty, Angela L.; Bodnar, Robert J.; De Vivo, Benedetto; Bohrson, Wendy A.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Messina, Antonia; Tracy, Robert J.

2012-01-01

342

Ground deformation associated with the March 1996 earthquake swarm at Akutan volcano, Alaska, revealed by satellite radar interferometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In March 1996 an intense swarm of volcano-tectonic earthquakes (???3000 felt by local residents, Mmax = 5.1, cumulative moment of 2.7 ??1018 N m) beneath Akutan Island in the Aleutian volcanic arc, Alaska, produced extensive ground cracks but no eruption of Akutan volcano. Synthetic aperture radar interferograms that span the time of the swarm reveal complex island-wide deformation: the western part of the island including Akutan volcano moved upward, while the eastern part moved downward. The axis of the deformation approximately aligns with new ground cracks on the western part of the island and with Holocene normal faults that were reactivated during the swarm on the eastern part of the island. The axis is also roughly parallel to the direction of greatest compressional stress in the region. No ground movements greater than 2.83 cm were observed outside the volcano's summit caldera for periods of 4 years before or 2 years after the swarm. We modeled the deformation primarily as the emplacement of a shallow, east-west trending, north dipping dike plus inflation of a deep, Mogi-type magma body beneath the volcano. The pattern of subsidence on the eastern part of the island is poorly constrained. It might have been produced by extensional tectonic strain that both reactivated preexisting faults on the eastern part of the island and facilitated magma movement beneath the western part. Alternatively, magma intrusion beneath the volcano might have been the cause of extension and subsidence in the eastern part of the island. We attribute localized subsidence in an area of active fumaroles within the Akutan caldera, by as much as 10 cm during 1992-1993 and 1996-1998, to fluid withdrawal or depressurization of the shallow hydrothermal system. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

Lu, Z.; Wicks, C., Jr.; Power, J.A.; Dzurisin, D.

2000-01-01

343

Space communication system for compressed data with a concatenated Reed-Solomon-Viterbi coding channel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space communication system incorporating a concatenated Reed Solomon Viterbi coding channel is discussed for transmitting compressed and uncompressed data from a spacecraft to a data processing center on Earth. Imaging (and other) data are first compressed into source blocks which are then coded by a Reed Solomon coder and interleaver, followed by a convolutional encoder. The received data is first decoded by a Viterbi decoder, followed by a Reed Solomon decoder and deinterleaver. The output of the latter is then decompressed, based on the compression criteria used in compressing the data in the spacecraft. The decompressed data is processed to reconstruct an approximation of the original data-producing condition or images.

Rice, R. F.; Hilbert, E. E. (inventors)

1976-01-01

344

Digital Data for Volcano Hazards at Newberry Volcano, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Newberry volcano is a broad shield volcano located in central Oregon, the product of thousands of eruptions, beginning about 600,000 years ago. At least 25 vents on the flanks and summit have been active during the past 10,000 years. The most recent eruption 1,300 years ago produced the Big Obsidian Flow. Thus, the volcano's long history and recent activity indicate that Newberry will erupt in the future. Newberry Crater, a volcanic depression or caldera has been the focus of Newberry's volcanic activity for at least the past 10,000 years. Newberry National Volcanic Monument, which is managed by the U.S. Forest Service, includes the caldera and extends to the Deschutes River. Newberry volcano is quiet. Local earthquake activity (seismicity) has been trifling throughout historic time. Subterranean heat is still present, as indicated by hot springs in the caldera and high temperatures encountered during exploratory drilling for geothermal energy. The report USGS Open-File Report 97-513 (Sherrod and others, 1997) describes the kinds of hazardous geologic events that might occur in the future at Newberry volcano. A hazard-zonation map is included to show the areas that will most likely be affected by renewed eruptions. When Newberry volcano becomes restless, the eruptive scenarios described herein can inform planners, emergency response personnel, and citizens about the kinds and sizes of events to expect. The geographic information system (GIS) volcano hazard data layers used to produce the Newberry volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-513 are included in this data set. Scientists at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory created a GIS data layer to depict zones subject to the effects of an explosive pyroclastic eruption (tephra fallout, pyroclastic flows, and ballistics), lava flows, volcanic gasses, and lahars/floods in Paulina Creek. A separate GIS data layer depicts drill holes on the flanks of Newberry Volcano that were used to estimate the probability of coverage by future lava flows.

Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Sherrod, D.R.; Mastin, L.G.; Scott, W.E.

2008-01-01

345

Volcano Hazards Assessment for Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Medicine Lake volcano (MLV) is a very large shield-shaped volcano located in northern California where it forms part of the southern Cascade Range of volcanoes. It has erupted hundreds of times during its half-million-year history, including nine times during the past 5,200 years, most recently 950 years ago. This record represents one of the highest eruptive frequencies among Cascade volcanoes and includes a wide variety of different types of lava flows and at least two explosive eruptions that produced widespread fallout. Compared to those of a typical Cascade stratovolcano, eruptive vents at MLV are widely distributed, extending 55 km north-south and 40 km east-west. The total area covered by MLV lavas is >2,000 km2, about 10 times the area of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Judging from its long eruptive history and its frequent eruptions in recent geologic time, MLV will erupt again. Although the probability of an eruption is very small in the next year (one chance in 3,600), the consequences of some types of possible eruptions could be severe. Furthermore, the documented episodic behavior of the volcano indicates that once it becomes active, the volcano could continue to erupt for decades, or even erupt intermittently for centuries, and very likely from multiple vents scattered across the edifice. Owing to its frequent eruptions, explosive nature, and proximity to regional infrastructure, MLV has been designated a 'high threat volcano' by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Volcano Early Warning System assessment. Volcanic eruptions are typically preceded by seismic activity, but with only two seismometers located high on the volcano and no other USGS monitoring equipment in place, MLV is at present among the most poorly monitored Cascade volcanoes.

Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Nathenson, Manuel; Champion, Duane E.; Ramsey, David W.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Ewert, John W.

2007-01-01

346

New submarine volcanoes in the Okinawa back-arc opening system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a series of geological and geophysical observations, it is now better known that about 11 new submarine volcanoes are developing in the southern part of the Okinawa back-arc spreading center. These volcanoes, at the water depth from 200 V 1500 meters, were first detected by a 38 kHz single-beam echo- sounding system. The images not only show the shape of volcano, but also the hydrothermal venting, from several tens to several hundred meters above the top of a volcano. The multi-beam echo-sounder images provide the size and 3-D view. The CDT surveys show that the bottom layer has an anomalous high of turbidity ratio. The heat flow values are very high, up to 25 HFU. The ocean bottom seismometer monitoring indicate an average of 250 earthquake events per day from magnitude of 0.9 V 4.0. The tomographic modeling provides the possible route of magma upwelling and migrating. At the southern tip of Okinawa opening system, close to Taiwan, there is an active volcanic island, the Turtle Island. This volcano was erupted about 7,000 years ago. All the above observations indicate that new submarine volcanoes are developing at the vicinity of Okinawa back-arc spreading center with a half rate of 4-6 cm/year and oriented in N-S direction.

Lee, C.

2008-12-01

347

Seasonality of Shallow Icequakes at Mount Erebus Volcano, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background (non-eruptive) seismicity at Mount Erebus Volcano is dominated by icequake activity on its extensive ice fields and glaciers. We examine icequake seismograms recorded by both long-running and temporary densification deployments spanning seven years (2003-2009) to assess event frequency, size, apparent seasonality, event mechanism, and geographic distribution. In addition to generally investigating mountain glacial ice seismicity in cold and dry glacial environments, we also hope to exploit icequakes as local sources for tomographic imaging of the volcano’s interior in conjunction with 2008-2010 active source and explosive volcanism data. Using Antelope-based methodologies, we determined the distribution and magnitude of a subset of well-recorded icequakes using data from the long-running Mount Erebus Volcano Network (MEVO) network, as well as two dense IRIS PASSCAL supported temporary networks deployed during 2008 and 2009 (the MEVO network consists of six broadband and nine short period stations with environmental data streams; the dense arrays consisted of 24 broadband stations arranged in two concentric rings around the volcano and 99 short period stations deployed near the summit of Erebus volcano and along the Terror-Erebus axis of Ross Island). During each of the seven years, we note a number of large icequake swarms (up to many hundreds of events per day). We hypothesize that many of these events occur in very shallow ice, based on the apparent ambient temperature-driven seasonality of the events. Specifically, approximately 43% of the events occur between March and May and approximately 30% occur between October and December. Each of these times feature rapidly changing ambient air temperatures due to the high latitude appearance/disappearance of the sun. A shallow mechanism is predicted by 1-D thermal skin depth calculations that show that annual temperature fluctuations decay by 1/e within the top few meters of ice.

Knox, H. A.; Aster, R. C.; Kyle, P. R.

2010-12-01

348

Permanent Infrasound Monitoring of Active Volcanoes in Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2006, infrasound monitoring has become a permanent tool for observing, analyzing and understanding volcanic activity in Ecuador. Within the framework of a cooperative project between the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Instituto Geofísico to enhance volcano monitoring capabilities within the country, 10 infrasound sensors were deployed in conjunction with broadband seismic stations at Cotopaxi and Tungurahua volcanoes. Each station comprises 1 ACO microphone (model 7144) and an amplifier with a flat response down to 0.1 Hz. At Tungurahua, between July 2006 and July 2013, the network recorded more than 5,500 explosion events with peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes larger than 45 Pa at station Mason (BMAS) which is located ~ 5.5 km from the active crater. This includes 3 explosions with pressure amplitudes larger than 1,000 Pa and which all have exhibited clear shock wave components. Two seismic and infrasound arrays were also installed in 2006 under the Acoustic Surveillance for Hazardous Eruptions (ASHE) project, used in volcano monitoring at Tungurahua, Sangay, and Reventador. This venture was led by the Geological Survey of Canada and the University of Hawaii. Through the SENESCYT-IGEPN project, the Instituto Geofísico is currently installing a regional network of MB2005 microbarometers with the aim to enhance monitoring of active and potentially active volcanoes that include Reventador, Guagua Pichincha, Chimborazo, Antisana, Sangay, and Volcán Chico in the Galapagos Islands. Through the infrasound monitoring station at Volcán Chico it is also possible to extend observations to any activity initiated from Sierra Negra, Fernandina, Cerro Azul, and Alcedo volcanoes. During the past decade, a series of temporary acoustic arrays have also been deployed around Ecuador's most active volcanoes, helping to aid in short term volcanic monitoring and/or used in a series of research projects aimed at better understanding volcanic systems through infrasound analyses. Continued acoustic monitoring and research will lead to improved tools for analyzing sequences of volcanic activity and provide more robust forecasting methods.

Ruiz, M. C.; Yepes, H. A.; Steele, A.; Segovia, M.; Vaca, S.; Cordova, A.; Enriquez, W.; Vaca, M.; Ramos, C.; Arrais, S.; Tapa, I.; Mejia, F.; Macias, C.

2013-12-01

349

Anatomy of a basaltic volcano  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kilauea volcano, in Hawaii, may be the best understood basaltic volcano in the world. Magma rises from a depth of 80 km or more and resides temporarily in near-surface reservoirs: eruption begins when the crust above one of these reservoirs splits open in response to a pressure increase. Repeated rift-zone eruptions compress Kilauea's flanks; after decades of accumulation, the stress

Robert I. Tilling; John J. Dvorak

1993-01-01

350

Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page consists of two maps of the world, showing how earthquakes define the boundaries of tectonic plates. Volcanoes are also distributed at plate boundaries (the "Ring of Fire" in the Pacific) and at oceanic ridges. It is part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory website, which features written material, images, maps, and links to related topics.

351

A decoding procedure for the Reed-Solomon codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A decoding procedure is described for the (n,k) t-error-correcting Reed-Solomon (RS) code, and an implementation of the (31,15) RS code for the I4-TENEX central system. This code can be used for error correction in large archival memory systems. The principal features of the decoder are a Galois field arithmetic unit implemented by microprogramming a microprocessor, and syndrome calculation by using the g(x) encoding shift register. Complete decoding of the (31,15) code is expected to take less than 500 microsecs. The syndrome calculation is performed by hardware using the encoding shift register and a modified Chien search. The error location polynomial is computed by using Lin's table, which is an interpretation of Berlekamp's iterative algorithm. The error location numbers are calculated by using the Chien search. Finally, the error values are computed by using Forney's method.

Lim, R. S.

1978-01-01

352

Solomon M. Hsiang Receives 2013 Science for Solutions Award: Citation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solomon Hsiang is representative of a new generation in the geosciences community, whose work spans several disciplines, drawing on methods and concepts from far outside the traditional physical science domain in order to make progress on difficult questions at the intersection of natural science, social science, and public policy. Broadly speaking, by examining how humanity has responded to climate variability and change in the distant and recent past, Sol's research elucidates the question of how humanity may respond to a changing climate in the future. Combining large, independent sets of social science, meteorological, and climatological data and analyzing them with tools more common in microeconomics than natural science, Sol, still at an early stage of his career, has made critical contributions to an incipient revolution in our understanding of the sensitivity and adaptability of humans and their social arrangements to climate variability and change. Such insights will greatly improve the information base from which effective public policy is developed.

Oppenheimer, Michael

2014-01-01

353

Space Radar Image of Taal Volcano, Philippines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an image of Taal volcano, near Manila on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. The black area in the center is Taal Lake, which nearly fills the 30-kilometer-diameter (18-mile) caldera. The caldera rim consists of deeply eroded hills and cliffs. The large island in Taal Lake, which itself contains a crater lake, is known as Volcano Island. The bright yellow patch on the southwest side of the island marks the site of an explosion crater that formed during a deadly eruption of Taal in 1965. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 78th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 56 kilometers by 112 kilometers (34 miles by 68 miles) that is centered at 14.0 degrees north latitude and 121.0 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). Since 1572, Taal has erupted at least 34 times. Since early 1991, the volcano has been restless, with swarms of earthquakes, new steaming areas, ground fracturing, and increases in water temperature of the lake. Volcanologists and other local authorities are carefully monitoring Taal to understand if the current activity may foretell an eruption. Taal is one of 15 'Decade Volcanoes' that have been identified by the volcanology community as presenting large potential hazards to population centers. The bright area in the upper right of the image is the densely populated city of Manila, only 50 kilometers (30 miles) north of the central crater. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

1994-01-01

354

The weathering and element fluxes from active volcanoes to the oceans: a Montserrat case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eruptions of the Soufrière Hills volcano on Montserrat (Lesser Antilles) from 1995 to present have draped parts of the\\u000a island in fresh volcaniclastic deposits. Volcanic islands such as Montserrat are an important component of global weathering\\u000a fluxes, due to high relief and runoff and high chemical and physical weathering rates of fresh volcaniclastic material. We\\u000a examine the impact of

Morgan T. Jones; Deborah J. Hembury; Martin R. Palmer; Bill Tonge; W. George Darling; Susan C. Loughlin

2011-01-01

355

Distinguisher-Based Attacks on Public-Key Cryptosystems Using Reed-Solomon Codes  

E-print Network

the decoding of any encrypted data. However during the past years there were several attempts to repair-Solomon but hides its structure differently than in the McEliece cryptosystem: instead of multiplying

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

Gelatin Volcanoes: Teacher Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Teacher Page of an activity that teaches students how and why magma moves inside volcanoes by injecting colored water into a clear gelatin cast. Activity preparation instructions are on the Student Page, while the Teacher Page has background, preparation, and in-class information. An extension activity has the students repeat the experiment using a square bread pan to simulate the original research that was done using elongate models with triangular cross-sections. This activity is part of Exploring Planets in the Classroom's Volcanology section.

357

Long Valley Volcano Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Long Valley Volcano Observatory (LVO). It features a variety of information on the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain in Long Valley Caldera, California. Materials include a current conditions page with status reports, updates and information releases. There is also monitoring data on seismic activity, ground deformation, gases and tree kill, and hydrologic studies. Topical studies include a reference on the most recent eruption in the Inyo chain (about 250 years ago), and information on the Long Valley Exploratory Well. There are also links to USGS fact sheets and other references about the caldera.

358

How Volcanoes Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How Volcanoes Work was constructed and is maintained by Dr. Vic Camp from San Diego State University's Department of Geological Sciences. The site takes a comprehensive look into every aspect of volcanic formations and eruptions, including historical eruptions (Mt. St. Helens) and volcanism on other planets. Well written and designed, this site offers excellent illustrations, photographs, and several multimedia files such as a cross-sectional view of an eruption taking place. Anyone from geology students to lifelong learners will find this site interesting and informative.

Camp, Vic.

2000-01-01

359

Validation and Analysis of SRTM and VCL Data Over Tropical Volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The focus of our investigation was on the application of digital topographic data in conducting first-order volcanological and structural studies of tropical volcanoes, focusing on the Java, the Philippines and the Galapagos Islands. Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, served as our test site for SRTM data validation. Volcanoes in humid tropical environments are frequently cloud covered, typically densely vegetated and erode rapidly, so that it was expected that new insights into the styles of eruption of these volcanoes could be obtained from analysis of topographic data. For instance, in certain parts of the world, such as Indonesia, even the regional structural context of volcanic centers is poorly known, and the distribution of volcanic products (e.g., lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and lahars) are not well mapped. SRTM and Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) data were expected to provide new information on these volcanoes. Due to the cancellation of the VCL mission, we did not conduct any lidar studies during the duration of this project. Digital elevation models (DEMs) such as those collected by SRTM provide quantitative information about the time-integrated typical activity on a volcano and allow an assessment of the spatial and temporal contributions of various constructional and destructional processes to each volcano's present morphology. For basaltic volcanoes, P_c?w!m-d and Garbed (2000) have shown that gradual slopes (less than 5 deg.) occur where lava and tephra pond within calderas or in the saddles between adjacent volcanoes, as well as where lava deltas coalesce to form coastal plains. Vent concentration zones (axes of rift zones) have slopes ranging from 10 deg. to 12 deg. Differential vertical growth rates between vent concentration zones and adjacent mostly-lava flanks produce steep constructional slopes up to 40". The steepest slopes (locally approaching 90 deg.) are produced by fluvial erosion, caldera collapse, faulting, and catastrophic avalanches, all of which are usually identifiable. Due to the delay in the release of the SRTM data following the February 2000 flight, a significant part of our effort was devoted to the analog studies of the SRTM topographic data using topographic data from airborne interferometric radars. As part of the original SRTM Science Team, we proposed four study sites (Kilauea, Hawaii; Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines; Cerro Am1 and Femandina volcanoes, Galapagos Islands; and Tengger caldera, Java) where we could conduct detailed geologic studies to evaluate the uses of SRTM data for the analysis of lava flows, lahars, erosion of ash deposits, and an evaluation of the structural setting of the volcanoes. Only near the end of this project was one of these SRTM Science Team products (Luzon Island, the Philippines) released to the community, and we only had limited time to work on these data.

Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

2004-01-01

360

Eruption Forecasting: Success and Surprise at Kasatochi and Okmok Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2008, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) successfully forecast eruption at an unmonitored volcano, Kasatochi, and was unable to forecast eruption at a well monitored volcano, Okmok. We use these case studies to explore the limitations and opportunities of seismically monitored and unmonitored systems and to evaluate situations when we can expect to succeed and when we must expect to fail in eruption forecasting. Challenges in forecasting eruptions include interpreting seismicity in context of volcanic history, developing a firm understanding of distance scales over which pre- and co-eruptive seismic signals are observed, and improving our ability to discriminate processes causing tremor. Kasatochi Volcano is a 3 km wide island in the central Aleutian Islands with no confirmed historical activity. Little is known about the eruptive history of the volcano. It was not considered an immediate threat until 3 days prior to eruption. A report of ground shaking by a biology field crew on the island on August 4 was the first indication of unrest. On August 6 a vigorous seismic swarm became apparent on the nearest seismic stations 40 km distant. The aviation color code/volcano alert level at Kasatochi was increased to Yellow/Advisory in response to increasing magnitude and frequency of earthquakes. The color code/alert level was increased to Orange/Watch on August 7 when volcanic tremor was observed in the wake of the largest earthquake in the sequence, a M 5.6. Three hours after the onset of volcanic tremor, eruption was confirmed by satellite data and the color code/alert level increased to Red/Warning. Eruption forecasting was possible only due to the exceptionally large moment release of pre-eruptive seismicity. The key challenge in evaluating the situation was distinguishing between tectonic activity and a volcanic swarm. It is likely there were weeks to months of precursory seismicity, however little instrumental record exists due to the lack of a seismic network on Kasatochi Island. Unlike Kasatochi, Okmok volcano, also located in the central Aleutian Islands, hosts 13 telemetered seismic stations and several telemetered GPS stations. The volcano has received considerable study by AVO, and the record of historical eruptions is well known. Despite regular scrutiny of Okmok data, the 2008 eruption was a surprise as there were fewer than 3 hours of clear pre-eruptive seismicity. The color code/alert level at Okmok went directly from Green/Normal to Red/Warning on July 12 after eruptive activity began. Interpretation of co-eruptive seismicity remained a challenge through the course of the eruption as bursts of volcanic tremor often did not correlate immediately with ash output at the vent as observed in satellite data.

Prejean, S.; Power, J.; Brodsky, E.

2008-12-01

361

New Mapping of Mariana Submarine Volcanoes with Sidescan and Multibeam Sonars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expedition in February/March 2003 on the R/V Thomas G. Thompson mapped more than 18,000 km2 with the towed MR1 sidescan sonar and almost 28,000 km2 with an EM300 hull-mounted multibeam system along the Mariana volcanic arc. The expedition was funded by NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration (more on the expedition can be found at: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/03fire/welcome.html). The MR1 sidescan surveys began at the northern end of a 2001 R/V Melville MR1 survey at 16§ N and extended to Nikko Volcano at 23\\deg 05'N. A portion of the southern back-arc spreading center and the arc volcanoes south of 16\\deg N were mapped using the EM300 system. Of 43 submarine arc volcanoes surveyed that have basal diameters of 10 km or greater, 17 have summit calderas or craters. Of these, however, only 5 have diameters more than 2 km. In an accompanying survey of hydrothermal activity along the arc, CTD casts and/or tows were conducted over more than 50 individual volcanoes. The 11 volcanoes with active hydrothermal systems found in the course of these surveys appear to be about equally divided between those with and without summit calderas or craters (for additional information, see Baker et al., Resing et al., and Lupton et al., this session). The flanks of the submarine volcanoes and islands of the central and northern Mariana Arc consist largely of volcaniclastic flows. Most of the larger edifices have high-backscatter spoke-like patterns that probably represent coarser and/or younger flows from the summits. Higher relief high-backscatter areas, also commonly exhibiting a radial pattern, are found on many of the volcanoes' flanks. These are probably lava flows erupted along radial fissures. The Mariana Arc volcanoes are shedding large volumes of volcaniclastic material westward into the back-arc basin through a series of deep-sea channels oriented transverse to the arc that are in many places fed by flows from several volcanoes. On many of the volcaniclastic aprons of the islands and larger submarine volcanoes, sediment waves with wavelengths of up to 1.0 km and amplitudes up to 50 m commonly occur. Their crests are almost always oriented parallel to regional contours, indicating a formation mechanism related to down slope flow. In some places clear transitions occur between mass flows on the volcanoes' steeper flanks and the sediment waves on the gentler slopes of the apron. A preliminary interpretation is the sediment waves form during the transition from channelized to unconstrained flows. Sediment waves of similar scale are commonly observed on the levees of deep-sea channels and on deep-sea fans. The location and shape of the arc volcanoes are often controlled or influenced by tectonic control. Within the southern part of the Central Island Province, from about 15\\deg 50' N to 18\\deg 00' N, volcanoes often line up and/or are elongated in an E-W or an E-NE direction. There are several cross-chains of volcanoes in this region that penetrate 10's of kms into the back-arc basin. Along the northern part of the arc (the Northern Seamount Province), where the convergence direction is roughly parallel to the arc front, the structure is more complex. Several active volcanoes occur at the intersection of two or more structural lineaments northwest of Farallon de Pajaros Island. There are several volcanoes in the northern area that are narrow ridges striking in a S-SW trend 9 (arc-orthogonal).

Embley, R. W.; Chadwick, W. W.; Baker, E. T.; Johnson, P. D.; Merle, S. G.; Ristau, S.

2003-12-01

362

Deep magmatic structures of Hawaiian volcanoes, imaged by three-dimensional gravity models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A simplified three-dimensional model for the island of Hawai'i, based on 3300 gravity measurements, provides new insights on magma pathways within the basaltic volcanoes. Gravity anomalies define dense cumulates and intrusions beneath the summits and known rift zones of every volcano. Linear gravity anomalies project southeast from Kohala and Mauna Kea summits and south from Huala??lai and Mauna Loa; these presumably express dense cores of previously unrecognized rift zones lacking surface expression. The gravity-modeled dense cores probably define tholeiitic shield-stage structures of the older volcanoes that are now veneered by late alkalic lavas. The three-dimensional gravity method is valuable for characterizing the magmatic systems of basaltic oceanic volcanoes and for defining structures related to landslide and seismic hazards.

Kauahikaua, J.; Hildenbrand, T.; Webring, M.

2000-01-01

363

Distal volcano-tectonic seismicity near Augustine Volcano  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Clustered earthquakes located 25 km northeast of Augustine Volcano occurred more frequently beginning about 8 months before the volcano?s explosive eruption in 2006. This increase in distal seismicity was contemporaneous with an increase in seismicity directly below the volcano?s vent. Furthermore, the distal seismicity intensified penecontemporaneously with signals in geodetic data that appear to reveal a transition from magmatic inflation of the volcano to dike injection. Focal mechanisms for five events within the distal cluster show strike-slip-fault movement. Directly above the earthquake cluster, shallow (<5 km deep) folds and faults mapped using multichannel seismic-reflection data strike northeast, parallel to the regional structural grain. About 10 km northeast of Augustine Volcano, however, the Augustine-Seldovia arch, an important trans-basin feature, strikes west and intersects the northeast-striking structural zone. We propose that the fault causing the distal earthquake cluster strikes northwest, subparallel to the arch, and is a right-lateral strike-slip fault. Future earthquake monitoring might show whether increasing activity in the remote cluster can aid in making eruption forecasts.

Fisher, Michael A.; Ruppert, Natalia A.; White, Randall A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.

2010-01-01

364

An historic subplinian\\/phreatomagmatic eruption: the 1630 AD eruption of Furnas volcano, São Miguel, Azores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1630 AD eruption on the island of São Miguel in the Azores took place from a vent in the southern part of the 7 × 5 km caldera of Furnas volcano. Precursory seismic activity occurred at least 8 hours before the eruption began and was felt over 30 km away. This seismic activity caused extensive damage destroying almost all

P. D. Cole; G. Queiroz; N. Wallenstein; J. L. Gaspar; A. M. Duncan; J. E. Guest

1995-01-01

365

Risk assessment of residential buildings for an eruption of Furnas Volcano, São Miguel, the Azores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a study of the risks to human settlements of a future eruption of the Furnas Volcano in the Azores. It makes use of previous geological studies to estimate the likely impact of the volcanic hazards on the surrounding settlements, given an eruption comparable with the last major eruption in the island in 1630; it

Antonios Pomonis; Robin Spence; Peter Baxter

1999-01-01

366

1996 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1996, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity, anomalous seismicity, or suspected volcanic activity at 10 of the approximately 40 active volcanic centers in the state of Alaska. As part of a formal role in KVERT (the Kamchatkan Volcano Eruption Response Team), AVO staff also disseminated information about eruptions and other volcanic unrest at six volcanic centers on the Kamchatka Peninsula and in the Kurile Islands, Russia.

Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.

1997-01-01

367

Geothermal activity supports islands of biodiversity in a hyper-arid, high-elevation landscape, Socompa Volcano, Puna de Atacama, Andes: A cultivation-independent molecular-phylogenetic view of soil microbial communities from an extreme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Socompa Volcano is a relatively young, unglaciated, 6051 m (19,852`) elevation stratovolcano that lies at the Chilean-Argentine border (24° 25`S, 68° 15`W) at the eastern edge of the Atacama Basin in the Arid Core of the Andes. A 1984 exploration revealed isolated mats of moss, liverwort, algae and lichen- dominated autotrophic communities associated with geothermal vents or warmspots near Socompa`s summit (Halloy, 1991). If extant, this system would present a unique opportunity to study life`s limits in a hyper-arid, high-elevation Mars-like landscape. Returning to Socompa in 2005, we encountered previously described warmspot "2" (Halloy, 1991) at 5824 m (19,107`) and found it partially disturbed by recent foot traffic. We collected warmspot-associated gas and soil samples, as well as other non-vent associated soils on Socompa. These soils were subjected to a battery of analyses, including cultivation-independent surveys of bacterial and eukaryotic small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. Gas samples contained elevated CO2 and CH4 that, along with water vapor, vent directly from rocky "tubes" and percolate diffusely through the ground at the site. In general, Socompa soils were unvegetated, poorly sorted sands and gravels. Non-vent and vent-associated soils had pH 5.23 and 6.8, respectively. Non-vent and warm (25°C), disturbed (mat destroyed) vent-associated soils had no measurable moisture or nitrogen and 0.03% carbon (with SOM ?13C of -26‰). These soils also contained no measurable photosynthetic or photoprotective pigments and low enzyme activities. Conversely, cold (-5°C), undisturbed (but not overlain with dense mat) vent-associated soil had 10% water, 0.02% nitrogen and 0.25% carbon (C:N=13, SOM ?13C of -23.5‰). These soils had higher enzyme activities, contained chlorophyll a, and harbored a diverse array of algae, moss, liverwort, ascomycete, alveolate, and metazoan 18S rRNA sequences (~30 species). On the other hand, in the warm, disturbed vent-associated soil, 1 of only 4 observed eukaryotic species dominated (a cercomonad), and non-vent soil contained only 6 species and was dominated by fungi such as the basidiomycete yeast Cryptococcus. Bacterial diversity was high and significantly different among the three soils. Cyanobacterial sequences were only observed in the cold, undisturbed vent- associated soils. All soils produced colonies on soil extract agar at 0°C, but 10-100X more originated from the cold, undisturbed vent-associated soil. These results suggest that water vapor and possibly CO2, but not necessarily heat, may infiltrate soil across a wider area than previously thought on Socompa, and that these minimal inputs support a complex community whose parent populations may exist hundreds of kilometers away. However, we also note that non-vent associated soils from this cold, arid site are not completely "lifeless". Finally, we caution travelers to this area that physical disturbance can easily destroy these delicate, cryptic communities.

Costello, E.; Reed, S.; Sowell, P.; Halloy, S.; Schmidt, S.

2006-12-01

368

Mount Rainier active cascade volcano  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mount Rainier is one of about two dozen active or recently active volcanoes in the Cascade Range, an arc of volcanoes in the northwestern United States and Canada. The volcano is located about 35 kilometers southeast of the Seattle-Tacoma metropolitan area, which has a population of more than 2.5 million. This metropolitan area is the high technology industrial center of the Pacific Northwest and one of the commercial aircraft manufacturing centers of the United States. The rivers draining the volcano empty into Puget Sound, which has two major shipping ports, and into the Columbia River, a major shipping lane and home to approximately a million people in southwestern Washington and northwestern Oregon. Mount Rainier is an active volcano. It last erupted approximately 150 years ago, and numerous large floods and debris flows have been generated on its slopes during this century. More than 100,000 people live on the extensive mudflow deposits that have filled the rivers and valleys draining the volcano during the past 10,000 years. A major volcanic eruption or debris flow could kill thousands of residents and cripple the economy of the Pacific Northwest. Despite the potential for such danger, Mount Rainier has received little study. Most of the geologic work on Mount Rainier was done more than two decades ago. Fundamental topics such as the development, history, and stability of the volcano are poorly understood.

1994-01-01

369

Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology.

Posin, Seth B.; Greeley, Ronald

1988-01-01

370

Klyuchevskaya, Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, CIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Klyuchevskaya, Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, CIS (56.0N, 160.5E) is one of several active volcanoes in the CIS and is 15,584 ft. in elevation. Fresh ash fall on the south side of the caldera can be seen as a dirty smudge on the fresh snowfall. Just to the north of the Kamchatka River is Shiveluch, a volcano which had been active a short time previously. There are more than 100 volcanic edifices recognized on Kamchatka, 15 of which are still active.

1991-01-01

371

Stiki Lole : Language and the mediation of desire in Auki, Malaita, Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaita is experiencing rapid social and cultural change and increases in teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections are being reported. While Malaitan kastom and Christianity are still influential, young people's sexual practices are influenced also through globalizing processes, including the increased movement of people and exposure to radio, television and videos, pornography and the Internet. In Auki, Malaita young people

Holly R. Buchanan-Aruwafu; Rose Maebiru; Francis Aruwafu

2003-01-01

372

Tropical timber import export Africa Asia volume Congo India Nigeria Papua New Guinea & the Solomon Islands  

E-print Network

27 23 29 2008 (average to date US$190/m3) http://www.globaltimber.org.uk/pngsi.htm (1 of 4) [11 109 58 111 Import value (US$ million) 12 21 10 21 22 13 13 13 14 17 9 18 2008 (average to date US$180) correlates closely with loss of carbon capture. (The prospective market for palm oil as a fuel is contracting

373

The accuracy of clinical malaria case reporting at primary health care facilities in Honiara, Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The accuracy of malaria case reporting is challenging due to restricted human and material resources in many countries. The reporting often depends on the clinical diagnosis because of the scarcity of microscopic examinations. Particularly, clinical malaria case reporting by primary health care facilities (local clinics), which constitutes the baseline data of surveillance, has never previously been sufficiently evaluated. In

Ayano Kunimitsu

2009-01-01

374

Contrasts between Antarctic and Arctic ozone depletion Susan Solomon, Robert W. Portmann, and David W. J. Thompson  

E-print Network

Contrasts between Antarctic and Arctic ozone depletion Susan Solomon, Robert W. Portmann, and David* , Robert W. Portmann*, and David W. J. Thompson *Earth System Research Laboratory, National Oceanic

375

The 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Augustine Volcano, the most historically active volcano in Alaska's Cook Inlet region, again showed signs of life in April 2005. Escalating seismic unrest, ground deformation, and gas emissions culminated in an eruption from January 11 to mid-March of 2006, the fifth major eruption in 75 years. The eruption began with a series of 13 short-lived blasts over 20 days that sent pyroclastic flows; snow, rock, and ice avalanches; and lahars down the volcano's snow clad flanks; ash clouds drifted hundreds of kilometers downwind. Punctuated explosive activity gave way to effusion of lava and emplacement of thick block-and-ash flows on the volcano's north flank that continued through mid-February. In mid-March renewed extrusion resulted in the building of a new, higher summit lava dome and two blocky lava flows on the north and northeast flanks of the cone. The eruption resulted in ash fall on many south-central Alaskan communities and disrupted air traffic in the region. Augustine's frequent eruptions and relatively easy access have long drawn volcanologists to study the accumulation, ascent, and eruption of andesitic to dacitic magma. Studies of the most recent activity before 2006, in 1976 and 1986, revealed that the volcano lately produces explosive eruptions that are preceded by months of unrest and injection of new magma into a storage region in the upper several kilometers of the crust. Each of these eruptions then followed a similar progression from explosive to effusive behavior over several months. Petrologic and geophysical observations suggest that these three eruptions were triggered by similar magma mixing events and that the subsequent ascent and eruption of magma was governed by processes that were roughly constant from one eruption to the next. Geologic studies of the island show that in the more distant past parts of Augustine's edifice have failed repeatedly, resulting in debris avalanches that entered the sea and, at least once, in 1883, caused a tsunami that hit surrounding Cook Inlet coastlines. Such edifice failures and resultant local tsunamis should be expected in the future. Recognition of Augustine's frequent activity and hazardous nature led to the installation of a network of telemetered seismometers beginning in 1971, the establishment of a geodetic network in 1988, and the installation of other new instrumentation such as pressure sensors, broadband seismometers, and cameras by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), and the selection of Augustine for geodetic instrumentation through the EarthScope/Plate Boundary Observatory program in 2004. In addition, remote sensing techniques, such as airborne thermal imaging and the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER), provided novel and often critical information as the 2006 eruption progressed. The combination of a long-term seismic network and an array of new monitoring techniques has provided a breadth and depth of understanding of Augustine's most recent activity that was not possible in the past. This volume contains 28 chapters reporting on a diverse suite of new scientific observations and investigations that were motivated by the 2006 eruption. Understanding the magmatic processes that drive eruptions, identifying eruptive events, tracking the movement of ash clouds, and communicating the resultant hazards to other government agencies and the public are all critical tasks for AVO, and chapters touch upon all of these topics. One goal in this compilation is to synthesize the diverse information into as complete an understanding of the magmatic and eruptive processes as possible. An equally important goal is to provide a framework for diagnosing periods of unrest and formulating forecasts of eruptions that will certainly take place at Augustine in the future. This latter goal is especially important, as Augustine's frequent eruptive activity suggests that another eruption can be expected within the next several

Power, John A.; Coombs, Michelle L.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

2010-01-01

376

The California Volcano Observatory: monitoring the state's restless volcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volcanic eruptions happen in the State of California about as frequently as the largest earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault Zone. At least 10 eruptions have taken place in California in the past 1,000 years—most recently at Lassen Peak in Lassen Volcanic National Park (1914 to 1917) in the northern part of the State—and future volcanic eruptions are inevitable. The U.S. Geological Survey California Volcano Observatory monitors the State's potentially hazardous volcanoes.

Stovall, Wendy K.; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.

2014-01-01

377

K?lauea-an Explosive Volcano in Hawai‘i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

K?lauea Volcano on the Island of Hawai‘i, though best known for its frequent quiet eruptions of lava flows, has erupted explosively many times in its history - most recently in 2011. At least six such eruptions in the past 1,500 years sent ash into the jet stream, at the cruising altitudes for today's aircraft. The eruption of 1790 remains the most lethal eruption known from a U.S. volcano. However, the tendency of K?lauea's 2 million annual visitors is to forget this dangerous potential. Cooperative research by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey, Smithsonian Institution, and University of Hawai‘i is improving our understanding of K?lauea's explosive past and its potential for future violent eruptions.

Swanson, Don; Fiske, Dick; Rose, Tim; Houghton, Bruce; Mastin, Larry

2011-01-01

378

Island Biogeography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excel workbook demonstrates the principles of the MacArthur-Wilson theory of Island Biogeography. It allows the user to define the mainland species pool, area of the island, and distance of the island from the mainland. Graphical output included species richness equilibrium at varying island size and distance. The workbook also allows the user to calculate a species-area function for data entered into the data input page. Several datasets on island area and species richness are included for various types of islands and species. Variables and formulas are defined in the accompanying tutorial.

John Jungck (BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium; Biology)

2005-12-16

379

Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory website offers a plethora of information about the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics research at Mt. Erebus in Antarctica. The site addresses the evolution of Erebus, lava and gas chemistry, seismology, and much more. Students can discover how Mount Erebus's environment changes by examining two day, 30 day, and 365 day records. The Photo Gallery is packed with incredible images of the landscape, geologic features, and the scientific monitoring. Users can view live footage as well as movies of volcanic eruptions and the inner and outer crater. Because the materials are not particularly technical, users can easily learn about volcanology and, more specifically, about scientists' efforts to better understand Mt. Erebus.

380

Database for the Geologic Map of the Summit Region of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTION The area covered by this map includes parts of four U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5' topographic quadrangles (Kilauea Crater, Volcano, Ka`u Desert, and Makaopuhi). It encompasses the summit, upper rift zones, and Koa`e Fault System of Kilauea Volcano and a part of the adjacent, southeast flank of Mauna Loa Volcano. The map is dominated by products of eruptions from Kilauea Volcano, the southernmost of the five volcanoes on the Island of Hawai`i and one of the world's most active volcanoes. At its summit (1,243 m) is Kilauea Crater, a 3 km-by-5 km collapse caldera that formed, possibly over several centuries, between about 200 and 500 years ago. Radiating away from the summit caldera are two linear zones of intrusion and eruption, the east and the southwest rift zones. Repeated subaerial eruptions from the summit and rift zones have built a gently sloping, elongate shield volcano covering approximately 1,500 km2. Much of the volcano lies under water: the east rift zone extends 110 km from the summit to a depth of more than 5,000 m below sea level; whereas, the southwest rift zone has a more limited submarine continuation. South of the summit caldera, mostly north-facing normal faults and open fractures of the Koa`e Fault System extend between the two rift zones. The Koa`e Fault System is interpreted as a tear-away structure that accommodates southward movement of Kilauea's flank in response to distension of the volcano perpendicular to the rift zones. This digital release contains all the information used to produce the geologic map published as USGS Geologic Investigations Series I-2759 (Neal and Lockwood, 2003). The main component of this digital release is a geologic map database prepared using ArcInfo GIS. This release also contains printable files for the geologic map and accompanying descriptive pamphlet from I-2759.

Dutton, Dillon R.; Ramsey, David W.; Bruggman, Peggy E.; Felger, Tracey J.; Lougee, Ellen; Margriter, Sandy; Showalter, Patrick; Neal, Christina A.; Lockwood, John P.

2007-01-01

381

Late-stage water eruptions from Ascraeus Mons volcano, Mars: Implications for its structure and history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ascraeus Mons was one of the first of the Martian volcanoes to be imaged by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) experiment onboard the ESA Mars Express spacecraft. These images show much of the volcano at a higher resolution than previously, and details of its lava flows, sinuous rilles, flank vents and tectonic features indicate an unexpected origin for some of these features. We establish the time-stratigraphic sequence for these features, and use a numerical model on HRSC stereo DTMs of the sinuous rilles, and conclude that they were formed by water erosion. Terrestrial analogues for such features are found at Réunion Island and other volcanoes. We then examine the overall structure of the volcano, which is dissimilar to that of large terrestrial volcanoes in important respects, and perform laboratory analogue experiments of its deformation, concluding that the tectonic features were formed by sinking of the volcano into a substratum that was much weaker than the volcanic edifice. An ice-rich substratum melted by a combination of pressure melting and magmatic heating seems the most likely mechanism. Analogous water-escape structures in a similar volcanic situation have been identified at Mt Haddington in the Antarctic. The possible role of a hydrological cycle and a hydrothermal system within the volcano are discussed. Based on field evidence, we propose that much of the broad aprons of lobate flows issuing from the NE and SSW foot of Ascraeus Mons are composed of mudflows rather than lava flows. These different approaches are linked into a coherent history of this volcano. The similarity of Ascraeus Mons to Pavonis Mons and Arsia Mons (though Ascraeus is younger) suggests that some of our conclusions may apply to these volcanoes too.

Murray, John B.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Marquez, Alvaro; Williams, David A.; Byrne, Paul; Muller, Jan-Peter; Kim, Jung-Rack

2010-06-01

382

The role of water eruptions in the structure and history of Ascraeus Mons volcano, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We establish a time-stratigraphic sequence for the lava flows, sinuous rilles, flank vents and tectonic features of Ascraeus Mons volcano, situated on the Tharsis ridge of Mars. We have applied a numerical lava emplacement and erosion model to Digital Terrain Models of the sinuous rilles, constructed from Mars Express HRSC stereo imagery, and conclude that these rilles were formed by water erosion. The overall structure of the volcano is dissimilar to that of large terrestrial volcanoes in important respects, and we have performed laboratory analogue experiments of its deformation, which indicate that the tectonic features were formed by sinking of the volcano into a substratum that was much weaker than the volcanic edifice. An ice-rich substratum melted by a combination of pressure melting and magmatic heating seems the most likely mechanism. Analogous water-escape structures in a similar volcanic situation have been identified at Mt Haddington in the Antarctic, Réunion Island in the Indian Ocean, and other volcanoes. A possible Martian hydrological cycle and a hydrothermal system within the volcano may have contributed to prolonged subsurface water flow, and weakening of the volcano core. Based on field evidence, we propose that much of the broad aprons of lobate flows issuing from the NE and SSW foot of Ascraeus Mons are composed of mudflows rather than lava flows. These different strands of evidence can be linked into a coherent history of this volcano. The similarity of Ascraeus Mons to Pavonis Mons and Arsia Mons (though Ascraeus is younger) suggests that some of our conclusions may apply to these volcanoes too.

Murray, J. B.; de Vries, B. V. W.; Marquez, A.; Williams, D. A.; Byrne, P.; Muller, J.-P. A. L.

2009-04-01

383

What Happened to Our Volcano?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One third grade teacher reflects on her students living by the ocean and their frequent jaunts to the beaches where expansive slabs of granite jut out into the sea. During the summer, they run along the rocks and explore the cracks and crevices. Through their geology unit, the students discovered that this granite was formed "inside" a volcano. The students asked, "Why isn't the granite inside the volcano now? Where is the rest of the volcano?" These questions provided the seeds for an investigative approach to "understanding Earth changes." Students were familiar with earthquakes and volcanoes in other regions of the world but never considered how the land beneath their feet had experienced changes over time. This geology unit helped them understand and experience the changing nature of our Earth and the place where they live firsthand.

Mangiante, Elaine S.

2006-12-01

384

Eye in the Sky: Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource presents a brief overview of volcanoes, including the science, phenomena, and effects of volcanic eruptions. Included are video clips and an animation of the Mount Saint Helens eruption.

385

Lung problems and volcano smog  

MedlinePLUS

Volcanic smog (vog) is created when sulfur dioxide and other gases released from a volcano react with oxygen, moisture, dust, and sunlight in the atmosphere. Volcanic smog can irritate the lungs and worsen existing lung ...

386

USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory: Maps and Graphics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Geological Survey's website for the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) has a host of graphics and maps for the professional volcano researcher or the amateur volcanologist. The maps and graphics are divided into four broad categories, and within each of those categories are dozens and dozens of maps and graphics. The categories include "Hazards, Features, Topics, and Types: Maps and Graphics", "Monitoring: Maps and Graphics", and "Volcano or Region: Maps and Graphics". Visitors should check out "Bachelor", which is in the "Volcano or Region" category, as there is an "Interactive Imagemap" of the Cascade Range Volcanoes. Clicking on any of the images of the volcanoes will reveal a beautiful, aerial photo of the volcano, along with a brief description of the history of the volcano. Additionally, there is a "Planning Your Visit" section that gives online and offline resources to look at before going to the actual volcano.

2010-02-19

387

Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian volcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hawaiian Islands are the most geologically studied hot-spot islands in the world yet surprisingly, the only large-scale compilation of marine and land gravity data is more than 45?years old. Early surveys served as reconnaissance studies only, and detailed analyses of the crustal-density structure have been limited. Here we present a new chain-wide gravity compilation that incorporates historical island surveys, recently published work on the islands of Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, and Ni‘ihau, and >122,000?km of newly compiled marine gravity data. Positive residual gravity anomalies reflect dense intrusive bodies, allowing us to locate current and former volcanic centers, major rift zones, and a previously suggested volcano on Ka‘ena Ridge. By inverting the residual gravity data, we generate a 3-D view of the dense, intrusive complexes and olivine-rich cumulate cores within individual volcanoes and rift zones. We find that the H?na and Ka‘ena ridges are underlain by particularly high-density intrusive material (>2.85?g/cm3) not observed beneath other Hawaiian rift zones. Contrary to previous estimates, volcanoes along the chain are shown to be composed of a small proportion of intrusive material (<30% by volume), implying that the islands are predominately built extrusively.

Flinders, Ashton F.; Ito, Garrett; Garcia, Michael O.; Sinton, John M.; Kauahikaua, Jim; Taylor, Brian

2013-01-01

388

SYLLABUS FOR GEOS 293 Volcanism and Active Geology of the island of Hawai'i (2 credits)  

E-print Network

'i, and by extension, other oceanic islands. Topics include physical features of the volcanoes, plate tectonics Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, and we can also make basic features of plate tectonics and a physical understanding of plate tectonics, erosion, the age and development of the ocean basins, and a host of other

Hartman, Chris

389

SYLLABUS FOR GEOS 393 Volcanism and Active Geology of the island of Hawai'i (2 credits)  

E-print Network

'i, and by extension, other oceanic islands. Topics include physical features of the volcanoes, plate tectonics Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, and we can also make basic features of plate tectonics and a physical understanding of plate tectonics, erosion, the age and development of the ocean basins, and a host of other

Hartman, Chris

390

Dynamic of diffuse CO2 emission from Decepcion volcano, Antartica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deception Island is a volcanic island located at the South Shetland Island off the Antartic Peninsula. It constitutes a back-arc stratovolcano with a basal diameter of ~ 30 Km, the volcano rises ~ 1400 m from the seafloor to the maximum height, Mt. Pond of 540 m above sea level and over half the island is covered by glaciers. This island has a horse-shoe shape with a large flooded caldera with a diameter of about 6x10 km and a maximum depth of 190 m. This caldera is open to the sea through a narrow channel of 500 m at Neptunes Bellows. Deception Island shows the most recent active volcanism, evidence of several eruptions since the late 18th century, and well-known eruptions in 1967, 1969 and 1970 caused serious damage to local scientific stations. The aim of this study is to estimate the CO2 emissions from the Deception volcano bay. In-situ measurements of CO2 efflux from the surface environment of Deception Bay were performed by means of a portable Non Dispersive Infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800, following the accumulation chamber method coupled with a floating device. A total of 244 CO2 efflux measurements were performed in Deception bay in November and December, 2009. CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 119,9 g m-2 d-1. To quantify the total CO2 emission from Deception Bay, a CO2 efflux map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulations (sGs). Most of the studied area showed background levels of CO2 efflux (~4 g m-2 d-1), while peak levels (>20 g m-2 d-1) were mainly identified inside the Fumarole Bay, Telefon Bay and Pendulum Cove areas. The total CO2 emission from Deception Bay was estimated about 191 ± 9 t/d To study the temporal evolution of the CO2 efflux values at Fumarole bay, a two month time series of CO2 diffuse emission values was recorded by an automatic geochemical station, which was installed on December 8, 2009, which measured also soil temperature and humidity and meteorological parameters. CO2 values ranged between non detected values and ~ 1000 g m-2 d-1, with a averaged value of 30.7 g m-2 d-1. A decreasing trend in the CO2 efflux and soil temperature values was observed during the monitoring period. This study demonstrates the importance of measuring CO2 discharge in Deception volcanic bay to improve the volcanic surveillance of this active volcano.

Nolasco, D.; Padron, E.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Christian, F.; Kusakabe, M.; Wakita, H.

2010-12-01

391

Chiliques volcano, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.

The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

Size: 7.5 x 7.5 km (4.5 x 4.5 miles) Location: 23.6 deg. South lat., 67.6 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3, and thermal band 12 Original Data Resolution: 15 m and 90 m Date Acquired: January 6, 2002 and November 19, 2000

2002-01-01

392

Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands are used to calculate the volumes of individual shield volcanoes and island complexes (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, the Maui Nui complex, and Hawaii), taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the Hawaiian Ridge. Our calculated volume for the Island of Hawaii and its submarine extent (213 ?? 103 km3) is nearly twice the previous estimate (113 ?? 103 km3), due primarily to crustal subsidence that had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Island of Hawaii (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea and Loihi) are generally considered to have been formed within the past million years, and our revised volume for the island indicates that magma supply rates are greater than previously estimated, 0.21 km3/yr as opposed to ???0.1 km3/yr. This result also shows that compared with rates calculated for the Hawaiian Islands (0-6 Ma, 0.095 km3/yr), the Hawaiian Ridge (0-45 Ma, 0.017 km3/yr), and the Emperor Seamounts (45-80 Ma, 0.010 km3/yr), magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Island of Hawaii.

Robinson, J.E.; Eakins, B.W.

2006-01-01

393

Northern Arizona Volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young volcanoes, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data.

With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111.5 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: Landsat 30 meters (24.6 feet); ASTER 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: October 21, 2003

2006-01-01

394

Ejecta and Landslides from Augustine Volcano Before 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A late Wisconsin volcano erupted onto the Jurassic-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock of Augustine Island in lower Cook Inlet in Alaska. Olivine basalt interacting with water erupted explosively. Rhyolitic eruptive debris then swept down the south volcano flank while late Wisconsin glaciers from mountians on western mainland surrounded the island. Early to middle Holocene deposits probably erupted onto the island but are now largely buried. About 5,200, 3,750, 3,500 and 2,275 yr B.P. Augustine ash fell 70 to 110 km away. Since about 2,300 yr B.P. several large eruptions deposited coarse-pumice fall beds on the volcano flanks; many smaller eruptions dropped sand and silt ash. The steep summit erupting viscous andesite domes has repeatedly collapsed into rocky avalanches that flowed into the sea. After a collapse, new domes rebuilt the summit. One to three avalanches shed east before about 2,100 yr B.P., two large ones swept east and southeast between about 2,100 and 1,700 yr B.P., and one shed east and east-northeast between 1,700 and 1,450 yr B.P. Others swept into the sea on the volcano's south, southwest, and north-northwest between about 1,450 and 1,100 yr B.P., and pyroclastic fans spread southeast and southwest. Pyroclastic flows and surges poured down the west and south flanks and a debris avalanche plowed into the western sea between about 1,000 and 750 yr B.P. A small debris avalanche shed south-southeast between about 750 and 390 yr B.P., and large lithic pyroclastic flows went southeast. From about 390 to 200 yr B.P., three rocky avalanches swept down the west-northwest, north-northwest, and north flanks. The large West Island avalanche reached far beyond a former sea cliff and initiated a tsunami. Augustine's only conspicuous lava flow erupted on the north flank. In October 1883 a debris avalanche plowed into the sea to form Burr Point on the north-northeast; then came ashfall, pyroclastic surge, and pyroclastic flows. Eruptions in 1935 and 1963-64 grew summit lava domes that shed coarse rubbly lithic pyroclastic flows down the southwest and south flanks. Eruptions in 1976 and 1986 grew domes that shed large pyroclastic flows northeast, north, and north-northwest. The largest debris avalanches off Augustine sweep into

Waitt, Richard B.

2010-01-01

395

Ash and Steam, Soufriere Hills Volcano, Monserrat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

International Space Station crew members are regularly alerted to dynamic events on the Earth's surface. On request from scientists on the ground, the ISS crew observed and recorded activity from the summit of Soufriere Hills on March 20, 2002. These two images provide a context view of the island (bottom) and a detailed view of the summit plume (top). When the images were taken, the eastern side of the summit region experienced continued lava growth, and reports posted on the Smithsonian Institution's Weekly Volcanic Activity Report indicate that 'large (50-70 m high), fast-growing, spines developed on the dome's summit. These spines periodically collapsed, producing pyroclastic flows down the volcano's east flank that sometimes reached the Tar River fan. Small ash clouds produced from these events reached roughly 1 km above the volcano and drifted westward over Plymouth and Richmond Hill. Ash predominately fell into the sea. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained high. Theodolite measurements of the dome taken on March 20 yielded a dome height of 1,039 m.' Other photographs by astronauts of Montserrat have been posted on the Earth Observatory: digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309, taken on July 9, 2001; and a recolored and reprojected version of the same image. Digital photograph numbers ISS004-E-8972 and 8973 were taken 20 March, 2002 from Space Station Alpha and were provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

396

Catalog of Earthquake Hypocenters at Alaskan Volcanoes: January 1 through December 31, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary: The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, has maintained seismic monitoring networks at historically active volcanoes in Alaska since 1988 (Figure 1). The primary objectives of the seismic program are the real-time seismic monitoring of active, potentially hazardous, Alaskan volcanoes and the investigation of seismic processes associated with active volcanism. This catalog presents calculated earthquake hypocenters and seismic phase arrival data, and details changes in the seismic monitoring program for the period January 1 through December 31, 2005. The AVO seismograph network was used to monitor the seismic activity at thirty-two volcanoes within Alaska in 2005 (Figure 1). The network was augmented by two new subnetworks to monitor the Semisopochnoi Island volcanoes and Little Sitkin Volcano. Seismicity at these volcanoes was still being studied at the end of 2005 and has not yet been added to the list of permanently monitored volcanoes in the AVO weekly update. Following an extended period of monitoring to determine the background seismicity at the Mount Peulik, Ukinrek Maars, and Korovin Volcano, formal monitoring of these volcanoes began in 2005. AVO located 9,012 earthquakes in 2005. Monitoring highlights in 2005 include: (1) seismicity at Mount Spurr remaining above background, starting in February 2004, through the end of the year and into 2006; (2) an increase in seismicity at Augustine Volcano starting in May 2005, and continuing through the end of the year into 2006; (3) volcanic tremor and seismicity related to low-level strombolian activity at Mount Veniaminof in January to March and September; and (4) a seismic swarm at Tanaga Volcano in October and November. This catalog includes: (1) descriptions and locations of seismic instrumentation deployed in the field in 2005; (2) a description of earthquake detection, recording, analysis, and data archival systems; (3) a description of seismic velocity models used for earthquake locations; (4) a summary of earthquakes located in 2005; and (5) an accompanying UNIX tar-file with a summary of earthquake origin times, hypocenters, magnitudes, phase arrival times, and location quality statistics; daily station usage statistics; and all HYPOELLIPSE files used to determine the earthquake locations in 2005.

Dixon, James P.; Stihler, Scott D.; Power, John A.; Tytgat, Guy; Estes, Steve; McNutt, Stephen R.

2006-01-01

397

SAGE measurements of the stratospheric aerosol dispersion and loading from the Soufriere Volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosions of the Soufriere volcano on the Caribbean Island of St. Vincent reduced two major stratospheric plumes which the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) satellite tracked to West Africa and the North Atlantic Ocean. The total mass of the stratospheric ejecta measured is less than 0.5% of the global stratospheric aerosol burden. No significant temperature or climate perturbation is expected. It is found that the movement and dispersion of the plumes agree with those deduced from high altitude meteorological data and dispersion theory. The stratospheric aerosol dispersion and loading from the Soufrier volcano was measured.

McCormick, M. P.; Kent, G. S.; Yue, G. K.; Cunnold, D. M.

1981-11-01

398

SAGE measurements of the stratospheric aerosol dispersion and loading from the Soufriere Volcano  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Explosions of the Soufriere volcano on the Caribbean Island of St. Vincent reduced two major stratospheric plumes which the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) satellite tracked to West Africa and the North Atlantic Ocean. The total mass of the stratospheric ejecta measured is less than 0.5% of the global stratospheric aerosol burden. No significant temperature or climate perturbation is expected. It is found that the movement and dispersion of the plumes agree with those deduced from high altitude meteorological data and dispersion theory. The stratospheric aerosol dispersion and loading from the Soufrier volcano was measured.

Mccormick, M. P.; Kent, G. S.; Yue, G. K.; Cunnold, D. M.

1981-01-01

399

Submarine landslides in French Polynesia SUBMARINE LANDSLIDES IN SOCIETY AND AUSTRAL ISLANDS,  

E-print Network

Submarine landslides in French Polynesia 1 SUBMARINE LANDSLIDES IN SOCIETY AND AUSTRAL ISLANDS of numerous submarine landslides in French Polynesia. This inventory shows an evolution of the landslide type with the age of oceanic islands. Submarine active volcanoes are subject to superficial landslides of fragmental

Clouard, Valerie

400

Following more than 30 years of seismic and volcanic quiescence, the Canary Islands  

E-print Network

) Evolution of the cumulative seismic energy released by earthquakes located inland on Tenerife (data provided and long-period signals) located inland on Tenerife Island. The increase ofactivity in 2004 coincided with an increase of fumarolic activity at the Teide volcano on Tenerife Island,an increase in the emission

Sleeman, Reinoud

401

Sand Volcano Following Earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

1989-01-01

402

Venus - Rhea Mons Volcano  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two mosaiced pieces of Magellan image strips display the area east of the Rhea Mons volcano on Venus. This image is centered at about 32.5 degrees north latitude and 286.6 degrees east longitude. The mosaic is 47 kilometers (28 miles) wide and 135 km (81 miles) long. This region has been previously identified as 'tessera' from Earth-based radar (Arecibo) images. The center of the image is dominated by a network of intersecting ridges and valleys. The radar bright north south trending features in this image range from 1 km (0.6 mile) to 3 km (1.8 miles) in length. The average spacing between these ridges is about 1.5 km (0.9 mile). The dark patches at the top of the image are smooth surfaces and may be lava flows located in lowlands between the higher ridge and the valley terrain. This image is a mosaic of two orbits obtained in the first Magellan radar test and played back to Earth to the Deep Space Network stations near Goldstone, Calif. and Canberra, Australia, respectively. The resolution of this image is approximately 120 meters (400 feet).

1990-01-01

403

Chaiten Volcano, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On May 2, 2008 Chile's Chaiten Volcano erupted after 9,000 years of inactivity. Now, 4 weeks later, the eruption continues, with ash-, water-, and sulfur-laden plumes blowing hundreds of kilometers to the east and north over Chile and Argentina. On May 24, ASTER captured a day-night pair of thermal infrared images of the eruption, displayed here in enhanced, false colors. At the time of th